Sei sulla pagina 1di 21

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i47939 ~

.,

"',

"

.. 1-;

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"

.Em. tt at Sta.ffall.

. l...,

, clA7I/('fh(!t;'IIIr,IJ'f'i

(/tIl/tIll i1
l~)
\

·3(/
frolll the first seven letters

Jl ..:
.

J.

FRELIMINARIES. of the a~l}habet:

AU muaical sotrnds are exprefsed by certain characters, called notes, which are, named

A. Stave

,?'-':;

A, B, C, D, ~,F,

G.·

,.-:=

corrtairrs fivf tines, and four spaces: the lowest line is calledthe first.

The notes are ~la<:edon the Linea, or spaces; above, or under the stave; and the additional, called LEDGER lines

. ..t¢:i:.......
..

if,

-1 --

_.
.

.
.

are for the' higher and 19wer notes.


'.
"

,,'

"

C'L
In order to deter-mine
C L IFF S
\

E F:.S.
'

the

1" I T C H

of rnus ica.l notes, certain

signs, called of the staves.

CL E F S

or

have been invented, which are set at the beginning There are" five in general use. line~~The,1'el1or

. The

Bat~def, on'the4~h

'clef on the 4 t}' line:-M\--' The Soprano clef on thel~t

-~'~

The Counter-tenor
And the Trebledef

clefonthp3~-line3'!lt?, on the2~line"

f-'

, '.

lin~ • .,
~j==

.,

The Treble and Bars clefs lare chiefly used for the Piano Forle ..

The S~ale, or Gamut;


shewing .the position" and name of the notes. a.b cd e f) _ Treble Bafs '::,
,
,

Let the PUPIL now:str~ the notes on the instrument; taking notic~ that the first LONG key, on the left hand, serves for the first F; the second LONG key for G;~1:he third ~or ~Land so on: making ~o other use, at present, of the SHORT ke~s, than as GUIDES to (hrect the eye; .1>y obs'erv1.llg,that between B allele, and between E alaI F, there are no s noa rkeys; which places in the scale are dist.ing ui shed thus .:»,
CI"mpnti"s
!d'rocl . "

Remark

on the foregoing Scale.

,. , The first E I G H T NOT ES in the trehle- stave fr om G to G' a'r th , '. ,. , '" e e SAM E as t}1f' co r r esp o nd injr F:IGHT >';OTF:S_, or p e n d icu Iar l y under then} in the bafs-stave p both in N A ~ E ..wd SOUND; they ar'e played , s=>:» tl'(Tefore' , on the S A' M .,.k eys. ','
'T_

: As a help to memory; let the Pupil contplllplate 11t~.es, and spaces ; be~il111ill~ hy the F IV E Lin es..

the notes,

SEPARATELy,onthe,

=@

i£11 i J .j
Bars

2:

B "p F ,.\

c E GeE

£
~

EEl

E
non

E.
F

%Ul;]1 i
Treble Treble

E G~

D FA':t:

IE

FI f
G
1

r
n

r=

11%

Bafs ~ G
~

1!j Iii
~ ~

.'

r ET1

EG

t~

=!

II:§ $ J 81 J J r r r f
F ACE

t~

nF

II

Exercise

for treble

notes:

'_f

Fe r rJ 1'01; It
Exercise for bars notes:

fH 110 ;@ JJ tFrJ FrrqljEFJl


~. B. Let the Pupil FIRST be falniliarized tlwl1l; and then find them out as READILY

.. .

~E

.,._ ~. F

rrfflo EJJ ~rMyiYrlJEJJ:e:"=


with the notes, by REIADI LY nam ing' on the instrument. ~ hetween two sounds

E~ _

In tcr'val s ;
An INTERVAL is the distance,
or difference

in point

of GRAVI_

_ Ty or ACUTENESS. The least of our INTE'RVALSis called a selnitone,

or half-tone:

in the NATURALscale, 'between E ~l1d F;'and l>etweell Band


The RF:GULARprogref.<;ion ,DIATONIC scale,ishyan Example of the OTHER notes

C. Ex:

"@;

it is the IN_TF:RV.AL, c-: ~-~


~a1led

iif' I W i If
I~

in the NATURAL,whichisalso or a whole tone. scale.

INTERVAL of two sern itones of the~

~ r"fffjJ;:~
'l'heIN1.·ER~ALhetween
~.

rfl§S@ r~
between
sUllg~ ..n

ATURAL*

ornIATONIC

~rgijft
b)

C andD,

D,andE,orbetween

any two CONTIGUOUS

.notes,in the sc,"lp, is called a SECOND: the INTERV'AL hetween . n <l11(_t F, &c: is cal.l ed a third; and so, on.
.,'

C and E-, or hetween

*-, "I.\'Tr:tAL~ ,',',-r o u, " f


(" .' .·t,t

tho', l-'}\ctLt1'Y

with which it' is

r,,:

DrATONIC,a~ it

proreedschi<fly

'rONES.

