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By: Agrata Pandey.


Lecturer
SRMCEM,Lucknow.
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ð ¢n the basis of ÷    :


1. Domestic and international tourists.

ð |ourists can also be classified by µ




^ category:
1. Leisure and recreation-including holiday,
sports and cultural tourism and VFR^S.
2. ¢ther tourism purposes-including health
tourism.
3. Business and professional-including
meetings, conferences, business tourism
etc.
ð |here are other ways to classify tourists as
well.
ð |hese range from lifestyles to personalities,
to their perception of risk to familiarity etc.
ë  
ð Cohen (1972) believed :
1. ÷   and
 ÷÷

were essential to
the tourist experience.

2. At the same time, tourists need some


familiar services or another person from
their home country as they would not place
themselves in a totally alien environment.
ð Cohen identified a typology of four tourist
roles by considering novelty and familiarity,
namely:
ð |  ÷ 



ð   ÷  



ð    ÷
ð   .
ð |he first two types were grouped as
÷
  ÷  

,

ð |he latter two were grouped as ÷÷


÷
  ÷  

.
ð Eric Cohen discuses the idea that tourists bring
a bubble of their own culture with them.

ð When tourists travels they want to visit an


exotic place that is new and exotic and provide
them with an experience different from their
boring lives back home.

ð However, many tourists want the comforts of


their own culture to be where they are visiting.
| Y  

 Y 

ð Least adventurous

ð Confined to his environmental bubble.

ð Prefer guided tours, air-conditioned bus with fixed


itinerary

ð need of        and minimum novelty.


|    

 Y 

ð á 
     in his time and itinerary
and so his tour is not well preplanned.

ð He would make the major arrangements through


a travel agent, as familiarity is dominant in his
total trip experience.
ð He still accepts somehow the experience of
novelty.
| Y 
ð |ries to leave the environmental bubble by associating
himself with the local people visited and the language
they spoke.

ð However,
   
to avoid too rough a visiting
experience, and therefore he ÷ ÷

     ÷ ÷   
 ÷
  ÷.

ð |he novelty dominates, but some basic routines and


comforts of the native way of life are retained.
|   
ð Most adventurous and feels at ease with strangeness.

ð |he drifter keeps only the basics and essentials for travel.

ð Plans the trip wholly on his own

ð |otal immersion in the host culture.

ð May share the shelter, take the food and adopt the habit the locals
have.

ð Novelty is at the highest, familiarity disappears almost completely.


i 


   ÷

ð Stanley Plog developed a model organizing tourists


into personality types and what destinations they are
most likely to travel to.

ð He broke these tourists into two broad groups:


1. Allocentrics and
2. Psychocentrics.
á   

ð Allocentric tourists are more likely to stay off


the beaten path of other tourists.
ð |hey are the ones who are out looking for
places that are new and provide the novelty
and escape from the confusion and boredom
of life.
ð |hese tourists are the ones who are :
1. intellectually curious,
2. moderate risk takers,
3. use disposable income,
4. try new products,
5. feel in control,
6. relatively anxiety-free,
7. adventurous,
8. prefer non-touristy areas
9. enjoy the sense of discovery
10. delight in new experiences before others visit the
area.
áY 
ð |his tourist selects destinations that are much more risky; they
do not prefer a structured itinerary and focus on others.

ð |he allocentric enjoys risk-taking.

ð |he allocentric also prefers the exotic destination, and is open to


others.
ð á ÷ 

ð †ndividuals who are self-confident, curious, adventurous


and outgoing

ð Preference for non-touristy areas. A delight in new


experiences

ð Preference for novel destinations and high level of


activities

ð Willing to accept different accommodation and food

ð Preference for µfree^ time and being on their own

ð Would love to be µfirst^


i
 Y 

ð |his personality type is conservative, travels to


"safe" destinations and prefers a structured
destination, as well as, itinerary.
ð |hey are anticipating no surprises and become
agitated if there are any.
i   

ð |hese tourists are the ones who are :

1. intellectually restricted,
2. low-risk taking,
3. use well known brands,
4. territory bound,
5. sense of powerlessness,
6. anxiety/nervousness,
7. non-adventurous,
8. prefer the familiar in travel destinations and like the
commonplace activities in travel destinations.
ð i
 ÷ 

ð |÷÷  ÷ 

  ÷  ÷÷
 ÷

ð ÷÷
 

ð i÷÷    

÷÷ ÷

  ÷
ð    ÷ ÷

   
 

ð i÷     
  ÷

÷



ð i 
÷ ÷ 
  ÷ 
    ÷ ÷
  ÷
ð Psychocentrics on the other hand are more likely
to go on cruises and go to areas that are heavy
tourist attractions, for instance, Disney World.
ð Within these characteristics there are extremes
in both Allocentrics and Psychocentrics.
ð |hey are placed on a bell curve with
Psychocentrics on one end and Allocentrics on
the other.
ð †n the middle of the bell curve there are mid-
centric people possessing both allocentric and
psychocentric traits.
ð At one extreme are psychocentric travelers, described
by Plog as "self inhibited, nervous, and non-
adventuresome," preferring the "familiar" in vacation-
travel destinations.
ð At the other end are the outgoing and self-confident
allocentrics, who "want to see and do new things, and
to explore the world."
ð †n between, we find the majority of travelers, classified
by Plog as mid-centric, along with near-psychocentric
and near-allocentric travelers.
ð Mid-centric travelers lean in neither the tried-and-true
direction of the psychocentrics nor the variety-seeking
direction of the allocentrics. |hose with near-
allocentric tendencies are among the first major wave
of adopters, after a destination has been found by the
allocentrics, while the near psychocentrics are most
likely to try a destination after it has been well traveled.