Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

SUMMARY / ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere
though the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Common applications for cooling
towers are providing cooled water for air-conditioning, manufacturing and electric power
generation. The generic term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and
indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. A direct, or open-circuit cooling tower is an
enclosed structure with internal means to distribute the warm water fed to it over a labyrinth-like
packing or "fill." The fill may consist of multiple, mainly vertical, wetted surfaces upon which a
thin film of water spreads. An indirect, or closed circuit cooling tower involves no direct contact
of the air and the fluid, usually water or a glycol mixture, being cooled. In a counter-flow cooling
tower air travels upward through the fill or tube bundles, opposite to the downward motion of the
water. In a cross-flow cooling tower air moves horizontally through the fill as the water moves
downward. Cooling towers are also characterized by the means by which air is moved. Because
evaporation consists of pure water, the concentration of dissolved minerals and other solids in
circulating water will tend to increase unless some means of dissolved-solids control, such as
blow-down, is provided. Some water is also lost by droplets being carried out with the exhaust
air (drift).

AIM
To determine the correlation of water to air mass flow ration with increasing water flow rate.
THEORY
The theory behind the operation of the cooling tower is the First Law of
Thermodynamics, which is the conservation of energy. In simpler terms, the energy that enters
the system must exit the system; energy can neither be created nor destroyed, just transformed
from one form to another.

Energy that enters the cooling tower is in the form of hot water. This hot water was cooled from
temperature T1 to a temperature of T2. The cooling of the hot water was in the form of forced
convection by which ambient air at T3 was blown over the hot water and exited the cooling
tower at some temperature T2. Both the entrance and exit temperatures of the air and water were
recorded. Once this data is recorded, an energy balance can be conducted on the system.

An energy balance is a form of bookkeeping that accounts for the energy entering and leaving
the system. The main component of the energy balance is enthalpy which is defined as:

H = U + PV

Where H is enthalpy, U is internal energy, P is pressure, and V is volume.

The combined terms U+PV is enthalpy, which means to heat. Enthalpy can be calculated or
referenced from tables of data for the fluid being used. he fluids used by the cooling tower are air
and water, whose enthalpy values can be obtained from a thermodynamics textbook. For
example: Since both the initial and final temperatures of the input hot water and the output cool
water were measured, the temperature T inlet can be referenced and the enthalpy (BTU/lbm, or
KJ/kg) can be recorded. The enthalpy of the output cooled water can be similarly referenced and
an energy balance can be conducted for the water.

The equation below displays the general method to conduct an energy balance:

in = out

where H = Hin- Hout. A similar method is employed for conducting the energy balance for air

entering and leaving the system.


The change in enthalpy for air can be determined form either of two methods. Since the air is at
low pressure, it can be treated as an ideal gas and the enthalpy change can be calculated through
the use of the following equation:

H = Cp T

where H is the change in enthalpy, T is the change in temperature, and Cp is the specific

heat with respect to constant pressure.

Since the specific heat relation does not take into account the percent of water in the air, a
psychrometric chart is used to determine the enthalpy change between the entrance and exit air.
In order for the psychrometric chart to be used effectively, some information is needed about the
input and output air.

The information needed to reference the psychrometric chart is the dry bulb and wet bulb
temperatures of the inlet and outlet air. Both the input and output air flow is measured with a
sling psychrometer. The sling psychrometer is an instrument that has two thermometers. The
thermometer for measuring the wet bulb temperature has a wetted cotton sleeve over the bulb
end, while the dry bulb thermometer is a regular thermometer. Once the wet and dry bulb
temperatures of the inlet and outlet air have been measured, each can be referenced on the
psychrometric chart and the enthalpies obtained. Once the enthalpies for the inlet and outlet
water and air conditions are known, energy balance can be conducted on the system.

Range is determined not by the cooling tower, but by the process it is serving. The range at
the exchanger is determined entirely by the heat load and the water circulation rate through
the exchanger and going to the cooling water. The range is a function of the heat load and the
flow circulated through the system:
Range 0C = Heat load (in kCal/hour) / Water circulation rate (l/hour)
Cooling towers are usually specified to cool a certain flow rate from one temperature to
another temperature at a certain wet bulb temperature. For example, the cooling tower might
be specified to cool 4540 m3/hr from 48.9oC to 32.2oC at 26.7oC wet bulb temperature.