In t, ,,;d

@F
.1
,notes \._"

2, r I

, The

I,,NTERVALofanst~

r r r¥¢4f.' ~=
;....--...._

Example of 1,,' 'l' E R VA .._' ~ .----.


is commonly
.'T

LS
".

._t!
h

I
I ,

rLE
~
" •

. ,,--.

I
~

cal.Ied an OCTAVE• remain

... p-:::w=
__.,-I!-+~

o ,,'

N.B. 'rhe natur~"1


be'played

name of the

E .. VA LS

the same, whefhe r the ";nl'l~

St.'"CCESSIVELY,orwheth= r two) or rno re jb e struckTOGETHE~: the ftf\'m?

_ .".is proper,lY,. called

E LO DT; an',l t, ,h, latt, e r, II ARM 0 NY. e, L' " Example 'of.··the latter. ~ '~ ~ The notes, tl1us taken TOGETHER are also -called CHORDS; ~ r' the snccefs ion ·ofwhjch,pla,yed from, certain figures set over a bass, acco rd ing=to a

l\f

,b, I ~~I-_: 1" a-

,.__

systen~ofrules',

is den(!)rninated

l'HOROt.'"G.H-BASS. and

Tenor, Counter ..tenor;


The written notes tht~s ~

Soprano clefs

explained.

, ,are played as' if ,:written thus:

are plllyed thus:

@r f r .~ r er
,'Soprano."

c n'af.<i

f g a ,h

r
.,,_

.'

whe~

writt~~thusSfft! 1}: I r! !! r!::~!:; = E;


t1uls.:

..

are pl~<I

.~%tlir4 J r r r tE r t r r rJJ
than the -Treble-notes. to take notice:

11* II

Jl

c
~

By which it is evident, that the Tenor- notes must be play~d one fifth HI GHER. than the ~afs-notes: the Counter ..tenor notes, ons seventh HIGH E R than the Bafs-nofes : and the So urano vnotos', onetbirdLowER'
I

It is ndw:proper

that th~ bars - clefis also caned the. F- clef,

it 'indicates by}ts tlo~iti;',) ",he~e 'the note Flies!.


'- tenor,

"""@-J-, -,--

as

the. tenor,

counter _./ ..

.and soprano - clefs a-re ca.lled

,
of C:

lWI
/

Tenor:

C - clefs,

h
/

.IM[ .

~oun~er-!e

t 1-

=11

because

they determine

the place .

sop~ano~

arrd the treble-~lef

is

calledt1}eG-

clef, being
'

pl~ced' ontl1~ 1i~ewhere

G is found

?@1'gbl'l ~ G ~:

,Clementi'.' Introd:

,,,.

Figure; Length,
Notes

and relath"e Value 'of

Nof.es,.;with their

respective

Rests.

. c,
Semibreve,

, ~,.
m iriirnv.

I(

..

crotchet,

. q_uaver,

semiqu<{ver,

J- ;

II

~ Minims
4 Crotchets 8 OlIaVerS
'"

.F

p
~ ~

16 :semi_ ,~quavers

8?:(lelnise_1~~~~;~~~~;~~~~~~~;~~~~~~~ _llll_qua'vers ..:

"

r
E:z
CC
\(

r
F

rr

S
_I
Ex: ~

A DOT after a note, or rest, illa,k~s the note or rest half as long again.

to' a minim and a crotchet; or to ,thre~' crotchets 1 and s6 on: ,... is eqrra] to . on: by which it is evident, that the DO'!J." to a rnirrim is equal to crotchet ;an.d

r,

is equal

and so the DOTto

, a crotchet

second thus

is equal to a quaver; &c: ,When a seco~d dot is added to the first, the dot is cons idered as 'the half of thef'ir st.; therefore a dou hl evdo'tted Crotchet,
, I , \

-=-"Fe .'

is equal to a crotchet,quaver,an~\,semiquaver;

o~ to seven se mi.quave rs ,

Let us farther iilustrate this by the mark,cahed a TIE, rna.d e thus ;........ wh ic h , when p Iaced between two potes of the SAME pitch, binds the second to the first; so that only the first is struck, but the finger mtrst be held down the full leng-th of bot~It
01"

F rll-

is therefore

and

"4 .:

indifferent

w1tether

'we write

thus

is the samein effect as··

f"r=~

==9 .•

or

'=<:1 F

C">

Time »nd its Divisions.


The BAR, made thus ~ divides a InuSical,cOlnposition into E~U AL por _

_ tions of :time. TIM E is d ivi de d into two so r ts ; co MMON and TRIPLE;' each of which Iseithe.r S IMP LE or coMPOU N D: a,~d the character or sign, which denotes it, is placed at the begin,ning of every composition. ,aft"r the clef. . S i M l' L E common time, when marked thus ~: that each ba.r contains

12 C ." ¥ 52
at' ('

denotes,
«,

Example
\l1","
l1 ....

r'<l tlm._ ••

*'''¥<Ii

one st'lnibre~e,
CI

or its equivalent.

