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# Distance Protection (3)

(21Z)
ZULKARNAIN BIN ISHAK
TECHNICAL EXPERT
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
TNB TRANSMISSION
Directional Decision by
Phase Angle Comparison (2)

## OPERATION when S2 is within ±90° of S1 :-

S2
Directional element is actually S2
power measuring device
which utilized the phase S2
relationship between system
voltage and current to
determine the current flow S2

direction. S1

Power equation
P =VI Cos (θ) S2

## 90>θ>270 = +ve value (Forward) S2

270>θ>90 = -ve value (Reverse) S2
Directional Decision by
Phase Angle Comparison (2)

S2
S2

S2

## 270>θ>90 = -ve value (Reverse)

S2
S1

S2

S2
S2
Contents – Part 3
9Distance Teleprotection Scheme
9Under-reach and Over-reach Effect
9Setting Calculation Example
9Voltage Transformer Supervision (VTS) Function
9Switch On To Fault (SOTF) Function
9Power Swing Blocking (PSB) Function
9.0 Distance
Teleprotection Scheme
XPermissive Underreach Scheme

## XPermissive Overreach Scheme

XBlocking Scheme
Permissive Underreach
Scheme
Teleprotection
– Distance with Communication Signal

## X Communication signal provides various scheme

to enhance the reliability of the distance
protection relay. Scheme also knows as tele-
protection scheme.

## XPermissive Over-reach (PUR)

XBlocking Scheme
Permissive Underreach Scheme

X Applying basic step distance will caused the last 10-20% of line
not covered by Zone 1 (Instantaneous tripping).

## X Fault within the last 10%-20 will be covered by Zone 2 - back-

up (delayed operation).

## X Need fast fault clearance.

Z2G
Z1G
K H

J G
Z1H
F Z2G
Permissive Underreach Scheme

## X PUR utilized the underreach zone (Zone1) to issue permissive

signal for instantaneous operation of the Zone 2 at remote end
station.
X Permissive Underreach (PUR) scheme accelerate the fault
isolation.
Z2G
Z1G
K H

J G
Z1H
F Z2G
Signal
send
Z1
Tx Signal
send
Tx Z1

Z2 Z2T 0 Z2
Z2T 0

Z3T 0 Z3
Z3 Z3T 0 ≥1 Trip Trip ≥1
Signal
0 T & & 0 T Signal
Rx Rx
Permissive Underreach Scheme

## z Race between pick up

A B
of relay at D and
resetting of signal send
C D
from relay at C,
following opening of
21
Fault
21
breaker at C
Send Rx + Z2

A B
z If signal send from C
resets before relay D
operates then aided
C D tripping will not occur
Fault
21 21 z To prevent this a
Rx + Z2 delayed on drop off
(normally 100ms) of the
signal send is used in
the scheme logic
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip -

## X Scheme is very secure as signalling channel only

keyed for internal fault (Zone 1 initiation)
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip

## X If one terminal of the line is open then only Basic

scheme logic will apply

## X If there is a weak infeed at one terminal then only

Basic scheme logic will apply. i.e. sequential
operation. (Slow fault clearance).

## X If signalling channel fails then only Basic scheme

logic will apply.

## X Resistive coverage is governed by Zone 1 setting

(may be limited on short lines)
Permissive Overreach
Scheme
POR

## X Application of PUR is not possible for feeder where

minimum Zone 1 setting will encroach into next adjacent
line, e.g. with short line length. (Relay setting limitation.)
Z2J

Z1H Z1J
H K L

G J
F
Z1K

Z2K

## X Fault at F will cause uncoordinated tripping, where

circuit breaker H and K will trip simultaneously.

