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Aim: Operation of a single acting cylinder.

Problem description: The allocating device supplies aluminium valve blanks to a machining station. By operating a push button, the piston rod of the single acting cylinder is made to advance. After releasing the actuating button, the piston rod returns. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, 3/2 way valve with push button normally closed. Working of the circuit: Step 1-2 Through operating the 3/2 way valve via the push button, air is applied to the chamber on the piston rod side of cylinder. The piston rod of the cylinder advances, and pushes a valve blank out of the magazine. If valve continues to be operated, the piston rod remains in the forward end position. Step 2-3 After releasing the valve actuating button, the air in the cylinder is exhausted via the 3/2 way valve. The force of the return spring pushes the piston back to its initial position. The valve blanks are supplied from the magazine by gravity.

Aim: Use of 3/2 way valve with push button normally open type. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, One way flow control valve, Quick exhaust valve, 3/2 way valve with push button normally open type Problem description: The parcel separating device feeds parcel post from a sloping conveyor slide to an X-ray appliance. Operating a push button causes very rapid retraction of the single acting cylinder with the attached parcel tray. After releasing the valve actuator, the piston rod advances. Forward motion time of the cylinder is to be variable. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the single acting cylinder is advanced. The piston chamber is pressurized via the 3/2 way normally open push button valve. Step 1-2 By actuating the 3/2 way push button valve, the volume of air in cylinder is exhausted via the quick exhaust valve. The cylinder returns rapidly. If the push button continues to be actuated, the piston rod remains in the retracted end position. The next parcel slides into the parcel tray. Step 2-3 If the valve actuator is then released, the piston rod advances and lifts the parcel. The desired time of advance is set by means of the one way flow conrol valve.

Aim: Operation of a double acting cylinder, Quick exhaust valve, Dual pressure valve. Problem description: Operation of two identical valves by push button causes the forming tool of an edge folding device to thrust downwards and fold over the edge of a flat sheet. If both or even just one push button is released, double acting cylinder slowly returns to the initial position. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, One way flow control valve, Quick exhaust valve, Single pilot 5/2 valve, Dual pressure valve, 3/2-way valve with push button normally closed 2 Nos. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the piston rod of cylinder assumes the retracted end position. The power valve is in the left hand switching position. Step 1-2 If both the 3/2-way valves are actuated, pressure is applied at the output of the dual pressure valve. The 5/2 way valve reverses. The piston chamber of cylinder is supplied with unrestricted compressed air via the one way flow control valve. The cylinder travels to its forward end position. As the chamber on the piston rod side is rapidly exhausted through the quick exhaust valve, the cylinder motion is very fast. If both 3/2 way valves remain actuated, the cylinder remains in the forward end position. Step 2-3 If at least one of the push buttons is released, power valve is no longer pressurized. The valve reverses through the spring. The actuator travels to its initial position under conditions of flow restriction.

Aim: Use of dual pressure valve, Shuttle valve, Double pilot 5/2 way valve Problem description: Surveyors measuring rods in 3 or 5 m length are marked in red with 200 mm graduations. There is a choice of two push buttons to start the forward movement of measuring rods via cylinder, which has the exhaust air throttled. The idle stroke, also started by a push button, can only take place when the double acting cylinder has reached its forward end position. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, One way flow control valve, Double pilot 5/2 valve, Dual pressure valve, Shuttle valve, 3/2-way valve with push button normally closed 3 Nos., 3/2-way roller lever valve normally closed. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the piston rod of cylinder assumes the retracted end position. The pilot operated 5/2 way bi-stable valve with memory supplies air to the piston rod chamber and exhausts the chamber on the inlet side of the piston. Step 1-2 If at least one of the 3/2 way push button valves is actuated, memory valve reverses and the piston rod advances slowly with throttled exhaust air - with this the surveyors measuring rod is pushed forward. In the forward end position, the piston rod actuates the roller lever valve by means of the trip cam. If no push button has been actuated, the cylinder remains in the forward end position. Step 2-3 After pressing the push button of the directly actuated 3/2 way valve for the return stroke, memory valve reverses the piston rod is rapidly retracted. The commencement of the return stroke through the push button can be initiated only when the forward end position has been reached and roller lever valve thus actuated. If a counter signal is present at 5/2-way valve, the return stroke can not be initiated.

Aim: Use of time delay valve normally closed. Problem description: A double acting cylinder guides cylinder pins towards a measuring device. The pins are separated by means of a continuous to and fro movement. The oscillating motion can be started by means of a valve with selector switch. The duration of forward stroke and return stroke of the cylinder is to be adjustable. The cylinder is to remain in the forward end position for t = 5 seconds. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, One way flow control valve-2 Nos, Double pilot 5/2 valve, 5/2 way valve with selector switch, Dual pressure valve, 3/2-way roller lever valve normally closed 2 Nos, Time delay valve normally closed. Working of the circuit: In the initial position the piston rod of the cylinder assumes the retracted position. The trip cam actuates the roller lever valve. One of the two start conditions is fulfilled. Step 1-2 If the detented valve is actuated, the second condition of the dual-pressure valve is fulfilled, and the final control element is switched through. The piston rod extends with exhaust air throttled. The duration of the advance stroke is adjusted with one way flow control valve. In the forward end position, the trip cam actuates the roller lever valve. The time delay valve is pressurized. The reservoir is filled via the restrictor. After the set time of t = 5.0 seconds, the 3/2 way valve of the time delay valve is switched. A one signal is present at the output port. The final control element returns to its initial position. Step 2-3 Reversing the memory valve causes the piston rod to retract with exhaust air throttled. The duration of return stroke is set by means of the one way flow control valve. When the roller lever valve is re actuated, the return stroke is carried out. Continuous cycle If the start valve is de pressed and remains in the actuated position, the piston rod carries out a continuous to and fro movement. Only when the detent is returned to its initial position, is the motion sequence concluded at the end of the cycle.

