Sei sulla pagina 1di 50
Valves, Types, and Operations Prepared by Osama Hasan Intern ‘11 Batch 03 ( Enven 1.3)
Valves, Types, and Operations Prepared by Osama Hasan Intern ‘11 Batch 03 ( Enven 1.3)
Valves, Types, and Operations Prepared by Osama Hasan Intern ‘11 Batch 03 ( Enven 1.3)

Valves,

Valves, Types, and Operations Prepared by Osama Hasan Intern ‘11 Batch 03 ( Enven 1.3) Engro

Types, and

Operations

Prepared by Osama Hasan

Intern ‘11 Batch 03 (Enven 1.3) Engro Fertilizer

Mentor: Aah

1

July 2011

Types, and Operations Prepared by Osama Hasan Intern ‘11 Batch 03 ( Enven 1.3) Engro Fertilizer

2

Outline

Valve

Construction

Types

Gate, Globe, Plug, Ball, Diaphragm, Check

Operations

Fouling, Stem Breakage, Packing Leakage, Gaskets Leakage

Valves,Types and Operations

Check Operations  Fouling, Stem Breakage, Packing Leakage, Gaskets Leakage Valves,Types and Operations
Check Operations  Fouling, Stem Breakage, Packing Leakage, Gaskets Leakage Valves,Types and Operations

Valve

3

See Animation
See Animation

Mechanical devices that are used in

industrial piping for flow control by varying

the pipe opening in three positions:

Fully opening
Fully closed and
Throttling

Valves,Types and Operations

opening in three positions:  Fully opening  Fully closed and  Throttling Valves,Types and Operations
opening in three positions:  Fully opening  Fully closed and  Throttling Valves,Types and Operations

4

4 Construction   Body; connected to the pipe Bonnet; mounted on the body to form

Construction

4 Construction   Body; connected to the pipe Bonnet; mounted on the body to form

Body; connected to the pipe Bonnet; mounted on the

body to form a tight

enclosure Stem; attached the structure (gate or disk) that resist the flow

the structure (gate or disk) that resist the flow  The body of the valve is

The body of the valve is flanged

with bolt holes in them to be held together with pipe; with a gasket in between to provide a leak-proof connection

Valves,Types and Operations

be held together with pipe; with a gasket in between to provide a leak-proof connection Valves,Types
be held together with pipe; with a gasket in between to provide a leak-proof connection Valves,Types

5

Construction

Gate or Disk; controls the opening

Stuffing Box; located in

bonnet and filled with packing, holds the stem and avoids leaks Hand Wheel; lifts gate or disk on rotating and vice versa

Seat Rings; perpendicular to

flow, make close fit with valve for complete shut down

versa Seat Rings; perpendicular to flow, make close fit with valve for complete shut down Valves,Types

Valves,Types and Operations

Seat Rings; perpendicular to flow, make close fit with valve for complete shut down Valves,Types and
Seat Rings; perpendicular to flow, make close fit with valve for complete shut down Valves,Types and

6

6 Construction  Yoke (For OS & Y); supports hand wheel and bushing Flange (for NRS

Construction

Yoke (For OS & Y); supports hand wheel and

bushing

Flange (for NRS only); resists the stem to move up or down

(for NRS only); resists the stem to move up or down  Valves are characterized by

Valves are characterized by the way they resist the flow.

Valves,Types and Operations

stem to move up or down  Valves are characterized by the way they resist the
stem to move up or down  Valves are characterized by the way they resist the

Types

Gate Valve

Globe Valve

Plug Valve Ball Valve Diaphragm Valve

Butterfly Valve

Check Valve

7

Valves,Types and Operations

Valve Plug Valve Ball Valve Diaphragm Valve  Butterfly Valve  Check Valve 7 Valves,Types and
Valve Plug Valve Ball Valve Diaphragm Valve  Butterfly Valve  Check Valve 7 Valves,Types and
Gate Valve Complete Open / Close Emergency Shut Down 8 Valves,Types and Operations
Gate Valve Complete Open / Close Emergency Shut Down 8 Valves,Types and Operations
Gate Valve Complete Open / Close Emergency Shut Down 8 Valves,Types and Operations

Gate Valve

Complete Open / Close Emergency Shut Down

Gate Valve Complete Open / Close Emergency Shut Down 8 Valves,Types and Operations

8

Valves,Types and Operations

Gate Valve Complete Open / Close Emergency Shut Down 8 Valves,Types and Operations

Gate Valve

9

See Animation
See Animation

Regulates flow by placing a metal gate or disc across the opening of pipe.

the gate has to be strong enough to withstand the pressure of flow.

