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Combining Truck Power
A
loaded truck (truck 1) has a maximum engine power
and is able to
attain a maximum speed
. Another truck (truck 2) has a maximum engine power
and
can attain a maximum speed of
shown.
To solve this problem, assume that
each truck, when not attached to
another truck, has a speed that is
. The two trucks are then connected by a long cable, as
limited only by wind resistance. Also
assume (not very realistically)
A)
That the wind resistance is a
constant force (a different constant
for each truck though). i.e. It is
independent of the speed at which
the truck is going.
B)
That the wind resistance force on
each truck is the same before and
after the cable is connected, and,
C)
That the power that each truck's
engine can generate is independent
of
the truck's speed.
Part A
Find
, the maximum speed of the two trucks when they are connected, assuming both
engines are running at maximum power.
Hint A.1
Method for solving
Hint not displayed
Hint A.2
Resistance force on truck 1
Hint not displayed
Hint A.3
Net wind resistance on the two trucks
Hint not displayed
Hint A.4
Net power of the two trucks
Hint not displayed

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Hint A.5

Solving for

Hint not displayed

Express the maximum speed in terms of

.

=

Correct

Note that truck 1 is going faster when in tow than when under its own power, and that truck 2 is going slower. This is consistent with having the cable connecting the trucks being subject to a tension. Anyone who has ever driven a truck, or closely watched one being driven, will know that this sort of arrangement is very unsafe and consequently is never used. However, train locomotives, which can be coupled together without cables, can combine their power in this way.

 Delivering Rescue Supplies You are a member of an alpine rescue team and must project a box of supplies, with mass , up an incline of constant slope angle so that it reaches a stranded skier who is a vertical distance above the bottom of the incline. The incline is slippery, but there is some friction present, with kinetic friction coefficient . Part A Use the work-energy theorem to calculate the minimum speed box at the bottom of the incline so that it will reach the skier. that you must give the Hint A.1 How to approach the problem In order to use the work-energy theorem, , you need to find an expression for the total work done on the box and for the box's initial and final kinetic energies. At least one of these quantities will depend on the unknown initial speed of the box. Hint A.2 Find the total work done on the box

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Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables

and

.
,
,
,
,

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=

Correct

 Dragging a Board A uniform board of length and mass lies near a boundary that separates two regions. In region 1, the coefficient of kinetic friction between the board and the surface is , and in region 2, the coefficient is . The positive direction is shown in the figure. Part A Find the net work done by friction in pulling the board directly from region 1 to region 2. Assume that the board moves at constant velocity. Hint A.1 The net force of friction

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Suppose that the right edge of the board is a distance
When the board is at this
position, what is the magnitude
from the boundary, as shown.
of the force of friction,
acting on the board (assuming
that it's moving)?
,
Hint A.1.1
Fraction of board in region 2
Hint not displayed
Hint A.1.2
Force of friction in region 1
Hint not displayed
Express the force acting on the board in terms of
,
,
,
,
, and
.
Hint A.2
Work as integral of force
After you find the net force of friction
that acts on the board, as a function of
, to
find the net work done by this force, you will need to perform the appropriate work
integral,
The lower limit of this integral will be at
. What will be the upper limit?
Upper limit at

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Hint A.3

Don't forget that the force of friction is directed opposite to the direction of the board's motion.

Direction of force of friction

Hint A.4

Formula for

Express the net work in terms of

,
,
,
, and
.

=

Correct

This answer makes sense because it is as if the board spent half its time in region 1, and half in region 2, which on average, it in fact did.

Part B

What is the total work done by the external force in pulling the board from region 1 to region 2? (Again, assume that the board moves at constant velocity.)

Hint B.1

No acceleration

Hint not displayed

,
,
,
, and
.

=

Correct

Power Dissipation Puts a Drag on Racing

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The dominant form of drag experienced by vehicles (bikes, cars, planes, etc.) at operating speeds is called form drag. It increases quadratically with velocity (essentially because the

amount of air you run into increases with on each small volume of air). Thus

and so does the amount of force you must exert

where

,

is the cross-sectional area of the vehicle and

is called the coefficient of drag.

Part A

Consider a vehicle moving with constant velocity drag.

