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Transfair Engineering:

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Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits

Düsseldorf 10/2010

Walter Dirk Adler Transfair GmbH Mörsenbroicher Weg 179 D-40470 Düsseldorf Tel.: (++49) 211-638811 Fax.: (++49) 211-638898 E-Mail: Transfair_GmbH@t-online.de

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents

p. 2

CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION

8

1.1.

Refrigeration Cycle -Definitions

8

1.2.

Designing of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits

9

1.3.

Standards and Climate Classes

9

1.3.1

Refrigerator and Freezer Performance Standards

9

1.3.2

Climate Classes

9

1.3.3

Electrical Safety Standards

10

1.4.

Refrigeration Capacity

10

1.4.1

Calculation of Thermal Losses and Freezing Power

11

1.4.2

Measurement of the Cabinet Constant

13

1.5.

Reduction of Thermal Losses

13

1.5.1

Foam Insulation Thickness

14

1.5.2

Polyurethane Foam Tests

14

Measurement of the Foam Density in Refrigerators and Test Shots

14

Dimensional Stability

14

Verification of Reaction Parameters, Cream Time, String Time, Rise Time

15

Assurance of a Continuous Quality

15

1.5.3

Thermal Bridges

15

Sealing between Door and Cabinet

16

Reduced Space between Food liner and Door liner

16

Design of Door Gasket, Air Tightness Test of Door Gaskets

16

2.

COMPRESSOR

17

2.1.

Replacements of CFC-12 Compressors

17

Energy Efficiencies, Drop-in Solutions, Reliabilities and Lifetimes

17

Compressor Dimensions and Spaces, Investments and Costs

17

2.2.

Compressor Capacities

18

2.2.1

HP Value

18

2.2.2

Nominal Displacement

18

2.2.3

Refrigeration Capacity

18

2.2.4

Coefficient of Performance

18

2.3.

Starting Characteristics

19

Low or High Starting Torque, RSIR, RSCR, CSIR, CSR

19

Start Capacitor, PTC, Relay,

19

High Starting Torque Compressor, Run Capacitor

19

2.4.

Electrical Diagrams

20

2.5.

Lifetime

20

2.6.

Heavy Duty

21

2.7.

Evaporating Temperature

21

LBP, MBP, HBP

21

2.8.

Comparison between R134a and R12 Compressors

21

2.8.1

Pressure-/Enthalpy Diagram of R12 and R134a

21

2.8.2

A Comparison Test made by Danfoss

22

Conclusions (Part 1)

22

2.8.3

A comparison Test made by National Matsushita

23

Reciprocal Compressor

23

Rotary Compressor

23

Conclusions (Part 2): Needed Design Improvements

24

2.9.

Comparison Tests of R134a, R600a and R12 Compressors from Necchi

25

2.9.1

Compressor COP Tests

25

2.9.2

Fridge/Freezer Tests using R600a, R290/R600a Mixture, R134a and R12 Compressors

25

Conclusions (Part 3)

26

Cooling Capacities, Coefficient of Performances, R600a Displacement Increase,

26

Charge Tolerances, R290/R600a Drop-in Solution, Noise, Overall Dimensions

26

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents

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of Compressors, R134a Lubricant, R134a Sludge Formation, R600a Solubility and Foaming, R600a Flammability, Compressor Costs

27

2.10.

Energy Optimised Compressors

27

2.11.

Variable Capacity Compressor

28

2.12.

Compressor Performance Tests and Test Methods

29

2.10.

Labelling of Compressors with Flammable Gas (R600a, R290 etc.)

29

3.

CONDENSER

31

3.1.

Static Condensers

31

3.1.1

Wire-on-Tube Condensers

31

3.1.2

Tube-on -Finned -Plate Condensers

31

3.1.3

Condenser Constant

31

3.1.4

Condenser Capacity

31

3.1.5

Condenser Transmission Coefficient or U-Value

32

3.1.6

Condenser Surface

33

3.2

Skin Condenser

33

3.2.1

Skin Condenser on a Refrigerator or Freezer Cabinets

34

3.2.2

Skin Condenser on a Chest Freezer

34

Relation between Volume, Tube Length, Tube Distance and k-Value

35

3.2.3

Necessary Increase of Insulation of Skin Condenser Refrigerators and Freezers

35

3.2.4

Sheet Cover on Condenser

35

3.3.

Anti-Dew Coil

36

3.4.

Oil Cooling Condenser

36

3.5.

Fan Cooled Condenser

37

3.5.1

Fin Coil Characteristics

37

3.5.2

Possible Solutions for the Air Ducts

38

3.6.

Testing Condensers

38

3.6.1

Calorimetric Measurement

38

3.6.2

Comparison Test of Condenser Capacities

39

3.6.3.

Standards of condenser performance testing and test methods

40

4.

CAPILLARY TUBE AND HEAT EXCHANGER

42

4.1. Capillary Tube Capacity Calculation

42

4.2. Capillary Tube Capacity Tests

43

4.3. Heat Exchanger

44

5.

EVAPORATOR

46

Evaporator Capacity and k-Value

46

5.1.

Roll-Bond Evaporators

46

5.1.1

Suction Accumulation

46

5.1.2

Channel Cross Section

47

Samples

47

5.1.3

Evaporator Types, Sizes and Forms

47

5.1.4

Cold Cabinets

48

Evaporator Surface

48

Screening and Drip Trays

49

5.1.5

Two Temperature Cabinets

49

Connection of Refrigerator and Freezer Evaporators in Series

50

5.2.

Tube-on-Sheet, TOP or Skin Evaporators

51

5.2.1

Chest Freezers Evaporators

51

Chest Freezer Pull-Down Test

51

Chest Freezer Evaporator Tube Length

52

Working Process to mount Chest Freezer Evaporators

52

Aluminium Tube Evaporators, Steel Tube Evaporators

52

5.2.2

Cold Cabinet Evaporators

53

Flatted evaporator tube with vertical u-bend

53

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents

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5.2.3

Evaporators for one Door Refrigerator with Freezer Compartment

54

Evaporators for one-Door ** Refrigerator

54

Evaporators for one-Door*** Refrigerator

55

5.2.4

Evaporators of two-Door Refrigerator

55

Evaporator in the Refrigerator Part

55

Tube-on-Sheet-Evaporator: Roll Formed Sheet-on-Tubes Evaporator, Aluminium sheet or foils

55

Working Process to mount Tube-on-Sheet or Skin Evaporators on Refrigerators

56

Surface of Tube-on-Sheet Evaporator

56

Freezer Part inside 2 Door Model, Freezer up to and above 60l

56

Tube-on-Plate Freezer Evaporator, Wire-on-Tube Freezer, Evaporators in Series

57

5.2.5

Skin versus Roll-Bond Evaporators

58

Cost Comparison, Processing and Painting, Aesthetic Aspects, Corrosion and Service

58

Cross Section

58

5.3.

Optimisation of Evaporators

59

5.3.1.

Evaporator Channels or Tubes and their Cross Sections

59

5.3.2.

Speed of refrigerant and Pressure Drop Measurement

59

5.3.3.

Liquid-Gas Separator and Accumulator

59

5.4.

Sizes of Upright Freezer Evaporators

60

5.4.1

Pull-Down Test of Upright Freezers

60

5.5.

NO FROST Evaporators

61

5.5.1

Surface of Fins and Air Charge

61

5.5.2

Tube Size and Fin Distances

61

5.5.3

Defrosting of No Frost Evaporators

61

5.5.4

Air Ducts in NO Frost Refrigerators

62

5.5.5

Damper Thermostat

62

5.5.6

Tandem System

63

Refrigerant Circuit Scheme, Electrical Scheme

63

5.6.

Fridge ventilator

64

5.7.

Evaporator Tests

64

5.7.1

Pressure Drop Tests

64

5.7.2

Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Multi-Evaporator Systems with one Control

65

5.7.3

Pull Down Tests

65

Vertical Freezers, Chest Freezers, Fridge-Freezers and Cabinets with or without Freezer Compartment

65

6.

DRYER/DESICCANT

67

6.1. Filter Dryer characteristic

67

6.2. Refrigerant Dryer Test Standards and Methods

68

7.

REFRIGERANT

70

7.1.

Thermodynamic Characteristics of Different Refrigerants

70

7.1.1

Efficiencies (COP-Coefficient of Performance)

71

7.1.2

Volumetric Capacities

71

7.1.3

Pressure Differences

72

7.1.4

Pressure Ratios

72

7.1.5

Suction Pressure

72

7.1.6

Superheat

73

7.1.7

Pressure Enthalpy Diagram (Mollier-h, lg p-Diagram) of R134

74

7.1.8

Pressure enthalpy diagram (Mollier-h, lg p-Diagram) of R600a

75

7.1.8

Pressure enthalpy diagram (Mollier-h, lg p-Diagram) of a R290/R600a Blend

76

7.2.

Purity and Cleanness Standards

77

Cleanness Standards

77

Measurement of Cleanliness and Purity

77

7.3.

