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SLIDE  In mass communication research, Hall’s specific

Cultural studies contribution has been to link ideologically coded cultural

Understanding Media Cultures forms to the decoding strategies.
Social Theory and Mass Communication
By Nick Stevenson Cultural Communication
Cultural Communication
By Gerry Philipsen, dalam
 British Marxist perspectives still have much to contribute
Handbook of international and intercultural communication
to our understanding of media cultures
William B. Gudykunst
 Raymond William made considerable attempts to learn Bella Mody
from democratic liberalism by asking what a system of
free communication might look like. P.9
 Cc, as a named field of study, was proposed by
 Through a debate with post structuralism, Stuart Hall Philipsen in an essay titled “The Prospect for Cultural
sought to explain symbolic modes of domination that are Communication”, which was articulated in 1981 but not
not rooted in social class published until 1987. p52
 Glasgow University Media Group offers empirical  There were in the communication studies discipline
examples of bias towards class perspectives in news several important lines of research and pedagogy that
production.p.9 treated communication from a cultural standpoint.
 Two central themes through contemporary debates  “the etnography of communication” was a call for and
within British Marxism on the theme of mass realization of a program of descriptive comparative study
communication : the patterns of ownership and control of cultural ways of speaking (see Hymes, 1962 ;
evident within the cultural industries and their role in the Philipsen, 1975 ; Murray, 1993)
formation of cultural content and subjectivity.
 Intercultural Communication” emphasized the study of
 The question of political economy remains crucial to misunderstandings between who use different cultures
critical attempts to develop a theory of mass from each other (Condor ; & Yousef, 1975 ; Leeds—
communication.p.9 Hurwitz, 1990 ; Samovar & Porter, 1972)
 The study of modern media cultural forms, …,  The study of “cultural communication systems”
presupposes an analysis of the institutional emphasized the role of communication as a practical
manoeuveres have sought to investigate structured resource in facilitating consensus about institutions
relations of power embedded within relations of among members within social groups (Cushman &
ownership and control, place these material relations Craig, 1976).
within a historical context, and unravel the impact of
 Communication and critical “cultural studies” (Hall, 1980)
commercial and public institutions upon discursive
treated communicative practices as a site and resource
practices (Golding and Murdock, 1991). P. 10
for the expression and maintenance of cultural
 Mass communications research should articulate a domination by some people over others, thus
political economy of the cultural industries. Such an problematizing the consensus model of cultural
approach would attend to the global relationships communication systems explicated by Cushman and
between the economy and state formations Craig. P. 53
 For this approach to be considered critical, and building  Philipsen (1981, 1987) proposed cultural communication
on the writing of Raymond Williams, more research as a distinctive approach to the study of culturally
needs to be done into how the principles of democracy situated communication, one that is related and indebted
could be applied in global settings. to, but distinctive from, such approaches as cultural
 The concepts of hegemony and ideology remain e communication systems, intercultural communication,
 The writings of the GUMG and Stuart Hall are important critical studies of communication and culture, and the
contributions to the ideology debate, they should be ethnography of communication.
reconnected with concerns related to political economy  Cultural communication, as proposed by Philipsen,
and the interpretative horizons of the audience. brought together two important strands of earlier
Common to the writings of Williams, GUMG and Hall is a research on culture and communication. These two
certain tendency to overstate the incorporating power of strands are (1) differences across groups in termas of
ideology. communicative practices and (2) the role of
 P.46 communication as a resource in managing discursively
 The rediscovery of ideology in media studies…has the individual communal dialectic.p.53
reintroduced a notion of power and more critically
addressed the construction of the real. The most Cultural studies
important intellectual and theoretical resource in the turn • American cultural studies have tended to adopt a
to ideology is structuralism. consensual framework ;
• Carey (1983) has commented on the “frequent and
 The production of ideology…has perhaps two distinctive
telling criticism that cultural studies in the United States,
characteristics. First, while ideology was tied to an
undercut as it is by the cheery optimism of pragmatism,
institutional analysis it could not be conceived of as the
inescapably fails to consider power, dominance,
inversion or reflection of the real. Rather ideology, in
subordination, and ideology as central issues” (p. 313)
Althusser’s memorable words, ‘represents the imaginary
relationship of individuals to their real conditions of • Source : p. 344, Myth, Chronicle and Story : Exploring
existence’ (1984 : 36) the Narrative Qualities of News, S. Elizabeth Bird and
 Secondly, ideology not only constitutes our symbolic Robert W. Dardenne, dalam Social Meanings of News,
relation with the real, but converts human beings into
subject. Ideology lets individuals mistakenly recognise • Cultural studies is not helpfully seen as ‘a fixed body of
themselves as self determining agents, whereas in fact thought that can be transplated from one place to
subjects are formed through linguistic and psychic another and which operates in similar ways in diverse
processes. The subject misrecognises her self as a national or regional contexts’
unique individual, rather than as an identity constructed • The place and relevance of cultural studies varies from
through the social. Althusser’s emphasis upon the context to context, and has to be related to the specific
formation of the self through ideological discourses had character of local forms of political and intellectual
a formative impact on Hall.37 discourse as culture…it is the context dependence of
Stuart Hall cultural studies which we need to keep in mind, and
 His theoretical writing is closely bound up with the indeed reinforce, if we are to resist tendencies towards
themes of culture, ideology and identity the development of orthodoxies and the temptations of a
 He offers a sophicticated reinterpretation of some of the codified vocabulary
central thinkers within post structuralism, his main • P. 2, dalam Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies,
intellectual touchstone remains Gramsci. David Morley
• In the context of the North American Academy, Cultural
studies not only has become almost synonymous with a Douglass Kellner
certain kind of postmodern theorizing but also is now • All of the theories we have discussed so far can be seen
often referred to simply as ‘theory’.ibid, p.3 as providing models of media and cultural studies, but
• The key figures in Cultural studies came originally from the school of cultural studies that has become a global
backgrounds in literary criticism and the humanities and phenomenon of great importance over the last decades
that, consequently, their own primary concerns (and was inauguraated by the University of Birmingham
competences) lie with the analysis of texts of one kind or Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies in 1964
another, while they tend to have, on the whole and with • P. xxiii
the significant exception of Hall • Its director Richard Hoggart, ..successor Stuart Hall,…,
• Murdock notes, …, increasingly, enhanced by the the Birmingham groups developed a variety of critical
tendency for newly institutionalized Departments of perspectives for the analysis, interpretation, and criticism
Cultural Studies to be mainly housed in faculties of arts of cultural artifacts, combining sociological theory and
and humanities and to have few institutional links to the contextualization with literary analysis of cultural text.
