Sei sulla pagina 1di 68

c cc 1








 
 
 

  
 








Y  
    
 
  











Y  Y Y 
! Y "# 



 
Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 2

!$%
"
&!%&!Y
p
p
%' (Y          Õ

" )& &Y! Y   *+
  

                

        
Õ       
! "## $ #  %   
& %  ' # !
( %     ) *  (

" ),  )Y! Y!  *-
     +
 %   

     ,  
Õ    % 
!   % Õ
&     % &
-  %  .
-  %  # .

" ") ./       0+
    $ 

 $ # 
 "#   %  !
Õ  #  /   # &
! "    "  .
& $    +

"  #        1+

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 3

  

 '*Y,(       12



 '2 Y!  !     13
 01 #
   # 
 ) *   #    

'0" %!     14
 %   %  
 %   /     )    
 %  "    # 
Õ %   2 
! %   #   ' # 
- ,    /  % 
-  3  /  % 
- 4 #   % 
& )     % 

'1 ( YY  
  Y$       31
   
 ) 1 -2     50# -  6

'3 )  " !    34

'5 "Y        52
 %  
   


6#%Y

'  2 %   # 53


'      ## 55

 
            54


V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 4

%7%"6!8%Y6#9
"
$:

The development of a Sports Tourism Strategy must be prioritized by Her Excellency,


President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Under her leadership, the Department of Tourism,
the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC), and the leaders of the sports governing
bodies of the country namely the Philippine Olympic Committee (POC), and the
National Sports Associations, and Heads of Local Governments, must come to a
³Forum´ which will solely focus on a strategy on how to harness a huge potential
market which can make an economic impact on the Philippine economy. It is hoped
that the Philippine government can include this growing industry among its prio rity
agenda towards driving our national economy to First World Status by 2020.

#); (  <

Tourism is one of the world¶s largest industries, and it goes hand -in-hand with sports
and recreation. This area combines travel, service, entertainment and wellness. By
merging both activities, Sports Tourism has now become the fastest growing sector
world-wide. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) predicts that Sports Tourism will
be the second most important travel segment by 2020. Also, Sports Tourism will be
the one to show enormous potential for further development based on any study
conducted that will identify and develop a full -range of ³niche´ tourism products
looking to promote strong future growth and diversification of the tourism industry.
The need for a planned and consistent approach to build ing a sustainable base for the
Sports Tourism sector is imperative and the development of a National Sports
Tourism Strategy must immediately get underway.

With 842 million arrivals and a 4.5% growth rate in 2006, the to urism sector industry
is raking-in world-wide receipts amounting to trillions of dollars (WTO, 2006).
Combine this with an estimated $500 billion -plus industry from the world of sports
(sportsbusiness.com 2006), the Sports Tourism sector is fast-becoming a major
industry player which cannot be ignored by the Phi lippine government.

  Y

The aim is to facilitate a viable and internationally competitive Sports Tourism
industry and to ensure that the benefits of this niche market are maximized and
spread widely throughout Philippines. The strategy can identify opportunities for the
development of the Sport Tourism sector as well as identifying constraints to the
growth of the industry. The key elements of the strategy can be a range of actions
which can help formulate a strategy:

 Coordinate stakeholders of Sports and Tourism industry


 Evaluate the potential and economic benefits of Sport Tourism;
 Identify research and data collection requirements of the industry;
 Identify and address the infrastructure requirements of the industry;
 Identify education and training requirements for the industry; and
 Coordinate the implementation of the strategy.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 5

; Y! <

 Sports Tourism is any activity in which people are attracted to a particular location
as a sport event participant, an event spectator, or to attend sport attractions or
business meetings;
 Sport Tourism creates new revenue streams and resources for local event
organizers, sports friendly businesses and sport in general; and
 Sport Tourism is a multi- billion dollar a year industry. p

Estimates of the size of the sport tourism sector vary, mainly because there is no
single, agreed definition of what constitutes ³Sport tourism´. While definitions of
tourism are well accepted and fairly consistent throughout the world, definitions
of sport tourism range from narrow ones involving travel solely for participation in
competitive sporting activity to broader definitions where the ³sporting´ activity
might be more leisure or adventure activity incidental to the main purpose of
travel.

Sports scholars have long debated the definition of sport. Is sport confined to
competitive activities with set rules governing the style and field of play? Does
sport include non-competitive, more freely structured physical activities? Should
business travel be included in a definition of Sports Tourism? If so, are
professional athletes traveling to away games appropriately considered to be
sport-tourists? After all, just like conference attendees and corporate business
travelers, professional athletes contribute to host communities in terms of hotel
room nights, food and so forth. Or should the fact that professional athletes are
being paid to take part in sport (and therefore are not leisure travelers)

The World Tourism Organization came out with a relatively limited working
definition which have been used by the industry for several years. The sport or
a sporting activity which under this definition are organized activities.
Unstructured activities undertaken by individuals have been excluded as the
ability to influence such activities is fairly limited. (WTO 2005, Tourism Market
Trends) It is:

 International Sport Tourism: any trip to another country with a prime


purpose of participating in a Sporting activity, either as a spectator,
participant or official; and
 Domestic Sport Tourism: any Sports-related trip of over 50 kilometers or a
given distance involving a stay of at least one night aw ay from home.
p

%    !  

The exceptional growth of tourism over the last 50 years is one of the most
remarkable economic and social phenomena of the 20th century. As stated earlier,
the number of international arrivals shows an evolution from a mere 25 million
arrivals in 1950 to the 698 million of 2000. That represents an average annual growth
rate of more than 7% over a period of 50 years - well above the average annual
economic growth rate for the same period. Tourism has clearly outperformed all the
other sectors of the economy and has grown into the most significant economic
activity in the world. Annual international arrivals are expected to surpass one billion
by the year 2010 and reach 1.6 billion by the year 2020. (UNWTO Report 20 06)
Reasons for this sustained growth include greater disposable income in tourism
generating countries, and, especially in some of the emerging economies of Asia,

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 6

more leisure time, earlier retirement, improvements in infrastructure and


transportation, and changes in consumer spending preferences.

%    Y



Sports are big business. Combined world-wide leagues in Soccer, Basketball, Football,
Baseball bring in about $12 billion in annual revenue, but that¶s just the tip of the
iceberg. In the United States alone, sporting equipment sales at retail are roughly $43
billion yearly, sports apparel $43 billion and athletic footwear $18 billion. A reasonable
estimate of the total U.S. sports market might be $375 to $425 billion yearly. To put
that in perspective, the U.S. retail food industry, including supermarkets, is only
slightly bigger. However, the sports industry is so complex, from ticket sales to
licensed products, from sports video games to collectibles, from sporting goods,
sports-related advertising, endorsement income, stadium naming fees and running
shoes to facilities income, that it¶s difficult to put an all -encompassing figure on
annual revenue.

! "  



Tourism On the RiseÚpAccording to the World Tourism Organization forecast China will
be producing 100 million outbound tourists by 2020 . This outbound market has been
growing extremely fast: it leapt from 20 million in 2003 to some 31 million in
2005.This figure includes all ou tbound travel from the Chinese mainland, including
trips to Hong Kong and Macau. In 2005, 71% of all Chinese outbound visitors were to
these two areas. Chinese outbound travelers spent a total of US$ 21.8 billion abroad
in 2005, up from US$ 19.1 billion in 2004 (+14%). But, it might be a challenge to
turn the Chinese outbound market into a profitable one. Price competition is fierce,
driven in many cases by the short lead time (65% of all bookings are made in Europe
2-4 weeks prior to arrival). However, it is known that Chinese travelers spend a lot on
shopping. France, Italy, UK and Germany are some of the destinations with the
greatest appeal. Shopping µscenery¶ and customs are valued most as selling
propositions.

Sports Industry PotentialÚpOnce neglected, the leisure sports industry is now booming
for a nation that has never held global sports meet s on the scale of the Olympic
Games. To most Chinese, sports are leisure activities which are a way to improve
health and for a long time, Chinese have regarded sports as mainly the pursuit of an
ideal, a way to win honor for the country. However, now that the Beijing 2008
Olympic Games are nearing, a new economic thrust is emerging in China in the form
of leisure sports. Sports now play an important role in the economy. In 2003, China's
GDP reached 1,400 billion USD. This was a record year for China's economic
development, because the country realized the goal of GDP 1,000 USD per person. In
recent years, some regions of China, especially the more developed ones, have been
experiencing the benefits of the growth of the leisure sports industry. This industry
does not confine itself only to the stadiums and sports fields. Sporting goods and
sports-related travel as well as the fast-growing number of gyms in cities all combine
to form a big leisure sports industry. p

 /

The hosting of the 2005 South East Asian Games provided the Philippines with a
unique learning opportunity. Although we were able to showcase the Philippines to our
Asian neighbors and the world, both as a tourism destination and as a country with
the ability to compete in skills by winning the overall championships, the 2005 games
experience left us with much to be desired in terms of infrastructure like world-class
sports venues, athletic dorms/hostels, transport services, organizational expertise in

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 7

the sports industry. The challenge for Sports Tourism development is to take
advantage of all the opportunities this presents. The Philippines can have many
competitive advantages in the Sports Tourism marketplace including a climate
conducive to outdoor activities and a diverse range of sporting activities in a ³Natural
Setting´. The development and access to quality sports facilities and well developed
tourism infrastructure (e.g. roads, accommodation infrastructure) can be bring vast
changes to the image of a country like the Philippines as a sporting nation and
tourism destination.

According to Euromonitor International, short -haul travel within Asia Pacific is


becoming more popular than ever. Not only does the short-haul market dominate
departures in Asia, it is also growing rapidly, with departures up by 20% between
2000 and 2005, compared to long-haul¶s growth rate of 12% over the same period.
This trend is set to intensify further over the next ten years due to a combination of
positive factors fuelling growth. This means in the immediate term, the Philippines¶
international ³Sports Tourism´ markets will have to be focused on China, Korea, and
Japan. A considerable emerging growth potential from upper middle and high income
Asian economies, including Hong Kong and Taiwan offer similar promise where the
distribution of wealth is changing and there is an expanding middle class with an
increasing level of disposable income. Development of international standard sporting
facilities, and the upgrading of facilities required for pre-Games training, is both an
obvious and tangible legacy. Building high quality sports and tourism facilities
combined with successful hosting of events will give the Philippines a head start in
bidding for other major sporting events . Just as importantly perhaps, the lessons that
have been learned by governments, sporting bodies and business will play a major
role in the further development of the Sport Tourism sector.

"   



The fact that most events are organized by sporting bodies as sporting events first
and foremost with tourism almost an optional extra can already represent failure of
the market. Sporting bodies arguably have little incentive to pursue the tourism
benefits which can flow from sporting activities, especially sporting events, because
they themselves cannot directly capture many of those benefits. Sporting activities in
the country, especially events, have historically been organized by sporting
organizations for purely sporting purposes. Maximizing the tourism potential of the
events has never been a major consideration for the organizer, representing a
potential failure of the market. Many sporting organizations rely on volunteers, and
may not have a well developed business or organizational skills or experience to
sustain events regularly. These are lost tourism opportunities.

A major linkage must be established between sports and tourism groups at all levels ±
national, regional, provincial. The creation of a combined sports and tourism
organization would be particularly useful for the pooling of knowledge relevant to
these two fields. Further collaboration in research and knowledge trans fer would
certainly pay dividends. An economic evaluation of the contribution of tourism and
sports to development is a research topic that deserves urgent attention. I believe
this is the right time for such an initiative. Cooperation-coordination in this field will
be mutually beneficial.

   

Most if not all sporting activities and events rely on having appropriate infrastructure
in place. The most obvious form of infrastructure is the sporting facilities themselves.
A starting point in addressing these issues would be to conduct facilities audits to
identify what sporting facilities and at what standard, are available. A further logical

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 8

step down this track would be to conduct a broader ³asset audit´ of all relevant
infrastructure, to assist organizers in assessing the ability of a region to support a
particular sporting activity or event. A strategic approach which considers the
adequacy and availability of all relevant facility needs to be adopted when planning
sporting events and activities.

% ! 

Education and training is criti cal to the success of both the sports and tourism sectors.
For sport tourism, the issue of education and training is especia lly important in
ensuring that sporting bodies in particular have the required business skills both to
run successful events and to recognize and take advantage of the tourism
opportunities which accompany the hosting of events. Training in this area is still not
readily available in the country. A high level of business expertise and management
skill is critical if the Sport Tourism sector is to successfully meet the needs of the
increasingly Sport Tourism consumer. The development of Sport Tourism will demand
for appropriate and accessible education and training, particularly in the area of
management, where many not-for-profit sporting organizations rely on part -time staff
or volunteers. Tourism organizations would benefit from greater awareness of sport
tourism opportunities and some education and training to enable them to maximize
the tourism potential of sporting events and activities.

# ,"  



Research must be conducted which will focus on th e overall understanding of the
sport tourism market and how it can operate at a national or regional level. Focusing
on individual events must be avoided. The first step in data collection for the Sport
Tourism sector is the establishment of a uniform set of standard definitions for Sport
Tourism. The adoption of standard definitions provides the opportunity for various
researchers to produce data which has comparability across the sport tourism sector.
An extensive range of agreed definitions should be developed, allowing researcher s to
choose those required for specific data sets while retaining commonality.

%(  %(

A basic evaluation of the 2005 South East Asian Games held in numerous parts of the
country can be a start. Governments lend their support to events on the basis of
decisions made regarding benefits and costs ranging from financial to social and
cultural aspects. Such events may have the capacity to create income and
employment in the short term and generate increased visitation and related
investment in the longer term. Determining the value of sporting events has been a
perennially difficult issue for governments to resolve. There are no standard criteria
for evaluating the economic significance of staging events. A comprehensive criteria
for evaluating publicly funded sport and tourism events can be approached both to
the assessment of economic impact and tangible cultural and social impacts.



The proposals contained in this strategy will require the concerted efforts of a range
of organizations if they are to be successfully implemented and if the Sport Tourism
sector is to achieve its full potential. Those organizations include governments at all
levels, the tourism industry, the sports sector including sporting organizations and
researchers. A key theme of the strategy is the need for coordination between what is
a very diverse range of stakeholders involved in the sports and tourism sectors.
Communication and coordination, especially between sporting groups and the tourism
sector, will be the key to maximizing the tourism potential of sporting activities and

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 9

events. Representatives of key stakeholders across industry and government, and


could play a significant role in:
 Raising the level of awareness about the Sport Tourism sector within both industry
and government;
 Identifying and pursuing specific research needs and priorities;
 Identifying and overseeing the role of any facilitation unit which might be
established following the release of this strategy; and
 Overseeing and reporting on progress in implementing the strategy.

"  #  



Today¶s tourism would be unthinkable wi thout sports. Sports events can not take place
without some kind of tourism support. They usually depend on a tourism destination.
Clearly, the Sports Tourism industry in the Philippines has enormous potential. A
development initiative focusing on Sports Tourism can yield enormous gains including
strong inbound tourism growth, sports and tourism infrastructure. There are
considerable economic, sport and community benefits to be gained through
developing the niche market that is sport tourism. Community sport tourism can lead
to improved sport development, enhanced community pride, and more active
populations. Perhaps it may also help cure social ills such as addiction in drugs, sex
and illegal gambling ³jueteng´, alcoholism and depression which are caused by lack of
participation and direction. People will immediately feel the impact of the economic
gains made by our government once they see concrete activities happening in their
daily lives.

When the positive aspects of Sports Tourism are maximized, it is a powerful and cost-
effective way of supporting a range of development and peace object ives. The time is
ripe for our leaders to realize the full potential of Sports Tourism as a viable and
practical tool for national development. General recommendations are as follows:

V p p  
p p  p   
p   : Calls for the incorporation of
Sports Tourism activity into the development policies of local governments as well as
the development agendas of national development agencies.

 p p  
p p p 
p Ú Urges local governments and national
agencies to include the opportunity to participate in Sports Tourism as an objective as
well as a tool to achieve the national governments goal towards driving our national
economy to First World Status by 2020.

 pp 
p
: Recommends the inclusion of Sports Tourism related
initiatives into the programs of all agencies, where appropriate and according to
locally assessed needs.

 p   Ú Recommends that the resource mobilization urges local


governments and agencies to identify and make available resources for:
 Sports Tourism initiatives, which maximize participation in and access within
their localities;
 Urging partners, including private sector, sports organizations and civil
society, to generate in-kind and financial support for Sports Tourism
development activities.

0 p 

   : Seek new and innovative ways to use Sports Tourism for
communication and social mobilization, particularly at the national, regional and local
levels, engaging civil society through active participation and ensuring that target
audiences are reached.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 10

" !%#


  
 

  

* 6#
Y%
The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with the basic information
about sports-tourism and to point out the prominence of the concept of sports -
tourism as an increasingly popular tourism product in the last ten years and
where it stands in 2007 . A General Guideline strategy is provided to illicit
comments and suggestions that can then be collated and eventually form the
basis of a common national strategy.

It will involve extensive consultation with a wide range of stakeholders. It will


require the organization of a series of focus group workshops around
Philippines, from desk research to the production of a preliminary discussion
paper. In this report, I shall also aim to look at the close links which exist
between sports and tourism and their mutually beneficial impact on society in
terms of sustainable economic development. It is hoped that the Philippine
government can include this growing industry among its priority agenda
towards driving the Philippines Economy to First World Status by 2020.

The development of a sports tourism rtrategy must be prioritized by Her


Excellency, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Under her direction, the
Department of Tourism (DOT), the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) and
the leaders of the sports governing bodies namely the Philippine Olympic
Committee (POC), and the National Sports Associations, and heads of Local
Government Units (LGUs, must come to a ³Forum´ which will solely focus on a
strategy on how to harness a huge potential market that can make an
economic impact on the Philippine economy .

2#!
&$%

; ( < 

Tourism is one of the world¶s largest industries, and it goes hand -in-hand with
sports and recreation. This area combines travel, service, entertainment and
wellness. By merging both activities, Sports -Tourism has now become the
fastest growing sector world-wide. The World Tourism Organization (WTO)
predicts that Sports Tourism will be the second most important travel segment
by 2020. Also, Sports Tourism will be the one to show enormous potential for
further development based on any study conducted that w ill identify and
develop a full-range of ³niche´ tourism products looking to promote strong
future growth and diversification of the tourism industry. The need for a
planned and consistent approach to building a sustainable base for the Sport
Tourism sector is imperative and the development of a national Sport Tourism
strategy must immediately get underway.