## X Permissive Overreach need to be used.

POR

X POR utilized the zone with overreach setting (e.g. Zone 2) to issue
permissive signal for instantaneous operation of the distance zone at
remote end station.
X Distance relay at J and K will trip instantaneously for fault at F1.
X Without permissive signal, Zone 2 (Z2K) will operate with delayed time (e.g.
fault at F2). Z2J

H K L
G J
F2 F1

Z2K

Z1 Tx Signal Signal
send
Tx Z1
send

Z2 Z2T 0 Z2
Z2T 0

Z3T 0 Z3
Z3 Z3T 0 ≥1 Trip Trip
≥1
Signal
Rx Rx
Permissive Overreach Scheme (CB Echo Logic)
Z3

Z2

Z1

Z1

Z2

Z3

## CB open & & CB open

Rx Rx
Tx Tx
1 1 Send Logic : Z2
Trip Logic : Rx + Z2
Open terminal echo : CB Open + Rx
& &
Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3
Permissive Overreach Scheme (WI Echo Logic)

Z4
Z2

Z1

Z1
Z2
Z4

## CB open & & CB open

Rx Rx
Z4 & Tx Tx & Z4
1 1
Send Logic : Z2
Trip Logic : Rx + Z2
Open terminal echo : CB Open + Rx
& & Weak Infeed echo : Z4 + Rx
Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3
POR – Current Reversal

## X Current reversal on the paralleled circuit, which following

tripping one of the circuit breaker on the faulted circuit may
cause mal-operation of distance on the healthy circuit that lead
to unwanted tripping.

H K
H1
K1

H2
K2
Weak source Strong source
Permissive signal
POR – Current Reversal

H K
H1
K1

H2
K2
Weak source Strong source

Permissive signal
POR – Current Reversal

H K
H1
K1

H2
K2
Weak source Strong source

## X Mal-operation of distance on the healthy circuit may happen if

Zone 2 reach is set greater than 150% of the protected line
impedance

## X It is essential for distance with POR scheme to have current

reversal guard logic to prevent it from mal-operation.
POR- Current Reversal Guard

1. The timer is used to block the permissive trip and signal send
POR- Current Reversal Guard

H K
H1 K1

H2 K2
Weak source Strong source

H K
H1 K1

H2 K2

## 2. The timer is energised if a signal is received and there is no

operation of Zone 2 elements.
3. (tp) is delay on pick-up timer that usually set to allow instantaneous
tripping for any internal faults, taking into account a possible slower
operation of Zone 2.
POR- Current Reversal Guard

H K
H1 K1

H2 K2
Weak source Strong source

## 4. Pick-up of (tp) timer will blocked the ‘permissive trip’ and

‘signal send’ circuits by the time the current reversal takes
place
POR- Current Reversal Guard

H K
H1 K1

H2 K2
Weak source Strong source

## 5. The timer is de-energised if the Zone 2 element operates or the

6. The reset time delay (td) of the timer is set to cover any
overlap in time caused by Zone 2 elements operating and the
signal resetting at the remote end, when the current in the
healthy feeder reverses.
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip

## X Provides better resistive coverage, especially on short

lines, where MHO measuring elements are used

## X For cases where one line terminal is open, open breaker

echo logic can be used

## X For cases of weak or zero infeed at one line terminal weak

infeed logic can be used (reverse looking zone required)
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip

## X Scheme is theoretically less secure then PUR as signalling

channel is keyed for external faults

## X If signalling channel fails then only Basic scheme logic will

apply
Distance Blocking Scheme
Blocking Scheme - Internal Fault

transmission.

## X Permissive scheme using forward zone to transmit

signal to remote distance relay.

## X Blocking scheme using reverse Zone detection

pickup to transmit blocking signal to remote
distance relay.
Blocking Scheme - Internal Fault

Z3
Z2
Z1

Send Logic : Z3 + Z2
Z1 Trip Logic : Rx + Z2
Z2
Z3

& &
Rx Rx
Tx Tx

& &

Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3
Blocking Scheme - External Fault
Z3
Z2

Z1

Send Logic : Z3 + Z2
Trip Logic : Rx + Z2
Z1
Z2
Z3

& &
Rx Rx
Tx Tx

& &

Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3

## X Provides better resistive coverage than PUR on short lines

where MHO elements are used

X Fast tripping will still be possible at closed end of line for all
fault positions with remote breaker open

