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Func iile trigonometrice inverse

Funciile sin :
]
]
]

2
,
2
[ ] 1 , 1 ; cos : [ ] , 0 [ ] 1 , 1 ;
tg:
,
`

.
|

2
,
2
R ; ctg : ( ) , 0 R sunt bijective i deci
inversabile. Inversele acestor funcii sunt respectiv
arcsin : [ ] 1 , 1
]
]
]

2
,
2
; arccos : [ ] 1 , 1 [ ] , 0 ;
arctg : R
,
`

.
|

2
,
2
; arctg : R ( ) , 0 .
Tabel cu principalele valori ale funciilor trigonometrice inverse
t -1
3
2

2
2

1
2
0
1
2
2
2
3
2
1
arcsin t
2

0
6

arccos t
6
5
4
3
3
2
2

0
t 3 1
3
3
0
3
3
1 3
arctg t
3

0
6

arcctg t
6
5
4
3
3
2
2

Formule
1) sin (arcsin x) = x , x
[ ] 1 , 1
arcsin ( sin x) = x , x
]
]
]

,
2

cos ( arccos x ) = x , x
[ ] 1 , 1
arccos ( cos x ) = x , x
[ ] 0,
tg ( arctg x ) = x , x R arctg ( tg x ) = x , x

,
`

.
|

,
2

ctg ( arcctg x ) = x , x R arcctg ( ctg x ) = x , x


( ) 0,
2) arcsin ( x ) = arcsin x , x
[ ] 1 , 1
arctg ( x ) = arctg x , x R
arccos ( x ) = arccos x , x
[ ] 1 , 1
arcctg ( x ) = arcctg x , x R
3) sin ( arccos x ) =
2
x 1
, x [ ] 1 , 1
sin ( arctg x ) =
2
x 1
x
+
, x R
cos ( arcsin x ) =
2
x 1
, x [ ] 1 , 1
tg (arcctg x ) =
x
1
, x

R
ctg (arctg x ) =
x
1
, x

R
Ecuaii trigonometrice fundamentale
Dac a [1 , 1] ecuaiile sin x = a i cos x = a nu admit soluii.
Dac a [1 , 1] , atunci:
sin x = a x
{
k
( 1) arcsin a k k + Z
cos x = a x { arccos a 2k k t + Z
Dac a R, atunci:
tg x = a x { arctga k k + Z
ctg x = a x { arcctga k k + Z
Cazuri particulare
sin x = 0 x { k k Z
sin x = 1 x
2k k
2

+
' '

Z
sin x = 1 x
3
2k k
2

+
' '

Z
cos x = 0 x
(2k 1) k
2

+
' '

Z
cos x = 1 x { 2k k Z
cos x = 1 x { 2k k + Z
Aplicaii ale trigonometriei n geometrie
Notaii ntr-un triunghi:
R - raza cercului circumscris; r - raza cercului nscris; S - aria; p=
+ + a b c
2
- semiperimetrul
1) Teorema cosinusului
n orice triunghi ABC are loc
+
2 2 2
a b c 2 b c cos A
Variante: a)
+
2 2 2
b a c 2 a c cos B

+
2 2 2
c a b 2 a b cosC
b)
+

2 2 2
b c a
cos A
2bc
;
+

2 2 2
a c b
cos B
2ac
;
+

2 2 2
a b c
cosC
2ab
2) Teorema sinusurilor
n orice triunghi ABC are loc
a b c
2R
sinA sinB sinC
Variante: a 2R sinA b 2R sinB c 2R sinC

3)

A (p b) (p c)
sin
2 bc
;

B (p a) (p c)
sin
2 ac
;

C (p a) (p b)
sin
2 ab
4)

A p (p a)
cos
2 bc
;

B p (p b)
cos
2 ac
;

C p (p c)
cos
2 ab
5) S p (p a) (p b) (p c) (Formula lui HERON)
6)

b c sinA
S
2
;

a c sinB
S
2
;

a b sinC
S
2
7)

2
a sinB sinC
S
2 sinA
;

2
b sinA sinC
S
2 sinB
;

2
c sinA sinB
S
2 sinC
8)
S p r
Variant:
S
r
p

9)
a b c
S
4R

Variant:
a b c
R
4S

10)
A B C
r 4R sin sin sin
2 2 2