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Aim: Use of pressure sequence valve normally closed. Problem description: Badges are to be produced from a very thin metal sheet. A press with a stamping die is available for this purpose. The double acting cylinder should extend when both the push buttons S1 and S2 are pressed simultaneously. The return stroke is to occur automatically only after the forward end position and preset pressure have been reached to get the consistent quality. The cylinder should immediately retract if emergency push button E is pressed. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, Pressure gauge, One way flow control valve, Dual pressure valve, Shuttle valve, Double pilot 5/2 way valve, 3/2 way valve with push button normally closed 2 Nos. , 3/2-way roller lever valve normally closed, Pressure sequence valve. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the cylinder assumes the retracted end position. The final control valve supplies pressure to the chamber on the piston rod side of the cylinder. Step 1-2 If both the push buttons are actuated, the dual pressure valve passes on a signal to the 5/2 way valve on its left side. This causes the reversal of the final control element. The cylinder extends slowly with supply air throttled. The pressure regulator limits the pressure to a maximum of p = 4 bar. In the forward end position, the trip cam of the cylinder actuates the roller lever valve S1. This causes pressure to be applied to the pressure sequence valve. The pressure sequence valve is actuated when a pressure of p = 3 bar has been reached in the piston chamber. Adjust the flow control so that the slow increase in pressure causes the cylinder to pause in the forward end position. Step 2-3 Once the pressure sequence valve has been switched, the final control element is reversed through the shuttle valve. The cylinder travels to its initial start position. In the case of emergency, the push button valve E is actuated during the forward stroke. It will reverse final control element immediately and the cylinder will retract.

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Aim: Use of pressure sequence valve normally closed and time delay valve. Problem description: An electrically heated welding rail is pressed onto a rotatable cold drum by a double acting cylinder and welds a continuous plastic sheet into pieces of tubing. The forward stroke is triggered by means of a push button. The maximum cylinder force is set at 4 bar via a pressure regulator with pressure gauge (This prevents the welding rail damaging the metal drum). The return stroke is not initiated until the forward end position has been acknowledged and the pressure in the piston area has reached 3 bar. The supply air is restricted for the movement of the cylinder. Restarting is only possible when the retracted end position has been reached and a time of t = 2 seconds has elapsed. Reversing a 5/2 way valve with selector switch causes the control to be switched to continuous cycle. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, One way flow control valve, Pressure gauge, Dual pressure valve, Shuttle valve, Double pilot 5/2 valve, 5/2 way valve with selector switch, 3/2-way valve with push button normally closed, 3/2-way roller lever valve normally closed 2 Nos, Time delay valve normally closed, Pressure sequence valve. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the cylinder assumes the retracted end position. The final control valve supplies pressure to the chamber on the piston rod side of the cylinder. The roller lever valve is depressed and the time delay valve is actuated. A one signal is present at the right hand input of the dual pressure valve. Step 1-2 If the push button is actuated, the shuttle valve passes on a signal to the dual pressure valve. This causes the reversal of the final control element. The cylinder extends slowly with supply air throttled. The pressure regulator limits the pressure to a maximum of p = 4 bar. In the forward end position, the trip cam of the cylinder actuates the roller lever valve. This causes pressure to be applied to the pressure sequence valve. The pressure sequence valve is actuated when a pressure of p = 3 bar has been reached in the piston chamber. Adjust the flow control so that the slow increase in pressure causes the cylinder to pause in the forward end position. Step 2-3 Once the pressure sequence valve has been switched, the final control element is reversed. The cylinder travels to its initial start position. Re actuation of the roller lever valve causes power to be supplied to the pilot port of the time delay valve. Once the specified time of t = 2 seconds has elapsed, the dual pressure valve is supplied with air to the right of the time delay valve so that a renewed start is possible. Continuous cycle If the selector switch of the valve is reversed, the control is switched to continuous cycle. Returning the detent to its initial position causes the control to stop at the end of the cycle.

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Aim: Controlling the stroke length of a double acting cylinder using roller lever valve. Problem description: After the liquid paint colors have been poured together into a bucket, they are mixed in by the vibrating machine. When a push button has been pressed, the extended cylinder retracts completely and executes a to and fro movement in the rear stroke range. The oscillating is limited to the retracted end position by a roller lever valve as well as a second roller lever valve in the central position. The frequency of oscillating is adjustable within its limits by setting a pressure regulator controlling the amount of air supply. Set an operating pressure of p = 4 bar. After a specified interval, the oscillator is switched off. The double acting cylinder extends completely and actuates the third roller lever valve. Set a vibration time of t = 5 seconds. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, Double pilot 5/2 way valve 2 Nos., Shuttle valve, 3/2-way valve with push button normally closed, 3/2-way roller lever valve normally closed 3 Nos, Time delay valve normally closed. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the cylinder assumes the forward end position and actuates the roller lever valve. The final control element assumes the right hand switching status. The memory valve is also in the right hand switching position. Step 1-2 Actuating the push button valve reverses the memory valve. Air is present at the pilot port of the time delay valve. The final control element is reversed via the actuated roller lever valve and the shuttle valve; the cylinder retracts. Traveling over the roller lever valve does not yet have any effect. The trip cam actuates the roller lever valve in the retracted end position. Step 2-3 With the roller lever valve actuated, the final control element reverses. The cylinder partially extends and actuates the central roller lever valve. Step 3-4 The cylinder is reversed again by actuation of the central roller lever valve. The reversing procedure for the valves, and lasts only a few milliseconds so that the trip cam does not travel over the roller lever valve. Step 4-5 See step 2-3 Oscillating movement The cylinder oscillates backwards and forwards between the roller lever valves until the specified time of t = 5 seconds has expired. Steps n-2 to n After the time delay valve has been switched, the memory valve is reversed. Roller lever valves are no longer supplied with compressed air. The cylinder travels to the initial position (forward end position).

