Sei sulla pagina 1di 36


The golden period of hardship but educative and thrilling phase is

now at its concluding stage and at this occasion, I feel indebted to
all whose help and co-operation in fact paved the way to achieve
this success.

To incept with, I would like to express sincere and deepest sense of

gratitude to Professor Baishali Basu , Professor Rajyasri Roy, and
Professor Smritikana Majumdar of Institute of Education for Women,
Hasting House for selecting the topic, providing information related
to this topic and their invaluable advice throughout the period of
preparation and establishment of this project work.

I would like to express my sincere gratefulness to Professor Sila

Mukherjee, principal of Institute of Education for Women, Hasting
House for providing me with necessary supports and facilities during
this work.

I render my heartfelt thanks and my obligation to all other respected

faculties and all numbers of library of the Institute of Education for
Women, Hasting House for their cooperation and useful suggestion
to complete this work.

I wish to extend my sincere thanks to all Headmaster and

Headmistress, assistant teacher, special children and normal
children(Different school are –Narmada High School, Akshay
Academy, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Ahiritola Banga Vidyalaya(Boys),
Ahiritola Banga Vidyalaya (Girls)],

I am indebted to many persons and so it would be injustice if I don’t

mention the help and encouragement received from my family
members, college mates, and other people involved directly or in
directly with preparation of this project work by providing moral
support to me.
Date: --------


I do here by declare that work recorded in the project entitled

“INCLUSIVE EDUCATION “submitted for the award of the degree

of the Master of Education (M.Ed) of Calcutta University, is the

faithful, original and bonafied project work carried out by means of

survey .The results of the survey work reported in the project have

not so far been submitted else where for any other degree or

diploma. The assistance and help received during the course of

entire project work have been duly acknowledged




This is to certify that , this project work entitled” INCLUSIVE

EDUCATION” being submitted by Amrita Datta for the partial

fulfillment of the degree of the Master of Education(M.Ed) is record

of faithful and bonafide work carried out by her under our

supervision and guidance. This work has been done in accordance

with the regulation of the Calcutta University.

Date: Signature:













Definition of Inclusion:
UNESCO, 2003 – ‘Inclusion as a developmental approach that
seeks to address the learning needs of all children, youth and adults
with a specific focus on those who are vulnerable to
• All children have
the right to
receive the kind
of education that
does not
discriminate on
grounds of
ethnicity, religion,
language, gender,
capabilities and
so on (Article 2,
Convention of the
Right of the Child,
UN 1989) and this
education is the
responsibility of
the regular school
system .
(UNESCO, 1994)
• Inclusive
education means
children and
young people with
and without
specific needs
learning together
in ordinary
• Inclusion is a
process of
addressing the
diversity of needs
of all learners.
This can be
achieved through
participation in
learning, cultures
and communities
and reducing
exclusion within
and from
education. It
involves changes
and modifications
in content,
structures and
• Inclusion means
enabling pupils to
participate in the
life and work of
institutions to the
best of their
abilities, whatever
their needs
• The philosophy of
education that
encompasses the
needs of all
children has 3
main threads: A
holistic approach
• Principle of non-
• A response to the
demands of the

• Inclusive
education is of
because children
have a part to
play in society. An
early start in
settings are the
best preparation
for an integrated

Definition of Inclusive Education:

UNESCO, 2003 (P-4): Inclusive education means that school

should accommodate all children regardless of their physical,
intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic and other condition. This
should include disable and gifted children, street and working
children. Children from remote or nomadic population, children from
linguistic, ethnic or cultural minorities and children form other
disadvantage or marginalized areas or groups.

A Brief History of Inclusion :

Today it is widely accepted that inclusion maximizes the potential of
the vast majority of students, ensures their rights, and is the
preferred educational approach for the 21st century. Unfortunately,
the philosophy has not always been widely held. Our thinking and
acceptance has evolved rapidly over the last century, and continues
to evolve, in response to federal and state law, along with our
changing social and political beliefs.

Think back. When compulsory public education began near the turn
of the century, no public school programs existed for students with
disabilities. Special classes, at first, did not exist. Later, they were
developed as a place for students who could not meet the standards
and keep pace with fellow classmates.
By the 1950s, special education public programs were available in
many school districts, but some undesirable outcomes were
becoming apparent. Many authorities in the field agreed that
segregated special classes were not an appropriate educational
setting for most students with special needs, for it was clear that
educating students with special needs in isolated settings
minimized, rather than maximized, their potential.

