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Add Maths Formulae List: Form 4 (Update 18/9/08)

01 Functions

## Absolute Value Function Inverse Function

If y = f ( x ) , then f −1 ( y ) = x
f ( x ), if f ( x ) ≥ 0
f ( x) Remember:
− f ( x), if f ( x ) < 0 Object = the value of x
Image = the value of y or f(x)
f(x) map onto itself means f(x) = x

ax 2 + bx + c = 0
−b ± b 2 − 4ac
where a, b, and c are constants and a ≠ 0. x=
2a
*Note that the highest power of an unknown of a
quadratic equation is 2. When the equation can not be factorized.

## If α and β are the roots of a quadratic equation

b c
α +β =− αβ = b 2 − 4ac >0 ⇔ two real and different roots
a a
b 2 − 4ac =0 ⇔ two real and equal roots
The Quadratic Equation b 2 − 4ac <0 ⇔ no real roots
x 2 − (α + β ) x + αβ = 0 b 2 − 4ac ≥0 ⇔ the roots are real
or
x − ( SoR ) x + ( PoR ) = 0
2

## SoR = Sum of Roots

PoR = Product of Roots

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## General Form Completing the square:

f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c f ( x) = a ( x + p)2 + q

## where a, b, and c are constants and a ≠ 0. (i) the value of x, x = − p

(ii) min./max. value = q
*Note that the highest power of an unknown of a (iii) min./max. point = (− p, q)
quadratic function is 2. (iv) equation of axis of symmetry, x = − p

Alternative method:
a > 0 ⇒ minimum ⇒ ∪ (smiling face)
f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c
a < 0 ⇒ maximum ⇒ ∩ (sad face)
b
(i) the value of x, x = −
2a
b
(ii) min./max. value = f (− )
2a
b
(iii) equation of axis of symmetry, x = −
2a

## a > 0 and f ( x) > 0 a > 0 and f ( x) < 0

b 2 − 4ac > 0 ⇔ intersects two different points
at x-axis
a b a b b − 4ac = 0 ⇔ touch one point at x-axis
2

## x < a or x > b a< x<b

04 Simultaneous Equations

## Remember: substitute linear equation into non- linear equation.

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05 Indices and Logarithm

## Zero Index, a0 = 1 a m × a n = a m+n

1
Negative Index, a −1 =
a a m ÷ a n = a m−n
a
( ) −1 =
b ( a m ) n = a m× n
b a

1 ( ab) n = a n b n
Fractional Index an = a n

m a n an
an = a n m
( ) = n
b b
Fundamental of Logarithm Law of Logarithm

## log a y = x ⇔ a x = y log a mn = log a m + log a n

log a a = 1 log a
m
= log a m − log a n
n
log a a x = x
log a mn = n log a m
log a 1 = 0
Changing the Base

log c b
log a b =
log c a

1
log a b =
logb a

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06 Coordinate Geometry

Distance Between Point A and C =
(x1 − x2 )2 + (x1 − x2 )2

y2 − y1
Gradient of line AC, m =
x2 − x1
Or
⎛ y − int ercept ⎞
Gradient of a line, m = − ⎜ ⎟
⎝ x − int ercept ⎠

## Parallel Lines Perpendicular Lines

When 2 lines are parallel, When 2 lines are perpendicular to each other,

m1 = m2 . m1 × m2 = −1

m1 = gradient of line 1
m2 = gradient of line 2

## ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎞ A point dividing a segment of a line

Midpoint, M = ⎜ , ⎟ ⎛ nx + mx2 ny1 + my2 ⎞
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ P =⎜ 1 , ⎟
⎝ m+n m+n ⎠

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Area of triangle:

Area of Triangle

1
=
2

1
A=
2
( x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 ) − ( x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3 )

## Form of Equation of Straight Line

General form Gradient form Intercept form

ax + by + c = 0 y = mx + c x y
+ =1
a b
c = y-intercept b
a = x-intercept m=−
b = y-intercept a

## Equation of Straight Line

Gradient (m) and 1 point (x1, y1) 2 points, (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) given x-intercept and y-intercept given
given
y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − y1 y2 − y1 x y
= + =1
x − x1 x2 − x1 a b

## Equation of perpendicular bisector ⇒ gets midpoint and gradient of perpendicular line.

Information in a rhombus:
A B
(i) same length ⇒ AB = BC = CD = AD
(ii) parallel lines ⇒ mAB = mCD or mAD = mBC
(iii) diagonals (perpendicular) ⇒ mAC × mBD = −1
(iv) share same midpoint ⇒ midpoint AC = midpoint
D BD
C (v) any point ⇒ solve the simultaneous equations

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Remember:

y-intercept ⇒ x = 0
cut y-axis ⇒ x = 0
x-intercept ⇒ y = 0
cut x-axis ⇒ y = 0
**point lies on the line ⇒ satisfy the equation ⇒ substitute the value of x and of y of the point into the
equation.

