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- distance protection
- 8.Line Distance Protection
- Distance Protection Schemes
- 08-Presentation Distance Protection
- Overhead Transmission Line Distance Protection - Mutual Compensation
- 3 Distance Protection
- Distance Protection Power Swing
- MiCOM P442 setting example
- Basic principles of Distance protection
- LBB & BUSBAR
- 7sd522 Siemens Test Procedures
- 61457757 Testing of Distnce Relay Rel 670
- Resistive Reach Guidelines for Distance Protection
- Reactor Protection
- Transformer Protection Calculations
- Line Protection
- Substation Automation 1
- How to Test Distance Relay 7SA522
- Distance Protection Schemes
- Copy of Distance_setting

Sei sulla pagina 1di 93

(21Z)

ZULKARNAIN BIN ISHAK

TECHNICAL EXPERT

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

TNB TRANSMISSION

Directional Decision by

Phase Angle Comparison (2)

S2

Directional element is actually S2

power measuring device

which utilized the phase S2

relationship between system

voltage and current to

determine the current flow S2

direction. S1

Power equation

P =VI Cos (θ) S2

270>θ>90 = -ve value (Reverse) S2

Directional Decision by

Phase Angle Comparison (2)

S2

S2

S2

S2

S1

S2

S2

S2

Contents – Part 3

9Distance Teleprotection Scheme

9Under-reach and Over-reach Effect

9Setting Calculation Example

9Voltage Transformer Supervision (VTS) Function

9Switch On To Fault (SOTF) Function

9Power Swing Blocking (PSB) Function

9.0 Distance

Teleprotection Scheme

XPermissive Underreach Scheme

XBlocking Scheme

Permissive Underreach

Scheme

Teleprotection

– Distance with Communication Signal

to enhance the reliability of the distance

protection relay. Scheme also knows as tele-

protection scheme.

XBlocking Scheme

Permissive Underreach Scheme

X Applying basic step distance will caused the last 10-20% of line

not covered by Zone 1 (Instantaneous tripping).

up (delayed operation).

Z2G

Z1G

K H

J G

Z1H

F Z2G

Permissive Underreach Scheme

signal for instantaneous operation of the Zone 2 at remote end

station.

X Permissive Underreach (PUR) scheme accelerate the fault

isolation.

Z2G

Z1G

K H

J G

Z1H

F Z2G

Signal

send

Z1

Tx Signal

send

Tx Z1

Z2 Z2T 0 Z2

Z2T 0

Z3T 0 Z3

Z3 Z3T 0 ≥1 Trip Trip ≥1

Signal

receive

0 T & & 0 T Signal

receive

Rx Rx

Permissive Underreach Scheme

A B

of relay at D and

resetting of signal send

C D

from relay at C,

following opening of

21

Fault

21

breaker at C

Send Rx + Z2

A B

z If signal send from C

resets before relay D

operates then aided

C D tripping will not occur

Fault

21 21 z To prevent this a

Rx + Z2 delayed on drop off

(normally 100ms) of the

signal send is used in

the scheme logic

Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip -

Advantages

keyed for internal fault (Zone 1 initiation)

Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip

- Disadvantages

scheme logic will apply

Basic scheme logic will apply. i.e. sequential

operation. (Slow fault clearance).

logic will apply.

(may be limited on short lines)

Permissive Overreach

Scheme

POR

minimum Zone 1 setting will encroach into next adjacent

line, e.g. with short line length. (Relay setting limitation.)

Z2J

Z1H Z1J

H K L

G J

F

Z1K

Z2K

circuit breaker H and K will trip simultaneously.

POR

X POR utilized the zone with overreach setting (e.g. Zone 2) to issue

permissive signal for instantaneous operation of the distance zone at

remote end station.

X Distance relay at J and K will trip instantaneously for fault at F1.

