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Áõôïìáôéóìïß

êáé
ÓõóôÞìáôá
ÁõôïìÜôïõ ÅëÝã÷ïõ
(Á’ Ôåý÷ïò)
ÕÐÏÕÑÃÅÉÏ ÅÈÍÉÊÇÓ ÐÁÉÄÅÉÁÓ ÊÁÉ ÈÑÇÓÊÅÕÌÁÔÙÍ
ÐÁÉÄÁÃÙÃÉÊÏ ÉÍÓÔÉÔÏÕÔÏ

ËÉÃÍÏÓ ÉÙÁÍÍÇÓ ÌÐÏÕÓËÇÓ ÐÅÔÑÏÓ


ÐÏËÉÔÇÓ ÃÅÙÑÃÉÏÓ ×ÁÌÇËÏÈÙÑÇÓ ÃÅÙÑÃÉÏÓ

Áõôïìáôéóìïß & ÓõóôÞìáôá


ÁõôïìÜôïõ ÅëÝã÷ïõ
(Á´Ôåý÷ïò)

ÔÅ×ÍÉÊÁ ÅÐÁÃÃÅËÌÁÔÉÊÁ ÅÊÐÁÉÄÅÕÔÇÑÉÁ


ÔïìÝáò Çëåêôñïëïãéêüò

2oò Êýêëïò
Åéäéêüôçôá: ÅãêáôáóôÜóåùí Êôéñßùí & Âéïìç÷áíéêþí ×þñùí

ÁÈÇÍÁ 2001
åéóáãùãÞ

ÓÕÃÃÑÁÖÅÉÓ
Ëéãíüò ÉùÜííçò,
Äéðë. Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, Åêðáéäåõôéêüò Â/èìéáò Åêð/óçò
Ìðïýóëçò ÐÝôñïò,
Äéðë. Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, ÊáèçãçôÞò Ô.Å.É. ÐåéñáéÜ
Ðïëßôçò Ãåþñãéïò,
Äéðë. Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, Åðßê. ÊáèçãçôÞò Ô.Å.É. ÐåéñáéÜ
×áìçëïèþñçò Ãåþñãéïò,
Äéðë. Ìç÷áíïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, ÊáèçãçôÞò Ô.Å.É. ÐåéñáéÜ

ÓÕÍÔÏÍÉÓÔÇÓ
ÊïñäÜôïò Âáóßëåéïò,
Äéðë. Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, Åêðáéäåõôéêüò Â/èìéáò Åêð/óçò

ÅÐÉÔÑÏÐÇ ÊÑÉÓÇÓ
Âëáóóüðïõëïò Ìé÷Üëçò,
Äéðë. Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò
Êéíãê Ñüìðåñô,
Äéðë. Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, ÊáèçãçôÞò Ðáíåðéóôçìßïõ Ðáôñþí
Êüôóáëïò Åõèýìéïò,
Ôå÷íïëüãïò Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, Åêðáéäåõôéêüò Â/èìéáò Åêð/óçò

ÃËÙÓÓÉÊÇ ÅÐÉÌÅËÅÉÁ
Ðïôïëßäïõ ÄÞìçôñá,
Öéëüëïãïò

ÇËÅÊÔÑÏÍÉÊÇ ÅÐÅÎÅÑÃÁÓÉÁ
ÊïñíÜñïò Ãåþñãéïò,
Äéðë. Çëåêôñïëüãïò Ìç÷áíéêüò, Åêðáéäåõôéêüò Â/èìéáò Åêð/óçò

ÐÁÉÄÁÃÙÃÉÊÏ ÉÍÓÔÉÔÏÕÔÏ
Õðåýèõíïò ôïõ Çëåêôñïëïãéêïý ÔïìÝá:
×áôæçåõóôñáôßïõ ÉãíÜôéïò,
Ìüíéìïò ÐÜñåäñïò Ðáéäáãùãéêïý Éíóôéôïýôïõ

