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This is to certify that this project report on #c  


 

  
 

  


$ is a confide work of ³DHIRAJ     

%& 
  $ in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and

Instrumentation Engineering from Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology, under our guidance

and supervision.

 
       


Dr.N.VEERAPPAN, M.E., Ph.D., Mrs. T.MANJULA, M.E

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Department of EEE Department of EEE
and EIE and EIE
AVIT, paiyanoor AVIT paiyanoor
Chennai-603104 Chennai-603104  

Certified that the candidates was examined in the viva-voce Examination
held on «««««««..




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We thank #   ´ for his divine guidance and blessings throughout our project
work.

We are grateful to î' (


   *î +&,+%- Aarupadai Veedu Institute
Technology -paiyanoor ,for this opportunity to carry out the project work.

We gratefully acknowledge î


 
   *î % ./ î+%& ./
-,,%- %& -,.&,  -,.&, %& &&%.& &0&&0 for his
encouragement and advice throughout the course of this project.

We express our deep sense of gratitude to our guide  


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   for her excellent guidance, constant inspiration and encouragement in the
completion of this work.

We would like to thank our entire faculty member and staff of department of Electronics and
Instrumentation Engineering who have rendered valuable help in making the project a successful
one.

Finally we thank our family members and friends for their help and their perennial
encouragement towards realizing this project successfully.

DHIRAJ KUMAR-348074013

Md. ASRARUL HAQUE-348074017

GAURI SHANKAR KUMAR-348074030




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A Boiler or steam generator is employed wherever a source of system is required.Y A


boiler incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat; the heat is
initially transferred to water to make steam; this produces saturated steam at ebullition
temperature. Higher the furnace temperature, faster the steam production. The saturated steam
thus produced can then either be used immediately to produce power via a turbine and alternator,
or else may be further superheated to a higher temperature; this notably reduces suspended water
content making a given volume of steam produce more work.

In this paper, we propose the parameters like the temperature of the steam, the level of water,
control of feed water pump, Pressure of the steam has to be measured and critically monitored
for reliable and safe operation of the generation unit. This kind of operation with critical
importance can be carried out efficiently and implemented employing Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC).Experimental results are presented.

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PLC PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

WPL WORLD PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE


  



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PLC applications are extensively used in industry to control and facilitate repetitive processes
such as manufacturing cell management, fly-by-wire control, or nuclear plant shutdown systems.
One of these applications is industrial automation which includes numerous automated
processes. This again includes automation of boiler which demands determination of certain
physical parameters (viz. pressure, temperature, etc.) & utilizing these parameters to make the
boiler start-stop or function in any manner we want, but automatically, without involvement of
any personal.


 
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lY WPL software
lY PLC module (make DELTA)
lY Motor
lY Water reserve
lY Closed air tight container
lY Level sensor
lY Temperature sensor with current output
lY Pressure sensor
lY Solenoid valve

The most common parameters that have to be controlled in the boiler are temperature, pressure,
water level. The controlling mechanism can be achieved by using microprocessor and
microcontroller, PID controller or using PLC. Programmable logic control (PLC) provides an
easy and sophisticated method to design automation in industry. It also provides easy trouble
shooting method and flexibility to the industry.
Generally an industry has an emergency stop button to stop the whole process instantly if any
error occurred during operation. The emergency stop buttons are normally closed type. To start
the mechanism a start button (normally open type) switch is used which is connected after stop
button. When start button is made ON the lower level sensor sense the water level below the
lower level hence it start the motor to pump the water in to the boiler. The pump runs till the
water reaches the higher level sensor. After that the pump stops running. The temperature sensor
provides the temperature information to the PLC. If the temp. is less than the present value the
heater starts after 5 sec of motor OFF time. Temperature rises continuously and form water
steam. The temp. Should not raise beyond tolerance level of boiler hence the temp. should rise
up to certain limit and the heater should stop at that moment. The temp. again decreases and if
goes below preset value it start the heater. The above process continues. The steam produce in
the boiler exert a pressure on the boiler which is picked up by the pressure sensor. If pressure
reaches the present value it make the valve open and steam with a definite pressure goes out
through the pipe. The present value of the pressure should be calculated carefully and it should
not exceed maximum limit of boiler tolerance. This process result in decrease in water level and
if falls below the lower level sensor the motor starts during which the heater stops and whole
process repeats.


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    3

The project incorporates the requirement of a physical PLC trainer kit which is responsible for
collection of data from field sensors (within the boiler), evaluate them & generate appropriate
output for the boiler to operate in a specific desired procedure. Initially, we divided our project
into four sections viz., ower suly section, water suly section, boiler (including sensors)
section, rocess controlling section.

c.-,.&3 Boiling container, sensors (presssure, temperature & level sensors) & a heater
assemble altogether to give rise to the boiler section.