social sciences. P. 5 • The now classical period of British cultural studies from
• This insight is of particular interest to me, as one trained the early 1960s to the early 1980 adopted a Marxian
initially as a sociologist who has, by virtue of that fact, approach to the study of culture, one especially
always felt somewhat marginal to the successive influenced by Althusser and Gramscy.
dominant paradigms (whether in their culturalist, • Through s set of internal debates and responding to
structuralist, psychoanalytic, post-structuralist or social conflict and movement of the 1960s and the
postmodern variants) within cultural studies. 1970s, the Birmingham group came to concentrate on
• From within cultural studies, the major critique of much the interplay of representations and ideologies of class,
of my own work has been that it is too essentialist or gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality in cultural texts,
reductionist. especially concentrating on media culture.
• The prime objective of the work has been to analyse • They were among the first to study the effects of
processes of culture and communication within their newspapers, radio, television, film, and other popular
social and material settings. cultural forms on audiences.
• Hall has recently desribed as a ‘moment of profound • They also engaged how assorted audiences interpreted
danger’, as cultural studies, especially in America, is and deployed media culture in varied ways and contexts,
rapidly professionalized and institutionalized around analyzing the factors that made audiences respond in
a’theoritical fluency’ of deconstructionist formalism, in contrasting manners to media texts. pxxiv
which the current ‘overwhelming textualisation of cultural • A critical media and cultural studies will overcome the
studies’ own discourses…constitutes power and politics boundaries of academic disciplines and will combine
as exclusively matters of language’ (Hall 1990) p.6 political economy, social theory and research, and
• Hall notes,…, ‘textuality is never enough’ and cultural cultural criticism in its project that aims at critique of
studies must learn to live with ‘the…tension which Said domination and social transformation. pxxxvii
describes as its affiliations with institutions, offices, • A transdisciplinary cultural and media studies would
agencies, classes, academies, corporations, groups, productively engage postmodern theory and emergent
ideologically defined parties and professions, nations, interpretive discourses and methods while maintaining
races and genders…questions that..can never be fully important traditional goals like cultivating literacy, critical
covered by critical textuality and its elaborations’ (Hall thinking, and the art of interpretation.pxxxviii
1990 : 16-17) p.6 • We are currently living in a proliferating image and
• From the late 1970s onwards, researchers within the media culture in which new technologies are changing
media/cultural studies traditions in Britain began to every dimension of life from the economy to personal
explore the political and ideological significance of the identity.
structure of media products outside the ‘news’ category. • In a postmodern media and computer culture, fresh
These studies focused on issues such as the
critical strategies are needed to read cultural texts, to
construction of gender identities in soap opera (see
interpret the conjunctions of sight and sound, words and
Hobosn 1982 ; Ang 1985), the presentation of racial
images, that are producing seductive cultures spaces,
streotypes in drama and light enertainment (see Cohen
forms, and experiences.
and Gardner 1984), the political and cultural values
embedded in popular fiction and drama (see McCabe • The cultural populism, turn to the audience, and
1981 ; McArthur 1981 ; Bennett and Woollacott 1987) fetishism of the popular that emerged in British cultural
and the presentationn of knowledge itself in quiz shows studies during the 1980s and 1990s can be read as part
(Mills and Rice 1982). of a postmodern turn in cultural studies which
corresponds to a new stage of cunsumer and global
• In Britain much of this work was collected and
capitalism. xxxv
summarized in the Open University’s influential course
on ‘Popular Culture’ (1981) • The frankurt school described a mass society and
culture that sought to incorporate individuals into a more
• This study demostrated that any concern with the
homogenized culture, controlled by big corporations, the
influence of the media in the construction of political
state, and centralized media.
culture needed to operae with a wider and more
inclusive definition of the kind of media texts considered • By contrast, the current form of consumer capitalism is
to be relevant.p. 8 more fragmented, specialized, aestheticized, and
celebratory of difference, choice, and individual freedom
CCCS, Birmingham than the previous stage. xxxv
• Analysing,…, the way in which the television programme • The postmodern turn has generated a great variety and
Nationwide was characterized by particular formal diversity of novel forms of cultural studies and
devices, particular modes of address to its audience, approaches to the study of media and culture.
particular forms of textual organization • Postmodern theories erase the economic, political, and
• Exploredd how that programme material was interpreted social dimensions of cultural production and reception,
by individuals from different social backgrounds, with a engage in a type of cultural and technological
view to establishing the role of cultural frameworks in determinism, indulge in theoreticist blather, and
determining individual interpretations of the programmes renounce the possibility of textual interpretation, social
in question. criticism, and political struggle. ibid
• The relations between socio-demographic factors (such • Postmodern theory is used to rethink cultural criticism
as age, sex,race, class) and differential interpretations of and politics in the contemporary era.
the same programme material • Postmodern theory can be effective in
• P.76, Morley
• This undertaking also involves exploration of the • Culturalism, particularly for Williams and Thompson, is a
emergent cyberspaces and modes of identities, form of historical cultural materialism which traces the
interaction, and production that are taking place in the unfolding of meaning over time, exploring culture in the
rapidly exploding computer culture, as well as exploring context of its material conditions of production and
the new public spaces where myriad forms of political reception. ..exploring the class basis of culture which
debate and contestation are evolving. aims to give ‘voice’ to the subordinated and to examine
• The fresh forms of culture requires using the tools and the place of culture in class power.
insights already gained, rather than simply rejecting all • Source : Baker. P. 15.