Simultaneously, the Civil Rights Movement was in its great surge,

and the fights for equal rights and non-discriminatory laws were
being culminated in the U.S. Supreme Court with the historic Brown
Decision. In 1954, the case of Brown vs. the Board of Education
established the principle that school segregation denies students
equal educational opportunity. Although the decision referred to
racial segregation, it began to influence our thinking about people
with disabilities. The thinking went something like this: if separate is
not equal, what about our children with special needs being denied
the right to a free and public education, or being placed in separate,
segregated, classroom

In the early 1970s, landmark civil rights legislation opened the

door for all children with special needs to receive a free and public
education, and ensured equal opportunity for students to participate
in the full range of school activities.

The 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities

Education Act (IDEA) specifically supports inclusive thinking and
practices. IDEA calls for involving students with special needs in
general education curricula, assessment practices, and classrooms.
Recognizing that traditional strategies result in a lack of learning
outcomes for students with special needs, relative to outcomes of
comparable peers without special education labels, IDEA encourages
general and special education teachers to work together for the
benefit of each and every student. The Committee Report that
accompanied the new law to Congress explains the legislators’
intent: inclusion is a philosophy of acceptance and flexibility.

On January 8, 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act was signed into
law. The legislation bolsters the philosophy that the majority of
students with special needs be moved out of segregated
classrooms, and given the appropriate strategies, accommodations,
and teaching styles to match their unique learning styles. The No
Child Left Behind Act builds on four principles for education reform:
accountability for results, doing what works based on scientific
research, expanded parent options, and expanded local control and
flexibility. No Child Left Behind has changed the landscape of
education by shifting the focus from compliance to outcome; it
requires us to measure the progress of all our students so that every
child can realize the great promise of America.


The term “Integration “ signifies the process of interaction of

disabled children and normal children in the same educational
setting of course there are two separate terms which are very often
synonymously used with “integration”. These two terms are – I.
Mainstreaming II. Normalisation.
Integration means –

 Providing special services within the regular school.

 Supporting regular teachers and administration.

 Having students with disparities follow the same schedule as

non disabled students.

 Arranging for disabled students to receive education in regular

community environments when appropriate.

 Teaching all children to understand human differences.

Inclusive Classroom Practices

As general education classrooms include more and more diverse
students, teachers realize the value of accepting each student as
unique. Special educators understand that effective general
education practices really are appropriate for students with special
needs, and general educators often turn to special educators for
additional ways to teach their increasingly diverse groups of

Some of the specific classroom practices recommended in

national reports are:

• LESS whole-class, teacher-directed instruction

• LESS student passivity

• LESS prizing and rewarding of silence in the classroom

• LESS classroom time devoted to fill-in-the-blank worksheets,

dittos, workbooks, and other “seatwork”

• LESS student time spent reading textbooks and basal readers

• LESS effort by teachers to thinly “cover” large amounts of


• LESS rote memorization of facts and details

• LESS stress on competition and grades

• LESS use of pull-out special programs

• LESS use of and reliance on standardized tests

• MORE experimental, inductive, hands-on learning

• MORE active learning

• MORE enacting and modeling the principles of democracy in


• MORE choice for students

• MORE time devoted to reading full, original, books

• MORE deep study of a smaller number of topics


Teaching and learning -Schools are accommodating diversity with a

variety of teaching strategies and different degrees of mastery.
Inclusive learning environments are reflections of the change in
teaching and learning to help all students meet high expectations.
Educators refer to a classroom or a place where teaching and
learning takes place as a learning environment. They disagree about
what type of learning environment delivers the most effective
teaching to students of differing abilities.

An inclusive learning environment is a school or classroom where

students of every ability level receive teaching in the same place.
This means that particularly able students learn alongside those who
have special educational needs, such as dyslexia, dyspraxia and
attention deficit disorder.

Teaching Methods

Teachers differentiate between students of different abilities by

giving them tasks of varying difficulty and complexity. A single
activity may pose different levels of challenge and have different
outcomes depending on the student, or a teacher may give a
different task to each student, according to his ability.