I ~ §lq9~1
0''''

II

tl", \"" eM,tab"

mi nm , or it. equivalent. . i

1s t sort
2d

jJ?

sort Sort sort

4th

9" r r tr or titil-=-$l~:::~;i~~,,!~ ~,~~~~g§~p~1~a§~I~~t~~JI~=r=~.~~~~~· §~}!!ifJ~~sr~~~§f~II~~ ;i$-I ""~'I 9 rmF$ 9· ughl ·~J~I~..~9~h~l~r~r~r~~r §9~1 ~r=~F~::II~·
'I '\

Four sorts

of co x PO UND common

time exvlained:

,!~~;~r:I(~~t a

~~:;;U:~:~;a~l;n~~ar,or

crotchets ina"ar,~c,
crotchets inabar,&c

[§a

~~6

The two last sor-ts

are very se Ido m used in modern S IMP L E triple time

mu.s rc ,

expIained , three m inims in a bar, or their equ.iva lerrt , : thr-ee Crotchets. a har,&:c: three quavers a bar,&c,! in In:

c,

.I

r
COMPOl:ND tritlle time e xp Iainedv

r r r r r---frl 9 1 " 9 ·
r p Wi r fVr±¥31
t

nine crotchets .a har,&c:' nine quavers 'a bar,&c: musi~.

in, In :

CO MP'OUND trip,le time is seldom used in modern

'S'.n.'1he contents .of eve rv barj in common t ime ; whether SIMPLE,or COMPOUND, rnayb e divided, (by beating or counting) into forrr jo r into two equal parts: arid in triple time; whether,sIM:PLE,or COMPOUND, into thr-ee equal parts. The figtrres , which mark the thne,have a reference to the SE"MIBRF.VE;tbl' nrrmb er, showing into how many parts the SEMI BREVE is divicled; and the ,
LOWER

uP P F. R

rurmbe r , how many -of such par ts are taken to fill up a bar .. ,for .example' ~ den~tes, tha.t the s EM I BREVE is divi ded into four parts, namel'y; fo~'(r crotchets; and' that two of fham are taken for' each bar: Iikewise ~ indicates, that the S EM I BREVE is -d'i _ virled into eight p~rls, namely, eight quavers; and that three of them are adopted . to compleat a bar ..,. c. The figureof'd placed over three crotchets, quavers or semiq_uavers

thus

r t r 'r Frl.... ~~!


3' ~ ,.'.?-~.
, .

'7' .~
.

,p

(whic,h are called triplets)


at the three crotchets

deno t•• ,

must l>e per ... ·

_ formed witpin the time of two common crotchets,or of one miniln; the' three qrra , ., verswith.ijn the timeoftwocolnmon quavers, or of one crotchet; and the th ree s e ...m iquaver-s within the time of two co m mo n s em iqu avers , or of one qmwer. X.D, 'fllP easiest way is to co ns i.Io r them ':\11as three to (me, and to heat

or

'~{'I':l~

(\

tilt> time acr.o rd in g Iy ; th,\t is, to hp·\t


others
a e

the first

of every,rj.'

(~.n.

SCAR L AT T r,,\I)(l s e m.iquave rs to or


se mfqrr

have written

,thft:ie dern is e m iq uave r-s to a quave r ; and three

otchet

ill some

of their

piet:es.)

'!he fig:ure within one.

of,~ over quavers

ave r-s,

rne an s that thpy are to be p'erformed is a similar rule. case to the preceding

the time of four The figures

of the s ame kill(l;which

5, 7, 9,10 &c: follow the same

Sharps, and FI~ts,&c.


The
Let us
SUA RP ~

placed before

a no to , raises

it a s ernrto na or half-tone.

Ex:

¥§

nowobs.(>rve a scale ofsem.itonf:'s,

+~I
~

i.

Ef\d __ - ..:_ ./ijiJ_c.;,L~Ji'%-~E'I'hcintervals ofem tonos , a=FJ _-' - . notes are all s t1~econtiguous

caIl",d the CHROMATIC scale.

N.B. The
keys,

(.0 N

-.-

G l.pvs oft1,e Phno-Forte,

or Harpsichord, for s
HAR P

are commonly FL ATs; and the

called

the

NAT u R A L keys, tho'ltlwyoccasiona11y serve are called SHARPS

sand

S H0 R T

and FLATS, l)eing- only

Now ira C
S.lt A R

S~ARP

be vIaeecl before C, thus: on the instrument

¥ iii
D

used for SHARP and FLAT notes. the note is callec\ between
SHARP R

P ; and it is found bpin~

C NAT U RA L,
SHoRTRey

and

n NATURAL;
IN

one of the SHORT k(·ys:

ist1,e

bet',veen

D, and E; but between


strike

E, and F, there is no s H 0
caned

T :key; nor is it want _ when we

_ e'l: for the want found _ RA L:

T E Rv AL bet·.veen E and F', is btrt a sPHlitom'; tlie k('Y generally

and therefore

E/SHARP,,,,/(~ lJetween

FNATlJRAL.