“modern” concepts and theories as irrelevant to the new • In recent years communication and media studiesin the
“postmodern” condition. united states have come under the influence of a body of
• Adequately understanding postmodern phenomena British literature identified with the intellectual traditions
requires contextualization in terms of the way that novel of Richard Hoggart, Raymond Williams and the
cultural artifacts are produced by the dominan mode of Univesity of Birmingham Centre for Contemporary
production and are used to reproduce—or contest— Cultural Studies, notably under the leadership of Stuart
existing figurations of class, race, gender, and other Hall. Indeed, the writings of the British Cultural Studies
forms of power and domination. P.xxxviii group constitute a significant contribution to the field of
• A future oriented cultural and media studies should look communicaton research, representing the most decisive
closely at the development of the entertainment and theoretical break in the field of communication and
information technology industries, the mergers and media studies in the United States that has captured the
synergies taking place, the syntheses of computer and attention of scholarly journals since the domination of
media culture that are being planned and already traditional sociology a generation ago. P. ix
implemented, and emergent wireless technologies. A • There is also an affinity with those communication
global media and cyberculture is our life world and fate, studies in the united sates which have had a strong
and we need to be able to chart and map it accordingly cultural tradition. After all, the idea of culture and society
to survive the dramatic changes currently taking place in the context of communication and media research in
and the even more transformative novelties of the the united states is defined through its assimilation of
rapidly approaching future. pxxxviii nineteenth century European social thought into
• Handbook of international and intercultural American practice ;that is to say, by the effects of
communication pragmatism on the development of academic disciplines
• William B. Gudykunst and their particular social concerns. P.233
• Bella Mody Neo Pragmatism and Cultural Studies
• Researchers in international and development • pragmatism philosophy such as Peirce, James, Dewey,
communication draw from political economy, geography, and others.
anthropology, and cultural studies.
• pragmatism shares with the poststructuralist strand of a
• Foreword p. x cultural studies an anti foundationalist, anti
• A more critical approach to ICC study might question representationlist, anti realist view of truth.
basic tenets of the ICC paradigm by asking, why study • It is combined with a commitment to pragmatic social
intercultural differences? Who gains from such reform.
knowledge, and who is disadvantaged? These questions
• pragmatism regards liberal democracies as the best kind
are attracting more attention as feminist, critical, and
of within them even as they are urged to do better. It
cultural studies scholars challenge the ICC paradigm.
favours a trial and error experimentalism which seeks
after new ways of doing things which we can describe as
• Sumber lain, dari materi tahun lalu ‘better’ measured against our values. …as with
• Cs, particularly that which places language at its heart… postmodern cultural studies, pragmatism is against
influenced by poststructuralist theories of language, ‘grant theory’
representation and subjectivity is given greater attention • Baker 373
than a cs more concerned with the ethnography of lived
experience or with cultural policy….p.4 McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory
• Cs is , and always has been a multior post disciplinary • The cultural approach has its roots in the humanities, in
field of inquiry which blurs the boundaries between itself anthropology and in linguistics.
and other subjects.
• It has been mainly applied to questions of meaning and
language, to the minutiae of particular social contexts
• For Hall, what is at stake is cultural studies connections and cultural experiences.
to matters of power and politics, to the need for change
• The study of media is part of a wider field of cultural
and to representations of and ; for marginalized social
groups, particularly those of class, gender and race. Cs
is a body of theory generated by thinkers who regard the • It is more likely to be ‘media centric’, sensitive to
production of theoretical knowledge as apolitical differences between media and settings of media
practice. P. 5 making and reception, more interested in the in depth
understanding of particular or even unique cases and
• Cs is a discursive formation, that is , a cluster (or situations than in generalization. Its methods favour the
qualitative and depth analysis of social and human
formation) of ideas, images and practices, which provide
signifying practices and the analysis and interpretation of
ways of talking about, forms of knowledge and conduct
‘texts’. 13
associated with, a particular topic, social activity of
institutional sitein society (Hall).
Tempo, 2 September 07
• Internasional
• Draft tulisan materi lalu
• Imajinasi dari Sebuah Buku
• Richard Hoggart, Raymond Williams dan Edward
Thompson are held to be early figure heads • “Seluruh kurikulum didesain sesuai dengan gaya hidup
representing the moment of ‘culturalism’ bebas negara Barat. Di negara ini, kami hidup dengan
• Culturalism stresses the ‘ordinariness’ of culture and the nilai-nilai keluarga,’ kata Ram Madhav, juru bicara
Rashtriya Swayamsvak Sangh, satu organisasi agama
active, creative, capacity of people to construct shared
Hindu sayap kiri.
meaningful practices. Empirical work, which is
emphasized within the culturalist tradition, explores the • Prakash Javadekar, jru bicara Bharatiya Janata Party,
way that active human beings create cultural meanings. mengatakan guru seharusnya mendidik siswa-siswanya
Baker. P. 15. mengendalikan nafsu seksual mereka.”Ini sistem nilai
yang harus diajarkan guru, bahwa mereka tidak
berhubungan seks hingga mereka menikah,” ujarnya.
