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 useful formulas name formul a Eul er’ s formul a e j θ = cos(θ ) + j si n(θ )

.

.

for

for

cosi ne

si ne

si nc function

cos( θ ) =

e j θ + e j θ

2

s in(θ ) =

e j θ e j θ

2 j

s inc(θ ) : = si n(π π θ θ )

formulas for cont inuous- tim e LTI sign als an d systems

 name formul a area under i m pul se Z δ (t ) dt = 1 mul ti pl i cati on by i m puls e f (t ) δ (t ) = f (0) δ (t )

. by shi fted i m pul se

convol uti on

f (t ) δ (t t o ) = f (t o ) δ (t t o )

f (t ) g (t ) = Z f (τ ) g (t τ ) d τ

 . . . w i th an i m pul se f (t ) ∗ δ (t ) = f (t ) . w i th a shi fted i m pulse f (t ) ∗ δ (t − t o ) = f (t − t o )
 transfer functi on H (s) = Z h (t ) e −st dt freq uency resp onse H f (ω ) = Z h (t ) e −j ω t dt . thei r connection H f (ω ) = H (j ω ) prov ide d j ω -ax is ⊂ ROC

select ed La place tr ansform pa ir s

 x(t ) X (s) RO C x(t ) Z x(t ) e − st dt (def. ) δ (t ) 1 al l s u (t ) 1 s R e(s) > 0 1 e −a t u (t ) R e(s) > − a s + a s cos(ω o t ) u (t ) s 2 + ω 2 o R e(s) > 0 si n(ω o t ) u (t ) ω o R e(s) > 0 s 2 + ω 2 o −a t cos(ω o t ) u (t ) s + a R e(s) > − a e (s + a ) 2 + ω 2 o e −a t si n(ω o t ) u (t ) ω o R e(s) > − a (s + a ) 2 + ω 2 o

Note: a i s as sum ed real .

Laplace tran sform prop erties

 x(t ) X (s) a x(t ) + b g (t ) a X (s) + b G(s) x(t ) ∗ g (t ) X (s) G(s) dx(t ) dt s X (s) x(t − t o ) e − s t o X (s)

select ed Fou rier tra nsform pa irs

 x(t ) X f (ω ) x(t ) Z x(t ) e −j ω t dt (def. ) 1 Z X f (ω ) e j ω t d ω X f (ω ) 2π
 δ (t ) 1 1 2 π δ (ω ) u (t ) π δ (ω ) +

1

j ω

 e j ω o t 2 π δ (ω − ω o ) cos(ω o t ) π δ (ω + ω o ) + π δ (ω − ω o ) si n(ω o t ) j π δ (ω + ω o ) − j π δ (ω − ω o ) ω o si nc “ ω o π t ” i deal LPF π cut-o ﬀ freq uency ω o sy mm etri c pul s e ω 2 si n „ T ω « 2 wi dth T , hei ght 1 i m pul se trai n i m puls e trai n

p erio d T , hei ght 1

p e ri o d, height ω o = 2π

T

Fourier tran sform p rop erties

 x(t ) X f (ω ) a x(t ) + b g (t ) a X f (ω ) + b G f (ω ) x(a t) a | a | X “ ω 1 ”

x(t ) g (t )

x(t ) g (t )

x(t t o )

x(t ) e j ω o t

x(t ) cos( ω o t )

x(t ) s i n(ω o t )

dx(t )

dt

X f (ω ) G f (ω )

1

2π X f (ω ) G f (ω )

e j t o ω X (ω )

X (ω ω o )

0 . 5 X (ω + ω o ) + 0. 5 X (ω ω o )

j 0. 5 X (ω + ω o ) j 0. 5 X (ω ω o )

j ω X f (ω )