1
AREA AND VOLUME
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Estimation of area and volume is basic to most engineering schemes such as route alignment, reservoirs, construction of tunnels, etc. The excavation and hauling of material on such schemes is the most significant and costly aspect of the work, on which profit or loss may depend. Area may be required in connection with the purchase or sale of land, with the division of land or with the grading of land. Earthwork volumes must be estimated :
to enable route alignment to be located at such lines and levels that cut and fill are balanced as far as practical.
to enable contract estimates of time and cost to be made for proposed work.
to form the basis of payment for work carried out.
It is frequently necessary as part of engineering surveying projects to determine the area enclosed by the boundaries of a site or the volume of earthwork required to be moved. Many of the figures involve accepted mensuration formulae (see 1.6 ) but it is more common to meet irregular shapes and these require special attention.
2.2 PLAN AREAS
The basic unit of area in SI units is the square metre (m²) but for large areas the hectare is a derived unit.
1 hectare (ha) = 10 000 m² = 2.471 05 acres
2.2.1 Conversion Of Plannimetric Area Into Actual Area
Let the scale of the plan be 1 in H (or as representative fraction 1/H). Then 1 mm is equivalent to H mm and 1 mm² is equivalent to H² mm² is equivalent to H mm², i.e.
H² x
10 ^{}^{6} m²
2
2.3 AREA CALCULATION
Areas of ground may be obtained from the plotted plan but results are only as
accurate as it is possible to scale off the drawings. Accuracy is greatly increased by using the measurements taken in the field. In most surveys the area is divisible into two parts :
a) The rectilinear areas enclosed by the survey lines
b) The irregular areas of the strips between these lines and the boundary
In order to calculate the area of the whole, each of these areas must be evaluated separately because each is defined by a different form of geometrical figure.
2.3.1 Rectilinear Areas
The method of evaluating the rectilinear area enclosed by survey lines depends on the method of survey.
a) If chain surveying is used, the areas of the triangles forming the survey network are calculated from the field dimensions from the formula :
Area = √ (s(s – a) (s – b) (s – c))
Where a, b and c = the lengths of the triangles sides and
s =
(a + b + c) / 2
b) If traversing is used and the survey stations are coordinated, the computed coordinated are used in the area calculation.
Whichever calculation method is used, checks must be applied to prove the area calculations. In a chain survey network the work must be arranged so that two different sets of the triangles forming the rectilinear figure are used in evaluating the total area, which is thus twice calculated. These two results will not normally agree precisely because the network will not be geometrically perfect. Owing to observational errors, the two results are meaned to produce the final rectilinear area. When areas are calculated from coordinates, the calculation must be repeated another way to prove the result.
3
2.3.2 Irregular Areas
Unless boundaries are straight and the corner points coordinated there are usually irregular strips of ground between the survey lines and the property boundaries. The area of the irregular strips are either positive or negative to the rectilinear area and since they are divided up by offsets between which the boundary is supposed to run straight, they are computed as a series of trapezoids. The mean of each pair of offsets is taken and multiplied by the chainage between them. Where the offsets are taken at regular intervals, the trapezoidal rule or Simpson’s rule for areas is used, (see section 2.6).
NOTE
a. The field work should be arranged to overcome difficulties with corners. This is usually achieved by extending the survey line to the boundary, allowing for the triangular shape which may occur.
b. In order to check the irregular area the calculations should be repeated by another person, or a check against gross error may be made taking out a planimeter area of the plot.
2.4 CALCULATING AREA FROM A CHAIN SURVEY
The figure shows the rectilinear area ABCD, which is calculated first. Their regular strips between the chain lines and the boundary must be separately evaluated and either added or subtracted as necessary from the main rectilinear area calculation result. The following data were obtained from the chain survey of the site :
AB 
63.0 m
4
BC 
 
45.0 m 
CD 
 
60.0 m 
DA 
 
78.0 m 
BD 
 
93.3 m 
AC 
 
76.0 m 
AB and BC are straight boundaries. Offsets to the
irregular boundaries are as follows :
Chainage AD 
Chainage CD 

Offset 
Offset 

A 
0.0 
0.0 
C 
0.0 
0.0 
16.0 
6.0 
10.0 
4.2 

33.0 
7.0 
20.0 
6.4 

40.0 
0.0 
30.0 
8.1 

49.0 
7.0 
40.0 
10.3 

61.0 
7.0 
50.0 
11.3 

68.0 
0.0 
D 
60.0 
13.2 

B 
78.0 
11.0 

89.0 
5.0 

93.0 
9.0 
SOLUTION
The rectilinear area from A
=
√ ((s – a) (s – b) (s – c))
5
The area of triangle ACD 
= 
√(107(31) (47) (29)) 
= 
2126.3 m ^{2} 

The area of triangle ABC 
= 
√(92(29) (47) (16)) 
= 
1416.4 m ^{2} 

Area of ABCD 
= 
2126.3 + 1416.4 
= 
3542.7 m ^{2} 

Check : 
The area of triangle ABD
The area of triangle ABD
= √((117.15 (54.15) (39.15) (23.85))
= 2433.8 m ^{2}
= √(( 99.15 (39.15) (54.15) (5.85)))
= 
1108.9 m ^{2} 

Area of ABCD 
= 
2433.8 + 1108.9 
= 
3542.7 m ^{2} 
Area of triangle ABD:
Plus (0+6) x 2 x 16 = 48.0
(6+7) x 2 x 17 = 110.5
(7+0) x 2 x 7
= 24.5
Minus
= 31.5
(7+7) x 2 x 12 = 84.0
= 24.5
(0+7) x 2 x 9
(7+0) x 2 x 7
(0+11) x 2 x 10 = 55.0 (11+9) x 2 x 15 = 150.0
388.5 
140.0 
 140.0 
248.5 m ^{2} (total plus area on AD)
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2.5 CALCULATING AREAS FROM COORDINATES
SPECIMEN QUESTION
A = Area
Calculate the area of the figure ABCDEF of which the coordinates are listed
below.
SOLUTION
The calculation is tabulated as shown :
E + E Double Longitude 
ΔN 


