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ov Math 231 Homework Project I: Vector Follow instructions. Be careful to answer all the questions raised in each part. Please turn in neat work with problems clearly labeled and your name on each page. Thanks. Some of these problems are hard. You are not alone. If you get stuck, phone a friend. Or email me, or stop by office hours etc... Start early though, otherwise we may not be able to resolve your questions in time. Also, come to class. | may inadvertently work part of the homework. | plan for there to be 30 total problems. This assignment has, 111 problems, this means it is worth 11pts of your final grade. Prosiem 1: Suppose that A, i are non-zero two-dimensional vectors which are orthogonal. Show that if G is any two-dimensional vector then it can be written as a linear combination of the given vectors; that is show there exist.s,t € IR such that C = sA +t. Hint: if i is a unit vector then i - C gives the component of Gin the it direction. tha LUS ond RUS. NMctice Comparin Hhose must & separately equ gine A ard howe Ne comin veetor compare | Here For FRossems 1 J 2 oF mAtH 231_Homtwnnn Reser J Prostem 1 = 2 s=? . "a LY a 4 cA Can use projections +> find focmules “Be s tt, Frejechons not helpful sine Rand B are not “completely ndependent ” T mean port of A con point in the 8 -directon, The clean (non ggometse ) sol? is bert done with a little basic Vineoe olgpbra. “L'll supply these detvils here, Ultimatel ove qoek is to find explicit formulos for S and £ in tems of 6,6, a,b, c,d where a GQ a fe Leafs é-fe] #-[t] b=[§) . We want s,t. such this @-as Re tB we were iven hod Ayes. This meane there does vot exist a & such thd A= Re (Loan AB > A ond © are lincatly ielperdent | Roofs ® incor independence” means GA+GB=0 >G=G=0, Suppose APE and Rand @ ore pot linear by independero thn GR 4G8 =O and FO 0 GAO, Spon C #0 hen Ri &B me = om (3) = (SOND Le Tey llel Wautiply the matrix aad column vector and thd aver “us the Voluer of S and F we were ole ihe, foc, Vou ore free +40 Start with cd-Ge | , _-¢b +Ga | se «oe ad - be x ad —be plug them into sh +£B and show yor gb @ = (8). ProsteM 2: Suppose that 4, if are non-zero two-dimensional vectors which are not parallel. Show that if C is any two-dimensional vector then it can be written as a linear combination of the given vectors; that is show there exist s, t € R such that C = 54 + #8. a = ~¢b+Ga T showed se od ae wd ee ad ~be a - Ee > ¢q gnosld work gen AL}, Pe] or é-[é ig oshed hor oa 4o Show the se work, ee eee Cie bree} ¢ ehea® = (eees\[ * ( od-bel ld 1 Gda- @Ca (7 be + of] = ad-be [ cab s)+| ~ebd +a _ | da - Gea be + Lek ~ “od-be [careaed cb + Gad oi | (ad -be) © ] Th Ihe eased ad~be re) o » ay wy = 6 xm> = od-be £ % 7 od-be c| Ca c JS So ms cheia of S ott works, PROBLEM 3: Inequalities of interest. a. (Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality) Argue that A» B = AB cos(@) implies |A- Bl < |l|B. b. (Triangle Inequality) Show that|A + 3] < |A| + ||, Hint: to accomplish this consider that |4+ BP = (4+ B)- (A+ B) and use parta. o) — |ReB| = [Ages Ol RAR where IRIZA. = \A\el\cos9l < |Allel his proves =|e + ad + el 2 ab [Be] + using ordines See (ok Ve eens eR = (A+B) Noha [+8] = IA+ a A+@ is Same os ees Ars) Ded \Re8\* = (@ +8) o(A+8) tes, ial ia\+ta\ | Nore PRostem 4: Prove the following assertions: a. (3x w)-w=0. Cis ~ VWs Vy VW , -V,W, ye soy) FPP OIA « Ax (Bx 6) =(4-G)B-(A- BE. See homewele sol® pose (HID, d. Ax (Bx G)+Bx (Ex A+ Ex (Ax B)= Get hromemerh Gel page a ProBtem 5: Cancellation Properties: for ordinary real (or complex) numbers if « # 0 then ab = ac implies that b = c. This problem investigates if that still is the case for the vectors’ dot and cross products. Suppose that A # for the following questions. a AB does it follow that J = C ? If not give an argument why not. If true explain why itis true in general. No Censidun Aa‘ Athen 7-4 =0 =ivk ayt A 4 eS this is a Counter -example, b. Ax B= Ax G doesit follow that # = C ? If not give an argument why not. If true explain why itis true in general. No considin anay B ond tele BEA ond CH-A Rxk =0 and AxCR)=0 yt REA c fA B=A-6 and Ax = Ax G does it follow that 3 = C ? If not give an argument why not. If true explain why itis true in general Proof by Gotradiction, = ae Suppose had R40 ond BeBe AS mo Axd = Axe gr BAT, Neha thet Mise oneie, _ 5 R-S oR. & A- (8-2) = 0 Rx® =Axt? © Ax (8-T)=0 Thus Yhe vector B-2 is both parallel and perpendi