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By: Agrata Pandey.


ð ¢n the basis of ÷    :

1. Domestic and international tourists.

ð |ourists can also be classified by µ

^ category:
1. Leisure and recreation-including holiday,
sports and cultural tourism and VFR^S.
2. ¢ther tourism purposes-including health
3. Business and professional-including
meetings, conferences, business tourism
ð |here are other ways to classify tourists as
ð |hese range from lifestyles to personalities,
to their perception of risk to familiarity etc.
ð Cohen (1972) believed :
1. ÷   and

were essential to
the tourist experience.

2. At the same time, tourists need some

familiar services or another person from
their home country as they would not place
themselves in a totally alien environment.
ð Cohen identified a typology of four tourist
roles by considering novelty and familiarity,
ð |  ÷ 

ð   ÷  

ð    ÷
ð   .
ð |he first two types were grouped as


ð |he latter two were grouped as ÷÷


ð Eric Cohen discuses the idea that tourists bring
a bubble of their own culture with them.

ð When tourists travels they want to visit an

exotic place that is new and exotic and provide
them with an experience different from their
boring lives back home.

ð However, many tourists want the comforts of

their own culture to be where they are visiting.
| Y  


ð Least adventurous

ð Confined to his environmental bubble.

ð Prefer guided tours, air-conditioned bus with fixed


ð need of        and minimum novelty.



ð á 
     in his time and itinerary
and so his tour is not well preplanned.

ð He would make the major arrangements through

a travel agent, as familiarity is dominant in his
total trip experience.
ð He still accepts somehow the experience of
| Y 
ð |ries to leave the environmental bubble by associating
himself with the local people visited and the language
they spoke.

ð However,
to avoid too rough a visiting
experience, and therefore he ÷ ÷

     ÷ ÷   

ð |he novelty dominates, but some basic routines and

comforts of the native way of life are retained.
ð Most adventurous and feels at ease with strangeness.

ð |he drifter keeps only the basics and essentials for travel.

ð Plans the trip wholly on his own

ð |otal immersion in the host culture.

ð May share the shelter, take the food and adopt the habit the locals

ð Novelty is at the highest, familiarity disappears almost completely.



ð Stanley Plog developed a model organizing tourists

into personality types and what destinations they are
most likely to travel to.

ð He broke these tourists into two broad groups:

1. Allocentrics and
2. Psychocentrics.

ð Allocentric tourists are more likely to stay off

the beaten path of other tourists.
ð |hey are the ones who are out looking for
places that are new and provide the novelty
and escape from the confusion and boredom
of life.
ð |hese tourists are the ones who are :
1. intellectually curious,
2. moderate risk takers,
3. use disposable income,
4. try new products,
5. feel in control,
6. relatively anxiety-free,
7. adventurous,
8. prefer non-touristy areas
9. enjoy the sense of discovery
10. delight in new experiences before others visit the
ð |his tourist selects destinations that are much more risky; they
do not prefer a structured itinerary and focus on others.

ð |he allocentric enjoys risk-taking.

ð |he allocentric also prefers the exotic destination, and is open to

ð á ÷ 

ð †ndividuals who are self-confident, curious, adventurous

and outgoing

ð Preference for non-touristy areas. A delight in new


ð Preference for novel destinations and high level of


ð Willing to accept different accommodation and food

ð Preference for µfree^ time and being on their own

ð Would love to be µfirst^


ð |his personality type is conservative, travels to

"safe" destinations and prefers a structured
destination, as well as, itinerary.
ð |hey are anticipating no surprises and become
agitated if there are any.

ð |hese tourists are the ones who are :

1. intellectually restricted,
2. low-risk taking,
3. use well known brands,
4. territory bound,
5. sense of powerlessness,
6. anxiety/nervousness,
7. non-adventurous,
8. prefer the familiar in travel destinations and like the
commonplace activities in travel destinations.
ð i

ð |÷÷  ÷ 

  ÷  ÷÷

ð ÷÷

ð i÷÷    

÷÷ ÷

ð    ÷ ÷


ð i÷     


ð i 
÷ ÷ 
    ÷ ÷
ð Psychocentrics on the other hand are more likely
to go on cruises and go to areas that are heavy
tourist attractions, for instance, Disney World.
ð Within these characteristics there are extremes
in both Allocentrics and Psychocentrics.
ð |hey are placed on a bell curve with
Psychocentrics on one end and Allocentrics on
the other.
ð †n the middle of the bell curve there are mid-
centric people possessing both allocentric and
psychocentric traits.
ð At one extreme are psychocentric travelers, described
by Plog as "self inhibited, nervous, and non-
adventuresome," preferring the "familiar" in vacation-
travel destinations.
ð At the other end are the outgoing and self-confident
allocentrics, who "want to see and do new things, and
to explore the world."
ð †n between, we find the majority of travelers, classified
by Plog as mid-centric, along with near-psychocentric
and near-allocentric travelers.
ð Mid-centric travelers lean in neither the tried-and-true
direction of the psychocentrics nor the variety-seeking
direction of the allocentrics. |hose with near-
allocentric tendencies are among the first major wave
of adopters, after a destination has been found by the
allocentrics, while the near psychocentrics are most
likely to try a destination after it has been well traveled.