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1

AREA AND VOLUME

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Estimation of area and volume is basic to most engineering schemes such as route alignment, reservoirs, construction of tunnels, etc. The excavation and hauling of material on such schemes is the most significant and costly aspect of the work, on which profit or loss may depend. Area may be required in connection with the purchase or sale of land, with the division of land or with the grading of land. Earthwork volumes must be estimated :

to enable route alignment to be located at such lines and levels that cut and fill are balanced as far as practical.

to enable contract estimates of time and cost to be made for proposed work.

to form the basis of payment for work carried out.

It is frequently necessary as part of engineering surveying projects to determine the area enclosed by the boundaries of a site or the volume of earthwork required to be moved. Many of the figures involve accepted mensuration formulae (see 1.6 ) but it is more common to meet irregular shapes and these require special attention.

2.2 PLAN AREAS

The basic unit of area in SI units is the square metre (m²) but for large areas the hectare is a derived unit.

1 hectare (ha) = 10 000 m² = 2.471 05 acres

2.2.1 Conversion Of Plannimetric Area Into Actual Area

Let the scale of the plan be 1 in H (or as representative fraction 1/H). Then 1 mm is equivalent to H mm and 1 mm² is equivalent to H² mm² is equivalent to H mm², i.e.

H² x

10 -6

2

2.3 AREA CALCULATION

Areas of ground may be obtained from the plotted plan but results are only as

accurate as it is possible to scale off the drawings. Accuracy is greatly increased by using the measurements taken in the field. In most surveys the area is divisible into two parts :

a) The rectilinear areas enclosed by the survey lines

b) The irregular areas of the strips between these lines and the boundary

In order to calculate the area of the whole, each of these areas must be evaluated separately because each is defined by a different form of geometrical figure.

2.3.1 Rectilinear Areas

The method of evaluating the rectilinear area enclosed by survey lines depends on the method of survey.

a) If chain surveying is used, the areas of the triangles forming the survey network are calculated from the field dimensions from the formula :

Area = √ (s(s – a) (s b) (s c))

Where a, b and c = the lengths of the triangles sides and

s =

(a + b + c) / 2

b) If traversing is used and the survey stations are coordinated, the computed coordinated are used in the area calculation.

Whichever calculation method is used, checks must be applied to prove the area calculations. In a chain survey network the work must be arranged so that two different sets of the triangles forming the rectilinear figure are used in evaluating the total area, which is thus twice calculated. These two results will not normally agree precisely because the network will not be geometrically perfect. Owing to observational errors, the two results are meaned to produce the final rectilinear area. When areas are calculated from coordinates, the calculation must be repeated another way to prove the result.

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2.3.2 Irregular Areas

Unless boundaries are straight and the corner points coordinated there are usually irregular strips of ground between the survey lines and the property boundaries. The area of the irregular strips are either positive or negative to the rectilinear area and since they are divided up by offsets between which the boundary is supposed to run straight, they are computed as a series of trapezoids. The mean of each pair of offsets is taken and multiplied by the chainage between them. Where the offsets are taken at regular intervals, the trapezoidal rule or Simpson’s rule for areas is used, (see section 2.6).

NOTE

a. The field work should be arranged to overcome difficulties with corners. This is usually achieved by extending the survey line to the boundary, allowing for the triangular shape which may occur.

b. In order to check the irregular area the calculations should be repeated by another person, or a check against gross error may be made taking out a planimeter area of the plot.

2.4 CALCULATING AREA FROM A CHAIN SURVEY

The figure shows the rectilinear area ABCD, which is calculated first. Their regular strips between the chain lines and the boundary must be separately evaluated and either added or subtracted as necessary from the main rectilinear area calculation result. The following data were obtained from the chain survey of the site :

AB -

63.0 m

4

BC

-

45.0 m

CD

-

60.0 m

DA

-

78.0 m

BD

-

93.3 m

AC

-

76.0 m

AB and BC are straight boundaries. Offsets to the

irregular boundaries are as follows :

Chainage AD

 

Chainage CD

 
 

Offset

Offset

A

0.0

0.0

C

0.0

0.0

16.0

6.0

10.0

4.2

33.0

7.0

20.0

6.4

40.0

0.0

30.0

8.1

49.0

7.0

40.0

10.3

61.0

7.0

50.0

11.3

68.0

0.0

D

60.0

13.2

B

78.0

11.0

89.0

5.0

93.0

9.0

SOLUTION

The rectilinear area from A

=

√ ((s – a) (s b) (s c))

5

The area of triangle ACD

=

√(107(31) (47) (29))

=

2126.3 m 2

The area of triangle ABC

=

√(92(29) (47) (16))

=

1416.4 m 2

Area of ABCD

=

2126.3 + 1416.4

=

3542.7 m 2

Check :

The area of triangle ABD

The area of triangle ABD

= √((117.15 (54.15) (39.15) (23.85))

= 2433.8 m 2

= √(( 99.15 (39.15) (54.15) (5.85)))

 

=

1108.9 m 2

Area of ABCD

=

2433.8 + 1108.9

=

3542.7 m 2

Area of triangle ABD:

Plus (0+6) x 2 x 16 = 48.0

(6+7) x 2 x 17 = 110.5

(7+0) x 2 x 7

= 24.5

Minus

= 31.5

(7+7) x 2 x 12 = 84.0

= 24.5

(0+7) x 2 x 9

(7+0) x 2 x 7

(0+11) x 2 x 10 = 55.0 (11+9) x 2 x 15 = 150.0

388.5

140.0

- 140.0

248.5 m 2 (total plus area on AD)

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2.5 CALCULATING AREAS FROM COORDINATES

6 2.5 CALCULATING AREAS FROM COORDINATES SPECIMEN QUESTION A = Area Calculate the area of the

SPECIMEN QUESTION

6 2.5 CALCULATING AREAS FROM COORDINATES SPECIMEN QUESTION A = Area Calculate the area of the

A = Area

Calculate the area of the figure ABCDEF of which the coordinates are listed

below.

SOLUTION

The calculation is tabulated as shown :

 

E + E Double Longitude

ΔN

  E + E Double Longitude ΔN

Station

Easting

Northing

 

A

150

100

B

95.2

164.3

245.2

64.3

15 766.36

C

127.9

210.7

223.1

46.4

10 351.84

D

176.3

239.8

304.2

29.1

8 852.22

E

219.4

222.4

395.7

-17.4

6 885.18

 

26

F

237.5

163.8

456.9

-58.6

774.34

 

24

A

150

100

387.5

-63.8

722.50

 

58

 

34 970.42

382.02

 

34

970.42

23

7

Area = 11 705.8 m 2

= 1.1706 ha

2.6 AREAS OF IRREGULAR FIGURES

There are several practical situations where it is necessary to estimate the area of irregular figures. Examples include estimation of areas of plots of land by surveyors, areas of indicator diagrams of steam engines by engineers and areas of water planes and transverse sections of a ship by naval architects. There are many methods whereby the area of an irregular plane surface may be found and these include:

(a)

Use of a planimeter,

(b)

Trapezoidal rule,

(c)

Mid-ordinate rule and

(d) Simpson’s rule.

