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Chapter 3

Mass Balance

Review Questions
Which of the following statements are true and which are false? 1. The mass balance is based on the law of conservation of mass. 2. Mass balance may refer to total mass balance or component mass balance. 3. Control volume is a region in space surrounded by a control surface through which the fluid flows. 4. Only streams that cross the control surface take part in the mass balance. 5. At steady state, mass is accumulated in the control volume. 6. In a component mass balance, the component generation term has the same sign as the output streams. 7. It is helpful to write a mass balance on a component that goes through the process without any change. 8. Generation or depletion terms are included in a component mass balance if the component undergoes chemical reaction. 9. The degrees of freedom of a system is equal to the difference between the number of unknown variables and the number of independent equations. 10. In a properly specified problem of mass balance, the degrees of freedom must not be equal to zero.

Examples
Example 3.1 How much dry sugar must be added in 100 kg of aqueous sugar solution in order to increase its concentration from 20% to 50%?

S. Yanniotis, Solving Problems in Food Engineering. Springer 2008

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Solution Step 1 Draw the process diagram:


100% 100 kg 20%

S2 S3 50%

S1

MIXING

Step 2 State your assumptions:


l

dry sugar is composed of 100% sugar.

Step 3 Write the total and component mass balances in the envelope around the process: i) Overall mass balance 100 S2 S3 ii) Soluble solids mass balance 0:20 100 S2 0:50 S3 (3:2) (3:1)

Solving eqns (3.1) and (3.2) simultaneously, find S2=60 kg and S3=160 kg. Therefore 60 kg of dry sugar per 100 kg of feed must be added to increase its concentration from 20% to 50%.

Example 3.2 Fresh orange juice with 12% soluble solids content is concentrated to 60% in a multiple effect evaporator. To improve the quality of the final product the concentrated juice is mixed with an amount of fresh juice (cut back) so that the concentration of the mixture is 42%. Calculate how much water per hour must be evaporated in the evaporator, how much fresh juice per hour must be added back and how much final product will be produced if the inlet feed flow rate is 10000 kg/h fresh juice. Assume steady state.

Examples

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Solution Step 1 Draw the process diagram:


W 10000 kg/h 12% EVAPORATION I X 60% MIXING II Y 42%

12% F

Step 2 Write the total and component mass balances in envelopes I and II: i) Overall mass balance in envelope I 10000 W X ii) Soluble solids mass balance in envelope I 0:12 10000 0:60 X iii) Overall mass balance in envelope II XFY iv) Soluble solids mass balance in envelope II 0:60 X 0:12 F 0:42 Y (3:6) (3:5) (3:4) (3:3)

From eqn (3.4) find X=2000 kg/h. Substituting X in eqn (3.3) and find W=8000 kg/h. Solve eqns (iii) and (iv) simultaneously and Substitute X in eqn (3.3) and find=1200 kg/h and Y=3200 kg/h. Therefore 8000 kg/h of water will be evaporated, 1200 kg/h of fresh juice will be added back and 3200 kg/h of concentrated orange juice with 42% soluble solids will be produced.

Exercise 3.3 1000 kg/h of a fruit juice with 10% solids is freeze-concentrated to 40% solids. The dilute juice is fed to a freezer where the ice crystals are formed

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and then the slush is separated in a centrifugal separator into ice crystals and concentrated juice. An amount of 500 kg/h of liquid is recycled from the separator to the freezer. Calculate the amount of ice that is removed in the separator and the amount of concentrated juice produced. Assume steady state. Solution Step 1 Draw the process diagram:

Ice I 1000 kg/h 10% FREEZING SEPARATION J 40%

Step 2 Write the total and component mass balances in the envelope around the process: i) Overall mass balance 1000 I J ii) Soluble solids mass balance 0:10 1000 0:40 J (3:8) (3:7)

From eqn (3.8) find J=250 kg/h and then from eqn (3.7) find I=750 kg/h. Comment: Notice that the recycle stream does not affect the result. Only the streams that cut the envelope take part in the mass balance.

Exercises
Exercise 3.1 How many kg/h of sugar syrup with 10% sugar must be fed to an evaporator to produce 10000 kg/h of sugar syrup with 65% sugar?