 P.157
Ien Ang
On the Politics of Empirical Audience Research George Ritzer
--dalam buku media and cultural studies--keyworks • Sociological Theory, third edition

 In media studies, .., the ‘critical’ tradition, wohse Ritzer, p. 327

beginnings can be located in the work of the Frankurt  Pragmatism is a wide ranging philosophical position,
School, has generally derived its philosophical and from which we can identify several aspects that
political inspiration from european schools of thought influenced Mead’s developing sociological orientation
such as Marxism and (post) structuralism…’critical’ (Charon, 1985)
media researchers have mainly been concerned with the  Pragmatists true reality does not exist ‘out there’ in the
analysis of the ideological and / economic role of the real world ; it ‘is actively created as we act in and toward
media in capitalist and patriarchal society. Furthermore, the world’ (Hewitt, 1984 ; 8, see also Shalin, 1986)
the epistemological underpinnings of this kind of work  People remember and base their knowledge of the world
are generally characterized by a strident anti positivist on what has prooven useful to them. They are likely to
and anti empiricist mentality. 2 alter what no longer ‘works’
 P. 175  People define the social and physical ‘objects’ that they
 The question for cultural studies is not simply one of encounter in the world according to their use for them.
‘where the power lies in media systems’ (Blumler et al.
1985 : 260)– power are organized within the Dian Sastrowarodyo
heterogeneous practices of media use and consumption.  Kompas Minggu, 2 September 2007
 It is important to look at how ‘audience activity’ is  Urban Sosialita : Dian, Cantik Versi Indonesia
theorized or interpreted, and how research ‘findings’ are
placed in a wider theoretical framework.  Belakangan, gadis ini (Dian Sastrowardoyo,---) malah
 P. 181 mengkritik kriteria cantik yang diproduksi mesin citra
yang membesarkan dirinya itu. Katanya, “Kecantikan itu
Catatan Lepas hanya konstruksi sosial belaka”
 Ketih Tester  “Kecantikan itu konstruksi politis dari ideologi
 Media, Culture, and Morality, Routledge, 1994 masyarakat yang plural dan berubah-ubah. Siapun pun
 Cultural studies has appropriated the study of the media bisa mendefenisikan kecantikan sesuai dengan
for itself and has concentrated on popular culture and kriterianya sendiri,”katanya.
pleasure in such a way that meaningful questions about  Dia fasih membicarakan kecantikan sebagai produk
cultural and moral value have been at best ignored and budaya. Ketika menukil penggalan teori budaya dan
at worst pushed quite beyond the asking filsafat—seperti pemikiran Immanuel Kant, Michael
 P.6, Keith Tester Foucault, Karl Marx, Julia Kristeva, atau Jean
 Sociology might do this because, unlike cultural studies, Boudrillard—
if it is worth doing sociology is not happy just to describe  Skripsinya berjudul Kompleks Industri Kecantikan :
and explore what exists. Sociology ought to be driven by Sebuah Kritik Sosio Filosofis
a sense of moral commitment and by a moral outrage at  “Saya jadi korban, pelaku, sekaligus saksi”
what presently passes for the good life : an outrage that  Dalam zaman kapitalisme terkini, citra cantik itu menjadi
cultural studies, with its increasing emphasis on things permainan rumit dengan melibatkan kepentingan dari
like clothes and shopping, can say absolutely nothing industri kecantikan, obat-obatan, kesehatan, dan industri
about. iklan. Masyarakat menjadi korban mode yang
 P.4, Ketih Tester, dikembangkan produsen untuk kepentingan pasar.

Kenneth Thompson Filsafat ilmu

 Social Pluralism and Post Modernity Source : Teori Kebudayaan dalam Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya,
 Dalam buku : Modernity and Its Futures E.K.M. Masinambow, dalam Meretas Ranah—Bahasa, Semiotika,
dan Budaya, penyunting Ida Sundari Husen, Rahayu Hidayat,
 Edited by Stuart Hall, David Held and Tony McGrew
Bentang, Oktober 2001
 Polity Press in Association with the Open University,
 Postmodernist concerns with surface, …, can be traced  Pada saat aliran-aliran intelektual Barat mulai
to the necessary format of television images. berpengaruh pada pengetahuan dan cara berpikir
 ‘television causes postmodernism’ variety. For television kalangan akademis di Indonesia, maka paradigma yang
is itself a product of late capitalism and, as such, has to berlaku pada saat itu adalah yang dipengaruhi oleh
be seen in the context of the promotion of a culture of paham Pencerahan (enlightenment) dari abad ke 18.
consumerism. This directs our attention to the paham ini berkeyakinan bahwa rasionalitas,
production of needs and wants, the mobilization of penggunaan akal manusia, mampu mendorong
desire and fantasy, of the politics of distraction as part perkembangan masyarakat kearah kesempurnaan yang
and parcel of the push to sustain sufficient buoyancy of makin meningkat. 33
demand in consumer markets to keep capitalist  Setelah para sarjana Indonesia dalam bidang ilmu-ilmu
production profitable.
