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useful formulas

name

formul a

Eul er’ s formul a

e j θ = cos(θ ) + j si n(θ )

.

.

for

for

cosi ne

si ne

si nc function

cos( θ ) =

e j θ + e j θ

2

s in(θ ) =

e j θ e j θ

2 j

s inc(θ ) : = si n(π π θ θ )

formulas for cont inuous- tim e LTI sign als an d systems

name

formul a

area under i m pul se

Z δ (t ) dt = 1

mul ti pl i cati on by i m puls e

f (t ) δ (t ) = f (0) δ (t )

. by shi fted i m pul se

convol uti on

f (t ) δ (t t o ) = f (t o ) δ (t t o )

f (t ) g (t ) = Z f (τ ) g (t τ ) d τ

.

.

.

w i th

an i m pul se

f (t )

δ (t ) = f (t )

.

w i th

a shi fted i m pulse

f (t ) δ (t t o ) = f (t t o )

transfer functi on

H (s) = Z h (t ) e st dt

freq uency resp onse

H f

(ω ) =

Z h (t ) e j ω t dt

.

thei r connection

H f

(ω ) = H (j ω ) prov ide d j ω -ax is ROC

select ed La place tr ansform pa ir s

x(t )

X (s)

 

RO C

 

x(t

)

Z x(t ) e st dt

(def. )

δ (t

)

1

al l s

u

(t )

1 s

R e(s) > 0

 

1

e

a t u (t )

 

R e(s) > a

s + a

 
 

s

cos(ω o t ) u (t )

s 2 + ω

2

o

 

R e(s) > 0

 

si n(ω o t ) u (t )

 

ω

o

R e(s) > 0

s 2 + ω

2

o

 
   
 

a t cos(ω o t ) u (t )

 

s + a

 

R e(s) > a

e

(s

+ a ) 2 + ω

2

 

o

e

a t si n(ω o t ) u (t )

 

ω

o

R e(s) > a

(s

+ a ) 2 + ω

2

 

o

Note: a i s as sum ed real .

Laplace tran sform prop erties

x(t )

X (s)

a

x(t ) + b g (t )

a X (s) + b G(s)

x(t ) g (t )

X (s) G(s)

dx(t )

 

dt

s

X (s)

x(t t o )

e s t o X (s)

select ed Fou rier tra nsform pa irs

x(t )

X f (ω )

 

x(t )

Z x(t ) e j ω t dt

(def. )

1

Z X f

(ω

)

e j ω t d ω

X f

(ω

)

2π

 

δ (t

)

1

1

2

π

δ (ω )

u (t )

π δ (ω ) +

1

j ω

e j ω o t

 

2 π δ (ω ω o )

cos(ω o t )

π δ (ω + ω o ) + π δ (ω ω o )

si n(ω o t )

j π δ (ω + ω o ) j π δ (ω ω o )

ω o

si nc ω o

π

t

i deal LPF

π

 

cut-o freq uency ω o

sy mm etri c pul s e

ω 2 si n T ω «

2

 

wi dth T , hei ght 1

i m pul se trai n

 

i m puls e trai n

p erio d T , hei ght 1

p e ri o d, height ω o = 2π

T

Fourier tran sform p rop erties

x(t )

X f (ω )

a x(t ) + b g (t )

a X f (ω ) + b G f (ω )

x(a t)

a

| a | X ω

1

x(t ) g (t )

x(t ) g (t )

x(t t o )

x(t ) e j ω o t

x(t ) cos( ω o t )

x(t ) s i n(ω o t )

dx(t )

dt

X f (ω ) G f (ω )

1

2π X f (ω ) G f (ω )

e j t o ω X (ω )

X (ω ω o )

0 . 5 X (ω + ω o ) + 0. 5 X (ω ω o )

j 0. 5 X (ω + ω o ) j 0. 5 X (ω ω o )

j ω X f (ω )