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Carbonate Complexity : Characterization, Modeling and Simulation April 22 nd – 25 th , 2008, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

22 n d – 25 t h , 2008, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Carbonate Reservoirs – Challenges in

Carbonate Reservoirs – Challenges in Facies Modeling & Fracture Characterization

By

Subrata K. Chakraborty Mega Ardhiani Puspa Schlumberger Data Consulting Services, Jakarta

Fracture Characterization By Subrata K. Chakraborty Mega Ardhiani Puspa Schlumberger Data Consulting Services, Jakarta
Fracture Characterization By Subrata K. Chakraborty Mega Ardhiani Puspa Schlumberger Data Consulting Services, Jakarta

Contents

Introduction

Facies Modeling of Carbonates

Fracture Characterization of Carbonates

Contents • Introduction • Facies Modeling of Carbonates • Fracture Characterization of Carbonates
Contents • Introduction • Facies Modeling of Carbonates • Fracture Characterization of Carbonates

Carbonate Reservoir in Indonesia

Arun Arun Vanda Vanda Natuna D- Natuna D- Serang Serang Ara Ara Klalin Klalin Alpha
Arun
Arun
Vanda
Vanda
Natuna D-
Natuna D-
Serang
Serang
Ara
Ara
Klalin
Klalin
Alpha
Alpha
Salawati
Salawati
r r
Klamono
Klamono
Rawa
Rawa
Oseil
Oseil
Ramba
Ramba
Kampung
Kampung
Walio
Walio
Kaji- Kaji-
Krisna
Krisna
Baru
Baru
Semoga
Semoga
Bima
Bima
Bawean
Bawean
KLY
KLY
Air Serdang
Air Serdang
Kangean
Kangean
Krisna
Krisna
Rama
Rama
Poleng
Poleng
Ujung
Ujung
Pangkah
Pangkah

Oil Production in Carbonate vs Clastic from Indonesia in 1976

8% 92% Ref. : Warren C Leslie
8%
92%
Ref. : Warren C Leslie

Worldwide 60% HC in Carbonates, in ME 75%

: Warren C Leslie Worldwide 60% HC in Carbonates, in ME 75% Basin Formation Field Age

Basin

Formation

Field

Age

North Sumatra Basin

Arun Limestone

Arun

Early Miocene

South Sumatra Basin

Batu Raja

Ramba, Rawa, Soka, Kaji-Semoga Air Serdang, Mandala

Lower Miocene

Sunda

Batu Raja

Bima, Rama, Krisna, "AA", Selatan, Kandanghaur Timur, Arimbi X, Yvonne, Nora, Kitty, Cinta, Gita Arjuna FF, Arjuna FZ, Pondok Tengah, Tambun

Late Oligocene-Early Miocene

East Natuna/Sarawak Basin

Natuna D-Alpha block

L structure Carbonate complex

Mid - Late Miocene

Kutai Basin

Serang

80-6 Limestone, CN-9 zone

Late Miocene

Tarakan Basin

Vanda

Vanda Limestone

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene

 

Ngimbang

Kangean PSC, Poleng

Mid-Upper Miocene

East Java Basin

Kujung

Poleng, Ujung Pangkah, Jaya, Bawean, JS

Late Oligocene-Early Miocene

 

Randublatung, Kedunglusi, Kedung Tuban

 

Seram

Manusela

Oseil

Early-Middle Jurassic

East Sengkang Basin

Tacipi Limestone

Kampung Baru, Walanga, Sampi Sampi

Lower Miocene

 

Kais, Textularia II, "U" marker

Kasim, Walio

 

Salawati Basin

Kais

Cendrawasih, Moi, Jaya, Klamono, Linda, Sele, Salawati A,C,D,E,F&N Arar, Klalin, Kasim Utara, Kasim Barat

Miocene

60

Carbonate

Fields

Jaya, Klamono, Linda, Sele, Salawati A,C,D,E,F&N Arar, Klalin, Kasim Utara, Kasim Barat Miocene 60 Carbonate Fields

Part-I Facies Modeling in Carbonates

Part-I Facies Modeling in Carbonates
Part-I Facies Modeling in Carbonates

Regional Carbonate Depositional Model

Carbonate Ramp Model Rimmed Platform Model BatuRaja Carbonate ??
Carbonate Ramp Model
Rimmed Platform Model
BatuRaja Carbonate ??