Working with R134a in the Refrigerator Laboratory and in the Production

78

7.3.1

R134a Refrigerant

78

General Characteristics of R134a, Ester Oil

78

7.3.2

Evacuation Pumps

78

7.3.3

Cleaning Technology for Vacuum Pumps for R134a

78

Polyol Ester Oil or PFPE Oil, Cleaning process

78

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents

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7.3.5

Brazing

79

7.3.6

Leak Detection

79

7.3.7

Working with R134a Circuit Elements

80

7.3.8.

Mixed Production during Transition from R12 to R134a or from R134a to R600a: Anti-Suck Valves, Suction Oil Separators or Glass Trap in Vacuum Pump

80

7.4.

Working with R600a in the Refrigerator Laboratory and in the Production

81

7.2.1

Flammability and Hazardous Situations

81

Flammability of R600a, Safety Precautions, Hazardous Situations

81

7.4.2

Handling of Hydrocarbon Refrigerant

81

Handling Precautions, Hydrocarbon Cylinders, Transportation, Storage

81

7.4.2

Evacuation Pumps

82

7.4.3

R600a Charging

83

Service Charging Equipment, Hydrocarbon Charging Boards, Charging Liquid into Suction, Safety Approved Production Charging Equipment

83

7.4.4

Exhaust and Ventilation of the Charging Area

83

7.4.5

Alarm Board with Gas Sensors

84

7.4.6

Fire Precautions and Fire Extinguishers

85

7.4.7

Grounding and Anti-Static Floor

85

7.4.8

Brazing

85

7.4.9

Leak Detection

85

Pressure Test, Mass Spectrometric Leak Test

85

7.4.10

Further Precautions

86

7.5.

Determination of Refrigerant Filling Quantity

86

Conversion from R12 to R134a, Conversion from R12 to R600a

86

7.5.1

Refrigerant charging: Liquid or Vapour?

86

7.5.2

Charging Accuracy

87

7.5.3

Charging Methods

87

Charging with Dial-A-Charge Cylinder, Charging by Weight, Charging by Sight Glasses

87

7.5.4

Fine Tuning and Control of Charge

88

Charging for Proper Superheat (Superheat Method)

88

Charging for Proper Sub-cooling (Sub-cooling method)

89

8.

Safety Requirements for Refrigerators - especially with HC-Refrigerant

91

8.1.

Safety Standards for Refrigerators and Freezers

91

8.2.

Special Safety Requirements for Refrigerators using Hydrocarbon Refrigerant

91

8.2.1

Flammability and Hazardous situations

92

8.2.2

Sealing of the System

93

8.2.3

Potential Ignition Sources

93

8.2.4

Separation of Ignition Sources from Potential Leaks

94

Standard Defrost Models

94

One Door Models

94

8.3.

Protected Electrical Components in Hydrocarbon Leak Areas

94

8.3.1

Electric Connections

95

8.3.2

Compressor Relay

95

8.3.3

Compressor Overload Protector

95

8.3.4.

Compressor Start and Run Capacitors

95

8.3.5.

On-Off Switches and Light Switches

95

8.3.6

Luminaries, Lamp Holders and Fluorescent Lighting Ballast and Starter

95

8.3.7

Thermostat

96

8.3.8

Fan Motor and Blades

96

8.3.9

Defrost Heater and Thermal Fuse (in No Frost Models)

96

8.3.10

Defrost Probe, Temperature Cut-Out and Defrost Timer Control (in No Frost Models)

96

8.3.11

Sealed Box (IP53 or higher)

96

8.3.12

Manufacturer’s test of electric component, conformity declacation and markings

97

8.4.

Labelling of Hydrocarbon Refrigerators

97

8.5.

Electrical Safety Tests and Controls

97

8.5.1

Electrical Safety Test of all Household Appliances

98

8.5.2

Pressure Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon

98

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents

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8.5.4

Scratch Test of Refrigerators Charged with Hydrocarbon

99

8.5.5

Testing of Standard Electric Components not Reachable by Flammable Refrigerant

99

8.5.6.

Testing and control of “n” Protected Electrical Components Used in Hydrocarbon Leak Areas

100

9.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

101

9.1.

Capillary Tube Thermostat

101

Operation Range, Adjustment Range, Switching Differential, Correlation between Adjustment

101

Range and Switching Differential, Tolerances, Adjustment in the Refrigerator Factory and in Service, OFF-Position, Dial Layout

102

9.1.1

Standard Thermostat

102

9.1.2

Thermostat with Auxiliary Switch

102

9.1.3

Thermostat with Heater Contact

103

9.1.4

Thermostat with Signal Contact

103

9.1.5

Thermostat with Semi-Automatic Defrost Push-Button

103

9.1.6

Thermostat with Fast-Freeze

103

9.1.7

Thermostat with Fixed Cut-In Temperature

104

9.1.8

Thermostat with a 3-Way Solenoid Valve Control

104

9.1.9

Thermostat with 2 sensors

104

9.2.

Bimetal Thermostat

105

9.3.

Electronic Control and Thermocouples “Child safe” Switch-off, fuzzy logic for running modes: SuperCool, SuperFrost, DuraFreeze, SuperFrost, Frostmatic, Holiday, LCD display control, No-frost freezer defrost control, 3 rd compart- ment near 0°C Temperature, ice and water spender control, control of variable compressor speed

105

9.4.

Special Controls for NO Frost Models

106

9.4.1

Defrost Timers and Defrost Thermostats

106

9.4.2

Damper Thermostats

106

9.5.

Temperature Control Tests

106

10.

FINAL TESTS

108

10.1.

Definitions, Classifications, Designs and Characteristics

108

Test Conditions and Periods

109

Percentage Running Time

109

10.2.

Refrigerator Tests Room

109

10.2.1

Thermo-insulated test room

109

Dimensions, Lightening, Supply, Regulation Range

109

Loads and Supply Places, Starting Current

110

Voltage, Ampere and Frequency Supply, Flow Chart

110

10.2.2

Measurement Equipment

110

Energy Measurement, Power Consumption Measurement

110

Power Measurement, Voltage Measurement, Further Electrical Test Equipment,

111

Control Panel, Connection Panel

111

10.2.3

Measurement Ranges and Accuracy

111

Temperature, Pressure, Power, Current, Energy, Voltage

111

10.2.4

Test Data Logger Recording and Evaluation

112

10.2.5

Test Packages

113

10.3.

Mechanical Tests

113

Air Tightness of Door/Lid Seals, Opening Force of the Doors and Lids, Durability of Hinges and Handles, Mechanical Strength of Shelves and Similar Components

113

10.4.

Testing of Storage Temperature

113

10.5.

Water Vapour Condensation Test

113

10.6.

Energy Consumption Test

113

10.6.1.

Energy labelling system

113

10.6.2.

Calculation of EU Energy Label Efficiency classes

114

10.6.3.

Impact of EU Policy and Measures - a Story of Success

116

10.7.

Noise of cooling system

117

10.8.

Temperature Rise Test

117

10.9.

Freezing Test and Ice-Making Test

117

Freezing Test

117

Ice Making Test

117

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. Contents

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10.10.

Test of Absence of Odour and Taste

117

10.11.

Refrigerator Performance Test

118

Calorimetric Tests

118

10.12.

Refrigeration Circuit Measurement Positions

118

Evaporator Temperature, Condenser Temperature

119

Suction Condition, Delivery Condition, Liquid Return, High and Low Pressure

119

10.13.

Test Panel

119

10.14.

Refrigeration Performance Calculation

120

10.14.1

Properties

121

10.14.2

Equation of State

121

10.14.3

Extended Antoine Equation

121

10.14.4

Latent Heat of Evaporation

121

10.14.5

Ideal Gas Heat Capacity

121

10.14.6

Saturated Liquid Enthalpy

122

10.14.7

Liquid Density

122

10.14.8

Liquid Viscosity

122

10.14.9

Liquid Thermal Conductivity

122

10.14.10

Surface Tension

122

10.14.11

Saturated Vapour Density

122

10.14.12

Vapour Viscosity

122

10.14.13

Vapour Thermal Conductivity

123

10.14.14

Vapour Speed of Sound

123

10.15.

Tables

123

10.15.1

R134a Liquid and Saturated Vapour Enthalpy and Latent Heat

123

10.15.2 R134a Liquid Density and Viscosity and Surf Tension

123

10.15.3

R134a Saturated Vapour Density and Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity and Speed of Sound

124

10.15.4

R600a Saturated Vapour Pressure

125

10.15.5

R600a Superheated Vapour Pressure Properties

127

10.16.

Electromagnetic Compatibility Test

131

10.17.

Cooling Circuit Pressure Test according to PED

131

11.

Converting Household Refrigerators

132

11.1.

Converting Household Refrigerators from CFC-12 to HFC-134a Systems

132

11.2.

Converting Household Refrigerators from HFC-134a HC-600a Systems

133

12.

