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(Q.) The grandmother had a divine beauty.

How does the author bring this

out?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The author brings out the inner beauty of the grandmother by comparing her to a snow covered winter landscape. This comparison shows her calmness and serenity. (Q.) The three stanzas depict three different phases. What are they?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The three stanzas depict the first phase, i.e. the mothers childhood, the second phase is the mothers adulthood and the third phase is the poets own adulthood where she is nostalgically remembering her mother who is no longer alive. (Q.) Why was it hard for the author to believe that his grandmother was once young and pretty?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The author had only seen and known his grandmother as an old woman. It had been the same situation for twenty years. As a child, therefore, he found it hard to believe that she was young and pretty once upon a time. (Q.) What proofs of the friendship between the grandmother and the grandson do you find in the story?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

As a young child, the author was very close to his grandmother. She helped him to dress up, helped to get his bag packed for school. She even went to leave him at the village school. She helped him with his lessons. This friendship became less strong when they were in the city. (Q.) The grandmother was a kind-hearted woman. Give examples in support of your answer.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The grandmother was very kind hearted and compassionate. She would feed stale chapattis to the village dogs everyday while leaving her grandson to school. In the city, she continues this practice but would feed sparrows with breadcrumbs, in the courtyard of the house. (Q.) That was the turning point in our friendship. What was the turning point?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The turning point in the friendship came when they shifted to the city. Life in the city was very difficult from village life and so were the studies. Grandmother could not help him with his studies and could not go to the school with him. Hence the bond started weakening. (Q.) What did the author think was the last physical contact with his grandmother? Was it really so?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The author was kissed on the forehead by his grandmother as he was going abroad.

He thought this might be the last physical contact with her because she was old and may not be alive when he would return after five years. (Q.) Khushwant Singhs grandmother was not pretty but was always beautiful. Explain the meaning of this statement
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The authors grandmother was not a good-looking woman. But despite her unattractive physical appearance, there was a certain calm and serenity surrounding her. She had inner-beauty, spiritual beauty that made her more divine and attractive. (Q.) Which activity did the grandmother find most relaxing when she lived in the city?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The grandmother would daily feed the sparrows in the verandah of the house. She used to let them perch on her shoulders and would talk to them. She had made it a daily ritual and she found it very relaxing. (Q.) Write a character sketch of grandmother.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Grandmother was an old woman who was once young and pretty. She was short and fat and slightly bent. She was beautiful at heart. Being very caring, she used to wake upthe author in the morning and get him ready for school. She was very concerned about the authors education. She would fetch the wooden board which she had already plastered with yellow chalk. She was very kind and would carrystale chapattis for the village dogs. She fed the sparrows with bits of bread. She was benevolent and fond of music. She called the neighbourhood women and beat the drum whenher grandson returned from abroad. She was very attached to him and would spend hours talking to him about his studies. She was deeply distressed at western education and learning of music. She was religious as she was always telling the beads of a rosary and would say a prayer in a sing-song manner. (Q.) Give two instances to show that the authors grandmother was serious about education.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The grandmother herself used to clean the authors slate every evening, pack his bag for school, help him with his homework and drop himat school. She would wait there till he would finish classes and thentakehim back home. In the city also, she tookinterest in what he was learning at school, but was unable to help him with his studies.

L-2
(Q.) Why do you think people undertake such adventurous expeditions in

spite of the risks involved?


(2 Marks) (Ans)

People undertake such adventurous expeditions due to two reasons. They have the passionatethrivefor risk, thrill and uncertainty and they push their limits of skill and endurance. They seek such adventures for pure joy and exhilaration. They also want to do certain things for attaining name, fame and recognition. (Q.) Why did the narrator undertake the round the world voyage? What did he do for this mission?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator wanted the achievement of duplicating the round the world voyage made two hundred years earlier by Captain James Cook. He had spent sixteen years preparing for this brave adventure. He acquired experience in sailing around the British waters. They had tested their boat Wave walker in the roughest weather. (Q.) What do you observe about the reaction of the adults and the children when faced with disaster?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The children show amazing maturity and resilience in the face of disaster. They remain strong and composed. Despite serious injuries, both the children show courage and patience. Suzanne was brave enough to write a card. John said that they were not afraid to die if they could all be together. The adults also reacted with a fighting spirit and optimism. Their undaunted efforts helped them to survive the disaster. (Q.) How did Jonathan react to the desperate situation they found themselves in on 5th January?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Jonathan asked his father if they were all going to die. On the fathers reassurance, he said that they were notafraid of dying if they could all be together his dad, mom, Sue and himself. (Q.) How did the narrator respond to little Jons words? What do his actions reveal about his character?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator could not find any words to respond to his sons remark. However, as he left his childrens cabin, he was determined to fight the sea with everything he had. This shows his courageous nature and his love for his children, a caring father who wanted to save his children at all costs. (Q.) How did Sue try to enliven the gloomy atmosphere?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Sue tried to enliven the gloomy atmosphere by trying her hand at making a card for her parents. She had drawn their caricatures and written that she had drawn some

funny people. She had written that she loved both her parents and the card was to say thanks to them and hope for the best.
(Q.) Who do you think, did the narrator call Ile Amsterdam the most

beautiful island in the world?


(2 Marks) (Ans)

The island was only a bleak piece of volcanic rock with little vegetation the author called it the most beautiful island in the world because it had given them a ray of hope for survival. They could at least anchor there and repair their ship. (Q.) What did the narrator think of on landing at Ile Amsterdam? Why?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

On landing at Ile Amsterdam, the narrators thoughts were full of Larry and Herbie, his crew members who remained cheerful and optimistic throughout the hardships. He thought of his wife also, who stayed at the wheel for all those crucial hours. He also thought of his daughter, who had been so brave all through the ordeal and had not bothered about her head injury. (Q.) How can you say that Suzannes injuries were serious?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Suzannes injuries were serious because she had to undergo six minor surgeries to remove a recurring blood clot betweenher skin and skull. She had also injured her arm and had two black eyes. (Q.) Optimism and courage help to tide over difficulties. How did the narrator succeed in searching the small island?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Despite the lost compass and a faulty compass, the author did not lose hope. He used his intelligence to estimate the influence of the westerly currents which flowed through that part of the Ocean. He asked Larry to steer a course of 185 degrees and remained optimistic about spotting the island at about 5 pm. (Q.) What impression do you form about the narrator on the basis of this extract?
(10 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator was a lover of thrill and adventure. He had dreamt of going on round the world sea voyage since childhood. He had worked with diligence and prepared for the trip with great care and attention. He had a practical approach and he remained alert and strong willed. He engaged two crew men to assist him and he received full co-operation and help from his family. They made advance and immediate arrangements to face the violent storms during their voyage. He did not lose hope and remained calm and courageous in the face of difficulties. He had his priorities fixed, repairing the damaged ship was essential despite his injuries. He worked and motivated everyone in the rescue operations. He was resourceful and quick to improvise. He managed to calculate a new course and his precise calculations brought them safely ot a island. His presence of mind helped them to overcome troubles. He was level headed and his courage and practical knowledge made him a