 Sports Tourism is any activity in which people are attracted to a particular


location as a sport event participant, an event spectator, or to attend sport
attractions or business meetings;

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 11

 Sports Tourism creates new revenue streams and resources for local event
organizers, sports friendly businesses and sport in general; and
 Sports Tourism is a multi- billion dollar a year industry. p

With 842 million arrivals and a 4.5% growth rate in 2006, the tourism sector
industry is raking in world-wide receipts amounting to trill ions of dollars (WTO,
2006). Combine this with an estimated $500 billion -plus industry from the
world of sports (sportsbusiness.com 2006), the Sports Tourism sector is fast-
becoming a major industry player which cannot be ignored by the Philippine
government. Many countries have recently created sub-ministries and
departments under their respective tourism authorities to focus more in
servicing a market which boomed in the last 10 years. p Tourism Authority of
Thailand, for example, with over 13.76 million tourists last year pouring in
US$19.5 billion , created a sub-ministry in 2002 called the Ministry of Tourism
and Sports to help facilitate increasing demands from sports travelers
demanding more sports-leisure venues and activities. This decision came about
after learning that over 25% of their receipts came from Sport-tourists. Now,
the emphasis of their current tourism policy is "to attract high end, quality
tourists who want to learn about Thai life without destroying natural
resources." (Tourism Authori ty of Thailand. 2007)
p
Forecast growth, especially for inbound tourism, is very strong. Similarly, the
Sports sector can contribute to a major economic impact which can generate
billions of dollars to the economy while employing millions of Filipinos.
Furthermore, Sports occupies a central place within Philippine culture and
identity dating back when education and sports was first introduced by the
United States in 1902. Philippines have a natural advantage in this niche
market given our strong international image as a hospitable, friendly and
functionally-talented people. This reputation has recently been confirmed
based on our performance during the 2005 South East Asian Games.

The hosting of the 2005 Games is undeniably a defining moment for Sports
Tourism in the Philippines and has the potential to bring significant on -going
benefits to the Philippine tourism sector. While big events such as these are
definitely not the ³bread and butter´ of Sports Tourism, the recent Games
taught us many lessons in organizing, promotion, infrastructure awareness on
the tourism benefits of such magnitude in sporting events. We were not
prepared due to our decades-old venues and facilities, or lack of coordination,
but now we can take this an opportunity to get to the next level by merging
both sports and the tourism sectors. We need to ensure that the Philippines
can obtain every possible advantage from hosting this one-off special event, in
order to build a more sustainable base for the long-term future viability of the
Sports Tourism sector in Philippines. Sport Tourism which is associated with
sporting activity has the potential to develop into a highly significant niche
sector which provides Philippines with economic and social benefits.

Sports Tourism has double benefits. It brings foreign players, sports fan
tourists while promoting the destination extensively in international market.
However, one very important thing we should not forget i s that Sports Tourism
means mass participation. The recreational planning and management of
Sports Tourism can be carried out carefully taking into consideration three
equally important factors - economic, environment and socio-culture concerns.
While organizing sports events in fragile areas, these three cardinal factors
including maintenance of traditional values in a diversified culture such as our
land will have to be taken care of in order to sustain tourism in the country.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 12

0

#!6&!%Y&,"$$%&%Y
The Philippines faces a number of opportunities and challenges due to recent
developments in the domestic and international environment. The direction of
and shape of Sports Tourism future growth will depend on how it can respond
to each of the following developments:

 Economic growth and development in the world¶s most dynamic region;


 Increase in international tourist arrivals forecasted at 1 billion by 2010;
 Reformed domestic policies have set Philippines towards Economic growth;
 Growth in middle-class disposable incomes in the Philippines and Asia;
 Remarkable growth in international Tourism and Sports industries;
 Increase in popularity of sports with travel -related activities in Asia;
 Increase in travel and ³short-haul´ trips within Asia and the Pacific;
 Need for expansion of tourism and sports facilities;
 Need to link the Tourism and Sports industry sectors; and
 Trainable managers, operators, coaches, teachers, and athletes.

 

Given these opportunities and challenges, the formulation of national strategy


development follows several overall guidelines:

1. Identifying projects which are of national and regional impact


contributing to development initiative of Sports and Tourism;
2. Maximizing private sector involvement in coordination with all
government levels; and
3. Maximizing existing resources and the upgrading of existing
infrastructure.


1Y
!%Y!#!%9
The aim of the strategy is to facilitate a viable and internationally competitive
Sports Tourism industry and to ensure that the benefits of this niche market
are maximized and spread widely throughout Philippines. The strategy can
identify opportunities for the development of the Sports Tourism sector as well
as identifying and addressing constraints to the growth of the industry. The
key elements of the strategy can be a range of actions which can help to
formulate a strategy:

1. Coordinate stakeholders of Sports and Tourism industry; and


2. Evaluate the potential and economic benefits of Sports Tourism;
3. Identify research and data collection requirements of the industry;
4. Identify and address the infrastructure requirements of the industry;
5. Identify and address education and training requirements for the industry;
6. Coordinate the implementation of the strategy.

 

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 13

p
3%"
&
" "!
!
6#Y&,Y
#!Y
 %    !
6#Y

The exceptional growth of tourism over the last 50 years is one of the most
remarkable economic and social phenomena of the 20th century. As stated
earlier, the number of international arrivals shows an evolution from a mere 25
million arrivals in 1950 to the 698 million of 2000. That represents an average
annual growth rate of more than 7% over a period of 50 years - well above the
average annual economic growth rate for the same period. Tourism has clearly
outperformed all the other sectors of the economy and has grown into the
most significant economic activity in the world. Annual international arrivals
are expected to surpass one billion by the year 2010 and reach 1.6 billion by
the year 2020. (UNWTO Report 2006)

Reasons for this sustained growth include greater disposable income in tourism
generating countries, and, especially in some of the emerging economies of
Asia, more leisure time, earlier retirement, improvements in infrastructure and
transportation, and changes in consumer spending preferences. The size and
impact of the Tourism Industry today is indicated by WTO statistics:

 International tourism generated US$ 2 billion a day in 2005. World -wide


receipts are estimated at US$ 680 billion.
 On average contribute about 7% of the world's GDP (4-10% in developed
countries and much higher in some of the developing countries and island
states).
 About 8% of the world export's through international visitors spending on
goods and services. That makes tourism the leading export earner - ahead
of the automotive industry, chemicals, food, computers and fuels.

Based on the latest Department of Tourism (DOT) statistics, Philippine


international visitor arrivals are predicted to grow rapidly in the next few
years. Based on these predictions, tourism is destined to continue playing a
vital role in Philippines¶s economic and social development. Tourism and travel
have grown for the past year in the Philippines increasing by over one million
from 2005 jumping up to over 2 million visitors in 2006 to almost 3 million
tourists. With an increase forecasted annual increase of 15% -20%, tourism will
become not only one of Philippines¶ but also one of the world¶s most significant
industries. The World Tourism Organization predicts that global international
tourism, which in 1999 generated, directly and indirectly 11% of global GDP,
will expand by 4.1 per cent per year over the next two d ecades. Accompanying
the growth in tourism has been a significant expansion in the worldwide sports
and recreation industry. These industries come together in the Sport Tourism
sector and with the emergence of ³niche´ markets as a major factor in tourism
development, the potential for growth in the sector is considerable.

 %    Y


#!Y 

Sports are big business. Combined world-wide leagues in Soccer, Basketball,


Football, Baseball bring in about $12 billion in annual revenue, but that¶s just
the tip of the iceberg. In the United States alone, sporting equipment sales at
retail are roughly $43 billion yearly, sports apparel $43 billion and athletic
footwear $18 billion. A reasonable estimate of the total U.S. sports market
might be $375 to $425 billion yearly. To put that in perspective, the U.S. retail

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 14

food industry, including supermarkets, is only slightly bigger. However, the


sports industry is so complex, from ticket sales to lic ensed products, from
sports video games to collectibles, from sporting goods, sports-related
advertising, endorsement income, stadium naming fees and running shoes to
facilities income, that it¶s difficult to put an all -encompassing figure on annual
revenue. One of the largest single-effect that sports create is that of gripping
entertainment: hundreds of millions of fans around the globe follow sports on a
daily basis, whether via radio, television, printed publications, online or in
person, as spectators or participants. (American Sports Data)

Sports and active recreation have become very large and successful industries
worldwide. A European Commission Report on the European Community and
Sports estimated that the Sports industry is responsible for 2.5 per cent of
world trade. The factors influencing the growth of Sports and recreation are
similar to those influencing tourism growth - notably increased disposable
income, greater availability of leisure time and changing consumer
preferences. An increased awareness of the benefits for all ages of greater
physical activity has also been important.

The role of the media in promoting Sports has been critical. A number of
factors have contributed to this greater international media attention on world -
wide Sports and recreation, especially in western economies: (WTO Report
2006)

 Increase in demand for Sports programming from television broadcasters


to meet consumer demand, the advent of dedicated Sports channels like
Fox Sports, ESPN, Star Sports (in the Philippines Solar Sports and
Basketball channel), and the availability of satellite technology allowing live
coverage;
 Increased prominence of professional Sportspersons across a range of
Sports, e.g. golf, tennis, basketball, baseball, surfing, rugby and socc er;
large amounts of money being spent by corporations directly and indirectly
sponsoring events, teams and individuals for commercial advantage;
 Growth of merchandise associated with particular Sports, Sporting activities
and Sporting teams; significant advertising, promotion, and activity
associated with high-profile international Sporting events, e.g. the Olympic
Games, soccer World Cups, Grand Slam tennis, Formula One Grand Prix,
and national sporting competitions;
 Increase in opportunities for participation, especially in western and Asian
tiger economies, through changing leisure patterns, ageing of the
population, increased disposable income, and increased awareness of the
benefits of physical activity.

Tennis was a booming leisure activity in the U.S. for many years, but its
popularity has diminished greatly in recent years, particularly among casual
players. The number of people playing golf is dropping. The Sporting Goods
Manufacturers Association (SGMA) reports that the highest increases in
participation for 2004-2005 were in the sports of, surfing, mountain biking,
yoga/tai chi, artificial wall climbing, indoor soccer, jet skiing and kayaking.

Then there¶s the fact that large audiences have been watching high -stakes
poker tournaments on television recently. Does that qualify as sports
broadcasting? Based on our definitions (see page 22, ³patterns in games´), it¶s
certainly a game. Thanks to the Internet, fantasy sports teams and online
betting on sports events are soaring. Finally, evolving technologies and
fashions have an immense impact on sales of sporting goods within specific

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 15

sectors. Sporting goods makers are constantly trying to create reasons for
consumers to buy new equipment introducing new fashions, new colors and
new styles yearly in an effort to get consumers to buy new or buy up,
regardless of whether significant new technologies are involved. (American
Sports Data. 2006)

5!%"&"!
#
p
 ! " ) 
 #

Modern tourism in China sprang up in the early 1950s. In 1954, the China
International Travel Service was established, with 14 branches in Guangzhou,
Shanghai, Beijing and other major cities. In 1964, the State Tourism
Administration of China was formally established. Since the initiation of the
policies of reform and opening to the outside world in 1978, China¶s tourism
has entered a stage of rapid development. China, with a population of roughly
1.3 billion people, is undergoing a sustained economic growth of 9% per year.
This has transformed the world market for raw materials and the supply of
consumer goods. With 20% of the world¶s population now becoming part of the
global economy, tourism destinations have rushed to sign ³Approved
Destination Status´ (ADS) agreements with the Chinese authorities that allow
them to receive Chinese leisure tourist travel groups. In Japan, the tourists
followed the export of manufactured goods throughout the sixties and
seventies. The hope is that China will, in this respect, mimic Japan, but wi th
twelve times as many people.-(China-Internet-Information-Center:-
http://www.china.org.cn)

According to the World Tourism Organization forecast China will be producing


Vp
  p  p  p p . This outbound market has been
growing extremely fast: it leapt from 20 million in 2003 to some 31 million in
2005.This figure includes all outbound travel from the Chinese mainland,
including trips to Hong Kong and Macau. In 2005, 71% of all Chinese outbound
visitors were to these two areas.

Following world trends of strong intraregional travel, a further 17% traveled to


destinations within Asia. Roughly 0 went to Europe. If forecasts confirm, and
the proportions hold around the same level, Europe may expect to receive at
least 5 million Chinese visitors by 2020. This is the same number of Japanese
traveling to Europe in the peak year of 2000.

Chinese outbound travelers spent a total of pV p   abroad in 2005,


up from US$ 19.1 billion in 2004 (+14%). But, it might be a challenge to turn
the Chinese outbound market into a profitable one. Price competition is fierce,
driven in many cases by the short lead time (65% of all bookings are made in
Europe 2-4 weeks prior to arrival). However, it is known that Chinese travelers
spend a lot on shoppi ng. France, Italy, UK and Germany are some of the
destinations with the greatest appeal. Shopping µscenery¶ and customs are
valued most as selling propositions.

 Y"&)Y  

Once neglected, the leisure sports industry is now booming for a nation that
has never held global sports meets on the scale of the Olympic Games. To
most Chinese, sports are leisure activities which are a way to improve health
and for a long time, Chinese have regarded sports as mainly the pursuit of an

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 16

ideal, a way to win honor for the country. However, now that the Beijing 2008
Olympic Games are nearing, a new economic thrust is emerging in China in the
form of leisure sports. Sports now play an important role in the economy. The
Chinese didn't recognize the huge value of the sports industry until recently.
As early as in 1949, Mao Zedong put forward a slogan: "Develop sports
activities and build up people's bodies." In order to improve people's health,
the Chinese government invested in a handsome amount of money annually.

A half century ago, the Chinese government spent as much manpower and
material resources as possible to support the training of the country's elite
athletes but neglected the fact that ordinary people also needed sports
activities. Now with its opening and reform policy, China is merging into the
world rapidly and the decades-old policies on sports have changed. At present,
the global sports industry generates about 400 billion USD annually.
Comparatively, China's sports industry has had a late start and is small-scaled.
But China's penchant for organized sports has been developing very fast in
recent years and, like its Tourism sector, will build exponentially over the next
few years as a result of the 2008 Olympic Games.

Leisure sports as an industry must first be based on the development of the


economy. If the people of a country are constantly worrying about where their
next meal will come from, the leisure sports i ndustry will have no market
there. China has set a goal to build a well-off country as some regions of
China have already fulfilled this goal. Thus, China has the economic base to
develop a leisure sports industry. In 2003, China's GDP reached 1,400 billi on
USD. This was a record year for China's economic development, because the
country realized the goal of GDP 1,000 USD per person.

In recent years, some regions of China, especially the more developed ones,
have been experiencing the benefits of the growth of the leisure sports
industry. This industry does not confine itself only to the stadiums and sports
fields. Sporting goods and sports -related travel as well as the fast-growing
number of gyms in cities all combine to form a big leisure sports industry.
Other related fields like the sports lottery and its advertisements are also
driven by the ever-expanding sports industry.

In 2004, Chinese athletes won 32 gold medals at the Athens Olympic Games,
which greatly inspired the Chinese people. More and more Chinese are taking
part in all kinds of sports activities now. Leisure sports are becoming a part of
the everyday life of ordinary Chinese. In many cities, there are gyms,
swimming pools, football fields and basketball courts packed with people.
Skiing, which was once considered a luxury sport, is now available to ordinary
people. Millions of Chinese regularly buy sports lottery tickets.

In Beijing, public sports facilities are being upgraded and public sports
activities are thriving. In 2003, the municipal government spent 170 million
yuan to equip 1,239 sports facilities in the city. Nearly all streets and
communities in Beijing now have recreational areas. There are altogether
3,811 public recreational areas in the city. Also in 2003, over 1.34 millio n
Beijing citizens took part in the 8,749 community sports activities held in the
capital. Considering that half of most people's lifetime is spent in leisure
activities, it's clear to see that the leisure sports industry has great market
potential. Many Chinese have already jumped on this profitable bandwagon.
Zhu Shuhao, the founder of China's biggest leisure sports business, earned
over 3.8 billion yuan through his Guanlan Lake Golf Club and his sports -
themed holiday inns in Shenzhen. Yao Ming, the NBA star, earns 150 million

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 17

yuan (US$20M) annually. Sports programs on TV are also becoming more and
more popular, and thus have attracted more and more advertisements.
Obviously, leisure sports are poised to become the next focus of economic
development in China. (China Internet Information Center: http://www. china.
org.cn)

4! ;  /
The hosting of the 2005 South East Asian Games provided the Philippines with
a unique learning opportunity. Although we were able to showcase the
Philippines to our Asian neighbors and the world, both as a tourism destination
and as a country with the ability to compete in skills by winning the overall
championships the 2005 games experience left us with much to be desired in
terms of infrastructure like world-class sports venues, athletic dorms/hostels,
reasonably-priced standard rooms; transport services, organizational expertise
in the sports industry. The challenge for Sport Tourism development is to take
advantage of all the opportunities this p resents.

The Philippines can have many competitive advantages in the Sports Tourism
marketplace including a climate conducive to outdoor activities and a diverse
range of sporting activities in a ³Natural Setting´. The development and access
to quality sports facilities and well developed tourism infrastructure (e.g.
roads, accommodation infrastructure) can be bring vast changes to the image
of a country like the Philippines as a sporting nation and tourism destination.
The weather and climate are conducive for year-round sports training, with
daily high temperatures ranging from low 20¶s to low 30¶s due to the
combination of its coastal proximity and subtropical geographic location. It
provides a range of opportunities in areas such as pre -season training camps;
English-only emersion/instruction can be one of the core attractions for
international athletes. Without question, Philippines have the highest level of
English-speaking proficiency, integration into everyday lifestyle, and available
coaches/instructors of any Asian country. The development of eco-tourism,
medical tourism and retirement villages are added values and assets which
form the basis for an internationally competitive tourism product. However
they have to be managed in a way that delivers the maximum benefits for the
country as a whole. While there are numerous opportunities within the broader
Sports Tourism fields, some sectors and some markets appear to have
particular potential for the Philippines to further explore.