2.6.1 The planimeter

A planimeter is an instrument for directly measuring areas bounded by an irregular curve. There are many different types of the instrument but all consist basically of two rods AB and BC, hinged at B (see Fig. 2.1). The end labelled A is fixed, preferably outside of the irregular area being measured. Rod BC carries at B a wheel whose plane is at right angles to the plane formed by ABC. Point C, called the tracer, is guided round the boundary of the figure to be measured. The wheel is geared to a dial which records the area directly. If the length BC is adjustable, the scale can be altered and readings obtained in mm 2 , cm 2 , m 2 and so on.

obtained in mm 2 , cm 2 , m 2 and so on. FIGURES 2.1 :

FIGURES 2.1 : Planimeter

(Source : Mathematics for

Technicians, S. Adam)

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2.6.2 Trapezoidal rule

To find the area ABCD in Fig. 2.2, the base AD is divided into a number of equal intervals of width d. This can be any number; the greater the number the more accurate the result. The ordinates y 1 , y 2 , y 3 , etc. are accurately measured. The approximation used in this rule is to assume that each strip is equal to the area of a trapezium.

assume that each strip is equal to the area of a trapezium. FIGURE 2.2 : Trapezoidal

FIGURE 2.2 : Trapezoidal rule (Source : Mathematics for Technicians, S.

Adam)

The area of a trapezium = ½ (sum of the parallel sides) (perpendicular distance between the parallel sides).

Hence for the first strip, shown in Fig. 2.2, the approximate area is ½ (y 1 + y 2 )d. For the second strip area is ½ (y 1 + y 2 )d and so on. Hence the approximate area of

ABCD =

½ (y 1 + y 2 )d + ½ (y 3 + y 4 )d + ½ (y 3 + y 4 )d + ½ (y 4 + y 5 )d + ½ (y 5 + y 6 )d + ½ (y 6 + y 7 )d

 

=

½ y 1 d +

½ y 2 d + ½ y 2 d +

½ y 3 d +

½ y 3 d +

½ y 4 d +

½ y 4 d

+

½ y 5 d +

½ y 5 d +

½ y 6 d +

½ y 6 d +

½ y 7 d

=

½ y 1 d +

½ y 2 d +

½ y 3 d +

½ y 4 d +

½ y 5 d +

½ y 6 d +

½ y 7 d

=

d [ ( y 1 + +

y 7 ) / 2

+ y 2 + y 3 + y 4 + y 5 + y 6 ]

Generally, the trapezoidal rule states that the area of an irregular figure is given by:

9

Area = (width of internal) [½ (first + last ordinate) + sum of remaining ordinates]

2.6.3 Mid-ordinate rule

+ sum of remaining ordinates] 2.6.3 Mid-ordinate rule FIGURE 2.3 : Mid- ordinate rule method (Source

FIGURE 2.3 : Mid-

ordinate rule method

(Source : Mathematics

for Technicians, S.

Adam)

To find the area of ABCD in Figure 2.3 the base AD is divided into any number of equal strips of width d. (As with the trapezoidal rule, the greater the number of intervals used the more accurate the result.) If each strip is assumed to be a trapezium, then the average length of the two parallel sides will be given by the length of a mid-ordinate, i.e. an ordinate erected in the middle of each trapezium. This is the approximation used in the mid- ordinate rule.

The mid-ordinates are labelled y 1 , y 2 , y 3 , etc. as in Fig. 18.3 and each is then accurately measured. Hence the approximate area of ABCD

=

= d (y 1 + y 2 + y 3 +

y 1 d +

y 2 d +

y 3 d +

y 4 +

y 4 d + y 5 +

y 5 d + y 6 )

y 6 d

where d

= ( length of AD / number of mid-ordinates )

Generally, the mid-ordinate rule states that the area of an irregular figure is given by:

Area = (width of interval) (sum of mid-ordinates)

10

2.6.4 Simpson’s rule

10 2.6.4 Simpson’s rule FIGURE 2.4 : Simpson’s rule (Source : Mathematics for Technicians, S. Adam)

FIGURE 2.4 : Simpson’s rule (Source : Mathematics for Technicians, S.

Adam)

To find the circa A BCD in Figure 2.4 the base AD must be divided into an even number of strips of equal width d. Thus producing an odd number of ordinates. The length of each ordinate, y 1 , y 2 , y 3, etc., is accurately measured. Simpson's rule states that (the area of the irregular area ABCD is given by;

Area of ABCD = d / 3 [(y 1 + y 7 ) + 4(y 2 + y 4 + y 6 ) + 2(y 3 + y 5 )]

More generally, the calculation of the area of:

Area = 1/3 (width of interval) [(first and last ordinates) + 4( sum of even ordinates) + 2 (sum of remaining odd ordinates)]

When estimating areas of irregular figures, Simpson's rule is generally regarded as the most accurate of the approximate methods available.

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Activity 2a
Activity 2a

2.1 The values of the y ordinates of a curve and their distance x from the origin are given in the table below. Plot the graph and find the area under the curve by :

x

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

y

2

5

8

11

14

17

20

a) The trapezoidal rule

b) The mid-ordinate rule

c) Simpson’s rule

2.2 Sketch a semicircle of radius 10cm. Erect ordinates at intervals of 2 cm and determine the lengths of the ordinates and mid-ordinates. Determine the area of the semicircle using the three approximate methods. Calculate the true area of the semicircle.

12

Feedback 2a
Feedback 2a

2.1)

12 Feedback 2a 2.1) FIGURE 2.5 : Graph of y against x a) Trapezoidal rule Using

FIGURE 2.5 : Graph of y against x

a) Trapezoidal rule

Using 7 ordinates with interval width of 1 the area under the curve is:

Area = 1 [ ½ (2 + 20) + 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + 17 ]

= [ 11 + 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + 17 ]

= 66 square units

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b) Mid-ordinate rule

Using 6 intervals of width 1 the mid-ordinates of the 6 strips are measured. The area under the curve is:

Area

=

1 (3.5 + 6.5 + 9.5 + 12.5 + 15.5 + 18.5)

=

66 square unit

c) Simpson’s rule

Using 7 ordinates, given an even number of strips, i.e. 6, each of width 1, thus the area under the curve is:

Area

=

1 / 3 [ (2 + 20) + 4(5 + 11 + 17) + 2 (8 + 14) ]

=

1 / 3 [ 22 + 4(33) + 2(22)]

=

1 / 3 [ 22 + 132 + 44 ]

=

198 / 3

=

66 square units

The area under the curve is a trapezium and may be calculated using the formula ½(a+b)h, where a and b are the lengths of the parallel sides and h the perpendicular distance between the parallel sides.

Hence area = ½(2 + 20)(6) = 66 square units. This problem demonstrates the methods for finding areas under curves. Obviously the three 'approximate' methods would not normally be used for an area such as in this problem since it is not 'irregular'.