Stratigraphy – South Sumatra

Stratigraphy – South Sumatra

Facies Modeling-Workflow

Facies Modeling Facies Interpretation At Wells 3D Modeling Core Image Electro Seis Pixel Object Facies
Facies Modeling
Facies Interpretation
At Wells
3D Modeling
Core
Image
Electro
Seis
Pixel
Object
Facies
Facies
Facies
Facies
Based
Based
Most Definite
More Definite
Limited Vertical
Reasonable
Distribution
Vertical
Distribution
Less Definite
Wide Vertical
Distribution
Result depends
on Log
Availability
Least Definite
Wide Aerialal
Distribution
Limited Vertical
Resolution
Results depend
On data quality
Works well with
good quality Seismic
Data & Good
Well Density
Works best
With Knowledge
of Paleo-geography
& Paleo-environment
Used
Mostly
For Calibration
Most
Less
3D Facies
Model
Widely
Widely
Used
Used

Facies Interpretation – Neural Net Based Approach

9 originally identified Carbonate sub-facies narrowed down to 4 Carbonate Facies from fluid flow behavior point of view.

Deep water Shale Facies

Tight Platform Facie

Coral Rich Wackstone & Packstone

Reworked Skeletal Facies

VCALY, RHOB, PHIE used as key logs for Neural Network based facies Electro Facies Interpretation in “Petrel”.

Neural Network was trained with above core facies where key logs showed significant variation for different facies type and Supervised Neural Network was run. “Petrel-Make Log” utility was used to generate trained electrofacies in other wells having the key logs.

Generated electro facies in each well was examined and corrections made by editing wherever required.

the key logs. Generated electro facies in each well was examined and corrections made by editing
the key logs. Generated electro facies in each well was examined and corrections made by editing

Neural Network Training

Neural Network : An algorithm that takes multiple log inputs and returns one or several outputs. Each input is multiplied by a weight, the result is summed and the result passed through a non-linear function to produce the output. It is of two types – “Supervised or Trained” (Sigmoidal Basis Function Regression Network) or “Untrained” (Competitive Selective Learning).

Electro Logs in Training Facies Electro Logs
Electro Logs in Training Facies
Electro Logs

Correlation Analysis : Neural Network – BRF Carbonate Facies

Learning). Electro Logs in Training Facies Electro Logs Correlation Analysis : Neural Network – BRF Carbonate
Learning). Electro Logs in Training Facies Electro Logs Correlation Analysis : Neural Network – BRF Carbonate

BRF Carbonate 3D Facies Model – General Workflow

Facies Model

Object Based Model

Model – General Workflow Facies Model Object Based Model Well Data Guided by Object Trend “Stochastic
Model – General Workflow Facies Model Object Based Model Well Data Guided by Object Trend “Stochastic

Well Data

Guided by

Object Trend

“Stochastic Object Modeling” Algorithm

Object Trend “Stochastic Object Modeling” Algorithm Vertical Proportion Analysis Variogram Analysis
Vertical Proportion Analysis Variogram Analysis
Vertical Proportion Analysis Variogram Analysis
Vertical Proportion Analysis Variogram Analysis

Vertical Proportion Analysis

Variogram Analysis

Vertical Proportion Analysis Variogram Analysis
Identification of Depositional Elements (Objects) Progradational Line Reef Trends Reef Geometry
Identification of
Depositional Elements
(Objects)
Progradational Line
Reef Trends
Reef Geometry

