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Carbon compounds can be classified as organic carbon compounds and

inorganic carbon compounds.Hydrocarbon compounds are organic compounds
that contain only carbon and hydrogen elements that bond together by
covalent bonds.There are two types of hydrocarbon compounds which are
saturated hydrocarbon compounds and unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds.c

Table 11.1 Comparison between organic and inorganic carbon compounds

Table 11.2 Comparison between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon

Table 11.3 Functional groups of several homologous seriesc

Table 11.4 General formulae of homologous series.c

Alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon compound with a general formula of

CnH2n+2 whereby n = 1,2,3,...All alkanes burn completely, in excess
oxygen,O2, to form carbon dioxide,CO2,and water,H2O.When a mixture of alkane and
halogen such as chlorine,CI2 and bromine,Br2, is exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet rays,the
hydrogenatoms in the alkane moleciles are replaced by the halogen atoms.Therefore,a
substitution reactions occurs.c

Table 11.5 Molecular formulae for the first ten alkane members

Table 11.6 Nomenclature of the first ten alkane membersc
Long-chained alkanes can be broken into shorter-chained alkanes and
alkenes via the industrial process of cracking.Alkane is an unsaturated
hydrocarbon compound that has a double bond between two carbons

Table 11.7 Structural formulae of the first ten members of straight-chain

Alkenes can be represented by a general formula of CnH2n whereby n =

2,3,4...An addition reaction(bromination) occurs when an alkene is shaken with
bromine water.c

Table 11.8 Nomenclature of the first nine members of alkenesc

Table 11.9 Guidelines when drawing the structural formula of straight-chain


When a mixture of alkene gas and hydrogen,H2,gas is passed over a nickel (or
platinum) catalyst that is heated at 180ºC,an addition reaction(hydrogenation) occurs.

When a mixture of alkene gas and steam,H2O, is passed throygh a

catalyst of phosphoric acid,H3PO4, at a temperature of 300ºC,and at a pressure of 60
atmospheres,an addition reaction(hydration) occurs.c

Table 11.10 Physical properties of alkenes.c

An addition reaction occurs when a mixture of alkene gas and hydrogen

halide,such as hydrogen bromide,HBr,reacts at room temperature.When an
alkene is shaken with acidified potassium manganate(VII),KMnO4, solution,an
addition reaction(oxidation) occurs.c

Table 11.11 Similar physical properties of alkanes and alkenesc

Alkene molecules can combine to produce polymer through the addition

reactions.Both alkane and alkene are insoluble in water, less dense than water,
and burns in excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and
water.Hexene,C6H12,burns with a more sooty flame comparedto
hexane,C6H14 .
Isomerism is an occurance when two or more compound molecules have the
same molecular formula but different structural formulae.Alkane shows
isomerism that begins from butane while alkene shows isomerism that begins
from butene.c

Table 11.12 Alkyl group that is derived from a matching alkane namec

Alcohol is an organic compound that has a hydroxyl,-OH,fuctional

group.Alcohol can be represented by a general formula of CnH2n+1OH whereby
n =1,2,3...Alcohol shows isomerism beginning from proponal.c
Table 11.13 Molecular formulae of the first ten alcohol members

Table 11.14 Nomenclature of the first ten alcohol members.c

In industry,ethanol is produced from the addition reaction or the

hydration of ethene.The mixture of ethene vapour and steam is passed
through a catalyst of phosphoric acid, H3PO4 at a temperature of 300ºC and is
compressed at a pressure of 60 atmospheres.
Ethanol can be produced through the fermentation process on a
carbohydrate source in the laboratory.Fermentation is the decomposition
process of carbohydrates to form ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide by
Distillation process needs to be carried out the fermantation
process.Ethanol is a liquid that is colourless at room temperature,
neutral,pungent,easily vaporised,flammable,and can be mixed with water.c
Ethanol can be changed to ethene through the dehydration
reaction.Ethanol can be changed to ethanoic acid when heated with acidified
potassium dichromate(VI) solution.An oxidation reaction occurs.c
Table 11.15 Chemical properties of ethanol and other alcohol membersc

When ethanol is heated creflux with an organic acid like ethanoic

acid,CH3COOH and concentrated sulphuric acid which acts as a catalyst,an
esterification reaction occurs.
Ethanol reacts with reactive metals such as sodium and potassium to
release hydrogen.Alcohol can be used as fuel, in the manufacture of
medicine,cosmetics and artificial food flavourings.Excessive consumption of
alcohol (ethanol) can affect one's health.c

Table 11.16 Some uses of alcoholc

Carboxylic acid is a homologous series that has a general formula of

CnH2n+1COOH,whereby n=0,1,2,3,....Each carboxylic acid member contains a
functional group called the carboxyl,-COOH,group. c

Ethanoic acid can be prepared in the laboratory by heating under reflux

a mixture of ethanol and acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution.Ethanoic
acid is a colourless liquid at room temperature,dissilves in water,and changes
damp blue litmus to red (ph<7).
Ethanoic acid reacts with a base to produce salt and water .Ethanoic acid
reacts with metals carbonate to produce salt, water and carbon
dioxide.Ethanoic acid reacts with reactive metals such as zinc and magnesium
to produce salt and releases hydeogen gas.
Ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid which
acts as catalyst to produce ester and water.Carboxylic acid can be used to
make food flavourings and food preservatives.
Ester has a general formula of CnH2n+1 COOCmH2m+1 whereby
n=0,1,2,...and m=1,2,3.. Each ester has a functional group -COO-.Ester can
be prepared through the reaction of carboxylic acid and alcohol with
concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst.Ester has a pleasant fruity smell,
is insoluble in water and easily vaporises.Ester is used as food flavourings,in
making cosmetics and as perfume.c
Table 11.17 Anions of carboxylic acid saltsc

Fats and oil are natural esters formed from the reaction between fatty
acids and glycerol.Fatty acids are carboxylic acids that have a long carbon
atom chain.The functional group of fatty acids is -COOH.Fats can be
classified as saturated and unsaturated fats.c

Table 11.18 Importance of oils and fats for the body processesc
Saturated fats is a type of fat produced fromthe reaction between
saturated fatty acids and glycerol.An example of saturated fatty acids are
palmitic acid,CH3(CH2)16COOH.Unsaturated fat is a type of fat produced
from the reaction between unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol.c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc The structure of oil palm fruitc
Examples of unsaturated fatty acids are, linoleic acid,
CH3(CH2)4CH=CH2CH=CH(CH2)7 COOH and oleic
acids,CH3(CH2)7 CH=CH(CH2)7COOH.Unsaturated fats from vegetable oils such as palm oil,
can be changed to saturated fats such as margerine through the hydrogenation process. A
big portion of the palm oil comes from oil extracted from its mesocarp.

Natural rubber is soft,elastic and non-heat resistant.Rubber particles are

made of rubber molecules that are covered with a protein membrane that has
negative charges on its surface.c

Structure of vulcanised rubberc
Rubber particles are made of rubber molecules that are covered with a
protein membrane that has negative charges on its surface.Acids have
hydrogen ions,H+, with a positive charge of the membrane which causes the
coagulation of latex. c

Sequence of changing unvulcanised rubber to vulcanised rubberc

Coagulation of latex can be prevented by adding ammonia solution.The

vulcanisation process is a process where sulphur is added to natural rubber to
increase its toughness,elasticity and heat resistance.