Equation of Locus
( use the formula of The equation of the locus of a The equation of the locus of a moving
distance) moving point P ( x, y ) which is point P ( x, y ) which is always
The equation of the locus of a always at a constant distance equidistant from two fixed points A and B
moving point P ( x, y ) which from two fixed points is the perpendicular bisector of the
is always at a constant A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y 2 ) with straight line AB.
distance (r) from a fixed point a ratio m : n is
A ( x1 , y1 ) is PA = PB
PA m ( x − x1 ) + ( y − y1 ) 2 = ( x − x2 ) 2 + ( y − y2 ) 2
2
=
PA = r PB n
( x − x1 ) 2 + ( y − y1 ) 2 = r 2 ( x − x1 ) 2 + ( y − y1 ) 2 m 2
=
( x − x2 ) + ( y − y 2 ) 2 n 2

## SPM Form 4 Physics - Formulae List

SPM Form 5 Physics - Formulae List

## SPM Form 4 Chemistry - List of Chemical Reactions

SPM Form 5 Chemistry - List of Chemical Reactions

All at One-School.net

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07 Statistics
Measure of Central Tendency

Grouped Data
Ungrouped Data
Without Class Interval With Class Interval
Mean
Σx Σ fx Σ fx
x= x= x=
N Σf Σf

## x = mean x = mean x = mean

Σx = sum of x Σx = sum of x f = frequency
x = value of the data f = frequency x = class mark
N = total number of the x = value of the data
data (lower limit+upper limit)
=
2
Median
m = TN +1 m = TN +1 ⎛ 1N −F⎞
2 2 m = L + ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ C
When N is an odd number. When N is an odd number. ⎝ fm ⎠

m = median
TN + TN TN + T N L = Lower boundary of median class
+1 +1
m= 2 2
m= 2 2 N = Number of data
2 2 F = Total frequency before median class
When N is an even When N is an even number. fm = Total frequency in median class
number. c = Size class
= (Upper boundary – lower boundary)

Measure of Dispersion

Grouped Data
Ungrouped Data
Without Class Interval With Class Interval

variance
σ =2∑ x2
−x
2
σ =2∑ fx 2
−x
2
σ =
2 ∑ fx 2
−x
2

N ∑f ∑f
σ = variance σ = variance σ = variance

Σ(x − x )
2
Σ(x − x )
2
Standard Σ f (x − x)
2
σ= σ=
Deviation N N σ=
Σf
Σx 2 Σx 2
σ= − x2 σ= − x2 Σ fx 2
N N σ= − x2
Σf

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The variance is a measure of the mean for the square of the deviations from the mean.

The standard deviation refers to the square root for the variance.

## Data are changed uniformly with

+k −k ×k ÷k
Measures of Mean, median, mode +k −k ×k ÷k
Central Tendency
Range , Interquartile Range No changes ×k ÷k
Measures of
Standard Deviation No changes ×k ÷k
dispersion
Variance No changes × k2 ÷ k2

08 Circular Measures
Terminology

π
D xo = ( x × )radians
180 180
×
π 180
x radians = ( x × ) degrees
π

π
×
180D

Remember:

O
D

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Length and Area

A = area
s = arc length
θ = angle
l = length of chord

Arc Length: Length of chord: Area of Sector: Area of Triangle: Area of Segment:

s = rθ θ 1 2 1 2 1 2
l = 2r sin A= rθ A= r sin θ A= r (θ − sin θ )
2 2 2 2

09 Differentiation

Differentiation of a Function I
Gradient of a tangent of a line (curve or
straight) y = xn
dy δy dy
= lim ( ) = nx n−1
dx δ x →0 δ x dx

Example
y = x3
Differentiation of Algebraic Function
dy
Differentiation of a Constant = 3x 2
dx
y=a a is a constant
dy
=0 Differentiation of a Function II
dx
y = ax
Example dy
y=2 = ax1−1 = ax 0 = a
dx
dy
=0
dx Example
y = 3x
dy
=3
dx

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Differentiation of a Function III Chain Rule

## y = ax n y = un u and v are functions in x

dy dy dy du
= anx n−1 = ×
dx dx du dx

Example Example
y = 2 x3 y = (2 x 2 + 3)5
dy du
= 2(3) x 2 = 6 x 2 u = 2 x 2 + 3, therefore = 4x
dx dx
dy
y = u5 , therefore = 5u 4
du
Differentiation of a Fractional Function
dy dy du
= ×
1 dx du dx
y=
xn = 5u 4 × 4 x
Rewrite = 5(2 x 2 + 3) 4 × 4 x = 20 x(2 x 2 + 3) 4
y = x−n
dy −n Or differentiate directly
= − nx − n−1 = n+1 y = (ax + b) n
dx x
dy
= n.a.(ax + b) n −1
Example dx
1
y=
x y = (2 x 2 + 3)5
y = x −1 dy
= 5(2 x 2 + 3) 4 × 4 x = 20 x(2 x 2 + 3) 4
dy −1 dx
= −1x −2 = 2
dx x