Hard Data : Facies Log Interpolation Guide : Objects

Object Based

Q/C
Q/C

Facies Interpretation in Wells as Logs

Facies Interpretation in Wells as Logs Upscale Logs to Model Cells Data Analysis

Upscale Logs to Model Cells

Facies Interpretation in Wells as Logs Upscale Logs to Model Cells Data Analysis

Data Analysis

Facies Modeling

Object Based Q/C Facies Interpretation in Wells as Logs Upscale Logs to Model Cells Data Analysis
Object Based Q/C Facies Interpretation in Wells as Logs Upscale Logs to Model Cells Data Analysis
Object Based Q/C Facies Interpretation in Wells as Logs Upscale Logs to Model Cells Data Analysis
Object Based Q/C Facies Interpretation in Wells as Logs Upscale Logs to Model Cells Data Analysis

Reefal Facies Object Modeling

Reefal Facies Object Modeling
Reefal Facies Object Modeling
Reefal Facies Object Modeling
SUMMARY Field Carbonate Geology. The 3D Facies Model becomes the basis of modeling other reservoir

SUMMARY

Field

Carbonate Geology.

The 3D Facies Model becomes the basis of modeling other reservoir properties.

Developed

3D

Facies

Model

captures

the

The 3D Facies Model becomes the basis of modeling other reservoir properties. Developed 3D Facies M

Part-II Fracture Characterization of Carbonates

Part-II Fracture Characterization of Carbonates
Part-II Fracture Characterization of Carbonates

Definition : Naturally Fractured Reservoirs are defined as formations in which the fracture permeability substantially enhances productivity.

A fracture is a commonest type of geological structures and may be seen in any rock exposures. There are two kinds of fracture:

(a) Joint : no displacement, or displacement is too small to be visible. (b) Fault : has measurable displacement across the fracture plane

“Carbonates” are more prone to fracturing than “Clastics”.

Dual Porosity – Permeability System
Dual Porosity – Permeability System
than “Clastics”. Dual Porosity – Permeability System OUTCROP EXAMPLE : Fractured Carbonates from Oman A –

OUTCROP EXAMPLE : Fractured Carbonates from Oman

System OUTCROP EXAMPLE : Fractured Carbonates from Oman A – Breccia Clasts B – Breccia Matrix

A – Breccia Clasts

B – Breccia Matrix

C – Open Fractures

D – Healed Fracture

E – Fractures filled

with breccia material

Core from Oseil-1 (Ref IPA 2002)

D – Healed Fracture E – Fractures filled with breccia material Core from Oseil-1 (Ref IPA

EXAMPLE From Cores

D – Healed Fracture E – Fractures filled with breccia material Core from Oseil-1 (Ref IPA
E E = tensile stress / tensile strain = tensile stress / tensile strain E-Modulus
E
E
= tensile stress / tensile strain
= tensile stress / tensile strain
E-Modulus high -> Flow
E-Modulus high -> Flow
E
E
= ca. 90 GPa
= ca. 90 GPa
Mudloss and rubble in cores
Mudloss and rubble in cores
(low frac toughness)
(low frac toughness)
only seen in outcrop
only seen in outcrop
400
400
E
E
= ca. 20 GPa
= ca. 20 GPa
E-Modulus low -> Storage
E-Modulus low -> Storage
100
100
Limestone
Limestone
Brittle
Brittle
Ductile
Ductile
Lithology
Lithology
Fracture toughness is regarded as being the opposite of Rock
strength:
Ref. : Tyler 1988
A weak/ soft rock accomadate more strain before fracturing.
Youngs Modulus (E) is related to capability of storage of strain
energy.
Fracture number
Fracture number
Quartzite
Quartzite
Dolomite
Dolomite
Sst.
Sst.
number Quartzite Quartzite Dolomite Dolomite Sst. Sst. Fractured Carbonate Rocks Carbonate Rocks are More Prone to

Fractured Carbonate Rocks

Carbonate Rocks are More Prone to Fracturing than Clastic Rocks. In a carbonate reservoir, fracturing intensity may be controlled by different carbonate facies present.

Rocks. In a carbonate reservoir, fracturing intensity may be controlled by different carbonate facies present.

Difference of Fractured Reservoirs from Conventional Reservoirs

High Transmissivity of Fracture Network – Pressure drop around producing well is low. Production is driven by complex mechanisms that governs fracture/matrix-block communication.

GOR of fractured reservoirs remains lower throughout during production, if reservoir is properly managed.