4.1.3 Approach
As a general rule, the closer the approach to the wet bulb, the more expensive the cooling
tower due to increased size. Usually a 2.8oC approach to the design wet bulb is the coldest
water temperature that cooling tower manufacturers will guarantee. When the size of the
4 Section1.2 is based on Cooling Towers. In: Energy Efficiency in Electrical Utilities. Chapter 7, pg 135 - 151. 2004, with
the permission from Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power, India
Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers
Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia – www.energyefficiencyasia.org ©UNEP 10
tower has to be chosen, then the approach is most important, closely followed by the flow
rate, and the range and wet bulb would be of lesser importance.
Approach (5.50C) = Cold-water temperature 32.2 0C – Wet bulb temperature (26.7
0C)

APPARATUS
1) The Bench Top Water Cooling Tower
2) Temperature calibration equipment
3) Stop Watch
4) Distilled Water

PROCEDURE
1. Make sure that the upper side of the water manometer is connected to the outlet located
beneath the orifice and the other side is exposed to the atmosphere.

2. Turn on the fan to 0.

3. Make sure that the wicks of the wet-bulb thermometers are saturated with distilled water.
These wicks tend to dry-up during the experiment. Make sure to re-check them from time
to time and refill the wells with distilled water as needed.

4. Measure all the temperatures from T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T6A,T7, and T7A which include
of inlet and outlet temperature of wet and dry bulb, ambient air, water in reserve tank,
water leaving the collection tank, tower water inlet and outlet.

5. The first set of experiments will be conducted in the absence of any heat load.

6. Once you have turned on the water pump, monitor all temperatures as a function of time,
i.e., measure this wet-bulb temperature after 10 minutes and record the time and
temperature readings.

7. Once the temperature at 10 minutes recorded, start the stop watch and measure again all
the temperatures at fan of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10.
8. Experiment is repeated again with setting up the tower inlet temperature to 30°C, 40°C
and 50°C.

9. After 10 minutes, readings of all temperatures are recorded.

10. At the conclusion of the experiment, make sure to first turn off the heating load. Then
turn off the liquid pump, the air fan, and the power to the entire experiment.

RESULT
Variable = fan speed
Water level ( 1cm = 0.3551)
Initial = 30 cm
1st trial = 25.5 cm
2nd trial = 24.75 cm
3rd trial = 24.2 cm
4th trial = 23.9 cm
5th trial = 23.7 cm
Fan Speed Tower Water Tower Water Input Input Ambient Air
Input (T1) Outlet (T2) DryBulb WetBulb (T3)
(T6) (T6a)
0 25 24.2 26.8 25.9 25.4
2 25.4 25.9 25.8 26.9 25.4
4 22.6 22.2 26.8 25.8 25.3
6 20.9 20.8 26.9 25.9 24.8
8 20.2 20.3 26.8 25.9 24.4
10 19.8 20.0 27.0 26.0 24.4

Water Water in Water Leaving Output Dry Output Wet


Flowmeter Reserve Tank the Collection Bulb (T7) Bulb (T7a)
(T4) Tank (T5)
205 0 26.2 27.8 25.2
204 0 26.9 29.3 24.4
206 0 24.1 26.3 23.3
204 0 22.6 25.6 22.2
208 0 21.9 25.1 21.6
206 0 21.5 25.0 21.4
Variable = Temperature
Water level ( 1cm = 0.3551)
Initial = 30 cm
1st trial = 23.2cm
2nd trial = 22.8 cm
3rd trial = 22.1 cm
Temperature Tower Water Tower Water Input Input Ambient Air
Input (T1) Outlet (T2) DryBulb WetBulb (T3)
(T6) (T6a)
0 30.8 27.5 27.2 26.1 24.1
30 35.0 31.3 27.9 26.7 24.6
40 36.5 32.3 28.1 27.1 25.1
50 37.2 32.5 28.6 27.7 25.6