## X Fast tripping will still be possible at strong infeed terminal for

all fault positions where remote terminal has no or weak infeed

>3 Zones)

apply

## X Current sensitivity is lower as tripping elements (Z2) are

controlled by high set current level detectors (to ensure
blocking elements (Z3/Z4) are more sensitive than tripping
elements)
Permissive Schemes vs Blocking Schemes

## X Permissive less reliable - require a signal from remote relay plus

local operation to trip

prevent a trip

## X Permissive schemes are marginally faster and more sensitive

(timer plus high set current elements on Blocking scheme)
10.0 UNDER and OVER
REACH EFFECT
XUnder-Reach and Over-reach Definition

## XCurrent / Source Infeed Effect

Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault
Double Circuit

## XMutual Coupling Effect

Under-Reach and Over-reach
Definition
Under / Over Reach Effect

## X An impedance seen by the relay might differ from the calculated

values due to errors such as:

##  Those introduced by current and voltage instrument transformers,

particularly under transient conditions.

##  Inaccuracies in the line zero-sequence impedance data, and their

effect on the zero sequence-compensation setting.

 The effect of infeed between the relay and the fault location,
including the influence of different Z0/Z1 ratios of the various
sources.
Under / Over Reach Effect

Continued.

##  The phase impedance of the untransposed lines is not identical for

all fault loops. The difference between the impedances for different
phase-to-earth loops can be as large as 5-10%.

 The effect of a load transfer between the ends of the protected line.
Especially when the fault resistance is appreciable; it must be
recognized.

##  Zero-sequence mutual coupling from parallel lines.

Under-Reach Definition

ZR

## where ZR = Reach setting

ZF = Effective reach
Over-Reach

ZR

## where ZR = Reach setting

ZF = Effective reach
Current / Source Infeed Effect
Infeed Effect
Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault

ZA ZB
IA IA+IB

IB
Relay Location

IR = IA

## ZR = ZA + 1 + IB . ZB (impedance seen by relay)

IA
Relay experienced under reaching
Infeed Effect
Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault

infeed.

## Relay with setting ZA + ZB + IB . ZB will measure

IA
correctly with infeed present but if infeed is removed
the relay will overreach.

## Maximum allowable setting dictated by load

impedance
Mutual Coupling Effect
Mutual Coupling

A I B
B

Zm0

IA

RELAY F
X Most of the multi circuit lines are double circuits that operates in
parallel.

## X Mutual coupling effect produced by parallel circuits modify the

sequence impedance parameters of the circuits.

## X Mutual coupling impedance resulting from positive and negative

sequence current is generally negligible, in the order of 3% - 7% of the
conductor self-impedance.

## X However, the zero-sequence mutual impedance can be as high as 50%

to 70% of the self impedance.
Mutual Coupling

relay.

overreach.

A Z0AB- Z0m B
Z0m

Z0AB- Z0m

## a) Equivalent zero-sequence impedance for a single-phase-to-earth fault on the

adjacent busbars with both parallel circuits in operation.

X Mutual coupling reduce distance reach at one end but the same time
proportionally increase at the opposite line end.

## X Therefore, reach reduction will not affect the operation of a permissive

underreach scheme.
Mutual Coupling –
Parallel Circuit Disconnected and Earthed Both Ends
RELAY F
A Z0AB- Z0m B
IA
Z0m
Zm0
Z0AB- Z0m

A Im B

## b) Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for a single-phase-to-earth fault

on the adjacent busbars with both parallel circuit disconnected and earthed at
both ends.

## X The distance protection will tend to overreach for single-phase-to-

earth faults on the protected line when the parallel circuit is
disconnected and earthed on both ends.

## X The equivalent zero-sequence impedance is equal to the value.

Z 02AB − Z 02m
ZE =
Z 0 AB
Mutual Coupling –
Parallel Circuit Disconnected and Not Earth.

A Im B A Z0AB- Z0m B
Z0m
Zm0
Z0AB- Z0m

IA

RELAY F

## c) Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for a single-phase-to-

earth fault on the adjacent busbars with both parallel circuit
disconnected and not earthed.