Standards

135

12.1.

EN Standards for refrigerators Household refrigerator, Safety Standards for Refrigerators and Freezers, Electric Components, EMC Electromagnetic compatibility, Commercial refrigerator, Absorption refrigerator, Valves, Compressor, Condenser, Filter Dryer, Acoustical noise, EU Directives

135

12.2.

ISO Standards

138

12.3.

IEC standards

138

12.4.

Some selected US Standards for refrigerators

138

12.5.

For refrigerators relevant EU Directives

138

EU DIRECTIVE 2003/66/EC Energy labelling of household refrigerators amending Directive 94/2/EC EU Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC) as amended 93/68/EEC.

140

EU Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) 97/23/EC

140

EU ATEX Directives, ATEX Manufacturers Directive 94/9/EC, ATEX User Directive 99/92/EC

141

12.6.

CE Marking process

142

ANNEXES

144

Annex 1. Refrigerator and freezer appliances

144

Annex 1.1. European Commission DIRECTIVE 92/75/EEC Energy labelling and standard product information

145

of the consumption of energy and other resources by household appliances Annex 1.2. EU DIRECTIVE 2003/66/EC energy labelling of household electric refrigerators, freezers and their combination

152

I like to thank Danfoss and his employees in the research for the strong technical support granted to me, the received data and detailed information, without all these support this booklet could not have been written.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. 1. Introduction: Refrigeration Cycle - Definitions p. 8

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Refrigeration Cycle - Definitions

Total Heat Rejected (Enthalpy difference between compressor delivery and expansion device inlet

Isothermal condenser temperature High Pressure (Isobaric condenser pressure) Superheat (enthalpy difference between
Isothermal condenser temperature
High Pressure (Isobaric condenser pressure)
Superheat (enthalpy difference between
compressor suction and evaporator
saturated vapour condition)
Subcooling (the enthalpy drop
between the saturated liquid in
condenser and expansion device
inlet)
Heat of compressor (Enthalpy rises
as result of the compression process)
Compressor Delivery (enthalpy of the
Liquid Return (temperature at
inlet of expansion device)
super-heated vapour at the end of
compression/ at compressor discharge)
Delivery Condition (Temperature at
Expansion Valve Enthalpy
end of compression)
(at the inlet of expansion device)
Compressor Suction Enthalpy (of the
Pressure Ratio: derived
from the condenser and
evaporator pressure
superheated vapour at the start of the
compression process)
Suction Condition (compressor inlet
Refrigeration Effect (the
temperature)
enthalpy difference between
evaporator saturated vapour
condition and the expansion valve
condition)
Volume Flow/Mass Flow (based on the
Low pressure (isobaric evaporator pressure)
refrigeration duty and the specific volume
at the compressor inlet condition)
Isothermal evaporator temperature

End of Evaporation (saturated vapour condition at the evaporation temperature and pressure)

Specific enthalpy are calculated at a number of points around the cycle (100KJ/kg 0C liquid)

Delta H Values: derived from specific enthalpy differences around the circle

COP: Coefficient of Refrigerator Performance defined on the ratio of the refrigeration effect to the heat of compression.

The basis of the refrigeration cycle and its circuit elements are explained in DANFOSS: Refrigeration - an Introduction to the basis, Nordborg, March 1978, http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndA

irConditioning/Training+and+Education+New+design/

or

on a profound level in: Althouse, A.D., Turnquist, C.H. and Bracciano, A.F.: Modern refrigeration and air conditioning, South Holland (Ill.) 1975; and Dossat, Roy J.: Principles of

refrigeration. N.Y., 1981, which we cannot repeat here.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. 1. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity, Thermal Losses p. 9

1.2. Designing

Circuits

of

Refrigerators

and

Freezer

The most important factor for a design of the refrigeration circuit, the compressor power etc., is to face the thermal leakage of the refrigerator or freezer cabinet or chest to be kept under special temperatures (for example < -18C in a *** freezer, < -12C in a ** freezer, < -6C in a * freezer, < +5C (or <+7C) in a refrigerator against an ambient temperature of 32C or even 43C for a tropical version, depending on which standard will be applied.

In case of a freezer we have to add the power which is necessary to freeze down a quantity of lean meat in addition to the thermal losses of a cabinet or chest. In standards it is fixed how much lean meat in which time has to be frozen down and to which temperature, for example according to one of the ISO EN standards, min 4.5 kg lean meat (=Tylose package) per 100l volume in 24 h, respective for >45l volume at least 2kg in 24h. Normally freezing power is in the range of 8-12 kg/100l/24h.

These 2 factors together plus some reserves will decide about the size of the compressor power and the dimensions of other circuit elements. Some reserves are needed because not all the circuit elements are optimal and such systems have also to cover ageing processes. The system must be sealed to avoid leakage of refrigerant (see Transfair: Cooling circuit sealing chapter 5).

In general the design of the refrigeration circuit depends on a quite considerable number of strictly connected variables. Not optimal conditions in evaporators, condensers and capillary tubes can reduce the balances and heat transmissions and the used power of the compressor and can increase the consumption of energy.

1.3. Standards and Climate Classes

1.3.1. Refrigerator and Freezer Performance Standards

Following international (ISO), not only in Europe (EN) valid standards for refrigerators and freezers performance testing exists (for electric international standardisation it is the IEC, see chapter 1.3.3. Electric Safety):

ISO EN 15502 (2005) specifies the essential characteristics of household refrigerating appliances, factory-assembled and cooled by internal natural convection or forced air circulation, and establishes test methods for checking the characteristics. It revises the following 4 standards, which are now withdrawn: ISO EN 7371 - Performance of household refrigerating appliances - refrigerators with or without low temperature compartment; ISO 8187 EN 28187 - Household refrigerating appliances - Refrigerators-freezers' characteristics and test methods; ISO EN 5155 - Household refrigerating appliances - Frozen food storage cabinet and food freezers characteristics and test methods; ISO EN 8561 Household Frost free refrigerating appliances, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers characteristics and test methods.

Often under same number this standard are translated in EU national standards like AT (ON), BE (IBN/BIN), CH (SNV), CY (CYS), CZ ( CNI), DE ( DIN), DK ( DS), EE ( EVS), ES ( AENOR), FI ( SFS), FR ( AFNOR), GB (BSI), GR (ELOT), HU (MSZT), IE (NSAI), IS (IST), IT (UNI), LT (LST), LU (SEE), LV (LVS), MT (MSA), NL (NEN), NO (SN), PL (PKN), PT (IPQ), RO (ASRO), SE ( SIS), SI (SIST), SK (SUTN), and other ISO member countries have same or similar standards like JP (JIS), RU (GOST), US (ANSI/ASHREA/UL), IN (BIS), CN (SAC), BR (ABNT), CA (SCC) etc.

Such standards regulate which kind of performance tests has to be applied on all refrigerators and freezers types (see chapter 11) to make type approval (CE etc.), which ones on all refrigerators and which ones only on samples from the running production and how the volumes and consumption values have to be measured.

For energy efficiency and labelling systems for household appliances, refrigerators and freezers exist in Europe EN153 (1995, new 2006), and rules 92/75/EEC, 94/2/EC and 2003/66/EC and in other arias similar regulations (see www.worldenergy.org ). In 2002 20% of sold refrigerators were of class A (low energy consumption, while 2002 already 47% as result of this labelling system. So 2003 A+ and A++ classes were introduced and since 2004 a new labelling scaling are under consideration. See Chapter 10.6. and Annex.

For commercial refrigerators, not part of our booklet there exist adequate standards: EN ISO 23953 (2006) Refrigerated display cabinets – Part 1 Vocabulary, Part 2: Classification, requirements and test conditions. And for its energy labelling of commercial refrigerators it is EN 441. For absorption refrigerator there exists the EN 732 (1998): Specifications for dedicated liquefied petroleum gas appliances - Absorption refrigerators.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. 1. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity, Thermal Losses p. 10

1.3.2. Climate Classes

In these standards all refrigerators and freezers are classified according to the ambient temperatures under which they can conserve

the requested inner temperatures (C):

A freezer in a fridge-freezer model often only temperature controlled in the fridge, can defrost if kept in colder ambient as it’s

climate class (see chapter 9.)