The South East Asian Games and the Asian Games: The sport event is the
most widely recognized example of sport tourism. And, with mega-events such
as the Olympic Games and the World Cup Football it is not surprising that they
involve the largest volumes of spectators and the largest revenues of all
special events and festivals. Hosting of the SEA and Asian Games can be the
subject of much-needed research on the benefits and costs of such an event. A
significant increase in tourism is not a guaranteed certainty with many i mpacts
dependent upon the organization and marketing of these Games. Regardless,
the staging of Games is recognized as being a unique opportunity for the host
city and country to engage in high-profile promotion their tourism products at
a regional and at a world-wide level.

Development of international standard sporting facilities, and the upgrading of


facilities required for pre-Games training, is both an obvious and tangible
legacy. Building high quality sports and tourism facilities combined with
successful hosting of events will give the Philippines a head start in bidding f or
other major sporting events.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 18

Just as importantly perhaps, the lessons that have been learned by


government, sporting bodies and business will play a major role in the further
development of the Sport Tourism sector. In the immediate term, the
Philippines¶ international ³Sport Tourism´ markets will have to be focused on
China, Korea, Japan and provide these countries an alternative preparatory
training camp annually during winter months from October until March. A
considerable emerging growth potential from upper middle and high income
Asian economies, including Hong Kong and Taiwan offer similar promise where
the distribution of wealth is changing and there is an expanding middle class
with an increasing level of disposable income.

³Manufactured´ Events: Over the past twenty years or so the interest in sport,
especially elite sporting events, has grown at a phenomenal rate. Sport is no
longer just about playing the game, it is now perceived to have an obligation
to provide public entertainment. This growth has been in parallel with
advances in technology and the evolution of the digital age. People now expect
to be entertained by worldwide sporting events telecast live direct to their
television sets - or perhaps on their home computer. Another variation on the
³manufactured´ event theme is an event which is designed from the outset to
promote tourism, rather than being designed as a purely sporting event with
the tourism aspect an added extra. The main emphasis in events of this
nature, of which there are still relatively few, is on the promotion of tourism to
the region where the event is being held, rather than just on the event itself.
One of the major benefits of this type of event is that they can be designed
using existing locations, and to suit the capabilities of the regions. Examples
include cycle races, triathlons, road races, ³challenges´. Critically, these events
can be introduced to even out peaks and troughs in touri sm activity, and can
be tailored to fit into a regional tourism package of events, attractions and
activities. They can also spread the accommodation load across a region if
necessary. Given that the region which created the event then ³owns´ the
event, they can be conducted on an annual basis which in the longer term
reduces the costs associated with their staging.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 19

" !%#

,  )Y! Y! 
The strong linkages between sport and tourism are recognized, and the
literature contains many studies devoted to the topic. To date, though, there
has been no consensus on a definition of sport tourism, and a wide range of
definitions have been adopted by different parties. Definitions used may be
influenced by the availability of data, the intent of research being undertaken,
current sport and tourism definitions in the country or region concerned, etc.
There is broad agreement about the tourism side of the definition with most
countries generally accepting definitions similar to those observed in other
countries for international and domestic tourists. There are also wide-ranging
views on what constitutes sport. Should recreational and adventure activities
be included, is sport only sport when it is ³organized´, are non-competitive
events such as fun runs still considered sporting activities? Sports, Tourism
and Sport Tourism definitions are set below:

*;!YY
#!<
p
Sport can mean many different things to different people. Being global
phenomena, sports can stir up deep passion within spectators and players
alike in countries around the world. To one person, sports are a venue for
gambling; to another, they are a mode of personal recreation and fitness, be it
skiing, cycling, running or playing tennis. To bus iness people, sports provide a
lucrative and continually growing marketplace worthy of immense investments.
To athletes, sports may lead to high levels of personal achievement, and to
professionals sports can bring fame and fortune. To facilities developers and
local governments, sports are a way to build revenue from tourists and local
fans. Sports are deeply ingrained in education, from elementary through
university levels. Perhaps we can¶t state with confidence that sports enrich the
lives of all of us, but they certainly entertain a huge percentage of the world¶s
population.
p
To begin with, the root word of Sports is derived from ³disport¡´, meaning to
divert oneself. It carried the original implication of people diverting their
attention from the rigors and pressures of everyday life. (Harry Edwards,
1973) Two noted sociologists Johan Huizinga (1955), and Roger Callois (1958)
defined sport, play or games as follows:
p
 Johan Huizinga: ³play is a voluntary activity or occupation executed within
certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules freely accepted but
absolutely binding, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of
tension, joy, and the consciousness that it is different from ordinary life.´
 Roger Callois: ³play is an occasion of pure waste of time, energy, ingenuity,
skill, and often money.´ It is also an essential element of human social and
spiritual development
p
Caillois' book built upon prior work from ³Man the Player´ by Johan Huizinga,
considered one of the founders of modern cultural history. Huizinga assembled
and interpreted one of the most fundamental elements of human culture: ³the
instinct for play´. The reader will discover how profoundly the achievements in
law, politics, science, poverty, war, philosophy, and in the arts, are nourished
by the instinct of play
p

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 20

The precise origins of many sports (or Games) remain obscure, although all
cultures have known physical contests. The ancient Egyptians swam, raced,
wrestled, and played games with balls. The ancient Greeks held large athletic
festivals, including the Olympic Games, which drew athletes from all over the
ancient world. The Greeks, and then the Romans, also competed in events
(chariot races, throwing the javelin) that relied on the participation of animals
or the use of mechanical contrivances, a tradition continued into modern times
in sports such as dog racing, horse racing, and shooting.

Athletic games or tests of skill are undertaken primarily for the diversion of
those who take part or those who observe them. The term is restricted to any
play, pastime, exercise, game, or contest performed under given rules, indoors
or outdoors, on an individual or a team basis, with or without competition, but
requiring skill and some form of physical exertion.
p
Today, however, sport is often anything but diversion to its active and passive
participants. Sport can be defined in many ways and from different viewpoints
or distinctive perspectives. As definitions are mere tools, serving or assisting to
specify some level of precision and characteristics, the following have been
selected to demonstrate sports activity as a part of our social world:

 Competitive sport is an institutionalized competitive activity that involves


vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by
individuals where participation is motivated by a combination of intrinsic
and extrinsic factors.´ (Coakley,1982) p
 Competitive sport consists of physical activity which involves the
coordination of large muscle groups which have a set of universally
recognized rules and which produce a winner and a loser.´ (Coakley, 1982 )p
 Recreational sport is characterized by playfulness involved and enjoyment
of play that serves the primary reason for participation.´ (Chu, 1982)
p
A feature of competitive sport is that activities, classified as such, are formally
structured to a degree and organized within a context of formal and explicit
rules of behavior and procedures. Salient features include some level of
competition and physical exertion. In addition, competitive sport, being the
formal, rational, goal-directed endeavor, provide or allow little opportunity for
fantasy or make believe ± either to or for the participant or spectator.
(Edwards, 1973)

A feature of recreational sports is that activities are informally structured with


limited organization in a physically-oriented setting and voluntary participation
context. In addition, recreation sports is self-directed activity which can be
challenging to the individual participant and not necessarily competitive in
nature with few, if any, spectators in attendance.

2 !   Y

Sports is a universal activity and to fairly understand the purpose of sporting


activities, a description of such activity undertaking is of prime importance:

 ³A sport contest is a voluntary, agreed upon, human event in which one or


more human participants oppose at least one other human to seek the
mutual appraisal of the relative abilities of all participants to move mass in
space and time by utilizing bodily moves which exhibit developed motor
skills, physiological and psychological endurance a nd socially approved
tactics and strategy.´ (Fraleigh, 1984)

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 21

 For the athlete-participant, the mastery of the body in particular skill


development is implicitly essential. To the spectator, the degree of skill
perfection and discipline demonstrated by the athlete becomes a symbol of
perfection, admiration and success. Evidently, these universal needs will be
felt differently and in various measures due to a variety of reasons ± be
they intellectual, emotional, psychological, social or other. (Schwartz,
1973)
 Sports purpose has been interpreted in terms of deep satisfaction it
provides humans in their realization of the desire to be self complete
through testing and extensions of the body. Recreational sport has many
unique opportunities for individual/group participation which may include
such factors as stimulation, challenge, self-fulfillment and diversion.
 Competitive sports also have special allurement for spectators ± for these
people share a common identity with the participants. In effect, ³spectators
are most important to sport today than they have ever been in the past.´
(Vinoker, 1988)
 The revolution in communications makes greater numbers aware of sport
competitions, sports activities and recreational sports opportunities.
Governments use sporting events to political advantage as sport can
strengthen identification to the nation ± with positive consequences.
(Vinoker, 1988)
 In the past decade or so, sport has become a social phenomenon of great
importance and magnitude and, perhaps complexity. ³Sport permeates any
number of levels of contemporary society, and it touches upon and deeply
influences such disparate elements as status, race relations, business life,
automotive design, clothing styles, the concept of hero, languages and
ethical values´ (McPherson and Curtis, 1989)

Through analysis of literature and conceptive perspective of Stevens and Nixon


in their work ³Sportwissenschaft´ 1972, they isolated five basic functions of
sport, namely:

1. The socio-emotional function, which operates at the level of the individual


and is concerned with the socio-psychological stability of the individual;
2. The socialization, which also operates at the level of the individual, and is
concerned with the inculcation of cultural mores and beliefs, and with the
development of personality characteristics;
3. The integrative function, which operates at the level of collectivity, and is
concerned with the harmonious integration of disparate individuals into,
and their identification with, the collectivity;
4. The political function, which is predominately operative at the level of the
Nation State, is concerned with the function of sport as a political
instrument;
5. The social mobility function, which has concerns at the level of the
individual, the collectivity and the Nation State, deals specifically with the
movement of individuals between socially defined categories. (Stevenson
and Nixon, 1972)

Sports build character, teach values, encourage healthy competition, provide


outlets for aggression and promote international friendship and understanding.
The Modern Olympics, re-established by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, was
founded in the belief that spo rt brought people together and in doing so
contributed to a better understanding between peoples and nations. Another
approach to the question of sport deals strictly with culture and culture
affectations. As such, bull -fighting or cock-fighting could be c onsidered as
definable and acceptable to certain cultures of the world, yet, non-appropriate

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 22

and not inclusive in other parts of the globe. The same may be said for ice
fishing, dog racing, horseshoes, dance, etc. Oftentimes, the type of sports
enjoyed and appreciated resides in religious cults, traditions, mores and inborn
impulse and basic needs. (Olivova, 1984)

0 
p
pIn his 1958 book µLes Jeux et Les Hommes¶ (usually translated as Man, Play
and Games), the noted sociologist and intellectual Roger Callois introduced a
terminology for considering patterns in games. He used the term 'game' in a
very wide manner, applying it to all play activities. This is a partial
consequence of his native language, French, where the term 'jeux' and 'jouer'
express the concepts of both play and game in English.

 
p  p  p    p

AGON Games of Competition Sports in general Athletes

ALEA Game of Chance Betting, Lotteries Bettors, Gamblers

ILINX Games of Vertigo Skydiving, Ski-jumping Adventurers

Performers,
MIMICRY Games of Simulation Theater, Play-Acts
Actors

Callois' interest in games was sociological: the second half of µ Les Jeux et Les
Hommes¶ is a fascinating account of how societies relate to the patterns of play
he identified, and will give readers an understanding by which games become
part of daily life, ultimately giving cultures their most characteristic customs
and intuitions. Callois describes them as follows:

 AGON: A whole group of games would seem to be competitive, that is to


say, like a combat in which equality of chances is artificially created, in
order that the adversaries should confront each other under ideal
conditions, susceptible of giving precise and incontestable value to the
winner¶s triumph. It is therefore always a question of rivalry which hinges
on a single quality (speed, endurance, strength, memory, skill, ingenuity,
etc.), exercised, within defined limits and without outside assistance, in
such a way that the winner appears to be better than the loser in a certain
category of exploits. Callois is insistent in seeing AGON as a fair contest
between participants. An example, as in Tennis, the contest is called a
³MATCH´; in Davis Cup, competition between nations is called a ³TIE´.

 ALEA: is the Latin name for the game of dice: All games that are based on
a decision independent of the player, an outcome over which he has no
control, and in which winning is the result of fate rather than triumphing
over an adversary. More properly, destiny is the sole artisan of victory, and
where there is rivalry, what is meant is that the winner has been more
favored by fortune than the loser. Perfect examples of this type are
provided by the games of dice, roulette, heads or tails, baccarat, lotteries
etc. Here, not only does one refrain from trying to eliminate the injustice of
chance, but rather it is the very capriciousness of chance that constitutes
the unique appeal of the game. ALEA signifies and reveals the favor of
destiny. The player is entirely passive; he does not deploy his resources,

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 23

24skill, muscles, or intelligence. All he need do is wait, in hope and


trembling, the cast of the die.
p
 MIMICRY: All play presupposes the temporary acceptance, if not of an
illusion (indeed this last word means nothing less than beginning a game:
in-lusio), then at least of a closed conventional, and, in certain respects,
imaginary universe. Play can consist not only of deploying actions or
submitting to one's fate in an imaginary milieu, but of becoming an illusory
character oneself, and of so behaving. One is thus confronted with a
diverse series of manifestations, the common element of which is that the
subject makes believe or makes others believe that he is someone other
than himself. He forgets, disguises, or temporarily sheds his personality in
order to feign another. I prefer to designate these phenomena by the term
á á ...
p
 Mimicry is incessant invention. The rule of the game is unique: it consists
in the actor's fascinating the spectator, while avoiding an error that might
lead the spectator to break the spell. The spectator must lend himself to
the illusion without first challenging the decor, mask, or artifice which for a
given time he is asked to believe in as more real than reality itself.
p
 ILINX: The last kind of game includes those which are based on the pursuit
of vertigo and which consist of an attempt to momentarily destroy the
stability of perception and inflict a kind of voluptuous panic upon an
otherwise lucid mind. In all cases, it is a question of surrendering to a kind
of spasm, seizure, or shock which destroys reality with sovereign
brusqueness (bungee-jumping). The disturbance that provokes vertigo is
commonly sought for its own sake. It can be seen most clearly in any
games with speed or snowboarding that serves to heighten the players¶
enjoyment by artificially inducing a state of vertigo.p
p
p
1;!Y!
6#Y<

A general definition given by the World Tourism Organization is as follows:

 Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in


places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive
year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of
an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
 Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must
be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of means of
transportation (he might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case
for poorer societies, and happens even in more developed ones, and
concerns pilgrims, hikers «). But all travel is not tourism.

Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as


belonging to tourism. The displacement must be such that:

1. It involves a displacement outside the usual environment: this term is of


utmost importance and will be discussed later on;
2. Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any pur pose different from
being remunerated from within the place visited: the previous limits, where
tourism was restricted to recreation and visiting family and friends are now
expanded to include a vast array of purposes; and

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 24

3. Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not a minimal. Tourism


displacement can be with or without an overnight stay. (WTO website:
www.world-tourism.org)

³People¶s desire for travel is related to their immediate socio-physical


environments and the appeal of the beyond.´ (Witt & Moutinho, 1984) And this
travel drive is an economic, environmental and sociological force of global
proportions. However, there is ³considerable debate surrounding the meaning
of travel in terms of tourism. Much of this debate is concerned with the
desirability of employing definitions based upon the activities that are engaged
in or on the experience that are derived from participation.´ (Stevenson &
Nixon, 1972)

The following are some additional interpretations describing the scope and the
meaning of tourism:
 Tourism is ³the sum of the phenomena and the relationships arising from
the interactions of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host
communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and
other visitors.´ (McIntosh, Goeldner & Ritchie, 1995)
 Tourism can be construed ³as the science, art and business of attracting
and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering to
their needs and wants.´ (McIntosh, Goeldner & Ritchie, 1995)
 Tourism is ³a means by which [peoples] may know and understand one
another; human understandings being so essential in the world at this
time.´ (Mill & Morrison, 1985)

Statisticians and market analysts have sought better descriptors for more
accurate accounting of tourism visitations. (Travel and Tourism Data, 1989)
The World Tourism Organization has developed a definition that states:

a. Domestic tourists are visitors from within the country who stay a minimum
of 24 hours and not more than one year for pleasure, recreation, sport,
business, visiting friends and relatives, mission, conference, health,
studies, and religion;
b. International tourists are residents of one country visiting another for many
or all of the same purposes as domestic tourists.


3  ! 

The generally perceived importance of tourism for economic development


reasons can not be disputed. Statistical evidence depicts a remarkable increase
in the number of international arrivals shows an evolution from a mere 25
million arrivals in 1950 to the 698 million of 2000. As such, tourism is a
significant strategy for capital accumulations.

The reason for travel may be different from the purpose. For instance, one
may need a ³rest´ or ³the advertising was pervasive´ or simply ³to accompany
a friend´. Mere explanations do not necessarily explain the intention or resolve
for travel. The following ³Purpose of Travel Classifications´ are based on
current practices and recommendations from the World Tourism Organization
and from United Nations documentation:

Leisure
(a) Seaside or Lake
(b) Countryside, mountains

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 25

(c) Culture (festival, theatre, opera - as a spectator)


(d) Carnival (as a spectator)
(e) Sports events (as a spectator)
(f) Spa holiday
(g) Convalescing
(h) Rest and recuperation
(i) Honeymoon, romance
(j) Gambling
(k) Shopping

Touring, Sightseeing
(a) Based on one center destination
(b) One country ± based on more than one center
(c) Several countries

Sports (Active)
(a) Winter sports
(b) Boating (yacht, barge, etc)
(c) Diving (scuba, etc.)
(d) Events (Olympics, World Cup)
(e) Hunting, fishing
(f) Safari
(g) Golf, Tennis
(h) Other

Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR)


(a) Visits to immediate family, (dependents) of nationals resident abroad
(b) Other home leave of nationals resident abroad
(c) Other VFR holiday to ³ethnic homeland´
(d) Holidays primarily to visit friends or relatives in other countries

Special Interest Holidays


(a) Pilgrimage, religion
(b) Adventure (mountaineering, desert trek)
(c) Hobby (bird watching, history, music)
(d) Summer camp (Gunn, 1988)

Cruises
(a) Multiple destinations
(b) Single destinations
(c) Casino cruises
(d) Sports cruises
(e) Ocean voyages
(f) River Trips
(g) Other

Perhaps the key to understanding tourist motivation is to see vacation travel


as a satisfier of needs and wants. Motivators occur when an individual wants to
satisfy a need. If inclinations are sufficiently strong to imply action or
movement, consequent decisions are made to satisfy personal needs to a
certain degree and within specific parameters. An important part of tourism
psychology is the fact that people usually travel for more than one reason. In
effect, one motivator may be reinforced by another. Such motivators can be
divided into four categories (McIntosh, Goeldner & Ritchie, 1995):

a. Physical motivators related to physical rest, sport participation, health, etc.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 26

b. Cultural motivators associated with music, art, heritage, etc.


c. Interpersonal motivators directed to making new friends, visiting relatives,
the like.
d. Status and prestige motivators concerning ego needs and personal
development.