## X The line zero-sequence mutual impedance will not influence the

measurement of the distance protection in a faulty circuit.
11.0 Distance Calculation
Setting Example
XMho and Off-set Mho Distance
Characteristic Setting Example

Setting Example
Mho and Off-set Mho Distance
Characteristic Setting Example
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

CT

275kV System
VT

## 1. Setting calculation for end A.

2. Line impedance
i. +ve seq. impedance, ZL1 = (0.089 + j 0.324) ohm/km
ii. zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.204 + j 0.838) ohm/km

## 3. Distance relay at A using mho characteristic.

4. Minimum fault level at bus A is 1000MVA with both +ve and
zero seq. are equal.
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

## 6. Ignore the mutual effect.

7. CT primary current rating is equal to the protected line rating

8. Setting philosophy
1. Zone 1 = 80% of protected line.
2. Zone 2 =100% of protected line + 50% of shortest adjacent line.
3. Zone 3 = 100% of protected line + 120% of longest adjacent line.
4. Zone 3 Reverse = 20% of Zone 1

rated current during adverse system conditions with 5% system
voltage drop.
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.
1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.
2. Calculate the Zero Sequence Compensation factor KN for earth fault
element.
3. Calculate the relay Zone reach setting to apply on the relay.
i. Zone 1
ii. Zone 2
iii. Zone 3
iv. Zone 3Reverse
4. Calculate relay characteristic angle for
i. Phase-phase distance element
ii. Phase-earth distance element
5. Plot the relay characteristic using positive sequence impedance
diagram.
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.
1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.
C.T. RATIO
S.I.F. =
V.T. RATIO

600/1
S.I.F. =
275kV/110V

S.I.F. = 0.24
So
Line +ve seq. impedance (secondary), ZL1 = (0.02136 + j 0.07776) ohm/km
= 0.0806∠74.64˚
Line zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.04896 + j 0.20112) ohm/km
= 0.207∠76.32˚(secondary)
2. Calculate the Zero Sequence Compensation factor KN for earth fault
element.
1 Z0 – 1
KN =
3 Z1
KN = 0.523∠2.75˚
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

3. Calculate the relay Zone reach setting to apply on the relay (secondary)
i. Zone 1 = 80% of protected line.

= 0.8 x 50 x 0.0806
= 3.224 Ω

= 7.657 Ω

= 12.7348 Ω

## iv. Zone 3R = 20% of Zone 1

= 0.2 x 3.224
= 0.6448 Ω
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.
4. i. Phase-phase distance element

∠Ø-Ø = 74.64˚

## ii. Phase-earth distance element

Angle for earth loop impedance can be calculate = Z1KN
= 0.0806∠74.64˚ x 0.52∠2.7˚
= 0.042∠77.34˚

∠Ø-E = 77.34˚
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

diagram.

## 6. Calculate minimum load impedance.

0.95x 275kV
ZLmin =
√3 x 1.5 x 600

= 167.59Ω primary

= 40.22Ω secondary
Characteristic Setting Example
Calculation Example
– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .

CT

275kV System
VT

## 1. Setting calculation for end A.

2. Line impedance
i. +ve seq. impedance, ZL1 = (0.089 + j 0.324) ohm/km
ii. zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.204 + j 0.838) ohm/km

## 3. Distance relay at A using quad. characteristic.

4. Minimum fault level at bus A is 1000MVA
Calculation Example
– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .

## 6. Ignore the mutual effect.

7. CT primary current rating is equal to the protected line rating

8. Setting philosophy
1. Zone 1 = 80% of protected line.
2. Zone 2 =100% of protected line + 50% of shortest adjacent line.
3. Zone 3 = 100% of protected line + 120% of longest adjacent line.
4. Zone 3 Reverse = 20% of Zone 1

## 9. Transmission tower construction having 7 meters minimum

separation between phase conductor and 4 meters separation
between phase and tower body. The maximum tower footing
resistance allowed is 10Ω.
Calculation Example
– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.
1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.
2. Calculate the Earth Impedance Ratio factor XE/XL; RE/RL for earth fault
element.
3. Calculate the relay Zone reach setting to apply on the relay.
i. Zone 1
ii. Zone 2
iii. Zone 3
iv. Zone 3Reverse