good captain. His children also proved to be sensible, mature and resilient in the face of adversity. (Q.) How did the narrator and his family mates face the disaster in the form of a huge wave that struck the Wave Walker?
(10 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator dropped the storm jib and tied heavy rope attached to the anchor in a loop across the stern. Along with his crew men he double fastened everything. The first mighty wave seemed to have destroyed everything and in order to remain afloat they had to act fast. The narrator handed over the wheel to Mary. He stretched Canvas and fastened water proof hatch covers across the gaping holes in the star board side. As the two pumps got blocked and the electric pump short circuited. He found another electric pump and started it. The narrator checked the charts and found that there were two small islands, a few hundred kilometers to the east.But their chances of sailing to those islands were slim because the wind and sea did not seem to abate. He re-checked his calculations, they had lost the main compass but he made discount for magnetic variation in the spare one and then asked Larry to steer a course of 180 degrees. They succeeded in reaching Ile Amsterdam in 4 hours. (Q.) I had no time to worry about bumped heads, says the narrator. What problems do you think deserved his immediate attention?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The problem that deserved immediate attention was the repair of the starboard side which had bashed open and with every wave, it was letting water enter the boat. If he did not make some repairs, the boat would have surely sunk and they would have drowned. (Q.) Give a brief description of the narrators boat. How did the narrator equip and test it?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The narrators boat named Wavewalker was 23 metres long, 30 ton wooden boat. It was built professionally and had been tested in the roughest weather. The author had spent months in fitting it out.

L-3
(Q.) A.R Williams says, King Tut is. In death, as in life moving regally

ahead of his countrymen. How far do you agree with the assertion and why?
(10 Marks) (Ans)

The Pharaohs of Egypt, over the years have fascinated the historians, archaeologists and public but the Geatest marvel ever, is the boyish king- Tutankhamun. He had died 3300 years ago when he was in teens and had ruled for only nine years. He had brought about a few changes during his brief rule. These changes were significant because they marked restoration of the old ways of worship of Amun. Public curiosity remained alive as to the causes and modes of his death as well as his exact age at the time of his death. After his death, his dead body has been a centre of scientific examination. Howard Carter, the British archaeologist discovered Tuts tomb in 1922. A lot of findings were brought to light when it was dug out. Later, in 1968, an anatomy Professor X-Rayed the mummy only to find a few of its bones missing and broken. The Egyptian Mummy Project which began in late 2003 has so far recorded 600 and is still continuing. The next phase of C.T scanning with a portable C.T machine began on 5th January 2005. The pride of place went to King Tut, whose mummy was the first to undergo C.T scan. Hence, the assertion that in death as in life, King Tut moved regally ahead of his countrymen. (Q.) Why is January 5, 2005 significant in Tutankhamuns Saga?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

January 5, 2005 is a significant date in Tutankhamuns saga because on this day, the worlds most famous mummy glided head first into a C.T scanner in order to probe the lingering medical mysteries around the young ruler who had died 3300 years ago. (Q.) Which questions still linger about Tut?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The two biggest questions that still linger about Tut are how did he die and how old was he at the time of his death? He was the last of his familys line, and his funeral was the death rattle of a dynasty but the particulars of his passing away and its aftermath are unclear. (Q.) Why did Carter have to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the kings remains?
(1 Mark) (Ans)

Carter found that the ritual resin that was used as a polish hashardened. The result was that the mummy was cemented to the bottom of the solid gold coffin.Niether the strongestforce could move the mummynor the burning sun could loosen the remains of the king.
(Q.) Why was King Tuts body subjected to repeated scrutiny? (2 Marks)

(Ans)

King Tuts body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny for the riches it was buried with. There has also been a lot of speculation about the manner of his death and the time of his death.
(Q.) Why was Howard Carters investigation resented? (2 Marks) (Ans)

Howard Carters investigation was resented because he used unscientific methods to cut the body away from the wooden base also he focused more on the discovery of gold than on thefascinating details of Tut's life and the mysteries of his death. (Q.) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun. What was the reason?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Tutankhamun means Living image of Amun. He was a majorgod in ancient Egypt. King Amennotep smashed the images of Amun and closed his temples. Tut oversaw a restoration of the old ways, he also changed his name to express his belief on Amun. (Q.) How did the visitors to Tuts grave pay their respects to him?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The visitors to Tuts grave gazed at the murals on the walls of the burial chamber and peered at Tuts gilded face. Some visitors read from guidebooks in a whisper. (Q.) What according to A.R Williams were the thoughts of the visitors who stood silently near Tuts Grave?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Others stood silently perhaps pondering Tuts untimely death. Perhaps they wondered if the pharaohs curse death or misfortune falling on those who disturbed him was really true. Q.) What problem did Carter face when he reached the mummy? How did he find a way out?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Carter, on investigating, opened the three nested coffins. When he finally reached the mummy, he saw that the ritual resins had hardened, cementing Tut to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. It was difficult to remove it. He had to chisel away the consolidated material from beneath the limbs and trunk. (Q.) How can C.T scan prove more effective than X-Rays?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

C.T scan can prove more effective than X-Rays because it produces hundreds of XRays in cross section which are put together like slices of bread to create a three dimensional virtual body.
(Q.) The Landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual

space. Discuss.

(10 Marks) (Ans)

Nathalie explains to the readers that a classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an actual view as would a Western figurative painting. The European painter aims at creating an illusionary likeness while the Asian artists make an attempt to capture the essence of inner life and spirit. A Chinese painter does not feel that a landscape is a real one. He does not choose a single view point. Hence we can view his landscape from various angles and enter and travel in it from any point. The Chinese artist creates a path for our eyes to travel up and down and then back again, in a leisurely movement. These paintings require the active participation of the viewer. This participation is physical as well as mental. We are required to enter the mind of the painter as well to see and admire the painting. If we understand the ideals that motivate the painter, we can understand true essence of a painting. It is because of this that we can say that his landscape is an inner one --a spiritual and conceptual space. (Q.) The emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the way within. Discuss.
(10 Marks) (Ans)