5;!YY
#!Y!
6#Y

Estimates of the size of the sport tourism sector vary, mainly because there is
no single, agreed definition of what constitutes ³Sport tourism´. While
definitions of tourism are well accepted and fairly consistent throughout the
world, definitions of sport tourism range from narrow ones involving travel
solely for participation in competitive sporting activity to broader definitions
where the ³sporting´ activity might be more leisure or adventure activity
incidental to the main purpose of travel.

Sports scholars have long debated the definition of sport. Is sport confined to
competitive activities with set rules governing the style and field of play? Does
sport include non-competitive, more freely structured physical activities?
Should business travel be included in a definition of Sports Tourism? If so, are
professional touring athletes appropriately considered to be sport-tourists?
After all, just like conference attendees and corporate business travelers,
professional athletes contribute to host communities in terms of hotel room
nights, food and so forth. Or should the fact that professional athletes are
being paid to take part in sport (and th erefore are not leisure travelers)
distinguish them as a sports business traveler rather than a sport tourist? In
the same manner, there have been debates over the definition of tourism and
tourists. How far do individuals have to travel and how long do th ey have to be
away from home to be counted as a tourist. (Heather J. Gibson 1998)

The World Tourism Organization came out with a relatively limited working
definition that has been used by the industry for several years. The sport or a
sporting activity which under this definition are organized activities.
Unstructured activities undertaken by individuals have been excluded as the
ability to influence such activities is fairly limited. (WTO 2005, Tourism Market
Trends) It is:

 International Sports Tourism: any trip to another country with a prime


purpose of participating in a Sporting activity, either as a spectator,
participant or official; and
 Domestic Sports Tourism: any Sports-related trip of over 50 kilometers or
a given distance involving a stay of at least one night away from home.

In the other continents like North and South America, Europe or Australia, a
sports-related trip of over 50 kilometers can be accepted as the minimum
distance for domestic Sports Tourism. In the Philippines, a 5 to 10 kilometer
trip may already bring a person to another island (nautical distance) and might
require an overnight stay as travel by sea is advisable only by day.

There are many similarities between Sports and tourism, but also fundamental
differences:
 Tourism is an experience-based activity; while
 Sport is a performance-based activity.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 27

Experience-based aspect can best be explained with the example of Joseph


Pine in his book `    á. ³The price of coffee on a coffee
plantation would be about 1 cent. Coffee, in this context, is a product. Once it
is roasted and properly packed it becomes a commodity and the price per cup
may rise to 25 cents. The same coffee freshly ground and brewed in coffee
shop becomes a service and the price could be 100 cents. However, if it is
served in New York or London or Paris in one of these trendy new coffee
boutiques such as Starbucks, it is an experience and the price could be 500
cents. The ambience and style of the shop becomes a theatre and the coffee
an experience.´ Tourism provides people with experiences.

Sports is a performance-based activity whose very nature is competition. The


rewards for winning and achieving success become bigger as the levels o f
competition increases. Leisure sporting activities are a world away from the
competitive intensity of high -powered professional sports. The elite sports
have all become professional with major entertainment value. The media and
the sports equipment industry financially drive them. The leisure time sports
public as well as amateur sports participants and young people ± provide the
market for the sports equipment that are popularized through super star
endorsements. Performance is richly rewarded. The publicity, money and social
status enjoyed by successful athletes create a powerful incentive to train with
relentless dedication.

Historically, tourism was more oriented towards the rest, recreation, relaxation
and finding relief from daily stress. The need f or tourism to provide this
therapeutic service remains important in the high stressed society of our day.
However, the emphasis has shifted more to health and quality of life issues.
This trend gave rise to the need to include physical and sports activities in
tourism products. The ³wellness´ experience has become a new growth sector
in tourism. People want active rest and holidays where they can participate in
the make believe world called ³play´ and at the same time get enough health
benefits through exercise for which there is no time during in their regular-
normal life.

Experienced-based and competitive-based activities gave birth to ³adventure


Sports´ and according to American Sports Data Inc., participation in adventure
Sports is way up at an unprecedented rate. Reports indicate that the United
States has embarked on a national frenzy of adventure sports, indulging in so
called ³Extreme Sports´. It shows the vivid behavioral manifestation of new
global life. In the present day world, sports is not just confined to basketball
gyms, football stadiums, tennis court, golf courses, swimming pool, boxing
ring, and athletic track and field. Today¶s sportsmanship extends beyond the
edge where activities take place without margin of error. Sport Tourism is no
more conceived in a narrow perspective of conventional Olympic Games and
Wimbledon matches.

Despite the world economic recession in 1998, people have spent large sums
of money for their exciting vacations. Wherever they go, majority of outdoor
recreation-freaks tend to seek changes, challenges, education, fulfillment of
fantasies and endurance. All however demand authenticity. ³Life is either
daring adventure or nothing,´ one writer on Extreme Sports has said. The
spirit of adventure has fired mankind¶s soul throughout the centuries. Down
river, up mountain, across seas, over the great sand, we have come to reveal
the sheer excitement of all. What draws us on? It is the unfaltering path of life
that draws us ever closer to roars of rapids, the tops of mountains, and the
heart of jungles.´ And where can we find such an ideal venue?

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 28

p
Different forms of tourism can be defined in terms of the kind of leisure
mobility undertaken by the tourist and may be identified as types: (WTO 2006)

 sport tourism (centered physical activity)


 medical tourism (wellness-healing activity)
 adventure tourism (reality experiences)
 incentive tourism (productive motivational technique)
 cultural tourism (vestige of life-styles)
 heritage tourism (glories of the past)
 marine tourism (water oriented activities)
 festival tourism (celebrations of diverse festivities)
 leisure tourism (away from work time)
 ecotourism (experiences of alien sceneries)
 educational tourism (site visitation learning)
 wilderness tourism (relative to nature)
p
p
Y! #)
p
This categorization represents well planned and integrated resort complexes or
villas with sports as their primary focus and marketing strategy. In many
situations, these vacation centers have high standard facilities and services
available to the sport tourist. (Smith, 1989)

Generally speaking this resort category offers:

 Teachers, trainers, coaches with a great deal of expertise and personal


visibility.
 High-tech instructional programs for practice and game play.
 Opportunities to compete, train and practice fundamentals, fine tuning and
comprehensive strategy.
 Areas, sites and facilities for general sports activities.

Some of these resort sites focus on specific, highly developed skills; some
cater to recreational sporting activities. However, installations may vary from
site to site extending from ³high level´ international standards to campground
services.
p
Y!   :

This category refers to those attractions providing ³energizing power´ with


sports related physical activities as their principle focus. Such attractions are
usually on-location in places within regions, country sides or urban settings
providing the tourist things to see and do where personal and social
expectations are realized to varying degrees.

Attractions could be natural (parks, mountains, wildlife), or man-made


(museums, buildings). General characteristics represented in this core area of
Sport Tourism product include visitations to:

 State-of-the-art sport facilities or unique sports facilities which generally


house sports happenings such as sports villages, stadiums, arenas, bowls,
domes, etc.
 Museums dedicated to sport heritage such as those at Ancient Olympia in
Greece.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 29

 Sport heritage sites dedicated to founders, develope rs, special events.


 Halls of Fame dedicated to and honoring particular sport heroes, leaders
and organizers.
 Colossal and unique sports facilities such as water slides, summer ski-
bungee jumps.
 Sport Theme Parks such as Disney World of Sports.
 Sport Shows such as aquatic performances, etc.

In other situations, some of the visitor attractions lead to participation usage


and interactive involvement. In addition, this attraction area offers multiple
opportunities for photographic and artistic expression.
pp
In effect, Sports Tourism tours characteristically consist of:

a. Specific visitations to one or more sport attractions over a specified number


of days (sport museums, halls of fame, theme parks, etc.).
b. Combined visits to sports attractions and major sports events (heritage
sites, walls of fame, wave tech pools and sports event).
c. Attendance at a specific number of major sports events (professional
basketball, in one or more locations).
d. Participation in conferences, workshops, clinics, forums, and attendance at
major sports events.
e. Tours related to the natural characteristics of a region pursued by tourists
for aesthetical and/or physical reasons (trekking, cycling and canoeing).

In essence, this category may be indicative of ³novelty seekers´ and


³explorers´ in pursuit of authentic and quality Sport Tourism experiences.
Different settings within Sport Tourism can be classified according to the
situational milieu of the experience and may be identified according to:

 cultural setting
 natural setting
 man-made setting
 social setting
 economic setting



V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 30

" !%#"

,  '  7*
With the aim of identifying key measures which would need to be implemented
to facilitate the growth of the Sports Tourism industry, the following
recommendations suggested guidelines are enumerated for the development
of a strategy:
1. Coordination of Industry
2. Infrastructure - Facilities and Asset Audits
3. Education and Training
4. Research and Data Collection
5. Evaluation of Events
6. Implementation

*"  

One key issue which needs to be addressed is to include and encourage;


 Establishing linkages to raise awareness of the mutual benefits and
advantages of establishing alliances;
 Coordinating, planning and the sharing of resources and information; and
 Identifying opportunities and mechanisms for maximizing the tourism
benefits of sporting activities.

a. Establishing Linkages

The fact that most events are organized by sporting bodies as sporting events
first and foremost with tourism almost an optional extra can already represent
failure of the market. Sporting bodies arguably have little incentive to pursue
the tourism benefits which can flow from sporting activities, especially sporting
events, because they themselves cannot directly capture many of those
benefits. The great majority of those benefits accrue to other parties ± tour
operators, accommodation providers, transport operators, retail outlets,
restaurants, and so on. And yet many of these people may not even perceive
that they stand to benefit significantly from tourism activity associated with
sporting events. One basic example can be cited is in the case of exclusive
country clubs or sport clubs centered in-and-around Metro-Manila. Based on
consultancy work experience, one common complaint of managers and their
directors is that the sports departments do not bring-in as much revenue as
the food and beverage section so why should the sports departments be given
credit and reasonable budget for facilities upgrade and maintenance.

Sporting activities in the country, especially events, have historically b een


organized by sporting organizations for purely sporting purposes. Maximizing
the tourism potential of the events has never been a major consideration for
the organizer, representing a potential failure of the market. Many sporting
organizations rely on volunteers, and may not have a well developed business
or organizational skills or experience to sustain events regularly. These are lost
tourism opportunities. A major linkage must be established between sports
and tourism groups at all levels ± national, regional, provincial. Groupings at
regional and national levels shall provide a model for building these linkages at
the local level. Provincial units may form ³Sport tourism clusters´. The Subic
Bay Freeport Zone and neighboring areas recently formed a tourism-cluster
called the Greater Subic Bay Tourism Bureau involving tourism stake holders
from Zambales, the Freeport Zone, Olongapo City and Bataan province.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 31

Tourism and Sports are inter-related. The one renders a service to the other.
Major sports events such as the Olympics, Asian, SEA Games and the world
cups in football and rugby, have become important international tourism
attractions. The remarkable success of the recent Olympic Games in Sydney,
and Athens and the 2006 Asian Games in Doha is a go od example of the
significant tourism impacts such events can have. Likewise the tourism
industry has served as an "incubator" for new sports disciplines. Tourism
provided an opportunity for leisure activities to be popularized. With increased
popularity they developed into formally organized Sporting activities. Some
even progressed from leisure activities to Olympic Sports. Beach volleyball,
Snowboarding, Sepak Takraw are several good examples. (International
Olympic Committee)

The challenge is constant to adapt and renew the supply of products and
services to meet the changing requirements of emerging generations. It is
known that sports disciplines as well as tourism products are subjected to life
cycles. With time they lose their original appeal and importance. Management
of the process of renewal and the re-designing of products and services is a
field where sports and tourism can exchange valuable experiences. The
creation of a combined sports and tourism organization would be particularly
useful for the pooling of knowledge relevant to these two fields. Further
collaboration in research and knowledge transfer would certainly pay
dividends. An economic evaluation of the contribution of tourism and sports to
development is a research topic that deserves urgent attention. I believe this
is the right time for such an initiative. Cooperation -coordination in this field will
be mutually beneficial.

b. Sharing of Resources and Information

At the regional level, clusters or networks can play a number of roles to help
coordinate activities, assist in the sharing of physical resources and encourage
information sharing. For smaller sporting bodies, the level of resources
required (signage, barriers, marquees) may be a deterrent to running events,
as can be the lack of knowledge for first time organizers. Simply sharing these
resources can assist in the planning and running of successful events, with
region-wide benefits for both sporting and tourism groups. At a national level,
could play a role which would largely be one of the provisions of information,
including providing links and referrals to the range of information can be
accessed by event organizers or tourism groups.

c. Maximizing the Tourism Benefits

There are a number of ways to maximize the returns from investment in


events. These include:
 improving the yield from existing events;
 staging more events;
 supporting events which offer potential returns in terms of tourism;
 spreading the benefits of new and existing events to more regions, rather
than just the major metropolitan centers; and
 coordination of sporting events with other tourism -related activities to
maximize visitor stay and yield.

Importance must be given to demonstrate clearly to both, the sport and


tourism sectors, the practical advantages of creating and encouraging
alliances. While sporting events continue to be organized purely as sporting
events with tourism a secondary consideration, progress towards fully

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 32

capturing the business opportunities associated with Sport Touri sm will be


difficult. What is required is for events or activities to be seen as Sport Tourism
opportunities and for organizers to give equal weight to the requirement to run
a technically and administratively successful sporting event and the
opportunity to maximize their visit and yield by producing an appropriate
tourism package.

È   p
p
V p p p   p 
p   p p  
pp p
 
p p p pp p!p"p p# p#p
p    p  Úpp
i ! 
  p 
  p$pp
-   
ppp#   pp p  pp  pp 
  p
  pp     "p   "p   p pp  "p  "p
 "p
 
"p   p p  
p   "p#  p %p
p p   p#   &p
- 
pp'   (pp  p ) pp p 
  p
 p   p   p#  p p 
p p p  & p
-   pp pp% p%  pp   p  "p p  pp

p
 pp pp   p  p  p pp p  p
 p   p )  p p   p
p
i * p    &pp
i |  p #%p # pp p 
p )  p p
  &pp
i ‘ p#% pp
 p p   pp 
p' &p
i   p   p pp   "p
  p p 
 pp
   pp   p  % "p p   p   p  p
i   p   p p p Ú p
- #%p#  p   p    "p p p p p p
p   p   p p p p p  p 
  p p
  p p  pp %  &p
-   p  pp 
p p + 
pp   p p
 p "p 
 p pp &p
-  
 p 
  p p p  "p p p  
pp
 "p p#  p pp  
p   pp
  p
p
i   p  p p  p  
p p
i |  p  p p#p   p   pp
   p p'#pp ,   (pp p 
p
i 
 p     p
    p p 
 p 
  p p
  p#  p
 p
    p p p p p
    p
% ppp
p
 p!pp p p p  
pp   p'p 
p (p ppp
ppppp  p#pp pp 
p  
p p p   p p
p p!p"p#  p     p p pp  % p p  p

2   

Most if not all sporting activities and events rely on having appropriate
infrastructure in place. The most obvious form of infrastructure is the sporting
facilities themselves. A quick look at the list of stadiums and sports-leisure
facilities in the country will show the lack of infrastructure (see Appendix 4,).
All need upgrading and some are no longer used for sporting events. However,

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 33

other infrastructure is often more important if sport tourism opportunities are


to be maximized. Adequate accommodation and transportation are often
critical to the success of events where large numbers of people may need to be
moved and accommodated. Recent experience from the 2005 Games revealed
lack of rooming facilities for participants within their respective venues and
areas. Support groups and spectators were clearly challenged looking for
rooms on their own.

Currently, difficulties in regional areas, where accommodation may be in short


supply and where transport links, both to and within a region, may be
expensive and/or suffer from inadequate capacity. A starting point in
addressing these issues would be to conduct facilities audi ts to identify what
sporting facilities and at what standard, are available. A further logical step
down this track would be to conduct a broader ³asset audit´ of all relevant
infrastructure, to assist organizers in assessing the ability of a region to
support a particular sporting activity or event. The ability of cities, provinces,
or regions to host successful Sport Tourism activities and events depends on
there being adequate infrastructure in place. This includes sporting facilities,
accommodation, air, road, and sea networks both to and within the region,
and other tourism related facilities such as restaurants, retail outlets and
entertainment venues.

While the focus of event organizers tend to be on the actual sporting


infrastructure, the existence of adequate sporting facilities does not necessarily
mean that an event can be held at that location. If accommodation and
transport requirements cannot be met, or are inadequate, even small regional
events will be difficult to host. Accordingly, a strategic approach which
considers the adequacy and availability of all relevant facility needs to be
adopted when planning sporting events and activities. Sporting facilities are
expensive to provide. For this reason, their funding has almost always been
the domain of governments ± cities and local governments. This can lead to
distortions in the provision of facilities, with priorities sometimes influenced by
factors other than the perceived benefits to a community. This can lead to an
over-investment in sporting facilities and consequent excess capacity. This
excess capacity represents a genuine opportunity for Sport Tourism
development ± significant benefits can be gained through better facilities
utilization, without the need for further costly investment.

The relationship between facilities and the hosting of events is complex.


