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Properties of Water And The First Law of Thermodynamics In Closed and Open Systems

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1.Pre-lab

1. The purpose of the U-trap is to prevent condensate escaping from the graduated cylinder as

steam. We want to measure the steam condensed during the timed test.

2. Q out is the fugitive heat energy lost from the boiler during each ten-minute test period. Rate

Q out is the average rate at which fugitive heat leaves the boiler.

3.

Q

out open

,

Q

in

m h

(

g

u

f

)

dE

dt

Q

cv

W

cv

m h

(

1

h

2

( )

m u

 

Q

f in

Q

out

m h

(

g

)

)

Q

out

m h

( )

f

Q

in

m h

(

g

u

f

)

Q

 

in

Q

out

m h

(

f

Steady state =>

Q out

Q out

Q

in

Q

in

m h

(

f

(

h

g

(

u

h

f

)

g

pv

))

h

g

)

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2. Introduction:

The main objective of this lab is to explore the properties of the water and the first law of thermodynamics in both closed and open systems. The first part is to measure the T-p saturation curve of water with and without air trapped in a boiler. Second I have to determine the heat lost from the boilers wall to surrounding air, as a function of boiler temperature, while the boiler is operating at steady state closed system. Finding the same loss but now operating at steady state open system using the mass of condensate which leaves the control volume. Finally to verify the first law comparing the fugitive losses when the system is closed and when it is open.

3. Theory:

There are two fundamental things underlying this experiment: first law of thermodynamics and T-p diagrams in particular the saturation curves for water.

∆KE+ ∆PE+ ∆U= Q- W

(1)

∆KE, ∆PE, W are equal to zero for that specific experiment. So fugitive losses for closed system will depend only on the electrical power put into the system multiplied by the heater’s ON time:

Q out,closed = Q in = E rms I rms t

(2)

E rms is the value of heater’s voltage in [V] I rms is the value of heater’s current in [A] ∆t is the time when the heater is ON in [s]

The average rate at which heat leaves the system during the ten minute test period is given by the equation:

Average Rate Q out,system =Q out,closed /600

(3)

Where Q out,close is the same from equation (2)

Similarly based on the first law of thermodynamics the heat lost from the boiler to the surroundings for the open system is. Also I am assuming that the boiler is a control volume.

Q out,open = Q in - m(h g - u f ) = E rms I rms t -m(h g - u f )

(4)

Where Qin is calculated the same way as in equation (2), and the extra term accounts for the energy lost by means of mass transfer across the open system. ∆m is the total mass of the condensate which leaves the control volume, h g is the specific enthalpy of the saturated water vapor, and u f is the specific internal energy of the saturated liquid water. The average rate at which heat leaves the system is:

Average Rate Q out,system = Q out,system /600 (5)

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The saturated p-T curves will be used to compare the actual tabulated data with the numbers collected in the experiment.

4. Procedure:

Closed system:

First we used both heaters to heat the boiler to temperature of 110 o C. Then we had to keep the temperature as close to constant by turning on and off one of the heaters. Keeping the temperature constant at 100 o C (±0.4) for ten minutes (the cumulative heater ON time). When the heater was on we recorded the heater voltage, current, the gage pressure in the voltage. When the ten minutes were up we recorded the total ON time of the heater. Finally release the air trapped in the boiler by opening the stop valve and the throttling calorimeter valve, until all air is purged. We repeated this procedure one more time for 110 o C and for 115 o C.

Open system:

We used our last try to perform the open system measurements. We placed a graduated cylinder under the end of the condensate so that a U-trap is formed. Then we opened the cooling water valve. Keeping the temperature constant as it was in the last part (115 o C) using one of the heaters. During this process the throttling calorimeter valve was open. Keeping the temperature constant, and when the heater is on we recorded heater’s voltage, current and also the boiler pressure. Then we measured the amount of condensate collected in the graduated cylinder during the ten-minute period. In the end we recorded again the total time when the heater was on.

5. Data and Analysis:

1. The data collected during the lab for different pressures at different temperatures is shown

in table 1. Note that the pressure was converted from gage to absolute and also from psi to kPa. The reason for the second conversion is that the temperature obtained was in Celsius. Table 2 consist with the tabulated values from the book (table A-2). In graph one there are 4 series of data. The data collected during my lab separated for closed system with air and closed system without air, and all other data collected during the other labs again separated for closed system with air and closed system without air.