.&.--&0 ,.&3 This section includes the PLC trainer kit which is responsible for data
collection from field sensors, evaluation of collected data & generation of appropriate output
signals for automatic actuation and termination of different peripherals incorporated in the
overall system.

%++-6,.&3 Water supply to the boiler is ensured by a water pump whose actuation
& termination is controlled by the PLC trainer.

.7 ++-6 ,.&3 This takes care of the power requirements for the whole project. This
mostly comprises of the circuits providing DC power for the field sensors and valves (solenoids).

 
3 The main advantage of using PLCs is the drastic reduction in the
requirement of electrical components in terms of number of switches, relays, wiring, etc.the
applications of this project are solely the applications of a boiler i.e., production of steam and
using it for numerous processes like rotating the generator fins and hence producing power for
commercial or industrial purposes.

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3

We divided the overall construction of the project in two stages. These are described as follows:

3
This stage basically focuses on:
(i)Y Software design & simulation
(ii)Y Hardware design
(A).Power supply &
(b)Y.Sensing unit
DY Level Sensing Unit
DY Temperature sensing unit

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Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are members of the computer family capable of
storing instructions to control functions such as sequencing, timing, and counting, which control
a machine or a process. The PLC is composed of two basic sections, the Central Processing Unit
(CPU) and the Input/Output (I/O) interface system. The PLC measures input signals coming
from a machine and through the internal program provides output or control back to the machine.
Ladder logic is the programming language used to represent electrical sequences of operation. In
hardwired circuits the electrical wiring is connected from one device to another according to
logic of operation. In a PLC the devices are connected to the input interface, the outputs are
connected to the output interface and the actual wiring of the components is done electronically
inside the PLC using ladder logic. This is known as soft wired. PLC is a device that is capable of
being programmed to perform a controlling function. Before the advent of PLC, the problem of
industrial control was usually solved by relays or hardwired solid-state logic blocks. These are
very flexible in design and easy for maintenance personal to understand. However, they involved
a vast amount of interconnection. For the wiring cost to be minimized, relays and logic blocks
had to be kept together. This led to development of control panel concept for larger and more
complex logic control system. The PLC was first conceived by group of engineers from
hydramatic division of GM in 1968.This was designed to provide flexibility in control based on
programming and executing logic instruction. Adopting the ladder diagram programming
language, simplifying maintenance and reducing the cost of spare parts inventories realized
major advantages.
!!   3

In the late 1960's PLCs were first introduced. The primary reason for designing such a device
was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing the complicated relay based machine control
systems. Bedford Associates (Bedford, MA) proposed something called a Modular Digital
Controller (MODICON) to a major US car manufacturer. Other companies at the time proposed
computer based schemes, one of which was based upon the PDP-8. The MODICON 084 brought
the world's first PLC into commercial production. When production requirements changed so did
the control system. This becomes very expensive when the change is frequent. Since relays are
mechanical devices they also have a limited lifetime which required strict adhesion to
maintenance schedules. Troubleshooting was also quite tedious when so many relays are
involved. Now picture a machine control panel that included many, possibly hundreds or
thousands, of individual relays. The size could be mind boggling. How about the complicated
initial wiring of so many individual devices! These relays would be individually wired together
in a manner that would yield the desired outcome. Were there problems You bet! These "new
controllers" also had to be easily programmed by maintenance and plant engineers. The lifetime
had to be long and programming changes easily performed. They also had to survive the harsh
industrial environment. That's a lot to ask! The answers were to use a programming technique
most people were already familiar with and replace mechanical parts with solid-state ones.
In the mid70âÄ¢s the dominant PLC technologies were sequencer state-machines and the bit-
slice based CPU. The AMD 2901 and 2903 were quite popular in Modicon and A-B PLCs.
Conventional microprocessors lacked the power to quickly solve PLC logic in all but the
smallest PLCs. As conventional microprocessors evolved, larger and larger PLCs were being
based upon them. However, even today some are still based upon the 2903.(ref A-B's PLC-3)
Madison has yet to build a faster PLC than their 984A/B/X which was based upon the 2901.
Communications abilities began to appear in approximately 1973. The first such system was
Madison¶s Mudbug. The PLC could now talk to other PLCs and they could be far away from the
actual machine they were controlling. They could also now be used to send and receive varying
voltages to allow them to enter the analog world. Unfortunately, the lack of standardization
coupled with continually changing technology has made PLC communications a nightmare of
incompatible protocols and physical networks. Still, it was a great decade for the PLC!
The 80âÄ¢s saw an attempt to standardize communications with General Motor's manufacturing
automation protocol(MAP). It was also a time for reducing the size of the PLC and making them
software programmable through symbolic programming on personal computers instead of
dedicated programming terminals or handheld programmers. Today the world's smallest PLC is
about the size of a single control relay!
The 90âÄ¢s have seen a gradual reduction in the introduction of new protocols, and the
modernization of the physical layers of some of the more popular protocols that survived the
1980's. The latest standard (IEC 1131-3) has tried to merge plc programming languages under
one international standard. We now have PLCs that are programmable in function block
diagrams, instruction lists, C and structured text all at the same time! PC's are also being used to
replace PLCs in some applications. The original company who commissioned the MODICON
084 has actually switched to a PC based control system.