F SHARP will be

F NATUitA~,

an1 G NATt;RAL:

G SHARP between

Gallcl A NATU_
the s arne 'pre_

_ dicament The

"

ASH AR P betwe(>n A an<J BNATUR AL: and R 5 HARP is under as E,SHARP;


F

we therefore before
\.

strike

C NATURAL for it.


it a s e mi to ne or half-tone:
j

LA T ~ placed

a note,

lowers

and if
.

t .... note is a B,~ e fotr nI oetween


I

which the /~L\AT is p ref'i xe d it is then called


every FLAT is found bv goin~ s
if

FLAT; arrd it

IS

BNATURAL,and rule:

A NATURAL, i:,ein~ one of the SHORT keys.


one semitone LOWER; that is, one semitone AR co nt rar iwise , by going

===General toward

the left- hand ~ and every that is, toward s HAR P X

F"

HIGHER; The

the rig-ht ...hand. raises

double

the note

T'-VOse m ito ne s ; ~nd therefore,

if it

be Fdouble
The <ioul,le The

SHARP;we FLAT

double 8 HA

strikeG
or ~
F

N.\"rT__<RAL;&C: Iowe r s tht:;.note a double


F I,

TWO s e m it ene s j and therefore RIG


H

we go as lunch

to the L £

T,for

AT, as we did to the

T f()r a

R. l' •

N A TU R

AL

takes away the

effel't

of

aSH

single,ol"

double.

And

~#,or

AR

P,

or a sharp,

F LA T;