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2.2). The semicircle is shown in Fig. 2.6 with the lengths of the ordinates and mid-ordinates marked, the dimensions being in centimetres.

mid-ordinates marked, the dimensions being in centimetres. FIGURE 2.6 : Sketch a semicircle a) Trapezoidal rule

FIGURE 2.6 : Sketch a semicircle

a) Trapezoidal rule

Area

2 [ ½ (0 + 0) + 6.0 + 8.0 + 9.15 + 9.80 + 10.0 + 9.80 + 9.15 + 8.0 + 6.0 ]

=

= 2 (75.90)

= 151.8 square units

b) Mid-ordinate rule

Area

=

2 [ 4.3 + 7.1 + 8.65 + 9.55 + 9.95 + 9.95 + 9.95 + 8.65 + 7.1 + 4.3 ]

=

2 (79.10)

=

158.2 square units

c) Simpson’s rule

Area

=

8.0)]

= 2/3 [0 + 4(40.3) + 2(35.6)]

= 2/3 (161.2 + 71.2)

= 2/3 (232.4)

= 154.9 square units

2/3 [ (0 + 0) + 4(6.0 + 9.15 + 10.00 + 9.15 + 6.00) + 2(8.0 + 9.8 +

The true area is given by π r² / 2, i.e π (10)² / 2 = 157.1 square units

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2.7 VOLUME CALCULATION

In construction works, the excavation, loading, hauling and dumping of earth frequently forms a substantial part of the project. Payment must be made for the labour and plan needed for earthworks and this is based on the quantity or volume handled. These volumes must be calculated and depending on the shape of the site, this may be done in three ways :

i)

by cross-sections, generally used for long, narrow works such as roads, railways, pipelines, etc.

ii)

by contours, generally used for larger areas such as reservoirs, landscapes, redevelopment sites, etc.

iii)

by spot height, generally used for small areas such as underground tanks, basements, building sites, etc.

2.8

CROSS SECTION VOLUME CALCULATION

Cross-sections are established at some convenient intervals along a centre line of the works. Volumes are calculated by relating the cross-sectional areas to the distances between them. In order to compute the volume it is first necessary to evaluate the cross-sectional areas, which may be obtained by the following methods:

i) by calculating from the formula or from first principles the standard cross- sections of constant formation widths and side slopes.

ii) by measuring graphically from plotted cross-sections drawn to scale, areas being obtained by plannimeter or division into triangles or square.

NOTE :

The graphic measure of the cross-sectional area is most often used and provides a sufficiently accurate estimate of volume, but for railways, long embankments, breakwaters, etc., with fairly regular dimensions, the use of formulae may be easier and perhaps more accurate.

2.8.1 Prismoidal Method

In order to calculate the volume of a substance, its geometrical shape and size must be known. A mass of earth has no regular geometrical figure in most approaches. The prismoid is a solid, consisting of two ends which

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form plane, parallel figures, not necessarily of the same number of sides and which can be measured as cross-sections. The faces between the parallel ends are plane surfaces between straight lines which join all the corners of the two end faces. A prismoid can be considered to be made up of a series of prisms, wedges and pyramids, all having a length equal to the perpendicular distance between the parallel ends. The geometrical solids forming the prismoid are described as follows :

i) Prism, in which the end polygons are equal and the side faces are parallelograms.

ii) Wedge, in which one end is a line, the other end a parallelogram, and the sides are triangles and parallelograms.

iii) Pyramids, in which one end is a point, the other end a polygon and the side faces are triangles.

The Prismoidal Formula

Let

D

=

the perpendicular distance between the parallel end

A 1 and A 2

=

planes the areas of these end planes

M

=

the mid-area, the area of the plane parallel to the end planes and midway between them,

 

V

=

the volume of the prismoid and

a 1 , a 2, m, v

=

the equivalent for any prism, wedge or pyramid forming the prismoid

then in a prism and in a wedge and in a pyramid Prism volume v Wedge volume v Pyramid volume v

a 1 , = a 2, = m a 2 = 0 and m = 1/2 a 1

a 2 = 0 and m = 1/4 a 1

= D . a 1 = ½ D . a 1

= D/6 (6 . a 1 ) = D/6 = D/6 (3 . a 1 ) = D/6

= 1/3 D . a 1 = D/6 (2 . a 1 ) = D/6

(a 1 , + 4m + a 2 ) (a 1 , + 4m + a 2 ) (a 1 , + 4m + a 2 )

As the volume of each part can be expressed in the same terms, the volume of the whole can take the same form. Thus the prismoidal formula is expressed in the following way :

V = D/6

(A 1 , + 4M + A 2 )

17

Note :

A. M does not represent the mean of the end areas A 1 and A 2 except where the prismoid is composed of prisms and wedges only.

B. The formula gives the volume of one prismoid of which the end and mid-sectional areas are known.

The prismoidal formula may be used to calculate volume if a series of cross-sectional areas, A1, A2, A3,…. An, have been established a distance d apart. Each alternate cross-section may be considered to be the mid-area M of a prismoid of length 2d.

Then the volume of the first prismoid of length 2d :

and of the second and of the nth

= 2d / 6 (A 1 , + 4A 2 + A 3 )

= 2d / 6 (A 3 , + 4A 4 + A 5 ) = 2d / 6 (A n-2 , + 4A n-1 + A n )

summing up the volumes of each prismoidal :

V = d / 3 (A 1 , + 4A 2 + 2A 3 + 4A 4 …… + 2A n-2 + 4A n-1 + A n ) Which is Simpson’s rule for volumes.

Specimen Question

Calculate, using the prismoidal formula, the cubic contents of an embankment of which the cross-sectional areas at 15m intervals are as follows :

Distance (m)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

Area (m 2 )

11

42

64

72

160

180

220

Solution,

V = 15 / 3 (11 + 220 + 4 ( 42 + 72 + 180 ) + ( 64 + 160))

V

= 5 ( 231 + 1176 + 448 )

V

= 9275 m 3

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Note :

A.

The 15m interval is divided by 3, as the length of the individual prismoids used is 30m, which in the prismoidal formula is divided by 6.

B.

A mass of earth, length double the usual cross-sectional interval of 15m, 20m or 25m, is considerably different from a true prismoid, so this method is not as accurate as it would be if the true mid- sectional area had been measured. This results in the use of prismoids of length equal to, instead of double, the interval between cross-sections.

2.8.2

End Areas Method

It is no more accurate to use the prismoidal formula where the mid- sectional areas have not been directly measured than it is to use the end areas formula, particularly as the earth solid is not exactly represented by a prismoid. Using the same symbols the volume may be expressed as :

v = d [ ( A 1 + A 2 ) / 2 ]

although this is only correct where the mid-area is the mean of the end areas :

M = ( A 1 + A 2 ) / 2

However, in view of the inaccuracies that arise in assuming any geometric shape between cross-sections and because of bulking and settlement and the fact that the end areas calculation is simple to use, it is generally used for most estimating purposes.

Note :

A. The summation of a series of cross-sectional areas by this method provides a total volume :

V = d{[( A 1 + A 2 ) / 2 ] + A 2 + A 3 + …… A n-1 }

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Specimen Question

Calculate, using the end areas method, the cubic contents of the embankment of which the cross-sectional areas at 15m intervals are as follows :

Distance (m)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

Area (m 2 )

11

42

64

72

160

180

220

Solution

V

= 15{[ (11 + 220) / 2 ] + 42 + 64 + 72 + 160 + 180 }

V

= 9502.5 m 3

2.9 VOLUME CALCULATION FOR CONTOUR LINES

Contour lines may be used for volume calculations and theoretically this is the most accurate method. However, as the small contour interval necessary for accurate work is seldom provided due to cost, high accuracy is not often obtained. Unless the contour interval is less than 1m or 2m at the most, the assumption that there is an even slope between the contour is incorrect and volume calculation from contours become unreliable.

The formula used for volume calculation is the end areas formula of Simpson’s rule for volumes, the distance d in the formula being contour interval. The area enclosed by each contour line is measured, usually by plannimeter, and these areas A1, A2, etc., are used in the formula as before ( see the end areas method). If the prismoidal method is used, each alternate contour line is assumed to enclose a mid-area or the outline of the mid-area can be interpolated between the existing contour intervals.