An emperor represents power, authority and will. His wish becomes a command and his command rules his territory. An emperor is also powerful enough to obtain the services of an artist. Acquisition of wealth, power and objects doesnt make him superior to the artist. On the other hand, an artist has a spiritual insight into the nature of things. His paintings are deeply revealing of the spirit that constitutes his art. An artist achievesthe perfect essence of inner life and spirit. An emperor may commission a painting and appreciate its outer appearance, but the artists reveals to him the true meaning of his work. It is only the artist who knows the way within the territory that the emperor has conquered. The way means both the path or the method andthe mysterious work of the Universe. An artists vision helps the emperor understand and attainthe goal of life, that is, spiritual space. Thus the emperor may rule territories, objects and materialistic space, but an artist is spiritual and beyond any material appearance. Q.) Explain the concept of Shanshui?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Shanshui literally means mountain water. These two elements mountain and water represent two complimentary poles of the universe. - Yang & Yin. The mountain is 'yang' reaching vertically towards heaven stable, warm and dry in the sun while the water is 'yin' horizontal resting on the earth fluid, moist and cool. The interaction of Yin the receptive feminine aspect of universal energy and its counter part Yang active and masculine part is the concept of Shanshui.
(Q.) Which is the third element where the interaction between Yang and Yin

takes place? How is it essential in Daoism?


(2 Marks) (Ans)

The third element is the middle void where the interaction between Yang and Yin

takes place. It is like the Yogic practice of pranayama where meditation occurs. It is essential in Daoism as it is the fundamental notion of Daoism. (Q.) Contrast the Chinese view of art with the European view with examples?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The Chinese view of art is not meant to reproduce an actual view and doesnt choose a single view point. His landscape is not a real one and you can interact with it from any point. The artist creaks a path from your eyes to travel up and down. The European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at a particular landscape exactly as he saw it from a specific angle. The European paintings reproduce and actual view of a real object. (Q.) What do you understand by the term Outsider art and art brut or raw art?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Outsider art is described as the art of those who have no right to be artists as they have received no formal training yet show talent and artistic insight. The style of raw art refers to works that are in their raw stable as regards cultural and artistic influences anything and everything from a tin to a sink to a broken down car could be material for a work of art. (Q.) Justify the title of the essay.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The author has depicted the planet earth as someone who is suffering from a disease. The green movement takes a holistic view of the situation and seeks to maintain and conserve the environment and maintain it. (Q.) We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children. Discuss.
(10 Marks) (Ans)

Earths resources are limited and will not last for ever. In the twentieth century, there has been a revolutionary change in human perception. We cannot take the planet for granted. We are mere custodians. We have to take a holistic view of the very basis of our existence. The earth is a living organism of which we are parts. It has its own metabolic needs to stay alive and must be respected and preserved for the future generation. What is required is sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the destiny of future generation. There are four biological systems, namely fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands. They form the foundation of the global economic system. They supply us food and raw materials for industry. In larger areas of the world, these systems are reaching unsustainable levels. Their productivity is being damaged. The growth of world population is another factor distorting the future of our children. Development is not possible if population increases in this era of responsibility towards our future generation, population must be controlled. Industries must become environmental friendly. Now many industrialists, politicians and writers have realized their responsibility in preserving the non renewable natural resources for the future generation.

(Q.) How has the growth of world population affected the

environment? Support your answer with suitable arguments?


(10 Marks) (Ans)

The author Nani Palkhivala enumerates some alarming statistics to suggest how the growth of world population has tremendously affected the environment. The population which took a million years to reach the first billion took just another hundred years to reach the second billion. Another century passed it and reached the alarming figure of 3.7 million. Presently it is over 6 million and there is a huge demand on resources, natural or man made. The resources worldwide are under a lot of stress and pressure. The four principal biological systems i.e. fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands which form the foundation of the global economic system and provide raw materials to the industry are facing a lot of stress. The human demands on these systems are increasing at a rapid speed. Hence, sustainability and productivity are both hampered. When this happens, fisheries collapse, forests disappear, grasslands become wastelands and croplands deteriorate. The need of the hour is to become sensitive towards the needs of the environment to get affected; we will leave behind nothing but an ailing planet for our future generations. (Q.) What are the four principal biological systems that the author refers to?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The author refers to fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands as they form the foundation of the global economic system. They provide raw materials for industry. (Q.) What does the notice The Worlds most dangerous animal at a cage in the zoo at Lusaka, Zambia? Signify.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The notice signifies that there is depletion of resources and deterioration of environment. Man is responsible for this and his own survival is threatened. (Q.) What are the unusually alarming statistics about the population that the author talks about?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The author says that the population explosion has distorted the future of human society. Mankind took a million years to reach the first billion. The second billion was added in just another 100 years and the twentieth century has added 3.7 billion more. The present population is over 5.7 billion. Every four days the population increases by one million.
(Q.) Explain the statement forests precede mankind; deserts follow. (2 Marks) (Ans)

Forests have helped to nurture mankind from times immemorial but man has destroyed these forests ruthlessly and deserts have taken their place. Man is destroying himself by destroying forests.

(Q.) The humourous piece is an extract from a play. What according to you

makes the play humourous?


(10 Marks) (Ans)

The play The Browning Version depicts an extraordinary and interesting situation. Frank, a young science teacher finds 16 year old Taplow waiting for his senior teacher Mr. Crocker Harris. The lower fifth form students have been asked to do extra assignments on the last day of the term. Mr. Harris is leaving the school for good the next day. Being quite busy in organizing his own affairs, he has not yet arrived there. Taplow fears about adverse remarks on his results. This makes us smile. The interaction between Frank and Taplow is quite amusing and entertaining. Mr. Frank encourages Taplow to comment on Crocker Harris. The manner in which Taplow imitates his teachers voice, mannerisms and diction, is a source of humour. The sudden arrival of Mrs. Crocker Harris in the midst of an imitation of joke surprises Frank and makes Taplow nervous. Their reactions are quite funny. Taplows reluctance to leave the place and his fears of consequences of his masters return seem amusing. He feels relieved only when Mrs. Harris offers to take the blame. All the comments on the eccentricities of the characters of the play evoke humour in the play. (Q.) Why would Taplow not get any comfort as mentioned by Mr. Frank?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Mr.Crocker-Harris gave no benefit to his students for being good boys in taking up extra work. He gave marks as per the performance and not for doing anyextra work. (Q.) What does Mr. Frank suggest Taplow to do because Mr. Crocker Harris is ten minutes late?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Frank asked Taplow not to wait for Mr. Crocker Harris andplay golf but Taplow is really shocked and is afraid that Mr. Crocker Harris may follow him home or do something else. (Q.) Who is a sadist? Why is Taplow afraid of Mr. Crocker Harris even though the latter is not a sadist?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