. Find the power dissipated by form

Hint A.1

Because the velocity of the car is constant, the drag force is also constant. Therefore,

you can use the result that the power

How to approach the problem

is

provided by a constant force

to an object

. Be careful to consider the relative

moving with constant velocity

direction of the drag force and the velocity.

,

, and speed

.

=

Correct

Part B

A certain car has an engine that provides a maximum power

maximum speed of the car,

speed (as in the previous part). The car engine is now modified, so that the new power

is 10 percent greater than the original power (

Assume the following:

The top speed is limited by air drag.

The magnitude of the force of air drag at these speeds is proportional to the square of the speed.

By what percentage,

. Suppose that the

, is limited by a drag force proportional to the square of the

.

, is the top speed of the car increased?

Hint B.1

Find the relationship between speed and power

Hint not displayed

Hint B.2

How is the algebra done?

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Hint not displayed

Express the percent increase in top speed numerically to two significant figures.

=

3.2

Correct %

You'll note that your answer is very close to one-third of the percentage by which the power was increased. This dependence of small changes on each other, when the quantities are related by proportionalities of exponents, is common in physics and often makes a useful shortcut for estimations.

Work Done by a Spring

Consider a spring, with spring constant is initially unstretched, with the unconstrained end of the spring at position .

, one end of which is attached to a wall. The spring

Part A

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The spring is now compressed so that the unconstrained end moves from Using the work integral

,

to

.

find the work done by the spring as it is compressed.

 Hint A.1 Spring force as a function of position Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Integrand of the work integral Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Upper limit of the work integral Hint not displayed

Express the work done by the spring in terms of

and
.

=

Correct

A Car with Constant Power

The engine in an imaginary sports car can provide constant power to the wheels over a range of speeds from 0 to 70 miles per hour (mph). At full power, the car can accelerate

from zero to 31.0

in time 1.20

.

Part A

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At full power, how long would it take for the car to accelerate from 0 to 62.0
friction and air resistance.
? Neglect
Hint A.1
Energy and power
In the absence of friction, the constant power of the engine implies that the kinetic
energy of the car increases linearly with time.
Hint A.2
Find the ratio of kinetic energies
Find the (numerical) ratio of the car's kinetic energy
at time 62.0
to
, the
kinetic energy at time 31.0
.
4.80
Correct
Of course, neglecting friction, especially air friction, is completely unrealistic at such
speeds.
Part B
A
more realistic car would cause the wheels to spin in a manner that would result in the
ground pushing it forward with a constant force (in contrast to the constant power in Part
A). If such a sports car went from zero to 31.0
in time 1.20
, how long would it take
to
go from zero to 62.0
?
Hint B.1
How to approach the problem
Hint not displayed
2.40
Correct
This is probably the first and last time you will come across an imaginary car that
goes slower than the real one!

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The Work Done in Pulling a Supertanker
Two tugboats pull a disabled supertanker. Each tug exerts a constant force of 2.20×106
,
one at an angle 16.0
west of north, and the other at an angle 16.0
east of north, as they
pull the tanker a distance 0.680
toward the north.
Part A
What is the total work done by the two tugboats on the supertanker?
Hint A.1
How to approach the problem
There are two ways to calculate the total work done on an object when several forces act
on it. You can compute the quantities of work done on the object by each force and then
add them together. Alternatively, you can compute the work done on the object by the
net force acting on it. The hints that follow are meant to help you to calculate the total
work using the first method.
Hint A.2
Find the work done by one tugboat
Hint not displayed
2.88×109
displayed

PSS 7.2 Problems Using Mechanical Energy II

Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 7.2 Problems Using Mechanical Energy II.

The Great Sandini is a 60.0-

spring gun). You dont find many men of his caliber, so you help him design a new gun. This new gun has a very large spring with a very small mass and a force constant of 1100

that he will compress with a force of 4400

Teflon, so the average friction force will be only 40.0

he moves in the above his initial rest

barrel. At what speed will he emerge from the end of the barrel, 2.50 position?

circus performer who is shot from a cannon (actually a

. The inside of the gun barrel is coated with

during the 4.00

Problem-Solving Strategy: Problems using mechanical energy II IDENTIFY the relevant concepts:

The energy approach is useful in solving problems that involve elastic forces as well as gravitational forces, provided the additional elastic potential energy is included in the

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potential energy

SET UP the problem using the following steps:

.