Fracture reservoirs lack transition zones. OWC/GWC’s are knife sharp surfaces. High fracture permeability ensures rapid contact equilibrium even during production.

Water cut is strictly a function of production rate.

PVT properties remain constant throughout a fractured reservoir due to conductive circulation.

(REF. : SPE 84590)

rate. PVT properties remain constant throu ghout a fractured reservoir due to conductive circulation. (REF. :
rate. PVT properties remain constant throu ghout a fractured reservoir due to conductive circulation. (REF. :

Fracture Reservoir Classification (After Nelson, R.A., 1999, 2002)

Type

permeability to the reservoir. Example : Amal (Libya) 1700 MMBL, Ellenburger (Texas) 108 MMBL, Edison (California) 42 MMBL, TaHe (China) (SPE 49221, 106986)

Type 2- Fractures provide the essential permeability to the reservoir. Example : Agha Jari (Iran) 9500 MMBL, Haft Kel (Iran) 2660

1-

Fractures

provide

the

essential

porosity

and

MMBL,

(Venezuella)

Rangely

800

(Colorado)

MMBL,

600

NWRA

MMBL,

(Kuwait).

La

Paz/Mara

(SPE

35309,

5023, 97834) Type 3- Fractures provide a permeability assist to the reservoir. Example : Kirkuk (Iraq) 15000 MMBL, Gachsaran (Iran) 8000 MMBL, Hassi Messaoud (Algeria) 6000 MMBL, Dukhan (Qatar), UmLulu/Asab/Bab (UAE) (SPE 36228, 62608, 65186, 87238, 96955, 102453, 11164) Type 4- fractures do not provide significant storage capacity or permeability in an already producible reservoir but instead create anisotropy.

provide significant storage capacity or permeability in an already producible reservoir but instead create anisotropy.
provide significant storage capacity or permeability in an already producible reservoir but instead create anisotropy.
provide significant storage capacity or permeability in an already producible reservoir but instead create anisotropy.
provide significant storage capacity or permeability in an already producible reservoir but instead create anisotropy.
Field Recovery Curve If Fracture Porosity-Permeability is Not Modeled – Consequences ? Unexpected Performance. In

Field Recovery Curve

If Fracture Porosity-Permeability is Not Modeled – Consequences ?

Unexpected Performance.

In case of thick gas cap & active aquifer, early gas coning & water breakthrough reducing oil recovery.

In case of oil reservoir with active water drive, early water breakthrough reducing oil recovery.

Water injection schemes may get jeopardized by preferential water front movement along fractures.

Severe mud loss during drilling of horizontal wells aligned across unfriendly fractures.

Improperly aligned horizontal wells may have low productivity.

in

decline

from

predicted

Field

may have low productivity. in decline from predicted Field Recovery Factor Gas Cap Oil Column Water

Recovery Factor

Gas Cap Oil Column Water Fractures
Gas
Cap
Oil Column
Water
Fractures

Thin Oil Column in Fractured Reservoir

Field Recovery Factor Gas Cap Oil Column Water Fractures Thin Oil Column in Fractured Reservoir So,

So, it is Important

Field Recovery Factor Gas Cap Oil Column Water Fractures Thin Oil Column in Fractured Reservoir So,

Fractures & Tectonic Style

Tectonic styles and fracture type identified to three plate boundaries :

Divergent (tensional – normal faults)

Transform (shear – strike slip faults)

Convergent (compressive – reverse faults)

Fractures in extensional area are parallel to the main fault.

Fractures in strike slip area will be concentrated near the master faults and is 60 o offset to

near the master faults and is 60 o offset to the strike slip fault. and will

the strike slip fault.

and will be perpendicular to the direction of maximum compressive stress.