X Without permissive signal, Zone 2 (Z2K) will operate with delayed time (e.g.

fault at F2). Z2J

H K L

G J

F2 F1

Z2K

Z1 Tx Signal Signal

send

Tx Z1

send

Z2 Z2T 0 Z2

Z2T 0

Z3T 0 Z3

Z3 Z3T 0 ≥1 Trip Trip

≥1

Signal

receive & & Signal

receive

Rx Rx

Permissive Overreach Scheme (CB Echo Logic)

Z3

Z2

Z1

Z1

Z2

Z3

Rx Rx

Tx Tx

1 1 Send Logic : Z2

Trip Logic : Rx + Z2

Open terminal echo : CB Open + Rx

& &

Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3

Permissive Overreach Scheme (WI Echo Logic)

Z4

Z2

Z1

Z1

Z2

Z4

Rx Rx

Z4 & Tx Tx & Z4

1 1

Send Logic : Z2

Trip Logic : Rx + Z2

Open terminal echo : CB Open + Rx

& & Weak Infeed echo : Z4 + Rx

Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3

POR – Current Reversal

tripping one of the circuit breaker on the faulted circuit may

cause mal-operation of distance on the healthy circuit that lead

to unwanted tripping.

H K

H1

K1

H2

K2

Weak source Strong source

Permissive signal

POR – Current Reversal

H K

H1

K1

H2

K2

Weak source Strong source

Permissive signal

POR – Current Reversal

H K

H1

K1

H2

K2

Weak source Strong source

Zone 2 reach is set greater than 150% of the protected line

impedance

reversal guard logic to prevent it from mal-operation.

POR- Current Reversal Guard

1. The timer is used to block the permissive trip and signal send

POR- Current Reversal Guard

H K

H1 K1

H2 K2

Weak source Strong source

H K

H1 K1

H2 K2

operation of Zone 2 elements.

3. (tp) is delay on pick-up timer that usually set to allow instantaneous

tripping for any internal faults, taking into account a possible slower

operation of Zone 2.

POR- Current Reversal Guard

H K

H1 K1

H2 K2

Weak source Strong source

‘signal send’ circuits by the time the current reversal takes

place

POR- Current Reversal Guard

H K

H1 K1

H2 K2

Weak source Strong source

'signal received' element resets.

6. The reset time delay (td) of the timer is set to cover any

overlap in time caused by Zone 2 elements operating and the

signal resetting at the remote end, when the current in the

healthy feeder reverses.

Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip

- Advantages

lines, where MHO measuring elements are used

echo logic can be used

infeed logic can be used (reverse looking zone required)

Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip

- Disadvantages

channel is keyed for external faults

apply

Distance Blocking Scheme

Blocking Scheme - Internal Fault

transmission.

signal to remote distance relay.

pickup to transmit blocking signal to remote

distance relay.

Blocking Scheme - Internal Fault

Z3

Z2

Z1

Send Logic : Z3 + Z2

Z1 Trip Logic : Rx + Z2

Z2

Z3

& &

Rx Rx

Tx Tx

& &

Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3

Blocking Scheme - External Fault

Z3

Z2

Z1

Send Logic : Z3 + Z2

Trip Logic : Rx + Z2

Z1

Z2

Z3

& &

Rx Rx

Tx Tx

& &

Z1 1 Trip Trip 1 Z1

Z2 T2 . . T2 Z2

Z3 T3 T3 Z3

Blocking Scheme - Advantages

where MHO elements are used

X Fast tripping will still be possible at closed end of line for all

fault positions with remote breaker open

all fault positions where remote terminal has no or weak infeed

Blocking Scheme - Disadvantages

>3 Zones)

apply

controlled by high set current level detectors (to ensure

blocking elements (Z3/Z4) are more sensitive than tripping

elements)

Permissive Schemes vs Blocking Schemes

local operation to trip

prevent a trip

(timer plus high set current elements on Blocking scheme)

10.0 UNDER and OVER

REACH EFFECT

XUnder-Reach and Over-reach Definition

Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault

Double Circuit

Under-Reach and Over-reach

Definition

Under / Over Reach Effect

values due to errors such as:

particularly under transient conditions.

effect on the zero sequence-compensation setting.

