Sei sulla pagina 1di 31

L4 - X’MAS TREES

• X’MAS TREES
- DUAL BORE TREES
- HORIZONTAL (SPOOL) TREES
- VALVES & ACTUATORS
- DEEPWATER TREES
- ALL ELECTRIC TREE
- DRILL THRU SPOOL TREE
18 ¾” HP wellhead housing

Wellhead to casing hanger


Metal Seal assembly
Bypass Area 7” casing hanger – For Glenelg the
tubing hanger is at this elevation
and replaces the 7” casing hanger
Wellhead to casing hanger
Metal Seal assembly 10 3/4” casing hanger

Passive Pre-loaded 13 3/8” casing hanger


lockdown system
Wellhead to casing hanger
Metal Seal assembly

High strength load shoulder

H-4 Vetco
Profile
10 3/4” casing

13 3/8” casing TYPICAL


20” casing SUBSEA
30” conductor WELLHEAD
A Annulus Cameron
B Annulus Profile
C Annulus
SUBSEA X’MAS TREE FUNCTIONS
• Basically a stack of valves installed on a subsea wellhead to provide a controllable interface
between the well and the production facilities.

• Specific functions of a subsea Christmas tree :

– Sealing the wellhead from the environment by means of the tree connector

– Sealing the production bore and annulus from the environment

– Providing a controlled flow path from the production tubing, through the tree to the
production flow line. Well flow control by means of tree valves and/or a tree-mounted
choke valve.

– Providing access to the well bore via tree caps and/or swab valves.

– Providing access to the annulus for well control, pressure monitoring, gas lift, etc.

– Providing a hydraulic interface for the down hole safety valve.

– Providing an electrical interface for down hole instrumentation, electric submersible


pumps etc.

– Providing structural support for flow line and control umbilical interface.
Conventional Dual Bore Tree Horizontal / Spool Tree

VALVES -
PRODUCTION
• Master Control
Valve
• Wing Valve
• Swab Valve or
Plug
VALVES –
ANNULUS
• Control 5 1/2, 7”
or 9 5/8
Tubing
* Wing Valve
• Swab Valve
CROSSOVER
5 1/2 Tubing
VALVE
2” Tubing

TREE VALVES
FAIL SAFE HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR

Gate Valve Slide Bore with Gate in open


position
Valve stem moved by hydraulic
fluid

Actuator Spring compressed

If hydraulic pressure is lost to the actuator (by design, activated by the


control system OR if in an emergency the umbilical is cut) then the spring
returns the valve to a safe closed position
Dual Bore X’Tree
• Designed to allow vertical access to the main production bore and to
the annulus bore during installation and workover operations.

• When a dual bore subsea Christmas tree is connected to a subsea


wellhead it must interface with the tubing hanger previously
installed in the wellhead. The tubing hanger and tree must be
correctly orientated so that the production and annulus bores are
properly aligned and sealed.

• Accomplished by interaction of a pin and helix between the tubing


hanger running tool and the BOP
DUAL BORE TREE

SUBSEA X’MAS TREE MANUFACTURERS


• COOPER CAMERON
• FMC KONGSBERG
• VETCO GREY
• KVAERNER NATIONAL
• DRILQUIP
X’MAS TREE SCHEMATIC WITH CONTROL SYSTEM

Note all control functions pass through


the Tree Cap. With Tree Cap removed
the control functions can be taken over
by a drilling rig.
DUAL BORE X’MAS TREES

OSENBERG Tree DRIL QUIP Showing Protection frame


Horizontal X’Trees
• “Side valve tree” or SpoolTree™.

• Most obvious distinction from the dual bore tree: the production
and annulus bores branch horizontally out of the side of the tree
body /valves on a horizontal axis.

• No production or annulus swab valves. Access to the well bore


by removing the internal tree cap, or a wireline plug within the
internal tree cap.

• Other distinguishing features of the horizontal tree:

1. the tubing hanger is installed in the tree itself, rather than in the
wellhead and
2. the top of the tree is designed so the BOP may be landed onto the
tree. This arrangement allows the tubing string to be recovered
without first retrieving the tree.
HORIZONTAL TREE
5.5” TUBING WITH 4” PRODUCTION
CHOKE & 2” GAS LIFT CHOKE

KEY
PWV = PRODUCTION WING VALVE
XOV = CROSSOVER VALV
PMV = PRODUCTION MASTER VALVE
AAV = ANNULUS ACCESS VALVE
AMV = ANNULUS MASTER VALVE
AWV = ANNULUS WING VALVE
SCSSV = DOWNHOLE SUBSURFACE SAFETY
VALVE
DHPTT = DOENHOLE P & T TRANSDUCERS
CAMERON HORIZONTAL - SPOOL TREE
TREE PROTECTION
INSTALLATION USING GULDE WIRES

Tree being run on Guide wires from Drilling Rig


with Running Tool
DEEPWATER
GUIDELINELESS TREE
CAMERON ALL ELECTRIC TREE

1. ELECTRICALLY
ACTUATED
PRODUCTION GATE
VALVE
2. ELECTRICALLY
ACTUATED ANNULUS
GATE VALVE
3. ELECTRICALLY
OPERATED CHOKE
4. ELECTRICALLY
ACTUATED CHEMICAL
INJECTION VALVE
5. ELECTRIC SUBSEA
CONTROL MODULE
6. POWER REGULATION
AND COMMUNICATIONS
MODULE
RUNNING WELLHEAD AND CEMENTING CASING

Wellhead locked into housing


INSTALLING THE X’MAS TREE

Tree run in drill string using running tool


INSTALLING THE X’MAS TREE

Funnel down capture of tree on wellhead


RUNNING BOP AND TESTING
RUNNING BOP AND TESTING
RUNNING BOP AND TESTING
INSTALLING THE CASING

Drill bit passing through BOP


INSTALLING THE CASING

Drill bit enters top of tree – see tree bore protected by liner
INSTALLING THE CASING

Drill to required depth and retrieve drill