Gate valves are of two types:

Outside Stem and Yoke (OS & Y) and
Non-Rising Stem (NRS)

Valves,Types and Operations

of two types:  Outside Stem and Yoke (OS & Y) and  Non-Rising Stem (NRS)
of two types:  Outside Stem and Yoke (OS & Y) and  Non-Rising Stem (NRS)

10

OS & Y Gate Valve

Stem is Threaded at the hand wheel and

screwed through stem

bushing Solidly connected with

the hand wheel and turns along with it Bottom is solidly connected to the gate, neither of which can turn

along with it  Bottom is solidly connected to the gate, neither of which can turn

Valves,Types and Operations

along with it  Bottom is solidly connected to the gate, neither of which can turn
along with it  Bottom is solidly connected to the gate, neither of which can turn

11

11 OS & Y Gate Valve  The hand wheel and bushing are also supported by

OS & Y Gate Valve

The hand wheel and

bushing are also

supported by an outside yoke. Stem can be seen when the valve is open, therefore needs stem clearance.

outside yoke . Stem can be seen when the valve is open, therefore needs stem clearance

outside yoke . Stem can be seen when the valve is open, therefore needs stem clearance

Valves,Types and Operations

yoke . Stem can be seen when the valve is open, therefore needs stem clearance .
yoke . Stem can be seen when the valve is open, therefore needs stem clearance .

12

12 NRS Gate Valve  Stem threaded on the bottom , with a gate threaded on

NRS Gate Valve

12 NRS Gate Valve  Stem threaded on the bottom , with a gate threaded on

Stem threaded on

the bottom, with a

gate threaded on the inside. Used in areas, where not much overhead clearance exists.

a gate threaded on the inside. Used in areas, where not much overhead clearance exists. 

Valves,Types and Operations

gate threaded on the inside. Used in areas, where not much overhead clearance exists.  Valves,Types
gate threaded on the inside. Used in areas, where not much overhead clearance exists.  Valves,Types

13

13 NRS Gate Valve  The part of the stem that passes through the bonnet has

NRS Gate Valve

The part of the stem that passes through the bonnet has a flange on it, due to which the stem cannot move up or down;

on it, due to which the stem cannot move up or down; instead engages the gate
on it, due to which the stem cannot move up or down; instead engages the gate

instead engages the

gate on turning wheel and pulls it up or down and vice versa.

Valves,Types and Operations

down; instead engages the gate on turning wheel and pulls it up or down and vice
down; instead engages the gate on turning wheel and pulls it up or down and vice

14

Types of Gate

Solid wedge gate

Parallel disc gate and

Solid split gate

Valves,Types and Operations

of Gate  Solid wedge gate   Parallel disc gate and Solid split gate Valves,Types
of Gate  Solid wedge gate   Parallel disc gate and Solid split gate Valves,Types

15

15 Solid Wedge Gate  Made of one part and bears pressure of the flow 

Solid Wedge Gate

Made of one part and

bears pressure of the flow

on one side only.

Complete shut off is accomplished through a close fit between gate and seat rings. On lowering or raising of

gate there is more friction

between gate and seat rings which tends to wear out one seat rings quicker (against the side of flow).

Valves,Types and Operations

seat rings which tends to wear out one seat rings quicker (against the side of flow).
seat rings which tends to wear out one seat rings quicker (against the side of flow).

16

Parallel Disc Gate

Made out of many parts. When lower wedge or

spreader reaches the stop, it

forces the upper spreader to the lower one. This pushes the discs outward against the seat rings and ensures a very tight closing.