Necessary resources

Although once hailed as a way to increase achievement while

decreasing costs, full inclusion does not save money, reduce
students' needs, or improve academic outcomes; in most cases, it
merely moves the special education professionals out of their own
classrooms and into a corner of the general classroom. To avoid
harm to the academic education of students with disabilities, full
panoply of services and resources is required, including:

• Adequate supports and services for the student

• Well-designed individualized education programs
• Professional development for all teachers involved, general
and special educators alike
• Time for teachers to plan, meet, create, and evaluate the
students together
• Reduced class size based on the severity of the student needs
• Professional skill development in the areas of cooperative learning, peer tutoring,
adaptive curriculum


After independence, the Indian Constitution directed the state to ensure provision of basic
education to all children up to the age of 14 years. The education of people with disabilities was,
however, not explicit in the early constitutional provisions except for guaranteeing similar rights for
people with disabilities as other members of society.

The Education Commission of 1966 (Kothari Commission) drew attention to the education of
children with disabilities. In 1974, for the first time, the necessity of integrated education was
explicitly emphasized under the scheme for Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC).
In pursuit of the goal of providing basic education for all, the National Policy on Education (1986)
and its follow-up actions have been major landmarks. The World Declaration on Education for All
adopted in 1990 gave further boost to the various processes already set in motion in the country.

The Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992 initiated a training programme for the development
of professionals to respond to the needs of students with disabilities. The enactment of the People
with Disability Act in 1996 provided legislative support. This act makes it mandatory to provide
free education to children with disabilities in an appropriate environment until the age of 18 years.
These acts have been instrumental in bringing about a perceptive change improvement in the attitude
of government, NGOs and people with disabilities. In recent years, two major initiatives have been
launched by the government for achieving the goals of universalization of elementary education
(UEE): the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) in 1994 and the Sarva Shiksha
Abhiyan (SSA) in 2002. Programmes launched in the recent past have been able to make only a
limited impact in terms of increasing the participation of children with disabilities in formal
education. This situation needs to change; a focused effort is required. Keeping in view recent
initiatives on inclusive education, a comprehensive review is necessary to help in better understanding
the present status of education of children with disabilities, and how inclusive education can be
Disability in five-year plans
First Five-Year Plan: This witnessed the launching of a small unit by the Ministry of
Education for the visually impaired in 1947. Subsequently, a training centre for adults with
visual impairments was established.
Second Five-Year Plan: Under the Ministry of Education, a National Advisory Council for
the Physically Challenged started functioning to advise the central government on issues
concerning education, training and employment of the disabled.
Third Five-Year Plan: Attention was given to rural areas. To facilitate the training and
rehabilitation of the physically challenged, the government formulated policies around some
services: (a) planning employment exchange for the physically challenged; (b) teaching and
provision of work facilities in the home itself or neighbourhood for those who are not mobile;
(c) provision of recreation facilities for the physically challenged; (d) at least three per cent
of job reservations and job facilities made available for the physically challenged.
Fourth Five-Year Plan: More emphasis was given to preventive work for people with visual,
speech and hearing impairments. National centres for the physically challenged were
instituted to serve as demonstration projects in various parts of the country and provide
necessary training facilities.
Sixth Five-Year Plan: National policies were made around provision of community-oriented
disability prevention and rehabilitation services to promote self-reliance, economic
independence and social integration of the differently abled in the community, and
comprehensive primary health care.

International journal of special education, 2004, Volume -19,

Vianne Timmons, University of Prince Edward Island, and Dr
Mithu Alur, the National Resource Centre for Inclusion-India

The National Resource Centre for Inclusion-India was established in

1999 with an aim to serve the region by leading a movement
towards the development of a more inclusive community. It
obtained funding from the Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA) through its Canadian partner, the Roeher Institute.
The Roeher Institute is a leading policy-research and development
organization located in Toronto, Canada. Its mission is to generate
knowledge, information and skills to secure the inclusion,
citizenship, human rights and equality of people with intellectual and
other disabilities. The National Resource Centre for Inclusion-India
established four objectives, to:

• Increase the access of children to educational opportunities

irrespective of
disability, gender and/or social disadvantage

• Promote the exchange of information and ideas on sustainable

policy and practices.

• develop a cadre of resources (human and technological) to

Sustainable model for the universalization of primary

• Foster community attitudes, professional practices and

legislative measures
Of inclusive education and a social model of disability.