Climate class

Ambient Temperature

Fresh food storage compartment

***

**

*

Cellar compartment from [∞∞∞∞C] to [∞∞∞∞C]

from [∞∞∞∞C]

to [∞∞∞∞C]

t1, t2,

t3

[∞∞∞∞C]

tm

[∞∞∞∞C]

[∞∞∞∞C]

[∞∞∞∞C]

[∞∞∞∞C]

Extended

SN

+10

+32

0

10

+5

< -18

< -12

< -5

+8

+14

Temperate N

+15

+32

0

10

+5

< -18

< -12

< -5

+8

+14

Subtropical ST

+18

+38

0

10

+5

< -18

< -12

< -5

+8

+14

Tropical

T

+18

+43

0

10

+5

< -18

< -12

< -5

+8

+14

1.3.3. Electrical Safety Standards

There exist special standards which regulate the electrical safety requirements of refrigerators and freezers type approvals (CE etc.), their control and testing. Models using Isobutane or Propane have additional safety demands on their design and type

approval tests (see chapter 8.2.-8.5). Furthermore the manufacturer has to insure that each produced refrigerator and freezer follow the requirement fixed for the type approval, by quality controls and inspection. Often following electrical safety tests are applied

on all produced refrigerators and freezers (class 1 with PE):

Earth test, continuity of electric bounding circuit test

High voltage Test (=flash test or Dielectric strength test

Insulation test and electric strength

Power and current absorbed test

Leakage current test

Residual Voltage test (if the refrigerator and compressor performance is improved by a capacitor).

Details see in chapter 8.5.1. In addition other parameters like correct wiring, earth connection, IP54 sealing, functioning of all electrical components like switches, thermostats, signal lights, light switches, light should be inspected and/or tested.

The safety standards specify which electrical safety rules the manufacturer have to respect, which electrical components acc. to which electrical standard he can use in the appliances and which kind of approval he needs.

Following meanwhile international valid safety standards exist for household refrigerators and freezers:

- IEC-EN-UL-J-GOST etc. Standard 60335 (2002), Part 1: Safety of household and similar electric appliances, and - IEC-EN-UL-J-GOST etc. Standard 60335, Part 2-24 (2002): Particular requirements for refrigerators and food freezers. Amendment 1 (2005) and Amendment 2 (2007) or consolidated Standard 60335, Part 2-24 Version 6.2 (2007). - IEC-EN-UL-J-GOST etc. Standard 60335, Part 2-89 (2007): Particular requirements for commercial refrigerating appliances with an incorporated or remote refrigerant condensing unit or compressor, Vers. 1.2.

The electric safety of commercial refrigerators are described in IEC 60335-2-89 and of commercial dispensing appliances and vending in IEC 60335-2-75.

The IEC 60335-2-24 and 2-89 was amended 2002 and 2005 to cover potential risks originated from the use of flammable

refrigerants; for refrigerators and freezers using flammable refrigerants (R600a, R290) following was integrated into this standard

- to carry out risk assessment of flammable gar refrigerants according to CEN/TR 14739 (2004): Scheme for carrying out a risk assessment for flammable refrigerants in case of household refrigerators and freezers; and

- to control flammability risk according to CENELEC Test Schedule TS 95006; see chapter 8.5

The Amendment of 2007 did not touch test procedures, but text and reference to other changes or cancelled standards. Such safety standard has to be applied in addition to the performance standards of refrigerators: EN ISO 15502 (previously the 7371, 8187, 8561 and 5155, now withdrawn).

The above mentioned IEC 60335-2-24 amended in (2005-04) should be respected today in case Hydrocarbon is used as refrigerant. It based on the application of the existing electrical safety standard IEC 60079-15 “Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Electric apparatus with type of protection ‘n’". For further details see chapter 8.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. 1. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity, Thermal Losses p. 11

1.4. Refrigerator Capacity

The first approach to determine the refrigeration capacity and out of it the compressor size for a new refrigerator or freezer is to calculate the thermal losses of a refrigerator, freezer or fridge freezer and to add - in case of a freezer - the needed freezing capacity (Chapter 1.4.1). In case a cabinet or chest is already existing, the thermal losses and needed freezing capacity can be measured (Chapter 1.4.2.) instead of calculated.

Calculation of thermal losses and freezing power, if no prototype is already available to measure;

See underneath "Measurement of the cabinet constant", if a prototype exists.

Such calculations and measurements are only a first approach; after installing the circuit test runs have to follow to optimise the circuit, the capillary tube length and the charging of the refrigerant by

- pull-down and continuous run tests

- cycling tests for class designation

- Energy consumption tests

- Ice freeze test.

1.4.1. Calculation of Thermal Losses and Freezing Power

According to the selected model, the standard, the climate class to be applied following formula can be applied to calculate the thermal losses for each surface of the refrigerator and/or freezer:

P= 1/s * k * A *

t∞∞∞∞

whereby:

P

=

power per each single surface in kcal/h;

s

=

thickness of single surface in m;

k

=

coefficient of transmission of insulating material adopted in kcal/ (h*m* C) in which the variables

C

=

h=hours, m= length in meter of test specimen and temperature displacement between the 2 sides of the test specimen

A

=

surface in m² of area to be considered

t=

temperature displacement between the 2 sides of dispersant surface.

To simplify the calculation an average thickness of sloping surface can be considered as well as an average material transmission coefficient [x mm polyurethane + y mm S/B (high impact polystyrene)].

Example: Double door refrigerator-freezer combination with

- outer dimensions:

595w x 600d x 1385 mm

- refrigerator inner dimensions:

525w x 510d x 800h

- compressor area

192x190x525mm

- freezer inner dimensions:

495w x 480d x 231h

- refrigerator capacity:

195l

- freezer capacity:

55l

- insulation of refrigerator:

35mm

- insulation of freezer:

50mm

- thermostatic control from refrigerator:

- freezer air temperature:

-23C

- refrigerator temperature:

4C-7C, mean temperature 5C

- compressor temperature:

88C

- condenser temperature:

55C

- evaporator temperature:

-26C

- ambient temperature:

43C (tropical) except 60C compressor area and 55C condenser area

- freezing capacity measured under

32C ambient temperature

The coefficients of transmission k are as following:

- Polyurethane with Cyclopentane in densities of 30-35kg/m³:

- Magnetic door gasket:

k= 0,02 - 0,025 k= 0,06 - 0,08

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer Cooling Circuits. 1. Introduction: Refrigeration Capacity, Thermal Losses p. 12

We neglect in the 2 door models the heat transmissions between refrigerator and freezer compartment as their sum is 0 kcal/h.

Calculation:

1/thickness

x k x Dimension(m²)

x t

x pieces

= thermal losses

Refrigerator door area:

(1/0,035) x 0,02

x 0,525 x 0,8 x 0,525 x 0,32

x

38

x

1

=

9,12 kcal/h

Crisper supper area: (1/0,035) x 0,02

x

38

x

1

=

3,65 kcal/h

Crisper back area:

(1/0,035) x 0,02

x 0,525 x 0,19 x 0,525 x 0,19

x

55

x

1

=

3,14 kcal/h

Compressor upper area: (1/0,035) x 0,02

x

55

x

1

=

3,14 kcal/h

Crisper side area:

(1/0,035 x 0,02 x 0,51

x 0,19

x

38

x

2

=

4,21 kcal/h

Refrigerator side area:

(1/0,035) x 0,02 (1/0,035) x 0,02

x 0,51

x 0,61

x

38

x

2

= 13,51 kcal/h

Refrigerator back area:

x 0,525 x 0,61

x

50

x

1

=

9,15 kcal/h

Refrigerator door gasket: (1/0,017) x 0,07

x0,02

x(0,525+0,8)

x

38

x

2

=

8,29 kcal/h

Freezer side area:

(1/0,05)

x 0,02

x 0,48

x 0,23

x

66

x

2

=

5,83 kcal/h

Freezer back area:

(1/0,05)

x 0,02

x 0,5

x 0,48

x

78

x

1

=

7,49 kcal/h

Freezer door area:

(1/0,05)

x 0,02

x 0,5

x 0,23

x

66

x

1

=

3,04 kcal/h

Freezer upper area:

(1/0,05)

x 0,02

x 0,5

x 0,48

x

66

x

1

=

6,34 kcal/h

Freezer door gasket:

(1/0,017 x 0,07 x 0,02

x(0,5+0,23)

x

66

x

2

=

7,94 kcal/h

Total transmission losses:

84,85 kcal/h

The various figures of t in the different sections of the cabinet show that the insulation thickness on the backside of the cabinet and the compressor area should be increased to reduce thermal loss and that also the space for heat transmission through the door gaskets should be as much as possible reduced and the door gaskets should be improved to improve the refrigerators.

These 84,88 kcal/h are needed to face all dispersions at 43°C ambient temperatures.

To obtain the thermal losses for an ambient temperature of 32°C we have to multiply the a.m. items instead of 38°C with 27°C in the refrigerator and instead of 66°C with 55°C in the freezer (only the refrigerator's backside remains at 50°C, freezer's backside at 78°C and the compressor area at 55°C).

The formula to determinate the power necessary to freeze 5 kg lean meat (Tylose packs) in 24 hours is following:

P = 1/24[(G*C* +t 1 ) + (G*Cl) + (G*C* t 2 )]

whereby:

 

P

=

Input power in kcal/h

G

=

weight to be frozen in kg

c

=

specific heat in kcal

t 1 =

difference between external temperature and 0°C

Cl

= t 2 =

latent heat in kcal/kg difference between 0°C and - 18°C

 

1/24

to calculate freezing power per hour instead of freezing inside 24 hours.

