MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (1 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Hint A.5
Solving for
Hint not displayed
Express the maximum speed in terms of
ANSWER:
Correct
Note that truck 1 is going faster when in tow than when under its own power, and that truck 2 is going slower. This is consistent with having the cable connecting the trucks being subject to a tension. Anyone who has ever driven a truck, or closely watched one being driven, will know that this sort of arrangement is very unsafe and consequently is never used. However, train locomotives, which can be coupled together without cables, can combine their power in this way.
Delivering Rescue Supplies 

You are a member of an alpine rescue team and must project a box of supplies, with mass 

, up an incline of constant slope angle 
so that it reaches a stranded skier who is a 

vertical distance 
above the bottom of the incline. The incline is slippery, but there is some 

friction present, with kinetic friction coefficient 
.


Part A 

Use the workenergy theorem to calculate the minimum speed box at the bottom of the incline so that it will reach the skier. 

that you must give the 

Hint A.1 
How to approach the problem 

In order to use the workenergy theorem, 


, 

you need to find an expression for the total work done on the box and for the box's initial and final kinetic energies. At least one of these quantities will depend on the unknown initial speed of the box. 

Hint A.2 
Find the total work done on the box 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (2 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
What is 

, the total work done on the box between the moment it is projected and 

the moment it reaches the skier? 

Hint A.2.1 Find the work done by gravity 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.2.2 Find the work done by friction 

Hint not displayed 

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 
,
,
,

, 

and
.


ANSWER: 

= Answer not displayed 

Hint A.3 
What is the initial kinetic energy? 

Write velocity , the initial kinetic energy of the box, in terms of the magnitude of its initial and other given variables. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables
,
,
,
,


,
and 
.


ANSWER: 

= Answer not displayed 

Hint A.4 
What is the final kinetic energy? 

If the box just reaches the skier, what is arrives? , the kinetic energy of the box when it 

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 
,
,
,

, 

,
and 
.


ANSWER: 

= Answer not displayed 
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables
and
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (3 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
ANSWER:
=
Correct
Dragging a Board 

A uniform board of length 
and mass 
lies near a boundary that separates two regions. 

In region 1, the coefficient of kinetic friction between the board and the surface is 

, and in 

region 2, the coefficient is 
. The positive direction is shown in the figure. 



Part A 

Find the net work done by friction in pulling the board directly from region 1 to region 2. 

Assume that the board moves at constant velocity. 

Hint A.1 
The net force of friction 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (4 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (5 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Hint A.3
Don't forget that the force of friction is directed opposite to the direction of the board's motion.
Direction of force of friction
^{H}^{i}^{n}^{t} ^{A}^{.}^{4}
Formula for
Express the net work in terms of
ANSWER:
=
Correct
This answer makes sense because it is as if the board spent half its time in region 1, and half in region 2, which on average, it in fact did.
Part B
What is the total work done by the external force in pulling the board from region 1 to region 2? (Again, assume that the board moves at constant velocity.)
Hint B.1
No acceleration
Hint not displayed
Express your answer in terms of
ANSWER:
=
Correct
Power Dissipation Puts a Drag on Racing
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (6 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
The dominant form of drag experienced by vehicles (bikes, cars, planes, etc.) at operating speeds is called form drag. It increases quadratically with velocity (essentially because the
amount of air you run into increases with on each small volume of air). Thus
and so does the amount of force you must exert
where
is the crosssectional area of the vehicle and
is called the coefficient of drag.
Part A
Consider a vehicle moving with constant velocity drag.
. Find the power dissipated by form
Hint A.1
Because the velocity of the car is constant, the drag force is also constant. Therefore,
you can use the result that the power
How to approach the problem
is
provided by a constant force
to an object
. Be careful to consider the relative
moving with constant velocity
direction of the drag force and the velocity.
Express your answer in terms of
, and speed
ANSWER:
=
Correct
Part B
A certain car has an engine that provides a maximum power
maximum speed of the car,
speed (as in the previous part). The car engine is now modified, so that the new power
is 10 percent greater than the original power (
Assume the following:
● The top speed is limited by air drag.
● The magnitude of the force of air drag at these speeds is proportional to the square of the speed.
By what percentage,
. Suppose that the
, is limited by a drag force proportional to the square of the
, is the top speed of the car increased?
Hint B.1
Find the relationship between speed and power
Hint not displayed
Hint B.2
How is the algebra done?
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (7 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Hint not displayed
Express the percent increase in top speed numerically to two significant figures.
ANSWER:
=
Correct ^{%}
You'll note that your answer is very close to onethird of the percentage by which the power was increased. This dependence of small changes on each other, when the quantities are related by proportionalities of exponents, is common in physics and often makes a useful shortcut for estimations.
Work Done by a Spring
Consider a spring, with spring constant is initially unstretched, with the unconstrained end of the spring at position .
Part A
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (8 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
The spring is now compressed so that the unconstrained end moves from Using the work integral
to
find the work done by the spring as it is compressed.
Hint A.1 
Spring force as a function of position 
Hint not displayed 