Fractures in compressive area will be concentrated on the anticlinal bent areas of the folds

be concentrated on the anticlinal bent areas of the folds Extensional System, e.g., Rifting & Drifting

Extensional System, e.g., Rifting & Drifting of Plates

Left lateral Strike Slip System, e.g., rotation of plates

Compressional System, e.g., Collision of Plates

Strike Slip System, e.g., rotation of plates Compressional System, e.g., Collision of Plates Microsoft werPoint Presentati

Microsoft

werPoint Presentati

Strike Slip System, e.g., rotation of plates Compressional System, e.g., Collision of Plates Microsoft werPoint Presentati

Effect of Present Day Stress Field on Faults & Fractures

In Indonesia the dominant present day maximum horizontal stress direction is NE-SW, hence in Indonesian fractured reservoirs fractures having fracture sets of this orientation are likely to be more “Open” in general (Leading Edge 2005).

http://www.world-stress-map.org/
http://www.world-stress-map.org/
more “Open” in general (Leading Edge 2005). http://www.world-stress-map.org/ World stress map of Austral-Asia Plate
more “Open” in general (Leading Edge 2005). http://www.world-stress-map.org/ World stress map of Austral-Asia Plate

World stress map of Austral-Asia Plate

more “Open” in general (Leading Edge 2005). http://www.world-stress-map.org/ World stress map of Austral-Asia Plate

Fracture Modeling

Fracture Modeling

Fracture Modeling Fracture Modeling Fracture Modeling – Workflow Fracture Modeling – Workflow (“Petrel”)

Fracture Modeling – Workflow

Fracture Modeling – Workflow

(“Petrel”)

(“Petrel”)

Input Data Input Data
Input Data Input Data

Input Data

Input Data

Input Data Input Data
Input Data Input Data
(“Petrel”) (“Petrel”) Input Data Input Data Interpreted Image Logs Interpreted Image Logs 3D Display
(“Petrel”) (“Petrel”) Input Data Input Data Interpreted Image Logs Interpreted Image Logs 3D Display
Interpreted Image Logs Interpreted Image Logs
Interpreted Image Logs
Interpreted Image Logs
Input Data Interpreted Image Logs Interpreted Image Logs 3D Display 3D Display Ant Tracking Ant Tracking

3D Display

3D Display

Ant Tracking

Ant Tracking

Fault from 3D Cube

Fault from 3D Cube

Ant Tracking Fault from 3D Cube Fault from 3D Cube Create DFN Create DFN Create Fracture

Create DFN

Create DFN

from 3D Cube Fault from 3D Cube Create DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Create Fracture Property

Create Fracture

Create Fracture

Property

Property

DFN Create Fracture Create Fracture Property Property Stereo Net Analysis Stereo Net Analysis Display Display

Stereo Net Analysis

Stereo Net Analysis

Display

Display

& &

Analysis

Analysis

Display Display & & Analysis Analysis Create Create Intensity Log Intensity Log Model

Create

Create

Intensity Log

Intensity Log

Analysis Create Create Intensity Log Intensity Log Model Model Intensity Log Intensity Log Tadpole

Model

Model

Intensity Log

Intensity Log

Tadpole

Tadpole

Model Intensity Log Intensity Log Tadpole Tadpole Well Section Well Section Rose Diagram Rose Diagram

Well Section

Well Section

Rose Diagram

Rose Diagram

Well Section Well Section Rose Diagram Rose Diagram Upscale Fracture Upscale Fracture Property Property

Upscale Fracture

Upscale Fracture

Property

Property

Upscale Fracture Upscale Fracture Property Property Volumetric Volumetric Estimation Estimation

Volumetric

Volumetric

Estimation

Estimation

Property Volumetric Volumetric Estimation Estimation Uncertainty Uncertainty Analysis Analysis Advanced

Uncertainty

Uncertainty

Analysis

Analysis

Advanced Options of Using Advanced Options of Using Collocated Co-Krigging Collocated Co-Krigging
Advanced Options of Using
Advanced Options of Using
Collocated Co-Krigging
Collocated Co-Krigging
of Using Collocated Co-Krigging Collocated Co-Krigging Create DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Property Create

Create DFN

Create DFN

Co-Krigging Collocated Co-Krigging Create DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Property Create Fracture Property Upscale