whether

~~~REINSTATES the single


0

.1' It e P upil must by this ti, 11e have


\: t,"rit'nti ~ Introd:'

b served, t'lat _

t$ &

or flat •

fe'

is struck by the

A~

E key as'

--·P_~-hl=

iP~~~1t -O=ri=== and~~by


furnishedwfth
do

the

SA 1\'1"E

key as·w

ijti= ~

=i

t\.c: uses of the

"'ow,the incollveniency
S i\ M E

of charging the memory with the keys,


,

VARIOUS

keys, is but small; when compared with the impracticablenefs


PER
compos

of perform ... with eve _ a Iuethod the

_ ilJ~' on an instrument,

F E CT LY
it.io

corr.esponding

_ ry flat,

and

sharp, single or

ub

Ie

which

n may rel\uire:
A MEN T,

therefore, instrument

has been adopted in tuning ,called capable of satisfying


S H AR P

T EM PER.

which,by a small renders

deviation fr om the truth of every interval, the ear in Whe n a throu~hout

EXCEPT
EV'E RY

THE

OCTAVE,

key. it .;n>ects every F eve -

is pl ace d close to the del' thus ~


ywhe

the p ie ce ; except wh« r e the sharp is cOi"tradicted by the natural. n there are two Or more sharps at the def; it affect.

~.B.1hc same rule holds


When a the p iece
j.
FLAT

_ ry one affec'tirrg its co r re sp on Jill~ note. is p Ia ced by the cle<~ every '1 t"roughout except where the nat is contradicted its corresponding note. contained in the it by 1:he natural.

N.B. The same rule holds, when there are t vo or more flats at the clef; every
one affecting When a sharp, flat, or natural is prefixed to a note, in the course of a piece, it .affects all the following notes of the
SA;\I E N AM E, SA~ E BAR:

is then called an AcctDENTA L sh,\rp, fl.at , or natural.

which abbreviations, The foregoing


RUL E,

are a m orler n improvement.

extends even to the first note of the subsequent bar, when

the affi-c ted note is thelast of one bar, and first of the next.

Ex:

l=b!mgr;ltt£[
at the clef.

Ft

~fi~f:~!!te ..

'~M
asc~nditlg by a ,4 and t!t
dp;' ce!l(ling by a 5t~

And the same with flats and naturals. The order of SHARPS

The order of FLATS at the clef.


Clementi"s Intro<l:

=fA~J

The pause:;: certain

or

Various other marks,


renders the NOTE.long·er ,AT"P'I.EASURE; and in some
:E M

cases, the composer or RE PEAT ~

expects
..-:"

BEL LIS

MENTS from the pe r fo rrn ,

_ e r ; l>nt the p-urse on a rest

,. only lengthens, is a reference wo r ds ,

AT P LEASUR E, the s I LEN C E • to a pafsage, or strain, to which the SEGNO or DAL SEGNO, denote

The s IG performer

is to return: bar ~

the Italian

AL

such a return. The double following strain. - peated; notwithstanding '-\then the hars marks the end ofa strain; or the conclusion ofa piece. ~ org'i1l~ denote the repeat of the for~goillg ,and
r'e ;

The DOT TED bars

N.R. 'lhe second part of a piece , if VERY LON G,isselclom


the :b 0
TS•

are marked thus

~~illl~: or ~

then the strain, only on the side

of' the DOTS . is to be r epeated ,

=====================-- ._._--_ ..._-_. ._--Abb:rcviqtions.

Ex,' ~
F."~t

E".j1 ":"'~ fjJJ1:

lJ;lg~-JrtrrL!trJIiEx~'1 §l~~~ fl'~1 'bU'I~JE~Qblms $ DreUrmm


I
{t

EX. It~H,"1jJExf
i

f'.x.q

! 9 I thlls ~~]

th"'I~tP1

~F[j
~...:

T~e

Ex,~_tmglitm!f _ _
. segue

It corrti nrres, or follows:

IT A ~ I A"

word, Segue; means,

R
. ~

Tre~alldo. or trem"Ii~"

I thus

1l&~.$11
thus:
RT It

Style, Gr-acos, and mar-ks of Expr'efs ion , &c.


The l)est general rule,is to keep down the keys of the Instr-ument.the FULLLJO,Cru of t'very ,note; for whenthe contrary is required, the notes are mar ked either called ill I TAt
I AN,

I f r Jj

STA~c A~ 0; denoting

DIS

T I !II CTNE s,S,~nd s H 0

IV ~ S

s of s~und; which is produced by ,lif}ing the finger ,up, as soon as which.when composers means L E s stacc~ or thus

has struck

the key: or they are marked 'thus ~ their writing,


S

are ExACT in s sta ("-

is kept down somewhat longer: _ crto r the nice degrees


a,·.l
till'

~I r i t f
~

precedinp;

mark; the finp;er, therefore,


LES

which means vs TIL L

of MORE and LESS, However., dep en d on the CflARACTER, the STYLE of which must he WELL
{"allpcl
F.

~~:"~,~~,)t~.I~r:'1

1',\

SSIo

of the piece;

1he notes rnar'ke d thus ~

LG

BS E RVED by

AT0 in Italian,

must

be played

in~~ SMOO'TH an d

CLOSE

manner;

which is dont' hy keeping ytBRATE

down

the first _ LY into

key, 'till the next is struck; one another


&

by which rueans , the striq';s

SWEET _

N.n.~hen
taste; the best

the composer

Ie'aves the LE'GATO, and STACCATO

t()

the per fo r me rs
8 T Ace

rule is, to adher~chie:fly

to the t. Jo~ GAT () ; r ese rv inj; the

ATO
q P, A

to ~ive s l' I R I T occasionally


•TIE
8

to cer taln pafs age s., and to set off tilcH

I G HER

of the

I~ EGA

TO. to a chord

. T'his lnark
played s tr c.c E

~ . prefi~ed
SS

iJ-@t-·
~•
rl 0 WN
WH,E

sig'lIifies,

that tlH~

IH,te8

m~st

lw
_

IVELY, fr om the, lowest; each note

with )Bore'or 1(' f~ vel o , :ty; as the

senti

- rne rrt may r-equir-e. ; keeping Chords rnar ke d thus of a note ~

'till the t ime of the chord be fiU(,d up.


chords, with R E th e oblique line is put, as if w r it ;

tl-te ';cidition - t,>n

thus

~f_'- __
. or dol: means or Pia: or

:r "'P=F
~

are l}1ayed as the preceding

,but the additional

note is not to he kept

down.

Dolce Piano Mezzo,

SWEET,wi,th SOFT.

TASTE; now and thenSwE'LLHNill,some

n otr-s ,

P;
mo

or mez : or mezzo;"P'ia,n(), or poco SOFT.


o.r .F '.'