Hint A.2 
Integrand of the work integral 
Hint not displayed 

Hint A.3 
Upper limit of the work integral 
Hint not displayed 
Express the work done by the spring in terms of
ANSWER:
=
Correct
A Car with Constant Power
The engine in an imaginary sports car can provide constant power to the wheels over a range of speeds from 0 to 70 miles per hour (mph). At full power, the car can accelerate
from zero to 31.0
in time 1.20
Part A
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (9 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (10 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
PSS 7.2 Problems Using Mechanical Energy II
Learning Goal: To practice ProblemSolving Strategy 7.2 Problems Using Mechanical Energy II.
The Great Sandini is a 60.0
spring gun). You don’t find many men of his caliber, so you help him design a new gun. This new gun has a very large spring with a very small mass and a force constant of 1100
that he will compress with a force of 4400
Teflon, so the average friction force will be only 40.0
he moves in the above his initial rest
barrel. At what speed will he emerge from the end of the barrel, 2.50 position?
circus performer who is shot from a cannon (actually a
. The inside of the gun barrel is coated with
during the 4.00
ProblemSolving Strategy: Problems using mechanical energy II IDENTIFY the relevant concepts:
The energy approach is useful in solving problems that involve elastic forces as well as gravitational forces, provided the additional elastic potential energy is included in the
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (11 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
potential energy
SET UP the problem using the following steps:
1. Decide what the initial and final states of the system are. Use the subscript 1 for the initial state and the subscript 2 for the final state. It helps to draw sketches.
2. Define your coordinate system, particularly the level at which
. We suggest that
you always choose the positive y direction to be upward because this is what assumes.
3. Identify all forces that do work, including those that can’t be described in terms of
potential energy. A freebody diagram is always helpful.
4. List the unknown and known quantities, including the coordinates and velocities at each point. Decide which unknowns are your target variables. EXECUTE the solution as follows:
Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic and potential energies—that is,
, and
. The potential energy
now includes both the gravitational potential energy
, where
is the displacement of the
and the elastic potential energy
spring from its unstretched length. Then, relate the kinetic and potential energies and the
work done by other forces,
do work, this expression becomes
showing the initial and final values of
. If no other forces
. It’s helpful to draw bar graphs
. Then, solve to find
whatever unknown quantity is required. EVALUATE your answer:
Check whether your answer makes physical sense. Keep in mind that the work done by the gravitational and elastic forces is accounted for by their potential energies; the work of
the other forces,
, has to be included separately.
IDENTIFY the relevant concepts
The problem involves a spring gun. Therefore, to account for the potential energy associated with its elastic force, the energy approach might be the best method to solve this problem.
SET UP the problem using the following steps
Part A
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (12 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Below is a sketch of the initial state of the situation described in this problem. Draw the 

most suitable set of coordinate axes for this problem. Note that even though you can 

choose the 
level to be wherever you like, in most situations it is best to set the zero 

height to coincide with either the initial or final position, so that the calculations for the gravitational potential energy become easier. For this reason, in this particular problem place the origin of your coordinate axes on the black dot marking the performer's initial position. Draw only the positive portion of the coordinate axes. 