sosial dan ilmu-ilmu budaya mulai kembali dari luar
 Postmodernism then signals nothing more than a logical negeri setelah menyelesaikan studi di berbagai
extention of the power of the market over the whole universitas di Amerika dan Eropa dalam tahun-tahun 70-
range of cultural production. an dan 80-an. Melalui peranan dan pengaruh mereka
 P.268 berbagai ragam teori diperkenalkan dalam pendidikan
tinggi dan dalam melaksanakan penelitian-penelitian
Steven Yearley, Environmental Challenges lapangan. Terutama melalui linguistik dan ilmu susastra,
 Dalam buku : Modernity and Its Futures prinsip-prinsip strukturalisme diperkenalkan melalui
 Edited by Stuart Hall, David Held and Tony McGrew analisis kebahasaan dan karya-karya kesusastraan. 34
 Polity Press in Association with the Open University,  Pada saat teori-teori modern itu sedang diterapkan pada
1992 kenyataan sosial budaya masyarakat Indonesi, dan
belum memperoleh kemantapan yang memuaskan ,
 Britain has perhaps the most highly organized apalagi dengan perkembangan masyarakat Indonesia
environmental lobby of any Eoropean country… Of the kearah industrialisasi dan globalisasi, maka seiring
social causes that came to prominence during the dengan arah itu, mulai berpengaruh pula teori-teori
1960s, including feminism, consumerism, and minority kebudayaan yang bersumber padapaham anti
rights, environmentalism has best weathered the Pencerahaan. 34
economic tribulations of the 1970s and 1980s and the  Pandangan anti pencerahaan ini berkembang akhir-
right ward shift in national politics. akhir ini dalam masyarakat Barat sebagai pencerminan
disilusi dan ketidakpuasan dengan rasionalitas, dan  Maka kebenaran gagasan-gagasan ilmiah tidaklah
pranata-pranata yang bersumber pada optimisme bersumber pada dunia objektif, melainkan bersumber
kemampuan rasionalitas itu untuk membawa umat pada interpretasi dan pemahaman dari para ilmuwan
manusia ke kesejahteraan dan kebahagiaan. Hal ini yang berpengaruh. Pengaruh mereka itu menentukan
tercermin dalam aliran pascastrukturalisme dan arah perkembangan bidang ilmiah yang bersangkutan.
pascamodernisme. 34  P. 42
 Inti pokok dari paham itu adalah bahwa realitas sebagai
sesuatu yang konkret di luar subjek tidak mempunyai Konsep-Konsep Cultural Studies
wujud mandiri, tetapi terbentuk oleh wacana (discourse)  Beberapa konsep penting dalam cultural studies :
yang berlaku dan digunakan dalam masyarakat. 34-5 articulation, ideology, constructivist, identity, over
 Dalam hubungan ini apa yang didefinisikan oleh Turner deterministic, theathre of struggle, representation,
poststructuralist, postcolonial,
(1990 : 4) sebagai modernitas secara umum dapat
digunakan untuk membedakannya dengan
Articulation :
pascamodernitas. …bahwa modernitas adalah
perubahan sosial budaya secara besar-besaran yang  bahwa terjadi proses penyampaian kepentingan oleh
mulai berlangsung di dunia Barat pada pertengahan kelompok tertentu. Proses mengemukakan
abad ke-16. perubahan ini harus dipandang sebagai kepentingannya ; dengan menggunakan bahasa atau
berkaitan dengan pengembangan masyarakat industrial wacana. Dalam realitas senantiasa terjadi proses
dan kapitalistis. Perubahan itu merupakan pemutusan artikulasi. Apakah melalui media, aksi, dan sebagainya.
radikal dan revolusioner tradisi dan terhadap suatu Ideology :
kestabilan sosial berdasarkan peradaban agraris yang  berkaitan dengan sistim pengetahuan, untuk mencapai
relatif statis. tujuan tertentu. Ideologi memerlukan bahasa untuk
 Pascamodernitas berkembang bersama menyampaikan. Karenanya kemudian bahasa selalu
berkembangnya industri yang memungkinkan konsumsi berkaitan dengan adanya kepentingan. Ini
barang dan jasa secara luas ; dan yang menciptakan mengingatkan kita kemudian dengan Micahel Foucault
lebih banyak waktu luang untuk bersantai bagi semua adanya kepentingan kekuasaan dan pengetahuan.
lapisan masyarakat. Teknologi komunikasi yang makin
canggih mampu menciptakan tanda-tanda yang Identity :
membentuk realitas semu. Didalam bidang ilmu  menyangkut aspek yang mendasari suatu kelompok
pengetahuan realitas pun mengalami pemecahan sesuai tertentu. Sesuatu yang mencerminkan pengalaman,
dengan berbagai jenis wacana. 38 nilai, kepentingan, dan sebagainya. Raymond William
 Outhwaite (1985) dalam membicarakan Gadamer menganmati identitas kalangan pekerja atau buruh di
memberikan perbedaan antara apa yang dinamakan Inggeris. Stuart Hall mengamati identitas warga inggeris
epistemologi—yang sebenarnya mengacu pada keturunan Afrika. Di Indonesia,identitas dapat kita temui
pendekatan positivisme—dan hermeneutik. pada etnik seperti Minang, Jawa, dan sebagainya. Atau
Tionghoa, Arab, Hindia, dan sebagainya. Demikian pula
 Hermeneutik merupakan suatupengkajian filosofis
suku terasing, seperti Dayak, Tengger,Samin, dan
terhadap teori pemahaman (understanding) dan
sebagainya. Tema-tema kontemporer seperti sub culture
penafsiran (interpretation).
: punk, underground, kelompok minat, dan sebagainya.
 Epistemologi menggambarkan bagaimana pengetahuan
itu mungkin, sedangkan hermeneutik menggambarkan
Theathre of struggle :
bagaimana pemahaman itu mungkin..