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A programmable logic controller consists of the following components:-
Central Processing Unit (CPU). Memory. Input modules. Output modules and Power supply. A
PLC hardware block diagram is shown in Figure. The programming terminal in the diagram is
not a part of the PLC, but it is essential to have a terminal for programming or monitoring a PLC.
In the diagram, the arrows between blocks indicate the information and power-flowing-
directions.

Fig:à ardwarelockiagram
 :-
Like other computerized devices, there is a Central Processing Unit (CPU) in a PLC. The
CPU, which is the brain of a PLC, does the following operations:
8 Updating inputs and outputs. This function allows a PLC to read the status of its input
terminals and energize or deenergize its output terminals.
8 Performing logic and arithmetic operations. A CPU conducts all the mathematic and logic
operations involved in a PLC.
* Communicating with memory. The PLCâÄ¢s programs and data are stored in memory. When
a PLC is operating, its CPU may read or change the contents of memory locations.
* Scanning application programs. An application program, which is called a ladder logic
program, is a set of instructions written by a PLC programmer. The scanning function allows the
PLC to execute the application program as specified by the programmer.
* Communicating with a programming terminal. The CPU transfers program and data between
itself and the programming terminal. A PLC CPU is controlled by operating system software.
The operating system software is a group of supervisory programs that are loaded and stored
permanently in the PLC memory by the PLC manufacturer.

.63 

Memory is the component that stores information, programs, and data in a PLC. The process of
putting new information into a memory location is called writing. The process of retrieving
information from a memory location is called reading. The common types of memory used in
PLCs are Read Only Memory (ROM) and Random Access Memory (RAM). A ROM location
can be read, but not written. ROM is used to store programs and data that should not be altered.
For example, the PLCs operating programs are stored in ROM.
A RAM location can be read or written. This means the information stored in a RAM location
can be retrieved and/or altered. Ladder logic programs are stored in RAM. When a new ladder
logic program is loaded into a PLCs memory, the old program that was stored in the same
locations is over-written and essentially erased. The memory capacities of PLCs vary. Memory
capacities are often expressed in terms of kilo-bytes (K). One byte is a group of 8 bits. One bit is
a memory location that may store one binary number that has the value of either 1 or 0. (Binary
numbers are addressed in Module 2). 1K memory means that there are 1024 bytes of RAM. 16K
memory means there are 16 x 1024 =16384 bytes of RAM.

&+.-%&.+.-3
A PLC is a control device. It takes information from inputs and
makes decisions to energize or de-energize outputs. The decisions are made based on the statuses
of inputs and outputs and the ladder logic program that is being executed. The input devices
used with a PLC include pushbuttons, limit switches, relay contacts, photo sensors, proximity
switches, temperature sensors, and the like. These input devices can be AC (alternating current)
or DC (direct current). The input voltages can be high or low. The input signals can be digital or
analog. Differing inputs require different input modules. An input module provides an interface
between input devices and a PLCs CPU, which uses only a low DC voltage. The input
moduleâÄ¢s function is to convert the input signals to DC voltages that are acceptable to the
CPU. Standard discrete input modules include 24 V AC, 48 V AC, 120 V AC, 220 V AC, 24 V
DC, 48 V DC, 120 V DC, 220 V DC, and transistor-transistor logic (TTL) level.
The devices controlled by a PLC include relays, alarms, solenoids, fans, lights, and motor
starters. These devices may require different levels of AC or DC voltages. Since the signals
processed in a PLC are low DC voltages, it is the function of the output module to convert PLC
control signals to the voltages required by the controlled circuits or devices. Standard discrete
output modules include 24 V AC, 48 V AC, 120 V AC, 220 V AC, 24 V DC, 48 V DC, 120 V
DC, 220 V DC, and TTL level.

.7++-63 

PLCs are powered by standard commercial AC power lines. However, many PLC components,
such as the CPU and memory, utilize 5 volts or another level of DC power. The PLC power
supply converts AC power into DC power to support those components of the PLC.