Although one side of disc is

more worn but tight closing produced by the wedging action, it still allows complete shutoff.

more worn but tight closing produced by the wedging action, it still allows complete shutoff. Valves,Types

Valves,Types and Operations

worn but tight closing produced by the wedging action, it still allows complete shutoff. Valves,Types and
worn but tight closing produced by the wedging action, it still allows complete shutoff. Valves,Types and

17

Parallel Disc Gate

The discs are attached to the spreader in such a way that they rotate when the gate is raised or lowered, this causes an even wear. As the upper wedge is raised, it releases the wedging pressure and disc become freer.

Valves,Types and Operations

As the upper wedge is raised, it releases the wedging pressure and disc become freer. Valves,Types
As the upper wedge is raised, it releases the wedging pressure and disc become freer. Valves,Types
As the upper wedge is raised, it releases the wedging pressure and disc become freer. Valves,Types

18

18 Parallel Disc Gate  On high temperatures , pipe expansions can wrap the body of

Parallel Disc Gate

18 Parallel Disc Gate  On high temperatures , pipe expansions can wrap the body of

On high temperatures, pipe expansions can

wrap the body of the valve, causing extreme pressure on the gate. These gates are not used with material with coarse particles and in vertical positions.

These gates are not used with material with coarse particles and in vertical positions . Valves,Types

Valves,Types and Operations

gates are not used with material with coarse particles and in vertical positions . Valves,Types and
gates are not used with material with coarse particles and in vertical positions . Valves,Types and

19

Solid Split Gate

A solid split gate is made of one piece, with flexible outer edges. These edges

made of one piece, with flexible outer edges . These edges bear pressure on the gate

bear pressure on the gate when a valve body wraps up.

with flexible outer edges . These edges bear pressure on the gate when a valve body

Valves,Types and Operations

flexible outer edges . These edges bear pressure on the gate when a valve body wraps
flexible outer edges . These edges bear pressure on the gate when a valve body wraps

20

Gate Valve Malfunction

Gate valves malfunction due to erosion of gate or seat rings which makes tight closure

difficult.

This happens due to the friction between gate and seat rings on rising or dropping the gate very often. It could be avoided by using gate valves in pipes who are not much disturbed during normal operation i.e. are completely open or completely closed.

Valves,Types and Operations

much disturbed during normal operation i.e. are completely open or completely closed . Valves,Types and Operations
much disturbed during normal operation i.e. are completely open or completely closed . Valves,Types and Operations
21 Globe Valve Valves,Types and Operations

21

21 Globe Valve Valves,Types and Operations
21 Globe Valve Valves,Types and Operations

Globe Valve

Valves,Types and Operations

21 Globe Valve Valves,Types and Operations

22

Globe Valve

The line of flow changes its direction, which

creates higher pressure

drop and turbulence. Seat rings are parallel to the line of flow and stem guides the disc into the seating. Opening is controlled by a disc.

Flow starts as soon as the contact of disc and seat is broken.

Valves,Types and Operations
Valves,Types and Operations
is controlled by a disc. Flow starts as soon as the contact of disc and seat
is controlled by a disc. Flow starts as soon as the contact of disc and seat

23

See Animation
See Animation
23 See Animation Globe Valve  Very little wear due to friction and even wear; however

Globe Valve

Very little wear due to friction and even wear;

Valve  Very little wear due to friction and even wear; however partial opening of valve

however partial opening

of valve exposes all parts of disc to flow.

Even wear permits complete closure even after long use. Flow from under the disc creates less turbulence than flow from the disc.

long use . Flow from under the disc creates less turbulence than flow from the disc.

Valves,Types and Operations

use . Flow from under the disc creates less turbulence than flow from the disc. 
use . Flow from under the disc creates less turbulence than flow from the disc. 

24

24 Globe Valve  Globe valves are also installed on turnings, called Angle Globe Valves .
24 Globe Valve  Globe valves are also installed on turnings, called Angle Globe Valves .

Globe Valve

Globe valves are also

installed on turnings,

called Angle Globe Valves. Flow through angle valve has fewer changes of direction and therefore is less turbulent.