## 4. Plot the relay characteristic using positive sequence impedance

diagram.
Calculation Example
– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .
1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.
C.T. RATIO
S.I.F. =
V.T. RATIO

600/1
S.I.F. =
275kV/110V

S.I.F. = 0.24

So
Line +ve seq. impedance, ZL1 = (0.02136 + j 0.07776) ohm/km
= 0.0806∠74.64˚ (secondary)
Line zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.04896 + j 0.20112) ohm/km
= 0.207∠76.32˚(secondary)
Earth Impedance Ratio

## 2. Earth impedance ratio:

RE 1 ⎛ R0 ⎞
= ⋅ ⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟
RL 3 ⎝ R1 ⎠
1 ⎛ 0.04896 ⎞
= ⋅⎜ − 1⎟
3 ⎝ 0.02136 ⎠
= 0.4307Ω

XE 1 ⎛ X0 ⎞
= ⋅ ⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟
X L 3 ⎝ X1 ⎠
1 ⎛ 0.20112 ⎞
= ⋅⎜ − 1⎟
3 ⎝ 0.07776 ⎠
= 0.5288Ω
Calculation Example
– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .

## 3. Calculate the relay Zone n reactance Xn reach setting to apply on the

relay (secondary)

## i. Zone 1 = 80% of protected line.

= 0.8 x 50 x 0.0806
= 3.224 ∠74.64˚ Ω
= 0.854 + j 3.1088 Ω

X1 = 3.1088 Ω

## = (50 x 0.0806) + (0.5 x 90

x 0.0806)
= 7.657 ∠74.64˚ Ω
=2.0282 + j 7.3835 Ω
X2 = 7.3835 Ω
Calculation Example
– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic
.
iii. Zone 3 =100% of protected line + 120% of longest adjacent line

## = (50 x 0.0806) + (1.2 x 90 x

0.0806)
= 12.7348 ∠74.64˚ Ω
= 3.3475 + j 12.287 Ω

X3 = 12.287 Ω

## iv. Zone 3R = 20% of Zone 1

= 0.2 x 3.224
= 0.6448 ∠74.64˚ Ω
= 0.1708 + j 0.6218 Ω

X3R = 0.6218
Phase-phase Resistive Reach Setting

## For resistance setting in relation to overhead lines, consideration of arc

resistance is most important for phase to phase fault. The arc resistance can be
calculated using the empirical formula derived by A.R. van C. Warrington

Phase-phase Rarc
Phase-earth Rarc
28710 28710
Rarc = 1.4
⋅7 RarcE = 1.4
⋅4
2099 2099
= 4.489Ω = 2.6Ω
≈ 5.0Ω
Phase-phase Resistive Reach Setting

## Only half of the arc resistance value was used, because it is

to the impedance per phase.
1
RF 1 = R1Line + ⋅ Rarc
2
1
= 0.854 + ⋅ 5.0
2
= 3.354Ω

1
RF 2 = R2 Line + ⋅ Rarc
2
1
= 2.0282 + ⋅ 5.0
2
= 4.5282Ω
Phase-phase Resistive Reach Setting

1
RF 3 = R3 Line + ⋅ Rarc
2
1
= 3.3475 + ⋅ 5.0
2
= 5.8475Ω

1
RF 3 R = R3 RLine + ⋅ Rarc
2
1
= 0.1708 + ⋅ 5.0
2
= 2.6708Ω
Phase-earth Resistive Reach Setting

## REF 1 = R1Line + RarcE + Rtower _ footing

= 0.854 + 2.6 + 10
= 13.454Ω

## REF 2 = R2 Line + RarcE + Rtower _ footing

= 2.0282 + 2.6 + 10
= 14.6282Ω
Phase-earth Resistive Reach Setting

## REF 3 = R3 Line + RarcE + Rtower _ footing

= 3.3475 + 2.6 + 10
= 15.9475Ω

## REF 3 R = R3 RLine + RarcE + Rtower _ footing

= 0.1708 + 2.6 + 10
= 12.7708Ω
Distance Zone Characteristic
11.0 VOLTAGE SUPERVISION
(VTS)
Voltage Supervision
-ve and 0 sequence detection
External Binary Initiation
VTS Logic Diagram
Voltage Supervision

## X Distance protection measures system voltage that derive from

Voltage Transformer as one of its input for operations.