The effect of infeed between the relay and the fault location,

including the influence of different Z0/Z1 ratios of the various

sources.

Under / Over Reach Effect

Continued.

all fault loops. The difference between the impedances for different

phase-to-earth loops can be as large as 5-10%.

The effect of a load transfer between the ends of the protected line.

Especially when the fault resistance is appreciable; it must be

recognized.

Under-Reach Definition

ZR

ZF = Effective reach

Over-Reach

ZR

ZF = Effective reach

Current / Source Infeed Effect

Infeed Effect

Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault

ZA ZB

IA IA+IB

IB

Relay Location

IR = IA

IA

Relay experienced under reaching

Infeed Effect

Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault

infeed.

IA

correctly with infeed present but if infeed is removed

the relay will overreach.

impedance

Mutual Coupling Effect

Mutual Coupling

A I B

B

Zm0

IA

RELAY F

X Most of the multi circuit lines are double circuits that operates in

parallel.

sequence impedance parameters of the circuits.

sequence current is generally negligible, in the order of 3% - 7% of the

conductor self-impedance.

to 70% of the self impedance.

Mutual Coupling

relay.

overreach.

A Z0AB- Z0m B

Z0m

Z0AB- Z0m

adjacent busbars with both parallel circuits in operation.

X Mutual coupling reduce distance reach at one end but the same time

proportionally increase at the opposite line end.

underreach scheme.

Mutual Coupling –

Parallel Circuit Disconnected and Earthed Both Ends

RELAY F

A Z0AB- Z0m B

IA

Z0m

Zm0

Z0AB- Z0m

A Im B

on the adjacent busbars with both parallel circuit disconnected and earthed at

both ends.

earth faults on the protected line when the parallel circuit is

disconnected and earthed on both ends.

Z 02AB − Z 02m

ZE =

Z 0 AB

Mutual Coupling –

Parallel Circuit Disconnected and Not Earth.

A Im B A Z0AB- Z0m B

Z0m

Zm0

Z0AB- Z0m

IA

RELAY F

earth fault on the adjacent busbars with both parallel circuit

disconnected and not earthed.

measurement of the distance protection in a faulty circuit.

11.0 Distance Calculation

Setting Example

XMho and Off-set Mho Distance

Characteristic Setting Example

Setting Example

Mho and Off-set Mho Distance

Characteristic Setting Example

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

CT

275kV System

VT

2. Line impedance

i. +ve seq. impedance, ZL1 = (0.089 + j 0.324) ohm/km

ii. zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.204 + j 0.838) ohm/km

4. Minimum fault level at bus A is 1000MVA with both +ve and

zero seq. are equal.

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

7. CT primary current rating is equal to the protected line rating

8. Setting philosophy

1. Zone 1 = 80% of protected line.

2. Zone 2 =100% of protected line + 50% of shortest adjacent line.

3. Zone 3 = 100% of protected line + 120% of longest adjacent line.

4. Zone 3 Reverse = 20% of Zone 1

9. Protected line will experience additional 50% load current over its

rated current during adverse system conditions with 5% system

voltage drop.

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.

2. Calculate the Zero Sequence Compensation factor KN for earth fault

element.

3. Calculate the relay Zone reach setting to apply on the relay.

i. Zone 1

ii. Zone 2

iii. Zone 3

iv. Zone 3Reverse

4. Calculate relay characteristic angle for

i. Phase-phase distance element

ii. Phase-earth distance element

5. Plot the relay characteristic using positive sequence impedance

diagram.

6. Calculate minimum load impedance.

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.