A sadist is a person who gets pleasure while inflicting pain on others. Taplow says that he would not be so frightened of Mr. Crocker Harris if he were a sadist. He would at least show his feelings. Mr. Crocker Harris was indifferent and was like a nut. (Q.) What is Taplows attitude towards Mr. Crocker Harris?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Taplow is respectful towards Mr. Crocker Harris and likes him even though he is afraid of him and dare not cut the extra work even on the last day of the term. (Q.) Does Frank seem to encourage Taplows comments on Crocker Harris?
(2 Marks)

(Ans)

Frank does encourage Taplow to comment on Mr. Crocker Harris by cleverly asking Taplow several questions. He appreciated Taplows imitation of Mr. Crocker Harris and also asks him to repeat it. (Q.) What do you gather about Mr. Frank from the play?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Mr. Frank is a young science teacher. He does not like the subject he teaches. He also admits that he tells the result to the students beforeit is officially announced by the head master. He feels envious of Crocker Harris because Taplow likes him. (Q.) How does the poet Shirley Toulson remember her mother?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

Shirley Toulson looks at the photograph of her mother and her mothers cousins. The photograph was of the mother when she was twelve years old. Shirley remembered how her mother used to laugh joyfully when she would look at the photograph and remember the beach holiday. Shirley remembers and misses her dead mother while looking at the photograph. (Q.) Now shes been dead nearly as many years As that girl lived. And of this circumstance There is nothing to say at all. Its silence silences. a) How long do you think has she been dead? b) What does this circumstance refer to? What does the poet say about it? c) Explain its silence silences.
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The poets mother it seems has been dead for twelve years. b) The circumstance is the death of the mother and the poets loss. c) The death of the poets mother brings a sense of grief within her and she has no words to express her grief. The deaths silence silences. It is final. One is helpless before it. (Q.) Some twenty thirty years later; Shed laugh at the snapshot, See Betty And Dolly, shed say, and look how they Dressed us for the beach. The sea holiday Was her past, mine is her laughter. Both wry With her laboured ease of loss. a) Who is she? When would she laugh and why? b) Which event does she refer to? c) What does the poet compare her laughter to and why? d) Explain Both wry with the laboured ease of loss.
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) She is the poets mother. She would laugh when she would look at the snapshot years later.

b) She would refer to the incident of the beach holiday when she had gone with her cousins, Betty and Dolly.Her uncle had taken a photograph. c) The poet compares her laughter to her own past when she remembers her mothers laughter. Mothers sea holiday was her past and the poets past is the mothers holiday. d) Both, the mother and daughter remember some pleasant incident of the past. For the mother it is the holiday while for the poet it is her mothers laughter. It is with a sense of loss that she remembers her mother and the expression on the face is that of grief and helplessness.
(Q.) All three stood still to smile through their hair

At the uncle with the camera. A sweet face, My mothers, that was before I was born. And the sea, which appears to have changed less, Washed their terrible transient feet. a) Who were the three? b) Why did they stand still and smile? c) Why has the poet referred to the sea? d) What do you understand by terribly transient feet?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The three were, the poets mother and her two cousins Betty and Dolly. b) They stood still and smiled because they were posing together for a photograph clicked by the uncle from his camera. c) The sea is referred to by the poet because the sea has not changed but change comes in the lives of people. d) The ever changing imprints of feet on the seashore. The sea does not change but the human life is transient.
(Q.) The cardboard shows me how it was,

When the two girl cousins went paddling, Each one holding one of my mothers hands. And she the big girl some twelve years or so. a) Name the poem and the poet. b) What does the cardboard show? What occasion does it portray? c) Who was the big girl? What do you learn about her?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The poem is A Photograph and the poet is Shirley Toulson. b) The cardboard shows the picture of three girls, the poets mother and her two cousins Betty and Dolly. The occasion was when they had gone for a beach holiday. c) The big girl was the poets mother. We learn that she was a joyful, bubbly girl of twelve who had been excited about her beach holiday. (Q.) Explain Its silence silences.
(2 Marks)

(Ans)

The poet feels that the loss of her mother is so great and irreparable that when she looks at her mothers photograph and remembers her, she does not have to express her grief in words. The silence of the circumstance (loss of mother) makes her silent. (Q.) What does this circumstance refer to?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

This circumstance refers to the loneliness and the sense of loss that the poet suffers as she remembers her mother who is no more. (Q.) What is the meaning of the line Both wry with the laboured ease of loss?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The poet and her mother seemed to have lost a significant thing or person. In the mothers case it might be a near and dear one and in the poets case it is her mothers laughter, happiness and joy. (Q.) What does the word cardboard denote in the poem? Why has this word been used?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The word cardboard is the frame of the photograph showing the poets mother in her childhood. The word has been used to depict the old fashioned, inexpensive frame used as the border of the photograph. (Q.) Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow: 1. The laburnum top is silent, quite still In the afternoon yellow September sunlight, A few leaves yellowing, all its seeds fallen. a) Name the poem and the poet. b) Describe the laburnum tree. c) What is the mood in these lines? d) Pick out the words that create the mood.
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The name of the poem is The Laburnum Top and the poet is Ted Hughes. b) The tree is silent and still. It has leaves that are yellowing and seeds have fallen. c) The mood is of peace, calm, quiet and silent. There is absolute stillness and no noise. d) The words that create the mood are silent, still, yellowing leaves, fallen seeds. (Q.) Then sleek as a lizard, and alert and abrupt, She enters the thickness, and a machine starts up Of chitterings and a tremor of wings, and trilling The whole tree trembles and thrills. a) Who is she in the first line? Where does she enter? b) What is the machine referred to in line 2? c) Explain the meaning of the last line.
(4 Marks)

(Ans)

a) She is the goldfinch and she enters the thickness of the trees. b) The machine refers to the young ones of the goldfinch. They suddenly start twittering and chirruping as their mother comes to the nest to feed them. c)The tree was silent earlier but as the mother goldfinch comes to her nest, there is a lot of noise made by her young ones. The movement and the sounds produced are in contrast to the silence. The tree comes to life now. (Q.) Then with eerie delicate whistle-chirrup whisperings She launches away, towards the infinite And the laburnum subsides to empty. a) Who has been described in the first line? b) What impression is created by the description? c) What effect does the last line create?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a)The goldfinch has been described in the first line. b) The chirruping of the birds is delicate, soft andgentle like whispering. The reference is to the sounds that the bird makes. c)The last line shows the contrast between the liveliness of the tree and the silent tree. The tree becomes silent and empty when the bird flies away. (Q.) It is the engine of her family. She strokes it full, then flirts out to a branch end Showing her barred face identity mask. a) Why has the word engine been used to describe her family? b) Who is she? How does she stroke the engine? c) What does the bird look like?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The word engine has been used to describe her family because just as the engine of the machine starts up and there is noise, movement and energy is induced i.e. excitement at the arrival of mother. b) She is the goldfinch who has her nest on the top of the laburnum tree. Just as the stoker feeds coal to the engine, the bird feeds her young ones. c) The face which was earlier hidden in the thickness of the trees branches is now revealed as she comes outat the end of the branch. She seems to be wearing a striped mask. (Q.) A few leaves yellowing, all its seeds fallen Till the goldfinch comes, with a twitching chirrup A suddenness, a startlement, at a branch end. a) What has happened to the tree? b) How does the mood change on the arrival of the goldfinch? c) There is a comparison of the goldfinch with an animal. Which animal is that?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) It is the month of September, autumn and the leaves of the tree have turned