Draw the vectors starting at the black dot. The location and orientation of the vectors will be graded. The length of the vectors will not be graded. 

ANSWER: 

Correct 

This is the coordinate system used in the rest of this problem. Note that since the origin of the axes coincides with the location of the performer's feet, all vertical distances are calculated relative to his feet, and not relative to his center of mass. Now, draw a sketch for the final state showing the performer at the exit of the gun barrel, and identify all the forces that do work on the performer as he travels from the initial to the final state. 

Part B 

Below is a list of variables representing some of the relevant quantities in this problem. Which ones are known quantities? 

Check all that apply. 

ANSWER: 

, 
magnitude of compressing force 

, 
final height 

, 
magnitude of friction 

, 
force constant of spring 

, 
mass of body in motion 

, distance traveled between initial and final state 

, 
initial height 

, 
initial speed 

, 
final speed 

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (13 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
All attempts used; correct answer displayed
Now, make sure that you list all the known quantities on your sketches for the initial 

and final states of the system. You have identified only one unknown, 

, the final 
speed of the performer. This is your target variable. However, as you work through the next part, you will find that there may be other unknown quantities that need to be found in order to solve the problem. 
EXECUTE the solution as follows
Part C
At what speed
will The Great Sandini emerge from the end of the gun barrel?
Hint C.1 
Find expressions for the performer’s initial and final kinetic energies 

Hint not displayed 

Hint C.2 
Find the performer’s initial and final gravitational potential energies 

Hint not displayed 

Hint C.3 
Find the initial and final elastic potential energies 

Hint not displayed 

Hint C.4 
_{F}_{i}_{n}_{d} 


Hint not displayed 
Express your answer in meters per second to four significant figures.
ANSWER:
= All attempts used; correct answer displayed
EVALUATE your answer
Part D
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (14 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
To evaluate whether your result makes sense, it's useful to use bar graphs showing the initial and final values of kinetic and potential energies. These graphs will help you verify whether energy is conserved. The picture to the right is a bar graph showing the initial values of potential energy (gravitational potential energy + elastic potential energy), kinetic 

energy , and total energy 

. Which of the 

following graphs shows the correct 

final values for 
, 
, and 
? 

ANSWER: 

Correct 

According to your calculations, the total energy decreases by 160 
. 

You can verify that this equals the amount of energy lost to friction, which you 

previously computed as 
. So your results make sense. The initial elastic 

potential energy is for the most part transformed into gravitational and kinetic energy, with a small loss due to friction. In the absence of friction, energy would be conserved and The Great Sandini would emerge from the end of the barrel at an even higher speed. 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (15 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
A MassSpring System with Recoil and Friction 

An object of mass 
is traveling on a horizontal surface. There is a coefficient of kinetic 

friction 
between the object and the surface. The object has speed 
when it 

reaches and encounters a spring. The object compresses the spring, stops, and then 

recoils and travels in the opposite direction. When the object reaches trip, it stops. 
on its return 

Part A 

Find 
, the spring constant. 

Hint A.1 Why does the object stop? 

Why does the object come to rest when it returns to ? 

Although more than one answer may be true of the system, you must choose the answer that explains why the object ultimately comes to a stop. 

ANSWER: 
When the object reaches the second time all of 

its initial energy has gone into the compression and 

extension of the spring. 

When the object reaches the second time all of 

its initial energy has been dissipated by friction. is an equilibrium position and at this point the 

spring exerts no force on the object. 

At 
the force of friction exactly balances the 

force exerted by the spring on the object. 

Correct 

Hint A.2 How does friction affect the system? 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (16 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Indicate whether the following statements regarding friction are true or false. 

Check all that apply. 

ANSWER: 
Work done by friction is equal to 
, where 
is 

the mass of an object, is the magnitude of the 

acceleration due to gravity, is the coefficient of 

kinetic friction, and is the distance the object has 

traveled. Energy dissipated by friction is equal to 
, 

where is the coefficient of friction, 
is the 

acceleration due to gravity, is the mass of the 

object, and is the amount of time (since 

encountering the spring) the object has been moving. 

