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Here are some thoughts I was having while considering what to put on the first midterm.

The core of your studying should be the assigned homework problems: make sure you really

understand those well before moving on to other things (like the old midterms on the test

archive).

• Chapter 1 - Warm Up

– One of the most important ideas of this chapter is that of multiplying by one as a

means of unit conversion. This idea makes all unit conversions have a common

method, and helps one’s notekeeping.

– This chapter introduced the use of the coordinate system and the distance formula.

– A classic problem from this chapter is one in which two objects are moving and we

need to describe the distance between them, like problems 2.3, and 2.10.

– This chapter introduces circles and horizontal and vertical lines. You should be sure

you are comfortable finding the equation of a circle from a variety of descriptions.

– You should be able to find the intersection of a circle with a vertical or horizontal

line.

– In this chapter, we get the general line definition. Be sure you are able to find the

intersection of a given circle with a general line.

– We also have the idea of perpendicular lines, and the method for finding the shortest

distance between a line and a point not on that line. We also considered tangent lines

to circles.

– Uniform linear motion is introduced. See problems 4.14 and 4.15.

– Especially good problems are 4.7, 4.9, 4.11, 4.12.

– Every function has a domain, range and graph. Be sure to know what each is, and

how to determine it for a given function. As we said, finding the range and graph

can be hard; rest assured, if asked to find the range or graph of a given function, it

will be doable.

– You should be comfortable with multipart functions (what are they, how to evaluate

one, how to solve equations involving them, etc.) What’s an example of a multipart

function?

– I like problem 5.7 particularly.

– You should be able to create multipart functions from a geometric description (e.g.,

”pizza” problems).

– You should be able to solve equations involving multipart functions.

– You should understand how to graph a multipart function, where each part is linear.

– Especially good problems are 6.5, 6.6, 6.8, and 6.9.

– The quadratic function is introduced. You should know the significance of the vertex

and how to find it. You should be able to sketch the graph of a given quadratic

function.

– You should be able to determine the maximum and minimum value of a quadratic

function on a specified interval, as in problem 7.2.

– You do not need to be able to solve problems that involve maximizing area, revenue,

or other quantities. You will see many examples of these problems in the test archive.

These sorts of problems are part of the latter half of chapter 7, and we’ll study them

after the midterm exam.

52 CHAPTER 4. LINEAR MODELING

4.12 Summary

• The equation of every non-vertical line can be expressed in the form

and

by determining a line l2 which passes through P and is perpendicu-

lar to l. Then the point at which l and l2 intersect is the point on l

which is closest to l. The distance from this point to P is the shortest

distance between P and l.

be described using a pair of equations (parametric equations)

x = a + bt, y = c + dt.

54 CHAPTER 4. LINEAR MODELING

Point on Point on

Equation Slope y-intercept

the line the line

y = 2x + 1

−2 1

1

2

(0, 1)

1,000

(5, −9)

cup to connect their ankles with a bungee cord;

one end is tied to each person’s ankle. The

green cord is 30 feet long, but can stretch up to 90

ball path

feet. They both start from the same location.

Allyson moves 10 ft/sec and Adrian moves 8

ft/sec in the directions indicated. Adrian stops

moving at time t = 5.5 sec, but Allyson keeps

50 feet on moving 10 ft/sec in the indicated direction.

rough

ball 40 feet

The ball follows a straight line path and exits

tion at time t = 7 seconds. Make sure to

the green at the right-most edge. Assume the

label the locations of Allyson and Adrian;

ball travels a constant rate of 10 ft/sec.

also, compute the length of the bungee

(a) Where does the ball enter the green? cord at t = 7 seconds.

(b) When does the ball enter the green?

(c) How long does the ball spend inside the

green?

(d) Where is the ball located when it is

closest to the cup and when does this

occur. (b) Where is Allyson when the bungee

reaches its maximum length?

4.13. EXERCISES 55

20 ft not see. (Hint: Let a be the x-coordinate of the

point where line of sight #1 is tangent to the

silo; compute the slope of the line using two

Building

points (the tangent point and (12,0)). On the

other hand, compute the slope of line of sight

#1 by noting it is perpendicular to a radial line

through the tangency point. Set these two cal-

culations of the slope equal and solve for a.)

30 ft

to a friend in Oslo, Norway, you learned that

the current temperature there was −23◦ Cel-

sius (−23◦ C). After the phone conversation,

you wanted to convert this temperature to

start Fahrenheit degrees ◦ F, but you could not find

Adrian

a reference with the correct formulas. You

then remembered that the relationship be-

tween ◦ F and ◦ C is linear.

Problem 4.9. Dave is going to leave academia

and go into business building grain silos. A (a) Using this and the knowledge that

grain silo is a cylinder with a hemispherical 32◦ F = 0◦ C and 212◦ F = 100◦ C, find an

top, used to store grain for farm animals. Here equation that computes Celsius temper-

is a 3D view, a cross-section, and the top view: ature in terms of Fahrenheit tempera-

ture; i.e., an equation of the form C=

“an expression involving only the vari-

able F .”

silo putes Fahrenheit temperature in terms

h

of Celsius temperature; i.e. an equation

of the form F= “an expression involving

only the variable C .”