Investment in facilities can rarely be justified on the basis of being used only
for major sporting events. Also, it cannot be assumed that the mere provision
of high quality sportin g facilities will guarantee a region or a province a flow of
Sport Tourism opportunities. Cost-effectiveness is a key consideration in
attracting facilities funding. It may be that the costs associated with the
construction and maintenance of national or international standard facilities
simply cannot be justified for community use alone or even taking into
consideration increased use associated with the hosting of national or
international events. The commercial viability of facilities can be further
reduced when accompanying accommodation and transport infrastructure is
inadequate for the hosting of major events. More recently there has been a
trend towards the construction of multi-purpose facilities which can be utilized
for a variety of community and entertainment functions as well as the holding
of a variety of sporting activities and events. This kind of facility can prove
more cost effective than traditional facilities dedicated to a narrow focus on a
particular sport or range of sports.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 34

When considering facilities investment, it is also important - both for


governments and private investors - to consider the regional facilities
environment so as to avoid duplication and maximize the synergies with
complementary facilities in nearby regions. The development of regional
sporting ³hubs´ for particular sports can also help reduce the risk of
constructing sports specific facilities which are economically unsustainable. A
strategy of ³sharing´ national events would help justify the financial
investment in regional facilities as well as help ensure a more even distribution
of the economic benefits associated with sporting events.

  
Facilities investment and prioritization of facilities funding would also be
enhanced by improved information about the supply and demand for regional,
local sporting infrastructure. This would also help address the difficulties faced
by event promoters, organizers or prospective organizer who often lack
awareness of just what facilities and of what standard, are available in various
regions. Data on the utilization of sporting facilities is important particularly
where there may be strong seasonal variations. In this way, Sport Tourism
activities, along with other events-based tourism activity, can be targeted at
low or shoulder season times, to help minimize peaks and troughs.

    )


One of the key issues for maximizing the tourism benefits of sporting activity
and events is the availability of a range of accessible accommodation, covering
from the budget to the luxury markets. As part of each region¶s asset audit, an
accommodation directory should be produced detailing the bed numbers in
each sector of the market. By identifying the range of accommodation
available, local sport tourism organizers can effectively target particular
events, knowing that suitable accommodation for the specific market is
available. As part of this accommodation audit, consideration could be given to
utilizing or upgrading existing faciliti es such as school dormitories, barracks,
etc, which may well provide adequate accommodation for the lower end of the
market.

A vital part of encouraging the development of sport tourism in a region is


identifying the benefits which can accrue to the whol e community. In particular
the businesses directly involved in the provision of services should be made
aware of the importance of catering for the needs of their guests to ensure
they have a good experience. In the case of accommodation providers, they
need to address the particular needs of athletes including bed lengths and
adequate and appropriate catering. Several issues which can emerge from the
discussions is the high cost of transportation and lack of transport capacity in
the Philippines ± the inability to move large numbers of participants in and out
of regional or provincial venues in a short space of time.

È   p
V p -p    p    p  p  p  p  p  p  p
 ) pp pp p  pp p  p p    p p
p!p"p#  p     p p p pp  % p  p p p
p
 p  p  p   p p  p  "p  p p    p
 "p  p  p  p p
 p  p  
p p  p   p
 
p   p p  p  "p  p   p  
p
  p p- p
  p
 p p
 pp  
p  p
  p

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 35

0% ! 

Education and training is criti cal to the success of both the sports and tourism
sectors. For sports tourism, the issue of education and training is especially
important in ensuring that sporting bodies in particular have the required
business skills both to run successful events and to recognize and take
advantage of the tourism opportunities which acco mpany the hosting of
events. Training in this area is still not readi ly available in the country. A high
level of business expertise and management skill is critical if the Sport Tourism
sector is to successfully meet the needs of the increasingly Sport Tourism
consumer. The development of Sports Tourism will demand for appropriate
and accessible education and training, particularly in the area of management,
where many not-for-profit sporting organizations rely on part -time staff or
volunteers. Tourism organizations would benefit from greater awareness o f
sport tourism opportunities and some education and training to enable them to
maximize the tourism potential of sporting events and activities.

  
pp
The tourism industry has had access to industry specific education and training
from a combination of graduate/post graduate university education, on the job
training, industry based training and accreditation and a range of short
courses. Among the priority areas for future skills development are
management and business skills for medium and small enterprises, marketing
skills and specific management and operational skills for the meetings,
conferences, exhibitions and events sector.

 p p.    p
This is particularly so in areas characterized by volunteers or low wage
employees or where there is a predominance of part time jobs and high staff
turnover. In particular, organizations relying on government funding have
difficulties to attract and retain skilled employees. In terms of higher
education, new courses focusing specifically on Sport Tourism must begin to
emerge. A comprehensive range of education and training opportunities is
needed if the sport tourism sector is to fully realize its growth potential. This
could be achieved through the development of an industry training package
that identifies the skill requirements for qualifications in various occupations,
and the appropriate training courses to acquire these skills. Development of
such a package would require input from industry associations, government
sport and tourism bodies, industry training bodies and universities. A range of
accreditation opportunities could be also developed to enhance professional
development opportunities for employees, trainees, and volunteers. Improved
access and taking-up of management courses would also assist businesses
improve their performance. This is particularly so for many not-for-profit
sporting organizations whose personnel may have a high degree of technical
knowledge about their sport but are less skilled in business management.
Volunteers can also pose particular challenges in the take up of management
training due to time and resource constraints.

One means of improving management training could be to augment generic


management courses with elements tailored to the Sport Tourism sector, for
example, on strategic planning and development of an event calendar, how to
create and maintain linkages between sport and tourism organizations, and
ways to prepare an appropriate tourism package for a particular sporting
market. Specific sport tourism development courses could also assist in the
formation and development of sport tourism clusters. There could be a role for
regional development and tourism associations to develop and make available

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 36

µvalue adding¶ packages to regional tourism and sporting o rganizations that


include, for example, checklists and guidelines for organizing committees.
Such packages could include tourism product marketing material for sporting
organizers and information about the event participants for tourism agencies
and businesses.

È   pp
V p!p  p pp 
  pp 
  pp p )  p
 /p  p ) pp p  pp   p p p
  pp
p!p"p#  p     p p pp  % p p  p
p
 p!p  pp pp  pp   pp 
p p pp

 "pp   p p ,  p  p
 
p% p
p p
p!p"p# p pp pp

1# ," 



I already reflected on the fact that sports and tourism are inter-dependent and
that there are many areas of common interest. They are both socio-economic
forces that require constant renewal. Both have to build and protect their
images. They have to popularize their activities and transfer a friendly and
accessible image. In management they have much to share. Limited data is
available from the major tourism surveys. At best, however, the picture they
draw is very partial and does not indicate that sport tourism is significant in
the overall tourism market. Like many niche tourism sectors, the sport tourism
sector suffers from a lack of reliable data, or none at all, on which to base
strategic decision-making. Data which might help measure the size of the
sector is not yet available. Indeed, there is no agreed definition of just what
constitutes ³sport tourism´, hence any discussion of research and data needs
must start with the need to come to some consensus as to just what ³sport
tourism´ comprises.

Research must be conducted which will focus on the overall understanding of


the sport tourism market and how it can operate at a national or regional level.
Focusing on individual events must be avoided. The first step in data collection
for the Sport Tourism sector is the establishment of a uniform set of standard
definitions for Sport Tourism. The adoption of standard definitions provides the
opportunity for various researchers to produce data which has comparability
across the sport tourism sector. An extensive range of agreed definitions
should be developed, allowing researchers to choose those required for specific
data sets while retaining commonality. The definition adopted in this
guideline/strategy might provide the basis for discussion towards such
agreement. (please see Appendix 1, page 19)

Data types which might provide the basis for a range of research in the Sport
Tourism field include (for both domestic and international visitors):

 expenditure on trips involving sporting activities (including expenditure on


total trip and on the ³sports´ component);
 more detailed questions on motivation for travel, especially for domestic
travelers;
 satisfaction information;
 length of stay data (including length of stay for total trip and for the
³sports´ component);
 demographic information (age, gender, income, occupation);

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 37

 accommodation used while traveling for sports related purposes; and


 type of transport used while traveling for sports related purposes.

Areas of research which may be useful to the industry include:

1. appraisal of potential and proposed sport events;


2. estimation of market for new or proposed sport tours;
3. identification of infrastructure needed for Sport Tourism;
4. specification of new tourism uses for existing sports infrastructure;
5. recommendations for modifications to existing sports infrastructure to
enhance tourism value; and
6. profiling of Sport Tourism segments (training camps, usage of facilities).

Other possible areas of research could be:

 measuring the economic impact of sport events at provincial or national


level;
 measuring the economic impact of sporting infrastructure;
 measuring the social impact of Sport Tourism; and
 assessment of the environmental impacts of sport infrastructure and sport-
tourists.

È   Úp
V p !p   p p p p  p p  p p  p     p p  p  p
 
p  "p  p     p p 'p  
(p p  p

 p p     p  p p!p"p# p p  p p
#%pp
p
 p0p# p pp   pp
   p  pp p p p
p 
p pp  p   pp p  % p p p
 
"p p p  
p
"pp# pp p#  p p
 p p!p"p# p p  % p p#%pp
p
 p0 p   p pp 
p pp p  p !p"p# p
 p  pp 
p   pp
p
 p0 p   p pp 
p ppp
 p p p' p
  (p  p p"p #p p p p  p‘#p p# p   p
p# pp  p   p p  pp p
 pp
% p p p     p
p
0 p-p   p   p p p p p p  p
 ) pp pp p  pp p  p p   p  p
!p"p#  p     pp p p pp  % p  p p p
p
1 p p p  pp p  "p  p p   p
 "p pp p pp
 p p 
pp p  p
 
p  pp p  "p  p  p 
p
  pp p- p
  p
 p p
 pp  
p  p
  p

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 38

3%(  %(

A basic evaluation of the 2005 South East Asian Games held in numerous parts
of the country can be a start. Governments lend their support to events on
the basis of decisions made regarding benefits and costs ranging from financial
to social and cultural aspects. Such events may have the capacity to create
income and employment in the short term and generate increased visitation
and related investment in the longer term. Determining the value of sporting
events has been a perennially difficult issue for governments to resolve. There
are no standard criteria for evaluating the economic significance of staging
events. A comprehensive criteria for evaluating publicly funded sport and
tourism events can be approached both to the assessment of economic impact
and tangible cultural and social impacts.

A basic comprehensive approach can justify expenditure on events, but also to


compare the economic success of various events. It is imperative for the
credibility of the industry that sound methodologies are used to measure the
return on the investment, and that these methodologies are widely accepted.
Development of a commonly accepted framework for evaluation would allow
event organizers to compare and predict outcomes for their events with similar
sized events. The ability to establish these areas of comparability (as well as
differences) is important in gaining an overall view of sport tourism events in
the Philippines and making assessments about the size and characteristics of
this industry. This would also facilitate national and internati onal comparisons.
Given the limited budgets of organizations expected to undertake evaluations
of events and the often complex methodology, a framework for evaluation is
essential for smaller/regional organizations.

Philippines can learn from other countries like Thailand. Tourism Authority of
Thailand (TAT), created a sub-ministry called the Ministry of Tourism and
Sports in 2002 and immediately focused on promoting of Sporting events in
Women¶s Tennis Tour events, Men¶s ATP tennis; Professional Golf T ours,
Football leagues, etc. The Thai government through TAT generally provides
financial guarantees to organizers for operation and athletes¶ compensation.
The revenue generated by an event from sponsors, spectators, and tourism
receipts are then evaluated for future considerations and continuation of high -
impact activities. For the past 10 years, Thailand has continued to develop and
upgraded relevant infrastructure after recognizing the impact and economic
gains of Sport Tourism. (see Case Study, page 62, Tourism Authority of
Thailand. http://www.tourism thailand. org). Canada has been pursuing a
program of developing Sport Tourism ³clusters´ or networks in regional areas,
to bring together relevant players, raise awareness and maximize tourism
benefits. (see Case Study, Appendix 6, page 63)

È   p
!p p   pp   pp  pp  ) p
 pp
 p   pp p# p %pp  pp  pp' p
  (p
 p
p#  p )  p p  "pp p p

pp  pp
!pp pp
p# p# p p p  p p p p p
p# p# p  
p#  p
 23p p p   p


V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 39

5

The proposals contained in this strategy will require the concerted efforts of a
range of organizations if they are to be successfully implemented and if the
Sport Tourism sector is to achieve its full potential. Those organizations include
governments at all levels, the tourism industry, the sports sector including
sporting organizations and researchers. A key theme of the strategy is the
need for coordination between what is a very diverse range of stakeholders
involved in the sports and tourism sectors. Communication and coordination,
especially between sporting groups an d the tourism sector, will be the key to
maximizing the tourism potential of sporting activities and events.
Representatives of key stakeholders across industry and government, and
could play a significant role in:
 Raising the level of awareness about the Sports Tourism sector within both
industry and government;
 Identifying and pursuing specific research needs and priorities;
 Identifying and overseeing the role of any facilitation unit which might be
established following the release of this strategy; and
 Overseeing and reporting on progress in implementing the strategy.
p
È   p
!p  pp ppppp  p p

  pp p4  p
p 
p p p p"p #p p ppp p
  p
 p p p  p )  pp p    p   p
 pp  p    p
p

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 40

"
&"$6Y
&&,#%"
%&,!
&Y
 #  

Today¶s tourism would be unthinkable without sports. Sports events cannot


take place without some kind of tourism support. They usually depend on a
tourism destination. Clearly, the Sports Tourism industry in the Philippines has
enormous potential. A development initiative can yield enormous gains
including strong inbound tourism growth, sports and tourism infrastructure.
There are considerable economic, sport and community benefits to be gained
through developing the niche market that is sport tourism. Community sports
tourism can lead to improved sport development, enhanced community pride,
and more active populations. Perhaps it may also help cure social ills such as
addiction in drugs, sex and illegal gambling ³jueteng´, alcoholism and
depression which are caused by lack of participation and direction. People will
immediately feel the impact of the economic gains made by our government
once they see concrete activities happen in their daily lives.

Sports Tourism also induces its advocates to improve the physical condition of
the environment. As individuals become more involved and fit- and health-
conscious, they become more aware of the conditions of their environment.
Tourists are drawn to the environment mainly for the scenery and outdoor
activities. To the extent that their investments can be used to protect and
enhance the environment, tourism will grow and be self -sustaining. To the
extent that the environment is degraded, tourism will decline. The spirit of
eco-tourism must also be a central theme in our rich natural environment.
The development of Sports Tourism can include the harmonious preservation
of nature and its environment. Without preserving the integrity of our heritage
of our mountains and coastline, Sports Tourism in the Philippines cannot be
realized. Both environment and tourism will have no future.

Before the mutual interests of sports and tourism can be explored, however,
there is a need to understand both the differences and similarities between
these two growing industries. Based on this premise, it must first be
acknowledged that there are different rationales behind sports and tourism.
Sports, on one hand, depend greatly on physical movement, performance and
competition. Tourism is based on a variety of motivations in a non-material
nature. Both sectors have seen the formation of their own different networks.
The question now is how sports and tourism with differing systems can
interact, and share the things in common and in what specific areas they can
maximize growth in a manner that can provide genuine economic and social
benefits for Philippines and the Filipino people. In the Philippines, economic
indicators reveal a surge in investments in infrastructure and an upsurge in
Foreign Direct Investments. Much needed tourism and sports infrastructure
must also be emphasized in the recommended strategy and consequently
implemented.

 #  

There is a crucial need for the Philippine Government and concerned
stakeholders to integrate Sports Tourism activities into policies and programs
across a range of sectors, including health, education, economic and social
development. By promoting Sports Tourism in a strategic, systematic and
coherent way, the potential of the industry as a tool for development can be
realized.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 41

Sports Tourism initiatives must be implemented in a way that is equity-driven


and culturally relevant. Tourism, sports and leisure programs must be based
upon a ³Sports Tourism´ model, ensuring that all groups are given the
opportunity to participate, particularly those who gain additional benefits such
as women, persons with disabili ties and young people. Programs must also be
designed explicitly to draw out the core skills and values of communities that
can be learned through Sports Tourism programs

When the positive aspects of Sports Tourism are maximized, it is a powerful


and cost-effective way of supporting a range of development and peace
objectives. The time is ripe for our leaders to realize the full potential of
Sports Tourism as a viable and practical tool for national development . General
recommendations are as follows:

V pp 
p p p  
p  : Calls for the incorporation
of Sports Tourism activity into the development policies of local governments
as well as the development agendas of national development agencies.

 p p  
p p p 
p Ú Urges local governments and
national agencies to include the opportunity to participate in Sports Tourism as
an objective as well as a tool to achieve the national governments goal
towards driving our national economy to First World Status by 2020.

 pp 
p
: Recommends the inclusion of Sports Tourism
related initiatives into the programs of all agencies, where appropriate and
according to locally assessed needs.

 p  Ú Recommends that the resource mobilization urges local


ppppppgovernments and agencies to identify and make available resources for:

 Sports Tourism initiatives, which maximize participation in and access


within their localities;

 Urging partners, including private sector, sports organizations and civil


society, to generate in-kind and financial support for Sports Tourism
development activities.

0 p

   : Seek new and innovative ways to use Sports Tourism for
communication and social mobilization, particularly at the national, regional
and local levels, engaging civil society through active participation and
ensuring that target audiences are reached.
 

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 42

 %&,7*

!%Y!#!%9,%8%$
%&! #
"%YY

The development of National Sport Tourism Strategy shall provide a policy framework for
the future development of the tourism industry and shall identify the development of a
range of niche tourism products as one of the avenues which will promote strong future
growth and diversification of the Philippine tourism industry.

Sport Tourism is identified as one of the sectors showing enormous potential for further
development. A National Sport Tourism Strategy will examine impediments and
opportunities impacting on the development of the sector and to see what role the
Philippine government can play to facilitate its growth.

Consultations must be undertaken with key government agencies and with a range of
other key stakeholders. These should include the Department of Tourism and the
Philippine Convention and Visitor¶s Corporation, the Philippine Olympic Committee and its
member national associations and organizations; the Philippine Sports Commission; the
Department of Education; Sports and recreation industry associations and academic
researchers prominent in sports and tourism.