Station 
Easting 
Northing 

A 
150 
100 

B 
95.2 
164.3 
245.2 
64.3 
15 766.36 

C 
127.9 
210.7 
223.1 
46.4 
10 351.84 

D 
176.3 
239.8 
304.2 
29.1 
8 852.22 

E 
219.4 
222.4 
395.7 
17.4 
6 885.18 

26 

F 
237.5 
163.8 
456.9 
58.6 
774.34 

24 

A 
150 
100 
387.5 
63.8 
722.50 

58 

34 970.42 
382.02 

34 

970.42 

23 
2A
=
411.60
7
Area = 11 705.8 m ^{2}
= 1.1706 ha
2.6 AREAS OF IRREGULAR FIGURES
There are several practical situations where it is necessary to estimate the area of irregular figures. Examples include estimation of areas of plots of land by surveyors, areas of indicator diagrams of steam engines by engineers and areas of water planes and transverse sections of a ship by naval architects. There are many methods whereby the area of an irregular plane surface may be found and these include:
(a) 
Use of a planimeter, 
(b) 
Trapezoidal rule, 
(c) 
Midordinate rule and 
(d) Simpson’s rule.
2.6.1 The planimeter
A planimeter is an instrument for directly measuring areas bounded by an irregular curve. There are many different types of the instrument but all consist basically of two rods AB and BC, hinged at B (see Fig. 2.1). The end labelled A is fixed, preferably outside of the irregular area being measured. Rod BC carries at B a wheel whose plane is at right angles to the plane formed by ABC. Point C, called the tracer, is guided round the boundary of the figure to be measured. The wheel is geared to a dial which records the area directly. If the length BC is adjustable, the scale can be altered and readings obtained in mm ^{2} , cm ^{2} , m ^{2} and so on.
FIGURES 2.1 : Planimeter
(Source : Mathematics for
Technicians, S. Adam)
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2.6.2 Trapezoidal rule
To find the area ABCD in Fig. 2.2, the base AD is divided into a number of equal intervals of width d. This can be any number; the greater the number the more accurate the result. The ordinates y _{1} , y _{2} , y _{3} , etc. are accurately measured. The approximation used in this rule is to assume that each strip is equal to the area of a trapezium.
FIGURE 2.2 : Trapezoidal rule (Source : Mathematics for Technicians, S.
Adam)
The area of a trapezium = ½ (sum of the parallel sides) (perpendicular distance between the parallel sides).
Hence for the first strip, shown in Fig. 2.2, the approximate area is ½ (y _{1} + y _{2} )d. For the second strip area is ½ (y _{1} + y _{2} )d and so on. Hence the approximate area of
ABCD = 
½ (y _{1} + y _{2} )d + ½ (y _{3} + y _{4} )d + ½ (y _{3} + y _{4} )d + ½ (y _{4} + y _{5} )d + ½ (y _{5} + y _{6} )d + ½ (y _{6} + y _{7} )d 

= 
½ y _{1} d + ½ y _{2} d + ½ y _{2} d + ½ y _{3} d + ½ y _{3} d + 
½ y _{4} d + 
½ y _{4} d 

+ ½ y _{5} d + 
½ y _{5} d + ½ y _{6} d + ½ y _{6} d + ½ y _{7} d 

= 
½ y _{1} d + ½ y _{2} d + ½ y _{3} d + ½ y _{4} d + ½ y _{5} d + 
½ y _{6} d + 
½ y _{7} d 

= 
d [ ( y _{1} _{+} + 
y _{7} ) / 2 + y _{2} + y _{3} + y _{4} + y _{5} + y _{6} ] 
Generally, the trapezoidal rule states that the area of an irregular figure is given by:
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Area = (width of internal) [½ (first + last ordinate) + sum of remaining ordinates]
2.6.3 Midordinate rule
FIGURE 2.3 : Mid
ordinate rule method
(Source : Mathematics
for Technicians, S.
Adam)
To find the area of ABCD in Figure 2.3 the base AD is divided into any number of equal strips of width d. (As with the trapezoidal rule, the greater the number of intervals used the more accurate the result.) If each strip is assumed to be a trapezium, then the average length of the two parallel sides will be given by the length of a midordinate, i.e. an ordinate erected in the middle of each trapezium. This is the approximation used in the mid ordinate rule.
The midordinates are labelled y _{1} , y _{2} , y _{3} , etc. as in Fig. 18.3 and each is then accurately measured. Hence the approximate area of ABCD
=
= d (y _{1} + y _{2} + y _{3} +
y _{1} d +
y _{2} d +
y _{3} d +
y _{4} +
y _{4} d + y _{5} +
y _{5} d + y _{6} )
y _{6} d
where d
= ( length of AD / number of midordinates )
Generally, the midordinate rule states that the area of an irregular figure is given by:
Area = (width of interval) (sum of midordinates)
10
2.6.4 Simpson’s rule
FIGURE 2.4 : Simpson’s rule (Source : Mathematics for Technicians, S.
Adam)
To find the circa A BCD in Figure 2.4 the base AD must be divided into an even number of strips of equal width d. Thus producing an odd number of ordinates. The length of each ordinate, y _{1} , y _{2} , y _{3}_{,} etc., is accurately measured. Simpson's rule states that (the area of the irregular area ABCD is given by;
Area of ABCD = d / 3 [(y _{1} + y _{7} ) + 4(y _{2} + y _{4} + y _{6} ) + 2(y _{3} + y _{5} )]
More generally, the calculation of the area of:
Area = 1/3 (width of interval) [(first and last ordinates) + 4( sum of even ordinates) + 2 (sum of remaining odd ordinates)]
When estimating areas of irregular figures, Simpson's rule is generally regarded as the most accurate of the approximate methods available.
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2.1 The values of the y ordinates of a curve and their distance x from the origin are given in the table below. Plot the graph and find the area under the curve by :
x 
0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
y 
2 
5 
8 
11 
14 
17 
20 
a) The trapezoidal rule
b) The midordinate rule
c) Simpson’s rule
2.2 Sketch a semicircle of radius 10cm. Erect ordinates at intervals of 2 cm and determine the lengths of the ordinates and midordinates. Determine the area of the semicircle using the three approximate methods. Calculate the true area of the semicircle.
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2.1)
FIGURE 2.5 : Graph of y against x
a) Trapezoidal rule
Using 7 ordinates with interval width of 1 the area under the curve is:
Area = 1 [ ½ (2 + 20) + 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + 17 ]
= [ 11 + 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + 17 ]
= 66 square units
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b) Midordinate rule
Using 6 intervals of width 1 the midordinates of the 6 strips are measured. The area under the curve is:
Area 
= 
1 (3.5 + 6.5 + 9.5 + 12.5 + 15.5 + 18.5) 
= 
66 square unit 
c) Simpson’s rule
Using 7 ordinates, given an even number of strips, i.e. 6, each of width 1, thus the area under the curve is:
Area 
= 
1 / 3 [ (2 + 20) + 4(5 + 11 + 17) + 2 (8 + 14) ] 
= 
1 / 3 [ 22 + 4(33) + 2(22)] 

= 
1 / 3 [ 22 + 132 + 44 ] 

= 
198 / 3 

= 
66 square units 
The area under the curve is a trapezium and may be calculated using the formula ½(a+b)h, where a and b are the lengths of the parallel sides and h the perpendicular distance between the parallel sides.
Hence area = ½(2 + 20)(6) = 66 square units. This problem demonstrates the methods for finding areas under curves. Obviously the three 'approximate' methods would not normally be used for an area such as in this problem since it is not 'irregular'.
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2.2). The semicircle is shown in Fig. 2.6 with the lengths of the ordinates and midordinates marked, the dimensions being in centimetres.
FIGURE 2.6 : Sketch a semicircle
a) Trapezoidal rule
Area
2 [ ½ (0 + 0) + 6.0 + 8.0 + 9.15 + 9.80 + 10.0 + 9.80 + 9.15 + 8.0 + 6.0 ]
=
= 2 (75.90)
= 151.8 square units
b) Midordinate rule
Area 
= 
2 [ 4.3 + 7.1 + 8.65 + 9.55 + 9.95 + 9.95 + 9.95 + 8.65 + 7.1 + 4.3 ] 
= 
2 (79.10) 