This illustration shows an area contoured at 5m intervals and how the contours of proposed works, in this case a dam wall with an access road through a cutting, shown as packed lines, define the plan outline of the works. This also allows the volume of the earthworks to be calculated using the positions of the contour lines.

20

20 Picture 4.1 : Intersection Of Contoured Surfaces (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay) The volume of

Picture 4.1 : Intersection Of Contoured Surfaces (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)

The volume of the dam wall and the amount of cut may be obtained from the contour lines by calculating the volume of ground within the working area down to a common level surface and then calculating the new volume from the formation contour lines, the difference being the change in volume due to the works. This volume calculation is more usually carried out by using the cross-sectional method. The use of contours is a practical method of calculating volumes in several cases, one of which being the calculation of water at various levels in a reservoir. For example, in picture 4.1 the volume of water which could be contained up to the level of the 60m, contours could be calculated as follows from these data :

Contour above datum (m)

50

52.5

55

57.5

60

Area (m 2 )

12

135

660

1500

1950

Using the end areas method :

V = 2.5 { [ (12 + 1950)/2] + 135 + 660 + 1500 } = 8190 m 3

Using Simpson’s rule from the prismoidal formula :

21

V = ( 2.5 / 3 ) [ 12 + 1950 + 4(135 + 1500) + 2 (660) ]

= (2.5 / 3 ) (9822)

= 8185 m 3

Note :

The small volume of water below 50m (not included in the above calculation) would be estimated from the interpolated depth of 2m at the deepest point, using the end areas formula, the lowest end area being 0, thus :

V =

[ ( 12

+ 0 ) / 2 ] x 2

V = 12m 3 This would then be added to either of the results above.

2.10 VOLUME CALCULATION FROM SPOT HEIGHT

This is a method of volume calculation frequently used on excavations where there are vertical sides covering a fairly large area, although it can be used for excavation with sloping sides. The site is divided into squares or rectangles, and if they are of equal size the calculations are simplified. The volumes are calculated from the product of the mean length of the sides of each vertical truncated prism ( a prism in which the base planes are not parallel ) and the cross-sectional area. The sizes of the rectangles is dependent on the degree of accuracy required. The aim is to produce areas such that the ground surface within each can be assumed to be plane.

Specimen Question Picture 4.2 shows the reduced levels of a rectangular plot which is to be excavated to a uniform depth of 8m above datum. Calculate the mean level of the ground and the volume of earth to be excavated.

Note :

a) The mean or average level of the ground is that level of ground which would be achieved by smoothing the ground off level, assuming that no bulking would take place.

b) The mean level of the ground is the mean of the mean height of each prism. It is not the mean of all the spot heights.

22

22 Picture 4.2 : Calculating volume from spot height on a levelling grid. (Source : Land

Picture 4.2 : Calculating volume from spot height on a levelling grid. (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)

Solution

(a) Calculation from rectangles :

Station

R.L.

Number of times the R.L. is used = n

Product (R.L.) x n

A

12.16

1

12.16

B

12.48

2

24.96

C

13.01

1

13.01

D

12.56

2

25.12

E

12.87

4

51.48

F

13.53

2

27.06

G

12.94

1

12.94

H

13.27

2

26.54

J

13.84

1

13.84

 

∑n = 16

207.11

Mean level = 207.11 / 16 = 12.944 m

Depth of excavation = 12.944 8.00 = 4.944 Volume = Total area x Depth

= 30 x 20 x 4.944

= 2966.4 m 3

23

(b) Calculation from triangles

It is usually more accurate to calculate from triangles as the upper base of the triangular prism is more likely to correspond with the ground plane than the larger rectangle. The mean level of each prism is then the mean of the three height enclosing the triangle instead of four as before.

Station

R.L.

Number of times the R.L. is used = n

Product (R.L.) x n

A

12.16

1

12.16

B

12.48

3

37.44

C

13.01

2

26.02

D

12.56

3

37.44

E

12.87

7

90.09

F

13.53

2

27.06

G

12.94

2

25.88

H

13.27

2

26.54

J

13.84

2

27.68

 

∑n = 24

310.55

Mean level = 310.55 / 24 = 12.940 m Depth of excavation = 4.960 Volume = 30 x 20 x 4.944 = 2966.4 m 3

Note :

The diagonal forming the triangles would be noted in the field book on the grid layout to conform most suitably with the ground planes.

24

Activity 2b
Activity 2b

2.3) An embankment is to be formed with its centre line on the surface (in the form of a plane) on full dip of 1 in 20. If the formation width is 12.00m and the formation heights are 3.00m, 4.50m and 6.00m at intervals of 30.00m, with side slopes 1 in 2, calculate the volume between the end sections.

1 in 2, calculate the volume between the end sections. Calculate a). Volume by mean areas

Calculate a). Volume by mean areas b). Volume by end areas c). Volume by prismoidal rule

2.3 Given the previous example but with the centre line turned through 90º, calculate volume

example but with the centre line turned through 90º, calculate volume a) By mean areas b)

a) By mean areas

b) By end areas

25

Feedback 2b
Feedback 2b

2.3 Area (1) = h 1 (w + mh 1 ) = 3.00 [ 12.00 + (2 x 3.00) ]

= 54.00 m 2

Area (2) = 4.50 [ 12.00 + (2 x 4.50) ] = 94.50 m 2

Area (3) = 6.00 [ 12.00 + (2 x 6.00) ] = 144.00 m 2

Volume :

a). By mean areas V = W(A/n) = 60.00 ( 54.00 + 94.50 + 144.00 ) / 3 = 5850.0 m 3

b). By end areas V = w ( A 1 + 2A 2 + A 3 ) / 2 = 30.00 (54.00 + 189.00 + 144.00) / 2 = 5805.0 m 3

A 1 =

c). By Prismoidal Rule V = w ( A 1 + 4A 2 + A 3 ) / 3

= 30.00 (54.00 + 378.00 + 144.00)/3

= 5760.0 m 3

2.4

A =

m ( h² 0 k² + w² / 4 + wh 0 m)

+

wh 0

( k² - m² )

Cross-sectional areas

2 [ (3.00² x 20² ) + ( 0.25 x 12.00²) + ( 12.00 x 3.00 x 2 )

+ (12 x 3.00)

( 20² - 2² )

A

2

= [ (3600.00 + 36.00 + 72.00) / 198 ] + 36.00

= 54.73 m²

= [ ( 8100.00 + 36.00 + 108.00 ) / 198 ] + 54.00 = 95.64 m²

A 3 = [ ( 14400.00 + 36.00 + 144.00 ) / 198 ] + 72.00

= 145.64 m²

26

Volume

a). By mean areas

V = 60.00 ( 54.00 + 95.64 + 145.64 ) / 3

b). By end areas

= 5920.2 m³

V = 30.00 ( 54.73 + 191.28 + 145.64 ) / 2 = 5874.8 m³

c). By prismoidal rule

V = 30.00 ( 54.73 + 382.56 + 145.64 ) / 3 = 5829.3 m³

Self Assessment
Self Assessment

Calculate the volumes in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Figure 1

+ 382.56 + 145.64 ) / 3 = 5829.3 m³ Self Assessment Calculate the volumes in

Figure 2

+ 382.56 + 145.64 ) / 3 = 5829.3 m³ Self Assessment Calculate the volumes in

27

Feedback to Self Assessment
Feedback to Self Assessment

Figure 1

A 1 = [ ( 0.75 + 4.75 ) / 2 ]

x 7

= 19.25 ft²

A 2 = [ ( 0.75 + 3.75 ) / 2 ]

x

5

= 11.25 ft²

A 3 = [ ( 0.75 + 2.75 ) / 2 ]

x

3

= 5.25 ft²

Volume, V

=

L / 6 ( A 1 + 4A m + A 2 )

=

17 / 6 (19.25 + 4 x 11.25 + 5.25)

=

17 / 6 ( 19.25 + 45.00 + 5.25 )

=

17 / 6 ( 69.50 )

=

1181.50 / 6

=

196.92 ft³

=

7.29 yrd³

Figure 2

Volume,

V

=

h / 3 ( area of base )

 

=

27.4 / 3 ( 13.5 x 13.5 )

=

1664.6 m³

28

MASS HAUL DIAGRAM

3.1

INTRODUCTION

Mass-haul diagrams (MHD) are used to compare the economics of the various methods of earthwork distribution on road or railway construction schemes. With the combined use of the MHD plotted directly below the longitudinal section of the survey centre-line, one can find :

i.