International journal of special education,2010, Volume -25,

No -3, Lisa
Kilanowski-Press, Chandra J. Foote, Vince J. Rinaldo, Niagara

This study investigates the current state of inclusion practices in

general education classrooms via survey of 71 inclusion teachers
currently serving as special educators across the state of New York.
Specifically, small group instruction, co-teaching, one-to-one
instruction, and planning support are explored in relationship to
class size, number of students with disabilities, and severity of
disability. The qualifications, strengths, and professional
development experiences of inclusion teachers based on their
reported years of teaching experience, preparatory course work,
and professional development opportunities are examined. Finally,
information on common forms of assistance including consultant
special education teachers, teacher assistants, and classroom
volunteers are documented. Quantitative analysis of survey
responses indicate great variability among the inclusion practices
employed in general education classrooms. Co-teaching, though
frequently cited as the most beneficial model of inclusive practice,
emerged as the least documented method of instruction, with the
utilization of consultant teacher models emerging as the most
Endorsement of the use volunteer support was found to be the
second most common support mechanism employed within inclusive
classrooms. Few differences in the types of supports employed were
found across population densities. Findings highlight the
heterogeneity of current inclusion practices, and bear implications in
terms of future research examining the qualifications of support
staff assisting students with special needs, such as volunteers, and
the overall efficacy of inclusion practices.

International Journal of Inclusive Education, Vol. 14, No. 1,

February 2010, 1–15, The Education for All and inclusive
education debate: conflict, contradiction or opportunity?
Susie Miles and Nidhi Singal, School of Education, University
of Manchester, Manchester, UK

The primary aim of this paper is to explore the two interrelated, yet
often parallel, international agendas of Education for All (EFA) and
inclusive education. We highlight the tendency of EFA programmed
to overlook some marginalized groups of children, in particular those
seen as having ‘special educational needs’ or disabilities. Although
much of the rhetoric of inclusive education is about ‘overcoming
barriers to learning and development’ for all children (Booth and
Ainscow 2002) and therefore in tune with EFA, some disability-
focused international organizations have chosen to champion the
rights of particular groups of disabled children rather than to engage
with the need to improve teaching and learning environments for all
children. Increasingly, though, efforts are being made by
international organizations to bridge the gap which has existed
between their general focus on development and the work of
specialist agencies.

Research on Inclusive Educational Programs, Practices, and

Outcomes for Students with Severe Disabilities, PUM HUNT

Nineteen research investigations of inclusive educational programs,
practices, and outcomes for students with severe disabilities are
reviewed. The studies represent a broad diversity of questions,
methodologies, and participants. The focus of each investigation fell
into one of five categories: (a) parents' perceptions of the pursuit
and impact of inclusive educational placement, (b) issues and
practices in inclusive schools and classrooms, (c) the cost of
inclusive educational placement, (d) educational achievement
outcomes for students in inclusive classrooms, and (e) social
relationships and friendships in inclusive settings. Six broad themes
that emerged through triangulation across studies offer guidelines
for research and practice in inclusive schools in the coming decade.

On Track Toward Inclusive Education, Michelle Aniftos,

University of Southern Queensland and Linda McLuskie,
Central Queensland University, Australia

Research findings from across the globe indicate that schools and
teachers are
Struggling to respond to the wide array of students (Wills & Cain,
2002). Proponents of inclusivity argue that inclusive education is a
better education for all participants in schooling and that
“differences can be a resource for community development” (Frank,
1999). At the school level, inclusive education seeks to address the
learning needs of all with “a specific focus on those who are
vulnerable to marginalisation and exclusion” (UNESCO, 1994).
UNESCO promotes inclusive school communities as the most
effective way of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating
welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving
education for all. While teacher education programs engage
participants in knowledge construction and for classroom teaching
and learning, it is essential that teacher training institutions provide
relevant opportunities for preservice teachers to develop personal
philosophies that promote classroom environments that are
supportive of participation and achievement for all learners.
Although much has been written about integration, the construct of
inclusive curriculum in Australia is still an emergent topic in need of
much research and discourse. The current paper represents the
collaborative thoughts of lecturers in two Queensland universities as
they prepare to re -examine their inclusive education courses. Such
shared dialogue may serve to engage others in the critical reflection
that is needed to progress educators on the track toward the
philosophical and practical ideals of a socially just education. This
discussion paper commences with a consideration of legislative and
policy mandates for inclusion in the context of teacher education in
Queensland, Australia.