Friction is a conservative force. 

Work done by friction is exactly equal to the negative 

of the energy dissipated by friction. 

Correct 

Hint A.3 Energy stored in a spring 

The potential energy stored in a spring having constant that is compressed a distance 

is 

. 

Hint A.4 
Compute the compression of the spring 

By what distance 
does the object compress the spring? 

Hint A.4.1 How to approach this question 

Use the fact that 

to solve for the distance the spring was compressed. Look at the initial condition when the object originally hits the spring and the final 

condition when the object returns to 
. 

^{H}^{i}^{n}^{t} ^{A}^{.}^{4}^{.}^{2} The value of 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (17 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
In its final position, the object is not moving. Also the spring is not compressed. Therefore
Hint A.4.3 _{F}_{i}_{n}_{d} 


What is the value of 

? 

Hint A.4.3.1 
How to approach this part 

Hint not displayed 

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 
,
,

, and 


and 

, the acceleration due to gravity. 

ANSWER: 
= 


Correct 

Hint A.4.4 
_{F}_{i}_{n}_{d} 


What is the value of 

? 

Hint A.4.4.1 
How to approach this part 

Hint not displayed 

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables 
,
,

, and 


and 

, the acceleration due to gravity. 

ANSWER: 
^{=} Correct 
Express
ANSWER:
in terms of
, and
Correct
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (18 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Hint A.5
In the previous part, at the two ends of the motion considered, the spring had no energy,
Putting it all together
so
terms of the known quantities. To obtain an equation involving energy again,
was not part of the equation. However, you were able to find a relation for
in
, use conservation of
but this time, take the initial condition to be the moment when the spring is at its maximum compression and the final condition to be the moment when the spring returns
to
. So now
can be written in terms of
and other variables.
^{H}^{i}^{n}^{t} ^{A}^{.}^{6} 
The value of 


The value of 

is again zero. 

^{H}^{i}^{n}^{t} ^{A}^{.}^{7} 
Find 
for this part of the motion 

What is the value of 
for this part of the motion? 

Hint A.7.1 
How to approach this part 

Hint not displayed 

Express your answer in terms of end up with an equation containing
and
.

, the spring constant, so that you 

ANSWER: 
= 

Correct 

^{H}^{i}^{n}^{t} ^{A}^{.}^{8} 
Find 
for this part of the motion 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (19 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
What is the value of
for this part of the motion?
Hint A.8.1
How to approach this part
Hint not displayed
Express your answer in terms of gravity.
, and
, the acceleration due to
ANSWER:
^{=} Correct
Express
ANSWER:
in terms of
, and
Correct
Bungee Jumping 

Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. 

Kate has a mass 
, and the surface of the bridge is a height 

above the water. The 

bungee cord, which has length 
when unstretched, will first straighten and then stretch as 

Kate falls. Assume the following: 

The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant . ● 

Kate doesn't actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward. ● 

Kate's height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a point particle. ● 

Use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. 

Part A 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (20 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest? Assume that she doesn't touch the water. 

Hint A.1 Decide how to approach the problem 

Here are three possible methods for solving this problem: 

a. 
No nonconservative forces are acting, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set Kate's 

gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential energy 

in the bungee cord (which depends on the cord's final length ) and solve for 
. 

b. 
Since nonconservative forces are acting, mechanical energy is not conserved. Set 

the spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on ) equal to Kate's 

gravitational potential energy plus the work done by dissipative forces. Eliminate the 

unknown work, and solve for 
. 

c. 
When Kate comes to rest she has zero acceleration, so the net force acting on her 

must be zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which depends on 
) equal 

to the force of gravity and solve for 
. 

Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find available? given the information 

ANSWER: 

a 

b 

c 

Correct 

Hint A.2 Compute the force due to the bungee cord 

When Kate is at rest, what is the magnitude exerts on her? of the upward force the bungee cord 

Hint A.2.1 Find the extension of the bungee cord 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.2.2 Formula for the force due to a stretched cord 

Hint not displayed 

Express your answer in terms of the cord's final stretched length 
and 

quantities given in the problem introduction. Your answer should not depend on Kate's mass . 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (21 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
ANSWER: 

^{=} Correct 

Set this force equal to Kate's weight, and solve for . 

Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. 

ANSWER: 

= 

Correct 

Part B 

If Kate just touches the surface of the river on her first downward trip (i.e., before the first 

bounce), what is the spring constant ? Ignore all dissipative forces. 

Hint B.1 Decide how to approach the problem 

Here are three possible methods for solving this problem: 

a. Since nonconservative forces are ignored, mechanical energy is conserved. Set 

Kate's gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential 

energy in the bungee cord at the lowest point (which depends on 
) and solve for 
. 

b. Nonconservative forces can be ignored, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set the 

spring potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on 
) equal to Kate's 

gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge plus the work done by gravity as 

Kate falls. Compute the work done by gravity, then solve for 
. 

c. When Kate is being held just above the water she has zero acceleration, so the net 

force acting on her must be zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which 

depends on ) equal to the force of gravity and solve for 
. 

Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find available? 
given the information 

ANSWER: 

a 

b 

c 

Correct 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (22 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Express
in terms of
, and
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (23 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
ANSWER:
Correct
Circling Ball 

A ball of mass is attached to a string of length . It is being swung in a vertical circle with 

enough speed so that the string remains taut throughout the ball's motion. Assume that the ball travels freely in this vertical circle with negligible loss of total mechanical energy. At the top and bottom of the vertical circle, the 

ball's speeds are and 
, and the 

corresponding tensions in the string 

are 
and
.
and

have 

magnitudes and . 

Part A 

Find , the difference between the magnitude of the tension in the string at the 

bottom relative to that at the top of the circle. 

Hint A.1 How to approach this problem 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.2 Find the sum of forces at the bottom of the circle 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.3 Find the acceleration at the bottom of the circle 

Hint not displayed 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (24 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Hint A.4 
Find the tension at the bottom of the circle 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.5 
Find the sum of forces at the top of the circle 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.6 
Find the acceleration at the top of the circle 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.7 
Find the tension at the top of the circle 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.8 
Find the relationship between 

and 

Hint not displayed 
Express the difference in tension in terms of should not appear in your final answer.
and
. The quantities
and
ANSWER:
^{=} Correct
The method outlined in the hints is really the only practical way to do this problem. If 

done properly, finding the difference between the tensions, accomplished fairly simply and elegantly. 

, can be 
Drag on a Skydiver
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (25 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
A skydiver of mass
terminal velocity of magnitude
gravity is
jumps from a hot air balloon and falls a distance
before reaching a
. Assume that the magnitude of the acceleration due to
Part A
What is the work air?
done on the skydiver, over the distance
, by the drag force of the
Hint A.1 
How to approach the problem 
Hint not displayed 

Hint A.2 
Find the change in potential energy 
Hint not displayed 

Hint A.3 
Find the change in kinetic energy 
Hint not displayed 
Express the work in terms of acceleration due to gravity
, and the magnitude of the
ANSWER:
=
Correct
Part B
Find the power velocity
supplied by the drag force after the skydiver has reached terminal
Hint B.1 
How to approach the problem 
Hint not displayed 

Hint B.2 
Magnitude of the drag force 
Hint not displayed 

Hint B.3 
Relative direction of the drag force and velocity 
Hint not displayed 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (26 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Express the power in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. 

ANSWER: 

^{=} Correct 
Energy in a Spring Graphing Question
A toy car is held at rest against a compressed spring, as shown in the figure. When released, the car slides across the
room. Let
position of the car. Assume that friction is negligible.
be the initial
Part A
Sketch a graph of the total energy of the spring and car system. There is no scale given, so your graph should simply reflect the qualitative shape of the energy vs. time plot.
ANSWER:
View All attempts used; correct answer displayed
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (27 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Part B 

Sketch a plot of the elastic potential energy of the spring from the point at which the car is released to the equilibrium position of the spring. Make your graph consistent with the given plot of total energy (the gray line given in the graphing window). 