= 
158.2 square units 
c) Simpson’s rule
Area
=
8.0)]
= 2/3 [0 + 4(40.3) + 2(35.6)]
= 2/3 (161.2 + 71.2)
= 2/3 (232.4)
= 154.9 square units
2/3 [ (0 + 0) + 4(6.0 + 9.15 + 10.00 + 9.15 + 6.00) + 2(8.0 + 9.8 +
The true area is given by π r² / 2, i.e π (10)² / 2 = 157.1 square units
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2.7 VOLUME CALCULATION
In construction works, the excavation, loading, hauling and dumping of earth frequently forms a substantial part of the project. Payment must be made for the labour and plan needed for earthworks and this is based on the quantity or volume handled. These volumes must be calculated and depending on the shape of the site, this may be done in three ways :
i) 
by crosssections, generally used for long, narrow works such as roads, railways, pipelines, etc. 
ii) 
by contours, generally used for larger areas such as reservoirs, landscapes, redevelopment sites, etc. 
iii) 
by spot height, generally used for small areas such as underground tanks, basements, building sites, etc. 
2.8 
CROSS SECTION VOLUME CALCULATION 
Crosssections are established at some convenient intervals along a centre line of the works. Volumes are calculated by relating the crosssectional areas to the distances between them. In order to compute the volume it is first necessary to evaluate the crosssectional areas, which may be obtained by the following methods:
i) by calculating from the formula or from first principles the standard cross sections of constant formation widths and side slopes.
ii) by measuring graphically from plotted crosssections drawn to scale, areas being obtained by plannimeter or division into triangles or square.
NOTE :
The graphic measure of the crosssectional area is most often used and provides a sufficiently accurate estimate of volume, but for railways, long embankments, breakwaters, etc., with fairly regular dimensions, the use of formulae may be easier and perhaps more accurate.
2.8.1 Prismoidal Method
In order to calculate the volume of a substance, its geometrical shape and size must be known. A mass of earth has no regular geometrical figure in most approaches. The prismoid is a solid, consisting of two ends which
16
form plane, parallel figures, not necessarily of the same number of sides and which can be measured as crosssections. The faces between the parallel ends are plane surfaces between straight lines which join all the corners of the two end faces. A prismoid can be considered to be made up of a series of prisms, wedges and pyramids, all having a length equal to the perpendicular distance between the parallel ends. The geometrical solids forming the prismoid are described as follows :
i) Prism, in which the end polygons are equal and the side faces are parallelograms.
ii) Wedge, in which one end is a line, the other end a parallelogram, and the sides are triangles and parallelograms.
iii) Pyramids, in which one end is a point, the other end a polygon and the side faces are triangles.
The Prismoidal Formula
Let 
D 
= 
the perpendicular distance between the parallel end 
A _{1} and A _{2} 
= 
planes the areas of these end planes 

M 
= 
the midarea, the area of the plane parallel to the end planes and midway between them, 

V 
= 
the volume of the prismoid and 

a _{1} , a _{2}_{,} m, v 
= 
the equivalent for any prism, wedge or pyramid forming the prismoid 
then in a prism and in a wedge and in a pyramid Prism volume v Wedge volume v Pyramid volume v
a _{1} , = a _{2}_{,} = m a _{2} = 0 and m = 1/2 a _{1}
a _{2} = 0 and m = 1/4 a _{1}
= D . a _{1} = ½ D . a _{1}
= D/6 (6 . a _{1} ) = D/6 = D/6 (3 . a _{1} ) = D/6
= 1/3 D . a _{1} = D/6 (2 . a _{1} ) = D/6
(a _{1} , + 4m + a _{2} ) (a _{1} , + 4m + a _{2} ) (a _{1} , + 4m + a _{2} )
As the volume of each part can be expressed in the same terms, the volume of the whole can take the same form. Thus the prismoidal formula is expressed in the following way :
V = D/6
(A _{1} , + 4M + A _{2} )
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Note :
A. M does not represent the mean of the end areas A _{1} and A _{2} except where the prismoid is composed of prisms and wedges only.
B. The formula gives the volume of one prismoid of which the end and midsectional areas are known.
The prismoidal formula may be used to calculate volume if a series of crosssectional areas, A1, A2, A3,…. An, have been established a distance d apart. Each alternate crosssection may be considered to be the midarea M of a prismoid of length 2d.
Then the volume of the first prismoid of length 2d :
and of the second and of the nth
= 2d / 6 (A _{1} , + 4A _{2} + A _{3} )
= 2d / 6 (A _{3} , + 4A _{4} + A _{5} ) = 2d / 6 (A _{n}_{}_{2} , + 4A _{n}_{}_{1} + A _{n} )
summing up the volumes of each prismoidal :
V = d / 3 (A _{1} , + 4A _{2} + 2A _{3} + 4A _{4} …… + 2A _{n}_{}_{2} + 4A _{n}_{}_{1} + A _{n} ) Which is Simpson’s rule for volumes.
Specimen Question
Calculate, using the prismoidal formula, the cubic contents of an embankment of which the crosssectional areas at 15m intervals are as follows :
Distance (m) 
0 
15 
30 
45 
60 
75 
90 
Area (m ^{2} ) 
11 
42 
64 
72 
160 
180 
220 
Solution,
V = 15 / 3 (11 + 220 + 4 ( 42 + 72 + 180 ) + ( 64 + 160))
V 
= 5 ( 231 + 1176 + 448 ) 
V 
= 9275 m ^{3} 
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Note : 