Water Water in Water Leaving Output Dry Output Wet


Flowmeter Reserve Tank the Collection Bulb (T7) Bulb (T7a)
(T4) Tank (T5)
201 0 32.1 29.9 27.6
204 0 36.2 32.4 30.7
206 0 31.6 33.4 31.8
204 0 38.2 33.9 32.2

CALCULATION

1st trial

To calculate range of the cooling tower, the following formula was used:
Range: Twater inlet-Twater outlet = 25.4ºC-25.9-ºC = -0.5 ºC

The approach of the cooling tower was calculated using:

Approach: Twater out-Twb inlet = 25.9-26.9= -1.0

Effectiveness of the cooling tower was calculated using the following formula:

n = range/ (range+approach) = (-0.5)/(-0.5-1.0) = 33.333 %

Humidity is gained from humidity chart;

Twet bulb inlet average = 26.683

Tdry bulb inlet average = 26.067

Humidity, H = 0.0183 kg water vapor/kg dry air

Humidity percentage, Hp = 81%

Humid heat, cs = 1.005 + 0.45 (0.0183) = 1.0394 kJ/kg dry air.K

Humid volume, vh = (2.83x10-3 + 4.56x10-3x0.0183)(26.067+273) = 0.8713 m3/kg dry air

2nd trial

To calculate range of the cooling tower, the following formula was used:

Range: Twater inlet-Twater outlet = 37.2ºC-32.5ºC = 4.7ºC

The approach of the cooling tower was calculated using:

Approach: Twater out-Twb inlet = 32.5-27.7= 4.8

Effectiveness of the cooling tower was calculated using the following formula:

n = range/ (range+approach) = (4.8/(4.7+4.8) = 49.4736 %

Humidity is gained from humidity chart;

Twet bulb inlet average = 26.9 ºC

Tdry bulb inlet average = 27.95 ºC


Humidity, H = 0.0178 kg water vapor/kg dry air

Humidity percentage, Hp = 72%

Humid heat, cs = 1.005 + 0.45 (0.0178) = 1.01301 kJ/kg dry air.K

Humid volume, vh = (2.83x10-3 + 4.56x10-3 x 0.0178 )(26.9+273) = 0.8730 m3/kg dry air

DISCUSSION

what could be include in this discussion is that reference result from


http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~meam347/fall/347labmanual.pdf . We could compare their result and us.
And boleh put some of information like this from this website

The cooled water leaves the cooling tower and collects into the "load tank." Before reentering
into the tank, the temperature of the exiting water is measured. Due to evaporation, the level
of the water in the "load tank" tends to fall. This causes the float-operated needle valve to open
and
transfer water from the "make-up tank" into the load tank. Under steady-state conditions, the rate
at
which the water leaves the "make-up tank" is approximately equal to the rate of evaporation of
the
water in the tower.

Then boleh letak ni dari http://www.irvindelapaz.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/Cooling-Tower-


Lab.pdf - dlm ni go down to discussion. Ada some ideas plus ideas below

4.1.6 Relationship between range, flow and heat load


The range increases when the quantity of circulated water and heat load increase. This means
that increasing the range as a result of added heat load requires a larger tower. There are two
possible causes for the increased range:
� The inlet water temperature is increased (and the cold-water temperature at the exit
remains the same). In this case it is economical to invest in removing the additional heat.
� The exit water temperature is decreased (and the hot water temperature at the inlet
remains the same). In this case the tower size would have to be increased considerably
because the approach is also reduced, and this is not always economical.

CONCLUSION

RECOMMENDATION
1. The temperature indicator needs to be fixed as it is not work properly. It is hard to set and take
precise reading of the temperature.
2. Cooling tower effect can be verified through temperature, fan speed and types of packing
column. For the next semester, use packing as the variable.
3. Type of packing column, water flow and temperature setting were confusing. In the future,
need more explanation about it.

REFERENCES
1. http://www.cti.org/whatis/coolingtower.shtml
2. http://chem.engr.utc.edu/webres/435F/3T-CT/3T-CT.html
3. http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~meam347/fall/347labmanual.pdf
4. http://www.mcilvainecompany.com/Cooling%20Tower%20Samples/cts%20sample1. htm
APPENDICES