.0%&0&%-3 
-A PLC requires a programming terminal and programming software for operation. The
programming terminal can be a dedicated terminal or a generic computer purchased anywhere.
The programming terminal is used for programming the PLC and monitoring the PLCs
operation. It may also download a ladder logic program (the sending of a program from the
programming terminal to the PLC) or upload a ladder logic program (the sending of a program
from the PLC to the programming terminal). The terminal uses programming software for
programming and talking to a PLC.

! 
  3 

Bringing input signal status to the internal memory of CPU


* The field signals are connected to the I/P module. At the output of I/P module the field status
converted into the voltage level required by the CPU is always available.
*At the beginning of each cycle the CPU brings in all the field I/P signals from I/P module &
stores into its internal memory called as PII, meaning process image input.
*The programmable controller operates cyclically meaning when complete program has been
scanned; it starts again at the beginning of the program.

I/O BUS:-
A PLC works by continually scanning a program. We can think of this scan cycle as consisting
of 3 important steps. There are typically more than 3 but we can focus on the important parts and
not worry about the others. Typically the others are checking the system and updating the current
internal counter and timer values.

Step 1-Check Input Status-First the PLC takes a look at each input to determine if it is on or off.
In other words, is the sensor connected to the first input on How about the second input How
about the third... It records this data into its memory to be used during the next step.
Step 2-Execute Program-Next the PLC executes your program one instruction at a time. Maybe
your program said that if the first input was on then it should turn on the first output. Since it
already knows which inputs are on/off from the previous step it will be able to decide whether
the first output should be turned on based on the state of the first input. It will store the execution
results for use later during the next step.
Step 3-Update Output Status-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs. It updates the
outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step and the results of executing your
program during the second step. Based on the example in step 2 it would now turn on the first
output because the first input was on and your program said to turn on the first output when this
condition is true.Process Control and Automation Process Control

The process of recognizing the state of the process at all times, analyze the information
according to the set rules and guidelines and accordingly actuate the control elements is referred
to as process control.

 

 3

In control of process all these actions can be taken manually with human involvement or in a
semiautomatic or fully automatic manner. Automation -Automation is basically the delegation of
human control functions to technical equipment aimed towards achieving:
- Higher-productivity.
-Superior quality of end product.
-Efficient usage of energy and raw materials.
-Improved safety in working conditions etc.
Methods adopted for Process Control and Automation
- Manual control
- Hard wired logic control
- Electronics control
-PLC control
- Manual Control
Hardwired Control
-This was considered to be the first step towards automation.
- Here the contractor & relays together with timers & counters were used.
Electronics Control
-With the advent of electronics, the logic gates started replacing the relays & auxiliary
contractors in the control circuits & timers.
- With changes, the benefits are:
1) Reduced space requirements
2) Energy saving
3) Less maintenance and hence greater reliability etc.
-With electronics, the implementation of changes in the control logic as well as reducing the
project lead-time was not possible.
Programmable Logic Controller
- With microprocessor and associated peripherals chips, the process of control and automation
went a radical change.
- Instead of achieving the desired control or automation through physical wiring of control
devices, in PLC it is through a program or software. Thus these controllers are referred to as
programmable logic controllers.
- The programmable controllers have experienced an unprecedented growth as universal element.
It can be effectively used in applications ranging from simple control like replacing small
number relays to complex automation problem.

!1   
  3

%.0,3

Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLCs. The ladder logic has been
developed to mimic relay logic. The decision to use the relay logic diagrams was a strategic one.
By selecting ladder logic as the main programming method, the amount of retraining needed for
engineers and trades people was greatly reduced.
Modern control systems still include relays, but these are rarely used for logic. A relay is a
simple device that uses a magnetic field to control a switch, as pictured in Fig. When a voltage is
applied to the input coil, the resulting current creates a magnetic field. The magnetic field pulls a
metal switch (or reed) towards it and the contacts touch, closing the switch. The contact that
closes when the coil is energized is called normally open. The normally closed contacts touch
when the input coil is not energized. Relays are normally drawn in schematic form using a circle
to represent the input coil. The output contacts are shown with two parallel lines. Normally open
contacts are shown as two lines, and will be open (non-conducting) when the input is not
energized. Normally closed contacts are shown with two lines with a diagonal line through them.
When the input coil is not energized the normally closed contacts will be closed (conducting).