The specific heat and the latent heat for lean meat (Tylose pack) values are as following:

C

= 0,77 kcal

Cl

= 60 kcal/kg

so in this case we come to following freezing power:

P = 1/24 [(5*0,77 kcal*32)+ (5*60) + (5*0,77*18)] = 20,52 kcal/h

This freezing power has to be added to the 84,85 kcal thermal transmission losses to determine the needed compressor power which is in this case 105,37 kcal/h.

As a compressor should not run permanently, but only in the range of 60-65% and 15% should be added as reserve for not optimal circuits, the compressor power should be in the range of

105,37 kcal/h * (100 +15)/62,5% = 193,88 kcal/h

Transfair can provide an Excel simulation and optimization program to minimize thermal losses and foam consumption.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer …Circuits. 1. Introduction: Cabinet Constant, Reduction of Thermal Losses p. 13

1.4.2. Measurement of the Cabinet Constant

In case a prototype exists, the thermal losses can be measured in a test laboratory instead of a.m. calculations. In this case a constant ambient temperature of 32C is created in the test room and a 10 Watt bulb heater is put inside the closed refrigerator cabinet and in a second step inside the closed freezer cabinet. In case of a larger freezer it is recommended to use a heater with a ventilator and to add the 2 entered energies (E-heater + E-ventilator).

The test will stop if the heater does not increase anymore the inside temperature. Let's suppose the reached inside temperature is 46C in the refrigerator and 51,6C in the freezer. In this case the cabinet constant is as following:

Transmission losses K x A = E/ t = Watt/ t [Watt/∞∞∞∞C]

whereby:

 

K

is the cabinet constant

K x A

the transmission losses over surface A

t

is the temperature difference between inside and outside the refrigerant

Watt

the entered energy (lamp energy or energies of used heater and ventilator).

 

1 Watt = 0,8598 kcal/h

1 kcal/h = 1,163Watt

In our sample:

Refrigerator cabinet constant Freezer cabinet constant

= 10Watt/ (46-32C) = 0,71Watt/°C = 0,83kcal/h C = 10/ (51,6 - 32C) = 0,51Watt/C = 0,59 kcal/h C

Optimal insulated refrigerators and chest freezers should have cabinet constant values underneath of 1.

Out of this measured cabinet constant we can calculate the total thermal loss multiplying the 2 constants of the refrigerator and freezer cabinets with the surface areas and the temperature differences in the different surface areas.

Total heat loss = refrigerator cabinet constant * sum (surface areas A1, A2, A3 *

sum (surface areas A1, A2,

* t 1 , t 2 , t 3

A3

t 1 , t 2 , t 3

)

SAMPLE: The 2 door model according to the calculation in previous chapter 1.4.1:

)

+ freezer cabinet constant *

Total heat loss = 0,83[0,525*0,8*38+0,525*0,32*38+0,525*0,19*55+0,525*0,19*55+0,51*0,19*38 *2+

0,51*0,61*38*2+0,525*0,61*50+0,02(0,525+0,8)*38*2]+

0,59[0,48*0,23*66*2+0,5*0,48*78+0,5*0,23*66+

0,5*0,48*66+0,02(0,5+0,23)*66*2=68,35kcal/h+ 34,60kcal/h=102.95kcal/h

In this case the real thermal losses are 20% above the theoretically calculated losses. To these losses the 20,52 kcal/h freezing power has to be added. This measured or calculated refrigeration capacity determines the size of the compressor so that the selected compressor should be in the range of (102,95+20,52kcal/h)*100/62,5% =198kcal/h.

1.5. Reduction of Thermal Losses

If the thermal losses are higher than expected or if the cabinet constant should be better than comparable cabinets we should take a closer look to the insulation, the construction and the manufacturing of the cabinet.

Several reasons could be responsible for the thermal losses:

- the thickness of insulation,

- the quality of the foam,

- the quality of manufacturing,

- Thermal bridges,

- the air tightness of the door or lid seals.

A system is as good as their weakest points! If in some areas the heat transmission will be increased, because of a construction or manufacturing faults, the cabinet constant and the energy consumption will be bad.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer .Circuits. 1. Introduction: Polyurethane Foam Tests, Thermal Bridges p. 14

1.5.1. Foam Insulation Thickness

The lower the temperatures to be reached are and the higher the ambient temperature can be the thicker the foam insulation should be. Inside the compressor compartment and in direction of the condenser the external temperature of the cabinet or chest will be slightly higher ( t could be +5 till +10%), so it is useful to increase in this areas the insulation thickness to avoid weak points. In case of a skin condenser (see chapter 3.2.) with a condensing temperature of +55C instead of a environmental temperature of for example 32C t is increased by 23°C; in case of a freezer with internal temperature of -18C and an environmental temperature of 32the t would be 50C without skin condenser; if we install on it a skin condenser of 55C, the t in the area of the condenser would be increased to 73C and in this area the thermal losses would be increased by 50%.

Another point of insulation is the foam quality to be tested by foam tests.

1.5.2. Polyurethane Foam Material Tests

Measurements of the Foam Density in Refrigerators. Usually, sampling is effected at different spots of a refrigerator.

These

Example:

test

specimens

serve

to

determine

the

core

density.

The

procedure

is

as

follows:

Skin

30mm

Core

30mm

Skin

30mm

A sample of approx. 10 cm x 10 cm is cut off the refrigerator.

Inner and outer cover sheets are removed.

The skin is cut of both cover sheets so that only the core remains; thumb-rule: the core represents approx. 1/3 of the

insulation. This sample is weighed, and then the volume is determined, e.g. by plunging the sample into water. The quotient from mass and volume is defined as core density. Faster and more accurate is following method following the principle of Archimedes:

Larger blocks of up to 10 cm sides are weighted. The measured weight has the value G. A 2 l vessel with about one l l water is put on a balance and the balance with the vessel filled with water is set to 0g. A stick or wire is inserted into the foam block and without touching the vessel wall the block is dipped under the water of the vessel on the balance. The increase of weight as measured by the balance after full dipping of the foam block is equal to the increase of volume (1g water=1ml), so that the

Density d [g/ml] = Weight of foam block G [g] / Increase of weight on balance V [g]

Measurement of the foam density in case of test shots. Usually, approx. 800 g of material are shot into a polyethylene bag, presenting a diameter of about 30cm. 2 to 4 hours later, a sample of 10cm x 10cm x 10cm is cut from the middle of the foam produced in this way. This test specimen is weighed and the weight either divided by the calculated volume or by the weight of water pushed away by the test specimen dipped in water according to the a.m. principle of Archimedes. The quotient from mass and volume is defined as free rise density.

Dimensional Stability. The dimensional stability can be determined in the following way:

- Cut/saw a test specimen, size approx. 10 cm x 10 cm, off the refrigerator.

- Remove the cover sheets.

- Determine the dimensions of the test specimens (height, width, length).

- Store one test specimen for 24 hours at -30°C, another one for 24 hours at +80°C.

- Determine the dimensions again afterwards.

Compression Strength. Foam samples of about 30x30x30 up to 40x40x40mm of cabinet measured in 2 directions (in PU foam flow direction and 90° to flow direction).

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer .Circuits. 1. Introduction: Polyurethane Foam Tests, Thermal Bridges p. 15

Sample on fridge-freezer combination:

- 2x4 foam samples taken of side walls 300mm from front side (2x2 in side walls of fridge compartment, 2x1 in middle separator, 2x1 in side walls of freezer compartment)

- 1 sample top,

- 1 sample bottom,

- 3 samples in back wall (2 in fridge back wall, 1 in freezer back wall).

For Cyclopentane driven PU foam minimum compression strength should be 140-145kPa. For Cyclopentane/Isopentane driven PU foam minimum compression strength should be 135-140kPa.

Such compression strength measurement replaces today in praxis more and more the foam density distribution measurements.

Verification of the Reaction Parameters in the Laboratory. Following material and equipment is needed:

a beaker of hard paper of about 0.6-1 litres (for examples Messrs. Kamphemann, No. 600, non-waxed, Volume 660

cm³ from Heinrich Kamphemann, P.O.Box 2604, D-49016 Osnabrück, Tel.:

0541-32037, Fax: 0541- 23565,

laboratory stirrer, 0, 5W, 1300/min) with disk 60-65mm,

laboratory balance 0,1g accuracy, water bath, knife/saw and glass bar

to be used in following procedure to determine the reaction parameters:

The components are tempered in a water bath at 20°C +/- 1°C.

The paper beaker is put onto the balance and tarred.

Component A is submitted first, and component B is added subsequently in the corresponding mixing ratio; the weighed-in quantity should be in total 70g.

Both components are then mixed at 1300m-1 for approx. 10 sec.

The stop-watch is started as stirring begins. Cream Time is defined as time interval from start of stirring to visible volume expansion in the beaker. String Time is defined as time interval from start of stirring to the moment when it is possible to draw fibres out of the reaction mixture by means of a glass bar. Rise Time is defined as time interval from start of stirring to visible termination of volume expansion. Raw Density. After the foam surface has cured, the foam is cut off directly at the edge of the beaker. The beaker is put onto the balance. The mass indicated is divided by the volume of the beaker (660 cm ).