A. 
The 15m interval is divided by 3, as the length of the individual prismoids used is 30m, which in the prismoidal formula is divided by 6. 
B. 
A mass of earth, length double the usual crosssectional interval of 15m, 20m or 25m, is considerably different from a true prismoid, so this method is not as accurate as it would be if the true mid sectional area had been measured. This results in the use of prismoids of length equal to, instead of double, the interval between crosssections. 
2.8.2 
End Areas Method 
It is no more accurate to use the prismoidal formula where the mid sectional areas have not been directly measured than it is to use the end areas formula, particularly as the earth solid is not exactly represented by a prismoid. Using the same symbols the volume may be expressed as :
v = d [ ( A _{1} + A _{2} ) / 2 ]
although this is only correct where the midarea is the mean of the end areas :
M = ( A _{1} + A _{2} ) / 2
However, in view of the inaccuracies that arise in assuming any geometric shape between crosssections and because of bulking and settlement and the fact that the end areas calculation is simple to use, it is generally used for most estimating purposes.
Note :
A. The summation of a series of crosssectional areas by this method provides a total volume :
V = d{[( A _{1} + A _{2} ) / 2 ] + A _{2} + A _{3} + …… A _{n}_{}_{1} }
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Specimen Question
Calculate, using the end areas method, the cubic contents of the embankment of which the crosssectional areas at 15m intervals are as follows :
Distance (m) 
0 
15 
30 
45 
60 
75 
90 
Area (m ^{2} ) 
11 
42 
64 
72 
160 
180 
220 
Solution
V 
= 15{[ (11 + 220) / 2 ] + 42 + 64 + 72 + 160 + 180 } 
V 
= 9502.5 m ^{3} 
2.9 VOLUME CALCULATION FOR CONTOUR LINES
Contour lines may be used for volume calculations and theoretically this is the most accurate method. However, as the small contour interval necessary for accurate work is seldom provided due to cost, high accuracy is not often obtained. Unless the contour interval is less than 1m or 2m at the most, the assumption that there is an even slope between the contour is incorrect and volume calculation from contours become unreliable.
The formula used for volume calculation is the end areas formula of Simpson’s rule for volumes, the distance d in the formula being contour interval. The area enclosed by each contour line is measured, usually by plannimeter, and these areas A1, A2, etc., are used in the formula as before ( see the end areas method). If the prismoidal method is used, each alternate contour line is assumed to enclose a midarea or the outline of the midarea can be interpolated between the existing contour intervals.
This illustration shows an area contoured at 5m intervals and how the contours of proposed works, in this case a dam wall with an access road through a cutting, shown as packed lines, define the plan outline of the works. This also allows the volume of the earthworks to be calculated using the positions of the contour lines.
20
Picture 4.1 : Intersection Of Contoured Surfaces (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)
The volume of the dam wall and the amount of cut may be obtained from the contour lines by calculating the volume of ground within the working area down to a common level surface and then calculating the new volume from the formation contour lines, the difference being the change in volume due to the works. This volume calculation is more usually carried out by using the crosssectional method. The use of contours is a practical method of calculating volumes in several cases, one of which being the calculation of water at various levels in a reservoir. For example, in picture 4.1 the volume of water which could be contained up to the level of the 60m, contours could be calculated as follows from these data :
Contour above datum (m) 
50 
52.5 
55 
57.5 
60 
Area (m ^{2} ) 
12 
135 
660 
1500 
1950 
Using the end areas method :
V = 2.5 { [ (12 + 1950)/2] + 135 + 660 + 1500 } = 8190 m ^{3}
Using Simpson’s rule from the prismoidal formula :
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V = ( 2.5 / 3 ) [ 12 + 1950 + 4(135 + 1500) + 2 (660) ]
= (2.5 / 3 ) (9822)
= 8185 m ^{3}
Note :
The small volume of water below 50m (not included in the above calculation) would be estimated from the interpolated depth of 2m at the deepest point, using the end areas formula, the lowest end area being 0, thus :
V =
[ ( 12
+ 0 ) / 2 ] x 2
V = 12m ^{3} This would then be added to either of the results above.
2.10 VOLUME CALCULATION FROM SPOT HEIGHT
This is a method of volume calculation frequently used on excavations where there are vertical sides covering a fairly large area, although it can be used for excavation with sloping sides. The site is divided into squares or rectangles, and if they are of equal size the calculations are simplified. The volumes are calculated from the product of the mean length of the sides of each vertical truncated prism ( a prism in which the base planes are not parallel ) and the crosssectional area. The sizes of the rectangles is dependent on the degree of accuracy required. The aim is to produce areas such that the ground surface within each can be assumed to be plane.
Specimen Question Picture 4.2 shows the reduced levels of a rectangular plot which is to be excavated to a uniform depth of 8m above datum. Calculate the mean level of the ground and the volume of earth to be excavated.
Note :
a) The mean or average level of the ground is that level of ground which would be achieved by smoothing the ground off level, assuming that no bulking would take place.
b) The mean level of the ground is the mean of the mean height of each prism. It is not the mean of all the spot heights.
22
Picture 4.2 : Calculating volume from spot height on a levelling grid. (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)
Solution
(a) Calculation from rectangles :
Station 
R.L. 
Number of times the R.L. is used = n 
Product (R.L.) x n 
A 
12.16 
1 
12.16 
B 
12.48 
2 
24.96 
C 
13.01 
1 
13.01 
D 
12.56 
2 
25.12 
E 
12.87 
4 
51.48 
F 
13.53 
2 
27.06 
G 
12.94 
1 
12.94 
H 
13.27 
2 
26.54 
J 
13.84 
1 
13.84 
∑n = 16 
207.11 
Mean level = 207.11 / 16 = 12.944 m
Depth of excavation = 12.944 – 8.00 = 4.944 Volume = Total area x Depth
= 30 x 20 x 4.944
= 2966.4 m ^{3}
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(b) Calculation from triangles
It is usually more accurate to calculate from triangles as the upper base of the triangular prism is more likely to correspond with the ground plane than the larger rectangle. The mean level of each prism is then the mean of the three height enclosing the triangle instead of four as before.
Station 
R.L. 
Number of times the R.L. is used = n 
Product (R.L.) x n 
A 
12.16 
1 
12.16 
B 
12.48 
3 
37.44 
C 
13.01 
2 
26.02 
D 
12.56 
3 
37.44 
E 
12.87 
7 
90.09 
F 
13.53 
2 
27.06 
G 
12.94 
2 
25.88 
H 
13.27 
2 
26.54 
J 
13.84 
2 
27.68 
∑n = 24 
310.55 
Mean level = 310.55 / 24 = 12.940 m Depth of excavation = 4.960 Volume = 30 x 20 x 4.944 = 2966.4 m ^{3}
Note :
The diagonal forming the triangles would be noted in the field book on the grid layout to conform most suitably with the ground planes.
24
2.3) An embankment is to be formed with its centre line on the surface (in the form of a plane) on full dip of 1 in 20. If the formation width is 12.00m and the formation heights are 3.00m, 4.50m and 6.00m at intervals of 30.00m, with side slopes 1 in 2, calculate the volume between the end sections.
Calculate a). Volume by mean areas b). Volume by end areas c). Volume by prismoidal rule
2.3 Given the previous example but with the centre line turned through 90º, calculate volume
a) By mean areas
b) By end areas
c)
By prismoidal
25
2.3 Area (1) = h _{1} (w + mh _{1} ) = 3.00 [ 12.00 + (2 x 3.00) ]
= 54.00 m ^{2}
Area (2) = 4.50 [ 12.00 + (2 x 4.50) ] = 94.50 m ^{2}
Area (3) = 6.00 [ 12.00 + (2 x 6.00) ] = 144.00 m ^{2}
Volume :
a). By mean areas V = W(A/n) = 60.00 ( 54.00 + 94.50 + 144.00 ) / 3 = 5850.0 m ^{3}
b). By end areas V = w ( A _{1} + 2A _{2} + A _{3} ) / 2 = 30.00 (54.00 + 189.00 + 144.00) / 2 = 5805.0 m ^{3}
A _{1} =
c). By Prismoidal Rule V = w ( A _{1} + 4A _{2} + A _{3} ) / 3
= 30.00 (54.00 + 378.00 + 144.00)/3
= 5760.0 m ^{3}
2.4
A =
m ( h² _{0} k² + w² / 4 + wh _{0} m)
+
wh _{0}
( k²  m² )
Crosssectional areas
2 [ (3.00² x 20² ) + ( 0.25 x 12.00²) + ( 12.00 x 3.00 x 2 )
+ (12 x 3.00)
( 20²  2² )
A
_{2}
= [ (3600.00 + 36.00 + 72.00) / 198 ] + 36.00
= 54.73 m²
= [ ( 8100.00 + 36.00 + 108.00 ) / 198 ] + 54.00 = 95.64 m²
A _{3} = [ ( 14400.00 + 36.00 + 144.00 ) / 198 ] + 72.00
= 145.64 m²
26
Volume
a). By mean areas
V = 60.00 ( 54.00 + 95.64 + 145.64 ) / 3
b). By end areas
= 5920.2 m³
V = 30.00 ( 54.73 + 191.28 + 145.64 ) / 2 = 5874.8 m³
c). By prismoidal rule
V = 30.00 ( 54.73 + 382.56 + 145.64 ) / 3 = 5829.3 m³
Calculate the volumes in Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Figure 1
Figure 2
27
Figure 1
A _{1} = [ ( 0.75 + 4.75 ) / 2 ] 
x 7 
= 19.25 ft² 