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Aim: Use of pneumatic counter Problem description: Washers for injection pumps are to be cleaned in a cleaning bath. A double acting cylinder is used to dip a container with washers in and out of the cleaning bath. A push button is used to start the cleaning cycle. After reaching the forward end position, cylinder should oscillate between roller lever valves S2 and S3 for 10 times and on completion should stop in retracted position, S1. Next cycle should be possible only after 20 seconds. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, Double pilot 5/2 way valve 2 Nos., Shuttle valve, 3/2-way valve with push button normally closed, 3/2-way roller lever valve normally closed 3 Nos., Time delay valve normally closed, pneumatic counter. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the cylinder assumes the retracted position position and actuates the roller lever valve S1. The final control element assumes the left hand switching status. Step 1-2 Compressed air will be available in the inlet side of the push button valve after a delay time set in the time delay valve. Actuating the push button valve reverses the memory valve and the cylinder will extend. Traveling over the roller lever valve S2 will give signal to the counter to decrement. At the end of the stroke roller lever valve S3 gets pressed. Step 2-3 With the roller lever valve S3 actuated, the final control element reverses. The cylinder retracts and actuates the central roller lever valve S2. Step 3-4 The cylinder is reversed again by actuation of the central roller lever valve. The reversing procedure for the valves, and lasts only a few milliseconds so that the trip cam does not travel over the roller lever valve. Step 4-5 See step 2-3 Oscillating movement The cylinder oscillates forwards and backwards between the roller lever valves until the counter gets decremented to zero. Steps n-2 to n When the counter gets decremented to zero due to the actuation of S2, the counter will release an output signal and reverse position of the memory valve(with port no. 4 blocked). Roller lever valve S2 is no longer supplied with compressed air. After actuation of S3, the cylinder will retract and pressing of S2 will not have any effect. The air supply from the output of time delay valve will reset the counter and counter output again gets blocked. The cylinder will retract to the initial position and press S1 and will be ready for the next cycle after the time delay.

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Aim: Simultaneous actuation of multiple cylinders. Problem description: Quarry stones are fed from a crushing roller to two vibrating sieves by means of an overhead conveyor belt. The fine upper sieves oscillate in opposing push pull motion to the coarser lower screen. The sieve oscillating frequency of the two double acting cylinders is set to f = 1 Hz via the quantity of air supplied in load dependent relation. Reversal takes place in the retracted end position via two roller lever valves. A third single acting cylinder unclogs the sieves via two cables. The stone sorter is switched on and off by a valve with selector switch. Apparatus: Double acting cylinders 2 Nos., Single acting cylinder, Double pilot 5/2 way valve 3 Nos., 3/2-way roller lever valve normally closed 2 Nos, 5/2 way valve with selector switch Working of the circuit: In the initial position, double acting cylinder A(upper sieve) and single acting cylinder C (unclogger) assume the retracted end position; the double acting cylinder B(lower sieve) rests in the forward end position. Roller lever valve 1 is actuated. Step 1-2 After operation of the valve with selector switch final control elements (double pilot 5/2 way valves) are reversed. Cylinders A and C move forward. Cylinder B retracts and actuates the roller lever valve. Step 2-3 Through the actuation of roller lever valve 2, all final control elements again reverse. Cylinder B moves forward. Cylinder C retracts. Cylinder A likewise retracts and again actuates the roller lever valve 1. Continuous cycle As long as the 5/2 way valve with selector switch remains in the switched condition, the motion sequence will be repeated. If the valve is brought to the initial start position, the system remains in its initial position at the end of a cycle.

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Aim: Simultaneous actuation of multiple cylinders. Problem description: Pieces of stainless steel sheet of 0.6 mm thickness are placed by hand into the input station. After a valve has been operated by push button, the ejector cylinder retracts with exhaust air restricted while, at the same time, clamping cylinder also advances with its exhaust air restricted; the sieve blank is pushed along and clamped. The time for retraction of ejector cylinder and extension of clamping cylinder is to be adjustable. During an adjustable clamping time of t = 5 seconds, a laser cutting head produces a fine mesh sieve. After this operation, the clamping cylinder is retracted without restriction, following which the ejector cylinder pushes out the finished sieve, which is free of burred edges by a forward thrusting action. Apparatus: Double acting cylinders 2 Nos., Double pilot 5/2 way valve 3 Nos., 3/2way roller lever valve normally closed 3 Nos, 3/2 way valve with push button normally closed, One way flow control valve 2 Nos., Quick exhaust valve, Time delay valve normally closed. Working of the circuit: In the initial position, the reversing valve supplies air to the line S2. The clamping cylinder is retracted and actuates the roller lever valve. Ejector cylinder is advanced and actuates the roller lever valve. Step 1-2 If push button is operated, reversing valve switches and supplies air to line S1, line S2 is exhausted. Both power valves are reversed. The ejector cylinder is retracted with its exhaust air restricted; at the same time clamping cylinder goes forward, likewise with exhaust air restricted and actuates roller lever valve. Clamping time t1 = 0.5 seconds is set by means of one way flow control valves. Actuation of roller lever valve supplies pressure to the pilot port of time delay valve. During the set clamping time of t 2 = 5 seconds, the air reservoir of the time delay valve is filled. Step 2-3 Switching through time delay valve actuates reversing valve. Line S2 is pressurized, line S1 exhausted. After reversal of power valve, clamping cylinder is retracted without restriction and, in its retracted end position, actuates roller lever valve. Step 3-4 After the actuation of roller lever valve, power valve is reversed. Ejector cylinder advances rapidly. The fast forward motion is achieved through quick exhaust valve and the shortest possible length of tubing between the cylinder and quick exhaust valve.

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Aim: Direct and indirect actuation of a single acting cylinder. Problem description: By using a turning device parts are to be further transported on a conveyor track facing the right direction. By pressing the push button switch parts are turned by the piston rod of a cylinder and proceed, correctly positioned. When the push button is released the piston rod is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, 3/2 way single solenoid valve normally closed, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off. Working of the circuit: Direct actuation: By pressing the push button switch S1, the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 3/2 way solenoid valve is actuated. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder advances to the forward end position. After releasing the pushbutton switch S1, the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 3/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod returns to its rear end position. Indirect actuation: By pressing the push button switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the contact K1 is made. The electric circuit for solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 3/2 way solenoid valve is actuated. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder advances to the forward end position. After releasing the pushbutton switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the contact K1 is brought to its normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 3/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod returns to the retracted end position.

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Aim: Actuation of double acting cylinder using single solenoid 5/2 way valve. Problem description: Using a lid lifting device snap on lids is to be pressed onto plastic buckets. By pressing a push button switch the domed press is advanced and the snap-on lid is pressed on. When the push button switch is released, the domed press is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way single solenoid valve normally closed, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the contact K1 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances to the forward end position. After releasing the push button switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the contact K1 is returned to the normal position. The electric circuit for solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod returns to the retracted end position. The circuit is rigged up for the double acting cylinder also.

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Aim: Use of AND logic, direct actuation. Problem description: In an assembly station components are to be put together. By pressing two pushbutton switches the device is advanced and the components are assembled. After releasing the pushbutton switches, the device is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way single solenoid valve normally closed, Electrical signal input plate. Working of the circuit: By pressing the push button switches S1 and S2, the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is released. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder advances to the forward end position. After releasing the pushbutton switches S1 and S2 the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position by a reset spring. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder returns to the retracted end position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod returns to the retracted end position. The circuit is rigged up for the double acting cylinder also.