2. The values for fugitive heat lost from the boiler to the surroundings during each ten minute

test period can be found in table 1. The average rate of heat lost is in the same table. They were calculated using equations (2) and (3) respectively.

3. In order to calculate the fugitive heat lost from the boiler to the surroundings during each

ten minute test for the open system I used equations (4) and (5). The values can be found in table 3. To find h g and u f I used table A-3 from the book, where I knew the temperature. For part of the calculations I needed to interpolate between the rows. The formulas I used and calculations I made are attached in the Appendix.

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4. Graph 2 in the Appendix shows a plot of the average rate of heat transfer to the

surroundings as a function of the boiler temperature. Different symbols were used to distinguish between the results from my group, the results from all other groups, and also when the system is closed or open.

6. Questions:

1. For the closed system, the p-T graph is shown in graph 1. Experimental results are really

close to the accepted values from the saturation table. The data collected follows the pattern of the curve described by the accepted values. The error is really small: around 3%. The only

values which do not match the accepted ones are when the boiler has air inside.

2. The experimental results obtained tell us that is always important to allow 3-5% uncertainty

when using values from tables for real life applications.

3. The air trapped in the boiler prevented us to take good approximations in first place. The

reason for that is that when we have non-condensable gases such as air trapped inside of a heat transfer device, such as boiler, that air prevents heat transfer to occur. And as our data shows only the pressure is increasing while the temperature is staying constant. Therefore I can conclude thatt it is really important to remove all non-condensable gases such as air from the boiler in this case, or in general from all other heat transfer devices if one wants to make use of values for pressure and other properties that come from tables( e.g. table A-3 from the book).

4. As shown in graph 2, the obtained values for fugitive heat transfer from the system to the

surroundings fluctuated as temperature increases. Overall they seem to be slightly increasing

with temperature.

5. In general graph 2 shows that the results for the closed system are increasing with

temperature. The results for the open system, however, seems to be everywhere but within the same range of the system. If we ignore u f equation (5) will become:

Q out,open = Q in - m(h g )

(6)

The results from this equation are in the last two columns in table 3. If we plotted this values it will be clear that it still follow a pattern but now are vertically displaced much lower than the results for the closed system.

7. Discussion:

The behavior of absolute pressure as a function of temperature is plotted on graph 1 in the appendix. In the very left of the graph there are different pressure values align vertically and are significantly off the values given from the saturation table. This discrepancy is due to

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the fact that this values were collected when there was air into the boiler. This effect is very important and tells us to always get rid of the air into such systems if we want to use steam charts such as the one in the book. All other values were very close to the accepted ones. The average error is around 3% which tells me that we performed the experiment really well. Graph 2 is a plot of average rate of fugitive heat from the system to the surroundings as a function of temperatures analyzed in the lab. The graph shows agreement between the values obtained from the closed system and the open system, in accordance to the first law. Overall the data shows that they follow a similar patter, and between 130 o C and 150 o C they almost match. If we take out the internal energy from equation (4) it will not be so close as I discussed already in question 5. This shows that the first law is valid for both open and closed systems. For closed system the heat transfer to the surrounding is given by the electric power coming in to the systems through the heaters. For the open system steam is allowed to escape the system and carry some energy with it. As a result approximately the same amount of heat flows out of the system at specific temperature.

8. Conclusion:

In this lab, thermodynamics properties of water and applications of first law of thermodynamics were explored. The experiment consists of measuring voltage, currant pressure and heater’s time ON at different temperatures for two kind of systems closed and open. Through theoretically derived equations the collected data was used to calculate heat transfer between the systems and the surrounding. Two different kind of plots were analyzed absolute pressure as a function of temperature and rate of heat transfer as a function of temperature. As discussed in the discussion section the results found were very close to what It was expected in general. Some of the obtained values were a lot different but there is always a possibility of human error in such experiment. In general the lab can be considered successful.