yellow and its seeds have also fallen. b) The tree which was earlier silent has become active, noisy and full of life, as the goldfinch has come to feed her young ones. c) The goldfinch has been comparedto a lizard, sleek and abrupt in its movements. (Q.) What does the phrase her barred face identity mask mean?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The goldfinch has dark stripes on her face. This is like a mask which identifies the bird as it comes out of the thickness of the branches of the tree. (Q.) To what is the movement of the goldfinch compared? What is the basis for the comparison?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The goldfinchs movement is compared to that of a lizard. The basis of the comparison is the sleek, abrupt and alert movements of a lizard. The same kinds of movements are observed when the goldfinch arrives on the laburnum tree.

(Q.) What happened when the goldfinch came to the laburnum tree? (2 Marks) (Ans)

The arrival of the goldfinch brought about a sudden change in the tree. The young ones started twittering and there was a lot of noise, commotion and movement on the tree. (Q.) Describe the laburnum top.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The leaves of the laburnum topare turning yellow due to the autumn. Its seeds have fallen and there is a silence prevailing over the tree. There is no movement at all.
(Q.) She launches away, towards the infinite. Explain the given line. (2 Marks) (Ans)

She stands for the goldfinch whose arrival on the tree has suddenly transformed it into a noisy place. After having fed her young ones and having made the tree active and full of life, the goldfinch flies away towards the infinite vast sky. (Q.) It is the engine of her family, she strokes it full. Explain the significance of these lines.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The goldfinch has been called the engine of her family. Just as the engine starts up the machine, her arrival in the nest has suddenly started up the silent machine i.e. the young ones have started chittering and making noise. She stokes it full means that she has fed the young ones who now have the energy to become active and make noise. (Q.) (For song, issuing from its birth-place, after fulfillment, wandering Reckd or unreckd, duly with love returns). a) Why are the last lines put within brackets?

b) Reckd or unreckd, what does this phrase mean? c) Where does the song return? d) Which word in the lines means originating?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The last lines are put in brackets because they do not form the voice of the rain or the poet. They only certain a general observation by the poet about the course of a song. b) Reckd or unreckd means whether cared for or not cared for. c) The song returns to the place of its origin i.e. comes back to the poet. d) Issuing (Q.) And forever, by day and night, I give Back life to my own origin, And make pure and beautify it; a) In what manner does the rain help its own origin? b) Why has the poet given the life cycle of the song? c) What is made pure? d) Which words in the given lines mean i) eternal ii) source
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The rain helps its own origin by watering the land and quenching the thirst of drought stricken areas. b) The poet has compared the life cycle of the rain drops to that of the song saying that they both return to their origin after fulfilling their tasks. c) The earth on which rain falls is made pure. d) i) forever ii) origin (Q.) I descend to lave the droughts, Atomies, dust- layers of the globe, And all that in them without me were seeds Only, latent, unborn a) With what purpose does the rain descend from the sky? b) How does the rain help the seeds? c) Give the meanings of the words from the given lines: i) come down ii) to wash d) What is latent and unborn and why?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The rain drops fall from the sky in order to give life to the dry areas and wash the famine stricken lands. b) The rain helps the seeds to germinate and grow into a new life. c) i) descend ii) lave d) The seeds are dormant and unborn because of lack of water which is needed for them to germinate and form a new plant. (Q.) Eternal I rise impalpable out of the land And the bottomless sea,

Upwards to heaven, whence, vaguely formd altogether Changed, and yet the same a) From where does the rain originate? b) How does it originate? c) What happens to the rain in the sky? d) Name the poem and the poet.
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The rain originates from the land and the bottomless (deep sea) in the form of water vapour. b) With the heat of the sun, the water evaporates from the sea or land and forms water- vapour which rises up in the atmosphere. c) In the sky, the rain drops form the rain. Their form has changed but the essence has remained the same. d) The poem is The Voice of the Rain and the poet is Walt Whitman. (Q.) And who art thou? Said I to the soft falling shower, This, strange to tell, gave me an answer, as here Translated: I am the poem of Earth, said the voice of the rain a) Name the poem and the poet. b) Who does I refer to in the first and third line of this extract? c) What do you understand by the phrase Strange to tell? d) How has the answer been conveyed to us and what is it?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The poem is The Voice of the Rain and the name of the poet is Walt Whitman. b) I in the first line is referred to the poet asking a question. I in the third line is the rain drop. c) Strange to tell means that it is an unusual and extraordinary answer given by the raindrops to the poet who asked who it was. d) The poet has personified the rain drop and it is answering the poets question by saying that it is the poem of the Earth. (Q.) There are two voices in the poem. Who do they belong to? Which lines indicate this?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The two voices in the poem are the voice of the rain and the voice of the poet. The lines are And who art thou? Said I .. and I am the poem of Earth. (Q.) What does the phrase strange to tell mean?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The phrase strange to tell means that it is an unusual and extraordinary answer given by the rain drops to the poet who asked who it was.
(Q.) There is a parallel drawn between rain and music. Which words indicate

this? Explain the similarity between the two?