The distances over which ‘cut and fill’ will balance.

ii.

Quantities of materials to be moved and the direction of movement.

iii.

Areas where earth may have to be borrowed or wasted and the amounts involved.

iv.

The best policy to adopt to obtain the most economic use of plan.

3.2

DEFINITION AND IMPORTANT PHRASES

Bulking

An increase in volume of earthwork after excavation

Shrinkage

A decrease in volume earthwork after deposition and compaction.

Haul distance (d)

The distance from the working face of the excavation to the tipping point.

Average haul distance

The distance from the centre of gravity of the cutting to

(D)

that of the filling.

Freehaul Distance

The distance, given in the Bill of Quantities, included in the price of excavation per cubic metre.

Overhaul Distance

The extra distance of transport of earthwork volumes beyond the freehaul distance.

Haul

The sum of the product of each load by its haul distance. This must equal the total volume of excavation multiplied by the average haul distance, i.e. ∑ vd = VD

Overhaul

The product of volumes by their respective overhaul distance. Excess payment will depend upon overhaul.

Station Metre

A unit of overhaul, viz. 1 m 3 x 100 m.

Borrow

The volume of material brought into a section due to a deficiency.

Waste

The volume of material taken from a section due to excess

29

Figure 3.1 : Mass-haul diagram (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)

3.1 : Mass-haul diagram (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay) Figure 3.2 : Freehaul and Overhaul (Source

Figure 3.2 : Freehaul and Overhaul (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)

3.1 : Mass-haul diagram (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay) Figure 3.2 : Freehaul and Overhaul (Source

30

3.3 CONSTRUCTION OF THE MASS-HAUL DIAGRAM

Volumes of cut and fill along a length of proposed road are as follows :

Volume

Chainage

Cut

Fill

0

100

290

200

760

300

1680

400

620

480

120

500

20

600

110

700

350

800

600

900

780

1000

690

1100

400

1200

120

Draw a mass-haul diagram and exclude the surplus excavated material along this length. Determine the overhaul if the freehaul distance is 300 m.

 

Volume

 

Aggregate

Chainage

Cut

Fill

volume

0

100

290

+

290

200

760

+ 1050

300

1680

+ 2730

400

620

+ 3350

480

120

+ 3470

500

20

+ 3450

600

110

+ 3340

700

350

+ 2990

800

600

+ 2390

900

780

+ 1610

1000

690

+

920

1100

400

+

520

1200

120

+

400

 

3470

3070

 

3070

check

400

31

31 Figure 3.3 : Mass-haul diagram (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay) Graphical Method (figure 3.3) i.

Figure 3.3 : Mass-haul diagram (Source : Land Survey, Ramsay)

Graphical Method (figure 3.3)

i. As the surplus of 400 m³ is to be neglected, the balancing line is drawn from the end of the mass-haul curve, parallel to the base line, to form a new balancing line ab.

ii. As the freehaul distance is 300 m, this is drawn as a balancing line cd.

iii. From c and d, draw ordinates cutting the new base line at c 1 d 1 .

iv. To find the overhaul :

a)

Bisect cc 1 , to give c 2 and draw a line through c 2 parallel to the base

line cutting the curve at e and f, which now represent the centroids of the masses acc 1 and dbd 1 .

b)

The average haul distance is the centroids of the masses acc 1 and dbd 1 .

c)

The overhaul distance = the haul distance the free haul distance

Planimetric method Distance to centroid = haul / volume = (area x horizontal scale x vertical scale) / volume ordinate

from area acc 1 area scaled from mass-haul curve horizontal scale vertical scale

= 0.9375 cm² = 1 cm = 200 cm = 1 cm = 1600 cm³

Therefore

32

haul

=

0.9375 x 200 x 1600 volume (ordinate acc 1 )

= 300 000 = 2750

 

distance to centroid

= 300 000 / 2750 = 109.1 m

chainage of centroid

= 350 109.1

= 240.9 m

for area dbd 1 area scaled

 

= 1.9688 cm²

Therefore

 
 

haul

=

1.9688 x 320 000

= 630 016

 

volume (ordinate dd 1 ) distance to centroid chainage of centroid average haul distance overhaul distance

= 2750 = 229.1 m = 650 + 229.1 = 879.1 -240.9 = 638.2 300

879.1 m

= = 638.2 m = 338.2 m

Therefore

 

overhaul

= 338.2 x 2750

= 9300 station metres

Instead of the above calculations, the overhaul can be obtained direct, as the sum of the two mass-haul curve areas acc 1 and dbd 1 is:

Area acc 1 Area dbd 1 Total area

= (302 950) / 100 station metre = (634 950) / 100 station metre = overhaul = (936 900) / 9369 station

metre Proof :

Take any cutoff by a balancing line, Figure 5.4. Let a small increment of area δ A = (say) 1 m³ and length of haul be L. Then δA = 1 m³ x L / 100 station metre

Therefore

A = n x 1 m³ x ( ∑L / n ) = total volume x average haul distance

Therefore, Area = total haul

33

Activity 3a
Activity 3a

3.1 Below are the definitions used in this unit. Fill in the blank with the appropriate terms.

an increase in volume of earthwork after

excavation

decrease in volume earthwork after deposition and compaction.

a

the distance from the working face of the excavation to the tipping point.

the distance from the centre of gravity of the cutting to that of the filling.

the distance, given in the Bill of quantities, included in the price of excavation per cubic metre.

the extra distance of transport of earthwork volumes beyond the freehaul distance.

the sum of the product od each load by its haul distance. This must equal the total volume of excavation multiplied by the average haul distance, i.e. ∑ vd = VD

the product of volumes by their respective overhaul distance. Excess payment will depend upon overhaul.

a

unit of overhaul, viz. 1 m 3 x 100 m.

the volume of material brought into a section due to a deficiency

the volume of material taken from a section due to excess

of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from
of material brought into a section due to a deficiency the volume of material taken from

34

Feedback 3a
Feedback 3a

3.1).

an increase in volume of earthwork after excavation

a decrease in volume earthwork after deposition and compaction.

the distance from the working face of the excavation to the tipping point.

the distance from the centre of gravity of the cutting to that of the filling.

the distance, given in the Bill of quantities, included in the price of excavation per cubic metre.

the extra distance of transport of earthwork volumes beyond the freehaul distance.

the sum of the product of each load by its haul distance. this must equal the total volume of excavation multiplied by the average haul distance, i.e. ∑ vd = VD

the product of volumes by their respective overhaul distance. excess payment will depend upon overhaul.