Tests:

Assurance of a Continuous Quality. A continuous quality control should measure regularly the following:

Measurement of the foam reaction parameters of test shots: the free rise density and string time at least twice a day;

Comparison of set and really reached shot weight every day by random sampling.

Dimensional stability: samples should be taken from refrigerators/doors every day

INSPECTIONS

INTERVALS

Free rise density of the core

at least twice a day

String time

at least twice a day

Shot weight

at least twice a day

Dimensional stability

at least twice a day

Compressive strength

at least twice a day

Mixing ratio

once a day

Distribution of core density Operational compressions/pressures of the machine

once a day at least twice a day

in order to check the dimensional stability, and if possible, the compressive strength as well.

The verification of the correct mixing ratio is also necessary.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator and Freezer .Circuits. 1. Introduction: Polyurethane Foam Tests, Thermal Bridges p. 16

1.5.3. Thermal Bridges

To locate thermal bridges, so called cold bridges a good digital thermometer with tolerances of 0.2C and a point feeler can be used. The appliances will be cooled down. A digital thermometer with a point feeler can measure colder surfaces caused by thermal bridges to the inside. A modern method uses thermo-graphical cameras.

Weak points are often

- metal sheets or tubes which connect the outside with the inside,

- bad designed or manufactured door or lid gaskets which allow warm air to enter into the refrigerator or freezer,

- bad seals holes for the electrical cable of the lamp-switch-thermostat combination inside the compartment, for the capillary tube of the thermostat, for the evaporator tubes or for the water drainage tube,

- bad positioned anti dew coil.

Sealing between door and cabinet. One of the weakest point are the sealing between door and cabinet, the door gasket area

where the outer steel with high thermal conductivity of the cabinet and door comes very near to the cold area of the compartment

only isolated by the door gasket. In cases that the steel continues to the inside we have a strong cold bridge, in addition increased

in case of a freezer or fridge freezer by a hot (+55C) anti dew coil.

Reduced space between food liner and door liner. Also by a small distance of about 5 mm between the food liner and the door liner in the conical area of the food- and door liner the cold bridge can be reduced. But the space depends on design of the door profile, if it can absorb slight door tilting after use and from the strength of the hinges and their adjustment possibilities. If the space is too small and the construction cannot absorb tilting of door after use, the door will not close properly.

Design and quality of the door gasket. Last not least the design of the door gasket and the quality of their manufacturing and their welding is very important. In closed condition the door gasket profile sections, separated by thin PVC walls touching the plastic liners, should built up at least 3 further temperature zones between warm outside and cold inside, good ones have even 4 zones in addition to the inside and outside. Even after years of use the gasket should be flexible and close the door tight. Only very few first class door gasket manufacturers can deliver such quality. We recommend co-operating with important and experienced door gasket manufacturers like the German company REHAU in Rehau, near Erlangen, or the Italian company ILPEA, Malgesso (Varese).

Testing of the air tightness of door or lid seals. The purpose of this test is to ensure that the gaskets of the doors or lids of the appliance adequately prevent any abnormal ingress of the surrounding air. The test are executed under an ambient temperature between 16-32C on the switched off appliance with the same temperature inside the cabinet. A strip of paper 50mm wide and 0.08

mm

thick and with a suitable length shall be inserted at

any

point of the seal, and the door or lid closed normally

on it. The seal shall be assessed by checking that the strip

of paper does not slide freely. The most unfavourable point can be found by lightening the closed cabinet from inside and checking the light from outside of all seals.

The test should be repeated after the durability test acc.

New ISO 15502 (previously according to chapter 11 of

the a.m. ISO standards 7371, 5155 and 8187 (see in

chapter 10.3. of this booklet under “Mechanical tests”).

Door Foamed Door Gasket Only in free- zer: Anti- Dew coil Foamed Cabinet
Door
Foamed Door
Gasket
Only
in
free-
zer:
Anti-
Dew
coil
Foamed
Cabinet

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator …Circuits. 2. Compressor, Replacement of CFC-12 Compressors, Compressor Capacity p. 17

2. COMPRESSOR

In this chapter we can and will not consider how compressors can be developed or optimised using different geometrical, electrical and other characteristics and different kind of refrigerants with different pressure ratios, swap volumes etc. Such considerations should be part of compressor manufacturing study which is not part of our work. We only have to concentrate on the correct selection and use of already optimised compressors in the cooling circuit of household refrigerators.

2.1. Replacement of CFC-12 Compressors

Today all CFC-12 compressors in household refrigerators are replaced by HFC-134a or by HC-600a (Isobutane). The first question for the user is if the R12 substitutes reach the same or better refrigeration efficiencies as the R12 compressor and which of the substitutes are better and more reliable. The answer at moment is that the reached efficiencies are very similar if the compressor and cooling circuit were really optimised for the refrigerant, independently if R12, R134a or R600a compressors were used. But the specifications for the circuit elements and the specific problems of designing, manufacturing and servicing are different and need to be checked in each application and for the environment of the market and service conditions for which it is produced.

Energy efficiencies. HC-600a (Isobutane), HFC-134a and HC-290 (Propane) compressors reaches today excellent energy efficiencies and should – according to many research institutes - not differ in their energy efficiency (Coefficient of Performance) significantly, though some say that they heave evidence that the HC-600a also theoretically, not only practically as seen today should have about 5 % higher efficiencies if other conditions are the same. In the last 5 years a lot of efforts were made to improve energy efficiency of HFC-134a and of HC-600a compressors which today reaches higher efficiencies (COP- values, see Chapter 2.10) as the old R12 compressors not as far optimised. Specially in the European market dominated by HC- 600a in the household refrigerator market, the efforts made were so much that in practice R600a models reaches today significantly higher COP-values than equivalent R134a models.

Drop-in solutions. A mixture of HC-600a (Isobutane) and HC-290 (Propane) in the range of 40:60 has the advantage that it can replace CFC-12 in CFC-12 compressors without modifying the compressor design: Such a mixture matches R12 compressor designs because almost the same displacement volume can be used. But the mixture can have in some refrigeration applications problems concerning energy efficiency due to the temperature glide in condensation and evaporation of the 2 components.

But pay attention: Using inflammable Hydrocarbon in a CFC-12 refrigerator needs a safety control of the design according to IEC 60335-2-24 (1997-08) and a design modification (see chapter 8).

Reliability and lifetime. Concerning the reliability and lifetime HC-600a (Isobutane) and HFC-134a are proven to be very reliable today while HC270 compressors because of higher pressure conditions are under stronger stress, have a much higher noise level, and a smaller lifetime, at least if we concentrate on smaller compressors used in household refrigerators. Also the lifetime of compressors using the Isobutane-Propane mixture seems to have lower reliability and lifetime and have a much higher noise level than Isobutane compressors because of their demanding working conditions.

Compressor dimensions and needed space. Because of about 70-80% bigger displacement volume needed in a HC-600a compressor the first R600a compressors became larger and the space for the compressor compartment could be a problem, but meanwhile this problem is diminished strongly because of new design developments, so that a wider range of capacities can already be reached without increasing the overall dimension of the compressor.

Investments and costs. HFC-134a compressors are very similar to CFC-12 compressors. With moderate modifications and investments such compressors can be made in previous CFC-12 compressor factories. Also the switching from CFC-12 refrigerators to HFC-134a refrigerators is quite simple and does not need relevant design changes and investments. Though HC- 600a compressor manufacturers have made bigger investments in research and factories the today’s price levels of HFC-134a and of HFC-600a compressors do not differ significantly.

Transfair Engineering: Designing and Prototyping of Refrigerator …Circuits. 2. Compressor, Replacement of CFC-12 Compressors, Compressor Capacity p. 18

2.2. Compressor Capacity

There exists no standard system to define sizes of hermetic compressors used in the household application, but more or less common categories to characterise hermetic compressors. In Europe and in the USA there are standards to define the size of the refrigeration capacity of compressors under comparable evaporating and condensing temperatures, the so called CECOMAF or ASHRAE standards.

2.2.1. HP Value

The previously used HP designation has been more and more abandoned, because the HP value does not define any refrigeration characteristics of the compressor.

2.2.2. Nominal Displacement

In 1963 Danfoss introduced the compressor definition by the nominal displacement of refrigerant in cm³/rev., which are till today the most important figure to compare compressor capacities as long as the same refrigerant is used. If compressors with different refrigerants are compared to each other this parameter does not help. For example R600a has half of the volumetric capacity as R12 or R134a and needs a nearly double displacement to reach the same refrigeration capacity. The motor sizes of R12 compressors and R600a compressors for the same refrigeration capacity are approximately the same while R134a compressors need often a slightly bigger size.