C.T. RATIO

S.I.F. =

V.T. RATIO

600/1

S.I.F. =

275kV/110V

S.I.F. = 0.24

So

Line +ve seq. impedance (secondary), ZL1 = (0.02136 + j 0.07776) ohm/km

= 0.0806∠74.64˚

Line zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.04896 + j 0.20112) ohm/km

= 0.207∠76.32˚(secondary)

2. Calculate the Zero Sequence Compensation factor KN for earth fault

element.

1 Z0 – 1

KN =

3 Z1

KN = 0.523∠2.75˚

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

3. Calculate the relay Zone reach setting to apply on the relay (secondary)

i. Zone 1 = 80% of protected line.

= 0.8 x 50 x 0.0806

= 3.224 Ω

= 7.657 Ω

= 12.7348 Ω

= 0.2 x 3.224

= 0.6448 Ω

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

4. i. Phase-phase distance element

∠Ø-Ø = 74.64˚

Angle for earth loop impedance can be calculate = Z1KN

= 0.0806∠74.64˚ x 0.52∠2.7˚

= 0.042∠77.34˚

∠Ø-E = 77.34˚

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

diagram.

0.95x 275kV

ZLmin =

√3 x 1.5 x 600

= 167.59Ω primary

= 40.22Ω secondary

Quadrilateral Distance

Characteristic Setting Example

Calculation Example

– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .

CT

275kV System

VT

2. Line impedance

i. +ve seq. impedance, ZL1 = (0.089 + j 0.324) ohm/km

ii. zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.204 + j 0.838) ohm/km

4. Minimum fault level at bus A is 1000MVA

Calculation Example

– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .

7. CT primary current rating is equal to the protected line rating

8. Setting philosophy

1. Zone 1 = 80% of protected line.

2. Zone 2 =100% of protected line + 50% of shortest adjacent line.

3. Zone 3 = 100% of protected line + 120% of longest adjacent line.

4. Zone 3 Reverse = 20% of Zone 1

separation between phase conductor and 4 meters separation

between phase and tower body. The maximum tower footing

resistance allowed is 10Ω.

Calculation Example

– Mho Z1 & Z2 and Offset Mho Z3.

1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.

2. Calculate the Earth Impedance Ratio factor XE/XL; RE/RL for earth fault

element.

3. Calculate the relay Zone reach setting to apply on the relay.

i. Zone 1

ii. Zone 2

iii. Zone 3

iv. Zone 3Reverse

diagram.

Calculation Example

– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .

1. Calculate the secondary impedance factor.

C.T. RATIO

S.I.F. =

V.T. RATIO

600/1

S.I.F. =

275kV/110V

S.I.F. = 0.24

So

Line +ve seq. impedance, ZL1 = (0.02136 + j 0.07776) ohm/km

= 0.0806∠74.64˚ (secondary)

Line zero seq. impedance, ZL0 = (0.04896 + j 0.20112) ohm/km

= 0.207∠76.32˚(secondary)

Earth Impedance Ratio

RE 1 ⎛ R0 ⎞

= ⋅ ⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟

RL 3 ⎝ R1 ⎠

1 ⎛ 0.04896 ⎞

= ⋅⎜ − 1⎟

3 ⎝ 0.02136 ⎠

= 0.4307Ω

XE 1 ⎛ X0 ⎞

= ⋅ ⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟

X L 3 ⎝ X1 ⎠

1 ⎛ 0.20112 ⎞

= ⋅⎜ − 1⎟

3 ⎝ 0.07776 ⎠

= 0.5288Ω

Calculation Example

– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic .

relay (secondary)

= 0.8 x 50 x 0.0806

= 3.224 ∠74.64˚ Ω

= 0.854 + j 3.1088 Ω

X1 = 3.1088 Ω

x 0.0806)

= 7.657 ∠74.64˚ Ω

=2.0282 + j 7.3835 Ω

X2 = 7.3835 Ω

Calculation Example

– Numerical relay with Quadrilateral Characteristic

.

iii. Zone 3 =100% of protected line + 120% of longest adjacent line

0.0806)