a unit of overhaul, viz. 1 m 3 x 100 m.

the volume of material brought into a section due to a deficiency

the volume of material taken from a section due to excess

the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (
the volume of material taken from a section due to excess Bulking Shrinkage Haul Distance (

Bulking

Shrinkage

Haul Distance (d)

Average Haul

Distance

Freehaul Distance

Overhaul Distance

Haul Distance ( d ) Average Haul Distance Freehaul Distance Overhaul Distance Haul Overhaul Station Metre

Haul

Haul Distance ( d ) Average Haul Distance Freehaul Distance Overhaul Distance Haul Overhaul Station Metre

Overhaul

Haul Distance ( d ) Average Haul Distance Freehaul Distance Overhaul Distance Haul Overhaul Station Metre

Station Metre

Haul Distance ( d ) Average Haul Distance Freehaul Distance Overhaul Distance Haul Overhaul Station Metre

Borrow

Haul Distance ( d ) Average Haul Distance Freehaul Distance Overhaul Distance Haul Overhaul Station Metre

Waste

35

Self Assessment
Self Assessment

The table shows the stations and the surface levels along the centre-line, the formation level being at an elevation above datum of 43.5 m at chainage 70 and thence rising uniformly on a gradient of 1.2%. The volumes are recorded in m³, the cuts are plus and fills minus.

Chn

Surface

Vol

Chn

Surface

Vol

Chn

Surface

Vol

Level

Level

Level

70

52.8

74

44.7

78

49.5

 

+1860

-1080

-237

71

57.3

75

39.7

79

54.3

 

+1525

-2025

+362

72

53.4

76

37.5

80

60.9

 

+547

-2110

+724

73

47.1

77

41.5

81

62.1

 

-238

-1120

+430

74

44.7

78

49.5

82

78.5

1) Plot the longitudinal section using a horizontal scale of 1 : 1200 and a vertical scale of 1 : 240.

2) Assuming a correction factor of 0.8 applicable to fills, plot the MHD to a vertical scale of 1000 m 3 to 20 mm.

3) Calculate total haul in stn. m and indicate the haul limits on the curve and section.

4) State which of the following estimates you would recommend.

a) No freehaul at 35 p per m³ for excavating, hauling and filling

b) A freehaul distance of 300 m at 30 p per m³ plus 2 p per stn m for overhaul.

36

Feedback to Self Assessment
Feedback to Self Assessment
36 Feedback to Self Assessment 1) The volume at chainage 70 is zero 2) The mass

1) The volume at chainage 70 is zero 2) The mass ordinates are always plotted at the station and not between them. 3) The mass ordinates are now plotted to the same horizontal scale as the longitudinal section and directly below it. 4) Check that maximum and minimum points on the MHD are directly below grade points on the section. 5) Using the datum line as a balancing line indicates a balancing out of the volumes from chainage 70 to XY and from XY to chainage 82.

Total haul (taking each loop separately) = total volume x total haul distance. The total haul distance is from the centroid of the total cut to that of the total fill and is found by bisecting AB and A’B’, to give the distances CD and C’ D’.

Total haul

=

( AB x CD ) / 100

+

( A’ B’ x C’D’ ) / 100

=

( 3932 x 450 ) / 100 + ( 1516 x 320 ) / 100

=

22 545 stn m

37

a) If there is no freehaul, then all the volume is moved regardless of distance for 35 p per m³.

Estimate costs : ( AB + A’ B’ ) x 35 p = 5448 x 35 = 190 680 p

b) The purpose of plotting the free haul distance on the curve is to assess the overhaul.

From MHD :

 

Cost of freehaul

=

(AB + A’B’) x 30 p per m³

 

=

163 440 p

 

Cost of overhaul

=

[ EG ( JK – EF ) / 100 + E’G’ (J’K’ – E’F’) / 100 ] x

2p

 

=

13 628 p

Total cost

= 163 440

+ 13 628

The second estimate is cheaper by 13 612 p

=

177 068 p

= £136.12

All the dimensions in the above solution are scaled from the MHD

38

CURVES

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In the geometric design of motorways, railways and pipelines, the design and setting out of curves is an important aspect of an engineer’s work. The initial design is usually based on a series of straight sections whose positions are defined largely by the topography of the area. The intersections of pairs of straights are then connected by horizontal curves. In the vertical design, intersecting gradients are connected by curves in the vertical plane. Curves can be listed under three main headings as follows:

1. Circular curve of constant radius

2. Transition curves of varying curves (spirals)

3. Vertical curves.

4.2 CIRCULAR CURVES

Horizontal, circular or simple curves are curves of constant radius required to connect two straights set out on the ground. Such curves are required for roads, railways, kerb lines, pipe lines and may be set out in several ways, depending on their length and radius. Figure 4.1 illustrates how two tangents are joined by a circular curve and shows some related circular curve terminology. The point at which the alignment changes from straight to circular is known as the BC (beginning of curve).The BC is located at a distance T (sub tangent) from PI (Point of tangent intersection).

The length of a circular curve (L) is dependent on the central angle (∆) and the value of R (radius). The tangent deflection angle (∆) is equal to the curve’s central angle (Figure 4.2). The point at which the alignment changes from circular back to tangent is known as the EC (end of curve). Since the curve is symmetrical about the PI, the EC is also located at distance T from the PI. From a study of geometry, we recall that the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent at the point of tangency. Therefore, the radius is perpendicular to the back tangent at the BC and to the forward tangent at the EC. The terms BC and EC are also referred to by some agencies as PC (point of curve) and PT (point of tangency) and by others as TC(tangent to curve) and CT(curve to tangent).

39

39 Figure 4.1 Circular Curve Terminologies (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh) 4.2.1 Circular

Figure 4.1 Circular Curve Terminologies (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

4.2.1 Circular Curve Geometry

Most curve problems are calculated from field measurements (∆ and the chainage of PI) and from design parameters(R). Given R (which is dependent on the design speed) and ∆, all other curve components can be computed. An analysis of Figure 4.2 will show that the curve deflection angle (PI, BC, EC) is ∆/2 and that the central angle at O is equal to ∆, the tangent deflection. The line (O-PI), joining the centre of the curve to the PI, effectively bisects all related lines and angles.

a) Tangent:

In Triangle BC, O, PI,

b) Chord :

In triangle BC, O, B

T

R

T

tan

2

R tan

2

40

c) Mid- ordinate:

d) External:

In triangle BC, O, PI

but

1 C  2  sin R 2  C  2 R sin 2
1
C
2
 sin
R 2
C
 2
R
sin
2
OB
 cos
R 2
OB
 R cos
2
OB = R- M
R - M
R cos
2
 
M
R  1
cos
2

O to PI = R + E

R   cos R  E 2   1   E 
R
 cos
R
E
2
1
E
R
 1
cos
2
 R
sec
 1
2

41

41 Figure 4.2 Geometry Of The Circle. (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh) e) Arc:

Figure 4.2 Geometry Of The Circle. (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

e) Arc:(Figure 4.3)

L

2

L

R

2

360

R

360

where is expressed in degrees and decimals of a degree.

 is expressed in degrees and decimals of a degree. Figure 4.3 Relationship Between The Degree

Figure 4.3 Relationship Between The Degree Of Curve (D) And The Circle. (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

The sharpness of the curves is determined by the choice of the radius R; large

42

radius curves are relatively flat, whereas small radius curves are relatively sharp. D is defined to be that central angle subtended by 100 ft of arc. (in railway designs, D is defined to be that central angle subtended by 100 ft of chord.)