Law of Differentiation

## y =u±v u and v are functions in x

dy du dv
= ±
dx dx dx

Example
y = 2 x3 + 5 x 2
dy
= 2(3) x 2 + 5(2) x = 6 x 2 + 10 x
dx

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Product Rule Quotient Rule

## y = uv u and v are functions in x u

y= u and v are functions in x
dy du dv v
= v +u
dx dx dx du dv
v −u
dy dx dx
=
Example dx v2
y = (2 x + 3)(3 x 3 − 2 x 2 − x)
Example
u = 2x + 3 v = 3x3 − 2 x 2 − x
x2
du dv y=
=2 = 9 x2 − 4 x − 1 2x +1
dx dx
u = x2 v = 2x +1
dy du dv
=v +u du dv
dx dx dx = 2x =2
dx dx
=(3 x − 2 x − x)(2) + (2 x + 3)(9 x 2 − 4 x − 1)
3 2
du dv
v −u
dy
= dx 2 dx
Or differentiate directly dx v
y = (2 x + 3)(3x3 − 2 x 2 − x) dy (2 x + 1)(2 x) − x 2 (2)
=
dy dx (2 x + 1) 2
= (3x3 − 2 x 2 − x)(2) + (2 x + 3)(9 x 2 − 4 x − 1)
dx 4 x2 + 2 x − 2 x2 2 x2 + 2 x
= =
(2 x + 1) 2 (2 x + 1) 2

Or differentiate directly
x2
y=
2x +1
dy (2 x + 1)(2 x) − x 2 (2)
=
dx (2 x + 1) 2
4 x2 + 2 x − 2 x2 2 x2 + 2 x
= =
(2 x + 1) 2 (2 x + 1) 2

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Gradients of tangents, Equation of tangent and Normal

## Gradient of tangent at A(x1, y1):

dy
dx

Equation of tangent: y − y1 = m( x − x1 )

## Gradient of normal at A(x1, y1):

1
mnormal = −
mtangent
If A(x1, y1) is a point on a line y = f(x), the gradient 1
of the line (for a straight line) or the gradient of the = gradient of normal
− dy
dy dx
tangent of the line (for a curve) is the value of
dx Equation of normal : y − y1 = m( x − x1 )
when x = x1.

## Maximum and Minimum Point

dy
Turning point ⇒ =0
dx

## At maximum point, At minimum point ,

2
dy d y dy d2y
=0 <0 =0 >0
dx dx 2 dx dx 2

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Rates of Change Small Changes and Approximation
Small Change:
dA dA dr
Chain rule = ×
dt dr dt δ y dy dy
≈ ⇒ δ y ≈ ×δ x
δ x dx dx
dx
If x changes at the rate of 5 cms -1 ⇒
=5 Approximation:
dt
Decreases/leaks/reduces ⇒ NEGATIVES values!!! ynew = yoriginal + δ y
dy
= yoriginal + ×δ x
dx

δ x = small changes in x
δ y = small changes in y
If x becomes smaller ⇒ δ x = NEGATIVE

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10 Solution of Triangle

## Sine Rule: Cosine Rule: Area of triangle:

a
a b c a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cosA
= = b2 = a2 + c2 – 2ac cosB
sin A sin B sin C C
c2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab cosC
b
Use, when given
 2 sides and 1 non included b2 + c2 − a 2
cos A =
angle 2bc 1
 2 angles and 1 side A= a b sin C
2
Use, when given
 2 sides and 1 included angle C is the included angle of sides a
a a B  3 sides and b.
A
A a a c
b 180 – (A+B)
A
b b

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## Case of AMBIGUITY If ∠C, the length AC and length AB remain unchanged,

the point B can also be at point B′ where ∠ABC = acute
A
and ∠A B′ C = obtuse.
If ∠ABC = θ, thus ∠AB′C = 180 – θ .
180 - θ
θ Remember : sinθ = sin (180° – θ)
C B′ B
Case 1: When a < b sin A Case 2: When a = b sin A
CB is too short to reach the side opposite to C. CB just touch the side opposite to C

Outcome: Outcome:
No solution 1 solution
Case 3: When a > b sin A but a < b. Case 4: When a > b sin A and a > b.
CB cuts the side opposite to C at 2 points CB cuts the side opposite to C at 1 points

Outcome: Outcome:
2 solution 1 solution

Useful information:
In a right angled triangle, you may use the following to solve the
c problems.
b (i) Phythagoras Theorem: c = a 2 + b2
θ
a Trigonometry ratio:
(ii)
sin θ = bc , cos θ = ac , tan θ = b
a

## (iii) Area = ½ (base)(height)

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11 Index Number
Price Index Composite index

P1 Σ Wi I i
I = × 100 I=
P0 Σ Wi

## I = Price index / Index number I = Composite Index

P0 = Price at the base time W = Weightage
P1 = Price at a specific time
I = Price index

I A, B × I B ,C = I A,C ×100

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