1. Decide what the initial and final states of the system are. Use the subscript 1 for the initial state and the subscript 2 for the final state. It helps to draw sketches.

2. Define your coordinate system, particularly the level at which

. We suggest that

you always choose the positive y direction to be upward because this is what assumes.

3. Identify all forces that do work, including those that cant be described in terms of

potential energy. A free-body diagram is always helpful.

4. List the unknown and known quantities, including the coordinates and velocities at each point. Decide which unknowns are your target variables. EXECUTE the solution as follows:

Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic and potential energiesthat is,

, and

,
,

. The potential energy

now includes both the gravitational potential energy

, where

is the displacement of the

and the elastic potential energy

spring from its unstretched length. Then, relate the kinetic and potential energies and the

work done by other forces,

do work, this expression becomes

showing the initial and final values of

, using
,
, and

. If no other forces

. Its helpful to draw bar graphs

. Then, solve to find

Check whether your answer makes physical sense. Keep in mind that the work done by the gravitational and elastic forces is accounted for by their potential energies; the work of

the other forces,

, has to be included separately.

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts

The problem involves a spring gun. Therefore, to account for the potential energy associated with its elastic force, the energy approach might be the best method to solve this problem.

SET UP the problem using the following steps

Part A

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 Below is a sketch of the initial state of the situation described in this problem. Draw the most suitable set of coordinate axes for this problem. Note that even though you can choose the level to be wherever you like, in most situations it is best to set the zero height to coincide with either the initial or final position, so that the calculations for the gravitational potential energy become easier. For this reason, in this particular problem place the origin of your coordinate axes on the black dot marking the performer's initial position. Draw only the positive portion of the coordinate axes. Draw the vectors starting at the black dot. The location and orientation of the vectors will be graded. The length of the vectors will not be graded. ANSWER: Correct This is the coordinate system used in the rest of this problem. Note that since the origin of the axes coincides with the location of the performer's feet, all vertical distances are calculated relative to his feet, and not relative to his center of mass. Now, draw a sketch for the final state showing the performer at the exit of the gun barrel, and identify all the forces that do work on the performer as he travels from the initial to the final state. Part B Below is a list of variables representing some of the relevant quantities in this problem. Which ones are known quantities? Check all that apply. ANSWER: , magnitude of compressing force , final height , magnitude of friction , force constant of spring , mass of body in motion , distance traveled between initial and final state , initial height , initial speed , final speed

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All attempts used; correct answer displayed

 Now, make sure that you list all the known quantities on your sketches for the initial and final states of the system. You have identified only one unknown, , the final speed of the performer. This is your target variable. However, as you work through the next part, you will find that there may be other unknown quantities that need to be found in order to solve the problem.

EXECUTE the solution as follows

Part C

At what speed

will The Great Sandini emerge from the end of the gun barrel?

 Hint C.1 Find expressions for the performer’s initial and final kinetic energies Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Find the performer’s initial and final gravitational potential energies Hint not displayed Hint C.3 Find the initial and final elastic potential energies Hint not displayed Hint C.4 Find Hint not displayed

15.46

= All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Part D

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 To evaluate whether your result makes sense, it's useful to use bar graphs showing the initial and final values of kinetic and potential energies. These graphs will help you verify whether energy is conserved. The picture to the right is a bar graph showing the initial values of potential energy (gravitational potential energy + elastic potential energy), kinetic energy , and total energy . Which of the following graphs shows the correct final values for , , and ? ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Correct According to your calculations, the total energy decreases by 160 . You can verify that this equals the amount of energy lost to friction, which you previously computed as . So your results make sense. The initial elastic potential energy is for the most part transformed into gravitational and kinetic energy, with a small loss due to friction. In the absence of friction, energy would be conserved and The Great Sandini would emerge from the end of the barrel at an even higher speed.