Create Fracture Property

Create Fracture Property

Upscale Fracture

Upscale Fracture

Property

Property

Create DFN Create Fracture Property Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Upscale Fracture Property Property
Create DFN Create Fracture Property Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Upscale Fracture Property Property
Create DFN Create Fracture Property Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Upscale Fracture Property Property
Create DFN Create Fracture Property Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Upscale Fracture Property Property

Fracture From Image Log

Apertur e Fracture Density/ Intensity Log Tadpole Fracture Fracture
Apertur
e
Fracture
Density/
Intensity Log
Tadpole
Fracture
Fracture

Conductive Fractures : Assumed open

Resistive Fractures

: Assumed sealed

Interpretation is done for Conductive Fractures

Basic Fracture Analysis Data

Azimuth Dip
Azimuth
Dip

Advance Fracture Analysis Data

Aperture Density Porosity
Aperture
Density
Porosity
Conductive Fractures Basic Fracture Analysis Data Azimuth Dip Advance Fracture Analysis Data Aperture Density Porosity

Fracture Interpretation from Array Sonic Logs

Fracture Interpretation from Array Sonic Logs FMI Log Array Sonic Quantitative Qualitative Tool Tool Shallow Deeper
FMI Log Array Sonic Quantitative Qualitative Tool Tool Shallow Deeper Penetration Penetration
FMI Log
Array Sonic
Quantitative
Qualitative
Tool
Tool
Shallow
Deeper
Penetration
Penetration
Array Sonic Logs FMI Log Array Sonic Quantitative Qualitative Tool Tool Shallow Deeper Penetration Penetration

Fracture Analysis – From Image Log Data

Tadpole & Rose Diagram Display

Stereo-net Display & Filtering

Rose diagram showing dip azimuth showing azimuth Tadpole Intensity log Tadpole Fracture Intensity from Image
Rose
diagram
showing dip
azimuth
showing
azimuth
Tadpole
Intensity log
Tadpole
Fracture
Intensity
from Image
Fracture
Log
Intensity Log

Rose diagram

dip

from Image Fracture Log Intensity Log Rose diagram dip Fracture log Tadpole Helps to understand fracture

Fracture log

Tadpole

Helps

to

understand

fracture

Intensity and orientation.

 

Rose

Diagram

helps

to

understand

fracture orientation and sets.

 

Stereo-net helps to understand fracture

dip angle and azimuth.

dip angle and azimuth.

fracture orientation and sets.   Stereo-net helps to understand fracture dip angle and azimuth.
After Nelson 1999 Field-X Aerial Distribution of Rose Diagrams brings out the Imprint of Different
After Nelson 1999 Field-X Aerial Distribution of Rose Diagrams brings out the Imprint of Different

After Nelson 1999

Field-X

Aerial Distribution of Rose Diagrams brings out the Imprint of Different Tectonic Events Clearly

After Nelson 1999 Field-X Aerial Distribution of Rose Diagrams brings out the Imprint of Different Tectonic

3D Modeling of Fracture Intensity Creation

Create Intensity Log

of Fracture Intensity Creation Create Intensity Log Upscale Intensity Log Model Intensity Log Created from the

Upscale Intensity Log

Creation Create Intensity Log Upscale Intensity Log Model Intensity Log Created from the fracture set Upscaling

Model Intensity Log

Intensity Log Upscale Intensity Log Model Intensity Log Created from the fracture set Upscaling Modeling Fracture
Intensity Log Upscale Intensity Log Model Intensity Log Created from the fracture set Upscaling Modeling Fracture

Created from the fracture set

Upscaling

Modeling

Fracture Intensity Cube
Fracture Intensity
Cube
Log Upscale Intensity Log Model Intensity Log Created from the fracture set Upscaling Modeling Fracture Intensity
Create Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Distribution Fracture Intensity Orientation Fracture Orientation Fracture Density

Create Discrete Fracture Network (DFN)

Distribution Fracture Intensity
Distribution
Fracture Intensity
Orientation
Orientation

Fracture Orientation

Fracture Density

Geometry Fracture Length
Geometry
Fracture Length
Network (DFN) Distribution Fracture Intensity Orientation Fracture Orientation Fracture Density Geometry Fracture Length
Network (DFN) Distribution Fracture Intensity Orientation Fracture Orientation Fracture Density Geometry Fracture Length
Network (DFN) Distribution Fracture Intensity Orientation Fracture Orientation Fracture Density Geometry Fracture Length