 Epistemologi selalu berusaha untuk menentukan apa  bahwa dalam realitas berlangsung proses pertarungan
yang secara objektif merupakan kepastian, apa yang secara simbolik. Ada pertarungan ideologi. Upaya untuk
merupakan dasar-dasar suatu fenomena tertentu. Hal saling membangun hegemoni.—disini kita melihat
ini sangat berbeda dari hermeneutik yang tidak kaitannya bila kita memakai perspektif kritis. Dimana
memberikan jaminan bahwa kepastian itu ada. terjadi proses pertarungan. Maka disini menjadi penting
 Hermeneutik tidak mengakui adanya suatu pendirian untuk memasukan konsep-konsep dari Gramscy,
yang otoritatif yang menjanjikan adanya kepastian dari Althusser. Jadi berkaitan dengan neo Marxist. Dalam
pemahaman ; makna tidak bertumpu pada otoritas yang kontek ini kemudian, kenapa cs disebut berwatak
berada diluar teks, melainkan berasal dari teks itu reformis, karena orientasi pada perubahan.
Over deterministik :
 Menurut epistemologi (positivis), otoritas yang
menentukan kepastian makna adalah pembuat teks itu  bahwa dalam realitas terdapat banyak variabel yang
sendiri. Source : p.40-1 terlibat dalam melakukan relasi. Jadi berbeda dengan
 Proses membaca itu menghasilkan suatu interpretasi pandangan Marxisme klasik dimana realitas dipandang
yang tidak didasarkan atas suatu latar atau referen yang sebagai relasi ekonomi determistik. Disini tampak
konstan dan pasti, melainkan atas dasar makna yang pendekatan yang lebh tepat adalah neo marxist.
dimunculkan dari teks itu dan atas dasar pemaduan
(fusion) cakrawala teks itu dengan cakrawala pembaca. Constructivist :
 Derrida (dalam Hoy, 1985) menarik konsekuensi yang  pandangan bahwa realitas bersifat dinamis, dibentuk
lebih ekstrem dengan mengatakan bahwa oleh karena secara simbolik. Pembahasan tentang konstruktivis
tidak ada dapat merujuk pada Peter L. Berger, dan beberapa
 Referen yang konstan, maka interpretasi dari suatu teks tokoh lainnya.
dan pemahamnnya terus menerus berubah.penentuan
yang mana yang benar dan yang pasti tidak mungkin Jean Boudrullard :
diadakan (undecidability), oleh karena teks tidak dapat  French Social Critics
mengacu ke luar dirinya, kecuali pengacuan kepada  Signs take on special significance, in the media, and the
teks yang lain (intertextuality). media shape in many ways how signs function for us.
 Source p. 41  Believes that signs have become increasingly separated
 Oleh karena teks dan maknanya itu bergantung dari from the objects they represent and that the media have
struktur teks itu sendiri, dan dari makna teks yang lain, propelled this process to the point where nothing is real.
maka pengetahuan dan pemahaman bukanlah sesuatu  Today we are in an era of simulation, in which signs no
yang objektif, melainkan bergantung dari interpretasi longer represent—but create—our reality. Simulation
kekuasaan yang terkandung dalam wacana yang determines who we are and what we do. No longer tools
berlaku atau diberlakukan pada waktu itu. to represent our experience, signs establish it.
 Kekuasaan dalam hal ini didefinisikan Foucault (dalam  --source littlejohn. P. 307-8
Philip, 1984) sebagai suatu jenis hubungan sosial antara
individu di mana yang satu bertindak sedemikian rupa Stuart Hall :
sehingga mempengaruhi tindakan dari yang lain.  -theathre of struggle
 -societies as complex formations, necessarily  Neo Pragmatism and Cultural Studies :
contradictory, always historically specific.  -pragmatism philosophy such as Peirce, James, Dewey,
 -the interpretation of media texts always occurs within a and others.
struggle of ideological control.  -pragmatism shares with the poststructuralist strand of a
cultural studies an anti foundationalist, anti
Micahel Foucault representationlist, anti realist view of truth.
 --each period has a distinct worldview, or conceptual  It is combined with a commitment to pragmatic social
structure, that deermines the nature of knowledge in that reform.
period.  -pragmatism regards liberal democracies as the best
 - it is called episteme kind of within them even as they ar urged to do better. It
 - the episteme, or way of thinking, is determined not by favours a trial and error experimentalism which seeks
people but by the predominant discursive structures of after new ways of doing things which we can describe as
the day. ‘better’ measured against our values. …as with
 -discourse includes written texts, but it also includes postmodern cultural studies, pragmatism is against
spoken language and nonverbal forms such ‘grant theory’
architecture, institutional practices, even charts and  Baker 373
graphs.  Culturalism focused on meaning production by human
 --people are not responsible for establishing the actors in an historical context, structuralism pointed to
conditions of discourse. Inversely, it is discourse that culture as an expression fo deep structures of language
determines the place of the person in the scheme of the which lie outside of the intentions of actors and constrain
world. them. Where culturalism stresses history, structuralism
 -Foucault’s work centers on analyzing discourse in a is synchronic in approach, analyzing the structures of
way that reveals its rules and structure. This he calls relations in a snapshot of a particular moment.
arcaelogy..seeks to uncover, through careful description,  Culturalism focuses on interpretation as a way of
the regulaties of discourse. understanding meaning, structuralism has asserted the
 -focus on the subject of power. He believed that power is possibility of a science of signs, of objective knowledge.
an inherent part of all discursive formation….power and
knowledged cannot be divided. Annabelle Srebermy
 Source : littlejohn. P. 220-1 The Global and the Local
 -like Derrida, argues against structuralist theories of
language which conceive of it as an autonomous rule  The complexity of the global contemporary media /
governed system. He also opposes interpretative or culture spectrum at the start of the twenty first century,
hermeneutic methods which seek to disclose the hidden and the range of theoretical constructs that have been
meaning of language. used to explain, and base policy on the international role
 -Foucault is thus concerned with the description and of media, particularly in the “Third World”.
analysis of the surfaces of discourse and their effects  The “mood” of contemporary analysis can be quite
under determinate material and historical conditions. varied.