(2 Marks)

(Ans)

I am the poem of Earth For song, issuing from its birth place After fulfillment, wandering, reckd orUnreckd, duly with love returns. They both return to the place of their origin after fulfilling their tasks. (Q.) How is the cyclic movement of rain brought out in the poem?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The poet explains that the rain drops in the form of water vapour rise up from land and sea and then descend again on the earth, dry land in order to wash it down and hence comes back to its origin. This is the cyclic movement explained by the poet.
(Q.) Why are the last two lines put within brackets? (2 Marks) (Ans)

The last two lines are put within brackets because they do not form the voice of the rain or the poet. They only contain a general observation made by the poet about the course of a song. (Q.) List the pairs of opposites found in the poem.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The opposite pairs found in the poem are i) day and night ii) reckd or unreckd (Q.) Behind the apparent simplicity, the poem hides a deep meaning. What exactly does the poem convey to the reader?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The poem conveys that like a poem, the rain is also everlasting and has an unbreakable chain of life cycle. It rises from the earth, comes back to it. The song also issues from its birth place, wanders here and there, whether heeded to or not, returns with love to its own origin. (Q.) How does the rain justify its claim I am the Poem of Earth?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The rain calls itself the poem of earth because, the poem rendered by a poet, has the task of bringing joy, happiness, life to its readers. In the manner, the rain drops, and falling over drought stricken earth, brings new life to the land as it also returns to its origin just like the rain drops. (Q.) What according to the poem, is involved in the process of growing up?
(1 Mark) (Ans)

The poet feels that in order to grow up, an individual has to lose his childhood. The gains of growing up are the understanding, ability to gain an identity of ones own, power to rationalize etc. (Q.) Identify the stanza that talks of each of the following: i) Individuality ii) Rationalism

iii) Hypocrisy
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The third stanza talks about individuality. The first stanza talks about rationalism and the second stanza talks about hypocrisy. (Q.) What is the poets feeling towards childhood?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The poet does not appear to feel sad or upset at the loss of his childhood. He only seems to be puzzled at the disappearance of childhood and the arrival of adulthood. He expresses his confusion when he asks the questions When and Where did my childhood go? (Q.) Which, do you think are the most poetic lines? Why?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The lines that appear to be most poetic are It went to some forgotten place Thats hidden in an infants face, Thats all I know These lines sum up beautifully the process of growth and the disappearance of aparticular stage of life. These lines express metaphorically that an infants innocent face hides many things behind its smiles. Perhaps the childhood also lies hidden somewhere in the childs consciousness. (Q.) Where did my childhood go? It went to some forgotten place Thats hidden in an infants face, Thats all I know a) What shift of thought do you notice in this stanza? b) Explain Thats all I know. c) How does the poet react towards the loss of childhood?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The poet is no longer worried about when he lost his childhood. He is more concerned about where it disappeared. b) The speaker says his childhood went away to some forgotten place that is hidden in an infants face. He only understands this much. He thus indicates that childhood is a stage of innocence that comes before adolescence. c) The poet does not seem to worry about having lost his childhood. He has developed his mind, his ability to think rationally and has gained his own individuality. (Q.) When did my childhood go? Was it when I found my mind was really mine, To use whichever way I choose, Producing thoughts that were not those of other people But my own, and mine alone Was that the day!

a) Which day does the poet refer to? b) What did he realize on that particular day? c) Which trait of the poet is hinted at in these lines?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The poet refers to the day when he lost his childhood. b) On this day, he realized that he was the master of his own mind. He could use it the way he liked. He could control his own thoughts and not be governed by others. c) It shows the identity or individuality of the poet. (Q.) When did my childhood go? Was it the time I realized that adults were not All they seemed to be They talked of love and preached of love, But did not act so lovingly, Was that the day? a) What did the speaker realize and when? b) What contradictions did he notice in the behaviour of the adults? c) How would you describe the adults?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The speaker realized that the adults were not actually as they appeared to be on the surface. b) He noticed the contradictions in the behaviour of the adults that they preached something else and practise something different. They talked of love but never showed any affection. Hence, they have double standards. c) The adults have double-standards and they arehypocrites. (Q.) 1. When did my childhood go? Was it the day I ceased to be eleven, ,Was it the time I realized that Hell and Heaven Could not be found in Geography ,And therefore could not be !Was that the day .a) Name the poem and the poet ?b) When did the speaker lose his childhood c) What did the speaker realize about Hell and Heaven?
(4 Marks) (Ans)

a) The poem is Childhood and the poet is Marcus Natten. b) The speaker lost his childhood when he ceased to be eleven. c) The speaker realized that Hell and Heaven are two places that are not seen in any Geography books and hence could not be found to be existing. (Q.) How did the realization of being the master of his own mind helped him?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The realization of being the master of his own mind helped him when he could now

choose to use his mind whichever way he wanted.He could produce thoughts that were his own and not governed by other people. (Q.) Discuss the character sketch of Mourad.
(7 Marks) (Ans)

Mourad, the central character in the story The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse is depicted as a young boy, who enjoyed being alive and having fun. He had a crazy streak in him which he had inherited from his family. He belonged to a tribe that was poor, had no money and lived in an acute form of poverty. As a young lad he upheld the family customs and traditions. He believed in all the values that his tribe and family had tried to inculcate in him. He could not resist the temptation to ride a horse and broke away from his honesty when he stole a horse from John Byro, hid it and then went for horse riding early in the morning at 4:00 am along with hisnine year old cousin Aram. He justified his act by saying that it wasnt stealing because they had no intention of selling it for money. Mourad was crazy and fun loving. While riding the horse, he sang loudly and joyfully. He was confident about his riding abilities and said that he had a way with a horse. It was only when John Byro touched his conscience when he declared that if he had not trusted the honesty of their tribe, he would have sworn that the horse belonged to him. Mourad realized his mistake, his conscience pricked him and he returned the horse. The fun loving boy had had his fun and then his honesty urged him to uphold his family values and traditions. (Q.) What traits of the Garoghlanian family are highlighted in the story?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The Garoghlanian family though now poor was famous for their honesty even when they were wealthy. They were proud first, honest next and after that they believed in right and wrong. None of them would take advantage of anybody in the world. They would not steal. No member of this family could be a thief. (Q.) What were the peculiarities in uncle?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Uncle Khosroves crazy streak was famous. He was a big man with a powerful head of black hair and very large moustache. He was quite furious in temper, very irritable and impatient. He would stop anyone from talking by roaring his pet phrase. It is no harm pay no attention to it.
(Q.) I have a way with a horse. How do you think had Mourad developed

an understanding with the horse?