Fig: Simple Relay Layouts and Schematics

Relays are used to let one power source close a switch for another (often high current) power
source, while keeping them isolated. An example of a relay in a simple control application is
shown in Figure. In this system the first relay on the left is used as normally closed, and will
allow current to flow until a voltage is applied to the input A. The second relay is normally open
and will not allow current to flow until a voltage is applied to the input B. If current is flowing
through the first two relays then current will flow through the coil in the third relay, and close the
switch for output C. This circuit would normally be drawn in the ladder logic form. This can be
read logically as C will be on if A is off and B is on.

Fig: A Simple Relay Controller


The example in Figure does not show the entire control system, but only the logic. When we
consider a PLC there are inputs, outputs, and the logic. Figure 4 shows a more complete
representation of the PLC. Here there are two inputs from push buttons. We can imagine the
inputs as activating 24V DC relay coils in the PLC. This in turn drives an output relay that
switches 115V AC that will turn on a light. Note, in actual PLCs inputs are never relays, but
outputs are often relays. The ladder logic in the PLC is actually a computer program that the user
can enter and change. Notice that both of the input push buttons are normally open, but the
ladder logic inside the PLC has one normally open contact, and one normally closed contact. Do
not think that the ladder logic in the PLC needs to match the inputs or outputs. Many beginners
will get caught trying to make the ladder logic match the input types.

Fig: A Simple Ladder Logic Diagram

There are other methods for programming PLCs. One of the earliest techniques involved
mnemonic instructions. These instructions can be derived directly from the ladder logic diagrams
and entered into the PLC through a simple programming terminal. An example of mnemonics is
shown in Figure. In this example the instructions are read one line at a time from top to bottom.
The first line 00000 has the instruction LDN (input load and not) for input A. This will examine
the input to the PLC and if it is off it will remember a 1 (or true), if it is on it will remember a 0
(or false). The next line uses an LD (input load) statement to look at the input. If the input is off
it remembers a 0, if the input is on it remembers a 1 (note: this is the reverse of the LDN).
The AND statement recalls the last two numbers remembered and if they are both true the result
is a 1; otherwise the result is a 0. This result now replaces the two numbers that were recalled,
and there is only one number remembered. The process is repeated for lines 00003 and 00004,
but when these are done there are now three numbers remembered. The oldest number is from
the AND, the newer numbers are from the two LD instructions. The AND in line 00005
combines the results from the last LD instructions and now there are two numbers remembered.
The OR instruction takes the two numbers now remaining and if either one is a 1 the result is a 1;
otherwise the result is a 0. This result replaces the two numbers, and there is now a single
number there. The last instruction is the ST (store output) that will look at the last value stored
and if it is 1, the output will be turned on; if it is 0 the output will be turned off.

,

PLC Divided into 4 parts, I/O Modules, CPU, Memory and Programming Terminal. It operates
by examining the input signals from a process and carrying out logic instructions and Producing
output signals to drive process equipment. The Standard interfaces built-in to PLC directly
connected to process actuators & transducers without the need for intermediate circuitry or
relays. It requires short installation & commissioning times and it has Specific features for
industrial control:

1. Noise immune equipment


2. Modular plug-in construction
3. Standard I/O connections & signal levels
4. Easily understood programming language
5. Ease of programming & reprogramming in-plant
6. Capable of communicating with other PLCs, computers & intelligent devices
7. Competitive in both cost & space occupied with relay & solid-state logic systems

%:
áY The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armored for severe condition
(dust, moisture, heat, cold, etc) and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O)
arrangements.
áY These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators.
áY PLCs read limit switches, analog process variables (such as temperature and pressure),
and the positions of complex positioning systems. Some even use machine vision.
áY On the actuator side, PLCs operate electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders,
magnetic relays or solenoids, or analog outputs
áY . The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple PLC, or the PLC may have
external I/O modules attached to a computer network that plugs into the PLC.

Fig. Of PLC


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  3 

lY Cost effective for controlling complex system.


Smaller physical size than hard-wired solutions.
Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly.
PLCs have integrated diagnostics and override functions.
Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control.
Diagnostics are centrally available.
Troubleshooting aids make programming easier and
reduce downtime.
Applications can be immediately documented.
Applications can be duplicated faster and less
expensively.
Reliable components make these likely operate for
several years successfully.
Communication is possibilities.

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  3 

Programmable controllers are not equipped with enough memory to store big amounts of
data.
In this field the communication system need to be more developed.









  

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The software design and simulation part of the whole project is done by using the software
³WPÊ´. This software is used to design the ladder diagram of the overall project simulation in
order to study it`s behaviour.The ladder design hence obtained is downloaded into the PLC CPU
and thereby generating appropriate output signals required for the simulation.

! %./ /.&.7

WPL for Windows is the Programming and Debugging Tool for DELTA Master-K Series.
WPL for Windows has abundant Features as below.