3D-view

(c) How cold was it in Oslo in ◦ F?

r

cross-section

town of Rome to the town of Florence. Rome is

located 30 miles due West of the town of Paris.

line of sight #1 Florence is 25 miles East, and 45 miles North

blind spot of Rome.

(12,0) On her trip, how close does Pam get to Paris?

x-axis

Dave

Problem 4.12. Angela, Mary and Tiff are all

standing near the intersection of University

line of sight #2 and 42nd streets. Mary and Tiff do not move,

but Angela runs toward Tiff at 12 ft/sec along

TOP VIEW a straight line, as pictured. Assume the roads

are 50 feet wide and Tiff is 60 feet north of the

If Dave is standing next to a silo of cross- nearest corner. Where is Angela located when

sectional radius r = 8 feet at the indicated po- she is closest to Mary and when does she reach

sition, his vision will be partially obstructed. this spot?

56 CHAPTER 4. LINEAR MODELING

tiff line from a point 30 feet due east of a statue in

a park toward a point 24 feet due north of the

statue. She walks at a constant speed of 4 feet

mary per second.

position t seconds after she starts walk-

angela ing.

from Margot’s position to the statue at

time t.

University Way

(c) Find the times when Margot is 28 feet

from the statue.

Problem 4.13. The infamous crawling tractor

sprinkler is located as pictured below, 100 feet

South of a 10 ft. wide sidewalk; notice the hose

and sidewalk are not perpendicular. Once the Problem 4.15. Juliet and Mercutio are mov-

water is turned on, the sprinkler waters a cir- ing at constant speeds in the xy-plane. They

cular disc of radius 20 feet and moves North start moving at the same time. Juliet starts at

along the hose at the rate of 12 inch/second. the point (0, − 6) and heads in a straight line

toward the point (10,5), reaching it in 10 sec-

(a) Impose a coordinate system. Describe onds. Mercutio starts at (9, − 14) and moves in

the initial coordinates of the sprinkler a straight line. Mercutio passes through the

and find the equation of the line forming same point on the x axis as Juliet, but 2 sec-

the southern boundary of the sidewalk. onds after she does.

(b) After 33 minutes, sketch a picture of How long does it take Mercutio to reach the

the wet portion of the sidewalk; find the y-axis?

length of the wet portion of the Southern

edge of the sidewalk.

Problem 4.16. (a) Solve for x:

(c) Find the equation of the line forming

the northern boundary of the sidewalk. 1 1

− = 3.

(Hint: You can use the properties of right x x+1

triangles.)

p

N (b) Solve for t: 2 = (1 + t)2 + (1 − 2t)2 .

hose p

(c) Solve for t: √3 = (1 + t)2 + (1 − 2t)2 .

5

W E

p

(d) Solve for t: 0 = (1 + t)2 + (1 − 2t)2 .

100 ft S

20 ft Problem 4.17. (a) Solve for x:

x4 − 4x2 + 2 = 0

100 ft. sidewalk

(b) Solve for y:

circular watered zone √

y−2 y=4

70 CHAPTER 5. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS

5.7 Exercises

gould

Problem 5.1. For each of the following func-

padelford

tions, find the expression for

f(x + h) − f(x)

.

h (a) Dave leaves Padelford Hall and walks at

Simplify each of your expressions far enough a constant speed until he reaches Gould

so that plugging in h = 0 would be allowed. Hall 10 minutes later.

(a) f(x) = x2 − 2x. (b) Dave leaves Padelford Hall and walks at

a constant speed. It takes him 6 min-

(b) f(x) = 2x + 3 utes to reach the half-way point. Then

(c) f(x) = x2 − 3 he gets confused and stops for 1 minute.

He then continues on to Gould Hall at

(d) f(x) = 4 − x2 the same constant speed he had when

(e) f(x) = −πx2 − π2 he originally left Padelford Hall.

√ (c) Dave leaves Padelford Hall and walks at

(f) f(x) = x − 1. (Hint: Rationalize the nu-

merator) a constant speed. It takes him 6 min-

utes to reach the half-way point. Then

he gets confused and stops for 1 minute

Problem 5.2. Here are the graphs of two lin- to figure out where he is. Dave then con-

ear functions on the domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 20. Find tinues on to Gould Hall at twice the con-

the formula for each of the rules y = f(x) and stant speed he had when he originally

y = g(x). Find the formula for a NEW func- left Padelford Hall.

tion v(x) that calculates the vertical distance

(d) Dave leaves Padelford Hall and walks at

between the two lines at x. Explain in terms

a constant speed. It takes him 6 min-

of the picture what v(x) is calculating. What is

utes to reach the half-way point. Dave

v(5)? What is v(20)? What are the smallest and

gets confused and stops for 1 minute to

largest values of v(x) on the domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 20?

figure out where he is. Dave is totally

y-axis lost, so he simply heads back to his of-

60 (20,60) fice, walking the same constant speed

g(x) he had when he originally left Padelford

Hall.

40 (e) Dave leaves Padelford heading for Gould

Hall at the same instant Angela leaves

(0,24) Gould Hall heading for Padelford Hall.

20 f(x) (20,20) Both walk at a constant speed, but An-

gela walks twice as fast as Dave. Indi-

(0,4) cate a plot of “distance from Padelford”

x-axis

vs. “time” for both Angela and Dave.