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 A Mass-Spring System with Recoil and Friction An object of mass is traveling on a horizontal surface. There is a coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface. The object has speed when it reaches and encounters a spring. The object compresses the spring, stops, and then recoils and travels in the opposite direction. When the object reaches trip, it stops. on its return Part A Find , the spring constant. Hint A.1 Why does the object stop? Why does the object come to rest when it returns to ? Although more than one answer may be true of the system, you must choose the answer that explains why the object ultimately comes to a stop. ANSWER: When the object reaches the second time all of its initial energy has gone into the compression and extension of the spring. When the object reaches the second time all of its initial energy has been dissipated by friction. is an equilibrium position and at this point the spring exerts no force on the object. At the force of friction exactly balances the force exerted by the spring on the object. Correct Hint A.2 How does friction affect the system?

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 Indicate whether the following statements regarding friction are true or false. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Work done by friction is equal to , where is the mass of an object, is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity, is the coefficient of kinetic friction, and is the distance the object has traveled. Energy dissipated by friction is equal to , where is the coefficient of friction, is the acceleration due to gravity, is the mass of the object, and is the amount of time (since encountering the spring) the object has been moving. Friction is a conservative force. Work done by friction is exactly equal to the negative of the energy dissipated by friction. Correct Hint A.3 Energy stored in a spring The potential energy stored in a spring having constant that is compressed a distance is . Hint A.4 Compute the compression of the spring By what distance does the object compress the spring? Hint A.4.1 How to approach this question Use the fact that to solve for the distance the spring was compressed. Look at the initial condition when the object originally hits the spring and the final condition when the object returns to . Hint A.4.2 The value of

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In its final position, the object is not moving. Also the spring is not compressed. Therefore

.
 Hint A.4.3 Find What is the value of ? Hint A.4.3.1 How to approach this part Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and and , the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: = Correct Hint A.4.4 Find What is the value of ? Hint A.4.4.1 How to approach this part Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and and , the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: = Correct

Express

in terms of

,

, and

.
=

Correct

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Hint A.5

In the previous part, at the two ends of the motion considered, the spring had no energy,

Putting it all together

so

terms of the known quantities. To obtain an equation involving energy again,

was not part of the equation. However, you were able to find a relation for

in

, use conservation of

,

but this time, take the initial condition to be the moment when the spring is at its maximum compression and the final condition to be the moment when the spring returns

to

. So now

can be written in terms of

and other variables.

 Hint A.6 The value of The value of is again zero. Hint A.7 Find for this part of the motion What is the value of for this part of the motion? Hint A.7.1 How to approach this part Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of end up with an equation containing and . , the spring constant, so that you ANSWER: = Correct Hint A.8 Find for this part of the motion

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What is the value of

for this part of the motion?

Hint A.8.1

How to approach this part

Hint not displayed

,
,

, and

, the acceleration due to

= Correct

Express

in terms of

,
,

, and

.
=

Correct

 Bungee Jumping Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. Kate has a mass , and the surface of the bridge is a height above the water. The bungee cord, which has length when unstretched, will first straighten and then stretch as Kate falls. Assume the following: The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant . ● Kate doesn't actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward. ● Kate's height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a point particle. ● Use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Part A

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 How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest? Assume that she doesn't touch the water. Hint A.1 Decide how to approach the problem Here are three possible methods for solving this problem: a. No nonconservative forces are acting, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set Kate's gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on the cord's final length ) and solve for . b. Since nonconservative forces are acting, mechanical energy is not conserved. Set the spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on ) equal to Kate's gravitational potential energy plus the work done by dissipative forces. Eliminate the unknown work, and solve for . c. When Kate comes to rest she has zero acceleration, so the net force acting on her must be zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which depends on ) equal to the force of gravity and solve for . Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find available? given the information ANSWER: a b c Correct Hint A.2 Compute the force due to the bungee cord When Kate is at rest, what is the magnitude exerts on her? of the upward force the bungee cord Hint A.2.1 Find the extension of the bungee cord Hint not displayed Hint A.2.2 Formula for the force due to a stretched cord Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of the cord's final stretched length and quantities given in the problem introduction. Your answer should not depend on Kate's mass .