..discourse concerns both language and practice and  One position is that of the happy post modernist who
refers to the regulated production of knowledge through sees that many kinds of cultural texts circulate
language which gives meaning to both material objects internationally and that people adopt them playfully and
and social practices. readily integrate them in creative ways into own lives,
 --discourse regulates not only what can be said under and that cultural bricolage is the prevailing experience
determinate social and cultural conditions but who can as we enter the twenty first century.
speak, when and where. …much of his work is  Another is the melancholy political economist who sees
concerned with the historical investigation of power and the all pervasive reach of the multinationals and
the production of subjects through that power. wonders how long distinctive cultures can outlast the
 Source : Baker. p. 20. onslaught of the western culture industries.
 Somewhere in between lies the cautiously optimistic
Derrida : fourth Worlder who sees in the spread of media the
 Primary philosophical sources of poststructuralism are possibilities for revitalization of local identities (ethnic,
Derrida and Foucault. religious class, etc) and their use as tools of political
 They give rise to different emphases, postructuralist mobilization vis a vis both national and global forces.
cannot be regarded as a unified body of work.  P. 621
 Derrida’s focus is on language and the deconstruction of  The apparent triumph of late capitalism in 1989-90 and
an immediacy, or identity, between words and the demise of the so called second world of state
meanings. socialism, suggest that ideological politics in the classic
 Derrida accepts Saussure’s argument that meaning is sense is going to be less important than the revival of
generated by relations of difference between signifiers identity politics in the future.
…that meaning can never be fixed. Words carry many  Yet at the same time as the demise of a single master
meanings, narrative of global progress is trumpeted in some
 Derrida proceeds to deconstruct the ‘stable’ binaries quarters, in others the old indicators of a single path to
upon which structuralism, and indeed western “development” are still utilized, and even adopted with
philosophy in general, relies. greater eaterness by Third World societies yearning for
 Source : Baker. P. 19 “progress”.
 Richard Hoggart, Raymond Williams dan Edward  It is likely that in the next decade we shall see a revival
Thompson are held to be early figureheads representing of intense debate about development, and the
the moment of ‘culturalism’ unresolved role of culture within that process, nel
 Culturalism stresses the ‘ordinariness’ of culture and the Lernerian arguments for the positive roe of media
active, creative, capacity of people to construct shared systems as part of national development encountering
meaningful practices. Empirical work, which is arguments for more thorough going Third World
emphasized within the culturalist tradition, explores the economic disassociation and delinking from the global
way that active human beings create cultural meanings. capitalist economy (Amin 1990), as well as fourth
world/indigenist culture arguments for the maintenance
 Culturalism, particularly for Williams and Thompson, is a
of local identities (Verhelst 1990).
form of historical cultural materialism which traces the
unfolding of meaning over time, exploring culture in the  P. 621-2
context of its material conditions of production and  Media effects is one of the most disputed areas of
reception. ..exploring the class basis of culture which domestic media research so there is no reason to expect
aims to give ‘voice’ to the subordinated and to examine any greater unanimity about the effects at the
the place of culture in class power. international level.
 Source : Baker. P. 15.
 The “cultural imperialism” thesis did tend to suggest a  Third is constructing answers
“hypodermic needle” model of international effects,
“American” values being injected into third World hearts asking questions
and minds. Recent work, building on reception theory  Gerald Miller and Henry Nicholson believe that inquiry is
and models of the active audience, is giving a more “nothing more..than the process of asking interesting,
nuanced view of international effects as mediated by significant questions..and providing disciplined,
preexisting cultural frameworks and interpretative systematic ansers to them
scheme. Thus, despite their book’s title (The Export of  Questions of defenition call for concepts as answers,
Meaning), Leibes and Katz (1990) argues that meaning seeking to clarify what is obseved or inferred
is not exported in Western television programming but  Questions of fact ask about properties and relations in
created by different cultural sectors of the audience in what is observed : what does it consist of ? How does it
relation to their already formed cultural attitudes and relate to other things?
political perceptions.  Questions of value probe aesthetic, pragmatic, and
 Others (Beltran, Oliveira) argue that it is not so much ethical qualities of the observed : is it beautiful ?
national American values that are exported but rather
more generalized capitalist consumption and prevailing observation
development orientations. For them, globalization  The scholar looks for an answer
portends homogenization which, while useful for milk,  Methods of observation vary significantly from one
produces a culture that tastes bland and is not even tradition to another
good for you.
 Some scholars observe by examining records and
 P. 618 artifacts, others by interviewing people
 Hannah Davis (1990) describes life in a small Moroccan
agricultural town of 50.000 people and notes how constructing answers
“symbols from different worlds overlap : a picture of the  The scholar attempts to define, to describe and explain,
king of Morocco hangs next to a poster of the Beatles. to make judgements
The sounds of a religious festival outisde…mingle with
 This stage is usually referred to as theory and is the
the televised cheering of soccer fans…in the morning we
focus of this book
watch a holy man curing a boy, then stop off at the fair
 People often think of the stages of inquiry as linear,
where we see a woman doing motorcycle stunts : in the
occuring one step at a time—first questions, then
evening we watch an Indian fairy tale or a Brazilian soap
observations, and finally answers.
opera or an Egyptian romance” (p.13)…as in much of
the middle east public space is male space, and thus it  But inquiry does not proceed in this fachion. Each stage
is the women who ather round the relevision and VCR at affects and is affected by the others. Observations often
night, watching Egyptian films were stimulate new questionss, and theories are challenged
 romances that reduced the women to tears, while the by both observations and questions.