10 20

(f) Suppose you want to sketch the graph of

a new function s = g(t) that keeps track

Problem 5.3. Dave leaves his office in of Dave’s distance s from Gould Hall at

Padelford Hall on his way to teach in Gould time t. How would your graphs change

Hall. Below are several different scenarios. in (a)-(e)?

In each case, sketch a plausible (reasonable)

graph of the function s = d(t) which keeps

track of Dave’s distance s from Padelford Hall Problem 5.4. At 5 AM one day, a monk be-

at time t. Take distance units to be “feet” and gan a trek from his monastery by the sea to

time units to be “minutes.” Assume Dave’s the monastery at the top of a mountain. He

path to Gould Hall is along a straight line reached the mountain-top monastery at 11

which is 2400 feet long. AM, spent the rest of the day in meditation,

5.7. EXERCISES 71

at 5 AM, he began walking back to the seaside

monastery. Though walking downhill should

have been faster, he dawdled in the beautiful

sunshine, and ending up getting to the seaside

monastery at exactly 11 AM.

trip when the monk was in exactly the

same place on both days? Why or why

not?

x-axis

second day, and got back at 9 AM. What

is your answer to part (a) in this case? Recall the procedure 5.3.1 on page 65.

(a) Find the x and y intercepts of the graph.

(c) Suppose the monk started later, at 10 (b) Find the exact coordinates of all points

AM, and reached the seaside monastery (x,y) on the graph which have y-

at 3 PM. What is your answer to part (a) coordinate equal to 5.

in this case?

(c) Find the coordinates of all points (x,y) on

the graph which have y-coordinate equal

to -3.

(d) Which of these points √ is on the

√ graph:

Problem 5.5. Sketch a reasonable graph for (1, − 2), (−1,3), (2.4,8), ( 3,7 − 3 3).

each of the following functions. Specify a rea-

sonable domain and range and state any as- (e) Find the exact coordinatesp of the point

√

sumptions you are making. Finally, describe (x,y) on the graph with x = 1 + 2.

the largest and smallest values of your func-

tion.

Problem 5.7. After winning the lottery, you

(a) Height of a person depending on age. decide to buy your own island. The island is

located 1 km offshore from a straight portion of

the mainland. There is currently no source of

(b) Height of the top of your head as you electricity on the island, so you want to run a

jump on a pogo stick for 5 seconds. cable from the mainland to the island. An elec-

trical power sub-station is located 4 km from

(c) The amount of postage you must put your island’s nearest location to the shore. It

on a first class letter, depending on the costs $50,000 per km to lay a cable in the wa-

weight of the letter. ter and $30,000 per km to lay a cable over the

land.

(d) Distance of your big toe from the ground

ocean your island

as you ride your bike for 10 seconds.

cable path

1 km

(e) Your height above the water level in a power

swimming pool after you dive off the high

board.

x

4 km

Problem 5.6. Here is a picture of the graph of (a) Explain why we can assume the cable

the function f(x) = 3x2 − 3x − 2. follows the path indicated in the picture;

72 CHAPTER 5. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS

i.e. explain why the path consists of Problem 5.9. Which of the curves in Fig-

two line segments, rather than a weird ure 5.14 represent the graph of a function? If

curved path AND why it is OK to assume the curve is not the graph of a function, de-

the cable reaches shore to the right of scribe what goes wrong and how you might

the power station and the left of the is- “fix it.” When you describe how to “fix” the

land. graph, you are allowed to cut the curve into

pieces and such that each piece is the graph

(b) Let x be the distance downshore from

of a function. Many of these problems have

the power sub-station to where the cable

more than one correct answer.

reaches the land. Find a function f(x) in

the variable x that computes the cost to

lay a cable out to your island. Problem 5.10. Find an EXACT answer for

each problem.

(c) Make a table of values of f(x), where

x = 0, 21 ,1, 23 ,2,. . . , 72 ,4. Use these calcula- (a) Solve for x

tions to estimate the installation of min- x 5 30

imal cost. + = 2

x+3 x−7 x − 4x − 21

Problem 5.8. This problem deals with the

“mechanical aspects” of working with the rule

√ x

5x − 4 = + 2

of a function. For each of the functions listed 2

in (a)-(c), calculate: f(0), f(−2), f(x + 3), f(♥),

f(♥ + △). (c) Solve for x

√ √

(a) The function f(x) = 21 (x − 3) on the do- x + x − 20 = 10

main of all real numbers.

(d) Solve for t

(b) The function f(x) = 2x2 − 6x on the do-

main of all real numbers. √ √

2t − 1 + 3t + 3 = 5

(c) The function f(x) = 4π2 .

84 CHAPTER 6. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

6.4 Exercises

Problem 6.1. The absolute value function is Problem 6.4. (a) Let f(x) = x + |2x − 1|. Find

defined by the multipart rule: all solutions to the equation

x if 0 ≤ x

|x| = f(x) = 8.

−x if x < 0

(b) Let g(x) = 3x − 3 + |x + 5|. Find all values

tured below:

of a which satisfy the equation

y-axis

g(a) = 2a + 8.

y = |x|

(c) Let h(x) = |x| − 3x + 4. Find all solutions

to the equation

x-axis h(x − 1) = x − 2.

region below as a function of x. The dimen-

(a) Calculate: |0|, |2|, | − 3|.

sions in the figure are centimeters.