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Appendix

Formulas needed for table 1:

 

P abs = P gage +P atm

 

P atm

psi

14.696

Conv. Fact

1psi to kPa

6.8948

Q out,closed = E rms *I rms *∆t = V*I*∆t

 

rate Q out,closed =Q out,closed /600

 

Table 1:

                     

Ave rate

T

V

I

P

P

abs

P

abs

Δm

Q

out,closed

Q

out,closed

[°C]

[Volt]

[A]

[psi]

[psi]

[kPa]

Δt [s]

[g]

[KW]

[kw/s]

Group

Closed system with

                   

1

air

110

208.10

10.3

20.0

34.7

239.2

187.1

---

 

401.1

 

0.67

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

207.90

10.3

7.4

22.1

152.3

208.9

---

 

447.4

 

0.75

 

Closed system

                   

without air

115

208.90

10.3

11.4

26.1

179.9

202.9

---

 

436.5

 

0.73

 

Open system without air

115

208.60

10.3

11.2

25.9

178.5

---

421.0

   

Group

Closed system with

                   

2

air

110

208.10

10.3

20.0

34.7

239.2

187.1

---

 

401.1

 

0.67

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

208.70

10.3

7.8

22.5

155.1

164.5

---

 

353.6

 

0.59

 

Closed system

                   

without air

120

206.90

10.2

15.2

29.9

206.1

210.9

---

 

445.1

 

0.74

 

Open system without air

120

207.00

10.2

15.0

29.7

204.7

---

423.0

   

Group

Closed system with

                   

3

air

110

209.30

10.3

19.0

33.7

232.3

184.7

---

 

398.1

 

0.66

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

210.30

10.4

8.0

22.7

156.5

200.5

---

 

438.4

 

0.73

 

Closed system

                   

without air

125

209.20

10.3

21.0

35.7

246.1

214.2

---

 

461.6

 

0.77

 

Open system without air

125

209.20

10.4

20.8

35.5

244.7

---

422.0

   

Group

Closed system with

                   

4

air

110

210.10

10.4

13.0

27.7

191.0

228.0

---

 

498.2

 

0.83

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

210.00

10.3

7.6

22.3

153.7

185.2

---

 

400.5

 

0.67

 

Closed system

                   

without air

130

209.10

10.3

26.0

40.7

280.6

224.4

---

 

483.4

 

0.81

 

Open system without air

130

208.90

10.3

25.2

39.9

275.1

---

392.0

   

8

Group

Closed system with

                   

5

air

110

206.70

10.3

13.0

27.7

191.0

260.8

---

555.2

0.93

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

208.50

10.3

7.3

22.0

151.7

203.4

---

436.8

0.73

 

Closed system

                   

without air

135

208.80

10.3

32.0

46.7

322.0

224.6

---

482.9

0.80

 

Open system without air

135

209.00

10.3

32.0

46.7

322.0

---

355.0

   

Group

Closed system with

                   

6

air

110

206.70

10.3

13.0

27.7

191.0

260.8

---

555.2

0.93

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

209.30

10.3

7.1

21.8

150.3

192.4

---

414.8

0.69

 

Closed system

                   

without air

140

209.10

10.3

39.4

54.1

373.0

268.4

---

578.0

0.96

 

Open system without air

140

209.50

10.3

39.0

53.7

370.2

---

379.0

   

Group

Closed system with

                   

7

air

110

210.30

10.4

9.2

23.9

164.8

212.1

---

463.8

0.77

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

209.10

10.3

7.5

22.2

153.0

145.2

---

312.8

0.52

 

Closed system

                   

without air

142

211.30

10.4

44.9

59.6

410.9

215.3

---

473.1

0.79

 

Open system without air

142

209.10

10.3

41.0

55.7

384.0

---

395.0

   

Group

Closed system with

                   

8

air

110

209.30

10.3

13.4

28.1

193.7

155.7

---

335.6

0.56

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

208.30

10.3

7.4

22.1

152.3

174.8

---

375.1

0.63

 

Closed system

                   

without air

144

208.00

10.2

46.9

61.6

424.7

260.3

---

552.3

0.92

 

Open system without air

144

209.30

10.3

45.0

59.7

411.6

---

364.5

   

Group

Closed system with

                   

9

air

110

209.30

10.3

13.4

28.1

193.7

155.7

---

335.6

0.56

 

Closed system

                   

without air

110

207.90

10.3

7.2

21.9

151.0

162.6

---

348.1

0.58

 