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 ANSWER: = Correct Set this force equal to Kate's weight, and solve for . Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. ANSWER: = Correct Part B If Kate just touches the surface of the river on her first downward trip (i.e., before the first bounce), what is the spring constant ? Ignore all dissipative forces. Hint B.1 Decide how to approach the problem Here are three possible methods for solving this problem: a. Since nonconservative forces are ignored, mechanical energy is conserved. Set Kate's gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential energy in the bungee cord at the lowest point (which depends on ) and solve for . b. Nonconservative forces can be ignored, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set the spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on ) equal to Kate's gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge plus the work done by gravity as Kate falls. Compute the work done by gravity, then solve for . c. When Kate is being held just above the water she has zero acceleration, so the net force acting on her must be zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which depends on ) equal to the force of gravity and solve for . Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find available? given the information ANSWER: a b c Correct

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Hint B.2
Find the initial gravitational potential energy
What is Kate's gravitational potential energy
at the moment she steps off the bridge?
(Define the zero of gravitational potential to be at the surface of the water.)
introduction.
= Correct
Hint B.3
Find the elastic potential energy in the bungee cord
What is the elastic potential energy
lowest point of her first downward trip?
stored in the bungee cord when Kate is at the
Hint B.3.1
Formula for elastic potential energy
The elastic potential energy of the bungee cord (which we are treating as an ideal
spring) is
,
where
is the amount by which the cord is stretched beyond its unstretched length.
Hint B.3.2
How much is the bungee cord stretched?
By how much is the bungee cord stretched when Kate is at a depth
bridge?
below the
and
.
= Correct
introduction.
=
Correct

Express

in terms of

,
,

, and

.

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=

Correct

 Circling Ball A ball of mass is attached to a string of length . It is being swung in a vertical circle with enough speed so that the string remains taut throughout the ball's motion. Assume that the ball travels freely in this vertical circle with negligible loss of total mechanical energy. At the top and bottom of the vertical circle, the ball's speeds are and , and the corresponding tensions in the string are and . and have magnitudes and . Part A Find , the difference between the magnitude of the tension in the string at the bottom relative to that at the top of the circle. Hint A.1 How to approach this problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Find the sum of forces at the bottom of the circle Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Find the acceleration at the bottom of the circle Hint not displayed

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 Hint A.4 Find the tension at the bottom of the circle Hint not displayed Hint A.5 Find the sum of forces at the top of the circle Hint not displayed Hint A.6 Find the acceleration at the top of the circle Hint not displayed Hint A.7 Find the tension at the top of the circle Hint not displayed Hint A.8 Find the relationship between and Hint not displayed

Express the difference in tension in terms of should not appear in your final answer.

and

. The quantities

and

= Correct

 The method outlined in the hints is really the only practical way to do this problem. If done properly, finding the difference between the tensions, accomplished fairly simply and elegantly. , can be

Drag on a Skydiver

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A skydiver of mass

terminal velocity of magnitude

gravity is

jumps from a hot air balloon and falls a distance

before reaching a

. Assume that the magnitude of the acceleration due to

.

Part A

What is the work air?

done on the skydiver, over the distance

, by the drag force of the

 Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Find the change in potential energy Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Find the change in kinetic energy Hint not displayed

Express the work in terms of acceleration due to gravity

,
,
.

, and the magnitude of the

=

Correct

Part B

Find the power velocity

.

supplied by the drag force after the skydiver has reached terminal

 Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Magnitude of the drag force Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Relative direction of the drag force and velocity Hint not displayed

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 Express the power in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. ANSWER: = Correct

Energy in a Spring Graphing Question

A toy car is held at rest against a compressed spring, as shown in the figure. When released, the car slides across the

room. Let

position of the car. Assume that friction is negligible.

be the initial

Part A

Sketch a graph of the total energy of the spring and car system. There is no scale given, so your graph should simply reflect the qualitative shape of the energy vs. time plot.

View All attempts used; correct answer displayed

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 Part B Sketch a plot of the elastic potential energy of the spring from the point at which the car is released to the equilibrium position of the spring. Make your graph consistent with the given plot of total energy (the gray line given in the graphing window). Hint B.1 Determine the sign of the initial elastic potential energy At the instant the car is released, the spring is compressed. Therefore, is the spring's initial elastic potential energy positive, negative, or zero? ANSWER: positive negative zero Correct Hint B.2 Determine the sign of the initial kinetic energy Is the initial kinetic energy of the cart positive, negative, or zero? ANSWER: positive negative zero Correct Hint B.3 Determine the sign of the final elastic potential energy When the car reaches the equilibrium position of the spring, is the elastic potential energy positive, negative, or zero? ANSWER: positive negative zero Correct Hint B.4 The shape of the elastic potential energy graph