= 12.7348 ∠74.64˚ Ω

= 3.3475 + j 12.287 Ω

X3 = 12.287 Ω

= 0.2 x 3.224

= 0.6448 ∠74.64˚ Ω

= 0.1708 + j 0.6218 Ω

X3R = 0.6218

Phase-phase Resistive Reach Setting

resistance is most important for phase to phase fault. The arc resistance can be

calculated using the empirical formula derived by A.R. van C. Warrington

Phase-phase Rarc

Phase-earth Rarc

28710 28710

Rarc = 1.4

⋅7 RarcE = 1.4

⋅4

2099 2099

= 4.489Ω = 2.6Ω

≈ 5.0Ω

Phase-phase Resistive Reach Setting

additive to the loop impedance and only half should be added

to the impedance per phase.

1

RF 1 = R1Line + ⋅ Rarc

2

1

= 0.854 + ⋅ 5.0

2

= 3.354Ω

1

RF 2 = R2 Line + ⋅ Rarc

2

1

= 2.0282 + ⋅ 5.0

2

= 4.5282Ω

Phase-phase Resistive Reach Setting

1

RF 3 = R3 Line + ⋅ Rarc

2

1

= 3.3475 + ⋅ 5.0

2

= 5.8475Ω

1

RF 3 R = R3 RLine + ⋅ Rarc

2

1

= 0.1708 + ⋅ 5.0

2

= 2.6708Ω

Phase-earth Resistive Reach Setting

= 0.854 + 2.6 + 10

= 13.454Ω

= 2.0282 + 2.6 + 10

= 14.6282Ω

Phase-earth Resistive Reach Setting

= 3.3475 + 2.6 + 10

= 15.9475Ω

= 0.1708 + 2.6 + 10

= 12.7708Ω

Distance Zone Characteristic

11.0 VOLTAGE SUPERVISION

(VTS)

Voltage Supervision

-ve and 0 sequence detection

External Binary Initiation

VTS Logic Diagram

Voltage Supervision

Voltage Transformer as one of its input for operations.

z Under/Over voltage protection function

z Under/Over frequency protection function

z Synchrocheck

z Dead Breaker Logic

between VT’s secondary terminal and relay terminal.

interruption in the form of total lost or voltage reduction

VT MCB tripped / VT Fuse blown

Voltage Supervision

External Binary Initiation

Distance Relay

CT

To relay

Terminal Block

VT MCB

VT

+ +

From VT

Voltage Supervision

fault direction and its impedance. Disturbance on the

voltage signal will cause distance relay to mal-operate.

voltage condition inputs to the relay.

be blocked and/or an alarm can be given.

Voltage Supervision

measuring quantities:

z a high value of voltage 3U0 without the presence of the

residual current 3I0

measuring quantities:

z a high value of voltage 3U2 without the presence of the

negative-sequence current 3I2

signals from the miniature circuit breaker.

Voltage Supervision

-ve and 0 sequence detection

due to different non-symmetries in the primary system

differences in the CT & VT

X –ve seq. and zero seq. setting must always be set with a safety

margin of 10 to 20%, depending on the system operating conditions.

used in isolated or high-impedance earthed networks.

V2m > (3·V2 Setting) and I2m > (3·I2Setting)

used in directly or low impedance earthed networks

V0m > (3·V0 Setting) and I0m > (3·I0 Setting)

Voltage Supervision

Example: VTS Logic Diagram

12.0 SWITCH ON TO FAULT

SOTF

installed on the line side of circuit breaker.

a 3-phase short circuit / fault – due to earth wire not removed

following line works.

CT CT

VT VT

21Z 21Z

SOTF

terminal

No polarizing voltage

No memory polarizing voltage since no voltage before and after the fault

and cannot operate.

causes slow fault clearance.

complementary function for fast fault isolation which may occur when

energizing a faulted line.