From Figure 4.3, D and R:

D 100

360

D

5729.58

2

R

R

Arc:

L

100

L 100

D

D

f) Deflection angle

R Arc: L   100 L  100 D  D f) Deflection angle Figure

Figure 4.4 Deflection angle. (Source: Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)

In ∆ T 1 AO, curve T 1 A = R x 21 Curve T 1 A = Chord T 1 A

 1 (rad) = Curve T 1 A / 2R = Chord T 1 A

 1 (minutes) = (Curve T 1 A x 180 x 60) / 2R = (1718.9 x chord T 1 A) / R

EXAMPLE 4a
EXAMPLE 4a
T 1 A  1 (minutes) = (Curve T 1 A x 180 x 60) /

43

Refer to Figure 4.5, Given ∆ = 16 ° 38’ R = 1000 ft and PI at 6 + 26.57, calculate the station of the BC and EC. Calculate also lengths C, M and E.

SOLUTION:

T

  146.18 ft

R tan

2

1000 tan8 19'

PI at

6 + 26.57 1 46.18

-T

BC =

4 + 80.39

+L

290.31

EC =

7 + 70.70

L

2

R

360

2

1000

290.31 ft

16.6333

360

Figure 4.5 (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

2   1000   290.31 ft 16.6333 360 Figure 4.5 (Source: Surveying With Construction
2   1000   290.31 ft 16.6333 360 Figure 4.5 (Source: Surveying With Construction

44

C

2

R

sin

 

2

2

1000

sin 8 19'

289.29 ft

M

R

1

 

1000(1

cos

 

2

cos 8 19' )

10.52 ft

E

R

sec

2

1

 

1000(sec 8

19'

1)

10.63 ft

 

4.2.2 Compound Circular Curves

A compound circular curves are curves formed when of two (usually) or more circular arcs between two main tangents turn in the same direction and join at common tangent points. Figure 6.4 shows a compound curve consisting of two circular arcs joined at a point of compound curve (PCC). The lower chainage curve is number 1, whereas the higher chainage curve is number 2.

The parameters are R 1 , R 2 , ∆ 1 , ∆ 2 (∆ 1 + ∆ 2 = ∆), T 1 and T 2 . If four of these six or seven parameters are known, the others can be solved. Under normal circumstances, ∆ 1 , ∆ 2, or ∆, are measured in the field, and R 1 and R 2 are given by design considerations, with minimum values governed by design speed.

Although compound curves can be manipulated to provide practically any vehicle path desired by the designer, they are not employed where simple or spiral curves can be used to achieve the same desired effect. Practically, compound curves are reserved for those applications where design constraints (topographic or cost of land) preclude the use of simple or spiral curves, and they are now usually found chiefly in the design of interchange loops and ramps. Smooth driving characteristics required that the larger radius be more than 1-1/3 times larger than the smaller radius (this ratio increases to 1-1/2 when dealing with interchange curves).

Solutions to compound curve problems vary, as several possibilities exist as to which of the data are known in any one given problem. All problems can be solved by use of the sine law or cosine law or by the omitted measurement traverse technique. If the omitted measurement traverse technique is used, the problem becomes a five-sided traverse (Figure 4.6) with sides R 1 , T 1 , R 2

45

and (R 1 - R 2 ) and with angles 90°, 180° - ∆° + 90°, 180°+ ∆ 2 ° and ∆ 1 °. An assumed azimuth that will simplify the computations can be chosen.

azimuth that will simplify the computations can be chosen. Figure 4.6 Compound Circular Curves (Source: Surveying

Figure 4.6 Compound Circular Curves (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

4.3 Reverse Curves

Reverse curves are seldom used in highway or railway alignment. The instantaneous change in direction occurring at the point reverse curve (PRC) would cause discomfort and safety problems for all but the slowest of speeds. Additionally, since the change in curvature is instantaneous, there is no room to provide super elevation transition from cross-slope right to cross-slope left. However, reverse curves can be used to advantage where the instantaneous change in direction poses no threat to safety or comfort.

The reverse curve is particularly pleasing to the eye and is used with great success on park roads, form paths, waterway channels, and the like. The curve can be encountered in both situations illustrated in Figure 4.7 a. and b. the parallel tangent application is particularly common (R 1 is often equal to R 2 ). As with compound curves, reverse curves have six independent parameters ( R 1 , 1 , T 1, R 2 , ∆ 2 , T 2 ); the solution technique depends on which parameters are unknown, and the techniques noted for compound curves will also provide the solution to reverse curve problems.

46

46 Figure 4.7 Reverse Curves (a-Non parallel curve, b- Parallel tangents) (Source: Surveying With Construction

Figure 4.7 Reverse Curves (a-Non parallel curve, b- Parallel tangents) (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

4.4 Transition Curves

The centrifugal force acting on a vehicle as it moves along a curve increases as the radius of the curve decreases. A vehicle moving from the straight with no centrifugal force acting upon it, into a curve would suddenly receive the maximum amount of centrifugal force for that radius of curve. To prevent this sudden lateral shock on passengers in the vehicle, a transition curve is inserted between the straight circular curve

(Figure 4.8). The transition curve is a curve of constantly changing radius. The radius (R) of transition curves varies from infinity at its tangent with the straight to a minimum at its tangent point with the circular curve. The centrifugal force thus builds up gradually to its maximum amount.

47

S = shift
S = shift

Figure 4.8 The Transition Curves. (Source: Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)

The purpose of a transition curve then is to achieve a gradual change of direction from the straight (radius ∞) to the curve (radius R) and permit the gradual application of super-elevation to counteract centrifugal force.

The central fugal force tending to thrust a vehicle sideways on a curve is resisted by the friction between the wheels and the surface. If the outer edge of the surface is raised or super elevated, the resultant forces tend to reduce the frictional force necessary to hold the vehicle on the surface. At a particular slope the frictional force necessary can be eliminated by the formula below:

v

tan

2

gR

where v is the velocity and g is the acceleration due to gravity. As vehicle speeds vary, the fractional resistance is always necessary and a vehicle may stop on the curve. The super elevation must not be too great.

4.4.1 Spiral Curve and Composite Curve

A spiral is a curve with a uniformly changing radius. Spirals are used in highway and railroad alignment changes from tangent to circular curves, and vice versa. The length of the spiral curve is also used for transition from normally crowned pavement to fully superelevated pavement.

48

Figure 4.9 shows how the spiral curve is inserted between tangent and circular curve alignment. It can be seen that at the beginning of the spiral (T.S. = tangent to spiral) the radius of the spiral is the radius of the tangent line (infinitely large) and that the radius of the spiral curve decreases at a uniform rate until, at the point where the circular curve begins (S.C = spiral to curve) the radius of the spiral equals the radius of the circular curve. The spiral curve, used in horizontal alignment, has a uniform rate of change of radius (curvature). This property permits the driver to leave a tangent section of highway at a relatively high rate of speed without experiencing problems with safety or comfort.

A composite curve is a curve that forms by combination of two transition curves or through combination of two transition curves and a circular curve.

combination of two transition curves and a circular curve. Figure 4.9 Spiral Curves (Source: Surveying With

Figure 4.9 Spiral Curves (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

4.5 Vertical Curves

Vertical curves are used in highway and street vertical alignments to provide a gradual change between two adjacent grade lines. Some highway and municipal agencies introduce vertical curves at every change in grade-line slope, whereas other agencies introduce vertical curves into alignment only when the net change in slope direction exceeds a specific value (for example 1.5% or 2%).