Hint B.1 
Determine the sign of the initial elastic potential energy 

At the instant the car is released, the spring is compressed. Therefore, is the spring's initial elastic potential energy positive, negative, or zero? 

ANSWER: 

positive 

negative 

zero 

Correct 

Hint B.2 
Determine the sign of the initial kinetic energy 

Is the initial kinetic energy of the cart positive, negative, or zero? 

ANSWER: 

positive 

negative 

zero 

Correct 

Hint B.3 
Determine the sign of the final elastic potential energy 

When the car reaches the equilibrium position of the spring, is the elastic potential energy positive, negative, or zero? 

ANSWER: 

positive 

negative 

zero 

Correct 

Hint B.4 
The shape of the elastic potential energy graph 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (28 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
The elastic potential energy of a spring with spring constant 
that is stretched or 

compressed to position is given by 

, 

where is the equilibrium position of the spring. 

ANSWER: 

Correct 

Part C 

Sketch a graph of the car's kinetic energy from the moment it is released until it passes the equilibrium position of the spring. Your graph should be consistent with the given plots of total energy (gray line in graphing window) and potential energy (gray parabola in graphing window). 

ANSWER: 

Correct 
Fun with a Spring Gun
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (29 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
A springloaded toy gun is used to shoot a ball of mass 
straight up in the air, 

as shown in the figure. The spring has spring constant compressed a distance of 25.0 centimeters from its equilibrium 
. If the spring is 

position 
and then released, 

the ball reaches a maximum height (measured from the equilibrium position of the spring). There is no air resistance, and the ball never touches the inside of the gun. Assume that all movement occurs in a straight line up and down along the y axis. 

Part A 

Which of the following statements are true? 

Hint A.1 
Nonconservative forces 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.2 
Forces acting on the ball 

Hint not displayed 

Check all that apply. 

ANSWER: 
Mechanical energy is conserved because no No conservative forces act in this problem after the 

dissipative forces perform work on the ball. 

The forces of gravity and the spring have potential 

energies associated with them. 

ball is released from the spring gun. 

Part B 
Correct 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (30 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Find 
the muzzle velocity of the ball (i.e., the velocity of the ball at the spring's 

equilibrium position ). 

Hint B.1 
Determine how to approach the problem 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.2 
Energy equations 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.3 
Determine which two locations you should examine 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.4 
Find the initial energy of the system 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.5 
Determine the final energy 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.6 
Creating an equation 

Hint not displayed 

ANSWER: 
=
4.78
Correct 


Part C 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (31 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Find the maximum height 
of the ball. 

Hint C.1 Choose two locations to examine 

Hint not displayed 

Hint C.2 Find the initial energy 

Hint not displayed 

Hint C.3 Determine the final energy 

Hint not displayed 

Hint C.4 Creating an equation 

Hint not displayed 

Express your answer numerically, in meters. 

ANSWER: 
1.17 

= 
Correct 

In this problem you practiced applying the law of conservation of mechanical energy to a physical situation to find the muzzle velocity and the maximum height reached by the ball. 

Part D 

Which of the following actions, if done independently, would increase the maximum height reached by the ball? 

Check all that apply. 

ANSWER: 

reducing the spring constant 

increasing the spring constant 

decreasing the distance the spring is compressed 

increasing the distance the spring is compressed 

decreasing the mass of the ball 

increasing the mass of the ball 

tilting the spring gun so that it is at an angle 

degrees from the horizontal 

Correct 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (32 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (33 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
As the ball ascends, does its total energy increase, decrease, or stay the same? 

ANSWER: 

increase 

decrease 

stay the same 

Correct 

The law of conservation of energy guarantees that the total energy of the ball remains constant throughout its motion. The increase in potential energy as the ball ascends is exactly balanced by the decrease in its kinetic energy. 

ANSWER: 

Correct 

Part B 

Using the graph, determine the maximum height reached by the ball. 

