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Types of Biofertilizers To answer to the food demand, all farmers try to maximize the crops they can cultivate

on their land. For decades,farmers have used fertilizers to increase their crop yields. With the green revolution, more environmentally friendly but still effective biofertilizers have been introduces and they are widely used all over the world, especially in areas where the usage of synthetic fertilizers has ruined the natural nutrient levels of the soil Biofertilizers are a way to increase crop production by naturally optimizing the nitrogen and phosphorus levels of the soil and by enriching the compost waste used as a natural fertilizer. What Are Biofertilizers : Biofertilizers are live formulates of microorganisms that are ready to be used and improve the quality and the health of the soil and the plant species by increasing the nutrient availability for the soil, seeds and roots. Biofertilizers naturally activate the microorganisms found in the soil restoring the soil's natural fertility and protecting it against drought and soil diseases and therefore stimulate plant growth. Benefits Synthetic fertilizers are made from nonrenewable fossil fuel resources, create nutrient imbalance in the soil and are often used in excessive amounts. Soils and plants are becoming dependent on the synthetic fertilizers, which increases their negative effects. Biofertilizers are a natural way to get the benefits of synthetic fertilizers without risking the quality of soil health and crop products. Using biofertilizers can increase the crop yield by 20 or 30 percent. In addition, biofertilizers are cost effective when compared to synthetic fertilizers. Nitrogen Biofertilizers: Nitrogen biofertilizers help to correct the nitrogen levels of the soil. Nitrogen is a limiting factor for plant growth because plants need a certain amount of nitrogen in the soil to thrive. Different biofertilizers have the optimum effect for different soils, so the cultivated crop determines what type of nitrogen biofertilizer should be used. Use Rhizobium for legume crops, Azotobacter or Azospirillum for non-legume crops, Acetobacter for sugarcane and blue-green algae and Azolla for low land paddies used to grow rice. Phosphorus Biofertilizers Just like nitrogen, phosphorus is also a limiting factor for plant growth. Phosphorus biofertilizers help the soil to reach its optimum level of phosphorus and correct the phosphorus levels of the soil. Unlike nitrogen biofertilizers, the usage of phosphorus biofertilizers is not dependent on the crops cultivated on the soil. You can use Phosphatika for all crops with Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Acetobacter. Compost Biofertilizers You can also use biofertilizers to enrich your compost and the bacterial processes breaking down the compost waste. Suitable biofertilizers for compost use are Cellulolytic fungal culture and Phosphotika and Azotobacter cultures.

Types of Biopesticides Biopesticides, or biological pesticides, are pest control agents obtained from natural substances, such as plants,minerals and bacteria. One advantage of using biopesticides over conventional pesticides is that they can be less toxic.The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the registration of all biopesticides and reviews these for any potential adverse effects on the environment or people. *The Facts Whether derived from plants that are living organisms or substances like minerals, biopesticides can play an important role in protecting agriculture from certain unwanted pests. The active ingredients in these biological pesticides can also include the use of microbial organisms, genetic material or pheromones. According to the EPA, there were roughly 195 of these active ingredients registered by the end of 2001. Biopesticides function in a variety of ways to suppress pests. The three main types ofbiopesticides are plant-incorporated-protectants, biochemical and microbial pesticides. Microbial Pesticides Microbial pesticides contain active ingredients of specific types of microorganisms, such as a fungus,bacterium or protozoan. Each active ingredient can be utilized to target a specific type of pest. For example, some fungi can suppress certain weeds, while certain types of bacteria can control different species of insect larvae, such as mosquitoes, moths or flies. The most commonly utilized microbial pesticides come from strains of the bacteria called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The bacteria strains manufacture different protein mixes that can target specific insect larvae and will not affect other organisms. Biochemical Pesticides Biochemical pesticides use natural substances like insect sex pheromones, which can disrupt mating,thus controlling the insect population. Other types of biochemical pesticides can include the use of hormones, enzymes and scented plant extracts to attract and trap certain pests. These are good alternatives to conventional pesticides because often the latter contain synthetic toxic material to destroy insects. Plant-Incorporated-Protectants By introducing genetic material into plants, scientists can make plants produce pesticidal substances which can target and kill specific pests. In some cases, the addition of a gene with a particular Bt protein can produce these plant incorporated protectants, or plant pesticides. In theses cases, EPA regulations apply only to the protein, genetic substance and not the plant. Benefits and Advantages One of the main advantages of biopesticides is that they are less toxic and cause less harm than synthetic or chemical pesticides. Likewise, since biopesticides only target specific insects and pests, they will not affect other insects or animals. They may also be safer for humans and the environment. In addition, the use of small quantities of biological pesticides can be very effective and cause little residue problems. However, for the effective use of biological pesticides, it is important to have extensive knowledge about pest management.