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 The elastic potential energy of a spring with spring constant that is stretched or compressed to position is given by , where is the equilibrium position of the spring. ANSWER: Correct Part C Sketch a graph of the car's kinetic energy from the moment it is released until it passes the equilibrium position of the spring. Your graph should be consistent with the given plots of total energy (gray line in graphing window) and potential energy (gray parabola in graphing window). ANSWER: Correct

Fun with a Spring Gun

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 A spring-loaded toy gun is used to shoot a ball of mass straight up in the air, as shown in the figure. The spring has spring constant compressed a distance of 25.0 centimeters from its equilibrium . If the spring is position and then released, the ball reaches a maximum height (measured from the equilibrium position of the spring). There is no air resistance, and the ball never touches the inside of the gun. Assume that all movement occurs in a straight line up and down along the y axis. Part A Which of the following statements are true? Hint A.1 Nonconservative forces Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Forces acting on the ball Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: Mechanical energy is conserved because no No conservative forces act in this problem after the dissipative forces perform work on the ball. The forces of gravity and the spring have potential energies associated with them. ball is released from the spring gun. Part B Correct

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 Find the muzzle velocity of the ball (i.e., the velocity of the ball at the spring's equilibrium position ). Hint B.1 Determine how to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Energy equations Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Determine which two locations you should examine Hint not displayed Hint B.4 Find the initial energy of the system Hint not displayed Hint B.5 Determine the final energy Hint not displayed Hint B.6 Creating an equation Hint not displayed ANSWER: = 4.78 Correct Part C

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 Find the maximum height of the ball. Hint C.1 Choose two locations to examine Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Find the initial energy Hint not displayed Hint C.3 Determine the final energy Hint not displayed Hint C.4 Creating an equation Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically, in meters. ANSWER: 1.17 = Correct In this problem you practiced applying the law of conservation of mechanical energy to a physical situation to find the muzzle velocity and the maximum height reached by the ball. Part D Which of the following actions, if done independently, would increase the maximum height reached by the ball? Check all that apply. ANSWER: reducing the spring constant increasing the spring constant decreasing the distance the spring is compressed increasing the distance the spring is compressed decreasing the mass of the ball increasing the mass of the ball tilting the spring gun so that it is at an angle degrees from the horizontal Correct

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Graphing Gravitational Potential Energy
A 1.00
ball is thrown directly upward with an initial speed of 16.0
.
A graph of the ball's gravitational potential energy vs. height,
, for an arbitrary initial
velocity is given in Part A. The zero point of gravitational potential energy is located at the
height at which the ball leaves the thrower's hand.
For this problem, take
as the acceleration due to gravity.
Part A
Draw a line on the graph representing the total energy
of the ball.
Hint A.1
How to approach the problem
The total energy is the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy. You can compute
the total energy at any point in the ball's trajectory, but the simplest method is to add the
initial kinetic and potential energies just as the ball is thrown.
Hint A.2
Find the initial kinetic energy
When the ball first leaves the thrower’s hand, what is its kinetic energy
?
128
=
Correct
Hint A.3
Find the initial potential energy
What is the potential energy
of the ball when it first leaves the thrower's hand?
Hint A.4
Shape of the total energy graph

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 As the ball ascends, does its total energy increase, decrease, or stay the same? ANSWER: increase decrease stay the same Correct The law of conservation of energy guarantees that the total energy of the ball remains constant throughout its motion. The increase in potential energy as the ball ascends is exactly balanced by the decrease in its kinetic energy. ANSWER: Correct Part B Using the graph, determine the maximum height reached by the ball. Hint B.1 Maximum height The ball reaches its maximum height when its velocity (and therefore kinetic energy) is zero, so all of its energy is potential. This occurs at the height at which the total energy and potential energy graphs intersect. The ball does not have enough energy to rise above this point on the potential energy graph. Express your answer to one decimal place. ANSWER: 12.8 Correct The ball reaches its maximum height when its velocity (and therefore kinetic energy) is zero, so all of its energy is potential. This occurs at the height at which the total energy and potential energy graphs intersect.