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Aim: Use of AND logic, indirect actuation. Problem description: Using a cutting device sheets of paper are to be cut to size. By pressing two push button switches the cutting blade is advanced and the sheet of paper is cut. After releasing one pushbutton switch the cutting blade is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way single solenoid valve normally closed, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton S1 and S2 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the contact K1 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder advances to the forward end position. After releasing the push button switch S1 or S2 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the contact K1 is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder returns to the retracted end position. The circuit is rigged up for the double acting cylinder also.

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Aim: Use of OR logic, indirect actuation. Problem description: Using a tipping device liquid is to be poured from a vat. By pressing a pushbutton switch the vat is tilted and the liquid is emptied. After releasing then pushbutton switch the vat is returned to the upright position. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way single solenoid valve normally closed, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton switch S1 or S2 the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder returns to the retracted end position. After releasing the pushbutton switch S1 and S2 the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position by means of the reset spring. The piston rod of the single acting cylinder advances to the forward end position. The circuit is rigged up for the double acting cylinder also.

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Aim: Control of a double acting cylinder using 5/2 way double solenoid valve. Problem Description: Bulk material is to be emptied from a hopper. By pressing a push button switch the hopper is opened and the bulk material is emptied out. By pressing another push button switch the hopper is closed again, Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve normally closed, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the contact K1 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances to the forward end position. After releasing push button switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the contact K1 is brought into the normal position thereby opening the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1. By pressing the pushbutton switch S2 the electric circuit for the relay K2 is closed and the contact K2 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder returns to the retracted end position. After releasing the push button switch S2 the electric circuit for the relay K2 is opened and the contact K2 is brought into the normal position thereby opening the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2.

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Aim: Indirect actuation with reversal by means of an electrical limit switch. Problem Description: Parts are to be pushed away from a multi track gravity feed magazine into a clamping device. By pressing a push button switch the parts are pushed out of the multi track gravity feed magazine by a slide. After the slide has reached the forward end position it is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off, Limit switch electrical actuated from the left. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the contact K1 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. When the pushbutton switch S1 is released the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the contact K1 is brought to the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances to the forward end position and actuates limit switch S2. The electric circuit for the relay K2 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder returns to its rear end position. The electric circuit for the relay K2 is opened and the contact K2 is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is opened.

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Aim: Double acting cylinder, direct actuation with oscillating motion of the piston rod. Problem Description: Using a conveyor belt, parts are to be transported in linear timed sequence to work stations which are arranged in line after one another. When the latching push button switch is pressed the main wheel is indexed by the oscillating piston rod of a cylinder via a pawl. When the pushbutton switch is pressed again the drive is switched off. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Limit switch electrical actuated from the left, Limit switch electrical actuated from the right. Working of the circuit: When latching pushbutton switch S3 is pressed the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances to the forward end position and switches limit switch S2. After leaving the rear end position, the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened via limit switch S1. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is closed via limit switch S2 and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder returns to its retracted end position and switches limit switch S1. After leaving the forward end position, the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed by means of limit switch S1 via the actuated latching pushbutton switch S3. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances again to the forward end position.

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Aim: Double acting cylinder indirect actuation with oscillating motion of the piston rod. Problem : Using a rotary indexing table plastic containers is to be separated in linear sequence. By pressing a pushbutton switch the oscillating piston rod of a cylinder drives the rotary table in sequence via a pawl. When the push button is pressed again, this drive is switched off. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off, Limit switch electrical actuated from the left, Limit switch electrical actuated from the right. Working of the circuit: By pressing the latching pushbutton switch S3 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the contact K1 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances to the forward end position and switches limit switch S2. After leaving the retracted end position, the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened via limit switch S1 and the contact K1 is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the relay K2 is closed by means of limit switch S2 and the contact K2 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder returns to the retracted end position and switches limit switch S1. After leaving the forward end position the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is opened by means of limit switch S2. The electric circuit for the relay K1 is again closed via the limit switch S1 by means of the latched pushbutton switch S3 and the contact K1 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances again to the forward end position.

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Aim: Electric latching circuit with dominating switch-off signal for actuation of single acting cylinder and double acting cylinder. Problem : Using a sliding table a plank of wood is to be pushed under a belt sanding machine. By pressing a push button switch the sliding table with the plank of wood positioned on it is pushed under the belt sanding machine. By pressing another push button switch the sliding table is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, Double acting cylinder, 3/2 way single solenoid valve, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton switch S1(ON) the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed via the un actuated pushbutton switch S2(OFF) and the bank of contacts is made. The latching circuit with contact K1 keeps the electric circuit closed for the relay K1 after the release of the pushbutton switch S1(ON). The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed with contact K1 and the 3/2(5/2) way solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the single acting(double acting) cylinder advances to the forward end position. By pressing pushbutton switch S2 (OFF) the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the bank of contacts is brought to the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 3/2 (5/2) way solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the single acting (double acting) cylinder returns to the retracted end position.

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Aim: Electric latching circuit with dominating switch-on signal for actuation of single acting cylinder and double acting cylinder. Problem : Parts are to be clamped using a clamping device. By pressing a pushbutton switch the moveable claming jaw is pushed forward and the part is clamped. By pressing another pushbutton switch the clamping jaw is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, Double acting cylinder, 3/2 way single solenoid valve, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton switch S1 (ON) the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the bank of contacts is made. The latching circuit with contact K1 via the unactuated pushbutton switch S2(OFF) keeps the electric circuit closed for the relay K1 after the release of the pushbutton switch S1(ON). The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed via the contact K1 and the 3/2 (5/2) way solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the single acting (double acting) cylinder advances to the forward end position. By pressing the pushbutton switch S2(OFF) the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the bank of contacts is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 3/2(5/2) way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of the single acting(double acting) cylinder returns to the retracted end position.