Secondly, the paper attempt s to reconcile the broad and

somewhat disparate
Interpretations of inclusively and diversity in the context of
schooling. Finally, we shift the focus from inclusive education as a
product to inclusive education as processes of attitudinal change
and development of collaborative learning communities. With a
focus on learner-centeredness, Queensland schools are leading
innovative improvement processes toward inclusion. Critically
informed teachers are central to those processes.


ANALYSIS, Mitja Sardoc, Educational Research Institute,
Ljubljana, SLOVENIA

Over the last decade increasing efforts in most OECD countries and
many other Contemporary liberal democracies have been made to
provide special support for the inclusion of children with special
educational needs in mainstream society and its educational
institutions. This increasing preference for providing special support
for children with special education needs to gain access and
participate, on increasingly equal terms, in mainstream education
rather than creating separate structures and institutions can be
seen as providing equal educational opportunities also for this
population of children. The principle of equal educational
opportunities regardless of different physical and mental abilities is
among the most important principles of inclusive education and
education in general. The establishing of an inclusive educational
system thus necessitates additional efforts by educational
institutions to provide equal capabilities to pupils with special
education needs (SEN).The paper will examine in detail the main
theories, policies and concepts of inclusive education and critically
evaluate the various question in public education Policy related to
inclusive education.

The second part of the paper will present a comparative analysis of

several policy documents in the area of inclusive education in UK,
USA, and South Africa, e.g. the Special Education Needs and
Disability Act (Department of Education and Skills (DFES, UK)); the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (The
U.S.Department of Education)); and the Education White Paper 6:
Special Needs Education—Building an Inclusive Education and
Training System (Department of Education, South Africa). Particular
attention will be payed to the OECD study equality and Social
Inclusion on education of children with special education needs.


Tamana is a non-profit voluntary organization registered in

March 1984, created solely with the purpose of helping the cause of mentally
challenged, multiply disabled and autistic. Tamana is recognized by Ministry of
Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India, Department of Social Welfare;
Govt. of NCT Delhi and is registered with the National Trust.

Tamana offers an Individual Educational Program for every student, aimed at social
and economic independence, which incorporates special education, regular
academic program through the NIOS, therapeutic interventions and vocational
training. Each Centre of Tamana offers -speech, occupational and physiotherapy, life
skills training, computer education, music and dance, weight management and
physical fitness, sports and extracurricular activities, counseling, behaviour
modification, diagnostics and assessment facilities, family counseling.

Unique Facility : Tamana is a bridge for integrating high functioning special needs
students in mainstream schools. Remedial classes for slow learners and dyslexics
attending regular schools and school dropouts are conducted in the afternoon.

Tamana literally means a longing, an aspiration. The organisation could not have
been more aptly named, for at its heart lies an earnest longing, a lifelong aspiration
to see such children on their feet as happy, useful, integrated members of the

Tamana was born out of the living faith and optimism of Shyama Chona, mother of
Tamana Chona, who was born with cerebral palsy. To begin with, this child was
saddled with problems. But slowly, bit by bit, with the help and guidance of her
mother, she started to cross the innumerable hurdles that hindered her progress. At
times. her progress was nothing short of miraculous. This inspired her mother to
extend the same kind of help and guidance to other handicapped children. And thus,
the Tamana -the charitable society- was born.

The journey for Tamana the organization and Tamana herself has been arduous.
Nonetheless both are success stories today. Tamana Chona has fought all odds and
is a teacher in the Infant branch of Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram. Tamana the
organisation which started with 4 students, today has hundreds of students between
ages of 4 years -30 years enrolled in its three Delhi branches- Autism Centre -School
of Hope, Tamana Special School and Nai Disha.

The organisation has now acquired the reputation and goodwill of being a dedicated
NGO providing selfless service to the society in its own way. Tamana has now
developed matchless expertise in handling special kids and developing them into
normal, independent, confident citizens, capable of serving the society and the
nation in almost the same way other citizens do. Tamana’s contribution in the field of
disability was recognized by the United Nations that granted it Special Consultative
Status with the Economic and Social Council. The organization received the National
Award for Child welfare in 2006 by the Department of Women and Child
Development, Govt. of India.

The Chennai wing of the International NGO, Aide et

Action has launched a new educational programme
aimed at the children of Telugu migrant workers.