( .0%.+%-7&î % .

A user can use the Program (*.PGM) created in DELTA Master-K Series for the Program
created in other DELTA Master-K Series As well. The Program, Parameter or
Variable/Comment created in WPL-DOS or GSIWPL can be also used in WPL for Windows.

!( 6.&/0%.&6 .9,,


WPL for Windows manages the User-Defined Program as one Project including Parameter and
Variable/Comment. Also a user can save a Program (*.PRG), Parameter (*.PMT), Variable
(*.VAR) or Comment (*.CNT) respectively and the stored each File can be used for other
Project files.

( &-6&/%,
Easy and useful interface for Creating, Editing and Monitoring.
( &-&&0

A Real Time Editing is available in online mode. The Program edited in the online condition can
be downloaded automatically without stopping PLC Hardware.

1( .&.&0*&/.%.&/. 

A user can easily monitor PLC status such as Error Status, Network Information and System
Status.

"(î00&0%&-/ %0&.'&
7  (

Trigger and Forced I/O Enable are available for the accurate Debugging

!!
   

%&0%% .0%
ҏThis chapter describes creating a program in Ladder Window using the Tool Bar.

UAfter selecting the Normally Open Contact icon in the Ladder Tool Bar, Move the cursor to the
place to insert the Contact.
UClick the left button of the mouse or press Enter key, then the contact input dialog box appears.

UҏType in the contact name (M0000) you want to insert and click OK button or press Enter key.


UҏSelect the Output Coil icon in the Ladder Tool Bar and move the cursor to the next column of
P000

.
Click the mouse button or press Enter key.
UType in the Output Coil (P040) and click OK button or press Enter key.

Create a Project


.% .9,3 
UҏA Project is the highest level to communicate with PLC and WPL for Windows.
A Project consists of Program, Parameter and Variable/Comment of Device.

U for Windows deals with User Defined Programs and includes all elements necessary for
describing a Project.
UҏA Project consists of 3 Items (Program, Parameter and Variable/Comment) and Monitoring is
activated when the Monitoring Window is opened. Each Item can be saved respectively for
another Project.
USaved Items (Program, Parameter and Variable/Comment) can be used for creating other
Projects or to reuse for other Projects.
UA Project includes not only Program, Parameter and Variable/Comment, but also PLC type,
used status of WPL and various information registered for monitoring. Thus, when you reopen
the Project after saving a Project, the Window keeps the previous working condition.
UҏOnly Program and Parameters can be downloaded to PLC.
UҏA Project is saved as *.PRJ File.

!  
UҏTo create a New Project file, Select File--New Project« ( ) from the Project pull-down Menu.
The New Project dialog box will appear as below.

UҏOpen a Blank Project


UIt creates a new Project.
UCreate from Old Files
UTo create a New Project using the already existed Item (Program or Parameters or
Variable/Comment),
Select Item or items to be used by clicking the Find button in the dialog box.

UClick OK button after registering Items.


UҏUp to 3 items can be selected and non-selected items are set to default (Initial data).
UҏAfter selecting PLC Type and Programming Language, press the OK button. Then Project,
Message and Program Windows will be opened.
UCreate from DOS WPL file
UҏTo create a New Project using Items (Program, Parameter and Variable/Comment) created in
WPL for DOS,
Select PLC Type and Programming Language after selecting already created Items in KGL for
DOS. Then, a New
Project will be opened.
UҏCreate from WPL file
UҏTo create a New Project from WPL file, Select already created files (*.PGM, *.CMT) from
GSIWPL in the dialog box and select PLC Type and Programming Language.





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The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is
linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage
over linear temperature sensors calibrated in °Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a
large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling.
%3
×Y Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
×Y Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
×Y 0.5°C accuracy guarantee able (at +25°C)
×Y Rated for full í55° to +150°C range
×Y Suitable for remote applications
×Y Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
×Y Operates from 4 to 30 volts
×Y Less than 60 ȝA current drain
×Y Low self-heating, 0.08°C in still air
×Y Nonlinearity only ±1»4°C typical
×Y Low impedance output, 0.1 ҏfor 1 mA load













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Supply Voltage +35V to í0.2V
Output Voltage +6V to í1.0V
Output Current 10 mA
Storage Temp. TO-220 Package í65°C to +150°C
Lead Temp. TO-92 and TO-220 Package, 260°C.
(Soldering, 10 seconds)

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This monolithic integrated circuit is an adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulator designed
to supply more than 1.5A of load current with an output voltage adjustable over a 1.2V to 37V. It
employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down and safe area compensation.