(b) Solve for x: |x| = 4; |x| = 0, |x| = −1.

(c) Sketch the graph of y = 21 x + 2 and y = |x|

in the same coordinate system. Find

where the two graphs intersect, label the

coordinates of these point(s), then find

the area of the region bounded by the

two graphs.

5

Problem 6.2. For each of the following func-

tions, graph f(x) and g(x) = |f(x)|, and give the 3

multipart rule for g(x).

(a) f(x) = −0.5x − 1

(b) f(x) = 2x − 5

x

(c) f(x) = x + 3

6

Problem 6.3. Solve each of the following equa-

tions for x.

(a) g(x) = 17, where g(x) = |3x + 5|

(b) f(x) = 1.5 where Problem 6.6. Pizzeria Buonapetito makes a

triangular-shaped pizza with base width of 30

2x if x < 3, inches and height 20 inches as shown. Alice

f(x) =

4−x if x ≥ 3. wants only a portion of the pizza and does so

by making a vertical cut through the pizza and

(c) h(x) = −1 where taking the shaded portion. Letting x be the

bottom length of Alice’s portion and y be the

−8 − 4x if x ≤ −2, length of the cut as shown, answer the follow-

h(x) =

1 + 31 x if x > −2. ing questions:

6.4. EXERCISES 85

his starting point, he runs due east at 10 feet

per second for 250 feet. He then turns, and

20 runs north at 12 feet per second for 400 feet.

y He then turns, and runs west at 9 feet per sec-

ond for 90 feet.

Express the (straight-line) distance from

x Arthur to his starting point as a function of

10 20 t, the number of seconds since he started.

with sides of length 90 ft. Assume Edgar hits a

20 home run and races around the bases (coun-

y terclockwise) at a speed of 18 ft/sec. Express

the distance between Edgar and home plate as

a function of time t. (Hint: This will be a mul-

tipart function.) Try to sketch a graph of this

x

function.

tion of x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 30. Sketch the graph

of this function and calculate the range.

(b) Find a formula for the area of Alice’s 90 ft

portion as a multipart function of x, for Edgar

0 ≤ x ≤ 30.

(c) If Alice wants her portion to have half

the area of the pizza, where should she

make the cut? d(t)

traveling between Bellevue and Spokane,

which are 280 miles apart. Let t be the time

in hours, measured from 12:00 noon; for ex- home plate

ample, t = −1 is 11:00 am.

(a) Joan drives from Bellevue to Spokane at

a constant speed, departing from Belle-

vue at 11:00 am and arriving in Spokane Problem 6.10. Pagliacci Pizza has designed a

at 3:30 pm. Find a function j(t) that cardboard delivery box from a single piece of

computes her distance from Bellevue at cardboard, as pictured.

time t. Sketch the graph, specify the do-

main and determine the range.

(a) Find a polynomial function v(x) that

(b) Steve drives from Spokane to Bellevue computes the volume of the box in terms

at 70 mph, departing from Spokane at of x. What is the degree of v?

12:00 noon. Find a function s(t) for his

distance from Bellevue at time t. Sketch (b) Find a polynomial function a(x) that

the graph, specify the domain and deter- computes the exposed surface area of

mine the range. the closed box in terms of x. What is

(c) Find a function d(t) that computes the the degree of a? What are the explicit di-

distance between Joan and Steve at mensions if the exposed surface area of

time t. the closed box is 600 sq. inches?

86 CHAPTER 6. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

the vertical cross-section of the ditch.

20 in (c) What is the width of the filled portion of

the ditch after 1 hour and 18 minutes?

(d) When will the filled portion of the ditch

x

be 42 feet wide? 50 feet wide? 73 feet

x wide?

g(x) on the domain −6 ≤ x ≤ 6 consistes of line

remove shaded squares and fold to get: segments and semicircles of radius 2 connect-

ing the points (−6,0),(−4,4), (0,4), (4,4), (6,0).

y-axis

x-axis

drainage ditch is pictured below: (a) What is the range of g?

(b) Where is the function increasing? Where

is the function decreasing?

(c) Find the multipart formula for y = g(x).

(d) If we restrict the function to the smaller

domain −5 ≤ x ≤ 0, what is the range?

domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 4, what is the range?

20 ft 20 ft

R R

1 a

R R − .

1 a+1

1+ a

vertical cross-section

(b) Find a, b, c that simultaneously satisfy

Here, R indicates a circle of radius 10 feet and these three equations:

all of the indicated circle centers lie along the

common horizontal line 10 feet above and par- a+b−c = 5

allel to the ditch bottom. Assume that water is 2a − 3b + c = 4

flowing into the ditch so that the level above a+b+c = −1

the bottom is rising 2 inches per minute.

104 CHAPTER 7. QUADRATIC MODELING

7.6 Summary

• A quadratic function is one of the form

f(x) = ax2 + bx + c.

where a 6= 0.

about the vertical line through the highest (or lowest) point on the

graph. This highest (or lowest) point is known as the vertex of the

graph; its location is given by (h,k) where

b

h=− and k = f(h).

2a

• If a > 0, then the vertex is the lowest (or minimum) point on the

graph, and the parabola ”opens upward”. If a < 0, then the vertex

is the highest (or maximum) point on the graph, and the parabola

”opens downward”.