Valves,Types and Operations

through angle valve has fewer changes of direction and therefore is less turbulent .  Valves,Types
through angle valve has fewer changes of direction and therefore is less turbulent .  Valves,Types

Types of Disc

25

Three types of disc are used in globe valves:

Plug disc
Composition disc and
Conventional disc

Valves,Types and Operations

used in globe valves:  Plug disc  Composition disc and  Conventional disc Valves,Types and
used in globe valves:  Plug disc  Composition disc and  Conventional disc Valves,Types and

26

26 Plug Disc  Cone shaped  Used for heavy throttling service Continues to give positive

Plug Disc

Cone shaped

26 Plug Disc  Cone shaped  Used for heavy throttling service Continues to give positive

Used for heavy

throttling service

Continues to give positive shut off even

for heavy throttling service Continues to give positive shut off even  after some wear Valves,Types

after some wear

Valves,Types and Operations

throttling service Continues to give positive shut off even  after some wear Valves,Types and Operations
throttling service Continues to give positive shut off even  after some wear Valves,Types and Operations

27

Composition Disc

Made of softer materials. When completely closed,

seat ring can make a

contact with the soft part

of disc.

Fine particles in flow often accumulated on

part of disc. Fine particles in flow often accumulated on seats or discs can be embedded
part of disc. Fine particles in flow often accumulated on seats or discs can be embedded

seats or discs can be

embedded on the soft part of the disc ensuring a tight closure.

Valves,Types and Operations

seats or discs can be embedded on the soft part of the disc ensuring a tight
seats or discs can be embedded on the soft part of the disc ensuring a tight

28

28 Conventional Disc  Smaller disc-to-seat area than plug discs. Can crush small particles more easily

Conventional Disc

28 Conventional Disc  Smaller disc-to-seat area than plug discs. Can crush small particles more easily

Smaller disc-to-seat

area than plug discs.

Can crush small particles more easily but if nicked or worn, tight closure is not possible with them.

particles more easily but if nicked or worn, tight closure is not possible with them. 

Valves,Types and Operations

particles more easily but if nicked or worn, tight closure is not possible with them. 
particles more easily but if nicked or worn, tight closure is not possible with them. 
Plug Valve 29 Valves,Types and Operations
Plug Valve 29 Valves,Types and Operations
Plug Valve 29 Valves,Types and Operations

Plug Valve

29 Valves,Types and Operations

Plug Valve 29 Valves,Types and Operations

30

30 Plug Valve  Controls the opening through a hollow plug, which is turned/rotated and aligned

Plug Valve

Controls the opening through a hollow plug,

30 Plug Valve  Controls the opening through a hollow plug, which is turned/rotated and aligned

which is turned/rotated and

aligned with the pipe to permit a straight line of flow.

Plug is turned a quarter turn, to stop the flow. The valve can be opened or closed more quickly than previous examples and produce little turbulence and pressure drop

Valves,Types and Operations

more quickly than previous examples and produce little turbulence and pressure drop  Valves,Types and Operations
more quickly than previous examples and produce little turbulence and pressure drop  Valves,Types and Operations

31

31 Plug Valve  Friction develops between the body and the plug, which wears the plug

Plug Valve

Friction develops between the body and the plug,

which wears the plug giving

it a loose fit. The shank of the plug has a lubricant fitting that makes it possible to apply special lubricant to the plug itself. Lubrication is done often to reduce friction and also prevent leakage.

to the plug itself. Lubrication is done often to reduce friction and also prevent leakage. 

to the plug itself. Lubrication is done often to reduce friction and also prevent leakage. 

Valves,Types and Operations

plug itself. Lubrication is done often to reduce friction and also prevent leakage.  Valves,Types and
plug itself. Lubrication is done often to reduce friction and also prevent leakage.  Valves,Types and
Ball Valve 32 Valves,Types and Operations
Ball Valve 32 Valves,Types and Operations
Ball Valve 32 Valves,Types and Operations

Ball Valve

Ball Valve 32 Valves,Types and Operations

32 Valves,Types and Operations

Ball Valve 32 Valves,Types and Operations

33

See Animation
See Animation
33 See Animation Ball Valve  Good shut-off capabilities.  Quarter-turn (90°) completely opens or closes