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×Y Output Current In Excess of 1.5A
×Y Output Adjustable Between 1.2V and 37V
×Y Internal Thermal Overload Protection
×Y Internal Short Circuit Current Limiting
×Y Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Compensation
.- %:%&03
Input-Output Voltage Differential - 40 V.
Operating Junction Temperature Range - 0 ~ +125 °C
Storage Temperature Range -65 ~ +125 °C.
Temperature Coefficient of Output Voltage ±0.02 % /°C
.
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The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed output voltages
making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting,
thermal shut down and safe operating area
protection, making it essentially
indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is
provided, they can deliver over 1A output
current. Although designed primarily as
fixed voltage regulators, these devices can
be used with external components to obtain
adjustable voltages and currents.


%
×Y Output current in excess of 1A
×Y Internal thermal overload protection
×Y No external components required
×Y Output transistor safe area protection
×Y Internal short circuit current limit
×Y Available in the aluminum TO-3 package
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×Y LM7805C 5V
×Y LM7812C 12V
×Y LM7815C 15V

.- %:%&03

Input Voltage (For VO = 5V to 18V) 35V.
(For VO = 24V) 40V.
Thermal Resistance Junction-Cases (TO-220) 5 >C/W.
Thermal Resistance Junction-Air (TO-220) 65 >C/W.
Operating Temperature Range (KA78XX/A/R) 0 ~ +125 >C.
Storage Temperature Range - -65 ~ +150 >C.

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The HCF4093B is a monolithic integrated circuit fabricated in Metal Oxide
Semiconductor technology available in DIP and SOP packages. The HCF4093B type consists of
four Schmitt trigger circuits. Each circuit functions as a two input NAND gate with Schmitt
trigger action on both inputs. The gate switches at different points for positive and negative
going signals. The difference between the positive voltage (VP) and the negative voltage (VN) is
defined as hysteresis voltage (VH).






%3
×Y SCHMITT TRIGGER
ACTION ON EACH
INPUT WITH NO
EXTERNAL
COMPONENTS
×Y HYSTERESIS
VOLTAGE TYPICALLY
0.9V at VDD = 5V AND
2.3V at VDD = 10V
×Y NOISE IMMUNITY
GREATER THAN
50%OF VDD (Typ.)
×Y NO LIMIT ON INPUT RISE AND FALL TIMES
×Y QUIESCENT CURRENT SPECIFIED UP TO 20V
×Y STANDARDIZED SYMMETRICAL OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
×Y 5V, 10V AND 15V PARAMETRIC RATINGS
×Y INPUT LEAKAGE CURRENT II = 100nA (MAX) AT VDD = 18V TA = 25°C
×Y 100% TESTED FOR QUIESCENT CURRENT.






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Supply Voltage -0.5 to +22 V
DC Input Voltage -0.5 to VDD + 0.5 V
DC Input Current ± 10 mA
Power Dissipation per Package 200 mW
Power Dissipation per Output Transistor 100 mW
Operating Temperature -55 to +125 °C
Storage Temperature -65 to +150 °C








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1 3

1.. Rectifier is a device which offers a low resistance to the current in one direction and a
high resistance in the opposite direction.
2. Such a device is capable of converting A.C. voltage into a pulsating D.C. voltage.
3. The rectifier employs one or more diodes. It may be either a vacuum diode or a
semiconductor diode.
4. There are three types:
1. Half wave rectifier
2. Full wave rectifier
3. Bridge rectifier

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1. Bridge rectifier is a full wave rectifier. It consists of four diodes , arranged in the form
of a bridge .
2. It utilizes the advantages of the full wave rectifier and at the same time it eliminates
the need for a centre tapped transformer.
3.Y The supply input and the rectified output are the two diagonally opposite
Terminals of the bridge
4. During the positive half cycle, the secondary terminal A is positive with respect to
Terminal B.
5. Now the diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and hence do not conduct.
6. The current flows from terminal A to terminal B through D1, load resistance RL and
the diode D3 and then through the secondary of the transformer.
7. During the negative half cycle, terminal B is positive with respect to point A.
8. Now diodes D2 and D4 are forward biased and hence conduct.
9. Diode D1 and D3 are reversed biased and hence do not conduct.
10. The current flows from terminal B to terminal A through diode D2, the load
resistance RL and diode D4 and then through the secondary of the transformer.
11. On both positive and negative half cycles of the A.C. input, the current flows through
the load resistance RL in the same direction.
12. The polarity of the voltage developed across RL is such that the end connected to the
Junction of the diodes D1 and D2 will be positive.

Fig. Of Bridge rectifier





1! 3

1. Output from the rectifier unit having harmonic contents , so we can provided the filter
circuit, filter circuit is used to reduce the harmonics.
2. Here we can use the electrolytic capacitor.
3. This eliminates the harmonics from both voltage and current signals.