4
åéóáãùãÞ

ðñüëïãïò
Ïé áõôïìáôéóìïß óõãêáôáëÝãïíôáé óôá ðéï äõíáìéêÜ ðåäßá ôçò ôå÷íïëïãßáò. ÊáôÜ ôéò ôåëåõôáßåò äåêáåôßåò,
éäéáßôåñá, ôá óõóôÞìáôá áõôïìÜôïõ åëÝã÷ïõ ãíùñßæïõí ñáãäáßá åîÜðëùóç ðïõ óõìâáäßæåé ìå ôçí åêôåôáìÝíç
äéÜäïóç ôùí êÜèå åßäïõò óõóêåõþí, ìç÷áíþí êáé åãêáôáóôÜóåùí ðïõ ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáé óôçí ðáñáãùãÞ ðñïúü-
íôùí êáé õðçñåóéþí. Ôáõôü÷ñïíá ìå áõôÞí ôçí ðïóïôéêÞ áíÜðôõîç, ïé áõôïìáôéóìïß åîåëßóóïíôáé êáé ðïéïôéêÜ:
ãßíïíôáé ïëïÝíá ðéï óýíèåôïé êáé áðïôåëåóìáôéêïß, áíôéìåôùðßæïõí íÝåò åöáñìïãÝò êáé áðáéôÞóåéò, åðéôõã÷Ü-
íïõí áõóôçñüôåñåò ðñïäéáãñáöÝò êáé åðéäüóåéò.
Ôï ðáñüí âéâëßï óôï÷åýåé íá ðáñïõóéÜóåé ïñéóìÝíåò óçìáíôéêÝò ðëåõñÝò ôùí óýã÷ñïíùí åöáñìïãþí êáé
áíôéëÞøåùí ãéá ôïí áõôïìáôéóìü. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá åðéëåãìÝíá èÝìáôá, ç ãíþóç ôùí ïðïßùí åßíáé áíáãêáßá ãéá ôï
óçìåñéíü êáé áõñéáíü ôå÷íéêü ðïõ, áíáðüöåõêôá, Ýñ÷åôáé óå åðáöÞ ìå ôïõò áõôïìáôéóìïýò, äçëáäÞ åãêáèéóôÜ,
åëÝã÷åé ôç ëåéôïõñãßá êáé áðïêáèéóôÜ ôéò âëÜâåò ðïõ óõìâáßíïõí óå áõôüìáôá óõóôÞìáôá. Êýñéïò óêïðüò ôïõ
âéâëßïõ åßíáé íá õðïóôçñßîåé ôç äéäáóêáëßá ôïõ áíôßóôïé÷ïõ ìáèÞìáôïò ôïõ 2ïõ êýêëïõ ôïõ Çëåêôñïëïãéêïý
ÔïìÝá. Ôï âéâëßï áðïôåëåßôáé áðü äýï ôåý÷ç.
Óôï ðáñüí Á’ ôåý÷ïò ðáñïõóéÜæåôáé ç áíÜðôõîç ïëïêëçñùìÝíùí åöáñìïãþí áõôïìáôéóìïý ðïõ õëïðïéïý-
íôáé ìå ÷ñÞóç ðñïãñáììáôéæüìåíùí ëïãéêþí åëåãêôþí (ÊåöÜëáéá 1 Ýùò 8) êáé ìå ÷ñÞóç ðíåõìáôéêþí êáé
çëåêôñïðíåõìáôéêþí óôïé÷åßùí (ÊåöÜëáéá 9 êáé 10). Ç ýëç ôïõ Á’ ôåý÷ïõò ðïõ áöïñÜ óôïõò ðñïãñáììáôéæüìå-
íïõò ëïãéêïýò åëåãêôÝò, óõìðëçñþíåé åêåßíçí ôïõ ’ ôüìïõ ôïõ âéâëßïõ “ÓõóôÞìáôá Áõôïìáôéóìþí”. Óôï ’
ôüìï ôïõ âéâëßïõ ðáñïõóéÜæïíôáé ïé êõñéüôåñåò ìÝèïäïé êáé ïé ôå÷íïëïãßåò ðïõ ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáé óôá óõóôÞìáôá
áõôïìÜôïõ åëÝã÷ïõ.
Ïé óõããñáöåßò êáôÝâáëáí êÜèå ðñïóðÜèåéá þóôå ôï âéâëßï íá óõìâéâÜæåé, óå ñåáëéóôéêÜ ðëáßóéá, äýï óõ÷íÜ
áíôßññïðïõò óôü÷ïõò: íá èåìåëéþíåé ðñáêôéêÝò ãíþóåéò ìÝóá áðü ðáñáóôáôéêÜ êáé ðñáêôéêÜ ðáñáäåßãìáôá,
áöåíüò, êáé íá åîçãåß âáóéêÝò áëëÜ áöçñçìÝíåò Ýííïéåò ìå ôñüðï áíåîÜñôçôï áðü ôçí ôå÷íïëïãßá õëïðïßç-
óçò, áöåôÝñïõ. Ïé ôå÷íéêÝò ðëçñïöïñßåò êáé ôï öùôïãñáöéêü õëéêü, ðïõ ðåñéÝ÷ïíôáé ó’ áõôü ôï ôåý÷ïò, äåí èá
ìðïñïýóáí íá óõãêåíôñùèïýí, ÷ùñßò ôç âïÞèåéá ôùí ôå÷íéêþí åôáéñåéþí, ðïõ ôéò äéÝèåóáí. Áðü áõôÞ ôç èÝóç
èÝëïõìå íá åõ÷áñéóôÞóïõìå éäéáéôÝñùò ôéò åôáéñåßåò åöáñìïãþí âéïìç÷áíéêïý áõôïìáôéóìïý, Festo Pneumatic,
Technopneumatic AE êáé Çydropneumatic Hellas, Ð. ÌÞôóçò ÁÂÅÅ.
Åõ÷áñéóôïýìå åðßóçò üëïõò ôïõò ðáñÜãïíôåò ôïõ ôïìÝá Çëåêôñïëïãßáò ôïõ Ðáéäáãùãéêïý Éíóôéôïýôïõ, ãéá ôç
âïÞèåéá êáé ôçí õðïóôÞñéîÞ ôïõò óôçí Ýêäïóç áõôïý ôïõ ôåý÷ïõò.
ÊÜèå ðáñáôÞñçóç ðïõ èá óõìâÜëëåé óôç âåëôßùóç ôïõ êåéìÝíïõ åßíáé åõðñüóäåêôç êáé èá ëçöèåß õðüøç
êáôÜ ôçí ðñïåôïéìáóßá ôùí åðüìåíùí åêäüóåùí.
ÁèÞíá, Áýãïõóôïò 2001
Ïé óõããñáöåßò