Exercises

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Solution Step 1 Draw the process diagram:

W X 10% 10000 kg/h


EVAPORATION

65%

Step 2 State your assumptions: .......................................................................................................................... Step 3 Write the mass balance for sugar on the envelope around the process: 0:10 X :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Step 4 Solve the above equation and find X= ............................................................. .. kg/h

Exercise 3.2 How much water must be added to 200 kg of concentrated orange juice with 65% solids to produce orange juice with 12% solids Solution Step 1 Draw the process diagram:
Water W 200 kg 65%

MIXING

12%

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Step 2 Write the mass balance for solids on the envelope around the process: .............................................................................. Solve the above equation and find J=........................................ kg

Exercise 3.3 Milk with 3.8% fat and 8.1% fat-free solids (FFS) is used for the production of canned concentrated milk. The process includes separation of the cream in a centrifuge and concentration of the partially defatted milk in an evaporator. If the cream that is produced in the centrifuge contains 55% water, 40% fat, and 5% fat-free solids, calculate how much milk is necessary in order to produce a can of concentrated milk that contains 410 g milk with 7.8% fat and 18.1% fat-free solids. How much cream and how much water must be removed in the centrifuge and the evaporator respectively? Assume steady state. Solution Step 1 Draw the process diagram:
Cream C 55% W 40% F 5% FFS X FFS 8.1% Fat 3.8% Water W

CENTRIFUGATION

EVAPORATION

410 g FFS 18.1% Fat 7.8%

Step 2 Write the total and component mass balances in the envelope around the process: i) Overall mass balance :::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::: W :::::::::::::::::::::: ii) Fat-free solids mass balance :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 0:05 C :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: (3:10) (3:9)

Exercises

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iii) Fat mass balance 0:038 X ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: (3:11)

Solve eqns (3.9), (3.10) and (3.11) simultaneously and find X=.................. g, C= ............................... g and W= ............................... g. Exercise 3.4 According to some indications, crystallization of honey is avoided if the ratio of glucose to water is equal to 1.70. Given the composition of two honeys, find the proportions in which they have to be mixed so that the ratio of glucose to water in the blend is 1.7. What will be the composition of the blend? Honey H1: glucose 35%, fructose 33%, sucrose 6%, water 16%. Honey H2: glucose 27%, fructose 37%, sucrose 7%, water 19%. Solution Step 1 Draw the process diagram:
Glucose 27% Fructose 37% Sucrose 7% Water 19% Hb

H2

H1 Glucose 35% Fructose 33% Sucrose 6% Water 16%

MIXING

Step 2 Select 1000 kg of blend as a basis for calculation (Hb=1000 kg). Step 3 Write the total and component mass balances in the envelope around the process: i) Overall mass balance :::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ii) Glucose mass balance :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: (3:13) (3:12)

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iii) Fructose mass balance :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iv) Sucrose mass balance :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: v) Water mass balance :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: vi) Ratio of glucose to water in the blend G=W 1:70 Solve eqns (3.12) to (3.17) simultaneously and find: H1 .............................................................. kg H2 .............................................................. kg H1/H2 ............................................................ The composition of the blend will be: glucose .......................................................... fructose ......................................................... sucrose .......................................................... water ............................................................. Exercise 3.5 How much glucose syrup with 20% concentration has to be mixed with 100 kg glucose syrup with 40% concentration so that the mixture will have 36% glucose? Exercise 3.6 How many kg of saturated sugar solution at 70 8C can be prepared from 100 kg of sucrose? If the solution is cooled from 70 8C to 20 8C, how many kg of sugar will be crystallized? Assume that the solubility of sucrose as a function of temperature (in 8C) is given by the equation: % sucrose 63.2 0.146T 0.0006T2. (3:17) (3:16) (3:15) (3:14)

Exercises

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Exercise 3.7 Find the ratio of milk with 3.8% fat to milk with 0.5% fat that have to be mixed in order to produce a blend with 3.5% fat. Exercise 3.8 For the production of marmalade, the fruits are mixed with sugar and pectin and the mixture is boiled to about 65% solids concentration. Find the amount of fruits, sugar, and pectin that must be used for the production of 1000 kg marmalade, if the solids content of the fruits is 10%, the ratio of sugar to fruit in the recipe is 56:44, and the ratio of sugar to pectin is 100. Exercise 3.9 For the production of olive oil, the olives are washed, crushed, malaxated, and separated into oil, water. and solids by centrifugation as in the following flow chart. Find the flow rate in the exit streams given that: a) the composition of the olives is 20% oil, 35% water, and 45% solids; b) the composition of the discharged solids stream in the decanter is 50% solids and 50% water; c) 90% of the oil is taken out in the first disc centrifuge; and d) the ratio of olives to water added in the decanter is equal to 1.
water olives
WASHER

2000 kg/h

HAMMER MILL

MALAXATOR

DECANTER

solids S

DISC CENTRIFUGE

DISC CENTRIFUGE

W water

O2 oil

O1 oil