7.7. EXERCISES 105

7.7 Exercises

Problem 7.1. Write the following quadratic Problem 7.5. A hot air balloon takes off from

functions in vertex form, find the vertex, the the edge of a plateau. Impose a coordinate sys-

axis of symmetry and sketch a rough graph. tem as pictured below and assume that the

path the balloon follows is the graph of the

(a) f(x) = 2x2 − 16x + 41. 4

quadratic function y = f(x) = − 2500 x2 + 54 x.

(b) f(x) = 3x2 − 15x − 77. The land drops at a constant incline from the

plateau at the rate of 1 vertical foot for each

(c) f(x) = x2 − 73 x + 13.

5 horizontal feet. Answer the following ques-

(d) f(x) = 2x2 . tions:

1 2 height above plateau (feet)

(e) f(x) = 100 x .

balloon

function f(x) = x2 − 3x + 4 on the interval

−3 ≤ x ≤ 5. What is the maximum value

takeoff

of f(x) on that interval? What is the min- horizontal distance

imum value of f(x) on that interval? from launch (feet)

ground incline

(b) Sketch the graph of the function f(x) =

x2 − 3x + 4 on the interval 2 ≤ x ≤ 7. What

is the maximum value of f(x) on that in-

terval? What is the minimum value of

f(x) on that interval? (a) What is the maximum height of the bal-

loon above plateau level?

(c) Sketch the graph of the function g(x) =

−(x + 3)2 + 3 on the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 4. (b) What is the maximum height of the bal-

What is the maximum value of g(x) on loon above ground level?

that interval? What is the minimum (c) Where does the balloon land on the

value of g(x) on that interval? ground?

(d) Where is the balloon 50 feet above the

Problem 7.3. The initial price of buzz.com

ground?

stock is $10 per share. After 20 days the stock

price is $20 per share and after 40 days the

price is $25 per share. Assume the price of Problem 7.6. (a) Suppose f(x) = 3x2 − 2.

the stock is modeled by a quadratic function. Does the point (1,2) lie on the graph of

(a) Find the quadratic function s(t) giving y = f(x)? Why or why not?

the stock price after t days. If you buy (b) If b is a constant, where does the line

1000 shares after 30 days, what is the y = 1 + 2b intersect the graph of y =

cost? x2 + bx + b?

(b) To maximize profit, when should you sell (c) If a is a constant, where does the

shares? How much will the profit be on line y = 1 − a2 intersect the graph of

your 1000 shares purchased in (a)? y = x2 − 2ax + 1?

(c) When will the stock become worthless? (d) Where does the graph of y = −2x2 + 3x + 10

intersect the graph of y = x2 + x − 10?

Problem 7.4. Sketch the graph of

y = x2 − 2x − 3. Label the coordinates of the Problem 7.7. Sylvia has an apple orchard.

x and y intercepts of the graph. In the One season, her 100 trees yielded 140 apples

same coordinate system, sketch the graph of per tree. She wants to increase her production

y = |x2 − 2x − 3|, give the multipart rule and by adding more trees to the orchard. However,

label the x and y intercepts of the graph. she knows that for every 10 additional trees

she plants, she will lose 4 apples per tree (i.e.,

106 CHAPTER 7. QUADRATIC MODELING

the yield per tree will decrease by 4 apples). (a) Write an expression for the distance be-

How many trees should she have in the or- tween Sven and Rudyard t seconds after

chard to maximize her production of apples? they start walking.

Problem 7.8. Rosalie is organizing a circus (b) When are Sven and Rudyard closest?

performance to raise money for a charity. She What is the minimum distance between

is trying to decide how much to charge for tick- them?

ets. From past experience, she knows that the

number of people who will attend is a linear

function of the price per ticket. If she charges Problem 7.14. After a vigorous soccer match,

5 dollars, 1200 people will attend. If she Tina and Michael decide to have a glass of

charges 7 dollars, 970 people will attend. How their favorite refreshment. They each run in

much should she charge per ticket to make the a straight line along the indicated paths at a

most money? speed of 10 ft/sec. Parametrize the motion of

Tina and Michael individually. Find when and

Problem 7.9. A Norman window is a rectan- where Tina and Michael are closest to one an-

gle with a semicircle on top. Suppose that the other; also compute this minimum distance.

perimeter of a particular Norman window is to

be 24 feet. What should its dimensions be in (200,300)

(−50,275)

order to maximize the area of the window and, soy milk

therefore, allow in as much light as possible?

beet juice

Problem 7.10. Jun has 300 meters of fenc-

ing to make a rectangular enclosure. She also

wants to use some fencing to split the enclo- (400,50)

sure into two parts with a fence parallel to two

Tina

of the sides. What dimensions should the en-

closure have to have the maximum possible Michael

area?

at parties with “wire tricks.” Suppose he takes Problem 7.15. If the graph of the quadratic

a piece of wire 60 inches long and cuts it into function f(x) = x2 + dx + 3d has its vertex on

two pieces. Steve takes the first piece of wire the x-axis, what are the possible values of d?

and bends it into the shape of a perfect circle. What if f(x) = x2 + 3dx − d2 + 1 ?