SOTF

for a fault on the whole line, when the line is being energized.

i. non-directional (ND) instantaneous overcurrent element

ii. ND distance zone (without time delay)

to achieve fast tripping/ fault clearance.

onto-fault function shall be set to cover the entire protected

line.

maximum loading condition during emergency situation e.g.

200% of the line rating.

SOTF

dead through either line voltage check (under voltage) or

circuit breaker open position check.

circuit breaker for the operation of the ND an overcurrent

element or ND distance measuring elements for normally less

than 1 second after the circuit breaker is closed and/or after the

under voltage dead line detector resets.

SOTF

Delay drop-off timer

Dead line check

ON SOTF reset time

UVPP

&

t 0 0 t

UVPE

ON

CB-OP 1

UV or

CB or

Both

SOTF Trip

ON &

I>

≥1

ON

ND- Zone &

13.0 POWER SWING BLOCKING

(PSB)

Power Swing Characteristic

Requirement on Power Swing Blocking

Power Swing Detection

Power Swing Impedance Locus

Power Swing with Fault Condition

Zone Blocking Selection

Power Swing Characteristic

large blocks of load result in sudden change of electrical power, whereas

the mechanical power input to the generators remains relatively constant.

and can result in severe power swings.

slowly) from the load area into the distance protection operating

characteristic.

jX

Power

Swing

Locus

R

Requirement on Power Swing Blocking

elements like a three phase fault condition and may result in

tripping if no countermeasure is applied.

power system can recover after a short period of time, and

distance protection tripping is therefore highly undesirable in

such cases.

function (PSB) to prevent unwanted tripping during a power

swing.

Power Swing Detection

dZ/dt or ΔZ/Δt and compare with a threshold value to distinguish

between short-circuit and power swings.

impedance vector to pass through a zone limited by two impedance

characteristic.

including the starting or fault detection characteristic with a fixed

distance of ΔZ. The time different is measured.

X Once power swing is detected, the blocking signal must be maintained

until the load impedance vector exist the starting / outer PS

characteristic.

X It is also possible to remove the blocking signal after fixed/set time

delay.

Power Swing Impedance Locus

X (1) A short-circuit, the impedance vector abruptly changes from the load

condition into this fault detection range.

X (2) A power swing, the apparent impedance vector initially enters the outer

characteristic of power swing and only later enters the fault detection range.

X (3) It is also possible that a power swing vector will enter the area of the

power swing range and leave it again without coming into contact with the

fault detection range

X (4) If the vector enters and passes through and leaving on the opposite side

of the power swing characteristic, then the sections of the network seen from

the relay location have lost synchronism

Power Swing Vector

with Quad Distance Characteristic

X PS outer zone

ΔZ

PS inner zone

Zone 3

FD

Zone 2 4

ΔZ 3

Zone 1

2

1

R

Load Impedance

Load Impedance

Area Zone 4

ΔZ Area

ΔZ

Power Swing Vector

with MHO Distance Characteristic

jX PS Outer Zone

PS Inner Zone

Z3

4

Z2

3

Z1

2

1

ΔZ

Load Impedance

R Load Impedance

Area

Area

Power Swing with Fault Condition

which genuine fault during PS blocking will cause no

tripping.

X Power swing is generated by balance symmetrical three-

phase system conditions.

X Relay using unbalance system conditions or earth fault

current to remove the blocking condition immediately,

thus allow distance zones to operate for unsymmetrical

fault.

X For three-phase fault, there will be no residual current.

However, if a current jump detected due to three phase

short circuit during PS vector in side the starting zone,

the blocking condition is remove immediately.

Power Swing

Zone Blocking Selection

X It is also possible to select which zones of distance will be blocked by

PSB function, i.e. either all zones, only first zone or all zones except

first zone.

unstable system conditions.

expected in the system, i.e. power swing vector exists the relevant

zone before the set zone time is expired.

frequency of power swing depend on the system arrangement and

therefore never accurately be predicted in advance.

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