(2 Marks) (Ans)

Mourad had been quite sensitive tender and affectionate towards the horse. He would put his arms around it. Press his nose into the horses nose and pat it. It was not easy to tame a strange horse and get it to behave nicely. Even John Byro, the rightful owner admitted that the horse had become better tempered, stronger and well mannered. (Q.) Why had Mourad and Aram taken the horse? Why did they return it?
(2 Marks)

(Ans)

They had taken the horse with the intention of riding it and also they were too poor to buy it. They loved riding but since they were not thieves, they had no desire to sell it. They returned the horse because they became conscious of their reputation of honesty and realized their mistake. (Q.) We had been famous for our honesty for something like eleven centuries. The narrator describes his family in these words. Do you think Mourad and Aram were honest too? Give examples to prove your point.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Mourad and Aram were also very honest. They took the horse with the only intention of riding it and could not afford to buy one of their own. Their intention was to return the horse.Mourad was only thirteen years old and was not mature enough to resist the temptation. The talk with John Byro and the need to safeguard the family reputation made them return the horse. (Q.) What impression of Shahid do you gather from this extract?
(7 Marks) (Ans)

This extract is set in New York where the narrator struck friendship with Agha Shahid Ali. Shahid was a poet, a man of fine sensibilities, goodtaste and very amiable nature. In spite of being a cancer patient,Shahid was full of life, had a clear mind and loved to spend time with friends. There wasnever an evening when there wasnt a party in his living room.Shahid had a special ability to transmute the mundane into the magical. He was a poet who had achieved greatness. He knew himself that he was dying and lived each moment with enthusiasm. Even the most trivial exchanges with him had a special energy and urgency. He worked poetry into his answers. He had a prophetic vision. Shahid had a recurrent dream that all the Pandits had vanished from the valley of Kashmir and their food had become extinct. This was a nightmare that haunted him. After moving to America in 1975 Shahid continued to visit his parents in Srinagar. He was a first hand witness to the mounting violence that seized the region from the late 1980s onwards. Shahid spoke to the author about his death and wanted him to write something about him. Amitav Ghosh pays him glowing tributes in this extract. He feels amazed that such a brieffriendship had resulted in so vast a void. (Q.) You must write about me. What was the impact of these words on the writer?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The writer took it as a very important thing which would have to be obeyed. He could not think of anything to say. He had to search for the words to convey his promise. (Q.) What did Shahid ask the writer to do after his death?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Shahid asked the writer to write something about him after his death. He was giving Amitav Ghosh a specific responsibility. He wanted the writer to remember him not through spoken recitations of memory and friendship but through the written words.

(Q.) How did Shahid respond to the steady deterioration of the political

situation in Kashmir?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The violence and counter violence in Kashmir had a powerful effect on him. In time it became one of the central subjects of his work. Shahid was not a political poet yet he created his finest work in writing about Kashmir. (Q.) How did James Merill influence Shahid's poetry?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Shahid's meeting with James Merrill, a poet at one of his parties in Arizona resulted in a radical alteration of his style of poetry. Shahid began to experiment with strict metrical patterns and verse forms. In his poem 'I Dream I am at the Ghat of the Only World', his concluding words were for James Merrill. (Q.) Which nightmare haunted Shahid?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Shahid had a recurrent dream in which all the Pandits had disappeared from the valley of Kashmir and their food became extinct. This nightmare haunted him. He returned to it again and again in his conversation and his poetry. (Q.) Mrs. Annie Pearson and Mrs. Fitzgerald are totally opposite to each other in their attitudes. Show the difference between their personalities.
(7 Marks) (Ans)

The play Mothers Day by J.B Priestley brings out a sharp contrast in the characters of the two main protagonists, Mrs. Pearson and Mrs. Fitzgerald. Mrs. Pearson is shown as a quiet, submissive woman who thinks it to be her prime duty to serve her family. On the other hand, her family consists of rude, arrogant and dominating members each of whom treat her like a servant, ordering her about and talking rudely in the process hurting her sentiments and feelings. Mrs. Pearson suffers quietly, never speaks her mind, never retaliates all because she wants to avoid any kind of unpleasantness.Mrs. Fitzgerald, on the other hand is strong, domineering, frank and outspoken. She demands respect and takes pride in the fact that no one can take her for a ride. She was an identity of her own, speaks her mind and asserts herself. She is instrumental in bringing about a transformation in the family members of the Pearson family. She exchanges her personality with Pearson with the help of magic and then tackles her family members one by one. She openly insults, humiliates and offends them. She refuses to do any work, smokes and drinks. All this was done to make them realize their mistakes and make then love and respect their mother. She succeeds in the end.
(Q.) Bring out the humour of the play? (7 Marks) (Ans)

The dramatist has combined a serious theme with some comical concept of the magic trick which ensures that the theme of the play is effective in a very humorous manner. Despite being a sinister and aggressive character Mrs. Fitzgerald is the one

that evokes maximum laughter. The way in which she scolds rebukes and mocks at each family member is an effective source of laughter. When she assumes Mrs. Pearsons form and challenges the children with sarcasm and bitter jest, the two rude and demanding children areforced to mend their ways.Her clever remarks and indignant out burst provide an element of humour throughout the play.During her conversation with George Pearson she is harsh and offensive towards him. It is amusing in the way she reprimands a grown man. It is even more amusing as she points out character flawsin each of the family members. All in all the deeper meaning of the play has been displayed through humour making it not only moralistic but entertaining as well. (Q.) What is the main idea of the play? Has the writer brought it out effectively?
(1 Mark) (Ans)

The writer has very effictively brought out the main idea of the play. The mother who is the central focus of any family should be given proper love, care, respect and understanding. The family learnt its lesson in the end and the play has a happy ending.
(Q.) How does the end of the play justify the title? (2 Marks) (Ans)

Mrs. Pearson being a weak person was taken for granted by her family. They dominated her a lot and did not care for her feelings. But in the end she winds when Mrs. Fitzgerald takes over for sometime and is able to get the respect that Mrs Pearsondeserves. She has her day. (Q.) Discuss the character of Albert Einstein as revealed in this extract?
(10 Marks) (Ans)

Albert Einstein showed the sparks of genius even at a young age. His miserable years at school revealed how a talented creative mind feels trapped and cloistered in the rigid system of education. The classroom had no place for individual aspirations brilliance or aptitude. It discouraged Alberts genius and originality. Alberts defiance is misunderstood by his teachers. His unthinking honesty is seen as a refusal to confirm to the education and not the learning of facts. His maths teacher had a high opinion of him. He said. I cant teach you more and probably youll soon be able to teach me. Albert was humble and unassuming and he was uncomfortable with the excessive praise. The teacher seems to recognize Alberts rare intellectual genius and his aptitude for maths.Albert has an enquiring mind and a curious nature. He had a thirst for information and he liked to study books on science. He loved music and played his violin regularly. Albert had a frank and honest temperament and was quite sensitive and emotional. He was considered a rebel by most of his teachers. He did not compromise and adjust to the system of education which encouraged learning without understanding. For him, ideas and enquiry were more important than facts or dates. He was expelled from school for his views which did not match the existing pattern.
(Q.) What was Einsteins view on Education?