A short discussion paper can be developed by drawing together themes and issues
associated with Sport Tourism development. This paper can be utilized in a series of focus
group discussions which can be convened each cente r or region, managers of major
sporting facilities, tour operators with an interest in sporting events or activities, economic
development agencies, regional tourism bodies and event organizers.

Thereafter, there will be further opportunity for interested parties to comment upon
release. Feedback received at that stage will be taken into account in the finalization of
the Strategy.
p
||0p|4|. p!0| !4|p

*Y   1. Promote network of sport and tourism


organizations and establish communication
Develop a strategic Approach and coordination;
to Sport Tourism 2. Develop industry profile;
3. Define roles of stakeholders;
4. Educate national sports and tourism
organizations on commercial opportunities from
sport tourism;
5. Promote development of business and event
management skills in sports organizations;
6. Coordination of Events Calendars; and
7. Development of events-based tourism
strategies

2"  1. Establish a National coordination, communication,


"   facilitation UNIT to assist the development of sports
tourism;
Establish communication at 2. Develop website with links to relevant databases for
national and local levels information dissemination;
3 Facilitate access to research findings and resources.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 43

4. Establish lines of communication between stakeholders


5. Maintain project facilitation mechanisms established
for SEA Games for future major events.
6. Encourage cross-agency linkages to give access to
tourism product marketing resources and material.

p
0#,( 1. Develop region specific databases for event managers
of stakeholders, services, facilities, accommodation and
infrastructure;
Promote development of sport 2. Establish information and expertise sharing -
tourism in regional areas and through development of ³Sport Tourism clusters´ in
address constraints to its regional areas;
growth 3. Target niche events appropriate to area and facilities.
4. Address access issues - transport, sponsorship, media;
5. Encourage coordination to avoid duplication of
facilities;
6. Encourage integrated view of sport, tourism and
business opportunities at regional level;
7. Implement rotation of national events in different
regions, provinces.

p
p
1# =, 1. Clearly define sport tourism.
2. Coordinate development of research agenda.
Develop Research and Data 3. Conduct research in economic and social
Base. impacts of events, include consideration of both direct
and flow-on effects and disseminate findings to
stakeholders.
4. Conduct market analysis for identification of
existing and potential markets.
5. Encourage understanding of the Sport Tourism
market needs.
6. Undertake post event research - long term tracking of
benefits of events.

p
3 ,( 1. Clearly define sport tourism.
2. Coordinate development of research agenda.
Create and coordinate sound 3. Conduct research in economic and social
economic approach to impacts of events, include consideration of both dire ct
development and use of and flow-on effects and disseminate findings to
facilities. stakeholders.
4. Conduct market analysis for identification of
existing and potential markets.
5. Encourage understanding of the sport tourism
market needs.
6. Undertake post event research - long term tracking of
benefits of events.

p
p

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 44

5  1. Encourage national and local governments to


recognize difficulties faced by regional, local areas in
Identify and address accessing funding and sponsorship for events.
difficulties in funding for 2. Identify funding sources - communicate to
conducting events. organizations what funding is available and how to
access it.
3. Assist regional areas to access financial and in-kind
sponsorships, possibly as a group.
4. Encourage partnerships between government and
private sector - recognize role of private sector in
supporting major and local events.

p
p
4% !  1. Develop profile of the industry to identify opportunities
for education, employment and experience.
Identify and address 2. Promote implementation of event management
education and training needs training courses.
in Sport Tourism sector. 3. Develop appropriate Sport Tourism training modules.
4. Improve business skills through effective training
tailored to sector, including volunteers.
5. Encourage development and distribution of manuals
and educational resources.

p
£Y>%   1. Develop standardized approach to economic, cultural,
 social and environmental modeling.
pp 2. Develop standardized evaluation model appropriate for
Need standardized approach regional areas.
to evaluation of events. 3. Develop methods to deliver meaningful information to
local businesses on impact of Sport Tourism.
4. Develop best practice guidelines for evaluation of
major events.

p
-  
pRecognize the need to 1. Recognize that participation underpins Sport Tourism.
provide ongoing support for p 2. Address needs of all sectors of the population.
mass participation in sport 3. Encourage and support volunteers.

p
! p #  p
p  p   p p  p   
p p p  p
 
p   Úp
p
V What are the benefits to a town, city or province in building a new facility? p
 Can a new facility (sports and tourism facilty) revitalize a decaying section
of a city?p
 Do the benefits of the government building a new facility outweigh the
costs? p
4. Does the construction of new stadiums and amenities by the government
have effects in either parts of the economy (either positive or negative)?

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 45

 %&,72

Y
#!Y!
6#Y $&&&!% $!%
*
? (

Each plan must have specific objectives and outcomes to meet the needs of local
governments or districts (barangays), together with common elements, to enable
comparison between centers and compilation of data, including:

 inventory of facilities
 strategies and priorities for facility development
 pricing, leasing and management policies
 programming strategies and priorities
 funding policies

Planning occurs at two levels (regional and local) and consists of two types (general
and specific). Given the size and nature of the region, most specific issues, activities
or facilities are affected by, and impacted upon, what happens in surrounding
regional areas. Consequently, strong argument exists for undertaking strategies and
feasibility studies on a regional basis. Cooperation will be required between local and
national government to undertake regional, specific issue, projects.

Community consultation is an integral aspect of a Sports Tourism Plan, and must be


considered in association with market research and project management. Market
research here is defined as the process of obtaining information relating to the
wants and needs of consumers, and to gain a better understanding of the market.
Community consultation here is defined as the process of seeking the community¶s
views and opinions on proposals and issues. Techniques that may be used in market
research or community consultation include:

 surveys (phone, mail, drop off and retrieve, personal interview. etc)
 executive interviews
 group interviews (focus groups, workshops etc)
 competitor analysis
 comparative assessments
 review of secondary data (previous reports etc)
 public meetings (open to all members of the public)
 media releases, seeking public comment and submissions
 public exhibition of proposals

An aspect of community consultation often ignored in the preparation of a


Recreation Plan, is that of ownership. To increase the probability that a plan will be
adopted and implemented by the government, major stakeholders must be included
in the consultation process. Stakeholders will include some or all of the following:

 Elected members of city, provincial council


 Local government officers
 Government Departments
 Community recreation and sport groups
 End-users of facilities
 Commercial leisure facility operators
 Resident action groups

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 46

Protocols must be established at the beginning of the planning process to ensure


that all stakeholders are given the opportunity to have input into the Plan. Selecting
membership of the Project Management Group can be politically difficult, and will
preferably only include individuals who are personally nominated, rather than
individuals selected by, and representing a particular group.

2   

Principles that underpin the government role in recreation and this project are:
 access and equity
 lifelong involvement
 enjoyment
 diversity and choice
 quality
 safety
 community benefit

0/# " " 

Although the distinction between market research and community consultation is


blurred, a practical way of viewing the two concepts is to consider:

Market research as the process of obtaining information relating to the wants and
needs of consumers, and to gain a better understanding of the market. Market
research involves data gathering techniques such as:

 surveys (telephone, mail, drop off and retrieve, personal interview etc)
 executive interviews
 group interviews (focus groups, workshops etc)
 competitor analysis
 comparative assessments
 review of secondary data (ABS data, previous reports etc)

Community consultation is the process of seeking the community¶s views and


opinions on proposals and i ssues. Generally, community consultation is necessary
when changes of policy or major developments are proposed. The most popular
community consultation techniques are:

 public meetings (open to all members of the public)


 group interviews (selective invitations to focus groups, workshops etc)
 stakeholder interviews
 surveys (telephone, mail, drop off and retrieve, personal interviews)
 media releases, seeking public comment and submissions
 public exhibition of proposals

Usually, community consultation will occur during the initial stages, when a proposal
is first mooted and towards the end of the process when firm proposals or
recommendations are being considered. While community consultation uses similar
techniques to market research, the focus is different and tends to be more
exploratory and subjective, whereas market research seeks definitive and objective
data.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 47

 %&,70
"6##%&!&,%%#&!#%&,Y
Sources: Sage Journals. 2007. Global Trends in Sports and Recreation ; Philip Gray &
Associates. 2007. Asia-Pacific Tourism-Recreation Planning; Euromonitor
International. 2007

This information module reviews Asia Pacific regional and national trends in travel,
participation in recreation and sport activities and use of recreation and sp ort
facilities. It includes a general review of emerging trends in society which may
impact on travel, sport and leisure participation; trends in the leisure industry; and
trends in the development and management of recreation facilities:

 %   %  
According to Euromonitor International, short -haul
  travel within Asia Pacific is becoming more popular than
ever, with 90% of all outbound departures from

    Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Macau, going to
   destinations within the region. Not only does the short-
    haul market dominate departures in Asia, it is also
growing rapidly, with departures up by 20% between
    2000 and 2005, compared to long -haul¶s growth rate of
12% over the same period. This trend is set to intensify further over the next ten
years due to a combination of positive factors fuelling growth.

Several key factors which encourage Asians to travel within their region are:

i cheaper ticket price,


i shorter travel time and
i familiarity of territory,

If you add to this the growing popularity of weekend breaks and the increasingly
hectic lifestyles of consumers across Asia Pacific, which is restricting time available
for longer breaks, the forecast that short-haul travel will witness strong growth over
the next five-to-ten years.

Also developments in the industry support short-haul growth:

Promotional efforts are focused on encouraging neighboring countries frequent


visits; Development of the ³open skies´ agreements; Visa-free travel between all
ASEAN countries; and continuing boom in low cost carriers.

Long-haul travel will develop over the next five years as Asians become more
independent and confident in trav eling to other regions.

Constraints are:   


i Lack of awareness
i Lack of Familiarity
   
i Severe language barriers     
i Red tape at immigration.   

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 48

 %   /     )    
The following trends (travel and leisure) are evident in the Region and Philippine
society and will impact to some degree, on the development and management of
Sports Tourism facilities. The implication of each trend should be assessed on a
situation by situation basis. Recreation provision must take account of these trends
as they cannot be changed, but will affect how individual facilities, programs and
services are developed and managed.

1. ORIENTATION Regional society is a convenience-


oriented society. In terms of travel,
recreation and sport, people expect to
participate in activities of their choice,
at times and locations convenient to
their own individual lifestyle.
2. PARTICIPATION Consumers expect to participate in
recreation and sport activities in high
quality facilities offering high qual ity
service.

3. FUNDING OF Increasingly participants are expected


FACILTIIES to contribute a greater proportion of
the costs of their activity. The funding
for Sports Tourism, recreation and
sport by government may not increase.

4. INDIVIDUAL Participation leads to individual and


casual type activities rather than as
part of a team or club. Similarly, there
is a move away from outdoor activities
to indoor activities, primarily due to
weather conditions.
5. COMMERCIAL TREND Commercialization of recreation and
sport is occurring. However,
commercial facilities require a
reasonable population base to be
financially viable, which may not exist
in rural areas.
6. ENVIRONMMENT Sport-tourists are more aware of our
AWARENESS natural environment, and demand for
access to natural areas increasing. In
tandem with this demand to visit
natural areas, is an expectation that
quality amenities and service will still
be available.
6. POTENTIAL Potential exists to expand the economy
GROWTH of the region through investment in
tourism, recreation and sport facilities
and activities. The main aim being to
retain expenditure in the region by
residents and to attract new
expenditure to the region by tourists
and visitors. There is greater
awareness of the benefits of physical
activity and its contribution to a
healthy lifestyle.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 49

Based on the trends, implications for recreation provision in the Philippines are:

 On its economic performance and demographic characteristics, the Philippines is


at a disadvantaged. However, it has an abundance of Sports Tourism and
recreation opportunities, which contribute to a unique lifestyle. Investment in
Sports Tourism and recreation infrastructure will be required to ensure that
tourist and residents experience a quality lifestyle.
 Unless recreation facilities are presented in a reasonable condition, usage will
decrease. Similarly, programs and services must be targeted to specific market
segments and offered at times and venues to cater for the wide range of people
in the region.
 Government funding priorities may need to change to reflect trends in
participation. More people participate in individual, non -competitive activities,
compared with team sports. Funding must reflect this trend. Development of
sport and recreation opportunities must also reflect the increasing
commercialization of sport and recreation. Joint ventures between public
(national and local government) and private sector must be explored to ensure
limited resources are used to maximum effect.
 Sport and recreation programs and services in the Region must be sensitively
priced. On the one hand pricing must not be a barrier to participation, whilst at
the same time ensuring that adequate revenues are generated to ensure
ongoing viability. Differential pricing mechanisms must be explored to ensure
that access is not denied to people who have limited financial resources.
 The Philippines has different forms of tour ism activities (adventure-, eco-,
marine-, festival-tourism) and outdoor recreation resources, which will be used
by more people. It is important that adequate resources are provided to ensure
that these resources are adequately maintained and used in an environmentally
sustainable manner.


 %  "    # 
 The structure of the labor force is changing, with more women in the labor
force, many employed in part time positions. There has been a shift in
employment patterns with more people employed in part time and casual
positions.
 The concept of the five day working week is gradually changing with more
people required to work over a six or seven day week. This means the
traditional weekend for leisure is being eroded and recreation and sport
opportunities need to be available at other times, particularly weekday nights..
 The tourism and leisure industry, including sports is becoming a sign ificant part
of the Philippine economy. It employs a large number of people and is a
significant generator of export income. To attract and retain customers in this
industry requires a high and consistent level of service.
 We live in the information age where access to information is relatively easy.
Technologically it is now possible to provide large numbers of people with
information cheaply. The general public also has an expectation that it will be
able to access information from government instrumentalities, and that
decisions are made in an open environment.
 Greater emphasis is being given to preventative health care, resulting in people
being more aware of their nutritional requirements, the need for an active
lifestyle and the need to have regular medical checks.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 50

 Governments accept the concept of equity, and have developed strategies to


ensure that disadvantaged groups have access to basic services including
health, education and leisure.
 Changes to the economic structure of Philippines society have had a major
impact on many young people, particularly those lacking in personal support
systems and/or a reasonable level of education. The result is often socially
alienated, unemployed young people, for whom traditiona l recreation
opportunities are inappropriate.

Õ %   2 
The following trends are evident in the regional leisure industry and will impact to
some degree on leisure development and management in the Philippines. These
trends provide a context within which recreation opportunities should be developed,
and give an indication of strategies to be adopted by government agencies.

 Stand alone sports facilities of private and exclusive sports clubs tend to operate
at a loss due to decrease in memberships. They now open to general public
patronage;
 Housing developments have integrated sports and leisure facilities as part of the
package to home-buyers. Likewise, most hotels.
 The general public has a greater recognition, and understanding, of the value of
leisure in improving the quality of life. In particular, there is a greater
appreciation that an active healthy lifestyle has positive benefits by increasing
enjoyment in a wider range of work and leisure activities. This is likely to lead to
increased participation in recreation and sporting activities by more people,
particularly in unstructured activities.
 Participants have an expectation that recreation facilities will be developed and
equipped to a reasonably high quality. This has and will contin ue to result in the
development of:
1. Indoor facilities;
2. Better finished and well equipped facilities.
3. Better playing surfaces and playing conditions in a more pleasant
environment.

 Optimum use of facilities is necessary to cover increased capital costs and


scarce resources, for example by the provision of flood lighting and synthetic
turf surfaces.
 People prefer to participate in individual or informal activities rather than as part
of a team. They seem to shy away from the commitments of being a member of
a club or team.
 Commercial operators provide a wide range of recreation activities, for example
indoor badminton, tennis and fitness centers, creating pressure on other
organizations to provide high quality facilities and services.
 The combination of increased capital cost can force proponents of facilities to
consider the long term financial viability, resulting in the development of larger
centralized facilities.
 Resource sharing can be more recognized as being in the best long term
interests of the community. This can lead to joint development of housing,
school/community and commercial facilities; development of multi sport clubs
combining for example basketball, soccer, tennis, badminton; the development
of facilities to service more than one municipality; and public/private joint
ventures.
 It is increasingly necessary for clubs and groups, at all levels, to remunerate
coaches, players, instructors and administrators.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 51

 Groups are finding it harder to attract volunteers to help with coaching,


administration and maintenance. This may be due to more clubs, seeking the
services of a smaller number of people willing to become involved in local sport
and recreation. The effect has been for fewer volunteers to do more work and
greater reliance on paid staff.
 Funding for recreation appears to be biased towards funding elite sports
facilities, rather than community based facilities.

! %   #   ' # 


Trends in development and design of multi purpose leisure centers and a discussion
of management issues are presented. These trends can be used to evaluate existing
facilities against contemporary standards, and give an indication of what changes
are required in the short to medium term.

/     /  %     5 6

A number of trends, or principles in design, have become apparent over the last five
years. These are summarized below:

 ,    /  % 

 Create a warm and inviting atmosphere and ensure longevity by installing good
quality fittings and fixtures.
 Provide a social area. At a minimum, vending machines offer snacks, although
most leisure centers have a dedicated kiosk and an area with table and chairs,
preferably overlooking the sports area. In recent times licensed bar areas have
been provided, which tend to be club based, but allow access to all customers.
The intention is to encourage secondary expenditure by customers.
 Focus on minimizing staff supervision costs. During off peak periods the leisure
centre should be capable of being supervised by one or two staff, for example,
by combining the kiosk and reception. At the same time however, the design
must allow adequate space to enable the centre to cope with peak demands,
particularly at the reception and kiosk area.
 Emphasize safety, for example all walls should have flush fittings so no objects
jut from the wall and provide a first aid room with emergency access for
ambulance and stretcher bearers.
 Provide adequate car parking on sealed car parks and ensure rapid entry and
exit of customers.
 Provide adequate security, so that when areas of a leisure center are not being
used, they can be locked off to avoid unwanted intrusion.
 Position amenities so that areas can be locked off, or service two areas, such as
indoor and outdoor facilities.
 Provide for future expansion of additional water or court space or other activity
areas.
 Consider the acoustics, both to minimize the internal noise fr om activities and to
eliminate or reduce noise emanating from the centre that may affect
surrounding residents.
 Take maximum advantage of natural light, but care must be taken to ensure
that light does not shine directly onto customers (players) eyes. Par ticular
attention must be given to skylights, which can affect badminton and volleyball,
and glass walls on the west and northern walls.
 Install good quality sound systems for public announcements and to provide
background music;

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 52

0  3  /  % 

 Ensure that adequate playing arenas are constructed. Check the quality of
flooring and lighting, and ensure that the size, particularly length, width and
height, are appropriate for the activities to be scheduled. Multi purpose sports
centers must be designed for all sports, not just basketball, for example,
badminton and volleyball have specific height and lighting requirements.
 Maximize flexibility by having multiple line markings, court configurations which
can be changed according to the needs o f the activity, retractable seating which
does not impinge on floor areas, and accommodate both sporting activities and
entertainment.
 Optimize all available floor space. For example, use mezzanine floors for
spectators and as multi-purpose areas. Similarly, design activity rooms to be
multi-purpose, for meetings, programs such as Tai kwon do, and for social
functions.
 Provide a minimum number of permanent spectator seats to cater for regular
activities. Retractable bleachers or portable seating may be used for major
events and exhibition matches, although these require extra floor space for
storage.
 Provide corporate boxes if the centre is to be used for elite sport or
entertainment activities. Corporate boxes can be court-side open boxes, or
enclosed more elaborate permanent boxes.
 Accommodate different levels of competition: Generally there are three
categories of Competition: local or social, which is used for regular day to day
activities; provincial level competition; and national or international standard
events. The local/social courts take up the least space while
national/international events take up a larger area. Consequently, there may
need to be different configurations of court space for different types of activities.
 Give special attention to the type of flooring: Numerous multi -purpose products
are available that meet the needs of elite sport, and satisfy other activities, such
as entertainment or trade shows.
 Maximize the use of court space. Divider nets can be used to separate playing
areas, to allow more than one activity to occur simultaneously.