Fig of filter

1  3
1 .Voltage regulator is used to maintain the constant voltage with the variation of the
supply voltage and the load current,
2 .When specifying individual ICs within this family, the xx is replaced with a two-digit
number, which indicates the output voltage the particular device is designed to provide
(for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts).
3. The 78xx line are positive voltage regulators, meaning that they are designed to
produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground.

Fig. Of voltage regulator

1  3



A voltage regulator circuit provides a fixed value of voltage for particular values of circuit
components. A 12 volt DC voltage circuit can be designed by connecting a 230:12 volt
transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit and a capacitor, an IC7812.The transform gives 12 volt AC
output which is rectified by bridge circuit, a capacitor is used to bypass the AC component and
the IC7812 is used to provide constant 12 volt output which is use to drive other instruments.
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A 

 or + is an audio signaling device. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include
alarms, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.

TYPES OF BUZZER:
1.Y Mechanical
2.Y Electromechanical
3.Y Piezoelectric


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A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer.\

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Early devices were based on an electromechanical system identical to an electric bell
without the metal gong. Similarly, a relay may be connected to interrupt its own actuating
current, causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling to use
it as a sounding board. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that electromechanical
buzzers made.

 
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A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio
signal source, driven with a piezoelectric audio amplifier. Sounds commonly used to indicate
that a button has been pressed are a click, a ring or a beep.
Fig. Of buzzers



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Fig. Of electronic buzzer(PS1420P02CT)




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‡ Low frequency tone(2kHz).


‡ Suitable for automatic radial taping machine(15mm-pitch).YY


  

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1. Sound pressure:70dBA,10cm min.[at 2kHz, 5V0-P rectangular wave,


measuring temperature: 25±5°C,humidity: 60±10%]

2.Temperature range:
Operating ±20 to +70°C
Storage ±30 to +80°C

3.Maximum input voltage 30V0-P max. [without DC bias]

4.Minimum delivery unit 1750 pieces [350 pieces/1 reel×5 reels]

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A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The
valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the
flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the
two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold.

Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut
off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids
offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the
materials used, low control power and compact design.

Besides the plunger-type actuator which is used most frequently, pivoted-armature actuators and
rocker actuators are also used.




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A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid converts
electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn, opens or closes the valve mechanically.
A direct acting valve has only a small flow circuit, shown within section E of this diagram (this
section is mentioned below as a pilot valve). This diaphragm piloted valve multiplies this small
flow by using it to control the flow through a much larger orifice.

Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have electrical interfaces to
allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold the valve opened or closed while the valve
is not activated

 
Fig. Of SOLONIOD VALVE
  

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Most of the sensor placed inside the water cause electrolytic reaction between liquid and sensor
causing loss of effectiveness. One solution to this problem is to ensure an AC potential rather
than DC potential between the electrodes. The constant reversal of electrode polarity drastically
inhibits the electrolytic process so that corrosion is considerable reduced and effectiveness
doesn¶t hampered.
In this liquid level sensor AC is generated by an oscillator by connecting a capacitor (C1) to the
input of IC4093 (a NAND) gate and proving a feedback through the resistor (R1). This AC
current is given to the capacitor (C4) to charge up through the AC coupled capacitors C2 and C3.
Between C2 and C3 two sensor electrodes are placed so that when the liquid touches the
electrode, a conducting path is being created by the liquid so that C4 can be charged. Two diodes
D1 and D2 provide blockage to discharge capacitor C4. This high input of the charged capacitor
C4 is given to the IC4093 whose output is used to drive the base of transistor BC557. A relay is
connected to ground through BC557. As the transistor is driven by IC4093 which drive relay in
and the 230 volt ac output of relay is used to drive the motor.

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7. 3
The 2nd stage of the project is to be done in the successive semester.
2nd stage of the project involves:
1.Y Designing the pressure sensor circuit

2.Y Interfacing of sensors with the plc trainer kit.

3.Y Implementing the software program.

4.Y Construction of boiler setup & incorporation of the sensor within the boiler.


 


¦.Y  35 àrecision entigrade Temerature Sensors, National semiconductors, November


± 2000.
2.Y 

Series Voltage Regulators, National semiconductors, ay ± 2000.


3.Y User anual for à  Trainer Kit, àrogrammable logic controller Wà for windows
[ STERK Series].
4.Y www.fairchildsemi.com




 î3       c3

MS. T.MANJULA DHIRAJ KUMAR (348074013


Md. ASRARUL HAQUE (348074017)
GAURI SHANKAR KUMAR (348074030)