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Aim: Oscillating motion of the piston rod of a double acting cylinder with monitoring of the end position by means of magnetic proximity sensors. Problem : Using a diverting device parts are to be removed from one conveyor track onto another in linear sequence. By pressing a pushbutton switch the oscillating piston rod of a cylinder pushes the turntable via a pawl in stepped sequence. The parts are diverted and transported onwards in the opposite direction. By pressing another pushbutton switch the drive unit is switched off. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off, Magnetic proximity switches with cylinder mounting. Working of the circuit: By pressing the pushbutton switch S1(ON) the electric circuit is closed for relay K1 via the unactuated pushbutton switch S2(OFF) and the bank of contacts is made. After releasing pushbutton switch S1(ON) the electric circuit for the relay K1 is kept closed via the latching circuit with contact K1. The electric circuit for the relay K2 is closed with contact K1 and the contact K2 is actuated. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances to the forward end position position actuating sensor B2. After leaving the rear end position, the electric circuit for the relay K2 is opened via sensor B1 and the contact K2 is brought to the normal position. The electric circuit for the relay K3 is closed via sensor B2 and the contact K3 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod returns to the rear end position and actuates sensor B1. After leaving the forward end position the electric circuit for relay K3 is opened via sensor B2 and the contact K3 is brought to the normal position. The electric circuit for the relay K2 is closed via sensor B1 and the contact K2 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances again to the forward end position. By pressing the pushbutton switch S2(OFF), the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened and the bank of contacts is brought to the normal position.

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Aim: Pressure dependent reversal with monitoring of the end position by means of magnetic proximity switches. Problem : Using a hot pressing die, packing material is to be sealed by application of heat and pressure. By pressing a push button switch the heating rail is advanced and the packing material is heated along the adhesive strip. After the adhesion pressure has been reached, the heating coil is returned to its start position. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, Pneumatic to electric converter, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Pressure gauge, One way flow control valve, Electrical signal input plate, Electrical indicator and distributor plate, Relay 3-off, Magnetic proximity switches with cylinder mounting. Working of the circuit: By pressing the push button switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the bank of contacts is made. After releasing the pushbutton switch S1 the electric circuit for the relay K1 remains closed via the latching circuit with contact K1. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed with contact K1 and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder advances to the forward end position and actuates sensor B2. After leaving the rear end position, the sensor B1 opens the electric circuit for the relay K1 and the bank of contacts is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid Y1 is opened. When the pre set switching pressure has been reached in the supply line of the double acting cylinder, the pressure switch B3 is actuated. The electric circuit for the relay K2 is closed and the bank of contacts is made. The electric circuit for the indicating lamp H1 is closed via contact K2. At the same time the electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is closed with contact K2 and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of the double acting cylinder returns to the retracted end position and actuates sensor B1. After leaving the forward end position, the electric circuit for the relay K2 is opened via sensor B2 and the bank of contacts is brought into the normal position. The electric circuits for the indicating lamp H1 and the solenoid coil Y2 are opened. After the switching pressure has been reduced, the pressure switch B1 is brought into its initial position by means of a reset spring.

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Aim: Coordinated motion control of multiple cylinders with auxiliary conditions. Problem : Using a transfer station blocks are to be transferred from a magazine to a processing station. The blocks are pushed out of the magazine by cylinder A and transferred to the processing station by cylinder B. The piston rod of cylinder B may only return when the piston rod of cylinder A has reached the retracted end position. The magazine is monitored by means of a limit switch. If there are no more blocks in the magazine, it is not possible to start the cycle. This is indicated by means of an audible signal. The control is to be operated in a single cycle. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder 2 Nos., 5/2 way double solenoid valve 2 Nos., Electrical signal input plate, Electrical indicator and distributor plate, Relay 3-off, Proximity switch with cylinder mounting. Working of the circuit: In the circuit, the limit switch S3 is replaced by the latching pushbutton switch on the electrical signal input plate. Empty magazine: When the latching pushbutton switch S3 is un actuated the electric circuit for the audible indicator H1 is closed via contact S3. The electric current supply for the main circuit is switched off via contact S3. Full magazine: When the latching pushbutton switch S3 is actuated the electric circuit for the audible indicator H1 is opened via contact S3. The electric current supply for the main circuit is switched off via contact S3. By pressing the pushbutton switch S4 the electric circuit for the relay K1 is closed and the bank of contacts made. When the pushbutton switch S4 is released, the electric circuit for the relay K1 remains closed via the latching circuit with K1. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is closed with contact K1 and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of cylinder A advances to the forward end position and actuates sensor B2. The electric circuit for the relay K2 is closed and the contact K2 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is reversed. The piston rod of cylinder B advances to the forward end position and actuates limit switch S2. After leaving the retracted end position the electric circuit for the relay K1 is opened via limit switch S1 and the bank of contacts is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y1 is opened and the 5/2 way solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of cylinder A returns to the retracted end position and actuates sensor B1. After leaving the forward end position the electric circuit for the relay K2 is opened via sensor B2, and the contact K2 is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y2 is opened. The electric circuit for the relay K3 is closed and the

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contact K3 is made. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y3 is closed and the 5/2 way double solenoid valve is switched back to its initial position. The piston rod of cylinder B returns to the retracted end position. The electric circuit for the relay K3 is opened via limit switch S2 and the contact K3 is brought into the normal position. The electric circuit for the solenoid coil Y3 is opened.

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Aim: Use of proximity sensors. Problem: A station is to be used to check whether the lids of cans are present. If a can without a lid is encountered, this must be pushed one side by a pneumatic cylinder. The lids and cans are interrogated by means of sensors. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, 3/2 way single solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off, Inductive proximity switch, Capacitive proximity switch. Working of the circuit: In the circuit, when a metallic object (presence of metallic can) is placed in front of the inductive proximity sensor B, the electric circuit for relay K2 is closed and the contact K2 is closed. When a metallic/non metallic object (presence of metallic/non metallic cap) is placed in front of the capacitive proximity sensor A, the electric circuit for relay K1 is closed and the contact K1 is opened. When a can without a lid is presented in front of the sensors, the solenoid Y1 gets energized due to the current flowing through the normally closed contact K1 and normally open contact K2 getting closed due to the presence of can. The solenoid coil Y1 gets energized and single acting cylinder extends forward.