# 4 #   % 

 Water spaces should meet the specific needs of the following markets:
1. Recreation and leisure
2. Competition, training and fitness
3. Teaching
4. Health and rehabilitation.

 Provide a mix of shallow leisure/recreation water with deeper programmable


water space; Depth of major water space area tend to be 1.0 to 1.8 meters in
the main pools and between 0.6 and 0.9 meters in learners pools;
 Include high revenue generating and complementary activities such as a spa:
Health and fitness centers complement aquatic centers and have been developed
in a significant percentage of new indoor swimming pools. Ancillary services
complementary to a leisure aquatic centre include sports medicine rooms, health
and therapy services and health and beauty services;
 Ensure maximum flexibility to allow a number of different programs and
activities to occur concurrently;
 Develop indoor swimming pools with outdoor area s for use in the warmer
weather such as grassed barbecue/picnic area or outdoor water space;

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 53

& )     % 
The following section outlines a number of management issues or trends relating
leisure facility management:

 Traditionally, recreation and sports facilities, and clubs, were managed by


volunteers. Given the increasing complexity of modern society and the greater
demands on people¶s time, it is more difficult to attract volunteers. Managing
multi-million dollar facilities requires specific skills and expertise to ensure they
are managed and maintained appropriately. Consequently, there is a trend to
move away from volunteer management to professional management,
particularly in larger multipurpose complex facilities.

 Many leisure facilities are operated at a financial deficit. In many instances the
actual operating cost is not known until after the end of the financial year. Local
government can require much greater certainty. Where facilities operate at a
deficit, they expect a guaranteed maximum deficit, written into leases and
contracts. In recent years the number of leisure facilities contracted has
increased substantially. As a result, numerous professional management
companies have evolved.

 Within the market place there is a mix of commercial and community based
management groups. While their operating philosophy many be substantially
different, on a day to day basis they operate in the same way and give financial
guarantees.

 The private sector is willing to invest in leisure facilities in return for


management rights. However investment will only occur if the investment can
be protected by a long term contract. Usually a minimum of ten years is
required to enable an investor to generate sufficient return to make the project
viable.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 54

 %&,71

$89"8% : '  % %/$;) 8/
 % -2"$ ; " '$2$%$"
An inventory of sports stadiums and facilities ±public and private ± in the Philippines has
been established. While this inventory is not exhaustive, it represents a first attempt to
draw together an initiative in a comprehensive manner.

Not included are sports facilities located in private housing developments and educational
and military camp facilities. This inventory shall be continuously updated and improved as
further information is gathered on existing and planned Sports Tourism development.

p
   p 


pppppppppp4
/ p p p p p p pppppppp p 5 p6 p
p José Rizal Memorial Stadium, RSMC, Manila 30 000 1934-
Ninoy Aquino Stadium, RSMC, Manila 25 000 1934
Araneta Coliseum, Quezon City 22 000 1959
Bacolod Pana-ad Stadium, Negros Occ. 15 000 1999-p
Quezon City Amoranto Stadium 15 000-- 1960¶s
Philsports Arena ³ULTRA´, Pasig City 15 000 1990s
UP Diliman Football Field 10,000 1930¶s
Iloilo Sports Complex 10 000 p
Enriquez Memorial S.C., Zamboanga 10 000-- p
Olivarez Sports Complex, Paranaque City 10,000 p
Cebu City Sports Complex 10 000-- p
Pampanga Sports Complex 10 000-- p
Isabela Sports Complex 10 000-- p
Cuneta Astrodome 10 000 p
Pasig City Sports Center 10 000² p
Subic Bay Remy Field, SBFZ 10,000 - 2003

Zamboanga Coliseum 5 000--


Pagadian City Teachers Assn Stad. Z.d.Sur 5 000-
Zamb. del N. Sports Stadium 5 000--
Cagayan de OroRegional Football Field 5 000-- 1991p
Macias Sports Center, Dumaguete City 4 000
Silliman Univ. Football Field, Dumaguete 2 000--
L.G. Teves Mem. Aqua Center, Dumaguete 1 775- p
p

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 55

a*p  p  p2    3p


p
 Alabang Country Club Muntinlupa,
Camp Aguinaldo Golf Club Quezon City,
Capitol Hills Golf & Country Club Diliman, Q.C.
Club Intramuros Port Area, Intramuros, Manila
Celebrity Sports Club, Q. C.
Manila Golf Club Harvard Road, Makati City
Manila Polo Club, Makati City
Makati Sports Club, Makati City
Moro Lorenzo Sports Hall, Ateneo De Manila, Q.C.
Fort Bonifacio Golf Club (Army) Ft. Bonifacio, Taguig,
Palms Country Club, Alabang
Philippine Navy Golf Club Ft. Bonifacio, Taguig,
Philippine Columbian Association, Paco,Manila
Quezon City Sports Club, Q.C.
Veterans Golf & Tennis, Veterans Hospital, Q.C.
Valle Verde Country Club, Pasig City
Villamor Air Base Golf Course Pasay City,
Wack Wack Golf & Country Club Mandaluyong City,
Ynares Sports Complex, Pasig City

6  Calatagan Golf Club Calatagan,


Evercrest Golf Club & Resort Km. 72, Batulao, Nasugbu,
Mount Malarayat Golf & Country Club Lipa City,
Summit Point Golf & Country Club Lipa City,

6 p  Baguio Country Club South Drive,


Camp John Hay Golf Course Loakan Road,
 Mimosa Golf & Country Club Clark Airbase, Angeles City
Villa Gloria Tennis Center, Angeles City
Air Force Golf Course (formerly Mekeni) Clark Air Base,

6 Fairways and Bluewater Resort Golf & Country Club Newcoast,

6 Royal Northwoods Golf Club Coral Na Bato, San Rafael,

  Royal Northwoods Golf Club Coral Na Bato, San Rafael,


Eagle Ridge Golf & Country Club General Trias,
Manila Southwoods Golf & Country Club Cabilang Baybay, Carmona,
Orchard Golf & Country Club Aguinaldo Highway, Dasmarinas,
Puerto Azul Beach & Country Club Barangay Sapang, Ternate,
Riviera Golf & Country Club Aguinaldo Highway, Silang,
Royale Tagaytay Country Club Buck Estate, Alfonso,
Sherwood Hills Trece Martirez City,
Tagaytay Highlands Tagaytay City

  Alta Vista Golf & Country Club Aznar Road, Pardo Hills, Cebu City Cebu
Country Club Gov. M. Cuenco, Banilad, Cebu City
International Golf and Resort Badian,

0 Apo Golf & Country Club Bago, Davao City


Lanang Country Club Km. 6, Lanang, Davao City

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 56

!p4 Fort Ilocandia Golf Club Calayab, Laoag City,

!  Iloilo Golf & Country Club


(Sta. Barbara Golf Course) Iloilo City

  Ayala Greenfield Estates Golf & Leisure Club Calamba,


Southwoods Golf and Country Club
Canlubang Golf & Country Club Canlubang Sugar Estate,
Alina Tennis Center, San Pablo
Fat Filipinas Golf Club San Pedro,
Sta. Elena Golf Club Barrio Malitlit, Sta. Rosa

4 p7 Bacolod Golf and Country Club Hacienda Binitin, Murcia,


Negros Occidental Golf & Country Club, Bacolod City,

. ) Eastridge Golf Course Binangonan,


Forest Hills Golf & Country Club Cogeo, Antipolo City
Valley Golf & Country Club Antipolo City

 Luisita Golf & Country Club Hacienda Luisita


8
  Subic Bay Golf & Country Club Subic Bay Freeport Zone,
Remy Field Sports Field and Tennis Center
8
  Zamboanga Golf & Country Club Upper Calarian, Z -CITY

p
p
p
7‘|.Úp
p
!     ppp
- p  pp+ p  p    p
- a  p. p  pp  pp   p
- | p
p

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 57

 %&,73
p
$ &%Y@  " !#

* #
$%
p
 Ú 300,000 sq km (117,187 sq mi)
  Ú 89 million (2006 estimate)
 p Ú Metro Manila (10.4m)
  Ú Christian Malay (91.5%), Muslim Malay
(4%), Chinese (1.5%); Other (3%)
  Ú Filipino, based on Tagalog, is the national
language; English is an official language for
education and communication.
.    23Ú Roman Catholic (83%); Protestant (9%);
Muslim (5%); and other (3%).
 Ú Peso
 
Ú Republic
‘ pp Ú President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
9  p   Úp p p VP Noli De Castro
:  pa  Úpp p p Sec.pAlberto Romulo
7 )  Úp p p UN, UNESCO, WHO, ASEAN, APEC, etc.

2%
# 9
The Philippines consists of over 7,100 islands covering 300,000 square kilometres (just
less than the British Isles) divided into 3 main areas: Luzon (which includes Manila) in the
north, the Visayas together with Palawan and Mindoro in the central area, and Mindanao
and the Sulu Archipelago to the south. The archipelago is 65% mountainous, 35% coastal
lowlands. The country has a tropical climate with a typhoon season The Philippines is
located right in the heart of Asia - today the fastest growing region. It is located within
four hours flying time from major capitals of the region and sited at the crossroads of the
eastern and western business with a critical entry point to over 500 million people in the
ASEAN market and a gateway of international shipping and air lanes suited for European
and American businesses.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 58

0
6!$

A&,!#%&,Y
Report based on THE ECONOMIST, Economic Intelligence Unit, 2005 -2006

The Filipino workforce is one of the most compelling advantages the Philippines have over
any other Asian country. With higher education priority, the literacy rate in the country is
94.6% - among the highest. English is taught in all schools, making the Philippines the
world's third largest English -speaking country. Every year, there are some 350,000
graduates enriching the professional pool. An open economy allows 100% foreign
ownership in almost all sectors and supports a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) investment
scheme that other Asian countries emulate. Government corporations are being privatized
and the banking, insurance, shipping, telecommunications and power industries have been
deregulated. Incentive packages include the corporate income tax, reduced to a current
32%, with companies in the Special Economic Zones are subject to only 5% overall tax
rates. A well-developed communication, transportation, business and economic
infrastructure links the three major islands and distinguishes the Philippine economy.
Highly accessible by air, water and cyberspace, liberalization of inter-island shipping and
domestic aviation further sparked improved facilities and services. As Asian economies
integrate within the vast framework of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), the
Philippines is the natural and most strategic location for firms that want access to the
large ASEAN market and its vast trade opportunities. The Philippines has enhanced and
primed up various areas for investors and offers a dynamic consumer market accustomed
to an array of product choices created by a competitive domestic economy. The Economist
Intelligence Unit has revised its forecast for the fiscal deficit, and now expects it to equal
3.1% of GDP in 2005 and 2.1% in 2006. Consumer price inflation data for April showed a
year-on-year inflation rate of 8.5% for the third month in a row, reflecting strong global
oil prices. We nevertheless forecast GDP growth of 5.1% in 2005 and 4.8% in 2006,
propped up by inward remittances.

 Initial conditions
In the aftermath of the second world war, the Philippines was one of the m ost prosperous
countries in Asia. However, much slower growth rates since the 1960s coupled with rapid
growth rates elsewhere in the region have seen the Philippines¶ relative standard of living
plummet. Long-standing insurgencies by both the Communist New People¶s Army (NPA)
and groups campaigning for independence or autonomy for Muslim areas in the south of
the country have occupied government attention, and formed part of the justification for
years of authoritarian rule by Ferdinand Marcos, who held the presidency from 1965 to
1986.

Crony relationships between government and business have frequently been noted, and
populist-style politics have left the Philippines with a large public -sector debt, which
inhibits spending on areas such as education and i nfrastructure that could improve the
business environment. In addition to these problems, the Philippine constitution, enacted
after the toppling of Mr. Marcos¶s administration, permits only a single presidential term,
thereby preventing the emergence of desperately needed effective leadership. Populist
politics combine with the independence of the Senate from party -political control to
prevent effective policy implementation.

On the positive side, the Philippines boasts good English -language skills²reflecting the
close relationship with the US that has persisted since independence in 1946² and a
demonstrated ability to corner a large proportion of global flows of workers¶ remittances.
Workers overseas are increasingly likely to be doctors and nurses rather than maids, and
so are able to earn significant sums to remit back to the Philippines, thus providing a vital
underpinning to domestic demand. The Philippines also boasts a large ethnic -Chinese
business class, and is anxious to leverage the opportunities provided by economic

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 59

integration with both China and Taiwan. However, these advantages are offset by the
vulnerability of the agricultural sector to typhoons and the El Niño phenomenon, the
underperformance of the tourism sector as a consequence of security concerns, and the
competition that the export processing sector faces from China and other countries in the
region.

 Demographic trends
The Philippine population has a very youthful demographic profile, (median age at 21
years old)²pensioners currently make up just 4 percent of the total population ²
characterized by a high birth rate in this largely Roman Catholic nation. Although
demographic ageing will gather speed over the next 25 years as the birth rate declines,
US Census Bureau projections show that those over 65 years will still account for less than
8 percent of the population in 2030. The labor force will consequently grow in each y ear of
the forecast period, rising to 59.1m in 2030 from 35.9m in 2004. Over the same period
the total population will rise to 125.6m, from 86.2m in 2004. The rise in the old-age
dependency ratio will thus be partly offset by a reduction in the young-age dependency
ratio at the bottom of the population pyramid. Although a large population of working age
can be a positive asset, as the burden of demographic dependency is spread widely,
Philippine economic performance in recent years has failed to capitalize on this, owing to
low rates of investment. This reflects the government¶s failure to spend adequately in
areas such as infrastructure, the persistence of corruption, security concerns, and the
diversion of a substantial proportion of the government budget into servicing large
domestic and foreign debts. As there is currently little prospect of an increase in
investment to a level that would make rapid inroads into unemployment, Philippine think -
tanks are urging the government to adopt a policy to limit popu lation growth.

However, a determined attempt to rein in the birth rate currently seems unlikely in view
of the political influence of the Roman Catholic Church; in any case, over our long -term
forecast period further urbanization will eventually provide an independent stimulus for an
easing in population growth. In the earlier part of the 25 -year period, the challenge will be
to create enough jobs to absorb surplus labor and preserve social stability; in later years
unemployment levels will begin to fall faster. Demographic ageing will provide the
stimulus for more expenditure on areas such as healthcare, but much of the spending will
need to come from private companies and individuals.

 External conditions
The Philippines struggled to take advantage of a good year for global trade flows in 2004.
Exports to the US fell back, whereas exports to Japan and China rose rapidly. In the
earlier years of the long-term forecast period Philippine exporters face the challenge of
stiff competition from Chinese-based producers in third markets, but over the longer term
the emergence of China is likely to provide opportunities for the Philippines. The recent
ruling of the Supreme Court permitting foreign investment in the mining sector dovetails
with China¶s burgeoning need for raw materials, and offers the prospect of significant
investment inflows from China as well as from other leading players in the mining sector,
such as Australia.