(2 Marks) (Ans)

For Einstein ideas were important. Facts did not matter as they could be looked up in books. He did not see any point in learning the dates of battles but in learning why the soldiers were trying to kill each other. (Q.) Why did Albert feel miserable when he left school that day?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Albert felt miserable because he hated the school and would have to return there the next day as well. Secondly, the idea of going back to his lodgings and atmosphere of domestic violence which prevailed theredid not cheer him up.
(Q.) What did Albert conclude after six months alone in Munich? (2 Marks) (Ans)

After six months alone in Munich, Albert knew that he must get away from there. He felt as he was wasting his fathers money and everyones time. (Q.) What sudden idea did Albert hit upon to get away from School?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Albert was convinced that he did not want to continue school. He thought that if he had a nervous breakdown and the doctor certified that it was bad for him to go to school, he could easily get away from it. (Q.) The Address is a story of human predicament (situation) that follows war. Comment.
(7 Marks) (Ans)

The war creates many difficult and traumatic situations for human beings. Civilian life faces tremendous upheaval due to war. The human predicament that follows was is amply illustrated through the experience of the narrator. The war had caused many physical difficulties as well as emotional sufferings to her. She had lost her dear mother. She went to 46, Marconi Street to see her mothers valuable possessions. Mrs. Dorling was a true opportunist who had used the narrators mothers belongings on the pretext of storing them for safekeeping. She refuses to recognize the narrator and does not even let her in. The narrator gets another chance to visit the house. The presence of her mothers possessions in a strange atmosphere hurted her. Now these valuables had lost all their importance for her as they had been separated from her mother. She could get no solace or comfort from them. She resolved to forget the address. She wanted to leave the memories of her mother and the war behind.She decided to move on. (Q.) Have you come back? Said the woman, I thought that no one had come back. Does this statement give some clue about the story? If yes, what is it?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The statement tells us that the narrator and her family at one time lived in that area and secondly, the clue that the war has brought about a lot of destruction and it

seems that Mrs. Dorling was not expecting anyone to return to her house to claim the belongings. (Q.) What impression do you form of the narrator?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator was a very loving, caring and obedient daughter. Having wanted to fulfill her mothers wishes she attempted to locate Mrs. Dorlings house and twice went there to retrieve her mothers belongings. She was practical and logical and seeing her belongings kept distastefully, immediately decided to forgo everything and return with only her mothers good memories with her. (Q.) Justify the title of the story, The Address.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The Address is a very apt title as it brings out the pain and anguish inflicted on the narrator and her mother by the war. The address 46, Marconi Street was important because her mother had given her valuables to Mrs. Dorling who lived at that address. Although the narrator found the address, she didnt take her belongings as they were kept in an ugly setting. She decided to leave her belongings and forget the address. Hence, the address plays an important role in the story.
(Q.) Why does the narrator say, I was in a room I knew and did not know? (2 Marks) (Ans)

The things belonging to the narrators mother were displayed in a most tasteless manner in an unaesthetic way. She knew the things so well but got put off by the way they were kept in the house of Mrs. Dorling. (Q.) Describe the first visit of Mrs. Ss daughter to the house of Mrs. Dorling.
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Mrs. Dorling did not give Mrs. Ss daughter a warm welcome. She was rather cold in her behaviour because she understood the reason for her visit. She had no intention of returning Mrs. Ss belongings. Hence she behaved in a rude and cold manner, and did not even open the door for her. (Q.) Could Mrs. Ss daughter get back to her old life after she came back to the city where she lived before the war?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Before the war, the mother and the narrator lived a comfortable life of luxury. They had beautiful and expensive antiques and silver cutlery. After the war, the narrator was probably living alone as others were dead. She ate dark and tasteless bread. She had fear and felt insecure. She led a different life altogether.
(Q.) Character sketch of the narrator. (10 Marks) (Ans)

Shyama, the narrator of the story Rangas Marriage is also the central character. His style of narration evokes a lot of humour in the story. He is an elderly gentleman and refers to himself as a dark piece of oil cake. He is passionately in love with his village and the villagers and rambles incessantly while describing it. He is a keen observer of his surroundings and uses a colourful style of narration. He feels it is disgraceful to use English words in the native tongue. He is a good judge of people and regards Ranga as a generous and considerate fellow. He is conservative at heart and feels unhappy at Rangas decision to remain single. He means well and his intentions are good. He schemes to get Ranga married. He calls Ranga when Ratna was singing. He also arranges a meeting with Shastri whom he had tutored thoroughly. He had decided that Ratna would be a suitable bride for him. He is a shrewd contriver as he tells Ranga that Ratna was married. This he does in order to rouse Rangas desire for the unattainable. (Q.) What are the special features of Hosahalli and in what respect are they so?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

In the village of Hosahalli the mango trees produce sour mangoes whose sourness goes straight to the skull bones. There is also a creeper growing in the ever-so-fine water of the village pond. The flowers are a feast to behold and the leaves can be used to serve afternoon meals. (Q.) Who was Ranga? What was special about him?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Ranga was the village accountants son who had gone to Bangalore to study. People thought that city education would change him but they were wrong. He still showed respect towards elders in the village andwore the sacred thread. However, his views on marriage had changed. (Q.) What were Rangas views on marriage?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Ranga was of the view that one should not marry a very young girl.A person should mary a girl who is mature.According to him, a man should marry a girl whom he admires. (Q.) Words, mere words! The fellow said he would leave but he did not make a move. How can one expect words to match actions in these days of Kaliyuga? Who said these words and in what context?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator said these words when Ranga came to his house only to find Ratna singing beautifully. Ratna stopped singing when she saw Ranga watching her. Ranga felt guilty that his arrival had made her stop singing. It was then that the narrator spoke these words. (Q.) What arrangements did the narrator make with Shastri, the astrologer?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The astrologer had been briefed by Shyama about what to say. He acted accordingly.

Ranga was already interested in Ratna. He told her that he could possibly marry the girl he was thinking of marrying. Q.) Why does the narrator compare himself to a he-goat and Ranga to a lion?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator referred to a story in which a clever he-goat was able to scare away a lion. Here, he compares himself tothe shrewd goat who has laid a plot for Rangas marriage. Just as the lion was unable to escape the clever moves of the goat, Ranga was alsotaken in by his manipulations.
(Q.) How did the narrator carry out his resolve to get Ranga married to

Ratna?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

The narrator felt that Ranga and Ratna were a suitable match for each other. He arranged a meeting inwhichRanga could meetRatna and get impressed with her quality of singing.He manipulated things in a clever way and made Ranga fall in love with her.Hefinally got them married.

(Q.) Why was Rangas homecoming a great event? (2 Marks) (Ans)

Rangas homecoming was a great event because he had gone to Bangalore to study. He was the first person in the village to have done so. His homecoming was a delight for the villagers and they all thronged to his house to see if city education had changed him or not. (Q.) What exactly had happened ten years ago?
(2 Marks) (Ans)

Ten years ago, the village accountants son was the first one to be sent to Bangalore to study. At that time, not many in the village knew English and no English words were usedwhile talking inthe native language.