Ball Valve

33 See Animation Ball Valve  Good shut-off capabilities.  Quarter-turn (90°) completely opens or closes

Good shut-off

capabilities. Quarter-turn (90°)

completely opens or closes the valve. Minimal valve operation time and decreases the likelihood of leakage due to wear from the gland seal.

time and decreases the likelihood of leakage due to wear from the gland seal.  Valves,Types

Valves,Types and Operations

time and decreases the likelihood of leakage due to wear from the gland seal.  Valves,Types
time and decreases the likelihood of leakage due to wear from the gland seal.  Valves,Types

Ball Valve

34

Ball valves can be divided into two categories:

Reduced bore: valve opening is smaller than the diameter of the piping
Full bore: valve opening is the same size as the diameter of the piping.

valued because they minimize the pressure drop across the valve.

Valves,Types and Operations

of the piping.  valued because they minimize the pressure drop across the valve. Valves,Types and
of the piping.  valued because they minimize the pressure drop across the valve. Valves,Types and

Ball Valve

35

Recommended for use in the fully open or

fully closed position. Not suited to regulate flow by being kept

partially open because ball valves make use of a ring-shaped soft valve seat. When used in the partially open position, pressure is applied to only a portion of the valve seat, which can cause it to deform.

If deforms, its sealing properties are impaired and will leak as a result.

Valves,Types and Operations

.  If deforms, its sealing properties are impaired and will leak as a result. Valves,Types
.  If deforms, its sealing properties are impaired and will leak as a result. Valves,Types
Diaphragm Valve 36 Valves,Types and Operations
Diaphragm Valve 36 Valves,Types and Operations
Diaphragm Valve 36 Valves,Types and Operations

Diaphragm

Valve

Diaphragm Valve 36 Valves,Types and Operations

36 Valves,Types and Operations

Diaphragm Valve 36 Valves,Types and Operations

37

See Animation
See Animation

Diaphragm Valve

37 See Animation Diaphragm Valve  ‘ Pinching ' method to stop the valve flow using

Pinching' method to stop the valve flow using a flexible

diaphragm.

Available in two types:

Weir and
Straight-way

Available in two types:  Weir and  Straight-way  The most common is the weir-

The most common is the weir-

type because the straight-way

type requires additional stretching, which can shorten the diaphragm's life-span.

Valves,Types and Operations

type requires additional stretching, which can shorten the diaphragm's life-span. Valves,Types and Operations
type requires additional stretching, which can shorten the diaphragm's life-span. Valves,Types and Operations

38

Diaphragm Valve

Advantages:

Valve components can be isolated from the process

fluid.

Construction helps prevent leakage of the fluid without the use of a gland seal (packing)

Disadvantages:

Diaphragm becomes worn more easily Regular maintenance is necessary Not suited for very high temperature fluids Mainly used on liquid systems.

Valves,Types and Operations

is necessary Not suited for very high temperature fluids Mainly used on liquid systems. Valves,Types and
is necessary Not suited for very high temperature fluids Mainly used on liquid systems. Valves,Types and
Check Valve 39 Valves,Types and Operations
Check Valve 39 Valves,Types and Operations
Check Valve 39 Valves,Types and Operations

Check Valve

39 Valves,Types and Operations

Check Valve 39 Valves,Types and Operations

40

40 Check Valve  Ensure that flow goes in desired direction and does no t reverses
40 Check Valve  Ensure that flow goes in desired direction and does no t reverses
40 Check Valve  Ensure that flow goes in desired direction and does no t reverses

Check Valve

Ensure that flow goes in desired direction and

does not reverses.

Valve is automatically opened by the flow pressure and is closed when the pressure falls. It allows flow from one side only, and on reverse flow, disc gets closed restricting flow.

flow from one side only, and on reverse flow, disc gets closed restricting flow.  

Valves,Types and Operations

flow from one side only, and on reverse flow, disc gets closed restricting flow.  
flow from one side only, and on reverse flow, disc gets closed restricting flow.  

41

Valves,Types and Operations
Valves,Types and Operations

Lift Check Valve

Similar to globe valve structure, with flow raising

the disc and gravity

pulling it down. Direction of flow is always kept from under the disc to minimize turbulence.

kept from under the disc to minimize turbulence.   It works in both horizontal and

It works in both horizontal and vertical positions, but with slight structural modifications.

turbulence.   It works in both horizontal and vertical positions, but with slight structural modifications.
turbulence.   It works in both horizontal and vertical positions, but with slight structural modifications.

