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Belated Development of Philippine Nationalism Nationalism devotion to or advocacy of national unity and independence.

. Cause: Geography is mountainous and composed of islands that limited social contact and communication. Passport requirement is implemented for traveling province to province. Linguistic differences and absence of common language have contributed. Filipino Nationalism: Contributory Factors A. Opening of the Philippines to International trade The opening of several ports in the Philippines between 1834 and 1873 stimulated the commercial cultivation of certain export crops for the world market. Mestizos became the middle class (land owners; merchant; compradores) Masses the prosperity was not felt by these people Suez Canal liberal Europeans visited the Philippines B. Rise of the Middle Class The middle class was able to go to local prestigious schools. They were labeled by the Spaniards as bestias cargadas de oro (beasts loaded with gold). They began to resent the governments policy of awarding colonial appointments only to full-blooded Spaniards, more particularly those who are born in Spain. Nationalist feeling grew rapidly among the educated Filipinos. C. Impact of European Liberalism (international ferment; humanitarianism; cosmopolitanism) Enlightenment Philosophers: John Locke and Jean Jacques Rouseau The French Revolution provided one of the intellectual bases of Filipino nationalism The upper class held monopoly of political and administrative powers. Church owned big lands, controlled education and commerce, exercises excessive power throughout the empire and sometimes directed allinternal political administration. The masses continue tobear the crushing burden of taxation etc. The Ilustrados formed the vanguard of the Propaganda Movement. D. Racial Prejudice We were called as an inferior race by the Spaniards. They addressed as indios. They dont want the secular priests to take over parishes.