Hint B.1 
Maximum height 

The ball reaches its maximum height when its velocity (and therefore kinetic energy) is zero, so all of its energy is potential. This occurs at the height at which the total energy and potential energy graphs intersect. The ball does not have enough energy to rise above this point on the potential energy graph. 

Express your answer to one decimal place. 

ANSWER: 
12.8 

Correct 

The ball reaches its maximum height when its velocity (and therefore kinetic energy) is zero, so all of its energy is potential. This occurs at the height at which the total energy and potential energy graphs intersect. 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (34 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Part C 

Draw a new gravitational potential energy vs. height graph to represent the gravitational 

potential energy if the ball had a mass of 2.00 . The graph for a 1.00 
ball with an 

arbitrary initial velocity is provided again as a reference. 

Take 
as the acceleration due to gravity. 

Hint C.1 
Slope 

The gravitational potential energy is defined by 

. 

In a graph of potential energy vs. height, is the slope. 

Hint C.2 
Determine the new gravitational potential energy 

What is the gravitational potential energy for a 2.00 
ball at a height of 
? 

Take 
as the acceleration due to gravity and express your 

answer to three decimal places. 

ANSWER: 
100 

= 
Correct 

The new graph of potential energy versus height must pass through the point 

. 

ANSWER: 

Correct 

For a ball with twice the mass, you should expect the plot of potential energy vs. height to have twice the slope. 
Kinetic and Potential Energy of Baseball Graphing Question
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (35 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
A baseball is thrown directly upward at time and is caught again at time 

. Assume that air resistance is so small that it can be ignored and that the zero point of gravitational potential energy is located at the position at which the ball leaves the thrower's hand. 

Part A 

Sketch a graph of the kinetic energy of the baseball. 

Hint A.1 
Determine the sign of the initial kinetic energy 

Hint not displayed 

Hint A.2 
The shape of the kinetic energy graph 

Hint not displayed 

ANSWER: 

View All attempts used; correct answer displayed 

Part B 

Based on the graph of kinetic energy given (gray curve in the graphing window), sketch a graph of the baseball's gravitational potential energy. 

Hint B.1 
Initial gravitational potential energy 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.2 
The shape of the gravitational potential energy graph 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.3 
Using conservation of energy 

Hint not displayed 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (36 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
ANSWER: 

Correct 

Part C 

Based on the kinetic and potential energy graphs given, sketch a graph of the baseball's total energy. 

Hint C.1 
Total energy 

Hint not displayed 

ANSWER: 

Correct 
Loop the Loop
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (37 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (38 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Find the minimum initial height
to stay in contact with the track at the top of the loop.
at which the car can be released that still allows the car
Hint B.1
Meaning of "stay in contact"
For the car to just stay in contact through the loop, without falling, the normal force that
acts on the car when it's at the top of the loop must be zero (i.e., Find the velocity at the top such that the remaining force on the car i.e. its weight provides the necessary centripetal acceleration. If the velocity were any greater, you would additionally require some force from the track to provide the necessary centripetal acceleration. If the velocity were any less, the car would fall off the track. Use the above described condition to find the velocity and then the result from the above part to find the required height.
How to approach this part
).
Hint B.2 
Acceleration at the top of the loop 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.3 
Normal force at the top of the loop 

Hint not displayed 

Hint B.4 
Solving for 


Hint not displayed 
Express the minimum height in terms of
ANSWER:
^{=} Correct
For 
the car will still complete the loop, though it will require some normal 
reaction even at the very top. 

For 
the car will just oscillate. Do you see this? , the cart will lose contact with the track at some earlier point. 
For 

That is why roller coasters must have a lot of safety features. If you like, you can check that the angle at which the cart loses contact with the track is given by 

.

http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (39 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Not Quite around the Globe
A large globe, with a radius of about 5 Imagine that such a globe has a radius
, was built in Italy between 1982 and 1987. and a frictionless surface. A small block of mass
slides starts from rest at the very top of the globe and slides along the surface of the
above the
globe. The block leaves the surface of the globe when it reaches a height
ground. The geometry of the situation is shown in the figure for an arbitrary height
Part A
Consider what happens at the moment when the block leaves the surface of the globe. Which of the following statements are correct?
a. The net acceleration of the block is directed straight down.
b. The component of the force of gravity toward the center of the globe is equal to the
magnitude of the normal force.
c. The force of gravity is the only force acting on the block.
Hint A.1
How is the normal force changing?
Hint not displayed
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (40 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
ANSWER: 

a 
only 

b 
only 

c 
only 

a 
and b 

a 
and c 

b 
and c 

a 
and b and c 

Correct 

Part B 

Which of the following statements is also true at the moment when the block leaves the surface of the globe? 