He then proceeds to bend the second piece of

wire into the shape of a perfect square. Where Problem 7.16. For each of the following equa-

should Steve cut the wire so that the total area tions, find the value(s) of the constant α so that

of the circle and square combined is as small the equation has exactly one solution, and de-

as possible? What is this minimal area? What termine the solution for each value.

should Steve do if he wants the combined area

to be as large as possible? (a) αx2 + x + 1 = 0

function whose graph passes through the (c) x2 + x + α = 0

given points:

(d) x2 + αx + 4α + 1 = 0

(a) (0,0), (1,1) and (3, − 1).

(b) (−1,1), (1, − 2) and (3,4).

Problem 7.17. (a) Solve for t

(c) (2,1), (3,2) and (5,1).

(d) (0,1), (1,1) and (1,3). s = 2(t − 1)2 + 1

Problem 7.13. Sven starts walking due south (b) Solve for x

at 5 feet per second from a point 120 feet north

of an intersection. At the same time Rudyard y = x2 + 2x + 3

starts walking due east at 4 feet per second

from a point 150 feet west of the intersection.

290 APPENDIX B. ANSWERS

Answer 2.8 (b) t = 2; t = 25 . (c) (3,3) (d) spider=( 37 , 38 ), Answer 3.8 (a) 6.92 seconds. (b) 7.67 seconds. (c) 38.16

ant=( 41 , 4 ). (e) 1.5 feet. (f) Spider reaches (9,6) when seconds. (d) 7332 ft2 < area < 7632 ft2 .

3 3

t

√ = 4; ant reaches (9,6)

√ when t = 3. (g) spider speed is

5 ft/sec; ant speed is 8 ft/sec. Answer 3.9 (a) x = 11/5.

p (b) no solutions. (c) (−2, − 2)

and (−2,4). (d) (−1 ± 2/5,3).

Answer 2.9 49.92 mph (exactly).

Answer 4.1 (a) y = − 35 (x − 1) − 1 (b) y = 40(x + 1) − 2

Answer 2.10 141.46 miles. They are 300 miles apart at (c) y = −2x − 2 (d) y = 11 (e) m = 53 , y = 53 (x − 1) + 1 (f)

time 0.826 hr = 49.6 minutes. y = 40x − 14 (g) y = − 43 x + 74 (h) y = x − 1

2

Answer 2.11 (a) Final answer is correct, but second Answer 4.2 (a)( 1+2α , 1+4α

1+2α

). (b) α = −2/5. (c) α = −1/4.

equality is wrong. (b) Final answer should be 4xy; key

fact is that (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 , etc. (c) Answer and Answer 4.3 (a) area = 25 b

(b) area = − 2m

2

(c) m = − 14

13

steps correct.

Answer 2.12 (a) x = ± 1+β 2

(b) x = αβ

(c) x = β unique. In other cases, the answers are not unique. Here

α2 α+β αβ+1 is a possible solution set:

2

Answer 2.13 (a) 5t2 + 6t + 5 (b) 2t2 + 4t (c) t 2 −1

(d) Eqn Slope y-int Pt on line Pt on line

√

5t2 + 4t + 4 y = 2x + 1 2 1 (0, 1) (− 1 , 0)

2

“ ”2 y = − 11

4

x + 17

4

− 11

4

17

4

(3, − 4) (−1,7)

y + 11

3

1

= 16 (c) Draw a vertical and horizontal line

through (1,1). On the vertical line, a circle of radius 2 y = −2x + 1 −2 1 (0, 1) (1 , 0)

2

will have a center at either (1,3) or (1,−1). Likewise, the

horizontal line will have circles at either (−1, 1) or (3, 1). 1x + 1 1

y= 2 2

1 (0, 1) (−2, 0)

y = 1,000 0 1,000 (0, 1,000) (0, 1,000)

1. (3, 1) (x − 3)2 + (y − 1)2 =4

2. (1, 3) (x − 1)2 + (y − 3)2 =4

y= 0 0 0 (0, 0) (1, 0)

3. (−1, 1) (x + 1)2 + (y − 1)2 =4

4. (1, −1) (x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 =4

x= 3 Undef None (3, 3) (3, −2)

√ √

(d) (1,1), (1, − 3), (1 + 3,0), (0, − 1 − 3)

y = x − 14 1 −14 (5, − 9) (0, −14)

√

Answer 3.2 (a) center (3,-1), radius 2 p3 (b) center (-2,-3),

radius 2 (c) center (-1/6,5/3), radius 203/12 (d) center Answer 4.5 (a) y = 6,850(x − 1970) + 38,000 (b) y =

√

(3/4, -1/2), radius 3 8,000(x − 1970) + 8,400 (d) Tabularize your answer:

25.4154041 minutes. Year Seattle Townsend

1983 $127,050 $112,400

Answer 3.4 (a) Imposing with x-axis along ground and y- 1998 $229,800 $232,400

axis along tower, wheel modeled by x2 + (y − 62)2 = 602 .

(b) 46.43 ft. to right of tower. (c) (−24,7) and (−24,117). (e) 1995.74, $214,313 (f) 1982.70, Sea = $124,965 (g) 2008.78,

Sea = $303,661 (h) 1972.32, Sea = $53,892 (i) No.

Answer 3.5 Lee has 2.265 in2 more pie.