2.2.3. Refrigeration Capacity

Today the refrigeration capacity is used more and more for the size definition. But the refrigeration capacity is not easy to standardise and needs further definitions like evaporating temperature, condenser temperature, frequency and ambient temperatures.

Today 2 different standards in the world are used to compare refrigeration capacities: the European standard CECOMAF and the American standard ASHRAE (see these standards for further details). The difference is that the European standard measures the cooling capacity under conditions without the sub cooling of the liquid while the ASHRAE states the capacity based on a sub cooling of the liquid to the ambient temperature (32C). Last increases the nominal capacity by about 18-25%, depending which refrigerant is used.

2.2.4. Coefficient of Performance

The most important value to compare efficiencies of different compressors under same ambient conditions and same temperatures to be reached in freezer or refrigerator (last can be only used if refrigerator is without a freezer) and same refrigeration capacity is the COP-Value: The Coefficient of Performance is the ratio between electrical power input and refrigeration capacity output under ambient temperature of 32°C, 38°C or 43°C, condenser temperature of 55°C and liquid sub cooling to ambient temperature of 32°C , 38°C or 43°C according to American ASHRAE standard or without sub cooling (that means liquid temperature = condensing temperature) according to European CECOMAF standard. The higher the COP value is the better the compressor perform. But high performance compressors needs good electrical conditions often not exist in tropical areas. Higher performing compressors for tropical areas are just started to be developed, but never can reach high performance values without improving electrical supply. See Chapter 2.10.

Compressor water tray. Since more that 12 years European refrigerator manufacturers drain the cold condensed water from the evaporator at backside of the foodliner to a tray on top of the compressor to cool down the shell (see chapter 5.2.2.-5.2.4.). By this way about 12-15% of energy consumption could be reduced and the COP value increased. Further important definition factors for compressors are:

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2.3. Starting Characteristics

In general the starting characteristics of compressors differentiate between low starting (LST) and high starting torque (HST):

Normally single phase AC motors are supplied in following 4 electrical versions:

RSIR:

Induction motor with resistance (PTC) start

RSCR:

Induction motor with resistance (PTC) start and run capacitor

CSIR:

Induction motor with capacitor start

CSR:

Induction motor with run and start capacitor

CSR : Induction motor with run and start capacitor Low starting torque compressors are using normally

Low starting torque compressors are using normally PTCs without run capacitors (RSIR) or with a run capacitor (RSCR) while high starting torque compressors are using starting capacitors.

The starting device PTC is a semiconductor with a positive temperature coefficient; when the PTC is cold it permits current passing the semiconductor. During operation (current passing the PTC) it becomes heated and the resistant increases so that only sufficient current can pass to keep it warm. PTC starters allow the start winding to be cut-in only for a limited time; if the start run-up is prohibited, no overloading of the start winding is possible. The cooling down time of a PTC is about 3.5 min. The more it is cooled down the longer it allows the cut-in in

the subsequent start run-up. Therefore the system depends also on the standstill time defined by the thermostat settings which should be min. 3 min. for a small compressor and 5 min. for a larger one.

In the past also current or voltage relays were used instead of a semiconductor PTC; but PTCs have a lot of advantages in comparison to relays:

- higher lifetime because of no wear and no relay chatter,

- dependable protection of the

no wear and no relay chatter, - dependable protection of the start winding as above explained,

start winding as above explained,

- the PTC function independently from over- and under-voltages,

- no radio or television noise,

- same PTC can be used for all compressor sizes,

- easy conversion from LST to

HST compressors by only changing the starting device.

Important for the lifetime of the LST compressor is that the

Important for the lifetime of the LST compressor is that the compressor have not to start

compressor have not to start to build up compression against high pressure in the condenser. To avoid this heavy duty in the starting of a synchronous motor in the past a relays, today mainly a PTC is added to the electrics of the compressor. Inside of about 5 min the PTC is cooled down to allow a new start of the compressor, a sufficient time to reach a pressure-equalised system.

High starting torque compressors use a start capacitor to improve their life time in bad electrical environments like lower voltages as made for (for example 170V instead of nominal 230V) or unstable frequencies (clock problems). The line impedance (voltage drop during start) is normally < 1 V/A in developed countries while we aspect in many developing countries, like in India, Middle East, Black Africa voltage drop > 1.5 V/A – in addition to the severe tropical climate (>43°C). For such electrical and climate conditions special models have to be selected with start capacitor, but still for cost reason many refrigerator producers’ uses standard LST compressors with PTC instead of HST compressors with a start capacitor. Start capacitor will cost about € 5-6,50 more, depending on the size.

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Pay attention: R134a and R600a COP optimised compressors are often not designed for developing countries with difficult electrical and climate conditions. Especially R600a compressor made for this conditions are still rare.

A run capacitors in a RSCR or RSR system normally increases the efficiency (COP) of a compressor by 8-10 %; therefore it can reduce the energy consumption by 3-5 %. In case of a HC-600a compressors with a general temperature decrease in the compressor the effect of the run capacitor is even significantly higher.

2.4. Electrical Diagrams

is even significantly higher. 2.4. Electrical Diagrams All compressors in addition have an external or an

All compressors in addition have an external or an internal (built-in winding protector) motor protection.

2.5. Lifetime

In general the compressor life depends on how far the compressor is protected against motor overloads. The careful dimensioning of the refrigeration system, a thorough assessment of the operating conditions of the compressor at expected limit of loads. If it is over dimensioned the energy efficiency will be reduced, if it is under dimensioned the lifetime will be reduced.

Long working life and problem free operations of hermetic compressors depend on 4 conditions:

1. The compressor must have enough starting torque to overcome the pressure conditions in the refrigeration system at moment of start.

2. The motor must have sufficient breakdown torque to overcome the loads which occur in connection with start run-ups and during operation.

3. To allow refrigeration systems with LST compressors a pressure equalisation the stand still time is minimum 3 min. often even 5 min. which must be insured by the thermostat.

4. Very important is the well-dimensioned condenser surface and a good ventilation of the compressor. The max. condensing temperature must not exceed 60C, at peak time 70C in the highest ambient temperature. The winding temperature of the compressor motor should not exceed 110C for a R12 system, 120C for an R134a system and 125C for an R600a system plus 10C during short peak loads.

Compressors working with lower voltages as designed for increase their temperature during operation in a way that after few years running the compressor oil becomes greasy so that the mechanical resistance will even increase under the bad electrical power supply conditions and the compressor coil inside the oil will burn down. That is the main reason why the life time of compressors in developing countries are often less than 6 years while in developed countries it is very, very seldom that a compressor in a household refrigerator has to be replaced during the time the refrigerator is used (about 10-12 years in developed countries).

2.6. Heavy Duty

That means such a compressor can even run if the supplied voltages are lower than the nominal and under bad environmental and electrical conditions. This can be reached by increasing the motor power of a compressor with the same nominal displacement capacity: Consequently such a system can be either used also for high evaporating temperatures or for low evaporating temperatures under unstable electrical supplies with under-voltages and frequency (clock) problems.

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Often such heavy duty compressors are over dimensioned in comparison to the nominal refrigeration duty for such application. The oversized compressor will surely increase the energy consumption, but will last much longer.

2.7. Evaporating Temperature

LBP, MBP or HBP letters are used for low, medium and high back pressure to operate in low, medium or high refrigerant evaporating temperatures. In our applications we only use LBP compressors but with different oils and sealing depending which refrigerants are used, for example mineral oil for R600a or R12 and Polyol ester oil for R 134a. The last is hydroscopic and can cause a lot of problems in the manufacturing of R134a refrigerators while the R600a refrigerant can burn and need special precautions regarding electrics to fulfil IEC 600335-2-24 (1997-08) standard.

2.8. Comparison between R134a and R12 Compressors

The thermodynamic properties of R12 and R134a are slightly different. Because of the different curves of the pressure and temperature crossing each other at 20C the volumetric capacity of R134a is below the one of R12 at low boiling conditions while at high boiling conditions it is the opposite.

2.8.1. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagrams of R12 and R134a

Such a refrigeration process as shown in the diagrams (next page) is normally used to determine the nominal LBP capacity on a calorimeter. The conditions have the following specification:

The conditions have the following specification: Evaporating temperature: -25 ∞ C Condensing

Evaporating temperature:

-25C

Condensing temperature:

55C

Inlet throttle device:

55C liquid

Outlet throttle device:

super-heated to 32C

Ambient temperature:

32C

As it can be seen already on the diagrams the latent heat of R134a is considerably higher than the one of R12; that means at a given capacity a lower mass flow. Furthermore different angles of inclination of the borderline between liquid and vapour can be seen in the diagrams. The less steepness of the R134a borderline indicates a capacity advantage in connection with a falling condensing temperature.

2.8.2. A Comparison Test from Danfoss

Such differences can be taken out of the enclosed table from Danfoss (Hermetic LBP refrigerating systems for R134a, September 1990, made on a 5cc compressor. This test was one of the first tests made with R134a (1990) and the R134a compressor and systems where not yet optimised as today. Therefore the efficiency differences to R12 systems are quite high:

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Sections

Parameters

R12

R134a

1.