5
åéóáãùãÞ

ðåñéå÷üìåíá
ÊåöÜëáéï 1
Ó÷åäßáóç êõêëùìÜôùí óõíäõáóôéêïý áõôïìáôéóìïý ............................................... 11
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 11
1.1 Ç äéáäéêáóßá ôçò ó÷åäßáóçò ........................................................................................................................................ 12
1.2 Ëïãéêüò áõôïìáôéóìüò êáé óõíäõáóôéêüò áõôïìáôéóìüò ........................................................................................ 13
1.3 Ç äéáôýðùóç ôïõ Ðßíáêá Áëçèåßáò........................................................................................................................... 14
1ï âÞìá: ÄéÜêñéóç ôùí ìåôáâëçôþí áéôßïõ êáé áðïôåëÝóìáôïò................................................................................ 14
2ï âÞìá: Ó÷çìáôéóìüò ôïõ Ðßíáêá Áëçèåßáò................................................................................................................. 15
ÐáñÜäåéãìá ............................................................................................................................................................................. 15
1.4 Ïé ëïãéêÝò ðñÜîåéò êáé ïé ëïãéêÝò ðýëåò ............................................................................................................... 18
Ç ëïãéêÞ ðýëç AND ............................................................................................................................................................. 18
Ç ëïãéêÞ ðýëç OR ............................................................................................................................................................... 18
Ç ëïãéêÞ ðýëç NOT ............................................................................................................................................................. 19
Ç ëïãéêÞ ðýëç XOR ............................................................................................................................................................. 19
1.5 Ç ëïãéêÞ ðáñÜóôáóç..................................................................................................................................................... 20

ÊåöÜëáéï 2
Ó÷åäßáóç êõêëùìÜôùí áêïëïõèéáêïý áõôïìáôéóìïý .............................................. 21
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 21
2.1 Óõíäõáóôéêüò áõôïìáôéóìüò êáé áêïëïõèéáêüò áõôïìáôéóìüò ............................................................................. 22
2.2 Óôïé÷åßá ôçò ìåèüäïõ ðñïäéáãñáöÞò GRAFCET ...................................................................................................... 23
2.3 Êáíüíåò ôçò ðñïäéáãñáöÞò GRAFCET....................................................................................................................... 25
1ïò êáíüíáò: áñ÷éêïðïßçóç ............................................................................................................................................... 25
2ïò êáíüíáò: ìåôÜâáóç ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
3ïò êáíüíáò: äéáäéêáóßá åíåñãïðïßçóçò ôùí öÜóåùí ................................................................................................ 26
2.4 ËïãéêÝò óõíäÝóåéò óôá äéáãñÜììáôá GRAFCET ....................................................................................................... 27
2.5 Êõñéüôåñåò êéíÞóåéò ....................................................................................................................................................... 29
2.6 ÐáñÜäåéãìá ðñïäéáãñáöÞò áêïëïõèéáêïý áõôïìáôéóìïý ..................................................................................... 33