Closed system

                   

without air

146

209.20

10.3

49.2

63.9

440.5

245.5

---

528.9

0.88

 

Open system without air

146

209.10

10.3

48.5

63.2

435.7

---

385.0

   

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Table 2:

Data from

saturation table

A-2

T [ o C]

P [kPa]

110

143.3

120

198.5

130

270.1

140

361.3

150

475.8

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Graph 1:

Boiler pressure vs Boiler temperature Closed system test

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 100 110 120 130 140 150
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
Absolute Pressure [kPa]

Temperature [ o C]

150 160 Absolute Pressure [kPa] Temperature [ o C] Saturation table Group 1 with air Group

Saturation table

Group 1 with airPressure [kPa] Temperature [ o C] Saturation table Group 1 without air All Groups with air

Group 1 without airPressure [kPa] Temperature [ o C] Saturation table Group 1 with air All Groups with air

All Groups with airPressure [kPa] Temperature [ o C] Saturation table Group 1 with air Group 1 without air

All Groups without airAbsolute Pressure [kPa] Temperature [ o C] Saturation table Group 1 with air Group 1 without

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Table 3:

This table is only for open system. The formulas used are written in the theory part. Calculating h g and u f from saturation table A-2 * for some of the temperatures I will need to interpolate, so I will use this

formula:

a

d

b

unknown

c

e

 

unknown

e

d unkown d

c

a

b a

                 

Ave

 

Ave rate

rate

Q

out,open

Q

out,open

h

g

∆m

∆t

V

Q

in

Q

out,open

Q

out,open

without

without u f

T [ o C]

[kJ/kg]

u

f [kJ/kg]

[kg]

[s]

[Volt]

I [A]

[kW]

[kW]

[kW/s]

u

f [kW]

[kW/s]

115

 

2698.9

 

482.32

0.421

600

208.60

10.3

 

1289.1

355.97

 

0.593

152.91

 

0.255

120

 

2706.3

 

503.5

0.423

600

207.00

10.2

 

1266.8

335.06

 

0.558

122.08

 

0.203

125

 

2713.4

 

524.76

0.422

600

209.20

10.4

 

1305.4

381.80

 

0.636

160.35

 

0.267

130

 

2720.5

 

546.02

0.392

600

208.90

10.3

 

1291.0

438.61

 

0.731

224.57

 

0.374

135

 

2727.2

 

567.38

0.355

600

209.00

10.3

 

1291.6

524.88

 

0.875

323.46

 

0.539

140

 

2733.9

 

588.74

0.379

600

209.50

10.3

 

1294.7

481.69

 

0.803

258.56

 

0.431

142

 

2736.4

 

597.33

0.395

600

209.10

10.3

 

1292.2

447.31

 

0.746

211.36

 

0.352

144

 

2738.9

 

605.92

0.364

600

209.30

10.3

 

1293.5

516.00

 

0.860

295.14

 

0.492

146

 

2741.4

 

614.51

0.385

600

209.10

10.3

 

1292.2

473.39

 

0.789

236.80

 

0.395

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Graph 2:

rate Q out,closed [kW/s]

Average Rate Q out vs Temperature for both Closed and Open System

0.95

0.95  
 
 
 
 

0.85

0.85
0.85
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

0.75

0.75
0.75
0.95     0.85     0.75   0.65 0.55 0.45
0.95     0.85     0.75   0.65 0.55 0.45
0.95     0.85     0.75   0.65 0.55 0.45
 
 
 
 
0.95     0.85     0.75   0.65 0.55 0.45

0.65

0.65
0.95     0.85     0.75   0.65 0.55 0.45
0.95     0.85     0.75   0.65 0.55 0.45

0.55

0.55
0.55
0.55

0.45

0.45

100

110

120

130

Temperature [ o C]

140

150

Group 1 rate Qout,closed0.55 0.45 100 110 120 130 Temperature [ o C] 140 150 Group 1 rate Qout,open

Group 1 rate Qout,open110 120 130 Temperature [ o C] 140 150 Group 1 rate Qout,closed All Groups rate

All Groups rate Qout,open100 110 120 130 Temperature [ o C] 140 150 Group 1 rate Qout,closed Group 1

All Groups rate Qout,closed100 110 120 130 Temperature [ o C] 140 150 Group 1 rate Qout,closed Group 1

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