Answer 4.6

√

Answer 3.6 (a) Impose a coordinate system so that the −2α2 ±

4α4 − 4α

tractor is at the origin at t = 0 seconds. With this coor- x=

2α

dinate system, the south edge of the sidewalk is modeled

√

by ys = 100; the north edge is modeled by, yn = 110. (b) −x2 ± x4 − 8x

t = 32 minutes. (c) t = 52 minutes. (d) 20 minutes. α=

4x

Answer 3.7 (a)] The equation for eastward travel from Answer 4.7 Line of travel is y = (0.667)(x − 35). (a)

Kingston is y = 8. Southward travel along x = −1. (b) (−13.46,−32.31) (b) 3.19 seconds (c) 5.82 seconds (d)

Boundary: (x + 2)2 + (y − 10)2 = 9; Interior:(x + 2)2 + (y − (10.78,−16.17) at about t = 6.1 sec.

10)2 < 9; Exterior:(x+2)2 +(y−10)2 > 9. (c) 3.82 minutes.

(d) Plug x = −1 into circle equation to find exit point. Use Answer 4.8 (a) Allyson at (0,70); Adrian at (−44,0).

this to find when the ferry exits the radar zone. Be careful Bungee is 83.1401 ft. long. (b) Occurs at time t = 7.7546

to reference all times relative to when the ferry departed seconds and Allyson is at (0,77.546). Allyson’s final loca-

Kingston. (e) 20.32 minutes. tion is 77.546 ft. from her starting point.

291

Answer 4.9 The lines of tangency have equations y = Answer 5.8 (a) − 32 ,− 52 , x2 , 12 (♥ − 3). (b) 0, 20, 6x + 2x2 ,

± √2 (x − 12). The non-visible portion of the y-axis is 2♥2 − 6♥, 2(♥ + △ − 3)(♥ + △). (c) Always 4π2 .

5√ √

− 2455

≤ y≤ 24 5

5

.

Answer 5.9 Use the vertical line test. For example, (a) is

not a function, by the vertical line test; you can split it

Answer 4.10 C = 59 (F − 32) and F = 9

5

C + 32. In Oslo, the into two function graphs by slicing the ellipse symmetri-

temperature is −9.4◦ F. cally into upper and lower halves. On the other hand, (o)

is a function, by the vertical line test; etc.

Answer 4.11 At the closest point, she will be

26.22471828 miles from Paris. √ 5.10 (a) x = 5.

Answer (b) x = 4, 8. (c) x = 36. (d)

242− 56400

2

Answer 4.12 Impose coordinates with Angela’s initial lo-

cation as the origin. Angela is closest to Mary at Answer 6.1 (a) 0, 2, 3. (b) x = ±4, x = 0, no solution. (c)

(18.8356,41.4383); this takes approximately 3.8 seconds. Intersect at (4,4) and (− 34 , 34 ). Area is 16

3

.

Answer 4.13 (a) Impose coordinates with sprinkler ini- Answer 6.2 (a)

tial location as the origin (0,0). Line equation becomes

y = − 51 x + 100. (b) Sprinkler is located at (0,82.5) at time −0.5x − 1 if x ≤ −2

| − 0.5x − 1| =

t = 33 minutes. Circular boundary of watered zone hits 0.5x + 1 if x > −2

southern edge of sidewalk at the points (−6.708,101.3416)

and (13.4386,97.3123). (c) y = − 51 x + 110.198. y

3

Answer 4.14 (a) With the origin set at the statue, x = 2.5

30 − 3.123475t,

√ y = 2.49878t. (b) The distance to the

statue is 16t2 − 187.4085t + 900 feet. (c) Margot will be 2

28 feet from the statue after 0.655672 seconds, and af-

1.5

ter 11.057360 seconds (assuming she continues past the

point due north of the statue). 1

0.5

Answer 4.15 18.923076923 seconds

x

p √ -4 -2 2 4

Answer 4.16 (a) (−1 ± 7/3)/2 = (−3 ± 21)/6. (b)

t =√−0.463325,0.863325; or the exact answer would be

Answer 6.3 (a) x = 4 and x = − 22 (b) x = 0.75 (c) the

(1 ± 11)/5. (c) t = 0.2. (d) No real number solutions. 3

equation has no solutions.

p √

p (a)√There are four√answers: x = ±

Answer 4.17 2+ 2 Answer 6.4 (a) x = −7 and x = 3 (b) a = 3 (c) x = 8/3

and x = ± 2 − 2 (b) y = 6 + 2 5.

1

Answer 6.5 For 0 ≤ x ≤ 6, the area is 6

x(x + 18).

Answer 5.1 (a) −2 + h + 2x. (b) 2. (c) h + 2x. (d) −h − 2x.

1 √

(e) −π(h + 2x) (f) √h+x−1+ . Answer 6.6 (a) The rule is

x−1

2x if 0 ≤ x ≤ 10

Answer 5.2 g(x) = 59 x + 24, f(x) = 54 x + 4, v(x) = x + 20, y=

−x + 30 if 10 ≤ x ≤ 30

v(5) = 25, minimum v(x) = 20, maximum v(x) = 40.

and the range is 0 ≤ y ≤ 20.

Answer 5.3 For example, in (a), suppose Dave has con- (b) The rule for the area function a(x) is

stant speed v ft/min. Then the function s = d(t) = vt

will compute the distance Dave travels in t minutes. The x2 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 10

a(x) =

graph would be a line with s-intercept 0 and slope v; the − 12 x2 + 30x − 150 if 10 ≤ x ≤ 30

domain would be 0 ≤ t ≤ 2400

v

; etc.