cabo do AFB. BD Follovs th B-F =O ts BHS ahich i @ centredlichon. cthecetce Ake proparhon ir tr by proof via cuntredlichin. Remock? > O° > Cc T will award bonus points for a dire ok eroo? . Tt escopes ne ob the mumend, PROBLEM 6: Find the equation of the plane that contains the points (a, 0,0), (0,,0) and (0,0,¢). = a = S= <-o, oF ¢ > 1 4 (be) —j,(-2c) + (ob) =iJbe, ac, ab > abe er el PROBLEM 7: Use Mathematica (or another program you prefer) to graph the following equations. Name each surface. a a2 ay? +922 =. | Seo. Cowse webpage. Will post eed ole onee pecmission i Xe anted, b. c= 2y? +324, ce ayes? 204 2yt4e+2=0 PROBLEM 8: Use Mathematica (or another program you prefer) to graph z = f(x,y) for the following functions: a f(ey)= Very, b. f(c,y) = eV", See Cowse wedpoge , Will post geod Se ona permissien is qrarked. cf (z.y) (2? + y?), a. f(z,y) = yar On the basis of those graphs, describe how the two-dimensional graph yy = g(:r) and the three- dimensional graph = = f(y) = 9( 2" + ¥) are related. ae ogrerh Z=-flky) is 4 surfan of revolution. Tts the tetation of the graph ZH AK) ow Z=H(G) rbd the z-axis. ProBLem 9: Calculus properties of vector-valued functions of a real variable. Prove each of the following assertions. Again the repeated index notation may be used if you find it helpful. Remember that to prove a vector equality we must prove equality for each component. We assume that f is a differentiable function of a real variable and A, 3,0), are vector-valued functions of a real variable such that all the derivatives listed below exist. (i) = 40 +18 HF Unes) = Hyon * Oop en = Hote g(ti)- Hu MPD ~ Edita), gba), EEO. Lelut ful, Pure’, fur fy’ = Splu,, fue, PYS+ ful, Fu FUDD = Fi MED + FU, YW = &> dv ve ty. i} ok os dln dBm Aft} = 2 (Ana) = SP bm * An SE = HG 4 R- dt si _consle® with, time, , Y dhe) - fey A®e = eye F(Ai 8) Gx a — ei | SE + BSB | @ hip. Aad = oy, Mae. + eyuhster — dk oe 4 kx @ = ah x6 + Axe Gols Use def? of #(FU). Aletordve ' GB xB yeh) —@xé ) ee Hes) = bs, [ reer net sit = ff Eee RW) xe Bk +h) + Reyx( Eisni= Sd) ] « ls [ Rissh)~ Aw] x die (én) + Box Bin (Sedo Ge x Be) + B® Bla) = Babs Ang thie x Poe same ac pha Colewlus I acgeme. ordinor Predvet rake, One of gour peerr Soh Ye is preot, I sganve ef Pay ret of “Ged e IFW x #(0)] = Fe) x 7(0) (use part c. plus a well-known fact about the cross product) i) i} aclP xt) = Bye +Pxd(ey ve ©) £Rxee =txFl (" iel*xv) = oe | when Fis position ProBteM 10: Newton's 2™ Law is an equation that uses the calculus of vector-valued functions of a real variable. We are told that i" = mi for a particle with mass m and position’ =< x,y,z > under the influence of a force /*. Recall that acceleration was defined to be the second derivative of position; G(t) = #"(t). Find the position at time t given that the particle is subject to F =< k,0,—mg >. State the answer in terms of the initial conditions #(0) =< sro, Yoo 20 > and (0) = (0) =< Vee, Yoys Yor >: => ma = F mat a> = Sk, 2 -m8> ancdauts MFO vihane fm, 9 ve consid OTT We mast salve b. integrating tae S45 LLB, v= jaa = J<%, 0, -9> at = +5 Bud Te) = S Vin, Vy, Me = Sr Ot E e Hera Dit) = Son [BE y Voy) Mow 84 FFE Plt) = [oP at = [< var Ge, Vor, Ver 34> at = Vat tft Mgt Vt B+ G Br» Fe) = = T+ A Hor [Fu = Co +Voet y Qe +Vy ty + at L089) PROBLEM 11: Kepler's Laws state that the planets orbit in elliptical paths. In other words, the motion of the planets lies in an orbital plane. Kepler made this assertion on the basis of experimental evidence gathered by Tycho Brahe. Later Isaac Newton postulated that gravity follows his universal law of gravitation. If we place the sun with mass M, at the origin then the force on a planet of mass M, at position 7’ is given by the equation (Gis the gravitation constant) MM, a where r= |] and the minus reflects the fact that gravity isan attractive force. For a particular planet we expect Newton’s 2" law should hold; Fyravity = Mp”. Show that Newton’s laws imply that the motion of the planet lies in some plane. jing ina plane is that fx #* convenient characterization of a curve re: é for some constant vector: (I would lke to ask you to derive Kepler's Laws in their entirety but there is not quite enough time. It is not too hard, see my notes for a complete derivation, I doubt we will cover it in lecture this semester) Pet -S <> A(Pxt) =0 SS | LU Show ff (Rxv) =o hun were dene. Gr, we lenew d cS > A(rx¥ = (Ka aan Show rea =0 Man werre dora, Notion = 4 S I Got poole) are Colinew