Lakshmi Krupa pays them a visit…

Aide et Action, a Genevabased NGO with "Changing the world through education"
as its motto is taking education and holistic development to children belonging to
underprivileged sections of the society across the world. At the Chennai branch of
the NGO, the focus is on children of Telugu migrant workers. "A lot of construction
workers migrate into Tamil Nadu from Andhra Pradesh and Orissa," says K
Sivagami, Regional Manager, Aide et Action, Chennai, "And when they come, their
children travel along with them, and lose out on education." The NGO has identified
children of these migrant workers and is providing them education. "We send our
trainers to these pockets where construction workers live, and assess each child's
level (while some children may have discontinued their education, others may
have never received formal education) and train them accordingly," she adds.

"The materials for these courses are from the Sarva Siksha Abhyan (SSA)
programme in Telugu," adds M Bosgo - Manager Arumbu Project & Telugu Migrants.
"When these workers go back to their villages, the children can continue their
education there," he adds. The NGO is currently working out a system to track the
migrant workers as they shift from one settlement to another in search of work. "The
aim of the programme is to give the children functional literacy," adds Khaleel ul
Rehman, Officer, Capacity Building. "We also link these children up with the local
Primary Health Care Centres so they have access to vaccinations and other basic
facilities," he adds.

The NGO also runs another Livelihood Training Programme called iLead, where
school dropouts are trained in various fields including, hospitality, electrician and
beautician courses, etc. Another significant programme that that the NGO runs
successfully is the Police Boys Club and Police Girls Club through which they have
brought together young boys and girls from slums across the city to carry out various
capacitybuilding activities. These clubs act as centres for holistic development, soft
skills and the students are part of the national level police band and participate in
sports competitions too.


The obstacles to a good education faced by millions of children in South Asia are daunting
enough. For the 10% of the region’s young people who are estimated to have some kind of
disability, the barriers are compounded. The UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia has looked at
examples in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka of how such children are given
schooling, and whether this is the type of education they have the right to expect. The result is a
very mixed bag indeed.
Overall it is clear that large numbers of children who struggle daily with additional hardships are
not getting the chance to improve their lives through education. This means, of course, they are
caught in a spiral of low expectation, low esteem and low income.
The minority of children with disability that do get places are often not sitting in the same
classroom as other boys and girls because of a sense that they need to be separated and treated
differently. Globally it is estimated that 70% of children with disabilities, including those with mild
mental retardation, can attend regular schools provided the environment is designed to be
accessible and the institution is willing to accommodate them.
UNICEF believes that the goal should be to enable all children to have full participation in the
development of their community. Meeting this goal of inclusion requires all structures and
community-based services to be accessible to all members of the community without discrimination.
By producing a snapshot on the activities happening in five South Asian countries UNICEF Regional
Office hopes to fill in an information gap on children with disabilities while examining misconceptions,
prejudices and discriminatory practices. The documents on each of the five countries examine
initiatives being undertaken by governments, NGOs, INGOs, and UN agencies. Crucially they
highlight good practices that have proved effective in addressing concerns and constraints.
It is hoped these documents will be a starting point for policies and practices that get many more
children with disabilities into school. As we all work to fulfill the Millennium Development Goal of
‘Education for All’ I would urge that the exclusion of the challenged child be specifically addressed
with initiatives aimed at ending prejudice and isolation. UNICEF ROSA will work with experts to
pull together the ideas captured in the five documents with the hope that this process will facilitate
momentum toward the full inclusion of every child in all that their community has to offer.
Dr Sadig

Seva-in-Action, a voluntary organisation in India has made an attempt to understand the

needs of people in rural areas and its relation to the community strengths in developing an
appropriate Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) and Inclusive Education (IE) models.
Seva-in-Action has developed a cost-effective, socio-culturally appropriate, comprehensive,
sustainable and holistic Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) programme and Inclusive
Schools aiming at total rehabilitation of all children and persons with disabilities in rural
areas of Kamataka, South India (Nanjurdaiah, 2000).