Integration with the other member states of the Association of South-East Asian Nations
(ASEAN) will also provide a stimulus to trade. Tariffs within the region have already been
greatly reduced under plans to set up an ASEAN Free-Trade Area 4 (AFTA) by 2008, and
plans for free trade between ASEAN and China by 2010 have also been announced. The
Philippine external sector remains highly dependent on remittances from overseas Filipino
workers, which currently more than cover the large deficit on merchandise trade. Labor
exports have progressed from sending maids to Hong Kong and Southeast Asia to exports

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


p p
sp  smp

p p 60p
p

p mc p   sp
p
p p
p p p 
 p Cp cmsp  p sp c 
p p
c
p

p
p p
p
 sp p spp s
c
sppm
psppp
p p p c
p
p
psp  p sp
p
pc 
¶spcm
p
 
pp
sp  p p -
p c
pc 
pp

p
p  ps p
p p p 
 p m 
p  p  
c p p  s p c p   sp p 
p
p
p
 
p p   p
p  cp c 
sp  s p c p 
p
p sp  p  s sp
! 
p
 s
spp spp psc 
p 
p  p p
p
p25p spp
p
p 

sp sp p
p s¶p c
p p p p p
p  p

p sp
  cp p cmcp  
p p p 
pp 
c p
ssp 
p
p  s
p
"s p 
sp  p p  p p cp
p sp p C p sp p  p  p sp
m  p p p c
p
p
p sm
p cmcp m
p p p
p  s
p "s p
c 
sp ssp  p
p 
p s sp p
p 
p C p  p p  p 
p
c mpp s p 
p
sp m pp
p c  p p
p  pc m 
sp p
 p
p  s p
 p c msp p  c p m sp 
 p  p  msp s cp sp
p
C -  pss p sp p
p

 p
p p p  spm c
pp
p sp

p p p
p  s
-c sp sc p p m
p cc
p #
p 
 s
p "s p 
sp
s ms
p
  smp m sp p cc p "p s cp p s

p ssp 
p
p
s msmp p  p s p c p sp  p 
p
p sp p p   p
p

p
p sp
psc 
p mspp
ps
 ps sp p c
p
c pm
p
pcmcpcs
spp
p
 s


sp pcp
spp
p
 ccss p  mpp
p pcs


p psc 
pm p
p
p p

c pc
sspH p p pmp
p pcs


p

p sp
p s
p

p p
pc pc
p mpC sspc 
psmsp p  p spp
p  p p m m
p p
p cm p  cssp  p
p  -  mp  s
p
$  p M c   p " p 
p
p cs


 p m
p p  s
sp
p p p s - p

 mp c
 sp
p  s

p
p 
p  p p s s
p m m
p p   s;p
p
c
p p p  s
p  s
p p 2010p  p  mp  p p 
p
p  sc
p p p
 s p p
p  sp cp  p
p c 
p  scp ( p c
p p Msp
M c   p" ppM p2004p sppsspc sp
p s
ps
p
p sp
s
p
p
p  pc 
s)p  sspp p
pc 
p p
p cp
p s
p 
 s
sp sp p
p p sp H p p s ccss p   cp p
p  
p
 p
pc 
p scp p p ps

-
p p p  pm m
pp
cp  sp
p 
 pspp s
c
p 
c p psc p pp
p
 p
 mp
p ssp p
p sp
p 
sp  cs p
p  mp p
 s
 p  m sp p
p "s p %p   p  
p p s
p  cp p
p
 
 p m
pp
p sp
p
Õ  %     
Y      
p
"cp s s
 p m
p sp p  m p
sp Hcp
p & p
 sp
s s
 p m
p m s
p p   p p p c p  s
p p
p c sp

sp p

sp

pp  pp
p
 m
p s:ppp
p cc
pcmcp 
p m
p' 
ps-p
 s
p 
 
p sp  m
(p p
p c  sp ccp p  m
p s s
 sp
 msp ssc
p
pmp
sp s

p
ps 
p
 p
sp p p
s
pp
 ps
c
p c

sp p 
pc  c
spp m
p  spp
p
- cp (sp

p 
p  p   p p 
p s csp p s p

 
p #p  csp  p p m p p
p  p p  s
p cs 
p
sp
p  p  ssp p
p p p  sp sp p m 
p
p

ppsp32007pM - p
Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 61

integrity of ecosystems, the Environmental Impact Assessment system continues to be


plagued with various enforcement and compliance problems.

Cultural Trends: The inherent strengths of the Filipino culture (e.g. openness, freedom of
expression, resilience, strong family orientation ) continue to reinforce social cohesion
within the Philippine society. These values are also embodied in the growing tradition of
local activism. However, it has been observed that some erosion of Filipino cultural values
has taken place as manifested by, among others, the commodification of indigenous
culture, sexual tourism, consumerism and increasing materialism.

Science and Technology Trends: There have been many positive developments in this
area. These include the improved level of contributions of highly skilled Filipino scientists
and the growing recognition of the value of indigenous science and technology and holistic
science. on the other hand, the sector has its share of problems, such as: the a brain
drain" phenomenon; unfair monopoly of intellectual property rights; increasing use of
technology as a simplistic response to complex problems; poor quality of science
education due to inadequate funding and facili ties; among others.

Urbanization Trend: Difficulties in the implementation of agrarian and urban land reform
and rural development programs have contributed to unplanned and uncontrolled
urbanization. Philippine cities have deteriorated as human habitats, beset with intractable
and often interrelated problems like pollution, water shortage, flooding, violence and other
social ills.

Human Development Trends: Existing measures of human development indicate some
improvement over time. However, these improvements are uneven across geographical,
income, gender and ethnic groups. The development of human potential is being affected
by continuing challenges such as: rampant substance abuse, break -up of families,
economic exploitations and homelessness as evidenced by the growing number of street
children.

Institutional and Political Trends: The Philippines has strong institutional building blocks
for sustainable development, including a strong civil society, socially and environmentally -
conscious business groups, community empowerment initiatives, devaluation and
decentralization. The current wave of globalization is increasingly posing some threat to
the country's national sovereignty. Domestically, the rich continue to dominate political
processes as evidenced by deep-seated iniquitous structures and processes. The challenge
continues for meaningful electoral reforms. Meanwhile, the Local Government Code has
reinforced the role of LGUs in development administration. Civil society, as a
countervailing force, has been engaging government at all levels.
p


V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 62

 %&,75
"Y%Y!6,%Y
p
*! 
The Tourism Authority of Thailand, with over 13.76 million tourists last year pouring
in US$19.5 billion, created a sub -ministry in 2002 called the Ministry of Tourism and
Sports to help facilitate increasing demands from sports travelers demanding more
sports-leisure venues and activities. This decision came about after learning that
over 25% of their receipts came from Sport-tourists. Now, the emphasis of their
current tourism policy is "to attract high end, quality tourists who want to learn
about Thai life without destroying natural resources." (Tourism Authority of
Thailand. 2007)

Following the establishment of the Ministry of Tourism and Sports (MOTS), the
Tourism Authority of Thailand¶s scope of work focuses on marketing Thailand as a
destination and the promotion of its multi-billion baht Thai tourism industry, both
domestic and international. This is achieved through destination marketing
campaigns, advertising and public relations, marketing and sales promotions and
participation in international sporting events. The new department also assumes
duties and responsibilities related to the development of service standard for tourist
attractions or sites and sports-tourism products, services and events offered by the
Thai tourism industry. This inclu des the support of standards for Sport Tourism
operators, businesses and tour guides, in order to achieve sustainable tourism
development and generate economic, social and cultural benefits for local
communities as well as the country.

Responsibilities are:

 To study, analyze, research, and compile statistics and data on guidelines for
Sport Tourism development in accordance with the national tourism
development policy and plan;
 To establish a development plan for tourism services as well as coordinate,
promote and support the implementation of the plan;
 To establish a development plan for the sports tour business and tour guide
registration, including to coordinate, promote and support the operation as
specified by law;
 To establish a development plan for tourist attraction sites, including to
coordinate, promote and support the implementation of the plan;
 To ensure compliance with the Tourism Business and Tour Guides Act and oth er
relevant laws;
 To monitor and follow up on sport tourism development performance; and
 To promote and support the sports business in both the production and service
sectors, including relevant businesses.

The MOTS have helped establish annual major sporting international events such as
the Johnny Walker PGA Golf Tour, the ATP Men¶s Tennis Tour, the Sony Ericsson
Women¶s Tennis Circuit and many others. Once evaluated and selected for
implementation, the initial operating expenses and prize money is guar anteed by the
MOTS. A profit sharing scheme is then agreed upon with the local promoters and
business operators.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 63

 p5pp 6p23"p   p

The Philippines sports-tourism initiative can learn from The Pattaya Sports Club in
Thailand. It is directly marketed to the sport-tourist making all Pattaya area a sports
and leisure venue. For a very small initial fee (300 baht or US$10.00) and a one
year annual fee (400 baht US$13.00), the member is given a membership card
entitling him (or her) to discounts at most gold venues in the Pattaya area, and at
dozens of other sports, hotel, restaurant and similar tourist attractions. Information
on p , especially, is readily available on the Pattaya Sports Club's web
site. This site lists eighteen (18) golf courses at which PSC members may play at
special rates between Chonburi on the north and Sattahip on the south, all within
less than 50 miles (75 kilometers) of the Pattaya area.

Information on facilities and activities in Pattaya invo lving fishing, softball, darts,
computers, and tennis may also be found on the PSC web site. Mostly swimming
pools are found in numerous hotels and in other facilities as well. Bowling, Fishing,
Softball, Darts, Tennis and Computing are all offered by the Pattaya Sports Club, as
well as by separate enterprises. Water sports include swimming, snorkeling, sailing,
windsurfing, water skiing, banana boat rides, parasailing (paragliding), cruises,
scuba diving, muay Thai boxing (Thai kick boxing), and the "tower jump" at Pattaya
Water Park and Tower, and its sky shuttle, where you choose either the speed
shuttle or normal aerial car shuttle rides from the top of the tower to the ground
(one minute or four minutes).

The PSC, established as non-profit foundation by MOTS, is one of Pattaya's largest


member organizations where discounts are available only for card-carrying PSC
members, with several hotels offering discounts of 10% off room rates, one of 30%
off room rates, and one 50% off room rates, alone. Several quality restaurants offer
10 or 15% discounts, some off meals only, and some off meals and beverages.
Several tailors offer 10% discounts. One car rental facility offers a 20% discount.
Two diving facilities offer 10 to 15% discounts, spa and fitness center s offer 120, 15
or 20% off; many (but not all) golf courses in this area offer discounts down to
"members' guest" rates, the lowest non-member rates offered by such clubs, and
three driving ranges offer discounts of five baht per tray of balls. Even one ho spital,
the Bangkok Pattaya Hospital, offers a 10% discount on medicine, room rates and
food. Profits generated from these endeavors are funneled back for sports-leisure
facilities upgrade, maintenance, new-construction and for sustaining annual events.

2"
In 1998, 37% of Canada¶s 73.7 million domestic trips were for Sport Tourism
purposes. In Canada, sport tourists are defined as individuals who traveled and in
doing so participated in or attended a sport event during the reference period. Sport
tourists account for between 2.5 and 5 million individuals from June to September,
July and August being the most popular months for sport tourist activities (15% and
18%). (Statistics Canada - 1998 Canadian Travel Survey) (Note that this does not
mean that 37% of tourism activity was Sport Tourism ± rather that 37% of tourists
traveled at least once for sports purposes).

Since 1996 the Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC) has been involved in a
program designed to promote community and tourism industry inte rest in
development of Sport Tourism as a viable contributor to the economic well-being of
local communities. The Canadian Sport Tourism Initiative is a program designed to
increase the quality and quantity of sports events hosted in Canada and has a
number of objectives:

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 64

 to create a viable Sport Tourism industry in Canada;

 to organize Canadian communities to pursue Sport Tourism by providing them


with assistance in organizing the appropriate local resources and infrastructures
to be effective;

 to assist communities in developing Sport Tourism commissions, appropriately


organized to recruit sports events;

 to create linkages with the Canadian national, provincial and local sports system
and event hosts to assist in the development of the Sport Tourism industry;

 to create new revenue streams and resources for local event organizers, sports
friendly businesses and sport in general;

 to provide effective communication channels to facilitate business to business


relationship marketing opportunitie s between event rights holders and potential
host cities; and

 to create an industry-led, Canadian Sport Tourism Coalition to provide a forum


for education, market intelligence and Sport Tourism marketing for communities
and sports involved in the Sport Tourism business.

Based on positive support demonstrated by communities across Canada, in 1997, a


partnership between the CTC, client communities and sport/tourism industry was
born. Soar International, a Vancouver based sports information and event
management company, was contracted to manage the process. Communities that
have decided to be part of the Sport Tourism Initiative's community planning
program participated in a comprehensive planning process. To start the process, a
Soar International facilitator presents a half day session to a broad constituency of
local sports, tourism and community leaders, covering such topics as what is Sport
Tourism, who are sports tourists, how are sports events organized, where are the
opportunities to work together an d how a Sport Tourism commission can be
developed. Secondly, using a local project coordinator and a planning tool kit
adapted to fit the local community process, data on which to base a Sport Tourism
marketing strategy is gathered. With this data, Soar International facilitates a
workshop which provides sufficient information to prepare a strategic business plan.
Using a locally facilitated process, this plan is presented to all the key groups in the
community with an interest to ensuring its successful implementation. Soar
International then assists the community to refine and implement the strategic plan
on an ongoing basis.

By the end of 1999 the regions of Kelowna, Cranbrook, Edmonton, London,


Kingston, Hamilton, Moncton, St. John's, Gatineau and West ern
Newfoundland/Cornerbrook had all undertaken the Sport Tourism planning process.
(Canadian Tourism Commission; Swart 1998)

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 65


 *

$!  


Tourism 2020 Vision is the World Tourism Organization¶s long term forecast and
assessment of the development of tourism up to first 20 years of the new
millennium. An essential outcome of the 2020 Vision, are quantitative forecasts
covering a 25-year period, with 1995 as base year and forecasts for 2010 and 2020.
International arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1.6 billion by the year 2020.
Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 66

 2

     )
#   %  <  5;8%6

The short term outlook remains very positive, especially against the background of a
strong world economy and as favorable exchange rates continue to encourage
European and Asian travelers:

 Philippines at positive 15% growth in 2005.


 In the first eight months of 2006 international tourist arrivals totaled 578 million
worldwide (+4.5%), up from 553 million in the same period of 2005, a year
which saw an all-time record of 806 million people traveling internationally.
 Growth is expected to continue in 2007 at a pace of around 4% worldwide.
 Asia and the Pacific was the world¶s second fastest-growing region in the first
eight months of 2006 (+8.3%).
p

) 1    $    %   $    % # 
     

5=

6   > 5>6 5; ? 6   > 5>6

Õ

!@A
Õ

!@

!@
ÕA

!@A
Õ

!@
 
ÕÕ= Õ !!=Õ ( (. 

 (=(& .=!.. & .! 

  ##
  %' Õ=((Õ !=

+& !  =&Õ( Õ=+! ( +& 
.
 0 %' =
!! =Õ !
! Õ(
+ &
 .Õ
!!
+
&
 %' Õ=(& Õ&=.
+ &(   
 !=(+ += +& Õ(+ . 
,  %' =!( = . ( &
. - - - - -
3 B %' =&!! Õ=(( Õ . +! .=+++ 
= .& & Õ (Õ
$ %' =Õ!( =+! &.  ! &=  (=!& (
 !
$  %' !=  !=

+ -&
 Õ=(+. Õ=!  .. -!. 
$  %' =&!+ - ( - - =
(Õ - Õ
- -
C   %' &=. &=( . (. +& Õ = &+  =Õ+ (. 
Õ +

B =  9' !=.. &=


Õ ! + &=
&+ !=&&
 -&( Õ
2  /  %' Õ
( &( 
(( &!
Õ + Õ( &( Õ

) #  56 %' .= Õ +=
Õ + . !. (=Õ(+ (=(!( Õ! ( !&
)   %' !=(
 &=Õ Õ.! Õ& 
& .=+. .=!Õ +
Õ &
8 D   9' =Õ =&! 
+  ! Õ=(+
Õ=.&!
 & !
  %' = + =& 
 Õ! ( =
( =

& !& !
  %' &=!! (=
.
+ .
Õ& != + !=(Õ
. 

Õ
% 7  9' =+!
=(.  Õ!  Õ=
!Õ Õ=+(( & . &
%   %' =(( =!&( &Õ -Õ (Õ 
=
Õ 
=
. ((
( (
9   9' =+ . =Õ&.
& .Õ  - - - - -

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 67

6   p

American Sports Data Inc. 2006. New York. www.americansportsdata.com

Callois, Roger. 1958. µLes Jeux et Les Hommes¶ usually translated as Man,
Play and Games. Illinois Press

Canadian Tourism Commission, Swart 1998.

China Internet Information Center. 2007. http://www. china. org.cn

Chinese Olympic Committee. 2007. http://en.olympic.cn/

Chu, Donald. 1982. Dimensions of Sports Studies New York: Wiley.

Coakley, Jay J. 1982. Sport in Soci ety ± issues and controversies St.
Louis: C.V. Mosby.

Department of Tourism Philippines. www.tourism.gov.ph

ECONOMIST, Economic Intelligence Unit, 2005-2006

Edwards, Harry. 1973. Definitions and Clarifications in Sociology of Sport


Homewood:

Euromonitor International. 2007. www.euromonitor.com

Fraleigh, Warren F. 1984. Right Actions in Sport ± ethics for the


contestants Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Getz, Donald. 1991. Festivals, Special Events and Tourism New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold.

Huizinga, Johan. 1955. ³Homo Ludens´ Man the Player Boston

International Olympic Committee. www.olympic.org

International Tennis School. 1995. Short Histrory of Tennis.


www.itstennisacdemy.com

McIntosh, Robert W., Goeldner, Charles R. and Ritchie, J. R. 1995.


Tourism ±principles, practices and philosophies New York: Wiley.

McPherson, Barry and Curtis, James E. 1989. The Social Significance of


Sport Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Mill, Robert Christie and Morrison, Alstar M. 1985. The Tourism System ±
an introductory text Englewood Cliffs: Prentice -Hall.

Olivova, Vera. 1984. Sports and Games in the Ancient World London:
Orbis.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS


Philippine Sports Tourism Strategy 68

Pattaya Sports Club, Pattaya, Thai land

Philip Gray & Associates. 2007. Asia-Pacific Tourism-Recreation Planning

Philippine Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.ph/

Philippine Sports Commisssion. www.psc.gov.ph

Pine, Joseph. 1999. The Experience Economy: Harvard Business School


Press

Sage Journals. 2007. Global Trends in Sports and Recreation;

Schwartz, Michael J. 1973. Causes and Effects of Spectator Sport.


International Review of Sport Sociology 8(3 ±2); 26±43.

Smith, Valene L. Hosts and Guests 1989. Philadelphia: University of


Pennsylvania Press.

Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association. 2006. Trends i n Sports

Sportbusiness.com . 2007, Sport Business International - Trends

Stevenson, Christopher and Nixon, John. 1972. A Conceptual Scheme of


the Social Functions of Sport. Sportwissenschft 2 Jahrgang;119±132.

Travel Industry Association of America Data

Tourism Canada, Market Development. Ottawa.

Tourism Authority of Thailand. www.tourismthailand.org

Vinoker, Martin Barry. 1988. More Than A Game ± sports and politics New
York: Greenwood.

Witt, Stephen and Moutinho, Luiz. 1994. Tourism Marketing and


Management Handbook. New York: Prentice Hall.

World Tourism Organization 1993. Global Tourism Forecasts to the Year


2000 and Beyond. Madrid.

World Tourism Organization (WTO) 2005 Report: World Overview and


Tourism Topics. Madrid

World Travel and Tourism Council. 1994. The 1994 WTTC Report.
Brussels.

V. Beeyong Sison. 3.2007. SBSMI-ITS