42

42 Ball Check Valve  A check valve with flow not in a straight line. Similar

Ball Check Valve

A check valve with

42 Ball Check Valve  A check valve with flow not in a straight line. Similar

flow not in a straight

line. Similar to lift check valve with the disk replaced with a ball.

not in a straight line. Similar to lift check valve with the disk replaced with a

Valves,Types and Operations

in a straight line. Similar to lift check valve with the disk replaced with a ball.
in a straight line. Similar to lift check valve with the disk replaced with a ball.
Operations 43 Valves,Types and Operations
Operations 43 Valves,Types and Operations
Operations 43 Valves,Types and Operations

Operations

Operations 43 Valves,Types and Operations

43 Valves,Types and Operations

Operations 43 Valves,Types and Operations

44

Operations

Accumulation of Sludge/ Fouling

44 Operations  Accumulation of Sludge/ Fouling  Incomplete shut off / opening  Remedy: 

Incomplete shut off / opening
Remedy:

Addition of Anti fouling sludge Dismantling of Valve

Valves,Types and Operations

/ opening  Remedy:  Addition of Anti fouling sludge  Dismantling of Valve Valves,Types and
/ opening  Remedy:  Addition of Anti fouling sludge  Dismantling of Valve Valves,Types and

45

Operations

Stem Breakage

Replacement of Valve
Else Raising the Stem

By using a Jack Screw By using over had hoist

of Valve  Else Raising the Stem  By using a Jack Screw  By using

Valves,Types and Operations

Valve  Else Raising the Stem  By using a Jack Screw  By using over
Valve  Else Raising the Stem  By using a Jack Screw  By using over

46

Operations

Raising the Broken Stem by using a Jack Screw

46 Operations Raising the Broken Stem by using a Jack Screw Valves,Types and Operations
46 Operations Raising the Broken Stem by using a Jack Screw Valves,Types and Operations

Valves,Types and Operations

46 Operations Raising the Broken Stem by using a Jack Screw Valves,Types and Operations
46 Operations Raising the Broken Stem by using a Jack Screw Valves,Types and Operations
46 Operations Raising the Broken Stem by using a Jack Screw Valves,Types and Operations

47

Raising the Broken Stem by using an Overhead Hoist Valves,Types and Operations
Raising the Broken Stem by
using an Overhead Hoist
Valves,Types and Operations

Operations

47 Raising the Broken Stem by using an Overhead Hoist Valves,Types and Operations Operations
47 Raising the Broken Stem by using an Overhead Hoist Valves,Types and Operations Operations

48

Operations

Packing Leakage

48 Operations  Packing Leakage    Opening the valve to max. limit Achieving Back-Seating

Opening the valve to max. limit Achieving Back-Seating Dangerous and only opted in emergency

Opening the valve to max. limit Achieving Back-Seating Dangerous and only opted in emergency Valves,Types and

Valves,Types and Operations

the valve to max. limit Achieving Back-Seating Dangerous and only opted in emergency Valves,Types and Operations
the valve to max. limit Achieving Back-Seating Dangerous and only opted in emergency Valves,Types and Operations
the valve to max. limit Achieving Back-Seating Dangerous and only opted in emergency Valves,Types and Operations
the valve to max. limit Achieving Back-Seating Dangerous and only opted in emergency Valves,Types and Operations

49

49 Operations  Gaskets Leakage Valves,Types and Operations

Operations

Gaskets Leakage

49 Operations  Gaskets Leakage Valves,Types and Operations
49 Operations  Gaskets Leakage Valves,Types and Operations

Valves,Types and Operations

49 Operations  Gaskets Leakage Valves,Types and Operations
49 Operations  Gaskets Leakage Valves,Types and Operations

50

Thank You

Prepared by Osama Hasan

School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)

osama_hasan@hotmail.com

Valves,Types and Operations

(SCME) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) osama_hasan@hotmail.com Valves,Types and Operations
(SCME) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) osama_hasan@hotmail.com Valves,Types and Operations