A _{2} = [ ( 0.75 + 3.75 ) / 2 ] 
x 
5 
= 11.25 ft² 
A _{3} = [ ( 0.75 + 2.75 ) / 2 ] 
x 
3 
= 5.25 ft² 
Volume, V 
= 
L / 6 ( A _{1} + 4A _{m} + A _{2} ) 

= 
17 / 6 (19.25 + 4 x 11.25 + 5.25) 

= 
17 / 6 ( 19.25 + 45.00 + 5.25 ) 

= 
17 / 6 ( 69.50 ) 

= 
1181.50 / 6 

= 
196.92 ft³ 

= 
7.29 yrd³ 

Figure 2 

Volume, 
V 
= 
h / 3 ( area of base ) 
= 
27.4 / 3 ( 13.5 x 13.5 ) 

= 
1664.6 m³ 
28
MASS HAUL DIAGRAM
3.1
INTRODUCTION
Masshaul diagrams (MHD) are used to compare the economics of the various methods of earthwork distribution on road or railway construction schemes. With the combined use of the MHD plotted directly below the longitudinal section of the survey centreline, one can find :
i. 
The distances over which ‘cut and fill’ will balance. 
ii. 
Quantities of materials to be moved and the direction of movement. 
iii. 
Areas where earth may have to be borrowed or wasted and the amounts involved. 
iv. 
The best policy to adopt to obtain the most economic use of plan. 
3.2 
DEFINITION AND IMPORTANT PHRASES 
Bulking 
An increase in volume of earthwork after excavation 
Shrinkage 
A decrease in volume earthwork after deposition and compaction. 
Haul distance (d) 
The distance from the working face of the excavation to the tipping point. 
Average haul distance 
The distance from the centre of gravity of the cutting to 
(D) 
that of the filling. 
Freehaul Distance 
The distance, given in the Bill of Quantities, included in the price of excavation per cubic metre. 
Overhaul Distance 
The extra distance of transport of earthwork volumes beyond the freehaul distance. 
Haul 
The sum of the product of each load by its haul distance. This must equal the total volume of excavation multiplied by the average haul distance, i.e. ∑ vd = VD 
Overhaul 
The product of volumes by their respective overhaul distance. Excess payment will depend upon overhaul. 
Station Metre 
A unit of overhaul, viz. 1 m ^{3} x 100 m. 
Borrow 
The volume of material brought into a section due to a deficiency. 
Waste 
The volume of material taken from a section due to excess 
29
Figure 3.1 : Masshaul diagram (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)
Figure 3.2 : Freehaul and Overhaul (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)
30
3.3 CONSTRUCTION OF THE MASSHAUL DIAGRAM
Volumes of cut and fill along a length of proposed road are as follows :
Volume
Chainage 
Cut 
Fill 
0 

100 
290 

200 
760 

300 
1680 

400 
620 

480 
120 

500 
20 

600 
110 

700 
350 

800 
600 

900 
780 

1000 
690 

1100 
400 

1200 
120 
Draw a masshaul diagram and exclude the surplus excavated material along this length. Determine the overhaul if the freehaul distance is 300 m.
Volume 
Aggregate 

Chainage 
Cut 
Fill 
volume 

0 

100 
290 
+ 
290 

200 
760 
+ 1050 

300 
1680 
+ 2730 

400 
620 
+ 3350 

480 
120 
+ 3470 

500 
20 
+ 3450 

600 
110 
+ 3340 

700 
350 
+ 2990 

800 
600 
+ 2390 

900 
780 
+ 1610 

1000 
690 
+ 
920 

1100 
400 
+ 
520 

1200 
120 
+ 
400 

3470 
3070 

3070 

check 
_{4}_{0}_{0} 
31
Figure 3.3 : Masshaul diagram (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)
Graphical Method (figure 3.3)
i. As the surplus of 400 m³ is to be neglected, the balancing line is drawn from the end of the masshaul curve, parallel to the base line, to form a new balancing line ab.
ii. As the freehaul distance is 300 m, this is drawn as a balancing line cd.
iii. From c and d, draw ordinates cutting the new base line at c _{1} d _{1} .
iv. To find the overhaul :
a) 
Bisect cc _{1} , to give c _{2} and draw a line through c _{2} parallel to the base 
line cutting the curve at e and f, which now represent the centroids of the masses acc _{1} and dbd _{1} . 

b) 
The average haul distance is the centroids of the masses acc _{1} and dbd _{1} . 
c) 
The overhaul distance = the haul distance – the free haul distance 
Planimetric method Distance to centroid = haul / volume = (area x horizontal scale x vertical scale) / volume ordinate
from area acc _{1} area scaled from masshaul curve horizontal scale vertical scale
= 0.9375 cm² = 1 cm = 200 cm = 1 cm = 1600 cm³
Therefore
32
haul 
= 
0.9375 x 200 x 1600 volume (ordinate acc _{1} ) 
= 300 000 = 2750 

distance to centroid 
= 300 000 / 2750 = 109.1 m 

chainage of centroid 
= 350 – 109.1 
= 240.9 m 

for area dbd _{1} area scaled 
= 1.9688 cm² 

Therefore 

haul 
= 
1.9688 x 320 000 
= 630 016 

volume (ordinate dd _{1} ) distance to centroid chainage of centroid average haul distance overhaul distance 
= 2750 = 229.1 m = 650 + 229.1 = 879.1 240.9 = 638.2 – 300 
879.1 m = = 638.2 m = 338.2 m 

Therefore 

overhaul 
= 338.2 x 2750 
= 9300 station metres 
Instead of the above calculations, the overhaul can be obtained direct, as the sum of the two masshaul curve areas acc _{1} and dbd _{1} is:
Area acc _{1} Area dbd _{1} Total area
= (302 950) / 100 station metre = (634 950) / 100 station metre = overhaul = (936 900) / 9369 station
metre Proof :
Take any cutoff by a balancing line, Figure 5.4. Let a small increment of area δ A = (say) 1 m³ and length of haul be L. Then δA = 1 m³ x L / 100 station metre
Therefore
A = n x 1 m³ x ( ∑L / n ) = total volume x average haul distance
Therefore, Area = total haul
33
3.1 Below are the definitions used in this unit. Fill in the blank with the appropriate terms.
an increase in volume of earthwork after 

excavation 

decrease in volume earthwork after deposition and compaction. a 

the distance from the working face of the excavation to the tipping point. 