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 Part C Draw a new gravitational potential energy vs. height graph to represent the gravitational potential energy if the ball had a mass of 2.00 . The graph for a 1.00- ball with an arbitrary initial velocity is provided again as a reference. Take as the acceleration due to gravity. Hint C.1 Slope The gravitational potential energy is defined by . In a graph of potential energy vs. height, is the slope. Hint C.2 Determine the new gravitational potential energy What is the gravitational potential energy for a 2.00- ball at a height of ? Take as the acceleration due to gravity and express your answer to three decimal places. ANSWER: 100 = Correct The new graph of potential energy versus height must pass through the point . ANSWER: Correct For a ball with twice the mass, you should expect the plot of potential energy vs. height to have twice the slope.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 A baseball is thrown directly upward at time and is caught again at time . Assume that air resistance is so small that it can be ignored and that the zero point of gravitational potential energy is located at the position at which the ball leaves the thrower's hand. Part A Sketch a graph of the kinetic energy of the baseball. Hint A.1 Determine the sign of the initial kinetic energy Hint not displayed Hint A.2 The shape of the kinetic energy graph Hint not displayed ANSWER: View All attempts used; correct answer displayed Part B Based on the graph of kinetic energy given (gray curve in the graphing window), sketch a graph of the baseball's gravitational potential energy. Hint B.1 Initial gravitational potential energy Hint not displayed Hint B.2 The shape of the gravitational potential energy graph Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Using conservation of energy Hint not displayed

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 ANSWER: Correct Part C Based on the kinetic and potential energy graphs given, sketch a graph of the baseball's total energy. Hint C.1 Total energy Hint not displayed ANSWER: Correct

Loop the Loop

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A
roller coaster car may be
approximated by a block of mass
. The car, which starts from rest,
is
released at a height
above the
ground and slides along a
frictionless track. The car
, as
shown. Assume that the initial height
is great enough so that the car
never loses contact with the track.
Part A
Find an expression for the kinetic energy of the car at the top of the loop.
Hint A.1
Find the potential energy at the top of the loop
What is the potential energy of the car when it is at the top of the loop? Define the
gravitational potential energy to be zero at
.
and other given quantities.
Express the kinetic energy in terms of
,
,
, and
.
= Correct
Part B

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Find the minimum initial height

to stay in contact with the track at the top of the loop.

at which the car can be released that still allows the car

Hint B.1

Meaning of "stay in contact"

For the car to just stay in contact through the loop, without falling, the normal force that

acts on the car when it's at the top of the loop must be zero (i.e., Find the velocity at the top such that the remaining force on the car i.e. its weight provides the necessary centripetal acceleration. If the velocity were any greater, you would additionally require some force from the track to provide the necessary centripetal acceleration. If the velocity were any less, the car would fall off the track. Use the above described condition to find the velocity and then the result from the above part to find the required height.

How to approach this part

).

 Hint B.2 Acceleration at the top of the loop Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Normal force at the top of the loop Hint not displayed Hint B.4 Solving for Hint not displayed

Express the minimum height in terms of

.

= Correct

 For the car will still complete the loop, though it will require some normal reaction even at the very top. For the car will just oscillate. Do you see this? , the cart will lose contact with the track at some earlier point. For That is why roller coasters must have a lot of safety features. If you like, you can check that the angle at which the cart loses contact with the track is given by .

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Not Quite around the Globe

A large globe, with a radius of about 5 Imagine that such a globe has a radius

, was built in Italy between 1982 and 1987. and a frictionless surface. A small block of mass

slides starts from rest at the very top of the globe and slides along the surface of the

above the

globe. The block leaves the surface of the globe when it reaches a height

ground. The geometry of the situation is shown in the figure for an arbitrary height

.

Part A

Consider what happens at the moment when the block leaves the surface of the globe. Which of the following statements are correct?

a. The net acceleration of the block is directed straight down.

b. The component of the force of gravity toward the center of the globe is equal to the

magnitude of the normal force.

c. The force of gravity is the only force acting on the block.

Hint A.1

How is the normal force changing?