News » Cities » Chennai

CHENNAI, July 28, 2010
Mainstreaming children with special needs

The Hindu; An awareness drive organised by the SSA and the Spastic Society of Tamil Nadu
on 'Inclusive Education for the Differently Abled' in Chennai on Tuesday. Photo: V. Ganesan

Type of Sampling:
The type of sampling followed in this project is ‘Purposive
Sampling’ or ‘Convenience Sampling’. ‘Purposive Sampling’ a kind of non-
probability sampling, is one which is based on the typicality of the cases to be
included in the sample. It is also known as ‘Judgemental Sample’ because the
investigator on the basis of his impression makes a judgement regarding the
concerned cases, which are thought to be typical of the population.
The populations of the study constitute the mentally and physically
challenged children as well as the administrative members, teachers, normal
students,and the parents of both normal and challenged students in 5 schools of
Kolkata. There are 5 schools in the area made up of primary, government aided
and I.C.S.E board which were selected to serve as representative of the whole

Number of student (special children): 8
Number of Principal: 5
Number of assistant teacher: 10
Number of Normal children: 10
Number of Parents of special children: 4
Number of parents of normal children: 5

For the convenience of data collection, the researcher has chosen five Kolkata
based schools which have been selected randomly.
Below are the names of schools sampled from the area of study:
Name and address of the Institutions/Schools:
1. Akshay Academy(primary school)
2. Narmada High School
3. Kendriya Vidyalaya
4. Ahiritola Banga Vidyalaya (Boys)
5. Ahiritola Banga Vidyalaya (Girls)

A self-constructed set of questionnaire has been made by the surveyer. Each
and every item of every set is closely related to the objective of the study. The
questionnaire is close- ended in nature and based upon 2- point scale where the
options YES and NO. Each set of questionnaire also consists of qualitative
questions. It can be also termed as “Face-to-Face Administered Questionnaire”
as the selected samples are given the questionnaire with the instruction to
complete them in the presence of the researcher. The project worker tries to
maintain simplicity in language to communicate effectively with the
respondents; she carefully avoids any ambiguous item, vague word,
embarrassing question or leading and presuming question. The questions are
ordered according to the categories selected by the surveyer.


The questionnaire were in six sets -for the principal or administrative
member, teachers, for the challenged students, normal students, and for the
parents of both challenged and normal students.

 Questionnaire for Headmaster and Headmistress

 Questionnaire for assistant teacher
 Questionnaire for special children
 Questionnaire for parent’s of special children
 Questionnaire for normal children
 Questionnaire for parent’s normal children


Physically and mentally handicapped children fall short of

communicating with their environment and the society as a whole.
these kinds of students need to be admitted in general schools
rather than special schools, so that their aesthetic abilities get a
proper boost up which will magnify their all round development of


 To improve and increase the process of participation of

students in regular classes.

 To reduce the exclusion of these students from the culture,

curricula and community of local schools.
 To restructure the culture, policies and practices in schools
to responded the diversity of students.

 To foster learning and participation of all students.

 To provide the right to education to all children.

 To foster mutually, sustaining relationship between the

school and community.

 To put forward the human rights issue.

 To enable disabled and non disabled children and normal

children learn together in regular school.

 To enable pupils participate in life and work in mainstream

institutions to the best of their abilities.

 To enable educational structure, system and methodologies

to meet the needs of all children.

 To promote a dynamic process of inclusive society.


For the purpose of the project for reviewing how much inclusive
education is practiced in the Private and Government schools of
West Bengal, the project worker, went to five different schools
during the month of October to December. With the given
questionnaire, sub categorised into six sections, the surveyer went
to 1 primary school, 3 Government aided schools and 1 ICSE school
and surveyed the concerned schools. With the available information
from these schools, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the
data have been made. The researcher has tried to judge the
problem areas and a brief interview with the teacher, students and
parents gave her a more clear vision regarding the various aspects
of problem with inclusive education in our society. All the schools
have cooperated to their utmost with the researcher and helped her
to understand how they handle the special children and she is
thankful for their sincere co- operation.



 Though the administrative members are aware of the

regulations regarding the Inclusive Education, the schools do
not have sufficient infrastructural facilities for the special

 Due to the lack of the infrastructural facilities, though the

school authorities want to enable the teachers with special
training, it is not always possible.

 Regular meetings and workshops should be arranged between

teachers, subject teachers and the parents of the special
children so that both the parties can realize the problem of the
special child and find ways of solving those problems.

 In classroom learning environment the teachers help the

special child by revising the lesson more frequently and by
giving them more attention.

 Extra classes or special tutorials are needed to be arranged so

that the challenged students who lag behind in their studies
can easily cope up with their class mates

 Improvements in the areas of special facilities that are

provided for the special children like more free books are
 Special educators are not always available for the challenged
children in the general schools which bring down the teaching
standard of the special children.