ÊåöÜëáéï 3
Äéá÷åßñéóç äåäïìÝíùí ............................................................................................. 37
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 37
3.1 Ç áðïèÞêåõóç ôùí äåäïìÝíùí óôïí ........................................................................................................................ 38

6
åéóáãùãÞ

Ðñïãñáììáôéæüìåíï Ëïãéêü ÅëåãêôÞ (ÐËÅ) .................................................................................................................... 38


3.2 Ç ìåôáöïñÜ ôùí äåäïìÝíùí óôïí Ðñïãñáììáôéæüìåíï Ëïãéêü ÅëåãêôÞ (ÐËÅ).............................................. 43
ÁíÜêôçóç äåäïìÝíùí áðü ôç ìíÞìç................................................................................................................................ 43
Êáôá÷þñçóç äåäïìÝíùí óôç ìíÞìç ................................................................................................................................ 43
ÌåôáöïñÜ äåäïìÝíùí ìå Ýíá âÞìá (Move) ................................................................................................................. 44
ÌåôáöïñÜ äåäïìÝíùí ìÝóù êáôá÷ùñçôÞ (Load-Store) ............................................................................................. 44
3.3 Ç ÷ñÞóç ôçò ìåôáöïñÜò äåäïìÝíùí óôïí ðñïãñáììáôéóìü ................................................................................ 46

ÊåöÜëáéï 4
ÏñãÜíùóç ÐñïãñÜììáôïò......................................................................................... 49
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 49
4.1 Ç ïñãÜíùóç ôùí åíôïëþí óå õðïðñïãñÜììáôá .................................................................................................... 50
4.2 ÅíôïëÝò êëÞóçò õðïðñïãñÜììáôïò ........................................................................................................................... 53
4.3 Ôï õðïðñüãñáììá ëåéôïõñãéþí (Function) .............................................................................................................. 56

ÊåöÜëáéï 5
ÁðáñéèìçôÝò- ÓõãêñéôÝò ...........................................................................................59
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 59
5.1 Åßäç êáé äïìÞ ôùí áðáñéèìçôþí ............................................................................................................................... 60
ÄïìÞ ôçò ëÝîçò ôïõ áðáñéèìçôÞ ....................................................................................................................................... 60
5.2 Ëåéôïõñãßåò ôùí áðáñéèìçôþí ..................................................................................................................................... 62
Ìçäåíéóìüò ôïõ áðáñéèìçôÞ .............................................................................................................................................. 62
ÔïðïèÝôçóç áñ÷éêÞò ôéìÞò .................................................................................................................................................. 62
Áýîçóç ôçò ôñÝ÷ïõóáò ôéìÞò .............................................................................................................................................. 63
Ìåßùóç ôçò ôñÝ÷ïõóáò ôéìÞò ............................................................................................................................................. 64
ÁíÜêôçóç ôçò ôñÝ÷ïõóáò ôéìÞò .......................................................................................................................................... 65
5.3 Åßäç êáé ëåéôïõñãßá ôùí óõãêñéôþí .......................................................................................................................... 65

ÊåöÜëáéï 6
ÁíáëïãéêÝò åßóïäïé .................................................................................................. 67
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 67
6.1 ÁíáëïãéêÜ óÞìáôá åéóüäïõ .......................................................................................................................................... 68
ÐáñÜäåéãìá: ÌÝôñçóç öùôåéíüôçôáò ìå öùôïáíôßóôáóç .............................................................................................. 69

7
åéóáãùãÞ

6.2 Áíáëïãéêï-øçöéáêÞ ìåôáôñïðÞ ................................................................................................................................... 71


ÌåôáôñïðÞ ÷åéìÜññïõ .......................................................................................................................................................... 72
6.3 Ç åöáñìïãÞ ôùí áíáëïãéêþí åéóüäùí óôïõò Ðñïãñáììáôéæüìåíïõò Ëïãéêïýò ÅëåãêôÝò (ÐËÅ) .............. 74