##  Numerical Distance Relay with other build in functions

z Under/Over voltage protection function
z Under/Over frequency protection function
z Synchrocheck

## X MCBs or fuses are normally used to protect the secondary wiring

between VT’s secondary terminal and relay terminal.

## X Secondary voltage signal may experienced disturbance or

interruption in the form of total lost or voltage reduction

##  Loose connection / broken conductor

 VT MCB tripped / VT Fuse blown
Voltage Supervision
External Binary Initiation

Distance Relay
CT

To relay
Terminal Block

VT MCB

VT
+ +
From VT
Voltage Supervision

## X Distance protection using voltage input to determine the

fault direction and its impedance. Disturbance on the
voltage signal will cause distance relay to mal-operate.

## X Distance employ VT Supervision (VTS) to monitor the

voltage condition inputs to the relay.

## X On detection of VT failure, tripping of the distance relay can

be blocked and/or an alarm can be given.
Voltage Supervision

##  It can operate on the basis of the zero-sequence

measuring quantities:
z a high value of voltage 3U0 without the presence of the
residual current 3I0

##  It can operate on the basis of the negative-sequence

measuring quantities:
z a high value of voltage 3U2 without the presence of the
negative-sequence current 3I2

##  It can operate only on initiation using external binary

signals from the miniature circuit breaker.
Voltage Supervision
-ve and 0 sequence detection

## X -ve and zero seq. always exist in the system

 due to different non-symmetries in the primary system
 differences in the CT & VT

X –ve seq. and zero seq. setting must always be set with a safety
margin of 10 to 20%, depending on the system operating conditions.

## X The negative sequence detection algorithm,

 used in isolated or high-impedance earthed networks.
 V2m > (3·V2 Setting) and I2m > (3·I2Setting)

## X The zero sequence detection algorithm,

 used in directly or low impedance earthed networks
 V0m > (3·V0 Setting) and I0m > (3·I0 Setting)
Voltage Supervision
Example: VTS Logic Diagram

## Example: VTS Logic Diagram

12.0 SWITCH ON TO FAULT
SOTF

## X Overhead line in the transmission always have a dedicated VT

installed on the line side of circuit breaker.

## X Energizing dead overhead line will possibly experience switch on to

a 3-phase short circuit / fault – due to earth wire not removed
following line works.

CT CT

VT VT

21Z 21Z
SOTF

terminal

##  No voltage measured by the relay

 No polarizing voltage
 No memory polarizing voltage since no voltage before and after the fault

## X Directional zones of distance relay unable to determine fault direction

and cannot operate.

## X Leaving fault to be cleared by other backup non-directional zone, thus

causes slow fault clearance.

## X Switch-On-To-Fault SOTF feature is employed by distance relay as a

complementary function for fast fault isolation which may occur when
energizing a faulted line.
SOTF

## X Using switch-onto-fault (SOTF-) function, a fast trip is achieved

for a fault on the whole line, when the line is being energized.

## X SOTF apply either or both

i. non-directional (ND) instantaneous overcurrent element
ii. ND distance zone (without time delay)
to achieve fast tripping/ fault clearance.

## X The ND distance protection zone used together with the switch-

onto-fault function shall be set to cover the entire protected
line.

## X The ND instantaneous overcurrent shall be set more than the

200% of the line rating.
SOTF

## X SOTF function will be primed after the line was identified as

dead through either line voltage check (under voltage) or
circuit breaker open position check.