P, or po cP, R A. TH E R SOFT.

Pirani'f:' rmo , or 'plno or. PP ',VERY. . . s . Fo r t i s i o , ifs rm


. Fort~,orFor: Mezzo or FF,V
LOU D• E
E

1\-y

LOU D •

ot',F,
11lf'Z:F,

F, or-

RA TH

LOUD.

Fo r z and o , or s fo r z ando Rinforzando, Crescendo, orrinf: to

or fz or sf', to, FO RC'E, c,,- ~ive


S'V:lE LL

e mphrs is to, ON~

llOtC.

2, 3,t or 'f. "notes. thH~

or cr'e sj rn-rrke d sornefirnes

-==:::::::::
itis

means

GRADUALLY

LOUDF:R.

, Decr.escendoj o r-decr-ese Diminuendo,

GRADUALLYSOFTER; the saute as the following; -_


.GRADU

viz:

or d imi thus::.

ALLY SOFT ER.

~. B, this las,t
DIMI_

lWlrk=
NISllING. This

;;- often denotes


mark ~

allEMPHASIs,where

WIDF.ST,andthen

means

to S\"ELL an d DIMINISH. that the notes ,ways. of a CHORD shall be pICl¥ed

ARPEGGIO, or ARPEGGIATO, requires ;;~lcceisively;

which In<ty be done 'in various

L.~&,!~ thUS~~~[~~~ th~s~rslrtfrzlg tl~,s~~1 ~-tk.ntrJiJor~~[;§lrftr71 or"l CfWB-=


OT';l'AVA, All' 8\~, 8v•aalta,
£' lr-m en t i s Intrnd:

set over a pafsage,means

that the notes

are to be played an octave

hi :-!,'h('r:and l.,~,CO, that the notes are,to be played again

as t~eyarf1' 'written.

10

Thl'
1. Yo

A l'P(}(iGIAT"l'RA

is a

GRACE

prefixed
A

to a no tej wh i.c h is always derived from the' ITA Its

pl.ivpd
L rAN

GAT' 0, and with more

or Ief's EM PH

SIS; being

ve r h APPOGGIARE,to

Ir-an UpOI~; and it is written


LA,RG

in a SMALL note.
GE ~ ERA

LENGTH

is horrowed
duration;

from the following MORE or LESS,

E:note;

and in

L, it is half of its S'ION of t1ll' pafsag·p . exp l.ii ned ,

however,aceordinp; other GRACES

to the E XPRES in ~man'notes

.A.PPOGGtATURAS,and

Sometimes

the little notes arp,lUe(l

to g-ive

E;\l l' 1{A ~I

s,

O>"ample

j11 F

t-r 1 E 1r I~I"l.. "'tI.


1

;a

00

N.B. the fing-er or thumb must be taken off immediate\?from

8 po °V SStt
0 0

the LOWER notes ..

T UR~
• The Turn
l'\)

S,

S II A K E S,

and

EAT

S, explained.

_J

r
thtl~

roo

II' Cell Emf_


,.,
C\) "

-'\J

thus

thas

....

~.n. 'Ihe LOWES


Ex:

note of

EVE R. Y

sort of turn is

MOS T LV'

a scm ito ns .

r:

('t

. Short shake ~" lH~lrinningby the llb'te itself.

~_f±f-3fl;ve.J

tllllS

ettft1LiY r

'.'

-=i?:

'\,

ttlus

r ;/ r' II'

Turned
Sl1a~e •

Th~ shake
. .

I.EGA~O

with the preceding noi(., exp'lainedj


. /"f::' ~

, ftsltltfG@JrI6~f#+
~. B. The
tf) tJ1('
G ENE RA L

(rtl,u r ikiormli¥=I1~
s
C H IE F Ly

mark for the shake is this lr: and composer s trust of the performer,

taste and judgment or turned.

whether it shall be long, short, transiel1t,

The

BUT

fL. fltbii. Qrfr i!·oi ri~ajif~r U" II


9F

gr

T~e L E NG T H of the B EAT is dcte r-mrned., like that of the other graces, by the cir _ _ cums tan ces of the pafs ag'e, N. n. '\\hett the note preceding the beat is an interval of a S ECO N D, let the beat a _ _ dopt it, whether it be a seru i.tone or a whole tone: . Ex: ,

rit'l rttrX!!
on the
T ER FIRST

tbt(S

II

B,ut when tl-teb;at,is whose interval is


Clementi G REA

noteof' a pafsage
CON D,

or, when it follows a note,

than a s £

it should be made with a se~itone;

as tl-tefollowing examples will' show..


~ Il'tro'!'

l:~npl.'
Lastly, let Major,and The is l'ither

~2~~~~1

~~·~~~~.~~-~~:;~~~~~~I ~~·~r-·~·~·~lt~~~~~ ~
i

us remark, Minor

t~at the beat is seldoln ~~ed ip mo dern music. or

Modes

Keys , V{;LGA~LY calle~i Sharp


the TONlc1or . NOR rnorle , ;An e~t;bsition:ofthedifference.

and

Flat Keys.
~ ~D
E,

FuNDAM ENTALnote,callcfl in the


M,A J 0 R

KEY-NOTE,

of a composition scaledneach

,ot'

MI

will besf explain

Ascel1<l~ng and desce nd ing' scale in the key of ~\ C,MAJOR.

G?i- ~. '~X JJ } JJ
tbeir efsential
I' 2 3
<::»

r .JM .. r
<:;;;07 .

c;;:::;;

JJ
-.

1.
4

~t=f 10 f=L tf F=fgttttt


in to HIS higher, scale are in their ~o SIMPLE state.
s r.sre
LE

-6

'1

....

8._..

... 8·..

'1.

1-

.. _6

'-"

J _
3

t=t II
their

4=
Ke~_ .

11

I.

N.I~. The intervals


they are

an

stat~;l>utjn

the following, for a note of example.

dave
3~

and are called in their

M PO U 111 D

jn ter

vals; ~tinretainil1g
to the foreg.oing

n ame s of2~

4t:&c:as

Thc Fig-rre l.stands


is confined

the ~'lme pitch,called

U 111 I S ON:

this last remark

f=T=r==7: -r4.
.

'l

H.

'l

.. r I
.5 se _
'111£[

The _ mitone
h

first

DIFrF.R.ENcE,.,yhich ~wlll're<ls in the Authors

strikes

the;eye,is,that it lies l)etw('cll

iu thu MAJOR-KEY,the

lies- b e t we en thp :l~ all(1 .4~h,qlHI

h~·t·Nt'f'Il the 7 t.h qw!

x~:h.oth

as ce nd.injr ,

dpscending

M I !'oi () R - K F. Y,

the 2~an(1 ."~~ ,qlld het''\<'een

the 7: awl 8t~ asce nd ing; lHIt in dl'scelldinp;,

.5\" a.nr]. 6\"


The
-i

vary, howev(.r, in rep;arr{


1M

b etwe e n the 2~ an(I:3~ and.betwaen thp to t11e 6th and 7th of theM!I.NoR modf". between two whole the
MA

E SSE

NT I AL arrd

MUTAB

LE

d iffe r e nc e, therefore, differs


fOlln.~f to

Jon or

n]

MIN 0 R key, is the interval

of the 3~ .whirli

bya~s E :vI r T 0 ~ E; for contain

_ n.ilvse the 3~ in the," AJ 0 R- sC";tle,it will b e fo-r

r selnitones: Ex:
.

.1~ JiiokJ
----------.::
'-' . H~

t':P1CS;

3~

I"FR"mi__ t 1f fN"m·":>~"0J
ton(, one .un.~
----.-_____ _

____.._______,,--------

~=-

if we a _
.c1~

j I[

\'hl.'reas

the 3~ in the MINoR:-scale, selnitones_~


_______

~ m ito ue ; or three

..

wi111>e found
3d

to co rrta in one whole tone with a se_


3~

EX'tlllple