ANSWER: 

The centripetal acceleration is zero. 

The normal force is zero. The kinetic energy of the block equals its potential 

The net acceleration of the block is parallel to its 

velocity. 

energy. 

Correct 

Part C 

Using Newton's 2nd law, find 
, the speed of the block at the critical moment when the 

block leaves the surface of the globe. Assume that the height at which the block leaves the surface of the globe is . 

Hint C.1 How to approach this problem 

Since the normal force goes to zero at the critical moment when the block leaves the surface of the globe, it is the radial component of the gravitational force that generates the entire centripetal acceleration at this point. Use this fact and Newton's 2nd law to relate the acceleration due to gravity and the centripetal acceleration. 

Hint C.2 Find the centripetal acceleration 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (41 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (42 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Projectile Motion and Conservation of Energy Ranking Task
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (43 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Part A 

Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case the baseball is thrown at the same 

initial speed and from the same height above the ground. Assume that the effects of air 

resistance are negligible. Rank these throws according to the speed of the baseball the instant before it hits the ground. 

Hint A.1 
How to approach the problem 

Hint not displayed 

Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. 

ANSWER: 

Correct 

This answer is best understood in terms of conservation of energy. The initial energy of the ball is independent of the direction in which it is thrown. The initial and final potential energies of the ball are the same regardless of the trajectory. Therefore, the final kinetic energy, and therefore the final speed, of the ball must be the same no matter in what direction it is thrown. 
Shooting a ball into a box
Two children are trying to shoot a marble of mass
into a small box using a springloaded
gun that is fixed on a table and shoots horizontally from the edge of the table. The edge of
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (44 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
the table is a height
top of the box (the height of which is negligibly small), and the center of
the box is a distance
edge of the table. The spring has a
spring constant
compresses the spring a distance and finds that the marble falls short of its target by a horizontal distance .
above the
from the
. The first child
Part A
By what distance,
lands in the middle of the box? (Assume that height of the box is negligible, so that there is no chance that the marble will hit the side of the box before it lands in the bottom.)
, should the second child compress the spring so that the marble
Hint A.1
For this part of the problem, you don't need to consider the first child's toss. (The
General method for finding
quantities and
, and
should not appear in your answer.) Consider the energy
conservation and kinematic relations for the marble, and solve for its range,
of
, in terms
Hint A.2 
Initial speed of the marble 

Use conservation of energy to find the initial speed, 

, of the second marble. 

Express your answer in terms of
,

, and 
.


ANSWER: 

= 


Correct 

Hint A.3 
Time for the marble to hit the ground 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (45 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
Use kinematics to find shot off the table. 
, the time it takes the second marble to hit the ground after it is 

Express your answer in terms of 

and 
.


ANSWER: 

= 


Correct 

Hint A.4 Combining equations and solving for 


The kinematic equation for the motion along the x axis is 
. Using the 

expressions for and 
from the previous hints, solve for in terms of the quantities 

,
,
,
.
, and 
Express the distance in terms of
, and
ANSWER:
=
Correct
Part B
Now imagine that the second child does not know the mass of the marble, the height of
the table above the floor, or the spring constant. Find an expression for
only on
that depends
and distance measurements.
Hint B.1
Use your answer to Part A to write
Compute
ANSWER:
= Answer not displayed
Express
in terms of
, and
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1465961 (46 of 74) [12/13/2010 7:03:11 PM]
MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View
ANSWER:
=
Correct
Shooting a Block up an Incline
A block of mass
that it compresses the spring by an amount
incline makes an angle the block and the incline is
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.