the distance from the centre of gravity of the cutting to that of the filling. 

the distance, given in the Bill of quantities, included in the price of excavation per cubic metre. 

the extra distance of transport of earthwork volumes beyond the freehaul distance. 

the sum of the product od each load by its haul distance. This must equal the total volume of excavation multiplied by the average haul distance, i.e. ∑ vd = VD 

the product of volumes by their respective overhaul distance. Excess payment will depend upon overhaul. 

a 
unit of overhaul, viz. 1 m ^{3} x 100 m. 
the volume of material brought into a section due to a deficiency 

the volume of material taken from a section due to excess 
34
3.1).
an increase in volume of earthwork after excavation
a decrease in volume earthwork after deposition and compaction.
the distance from the working face of the excavation to the tipping point.
the distance from the centre of gravity of the cutting to that of the filling.
the distance, given in the Bill of quantities, included in the price of excavation per cubic metre.
the extra distance of transport of earthwork volumes beyond the freehaul distance.
the sum of the product of each load by its haul distance. this must equal the total volume of excavation multiplied by the average haul distance, i.e. ∑ vd = VD
the product of volumes by their respective overhaul distance. excess payment will depend upon overhaul.
a unit of overhaul, viz. 1 m ^{3} x 100 m.
the volume of material brought into a section due to a deficiency
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess
Bulking
Shrinkage
Haul Distance (d)
Average Haul
Distance
Freehaul Distance
Overhaul Distance
Haul
Overhaul
Station Metre
Borrow
Waste
35
The table shows the stations and the surface levels along the centreline, the formation level being at an elevation above datum of 43.5 m at chainage 70 and thence rising uniformly on a gradient of 1.2%. The volumes are recorded in m³, the cuts are plus and fills minus.
Chn 
Surface 
Vol 
Chn 
Surface 
Vol 
Chn 
Surface 
Vol 
Level 
Level 
Level 

70 
52.8 
74 
44.7 
78 
49.5 

+1860 
1080 
237 

71 
57.3 
75 
39.7 
79 
54.3 

+1525 
2025 
+362 

72 
53.4 
76 
37.5 
80 
60.9 

+547 
2110 
+724 

73 
47.1 
77 
41.5 
81 
62.1 

238 
1120 
+430 

74 
44.7 
78 
49.5 
82 
78.5 
1) Plot the longitudinal section using a horizontal scale of 1 : 1200 and a vertical scale of 1 : 240.
2) Assuming a correction factor of 0.8 applicable to fills, plot the MHD to a vertical scale of 1000 m ^{3} to 20 mm.
3) Calculate total haul in stn. m and indicate the haul limits on the curve and section.
4) State which of the following estimates you would recommend.
a) No freehaul at 35 p per m³ for excavating, hauling and filling
b) A freehaul distance of 300 m at 30 p per m³ plus 2 p per stn m for overhaul.
36
1) The volume at chainage 70 is zero 2) The mass ordinates are always plotted at the station and not between them. 3) The mass ordinates are now plotted to the same horizontal scale as the longitudinal section and directly below it. 4) Check that maximum and minimum points on the MHD are directly below grade points on the section. 5) Using the datum line as a balancing line indicates a balancing out of the volumes from chainage 70 to XY and from XY to chainage 82.
Total haul (taking each loop separately) = total volume x total haul distance. The total haul distance is from the centroid of the total cut to that of the total fill and is found by bisecting AB and A’B’, to give the distances CD and C’ D’.
Total haul 
= 
( AB x CD ) / 100 
+ 
( A’ B’ x C’D’ ) / 100 
= 
( 3932 x 450 ) / 100 + ( 1516 x 320 ) / 100 

= 
22 545 stn m 
37
a) If there is no freehaul, then all the volume is moved regardless of distance for 35 p per m³.
Estimate costs : ( AB + A’ B’ ) x 35 p = 5448 x 35 = 190 680 p
b) The purpose of plotting the free haul distance on the curve is to assess the overhaul.
From MHD :
Cost of freehaul 
= 
(AB + A’B’) x 30 p per m³ 

= 
163 440 p 

Cost of overhaul 
= 
[ EG ( JK – EF ) / 100 + E’G’ (J’K’ – E’F’) / 100 ] x 

2p 

= 
13 628 p 
Total cost
= 163 440
+ 13 628
The second estimate is cheaper by 13 612 p
=
177 068 p
= £136.12
All the dimensions in the above solution are scaled from the MHD
38
CURVES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
In the geometric design of motorways, railways and pipelines, the design and setting out of curves is an important aspect of an engineer’s work. The initial design is usually based on a series of straight sections whose positions are defined largely by the topography of the area. The intersections of pairs of straights are then connected by horizontal curves. In the vertical design, intersecting gradients are connected by curves in the vertical plane. Curves can be listed under three main headings as follows:
1. Circular curve of constant radius
2. Transition curves of varying curves (spirals)
3. Vertical curves.
4.2 CIRCULAR CURVES
Horizontal, circular or simple curves are curves of constant radius required to connect two straights set out on the ground. Such curves are required for roads, railways, kerb lines, pipe lines and may be set out in several ways, depending on their length and radius. Figure 4.1 illustrates how two tangents are joined by a circular curve and shows some related circular curve terminology. The point at which the alignment changes from straight to circular is known as the BC (beginning of curve).The BC is located at a distance T (sub tangent) from PI (Point of tangent intersection).
The length of a circular curve (L) is dependent on the central angle (∆) and the value of R (radius). The tangent deflection angle (∆) is equal to the curve’s central angle (Figure 4.2). The point at which the alignment changes from circular back to tangent is known as the EC (end of curve). Since the curve is symmetrical about the PI, the EC is also located at distance T from the PI. From a study of geometry, we recall that the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent at the point of tangency. Therefore, the radius is perpendicular to the back tangent at the BC and to the forward tangent at the EC. The terms BC and EC are also referred to by some agencies as PC (point of curve) and PT (point of tangency) and by others as TC(tangent to curve) and CT(curve to tangent).
39
Figure 4.1 Circular Curve Terminologies (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
4.2.1 Circular Curve Geometry
Most curve problems are calculated from field measurements (∆ and the chainage of PI) and from design parameters(R). Given R (which is dependent on the design speed) and ∆, all other curve components can be computed. An analysis of Figure 4.2 will show that the curve deflection angle (PI, BC, EC) is ∆/2 and that the central angle at O is equal to ∆, the tangent deflection. The line (OPI), joining the centre of the curve to the PI, effectively bisects all related lines and angles.
a) Tangent:
In Triangle BC, O, PI,
b) Chord :
In triangle BC, O, B
T
R
T
tan
2
R tan
2
40
c) Mid ordinate:
d) External:
In triangle BC, O, PI
but
O to PI = R + E
41
Figure 4.2 Geometry Of The Circle. (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
e) Arc:(Figure 4.3)
L
2
L
R
2
360
R
360
where is expressed in degrees and decimals of a degree.
Figure 4.3 Relationship Between The Degree Of Curve (D) And The Circle. (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
The sharpness of the curves is determined by the choice of the radius R; large
42
radius curves are relatively flat, whereas small radius curves are relatively sharp. D is defined to be that central angle subtended by 100 ft of arc. (in railway designs, D is defined to be that central angle subtended by 100 ft of chord.)
From Figure 4.3, D and R:
D 100
360
D
5729.58
2
R
R
Arc:
L
100
L 100
D
D
f) Deflection angle
Figure 4.4 Deflection angle. (Source: Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)
In ∆ T _{1} AO, curve T _{1} A = R x 2 _{1} Curve T _{1} A = Chord T _{1} A
_{1} (rad) = Curve T _{1} A / 2R = Chord T _{1} A
_{1} (minutes) = (Curve T _{1} A x 180 x 60) / 2R = (1718.9 x chord T _{1} A) / R
43
Refer to Figure 4.5, Given ∆ = 16 ° 38’ R = 1000 ft and PI at 6 + 26.57, calculate the station of the BC and EC. Calculate also lengths C, M and E.
SOLUTION:
T
146.18 ft
R tan
2
1000 tan8 19'
PI at 
6 + 26.57 1 46.18 
T 