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Aim: Use of proximity sensors. Problem: A pneumatic cylinder is used to stamp a notch in the work piece. The stamping operation must be initiated when two of three signal generators are activated. The signal components a, b and c are fitted to provide sensing functions. When the work piece is removed from the device, the cylinder returns to its rearmost end position. Solve the problem by using single acting cylinder and double acting cylinder. Apparatus: Single acting cylinder, Double acting cylinder, 3/2 way single solenoid valve, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3-off, Inductive proximity sensor, Capacitive proximity sensor, Optical proximity sensor. Working of the circuit: Single acting cylinder: In the circuit, when a metallic object (presence of work piece) is placed in front of any two of the sensors, the corresponding relays get energized. The relay contacts get closed and solenoid coil Y1 gets energized and the single acting cylinder extends. When the object is removed from the front of sensors, the solenoid Y1 gets de energized due to the relay contacts getting opened. The piston of the cylinder retracts to its initial position Double acting cylinder: In the circuit, when a metallic object (presence of work piece) is placed in front of any two of the sensors, the corresponding relays get energized. The relay contacts get closed and solenoid coil Y1 gets energized and the double acting cylinder extends. When the object is removed from the front of sensors, the solenoid Y1 gets de energized due to the relay contacts getting opened. The piston of the cylinder retracts to its initial position When the object is removed from the front of sensors, the current will flow through the normally closed contacts of the relays and the solenoid Y2 gets de energized. The piston of the cylinder retracts to its initial position

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Aim: Use of pressure to electric converter. Problem: Articles are to be stamped using a stamping device. By pressing two push buttons simultaneously the movable stamping die is pushed down and the article is stamped. After desired pressure is reached the die returns to its initial position even though the push buttons are still pressed. Next cycle should be possible only after the push buttons are released. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Pressure gauge, One way flow control valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3 off 2 Nos., Pressure to electric converter, Timer relay, Limit switch right actuated. Working of the circuit: When both the push buttons are pressed simultaneously, the relay coils K1 and K2 get energized and they in turn energise coil K3. Solenoid coil Y1 gets energized and piston extends to the forward position. The limit switch S1 gets pressed and energise the pressure to electric (P/E) converter. Once the preset pressure is reached, the P/E converter gives output and the relay coil K5 gets energized. The relay contact K5 closes and energise solenoid coil Y2. The piston retracts to rear end position. The next cycle is possible only after the push buttons are released. This is ensured by the use of ON delay timer K4. When both push buttons are pressed simultaneously, the normally closed contact of the ON delay timer K4 gets opened after the delay time. Thus the solenoid coil Y1 gets de energized.

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Aim: Use of ON delay timer. Problem: A double acting cylinder is used for embossing the slide rules. The cylinder extends only when both the push buttons are pressed simultaneously within three seconds to ensure complete safety of the operator. (i.e. both hands must be out of danger area when starting The cylinder should retract immediately if any of the push button is released. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3 off, Timer relay Working of the circuit: When both the push buttons are pressed simultaneously, the relay coils K1 and K2 energize the relay K3. The relay contact K3 closes and solenoid coil Y1 gets energized. The piston of the double acting cylinder extends to the forward position. If both the push buttons are not pressed simultaneously within the time preset in the ON delay timer, the normally closed contact of ON delay timer K4 opens and the solenoid coil Y1 will not get energized. If any one of the push button is released, the solenoid Y2 gets energized through normally closed contact of relay coil K3 and piston of the cylinder will retract.

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Aim: Use of ON delay timer. Problem: A push button is to control the forward stroke. After the piston rod has reached the forward end position, the components are to be pressed together for 20 seconds. Then the piston rod is to return automatically to initial position. The return stroke must occur even if the start push button is still depressed. A new start signal may only become effective after the initial position has been reached and after the push button has been released. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3 off, Timer relay, Limit switch right actuated, Limit switch left actuated, Working of the circuit: When the push button is pressed, the relay coil K1 gets energized and the relay contact K1 closes. The solenoid coil Y1 gets energized and the piston rod of the cylinder starts extending. At the end of the stroke, the limit switch S2 gets pressed and ON delay timer K2 gets energized after the preset delay time. The timer relay contact closes and the solenoid coil Y2 gets energized. The piston of the cylinder starts retracting. Before this solenoid coil Y1 gets de energized due to the normally closed contact K2 breaking the current path to Y1.Thus the return stroke will occur even if the push button is pressed. The new start cycle will occur only after the initial position has been reached and after the push button has been released. This is ensured by breaking the power supply to Y1 by the normally closed contact of on delay timer K5.

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Aim: Use of electrical counter Problem: Washers for injection pumps are to be cleaned in a cleaning bath. A double acting cylinder is used to dip a container with washers in and out of the cleaning bath. A push button is used to start the cleaning cycle. After reaching the forward end position, cylinder should oscillate between reed switch S2 and limit switch S3 for 10 times and on completion should stop in retracted position and actuate limit switch,S1. Next cycle should be possible only after 20 sec. Apparatus: Double acting cylinder, 5/2 way double solenoid valve, Electrical signal input plate, Relay 3 off, Timer relay, Electric Counter, Limit switch left actuated, Limit switch right actuated, Magnetic proximity sensor. Working of the circuit: The limit switch S1 is in the actuated position and on delay timer will get energized after the delay time. The timer contacts K1 will close and the counter gets reset. When the push button is pressed, the solenoid coil Y1 gets energized and cylinder will start extending. When piston moves in the region of reed switch S2, the relay coil K2 gets energized, the relay contact K2 closes. The counter relay K3 will get input and gets decremented by one. At the end of the stroke, limit switch S3 gets pressed, solenoid coil Y2 gets energized and the piston rod starts retracting. When the piston rod moves over S2, the relay coil K2 gets energized and the solenoid coil Y1 will get energized due to the relay contact K2 getting closed. Again the counter gets decremented by one. In the tenth forward stroke when S2 gets actuated, the counter will get decremented to zero and counter relay coil K3 will give output. K3 contact will open and actuation of S2 during the last return stroke will not have any effect on the memory valve. The piston retracts to the initial position and the counter gets reset due to the actuation of limit switch S1.