ÊåöÜëáéï 7
ÁíáëïãéêÝò Ýîïäïé .................................................................................................... 77
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 77
7.1 ÁíáëïãéêÜ óÞìáôá åîüäïõ ............................................................................................................................................ 78
ÐáñÜäåéãìá: ¸ëåã÷ïò èÝñìáíóçò...................................................................................................................................... 79
7.2 Ï ôåëåóôéêüò åíéó÷õôÞò ùò âáèìßäá åîüäïõ ........................................................................................................... 81
ÌåôáôñïðÞ ìå áèñïéóôÞ....................................................................................................................................................... 83
7.3 Ç åöáñìïãÞ ôùí áíáëïãéêþí åéóüäùí óôïõò Ðñïãñáììáôéæüìåíïõò Ëïãéêïýò ÅëåãêôÝò (ÐËÅ) ............... 84

ÊåöÜëáéï 8
Åðßëõóç ïëïêëçñùìÝíùí åöáñìïãþí ................................................................... 87
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 87
8.1 Ç äéáäéêáóßá åðßëõóçò êáé ôåêìçñßùóçò ................................................................................................................. 88
8.2 ÐåñéãñáöÞ ôïõ ðñïâëÞìáôïò ...................................................................................................................................... 89
Ôï ðåñéâÜëëïí ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò áõôïìáôéóìïý ............................................................................................................... 89
Ï óôü÷ïò ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò áõôïìáôéóìïý ......................................................................................................................... 90
8.3 ÐåñéãñáöÞ äéáèÝóéìùí óçìÜôùí êáé óõíäÝóåùí .................................................................................................. 91
Åßóïäïé..................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
¸îïäïé ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 93
8.4 ÐåñéãñáöÞ ôçò ëýóçò áõôïìáôéóìïý ......................................................................................................................... 95
8.5 Óõíäåóìïëïãßá êáé ðñïãñáììáôéóìüò ôïõ ÐËÅ ...................................................................................................... 97

ÊåöÜëáéï 9
ÅéóáãùãÞ óôá ðíåõìáôéêÜ óõóôÞìáôá ..................................................................... 101
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 101
9.1 EéóáãùãÞ .......................................................................................................................................................................... 102
9.2 ÕëéêÜ åîáñôÞìáôá óôáèìïý ðáñáãùãÞò ðåðéåóìÝíïõ áÝñïò ............................................................................... 102
9.3 ÕëéêÜ åîáñôÞìáôá ðíåõìáôéêþí óõóôçìÜôùí ........................................................................................................... 105
ÊÕËÉÍÄÑÏÉ ............................................................................................................................................................................... 106

8
åéóáãùãÞ

ÂÁËÂÉÄÅÓ ................................................................................................................................................................................ 110


ÄÉÁÊÏÐÔÅÓ – ÌÐÏÕÔÏÍ ...................................................................................................................................................... 115
×ÑÏÍÉÊÏÉ ÄÉÁÊÏÐÔÅÓ ............................................................................................................................................................117
ÐÍÅÕÌÁÔÉÊÅÓ ËÏÃÉÊÅÓ ÐÕËÅÓ .......................................................................................................................................... 118
Ðáñáäåßãìáôá Âáóéêþí ÊõêëùìÜôùí .............................................................................................................................. 122
Ðáñáäåßãìáôá áíáðáñÜóôáóçò áêïëïõèéþí êßíçóçò êáé óõíèçêþí åíåñãïðïßçóçò ............................................. 124

ÊåöÜëáéï 10
ÇëåêôñïðíåõìáôéêÜ åîáñôÞìáôá êáé óõóêåõÝò ..................................................... 127
Åðéäéùêüìåíïé óôü÷ïé ............................................................................................................................................................ 127
ÃÅÍÉÊÁ ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 128
ÇËÅÊÔÑÏÐÍÅÕÌÁÔÉÊÅÓ ÂÁËÂÉÄÅÓ .................................................................................................................................... 129
ÄÉÁÊÏÐÔÅÓ ÐÉÅÓÇÓ ............................................................................................................................................................... 131
Ðáñáäåßãìáôá Âáóéêþí Çëåêôñïðíåõìáôéêþí ÊõêëùìÜôùí ........................................................................................ 133
¸ëåã÷ïò ÅíÝñãåéáò - Âáëâßäåò äéåýèõíóçò ñïÞò ............................................................................................................ 135

Óýìâïëá ðïõ ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáé óôá ðíåõìáôéêÜ ........................................................................... 135

Ïñïëïãßá ...................................................................................................................................... 139

Âéâëéïãñáößá ............................................................................................................................... 147