Enthalpy

Evaporating pressure (-25°C) Condensing pressure (55°C)

bar

1.237

1.067

difference

bar

13.66

14.912

Enthalpy i 2 Enthalpy i 1

(-25°C/32°C)

kJ/kg

373

431

(55°C liquid)

kJ/kg

254

279

Enthalpy difference i 2 - i 1

kJ/kg

119

152

2.

Mass flow

Compressor capacity Mass flow ( capacity/(i 2 - i 1 ) x3600/1000 ) Gas temperature -inlet cylinder Specific volume Volume flow - inlet cylinder

W

95

87

differences

kg/h

2.87

2.06

°C

94

84

m³/kg

0.2

0.28

m³/h

0.57

0.57

3.

Volume flow at

Inlet throttling device Specific volume Volume flow

°C

55

55

the throttle device

dm³/kg

0.841

0.927

dm³/h

2.41

1.91

4.

Sub cooling

Enthalpy i 1 Enthalpy i s

(55°C liquid)

kJ/kg

254

279

influences

(32°C liquid)

kJ/kg

231

244

Enthalpy difference i 1 - i s

kJ/kg

23

35

Capacity with sub cooling to 32°C: Mass flow i 2 -i s kJ/h Capacity without sub cooling to 32°C:Mass flow i 2 -i 1 kj/h Performance relation (i 2 - i s )/(i 2 - i 1 )

407.5

385.5

341.5

313.1

1.19

1.23

Conclusions (Part 1):

1. The enthalpy difference is with R134a considerable larger than with R12. For further details see Chapter 7. Refrigerants.

2. The mass flow can be calculated out of the capacities which have been measured on the 5 cc displacement compressor. If the temperature at the inlet of the cylinder is known it is possible to calculate the volume flow. In our case the temperatures based on practical measurement. Please note the lower temperature level with R134a.

3. The conditions before the throttling device differ between R12 and R134a. The volume flow with R134a is 80% of the volume flow with R12; that means that the resistance of the capillary tube must be increased and the capillary must be adapted to the needed higher pressure difference and lower mass and volume flow. An ideal system is operating in such a way that the refrigerant at the inlet of the capillary tube is as close as possible to the liquid/vapour borderline in the pressure- /enthalpy diagram. For further details see Chapter 4. Capillary tube.

4. The influence of using sub cooling before the throttling device is larger for R134a as for R12 systems. R134a systems with a sub cooling of 32C increases the nominal capacity by about 23% while with R12 the nominal capacity is only increased by

19%.

5. As a thumb rule a given displacement with R134a will have a nominal LBP refrigerating capacity which is 88-90% of that of R12. In few cases it will be possible to use the same displacement with R134a as with R12, but in general it will be necessary to switch to the next bigger displacement.

6. Often the evaporator- and freezer design used for R12 do not need to be modified for the use of R134a. Only by an increase of the displacement which means a bigger nominal capacity and if the previous used condenser was just sufficient it could be necessary to increase the surface of condenser. Also important is for a freezer the more steep inclination of the R134a system in comparison to the R12 system. This means a relatively higher load on the condenser during the pull-down. Therefore the condenser surface of a freezer often have to be increased and some models under tropical conditions which in the past could work without oil coolers with R12 could need now oil coolers which means 30% bigger surface and half used for oil cooling. This can be easily checked if the superheat measured on the condenser side is too high (see in Chapter 3. Condenser, 3.4. Oil cooler, 3.6. Testing condensers).

7. Not to be neglected in the evaporator and condenser design should be the cross sections of channels. The miscibility of refrigerant and oil is important. Ester oil was selected for this reason to be used for R134a; however it is not as perfect as mineral oil for R12 or R600a. Ester oil can pass the circuit. To avoid thermal effects all cross sections should be equal and oil pockets or unnecessary use of parallel channels should be avoided. This is for all refrigerants useful to improve the efficiency but for R134a a must.

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pores). But the thermal reliability and stability of R134a/esteroil systems in comparison to R12/mineral oil systems are better. One severe quality problem of compressors is the humidity already in oil, which should not exceed 1/10 of dryer capacity (about 1g), that means 100mg water (125ppm for 280ml oil).

9. If system components are not changed 10% less R134a charge are needed in comparison to R12.

10. R134a can escape through minor leaks than R12. Therefore higher standards in soldering operations, in sealing the circuit and in leak detection are needed.

By switching from R12 to R134a compressors and by switching from R134a to R600a compressors the leading manufacturers of compressors and also the leading refrigerator producers have made a lot of efforts to improve the energy efficiency of their systems. In comparison to old R12 systems the new CFC free systems are much more efficient and the energy consumption much lower. But some of this improvement cannot be used in developing countries with low voltages and clock problems as some of the new compressors are more sensitive in this aspect as old not optimised ones.

Further details can be taken in the following chapters.

2.8.3. A Comparison Test of R134a and R12 Compressors from National Matsushita

Furthermore please find enclosed the 2 tables with comparison data of reciprocal using a piston and of rotary compressors of National Matsushita for CFC 12 and for HFC 134a refrigerants which came to similar results:

R12 vs. R134a reciprocal compressor comparison (on model

D120LRAA 115V 6HZ0)

R12 vs. R134a rotary compressor comparison on a 13 cu ft (370l) cabinet (Model NR-D37V1)

kWh/day

Energy Consumption

Btu/h

Kcal/h

Capacity

NR-D37V1) kWh/day Energy Consumption Btu/h Kcal/h Capacity Amount of Charge Evaporation Temperature Refrigerant

Amount of Charge

Evaporation Temperature

Refrigerant

CFC-12

HFC-134a

Condenser size

A

A

A+B

Compressor model (100V 60 Hz)

RA48L

RA48L

RA48L

Refrigerant charge

g

185

185

190

Energy consumption acc. to JIS kWh/mo

36.6

38.8

37.1

Base

+6.0%

+1.0%

% Running time

at 30°C % at 15°C %

57.9

63.5

59.0

29.8

31.3

32.9

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At

Freezer

°C

-24.1

-21.0

-23.4

30°C

Fresh food

°C

-15.2

-15.0

-14.0

Cont.

Evaporator inlet

°C

-31.0

-29.0

-30.3

Run

Evaporator outlet

°C

-29.5

-28.5

-29.0

Discharge –2

°C

90.3

85.5

80.0

Shell

°C

97.9

94.0

92.0

Condenser outlet

°C

38.9

39.0

36.7

Condenser pressure kgf/cm²G(psig)

9.8

10.1

9.6

Suction pressure

kgf/cm²G(psig)

1.02

0.89

0.84

Conclusion (Part 2):

Needed Design Improvements

Compressors for R134a need higher power (+7-15%) to reach the same refrigeration capacity in comparison to R12 compressors. To avoid higher costs and energy consumption by switching from R12 to R 134a systems following steps should be made:

from R12 to R 134a systems following steps should be made: 1) Elimination of thermal bridges,

1)

Elimination of thermal bridges,

2)

Improving of condenser efficiency (see National Matsushita table and effect),

3)

often to be realised by an increase of the condenser surface, Improving of evaporator efficiency, especially to avoid oil pockets and reductions of cross sections,

4)

Optimisation of the system.

It will be described later how condensers and evaporators can be improved and the system can be optimised.

We only want to mention how thermal losses can be eliminated. First the door gasket sector, the construction but also the

welding of the door gasket can be improved by avoiding air leakage in the corners and by reducing the space between door and

cabinet.

The construction of this closing sector and of the door gasket can be improved by using specialised companies like Rehau in Erlangen/Germany or Ilpea in Malgesso/Italy, the 2 mayor suppliers of door gaskets in Europe.

We also recommend looking carefully at the construction of the door cabinet section of such refrigerators and freezers which have very low energy consumption to find an optimal own construction.

Last not least areas towards the backside condenser and towards the hot compressor department need bigger insulation as it could easily be seen on the calculation of thermal losses in the previous chapter.

With all these efforts an increase of power of the compressor by switching from R12 to R134a systems can be avoided.

2.9.

Comparison

Tests

of

R600a,

R134a

and

R12 Compressors from Necchi

Necchi has compared in test series different compressors already optimised for the refrigerant used. They have first tested the compressors only with a calorimeter, than they have mounted them on household refrigerators from running productions. Following tests results were achieved:

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2.9.1. Compressor COP Tests

Compressor performance comparison of R600a and R134a were measured on a calorimeter. The R600a compressor performance values contain 2 figures, the first without run capacitor, and the second with run capacitor

R600a

R134a

Model

Displace-

Cooling capa-

Energy efficiency

Model

Displace-

Cooling capa-

Energy efficiency

ment (cc)

city (kcal/h)

ratio(w/w)

ment (cc)

city (kcal/h)

ratio (w/w)

HGTR4.5

4.7

60