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Aim: To study the characteristic of a hydraulic pump. Apparatus: Hydraulic power pack, Relief valve, Pressure gauge, Flow measuring jar, Hydraulic hoses. Working of the circuit: Construct the circuit according to diagram. Loosen knob of the relief valve completely and start the pump. Measure flow rate of and note down the pressure. Vary the pressure by rotating knob of relief valve and measure flow rate. For different pressures, measure oil flow rate. Plot the curve of oil flow rate Q verses pressure P. Conclusion:

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Aim: Understanding the mode of operation of 4/2 directional control valve. Apparatus: Hydraulic power pack, Relief valve, Double acting cylinder, 4/2 direction control valve, Hydraulic hoses, Pressure gauge. Working of the circuit: Construct the circuit according to diagram. Set the system pressure to the desired value by using the relief valve. To extend cylinder out, bring the lever to position a. Here port P is connected to A and B to T. To retract the cylinder, bring the lever to position b. Here port P is connected to B and A to T. Pressure reading will show maximum when stroke completes in each position. Conclusion:

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Aim: Understanding the mode of operation of 4/3 directional control valve. Apparatus: Hydraulic power pack, Relief valve, Double acting cylinder, 4/3 direction control valve, Hydraulic hoses, Pressure gauge. Working of the circuit: Construct the circuit according to diagram. Set the system pressure to the desired value by using the relief valve. To extend cylinder out, bring the lever to position a. Here port P is connected to A and B to T. To stop the cylinder movement at any instant, bring the lever to O position. In this position all the ports are shorted, that means pressure line P is connected to T, A and B. Hence no pressurized oil flows in any of the port. To retract the cylinder, bring the lever to position b. Here port P is connected to B and A to T. Pressure reading will show maximum when stroke completes in each position. Conclusion:

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Aim: Understanding flow control in the inlet side of the cylinder (meter in flow control) to study advantages and disadvantages. Apparatus: Hydraulic power pack, Relief valve, Double acting cylinder, 4/3 direction control valve, Hydraulic hoses, One way flow control valve, Pressure gauge. Working of the circuit: Construct the circuit according to diagram. Set the system pressure to the desired value by using the relief valve. With O position in 4/3 directional control valve, all ports are shorted. Adjust the knob of the one way flow control valve to the required value. Switch on the pump. Bring the lever of 4/3 directional control valve into a position, cylinder will extend out with certain speed depending upon setting in flow control valve. By bringing lever into b position, cylinder will retard freely unaffected by setting in the flow control valve. Conclusion:

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Aim: Understanding flow control in the outlet side of the cylinder (meter out flow control) to study advantages and disadvantages of the circuit. Apparatus: Hydraulic power pack, Relief valve, Double acting cylinder, 4/3 direction control valve, Hydraulic hoses, One way flow control valve, Pressure gauge. Working of the circuit: Construct the circuit according to diagram. Set the system pressure to the desired value by using the relief valve. With O position in 4/3 directional control valve, all ports are shorted. Adjust the knob of the one way flow control valve to the required value. Switch on the pump. Bring the lever of 4/3 directional control valve into a position, cylinder will extend out with certain speed depending upon setting in flow control valve. By bringing lever into b position, cylinder will retard freely unaffected by setting in the flow control valve. Conclusion:

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Aim: Understanding the mode of operation of pressure reducing valve. Apparatus: Hydraulic power pack, Relief valve, Double acting cylinder 2 Nos., 4/3 direction control valve, 4/2 direction control valve, Hydraulic hoses, pressure reducing valve, Pressure gauge. Working of the circuit: Construct the circuit according to diagram. Set the system pressure to the desired value by using the relief valve. Switch on the pump. Bring the lever of 4/3 directional control valve into a position, cylinder will extend out. The pressure gauge connected to this cylinder will display the pressure set by the pressure relief valve. Bring the lever of 4/2 directional control valve into a position, cylinder will extend out. Now vary the pressure setting on the pressure reducing valve. The pressure gauge connected to the second cylinder will display lower pressure depending on the setting in the pressure reducing valve. Conclusion:

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EXERCISE - 1 -----------( G94 FACING CYCLE ) G99 G28 U0 W0 (TAKING THE TOOL TO HOME POSITION INCREMENTALLY,) M06 T1 (TOOL CHANGE,TO TOOL NO 1) G97 S1100 M13 M39 (SPINDLE ON, COOLANT ON, GAURD CLOSE) G00 X34 Z2 (INITIAL POSITIONING CLOSE TO THE WORKPIECE) G99 G94 X0 Z-.5 F.1 (FACING, WIDTH 0.5 MM, FEED RATE IN MM/REV) Z-1 z-1.5 Z-2 G28 U0 W0 (HOMING) M05 (SPINDLE STOP) M09 M38 (COOLANT STOP, GAURD OPEN) M30 (PROGRAM END) EXERCISE - 2 -----------( G90 TURNING CYCLE ) G99 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 G97 S1100 M13 M39 G00 X32 Z2 G90 X31 Z-45 F.1 X30 X29 Z-30 X28 X27 X26 X25 Z-15 X24 X23 X22 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M38 M30

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EXERCISE - 3 -----------(TAPER TURNING CYCLE -R) G99 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 G97 M03 S1000 G0 X32 Z2 G90 X31 Z-45 F0.1 X30 G90 X31 Z-44 R-0.5 X31 R-1 X31 R-1.5 X31 R-2 X31 R-2.5 X31 R-3 X31 R-3.5 X31 R-4 X31 R-4.5 X31 R-5 X31 R-5.5 X31 R-5.75 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M38 M30 EXERCISE - 4 ------------( G76 THREADING CYCLE ) G99 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 G97 S1100 M13 M39 G00 X32 Z2 G90 X31 Z-40 F.1 X30 X29 X28 X27 X26 X25 X24 X23 X22 X21 X20

G0 X14 G1 X22 Z-2 M05 M09 G28 U0 W0 M06 T2 G97 S250 M13 G00 X22 Z2 G76 P034560 Q100 R0.06 G76 X18.08 Z-30 P960 Q150 F1.5 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M30

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EXERCISE - 5 -----------( G71 STOCK REMOVAL TURNING) G99 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 G97 S1500 M13 M39 G00 X32 Z2 G71 U0.5 R0.5 G71 P10 Q20 U0.1 W0.1 F0.1 N10 G00 X10 G1 Z-12 G02 X16 Z-15 R3 G1 X22 Z-30 G02 X26 Z-32 R2 G03 X30 Z-34 R2 G01 Z-44 N20 X32 G70 P10 Q20 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M30 EXERCISE - 6 ------------( G72 STOCK REMOVAL FACING) G99 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 G97 S1500 M13 M39 G00 X34 Z2 G72 W0.5 R0.5 G72 P10 Q20 U0.1 W0.1 F0.1 N10 G00 Z-17 G1 X32 X26 Z-14 X20 G02 X12 Z-10 R4 G1 X8 Z0 N20 Z2 G70 P10 Q20 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M30