western films elicited “grasps of surprise, horrified hiding  Theories lead to new questions, and observations are
of the eyes, fascination or prurlence”, with American determined in part by theories
sexual shamelessness being both admired and feared,  Inquiry is more like running around a circle than walking
imitated and denigrated. The transcultural mix of in a straight line
symbols is apparent when one young girl organizes a
traditional religious feast yet defiantly appears wearing a Types of scholarship
denim skirt and earrings ; thus, such symbols may be  Different types of inquiry ask different questions, use
used in personal struggles to “define, test or transform different methods of observation, and lead to different
the boundaries” of local lives (p. 17) methods of observation, and lead to different kinds of
 P. 619 theory
 Methods of inquiry can be grouped into three broad
Posmodernisme forms of scholarship : scientific, humanistic, and social
Masinbow, dalam Meretas scientific

 Perkembangan teori-teori yang digolongkan sebagai Positivism

pasca strukturalis terjadi melalui studi-studi hermeneutik  To discover natural laws so people can predict and
yang telah mengembangkan seperangkat konsep untuk control events
menganalisis wacana dan teks ; dua pengertian yang  Stable preexisting patterns or order that can be
jelas berasal dari studi bahasa.p.38 discovered
 Self interested and rational individuals who are shaped
McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory by external forces
 Our era as ‘postmodern’ in the literal sense of being a  Clearly distinct from and less valid than science
late stage of the ‘modern’ period that was characterized
by rapid social change, industrialization and the factory  A logical, deductive system of interconnected definitions,
system, capitalism, bureaucratic forms of organization exioms, and laws
and mass political movements. 114  Is logically connected to laws and based on facts
 Postmodernism undermines the traditional notion of  Is based on precise observations that others can repeat
culture as something fixed and hierarchical. It fovours  Science is value free, and values havo no place except
forms of culture that are transient, of the moment, when choosing a topic
superficially pleasing and appealing to sense rather than
reason. Postmodern culture is volatile, illogical, ISS
kaleidescopic and hedonistic. Mass media culture has  To understand and describe meaningful social action
the advantage of appealing to many senses as well as  Fluid definitions of a situation created by human
being associated with novelty and transience. Many interaction
features of (commercial) popular media culture reflect
 Social beings who create meaning and who constantly
postmodernist elements. Music video on television was
make sense of their worlds
hailed as the first postmodern television service (Kaplan,
 Powerful everyday theories used by ordinary people
1987 ; Grossberg 1989, Lewis, 1991). 114
 A description of how a group’s meaning system is
The Nature of Inquiry and Theory generated and sustained
Communication theory and Scholarship  Resonates or feels right to those who are being studies
 Is embedded in the context of fluid social interactions
Inquiry  Values are an integral part of social life : no group’s
Three stages values are wrong, only different
 First is asking questions
 Second is observation CSS
 To smash myth and empower people to change society  To what extent and in what ways are messages created
radically in interaction with others
 Conflict filled and governed by hidden underlying  How does the process of message development differ
structures from culture to culture, and what are the cultural
 Creative, adptive people with unrealized potentials, mechanisms that enter into the message development
trapped by illusion and exploitation process
 False beliefs that hide power and objective conditions
 A critique that reveals true conditions and helps people Interpretation and generation of meaning
see the way to a better world  How do humans understand messages, and how does
 Supplies people with tools needed to change the world meaning arise in interaction with other people
 Is informed by a theory that unveils illusions  How does the mind process information and interpret
 All science must begin with a value position ; some experience
positions are right, some are wrong  To what extent and in what ways are meaning and
understanding products of culture
Characteristics of postmodernism social research
 Rejection of all ideologies and organized belief systems, Message structure
including all social theory  Consists of the elements of messages in writings, the
 Strong reliance on intuition, imagination, personal spoken world, and nonverbal formas
experience, and emotion  How are messages put together, and how are they
 Sense of meaninglessness and pessimism, belief that organized
the world will never improve  In what ways does the organization of a message create
 Extreme subjectivity in which there is no distinction meaning
between the mental and the external world  How are communicator’s messages in a dialogue
 Espousal of diversity, chaos, and complexity that is organized
constantly changing  How do the participants in a conversation mesh their talk
 Rejection of studying the past or different places since
only the here and now is relevant Interactional dynamics
 Belief that causality cannot be studies because life is too  Involves relationships and interdependency among
complex and rapidly changing communicators and the joint creation of dicourse and
 Assertion that research can never truly represent what meaning
occurs in the socail world  It addresses the give and take, the production and
 Belief that causality cannot be studies because life is too reception, between parties in a communication
complex and rapidly changing transaction whether those parties are individuals or
 Assertion that research can never truly represent what
Institutional and societal dynamics
occurs in the socail world
 The ways power and resources are distributed in
Communication as a social science society, the ways culture is produced, and the interaction
among segments of society
 Communication involves understanding how people
behave in creating, exchanging, and interpreting
 Communication inquiry combines both scientific and
humanistic methods
 Theories in communications vary significantly in the
extent to which they use scientific or humanistic
 Traditionally, humanistic theories of communication have
been referred to as rhetorical theory and scientific
theories as communication theory
 All theories we will discuss deal with human
communication, and both humanistic and scientific
theories are worthy of inclusion in our body of
knowledge about human communication
 The rhetorical tradition
 The semiotic tradition
 The phenomenological tradition
 The cybernetic tradition
 The sociopsychological tradition
 The sociocultural tradition
 The critical tradition

Levels of Communication
 Interpersonal communication
 Group communication
 Organizational communication
 Mass communication

Core communication theories

 Development of messages
 Interpretation and generation of meaning
 Message structure
 Interactional dynamics
 Institutional and societal dynamics

Development of messages
 How do we create what we write, say, and express to
 What mental processes are involved