~~~.~.

~~r~2~f2i~~~!~~~r~.~i~o~~1~et-~~r~'~III ~O~F~r~·.~t~~~~~Frall~~~ F t:;~Lt

1."
)

"nw,tlwLAST,

co mp o s it io nv Ls the

e x a mi ned , (trel)le and bafs );where, if the .3~ be major,


S"eN

'mel

if a chord,
#

the f,(JWEST note of the bafs, in every the contents then of the first the piece

REGULAR be
'

KEV-NOTE;let

FUL'L bar is said

a key InaJor.

Example

ofa conclusion:

Example

ofthebeginninv;

~t;~ J lid ZIt u=J 5 f-: ~ ~~, ,~g: r .i:::~


.

to be In

the LAS T and LOWES T note


B~

of the bats is F.

{~

"

,the

of the "(,me piece:

~
'-

f"

IA

rJ

first

~:r;:o:~
It-rve a

of F, which is A in the FULL b ar; is MAJOR: the piece is in F

Ex·.unple of A MINOR e'HI ing.

~ .n.
MOD E.

S orne'ti mes

a c omp os it.i on in the MIN to examine

R modem~ly

MA

R endin~'; the

for. .wh ich rea,,>on, it is safer

the bep;-inning,

ill order

to determine

Let1:he
s

Pupil

rememher,that

tile NATl'RAL

maj o rc key is C; and the NATURAL MI 'S'O


R

m i no r key is A; which latter .,_!~~Jc-every ;\iAJOR-K~Y one tone an'. semitone

Is cal l e-I thr- R E LAT rv e

to the former;antl

has its ItEL.AT.IVE MINOR ill the s arne proportion,ha1l1l~\ ~ ND E R; as win be shown in the collection of's cales ,

Explanation The ITALIAN V\'e .shall deg-ree, IS PRE DE G It


EE

of

Various Terrrs.
com pos it io n is asce rta in e d 1)) Poco beginning ALI.EGRO, by the
SOIllP

of

otT\.

locity

in every

wordorwor<tsprefixed an nexva which


S

to it: as ~\DAGIO:; tenns mostly in use; proceeding

&c. SLOWl;ST which

list

of the

is ADAGIO;
S

and gradually

to the QUICKEST,

TIS

I MO. 6 A_NDAN TI NO 7 AN DA N T E 11 MAE


S

1 ADAGIO

TO

sOl'

1(j S

PIR

ITO

S0

12 CON co

1'<1MOD0,

17 CON 1~ C 0
N_

n RIO
F
U 0 C0

.J

LA RGO

8 ALLEGRETTO

13 ALLEGRO 14 VIVACE 1.5 CON S PI R ITO

9 Mo D ERATO .) LARGHETTO
10 TEMPO

19 PRESTO
20 PRE
S TIS S I 1\1 ()

GIUSTO

Various
'10

other

terms

are their

s orn.e t irnes meaning,

added

to thf'preceding,

In o r de r not
too

to

DIFY or extend

. as: N~N TROPPO

ALLEGRO,

quick&c.

14V\'p shall s ubj o in some of the most common, with their explanation. too m u ch r UN poco, PIU" TOSTO, rather. MINUETTO A

NON T ROPPO, not

a l1ttle.

QUASI,

almost. MA, but.

Pni',lllOre. CON, with. t ime ,

MENo,le:fs. SEN
Z

SE:VIPRE,always.

A,without.

T E '1 PO DI BALLO , d anc ing - minuet

1'0 deterrninemore
_ lowing; terlllS

particularly

the style

of performing

,some

pf the fo I style.

are also used:

l\lEsTo, and ~raceful

or FLEBILE, manner.

in a melancholy

CAN T A13 I L E, in a singing ~'fecting and tender ruan n e r ,

A FF E T T U0 so, in an af _ and elegant


'rE,

G RA Z lOS 0 ,'in a graceful

marrne r . and 'Or note

CON MOT0, with a certain


s p ir it,

<h'v;ree of vivacity.

It

I.

L LAN

with brilliancy

AGGITATO,

agitated;with

p afs i o n and fire.