In Figure 4.10, g 1 is the slope of the lower chainage grade line, g 2 is the slope of the higher chainage grade line, BVC is the beginning of the vertical curve, EVC is the end of the vertical line, and PVI is the point of intersection of the two adjacent

49

grade lines. The length of vertical curve (L) is the projection of the curve onto a horizontal surface and, as such, corresponds to plan distances.

The algebraic change in slope direction is A, where A = g 2 g 1 .

Example 4b:

g 1 = +1.5% and g 2 = -3.2%

A

=

g 2 g 1

=

-3.2-1.5

=

-4.7

The geometric curve used in vertical alignment designs is the vertical axis parabola. The parabola has the desirable characteristics of

(1)

a constant rate of change of slope, which contributes to smooth alignment

(2)

transition, ease of computation of vertical offsets, which permits easily computed curve elevations

offsets, which permits easily computed curve elevations Figure 4.10 Vertical Curves (Profile View Shown) (Source:

Figure 4.10 Vertical Curves (Profile View Shown) (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

The origin of the axes is placed at the BVC (Figure 4.11), the general equation becomes y = ax 2 + bx, and because the slope at the origin is g1, the expression for slope of the curve at point becomes

dy

slope

dx

= 2ax + g 1

The general equation can finally be written as y = ax 2 + g 1 x

50

50 Figure 4.11 Types of Vertical Curve (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh) Activity 4a

Figure 4.11 Types of Vertical Curve (Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

Activity 4a
Activity 4a

4.1 Fill in the blanks with related circular curve terminology.

51

B B C J B I B B B G B B B F B
B
B
C
J B
I
B
B
B
G
B
B
B
F
B
H
B
E
A
B
D
B

Figure 1

4.2 Solve the puzzle by using the clues as shown below.

1 5 7 2 6 3 4
1
5
7
2
6
3
4

Horizontal:

1)

The

curve is a curve of constantly changing radius.

2)

curves are used in highway and street vertical alignment to provide a gradual change

3)

between two adjacent grade lines. curves are curves of constant radius required to connect two straights set out on the

4)

ground. Circular curve is also known as

curves.

Vertical:

 

5)

The

curves

can be encountered in both situations which are a non parallel curve and

parallel tangents.

52

6) A curve of two (usually) or more circular arcs between two main tangents turning
6)
A
curve of two (usually) or more circular arcs between two main
tangents turning in the same direction and joining at common tangent points.
7)
A
is a curve with a uniformly changing radius.
Feedback 4a
4.1
a curve with a uniformly changing radius. Feedback 4a 4.1 A – Back tangent B –

A Back tangent

B Point of intersection

C Deflection angle

D Radius

E Mid ordinate

F Long chord

G Sub tangent

H End of Curve

I External

J Length of curve

4.2

Figure 1

53

           

1

T

5

R

A

N

S

I

T

I

O

N

   

7

S

         

E

               
   

P

       

2

V

E

R

T

I

6

C

A

L

 
     

I

         

E

       

O

     

3

C

I

R

C

U

L

A

 

R

       

M

     
   

A

         

S

         

P

     
   

L

         

E

       

O

     
                       

U

     
           

4

H

O

R

I

Z

O

N

T

A

L

                       

D

     

4.6 SETTING OUT CURVES

This is the process of establishing the centre-line of the curve on the ground by means of pegs at 10m to 30m intervals. In order to do this, the tangent and intersection points must be first fixed in the ground in their correct positions.

The straights OI 1 , I 1 I 2 , I 2 I 3 ,etc., will have been designed on the plan in the first instance(Figure 4.12). Using railway curves, appropriate curves will now be designed to connect the straights. The tangent points of these curves will then be fixed making sure that the tangent lengths are equal, i.e. T 1 I 1 = T 2 I 1 and T 3 I 2 = T 4 I 2 . The coordinates of the origin, point O, and all the intersection points will only now be carefully scaled from the plan. Using these coordinates, the bearings of the straights are computed and using the tangent lengths on these bearings, the coordinates of the tangent points are also computed. The difference of the bearings of the straights provides the deflection angles(Δ) of the curves which, combined with the tangent length, enables computation of the curve radius, through chainage and all-setting-out data. Now the tangent and intersection points are set out from existing control survey stations and the curves ranged between them using the methods detailed below.

curves ranged between them using the methods detailed below. Figure 4.12 Curve Setting Out (Source: Engineering

Figure 4.12 Curve Setting Out (Source: Engineering Surveying, W.Schofield)

54

4.6.1 Setting Out By Offsets With Tangent Angle Method

The following methods of setting out curves is the most popular and it is called Rankine’s deflection or tangential angle method, the latter term being more definitive.

In figure 4.13, the curve is established by a series of chords T 1 X, XY, etc. Thus, peg 1 at X is fixed by sighting to I with the theodolite reading zero, turning off the angle 1 and measuring out the chord length T 1 X along this line. Setting the instrument to read the second deflection angle gives the direction T 1 Y, and peg 2 is fixed by measuring the chord length XY from until it intersects at Y. The procedure is now continued, the angles being set out from T 1 I and the chords measured from the previous station. It is thus necessary to be able to calculate the setting out angles as follows:

Assume OA bisects the chord T 1 X at right-angles, then

Angle AT 1 O =90°- 1 , but angle IT 1 =90°

angle IT 1 A= 1

By radians arc length T 1 X= R21

 1 rad = (arc T 1 X /2R) (Chord T 1 X / 2R)

 1 min = (chord T 1 X x 180º x 60) /2Rπ

= 1718.9(Chord / R)

or º = (Dº x Chord ) / 200 where degree of curve is used.

Example 4c:

x Chord ) / 200 where degree of curve is used. Example 4c: Figure 4.13 Tangent

Figure 4.13 Tangent Angle Method (Source: Engineering Surveying, W.Schofield)

The centre-line of two straights is projected forward to meet at I, the deflection angle being 30°. If the straights are to be connected by a circular curve of radius 200 m, tabulate all the setting-out data, assuming 20-m chords on a through chainage basis, the chainage of I being 2259.59 m.

Solution:

55

Tangent length = R tan Δ/2 = 200 tan 15° = 53.59 m

Chainage of T 1 = 2255.59 - 53.59 = 2206 m

1st sub-chord = 14 m

Length of circular arc = RΔ = 200(30°) rad = 104.72 m From which the number of chords may now be deduced

1st sub-chord = 14 m

2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th chords = 20 m each

Final sub-chord

= 10.72 m = 104.72 m {Check}

Total

Chainage of T 2 ; = 2206 m + 104.72 m = 2310.72 m

Deflection angles:

For 1st sub-chord = 1718.9 (14/200) = 120.3 min = 2° 00' 19"

Standard chord

= 1718.9 (20/200) = 171.9 min = 2° 51' 53"

Final sub-chord

= 1718.9 (10.72 /200) = 92.1 min = 1° 32' 08"

Check: The sum of the deflection angles = Δ/2 = 14° 59' 59" 15°

Chord

Chord

Chainage

(m)

Deflection

angle o , „

Setting-

out angle

Remarks

number

length (m)

o , „

1

14

2220.00

2

00 19

2

00 19

peg 1

2

20

2240.00

2

51 53

4

52 12

peg 2

3

20

2260.00

2

51 53

7

44 05

peg 3

4

20

2280.00

2

51 53

10

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