Analysis of DFN

Analysis of DFN Consists of no of fractures of certain orientation, dip and length. Discrete Fracture
Consists of no of fractures of certain orientation, dip and length. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN)
Consists of no of fractures
of certain orientation, dip
and length.
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN)
fractures of certain orientation, dip and length. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Stereonet Display Real Life Analogue

Stereonet Display

fractures of certain orientation, dip and length. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Stereonet Display Real Life Analogue

Real Life Analogue

fractures of certain orientation, dip and length. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Stereonet Display Real Life Analogue

Create Fracture Attributes

Aperture (Required for Fracture Porosity)

By 3D Modeling By Calculator Operation Fracture_length=Sqrt( Surface_area) Aperture=Fracture_length*Normal( 0.005, 0.0005)

Permeability (Fracture Permeability depends on “Aperture” & “Permeability”)

By 3D Modeling By Calculator Operations

Permeability=Pow( Aperture, 3)

By Calculator Operations Permeability=Pow( Aperture, 3 ) Upscale Fracture Attributes Oda Method Output Fracture

Upscale Fracture Attributes

Oda Method
Oda Method

Output

Fracture Porosity Permeability Tensors (I, j & k directions) Sigma Factor (connectivity between fractures and matrix)

Porosity Permeability Tensors (I, j & k directions) Sigma Factor (connectivity between fractures and matrix)

3D Fracture Modeling – From AntTracking Interpretation

3D Fracture Modeling – From AntTracking Interpretation Main Faults in 3D Model Ant Tracked Faults/Fractures DFN

Main Faults in 3D Model

– From AntTracking Interpretation Main Faults in 3D Model Ant Tracked Faults/Fractures DFN Create DFN Create

Ant Tracked Faults/Fractures

DFN
DFN
Main Faults in 3D Model Ant Tracked Faults/Fractures DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture

Create DFN

in 3D Model Ant Tracked Faults/Fractures DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Property Create

Create Fracture Property

Upscale Fracture Property

Faults/Fractures DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Property Create DFN From AntTracked Fractures
Faults/Fractures DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Property Create DFN From AntTracked Fractures

Create DFN From AntTracked Fractures

Faults/Fractures DFN Create DFN Create Fracture Property Upscale Fracture Property Create DFN From AntTracked Fractures

3D Fracture Modeling – Secondary Porosity & Permeability

Fracture Modeling – Secondary Porosity & Permeability Upscaled Fracture Porosity Model Upscaled Fracture Ki Model

Upscaled Fracture Porosity Model

Porosity & Permeability Upscaled Fracture Porosity Model Upscaled Fracture Ki Model Upscaled Fracture Kj Model
Porosity & Permeability Upscaled Fracture Porosity Model Upscaled Fracture Ki Model Upscaled Fracture Kj Model

Upscaled Fracture Ki Model

Porosity & Permeability Upscaled Fracture Porosity Model Upscaled Fracture Ki Model Upscaled Fracture Kj Model

Upscaled Fracture Kj Model

Porosity & Permeability Upscaled Fracture Porosity Model Upscaled Fracture Ki Model Upscaled Fracture Kj Model
Dual Porosity / Permeability Simulation Input Can be done in Petrel RE, using the Define
Dual Porosity / Permeability Simulation Input
Can be done in Petrel RE, using the Define Simulation case process. Matrix properties
should be ready, and the fracture properties from upscaling should now be available.
and the fracture properties from upscaling should now be available. Matrix Poro/Perm Sigma Factor Fracture Poro
Matrix Poro/Perm Sigma Factor Fracture Poro Perm
Matrix Poro/Perm
Sigma Factor
Fracture Poro Perm
and the fracture properties from upscaling should now be available. Matrix Poro/Perm Sigma Factor Fracture Poro

Validation of Fracture Model

Difficult in “Green Field” compared to in “Brown Field”. Transient Well Test matching in “Green Field”. Dynamic history match data is the main data to validate model. Explanation of uneven injection water movement. Explanation of early gas coning, early water breakthrough. Explanation of mud-loss in horizontal wells. Explanation of higher production from some horizontal wells.