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EXERCISE - 7 ------------( MULTIPLE TOOLS ) G99 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 M39 G97 S1100 M13 G00 X32 Z2 G90 X31 Z-27 F.1 X30 M05 M09 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T3 G97 M13 S600 G00 X0 Z2 G74 R1.0 G74 Z-32 Q5000 F20 G99 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M06 T4 G97 S1200 M13 G00 X11 Z2 G71 U.3 R0.5 G71 P10 Q20 U-0.1 W0.1 F.1 N10 G0 X22.72 G01 Z-25 F.05 N20 X11 G70 P10 Q20 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M06 T5 G97 S250 M13 G00 X22 Z5 G76 P034560 Q030 R0.06 G76 X24 Z-15 P640 Q100 F1 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T6 M13 S500 G0 X33 Z-27 M98 P220014 G0 X33 G28 U0 W0 M05 M09 M30 :0014 G1 U-1 F10

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U0.5 F100 M99 (SUB PROGRAM FILE NO.14 IS USED FOR MAKING GROOVE 5.5 MM DEEP ON A 32 MM DIA JOB. (WHILE USING, LINK IT WITH THE MAIN PROGRAM BY USING M98.HERE THE SUBPROGRAM FILE (NAMED 14 IS BEING CALLED 22 TIMES IN THE MAIN PROGRAM.)

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EXERCISE - 1 -----------G0 G91 G28 Z0 M39 G28 X0 Y0 M06 T1 M03 S1000 G90 G00 X-30 Y20 Z5 Z-2 G01 X130 Y20 F40 G0 Y55 G01 X-30 G0 Z5 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M9 M30 EXERCISE - 2 -----------G00 G91 G28 Z0 M39 G28 X0 Y0 M06 T2 M03 S1300 G90 G00 X-15 Y15 Z5 Z-3 G01 G41 X4 F40 Y60 X15 Y71 X85 X96 Y60 Y15 X85 Y4 X15 X4 Y15 G40 X-15 G00 Z5 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M9 M30

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EXERCISE - 3 -----------G91 G0 G28 Z0 M39 G28 X0 Y0 M06 T3 M03 S1200 G90 Z5 M08 G0 X50 Y13 G01 Z-2 F20 G02 X50 Y62 R24.5 F50 G02 X50 Y13 R24.5 G0 Z0 G28 G91 G0 Z0 X0 Y0 M05 M38 M30 EXERCISE - 4 -----------G91 G00 G28 Z0 M39 G28 X0 Y0 M06 T4 M03 S1000 G90 G0 X50 Y37.5 Z5 G1 Z0 F20 G91 G170 R0 P0 Q1 X0 Y0 Z-2 I0 J0 K-15 G171 P45 S1200 R25 F50 B1300 J40 G91 G00 G28 Z0 X0 Y0 M5 M38 M30

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EXERCISE - 5 -------------G00 G91 G28 Z0 M39 G28 X0 Y0 M06 T5 M03 S1200 G90 G00 X6 Y6 Z5 G81 G99 G91 Z-22 R-3 F50 G90 X94 Y69 X6 G80 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M38 M30 EXERCISE - 6 -----------G0 G91 G28 Z0 M39 G28 X0 Y0 M06 T1 M03 S1000 G90 G00 X-30 Y20 Z5 Z-1 G01 X130 Y20 F40 G0 Y55 G01 X-30 G0 Z5 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M06 T2 M03 S1300 G90 G00 X-15 Y15 Z5 Z-4 G01 G41 X4 F40 Y60 X15 Y71 X85 X96 Y60 Y15 X85 Y4 X15 X4 Y15 G40 X-15 G00 Z5 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0

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M5 M06 T3 M03 S1200 G90 Z5 M08 G0 X50 Y13 G01 Z-3 F20 G02 X50 Y62 R24.5 F50 G02 X50 Y13 G0 Z0 G28 G91 G0 Z0 X0 Y0 M05 M06 T4 M03 S1000 G90 G0 X50 Y37.5Z5 G1 Z-1 F20 G91 G170 R0 P0 Q1 X0 Y0 Z-2 I0 J0 K-15 G171 P45 S1200 R25 F50 B1300 J40 G00 G28 Z0 X0 Y0 M5 M06 T5 M03 S1200 G90 G00 X6 Y6 Z5 G81 G99 G91 Z-22 R-3 F50 G90 X94 Y69 X6 G80 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M5 M30

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EXERCISE - 7 -----------[BILLET X100 Y100 Z15 G21 G94 G91 G28 Z0. G28 X0. Y0. M06 T1 M03 S2000 G90 G0 X0. Y0. Z5. M98 P5000 M70 M98 P5000 M80 M70 M71 M98 P5000 M80 M81 M71 M98 P5000 M81 G0 Z5. G91 G28 Z0. G28 X0. Y0. M05 M30 :5000 G0. X10. Y10. Z5. G1 Z-1. F20. X40. F50. X10. Y40. Y10. G0 Z5. G0 X0. Y0. M99

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EXERCISE - 8 -----------[BILLET X100 Y100 Z15 G21 G94 G91 G28 Z0. G28 X0. Y0. M6 T1 M3 S1500 G90 G0 X25. Y0. Z5. G68 R0. M98 P2323 G68 R45. M98 P2323 G68 R90. M98 P2323 G68 R135. M98 P2323 G68 R180. M98 P2323 G68 R225. M98 P2323 G68 R270. M98 P2323 G68 R315. M98 P2323 G69 G91 G28 Z0. G28 X0. Y0. M5 M30 :2323 G99 G81 X25. Y0. Z-20 Q1 R2. F80. G0 Z5. G80 M99

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EXERCISE - 9 -----------[BILLET X100 Y100 Z15 G21 G94 G91 G28 Z0. G28 X0. Y0. M6 T1 M3 S1500 M98 P2424 G90 G0 Z5. M98 P2525 G91 G28 Z0. G28 X0. Y0. M5 M30 :2424 G90 G0 X-40. Y-40. Z5. G1 Z-1. F80. X-40. Y40. X40. Y40. X40. Y-40. X-40. Y-40. G0 Z5. M99 :2525 G51 P0.5 M98 P2424 G50 M99

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