BC = 
4 + 80.39 
+L 
290.31 
EC = 
7 + 70.70 
L
2
R
360
2
1000
290.31 ft
16.6333
360
Figure 4.5 (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
44
C 
2 
R 
sin 


2 


2 
1000 

sin 8 19' 


289.29 ft 
M R 1 1000(1 cos 2 cos 8 19' ) 


10.52 ft 

E 
R 
sec 
2 
1 


1000(sec 8 
19' 
1) 


10.63 ft 
4.2.2 Compound Circular Curves
A compound circular curves are curves formed when of two (usually) or more circular arcs between two main tangents turn in the same direction and join at common tangent points. Figure 6.4 shows a compound curve consisting of two circular arcs joined at a point of compound curve (PCC). The lower chainage curve is number 1, whereas the higher chainage curve is number 2.
The parameters are R _{1} , R _{2} , ∆ _{1} , ∆ _{2} (∆ _{1} + ∆ _{2} = ∆), T _{1} and T _{2} . If four of these six or seven parameters are known, the others can be solved. Under normal circumstances, ∆ _{1} , ∆ _{2}_{,} or ∆, are measured in the field, and R _{1} and R _{2} are given by design considerations, with minimum values governed by design speed.
Although compound curves can be manipulated to provide practically any vehicle path desired by the designer, they are not employed where simple or spiral curves can be used to achieve the same desired effect. Practically, compound curves are reserved for those applications where design constraints (topographic or cost of land) preclude the use of simple or spiral curves, and they are now usually found chiefly in the design of interchange loops and ramps. Smooth driving characteristics required that the larger radius be more than 11/3 times larger than the smaller radius (this ratio increases to 11/2 when dealing with interchange curves).
Solutions to compound curve problems vary, as several possibilities exist as to which of the data are known in any one given problem. All problems can be solved by use of the sine law or cosine law or by the omitted measurement traverse technique. If the omitted measurement traverse technique is used, the problem becomes a fivesided traverse (Figure 4.6) with sides R _{1} , T _{1} , R _{2}
45
and (R _{1}  R _{2} ) and with angles 90°, 180°  ∆° + 90°, 180°+ ∆ _{2} ° and ∆ _{1} °. An assumed azimuth that will simplify the computations can be chosen.
Figure 4.6 Compound Circular Curves (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
4.3 Reverse Curves
Reverse curves are seldom used in highway or railway alignment. The instantaneous change in direction occurring at the point reverse curve (PRC) would cause discomfort and safety problems for all but the slowest of speeds. Additionally, since the change in curvature is instantaneous, there is no room to provide super elevation transition from crossslope right to crossslope left. However, reverse curves can be used to advantage where the instantaneous change in direction poses no threat to safety or comfort.
The reverse curve is particularly pleasing to the eye and is used with great success on park roads, form paths, waterway channels, and the like. The curve can be encountered in both situations illustrated in Figure 4.7 a. and b. the parallel tangent application is particularly common (R _{1} is often equal to R _{2} ). As with compound curves, reverse curves have six independent parameters ( R _{1} , ∆ _{1} , T _{1}_{,} R _{2} , ∆ _{2} , T _{2} ); the solution technique depends on which parameters are unknown, and the techniques noted for compound curves will also provide the solution to reverse curve problems.
46
Figure 4.7 Reverse Curves (aNon parallel curve, b Parallel tangents) (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
4.4 Transition Curves
The centrifugal force acting on a vehicle as it moves along a curve increases as the radius of the curve decreases. A vehicle moving from the straight with no centrifugal force acting upon it, into a curve would suddenly receive the maximum amount of centrifugal force for that radius of curve. To prevent this sudden lateral shock on passengers in the vehicle, a transition curve is inserted between the straight circular curve
(Figure 4.8). The transition curve is a curve of constantly changing radius. The radius (R) of transition curves varies from infinity at its tangent with the straight to a minimum at its tangent point with the circular curve. The centrifugal force thus builds up gradually to its maximum amount.
47
Figure 4.8 The Transition Curves. (Source: Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)
The purpose of a transition curve then is to achieve a gradual change of direction from the straight (radius ∞) to the curve (radius R) and permit the gradual application of superelevation to counteract centrifugal force.
The central fugal force tending to thrust a vehicle sideways on a curve is resisted by the friction between the wheels and the surface. If the outer edge of the surface is raised or super elevated, the resultant forces tend to reduce the frictional force necessary to hold the vehicle on the surface. At a particular slope the frictional force necessary can be eliminated by the formula below:
v
tan
2
gR
where v is the velocity and g is the acceleration due to gravity. As vehicle speeds vary, the fractional resistance is always necessary and a vehicle may stop on the curve. The super elevation must not be too great.
4.4.1 Spiral Curve and Composite Curve
A spiral is a curve with a uniformly changing radius. Spirals are used in highway and railroad alignment changes from tangent to circular curves, and vice versa. The length of the spiral curve is also used for transition from normally crowned pavement to fully superelevated pavement.
48
Figure 4.9 shows how the spiral curve is inserted between tangent and circular curve alignment. It can be seen that at the beginning of the spiral (T.S. = tangent to spiral) the radius of the spiral is the radius of the tangent line (infinitely large) and that the radius of the spiral curve decreases at a uniform rate until, at the point where the circular curve begins (S.C = spiral to curve) the radius of the spiral equals the radius of the circular curve. The spiral curve, used in horizontal alignment, has a uniform rate of change of radius (curvature). This property permits the driver to leave a tangent section of highway at a relatively high rate of speed without experiencing problems with safety or comfort.
A composite curve is a curve that forms by combination of two transition curves or through combination of two transition curves and a circular curve.
Figure 4.9 Spiral Curves (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
4.5 Vertical Curves
Vertical curves are used in highway and street vertical alignments to provide a gradual change between two adjacent grade lines. Some highway and municipal agencies introduce vertical curves at every change in gradeline slope, whereas other agencies introduce vertical curves into alignment only when the net change in slope direction exceeds a specific value (for example 1.5% or 2%).
In Figure 4.10, g _{1} is the slope of the lower chainage grade line, g _{2} is the slope of the higher chainage grade line, BVC is the beginning of the vertical curve, EVC is the end of the vertical line, and PVI is the point of intersection of the two adjacent
49
grade lines. The length of vertical curve (L) is the projection of the curve onto a horizontal surface and, as such, corresponds to plan distances.
The algebraic change in slope direction is A, where A = g _{2} – g _{1} .
Example 4b:
g _{1} = +1.5% and g _{2} = 3.2%
A 
= 
g _{2} – g _{1} 
= 
3.21.5 