## X The SOTF protection issues a three-phase tripping to the

circuit breaker for the operation of the ND an overcurrent
element or ND distance measuring elements for normally less
than 1 second after the circuit breaker is closed and/or after the
under voltage dead line detector resets.
SOTF

## Delay pickup timer

Delay drop-off timer
ON SOTF reset time
UVPP
&
t 0 0 t
UVPE
ON
CB-OP 1
UV or
CB or
Both
SOTF Trip
ON &
I>
≥1

ON
ND- Zone &

## Example SOTF Logic

13.0 POWER SWING BLOCKING
(PSB)
Power Swing Characteristic
Requirement on Power Swing Blocking
Power Swing Detection
Power Swing Impedance Locus
Power Swing with Fault Condition
Zone Blocking Selection
Power Swing Characteristic

## X Power system faults, line switching, generator disconnection and loss of

large blocks of load result in sudden change of electrical power, whereas
the mechanical power input to the generators remains relatively constant.

## X These system disturbances cause oscillations in machine rotor angles

and can result in severe power swings.

## X Power swing - load impedance seen by a distance relay move (relatively

slowly) from the load area into the distance protection operating
characteristic.
jX
Power
Swing
Locus

R
Requirement on Power Swing Blocking

## X This phenomenon appears to the distance protection measuring

elements like a three phase fault condition and may result in
tripping if no countermeasure is applied.

## X Most power swings are transient conditions from which the

power system can recover after a short period of time, and
distance protection tripping is therefore highly undesirable in
such cases.

## X Distance protection shall provides a power swing blocking

function (PSB) to prevent unwanted tripping during a power
swing.
Power Swing Detection

## X Power swings blocking function measure the impedance rate of change

dZ/dt or ΔZ/Δt and compare with a threshold value to distinguish
between short-circuit and power swings.

## X Simples method is determine the elapsed time required by the

impedance vector to pass through a zone limited by two impedance
characteristic.

## X Power Swing Characteristic shall encompass the distance zones

including the starting or fault detection characteristic with a fixed
distance of ΔZ. The time different is measured.
X Once power swing is detected, the blocking signal must be maintained
until the load impedance vector exist the starting / outer PS
characteristic.
X It is also possible to remove the blocking signal after fixed/set time
delay.
Power Swing Impedance Locus

X (1) A short-circuit, the impedance vector abruptly changes from the load
condition into this fault detection range.

X (2) A power swing, the apparent impedance vector initially enters the outer
characteristic of power swing and only later enters the fault detection range.

X (3) It is also possible that a power swing vector will enter the area of the
power swing range and leave it again without coming into contact with the
fault detection range

X (4) If the vector enters and passes through and leaving on the opposite side
of the power swing characteristic, then the sections of the network seen from
the relay location have lost synchronism
Power Swing Vector

X PS outer zone
ΔZ
PS inner zone

Zone 3
FD

Zone 2 4
ΔZ 3
Zone 1
2

1
R
Area Zone 4
ΔZ Area

ΔZ
Power Swing Vector
with MHO Distance Characteristic
jX PS Outer Zone
PS Inner Zone

Z3

4
Z2
3
Z1
2

1
ΔZ

Area
Area
Power Swing with Fault Condition

## X Blocking of the distance protection naturally involve risk,

which genuine fault during PS blocking will cause no
tripping.
X Power swing is generated by balance symmetrical three-
phase system conditions.
X Relay using unbalance system conditions or earth fault
current to remove the blocking condition immediately,
thus allow distance zones to operate for unsymmetrical
fault.
X For three-phase fault, there will be no residual current.
However, if a current jump detected due to three phase
short circuit during PS vector in side the starting zone,
the blocking condition is remove immediately.
Power Swing
Zone Blocking Selection
X It is also possible to select which zones of distance will be blocked by
PSB function, i.e. either all zones, only first zone or all zones except
first zone.

## X Sometime first zone is not blocked when it is required to trip for

unstable system conditions.

## X Blocking of the higher zones is not required when no slow PS is

expected in the system, i.e. power swing vector exists the relevant
zone before the set zone time is expired.

## X Blocking of all zones normally recommended as the course and

frequency of power swing depend on the system arrangement and
therefore never accurately be predicted in advance.