 The counseling sessions that are held for the development of

the students are inappropriate to satisfy their needs and the
needs of the society as a whole.

 The guardians or parents of the challenged children are more

inclined towards admitting their wards in general schools
rather than that special school.


 The drive for inclusion has been partly based on a human rights
approach, which defends the right of all children to be full
members of their communities – seen as children first and not
segregated on the basis of disability, and partly on the belief that
children will make better social, psychological and educational
progress if educated with typically developing peers. All pioneers
for change have a vision of what will be achieved but if we want
to ensure that the benefits are being achieved then we need to
be evaluating outcomes and identifying the factors which enable
parents, schools and teachers to develop successful inclusion.

 The school authorities should take proper care while formulating

their lesson plans. Keeping in mind how to make the problem
easier and understanding to such children. For this purpose
teacher should take special care of learning disabled children.
Their examination processes must be flexible and simple to
understanding the problem in proper way.

 The teacher should take them to libraries and encourage them to

select and check out books of interest. Have them share their
books with you. Provide stimulating books and reading material
around the house.

 The teacher and parents should help them to develop self-esteem

and to compete with self rather than with others.
 It insists that they cooperate socially by playing, helping, and
serving others in the family and the community.

 The attitude that ‘inclusive education is not an alternative but an inevitability, if the
dream of providing basic education to all children is to ever become a reality’ needs to be
cultivated among all concerned professionals, grassroots workers, teachers and
community members, especially in rural and remote areas.

 Links and bridges need to be built between special schools and inclusive education
practices. Linkages also need to be established between community-based rehabilitation
programmes and inclusive education.

 The existing dual ministry responsibilities should be changed. Education of children with
disabilities should be the responsibility of the Department of Education. The Ministry of
Welfare should confine itself to support activities only.
 Inclusion without ‘adequate’ preparation of general schools will not yield satisfactory
results. It is essential that issues related to infrastructural facilities, curriculum
modification and educational materials should be addressed.
 Regular evaluation should be based on performance indicators specified in the
implementation programme, and accountability for effective implementation at all levels
should be ensured.
 There should be emphasis on bottom-up, school-based interventions as part of regular
education programmes following inclusive strategies. The programme should be
based on stakeholder participation, community mobilization, and mobilization of NGO,
private and government resources.
 The training of general teachers at pre-service and in-service levels should address the
issue of education of children with disabilities, so that teachers are better equipped to
work in an inclusive environment. Some of the issues in training that need to be
addressed like
 methodology to be adopted for identifying children with disabilities;
 classroom management;
 use of appropriate teaching methodologies;
 skills for adapting the curriculum;
 development of teaching–learning materials that are multi-sensory in nature;
evaluation of learning.
The time has come to scale up successful experiments on teacher training such as the
Multi-site Action Research Project and the Indian adaptation of the UNESCO Teacher
Education Resource Pack, since these experiences are lying dormant.

 In order to strengthen inclusive practices, networking between existing practitioners

(i.e., IEDC, DPEP, SSA, etc.) would be useful. Simultaneous implementation, and
consistent monitoring, reinforcement and coordination between government
departments and NGOs at national and state levels will promote inclusive practices.


There are some limitations which have been faced which doing the project and they are
enumerated as follows:
1. Limitation of sample.

a. For the convenience of data collection, only five institutions has been chosen
which may have limited the scope of the study.
b. The sample size in this study is much less as compared to the population, so
the scope of inference drawn from the sample about the population may be

2. Limitation of tools.

a. It is a fixed-response questionnaire, so the student has not been provided with

all relevant response alternatives; hence the resulting information may be
misleading for the surveyor.
b. As it is a close-ended questionnaire, so it may have encouraged the
respondent to adopt some kind of response set or bias.
3. Limitation of the process of data collection.

a. As the survey is done through face-to-face mode, the presence of surveyor

may have increased the student’s consciousness level that may adversely
affect the validity of the information thus collected.

Inclusion is a holistic vision. Inclusive education must respond
to all pupils as individuals, recognizing individuality as
something to be appreciated and respected. Inclusive
education responding to special needs will thus have positive
returns for all pupils. All children and young people of the
world, with their individual strengths and weaknesses, with
their hopes and expectations, have the right to education. It is
not our education systems that have a right to a certain type of
children. Therefore, it is the school system of a country that
must be adjusted to meet the needs of all its children.