= 
4.7 
The geometric curve used in vertical alignment designs is the vertical axis parabola. The parabola has the desirable characteristics of
(1) 
a constant rate of change of slope, which contributes to smooth alignment 
(2) 
transition, ease of computation of vertical offsets, which permits easily computed curve elevations 
Figure 4.10 Vertical Curves (Profile View Shown) (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
The origin of the axes is placed at the BVC (Figure 4.11), the general equation becomes y = ax ^{2} + bx, and because the slope at the origin is g1, the expression for slope of the curve at point becomes
dy
slope
dx
= 2ax + g _{1}
The general equation can finally be written as y = ax ^{2} + g _{1} x
50
Figure 4.11 Types of Vertical Curve (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)
4.1 Fill in the blanks with related circular curve terminology.
51
Figure 1
4.2 Solve the puzzle by using the clues as shown below.
Horizontal:
1) 
The 
curve is a curve of constantly changing radius. 

2) 
curves are used in highway and street vertical alignment to provide a gradual change 

3) 
between two adjacent grade lines. curves are curves of constant radius required to connect two straights set out on the 

4) 
ground. Circular curve is also known as 
curves. 

Vertical: 

5) 
The 
curves can be encountered in both situations which are a non parallel curve and 
parallel tangents.
52
A – Back tangent
B – Point of intersection
C – Deflection angle
D – Radius
E – Mid ordinate
F – Long chord
G – Sub tangent
H – End of Curve
I – External
J – Length of curve
4.2
Figure 1
53
^{1} 
T 
^{5} 
R 
A 
N 
S 
I 
T 
I 
O 
N 

^{7} 
S 
E 

P 
^{2} 
V 
E 
R 
T 
I 
^{6} 
C 
A 
L 

I 
E 
O 

^{3} 
C 
I 
R 
C 
U 
L 
A 
R 
M 

A 
S 
P 

L 
E 
O 

U 

^{4} 
H 
O 
R 
I 
Z 
O 
N 
T 
A 
L 

D 
4.6 SETTING OUT CURVES
This is the process of establishing the centreline of the curve on the ground by means of pegs at 10m to 30m intervals. In order to do this, the tangent and intersection points must be first fixed in the ground in their correct positions.
The straights OI _{1} , I _{1} I _{2} , I _{2} I _{3} ,etc., will have been designed on the plan in the first instance(Figure 4.12). Using railway curves, appropriate curves will now be designed to connect the straights. The tangent points of these curves will then be fixed making sure that the tangent lengths are equal, i.e. T _{1} I _{1} = T _{2} I _{1} and T _{3} I _{2} = T _{4} I _{2} . The coordinates of the origin, point O, and all the intersection points will only now be carefully scaled from the plan. Using these coordinates, the bearings of the straights are computed and using the tangent lengths on these bearings, the coordinates of the tangent points are also computed. The difference of the bearings of the straights provides the deflection angles(Δ) of the curves which, combined with the tangent length, enables computation of the curve radius, through chainage and allsettingout data. Now the tangent and intersection points are set out from existing control survey stations and the curves ranged between them using the methods detailed below.
Figure 4.12 Curve Setting Out (Source: Engineering Surveying, W.Schofield)
54
4.6.1 Setting Out By Offsets With Tangent Angle Method
The following methods of setting out curves is the most popular and it is called Rankine’s deflection or tangential angle method, the latter term being more definitive.
In figure 4.13, the curve is established by a series of chords T _{1} X, XY, etc. Thus, peg 1 at X is fixed by sighting to I with the theodolite reading zero, turning off the angle _{1} and measuring out the chord length T _{1} X along this line. Setting the instrument to read the second deflection angle gives the direction T _{1} Y, and peg 2 is fixed by measuring the chord length XY from until it intersects at Y. The procedure is now continued, the angles being set out from T _{1} I and the chords measured from the previous station. It is thus necessary to be able to calculate the setting out angles as follows:
Assume OA bisects the chord T _{1} X at rightangles, then
Angle AT _{1} O =90° _{1} , but angle IT _{1} =90°
angle IT _{1} A= _{1}
By radians arc length T _{1} X= R2 _{1}
_{1} rad = (arc T _{1} X /2R) (Chord T _{1} X / 2R)
_{1} min = (chord T _{1} X x 180º x 60) /2Rπ
= 1718.9(Chord / R)
or º = (Dº x Chord ) / 200 where degree of curve is used.
Example 4c:
Figure 4.13 Tangent Angle Method (Source: Engineering Surveying, W.Schofield)
The centreline of two straights is projected forward to meet at I, the deflection angle being 30°. If the straights are to be connected by a circular curve of radius 200 m, tabulate all the settingout data, assuming 20m chords on a through chainage basis, the chainage of I being 2259.59 m.
Solution:
55
Tangent length = R tan Δ/2 = 200 tan 15° = 53.59 m
Chainage of T _{1} = 2255.59  53.59 = 2206 m
1st subchord = 14 m
Length of circular arc = RΔ = 200(30°) rad = 104.72 m From which the number of chords may now be deduced
1st subchord = 14 m
2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th chords = 20 m each
Final subchord
= 10.72 m = 104.72 m {Check}
Total
Chainage of T _{2} ; = 2206 m + 104.72 m = 2310.72 m
Deflection angles:
For 1st subchord = 1718.9 (14/200) = 120.3 min = 2° 00' 19"
Standard chord 
= 1718.9 (20/200) = 171.9 min = 2° 51' 53" 
Final subchord 
= 1718.9 (10.72 /200) = 92.1 min = 1° 32' 08" 
Check: The sum of the deflection angles = Δ/2 = 14° 59' 59" 15°
Chord 
Chord 
Chainage (m) 
Deflection angle o , „ 
Setting out angle 
Remarks 

number 
length (m) 
o , „ 

1 
14 
2220.00 
2 
00 19 
2 
00 19 
peg 1 
2 
20 
2240.00 
2 
51 53 
4 
52 12 
peg 2 
3 
20 
2260.00 
2 
51 53 
7 
44 05 
peg 3 
4 
20 
2280.00 
2 
51 53 
10 
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