Hint not displayed

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 ANSWER: a only b only c only a and b a and c b and c a and b and c Correct Part B Which of the following statements is also true at the moment when the block leaves the surface of the globe? ANSWER: The centripetal acceleration is zero. The normal force is zero. The kinetic energy of the block equals its potential The net acceleration of the block is parallel to its velocity. energy. Correct Part C Using Newton's 2nd law, find , the speed of the block at the critical moment when the block leaves the surface of the globe. Assume that the height at which the block leaves the surface of the globe is . Hint C.1 How to approach this problem Since the normal force goes to zero at the critical moment when the block leaves the surface of the globe, it is the radial component of the gravitational force that generates the entire centripetal acceleration at this point. Use this fact and Newton's 2nd law to relate the acceleration due to gravity and the centripetal acceleration. Hint C.2 Find the centripetal acceleration

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What is
, the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the block when its speed is
? Assume that the block has not lost contact with the globe.
Hint C.2.1
Formula for centripetal acceleration
Hint not displayed
and
.
=
Correct
Hint C.3
Find the radial component of the gravitational force
What is
, the magnitude of the radial component of the gravitational force on the block
when the block is at the position indicated in the figure?
,
, and
.
= Correct
Hint C.4
What is
?
Having found
, you now need to find
in terms of
(the height of
the block) and
. You need to find a right triangle where
is the included angle and
is the hypoteneuse. Using this triangle, what is
?
and
.
=
Correct
,
accleration due to gravity. Do not use
Express the speed in terms of
, and
, the magnitude of the

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=
Correct
Part D
Use the law of conservation of energy to find
. This will give you a difference
expression for
than you found in the previous part.
Hint D.1
How to apply conservation of energy
The law of conservation of energy states that
.
You may assume that the initial velocity of the block is negligible, so that the block's
initial kinetic energy is zero. The final kinetic energy of the block can be easily expressed
in terms of
and
. The initial and final potential energies of the block simply depend
on the height of the block above the ground (or any other reference point).
Express
in terms of
,
, and
.
=
Correct
Part E
Find
, the height from the ground at which the block leaves the surface of the globe.
Hint E.1
How to approach this question
Hint not displayed
Express
in terms of
.
=
Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

 Part A Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case the baseball is thrown at the same initial speed and from the same height above the ground. Assume that the effects of air resistance are negligible. Rank these throws according to the speed of the baseball the instant before it hits the ground. Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER: Correct This answer is best understood in terms of conservation of energy. The initial energy of the ball is independent of the direction in which it is thrown. The initial and final potential energies of the ball are the same regardless of the trajectory. Therefore, the final kinetic energy, and therefore the final speed, of the ball must be the same no matter in what direction it is thrown.

Shooting a ball into a box

Two children are trying to shoot a marble of mass

into a small box using a spring-loaded

gun that is fixed on a table and shoots horizontally from the edge of the table. The edge of

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the table is a height

top of the box (the height of which is negligibly small), and the center of

the box is a distance

edge of the table. The spring has a

spring constant

compresses the spring a distance and finds that the marble falls short of its target by a horizontal distance .

above the

from the

. The first child

Part A

By what distance,

lands in the middle of the box? (Assume that height of the box is negligible, so that there is no chance that the marble will hit the side of the box before it lands in the bottom.)

, should the second child compress the spring so that the marble

Hint A.1

For this part of the problem, you don't need to consider the first child's toss. (The

General method for finding

quantities and

,
,

, and

.

conservation and kinematic relations for the marble, and solve for its range,

of

, in terms

 Hint A.2 Initial speed of the marble Use conservation of energy to find the initial speed, , of the second marble. Express your answer in terms of , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Hint A.3 Time for the marble to hit the ground

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 Use kinematics to find shot off the table. , the time it takes the second marble to hit the ground after it is Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: = Correct Hint A.4 Combining equations and solving for The kinematic equation for the motion along the x axis is . Using the expressions for and from the previous hints, solve for in terms of the quantities , , , . , and

Express the distance in terms of

,
,
,

, and

.

=

Correct

Part B

Now imagine that the second child does not know the mass of the marble, the height of

the table above the floor, or the spring constant. Find an expression for

only on

that depends

and distance measurements.

Hint B.1

Compute

in terms of
,
,
,
,
, and
.

Express

in terms of

,

, and

.

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