CON ESPRESSIONE, feeling; where every

co

NAN

I MA, with e xp re fs ionj that is, with pafsionate

~HS

its pe c nl.ia r fo rce and energy; effects.


j

and where even the severity S c HER ZANDO, in a playful full l~ngth.
,

of tillle lllay be re anl light manner.


0r

_ Iwxed for extraordinary S()STEN~To,to _ breviatccl t"u's,


1"1,

sHst~tin,or hold on the l1otcs'thei; T ~ N: to' hold a note its full length. at pleasure or discretion, T EM PoP with reganl

T E NU TO,

ab ;

ATE

Mr o , in strict illtro<lucing

time. in certain

AD LIB I T U c ase s time.


all

to time;

ernbe Il.i sb.merrt .

R I MO, or P RIM 0 T EM r o , in the original slackening thp time ~ the sound, the

R ALL EN TAN Door


0

RiTAR DAN DO, gradu';l,lly


S I,

S MORZA N Do,:VI 'till

REND0 or P F. RDEN U 0 CALANDO, or almost to, The

extill)..!;nishinv;gra<.tually

it be alrnos't lost. or slackening D.C .• to return ove r q_uickly. a paf~age

MA.NCANDO, <liminishing the t.ime; or both. first strain.

by degrees

sound, thu;;: turn over

imperceptibly an d e nd with;the

D,~CAPO, abbre"iat(~
placed

VOLTI SUBITO or V.S.

LATIN

word

BIs,

111\'a11sTWICE; it is generally

w it hiu a ctrr ve line,

which denotes

the e xtcn t of th(> r€:'t>eat.

F 1 ~GERING.,
To produce the art tht_· BEST EFFECT, l)y the The
Ef F.A'SJE!ST

MEANS, is the great importance,

basis

of

of fingerillg.

FF"CT,being

of the highest

is I'Ih.ST

consulted; -gerIng

"'" tile

WAY to accomp l ish it which

is t h en devised;

and THAT MODE of fin not being •.Iways the almost oa _

Is PREFERRED

g-ives the" BEST

EFFECT, tho'

_ s i es t to the per fo rmer . the art of fingering will

But best

the co mb i na'tio n s of notes l)e taug-ht by examples.

infinite,
,

P It ELI
The hand ,.ing nor raising fill~(:'rs
,I,

1\-1 N A It Y I

DIRE

C T ION
therefore

S.
position; neither {[(,prefs _ 1'1\(, bending accordingly.

and a r m should the wrist: should

be held

in an horizontal

the se at should b e placed

lle adjusted

and thumb
; ';""

over the keys, always 1Jeady to strike;

IS

the fingers in, more or Iefs in proportion


mus t be avoided .

to their length.

All unnecefsary

motion

Let the pupil now begin to practise,


..

SLOWLY

at first, the following pafs ag'ej ob , so


011.

., .ser virig' to keep down the first key "till the second'has been struckj.and

The + is for the thumb, and 1"2,3,4, Right Hand Left Hand

for the succeeding fingers.


1..

# ~ ~j

+1"

W CJII .t' W~~J ii!F


3 "I ; 1 ,,3

I +-. •

and so on, a great many tilnes.

N.B.
Scales

Let ,every note be played even, iu t:egard to time; and with equal strength.

+
G,

maj.

. N.B.
.

'The

~# means

that the double shar-p is taken away, and that the note is to
.

.be p'layed with a single sharp. 'lhe single flat is reinstated in a shnilar manner, after

17

and 'for the

left hand.

General Remarks on th~ foregoing ,


The rip;ht hand has the thumb In an~A.jOR foflowing In'the
.

Scales.
4t.h

on the KEY-NOTE or TONIC, and on the


C, G, D, A, E, andB.

of the

KEY- NOTE, in the following MAJORand MIN~R keys: keys with one or more flats,the M'INOR 'keys:

thumb is put on C, and F.

1'he left hand haa the thumb on the KEY- NOTE, and on the 5~h of the KEY, in the MAJ 0' Rand F, C, G, D, A, andE. MAJORkeys' ofB&,
'4'

E~, A~, andD~, the thumb is put on the 3~ and 7\h of the key.
4.

Illi~~flE
N.B. The

LH~~~1~IERH~~j#(LH~~~~R
In a -;imilar
HL:mH~r

Extensions and Contractions sec,

4+

rneans that after shikinf': C with th<' 4t21 fing-er, the thumh i~shifted on the key t1',.If'1...tha..nd thu!'i:, f

without striking it.

~+~~-_+~~fl,.
th~
LE

'Vhich mode of fingering should he much pr'actised i.u vario~s lways, Os YLE renuirin,p-:itt"), T V(:-'lV freqUf'Jlt1,·. -"l. • ,,(
\

GAT-'O-

r:

'

T 11' ~h.lh,s

;-,hould

bp p r ac t isr-d with every finger,

not excluding

the thumb;

and upon the short as well as long keys.

~"",ample.s of fi~r. ing for the nght h~d.

j
.

..

Introd r

------~----.-.----

------