Explanation of mud-loss in horizontal wells. Explanation of higher producti on from some horizontal wells.
Explanation of mud-loss in horizontal wells. Explanation of higher producti on from some horizontal wells.

Fractured Reservoirs in Indonesia

Fractures related to Syn-Rift Tectonics. Fractures related to Collision Tectonics & Inversion. Fractures related to Strike Slip movements. Fractures related to Local Structuring (trap formation).

Examples

“Jatibarang” fractured basement, East Java (Operator : Pertamina) “Pase A” Gas Field, Pase PSC, North Sumatra (Operator : Mobil Oil Indonesia) “Darajat Field” (Operator : Amoseas Indonesia Inc) “Oseil Oil Field”, Seram Island, Eastern Indonesia (Operator : KUFPEC). “Kasim”, “Jaya”, “Kasim Utara”, “Cendrawasih”, “Moi”, “Arae” fields, Salawati Basin, Irian Jaya.

“Moi”, “Arae” fields, Salawati Basin, Irian Jaya. “ Ujung Pangkah”, East Java Sea ?? (Operator :

Ujung Pangkah”, East Java Sea ?? (Operator : Amerada Hess)

“Arae” fields, Salawati Basin, Irian Jaya. “ Ujung Pangkah”, East Java Sea ?? (Operator : Amerada
25 my Talang Akar Syn Rift/Drift (Normal Fault)
25 my
Talang Akar
Syn Rift/Drift (Normal Fault)
20 my Batu Raja Carbonate Syn Rift/Drift (Normal Fault)
20
my
Batu Raja Carbonate
Syn Rift/Drift (Normal Fault)

Plate Tectonic Reconstruction of Sumatra & Java of Indonesia showing the active Syn Rift/Drift Phase (Likely Fracture Orientation NW-SE)

of Sumatra & Java of Indonesia showing the active Syn Rift/Drift Phase (Likely Fracture Orientation NW-SE)
of Sumatra & Java of Indonesia showing the active Syn Rift/Drift Phase (Likely Fracture Orientation NW-SE)
12 my Air Benakat Time Strike Slip Movement + End of Drift
12
my
Air Benakat Time
Strike Slip Movement
+ End of Drift

Plate

Tectonic

Reconstruction

09my Structural Inversion Strike Slip Movement + Collision + Plate rotation Reverse & Strike Slip
09my
Structural Inversion
Strike Slip Movement +
Collision + Plate rotation
Reverse & Strike Slip faults

of

Sumatra

&

Java

of

Indonesia showing the active Strike Slip Movement due to Plate Rotation and the Collision Phase (Likely Fracture Orientation N-S to NE-SW and NW-SE)

Strike Slip Movement due to Plate Rotation and the Collision Phase (Likely Fracture Orientation N-S to
Strike Slip Movement due to Plate Rotation and the Collision Phase (Likely Fracture Orientation N-S to

Data Acquisition Program for Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

FMI/Sonic Scanner Logs

 

Advanced

Fracture

Interpretation

from

FMI/Sonic Scanner Logs

 

High Quality 3D Seismic Data with acquisition optimized for Target Reservoir

Completion

Fracturing

Fractures

might

be

necessary

to

Enhance

Image Log

Completion Fracturing Fractures might be necessary to Enhance Image Log Sonic Scanner Logs Stage Frac Completion
Sonic Scanner Logs
Sonic Scanner Logs
Completion Fracturing Fractures might be necessary to Enhance Image Log Sonic Scanner Logs Stage Frac Completion
Completion Fracturing Fractures might be necessary to Enhance Image Log Sonic Scanner Logs Stage Frac Completion

Stage Frac Completion Assembly

Completion Fracturing Fractures might be necessary to Enhance Image Log Sonic Scanner Logs Stage Frac Completion

Thanks for Your Attention

Thanks for Your Attention
Thanks for Your Attention