(c) x = 12.6795 inches.

Answer 5.4

Answer 6.7 (a)

Answer 5.5 Several possible answers for each one.

0 if t < −1

√ j(t) =

62.22(t + 1) if −1 ≤ t ≤ 3.5

Answer 5.6 (a) x-intercepts= 16 (3 ± 33). y-intercept =

1

√ 1

√

−2. (b) ( 6 (3 − 93),5) and ( 6 (3 + 93),5). (c) None. (d) (b)

√ √ √

if t < 0

p p

Yes, No, No, Yes. (e) ( 1 + 2,−2−3 1 + 2+3(1+ 2)). 280

s(t) =

280 − 70t if 0 ≤ t ≤ 4

p

Answer 5.7 (b) f(x) = 30000x + 50000 (4 − x)2 + 1. (c)

(c) The table of values (x,f(x)) will be: (0., 206155),

(0.5,197003), (1, 188114), (1.5,179629), (2,171803), 280 if t < −1

(2.5,165139), (3.,160711), (3.5,160902), (4,170000). Min- 280 − 62.22(t + 1) if −1 ≤ t < 0

imal cost occurs for some 2.5 < x < 3.5; the exact answer d(t) = 217.78 − 132.22t if 0 ≤ t < 1.6471

is x = 13

4

, but we cannot solve this in our class since it

132.22t − 217.78

if 1.6471 ≤ t < 3.5

requires the tools of Calculus. 70t if 3.5 ≤ t < 4

292 APPENDIX B. ANSWERS

Answer 6.8 The distance to his starting point t seconds Answer 7.2 (a) maximum value is 22; minimum value is

after he starts is 1.75 (b) maximum value is 32; minimum value is 2 (c)

maximum value is -6; minimum value is -46

10t

p if 0 ≤ t ≤ 25,

d(t) =

2

q250 + (12(t − 25))

2 if 25 ≤ t ≤ 175

3

, Answer 7.3 (a) Multipart function: s(t) = − 1601

t2 + 58 t+10

for 0 ≤ t ≤ 114.031, s(t) = 0 for t ≥ 114.031.; $23,125. (b)

400 + (250 − 9(t − 175

2

3

))2 if 175

3

≤ t≤ 205

3

.

Sell at time t = 50 days; $2500. (c) On day t = 115 it is

worthless.

Answer 6.9

Answer 7.4 The parabola has x intercepts at −1,3 and y

18t if 0≤ x≤ 5

p

2 + 182 (t − 5)2 intercept at -3. The vertex of the parabola is (1, − 4).

90 if 5 ≤ x ≤ 10

y = d(t) = p

902 + (90 − 18(t − 10))2 if 10 ≤ x ≤ 15

90 − 18(t − 15) if 15 ≤ x ≤ 20 x2 − 2x − 3 if x ≤ −1

2

|x − 2x − 3| = −x2 + 2x + 3 if −1 < x < 3

x2 − 2x − 3 if x ≥ 3

Here is the graph of d(t)

Answer 7.5 (a) 100 ft. (b) 156.25 ft. (c) (625, − 125). (d)

ft

When x = 54.81 ft. or x = 570.19 ft.; i.e. at (54.81,39.04)

140 and (570.19, − 64.04).

120

100 Answer 7.6 (a) No, since f(1) = 1 6= 2. (b) The points

80 (1,1+2b) and (−(1+b),1+2b). (c) Only the point (a,1−a2 ).

60 (d) The points (−2.2701, − 7.1168) and (2.9368,1.5612).

40

20 Answer 7.7 She should have 225 trees in the orchard.

t sec

5 10 15 20

Answer 7.8 She should charge $7.72 to make the most

money.

Answer 6.10 (a) v(x) = 2x3 − 70x2 + 500x; degree 3. (b)

a(x) = 1000 − 50x − 2x2 , degree 2. To get 600 sq. in. Answer 7.9 The radius of the circular part should be

dimensions are: 6.3746 × 7.2508× 18.6254.

24

Answer 6.11 (a) 2 hours. (b) Impose coordinates with x ≈ 3.36059492 feet.

4+π

axis the bottom of the ditch and the y axis the pictured

centerline. The short side of the rectangular part should also be equal

to this.

20 if x ≤ −40

p

2

10 + 100 − (x + 40) if −40 ≤ x ≤ −30

p

2 Answer 7.10 The enclosure should be 50 meters by 75

10 − 100 − (x + 20) if −30 ≤ x ≤ −20

meters.

y= 0 if −20 ≤ x ≤ 20

p

10 − p100 − (x − 20)2 if 20 ≤ x ≤ 30

2 Answer 7.11 Cut so the pieces have lengths 26.394 in.

10 + 100 − (x − 40)

if 30 ≤ x ≤ 40

and 33.606 in.; bend the 26.394 inch piece into a circle.

20 if 40 ≤ x

√ Answer 7.12 (a) y = − 23 x2 + 35 x. (b) y = 1.125x2 − 1.5x −

(c) 2(40 − 91) feet. (d) 42 ft. wide: 0.3008 minutes. 50 ft.

wide: 8.038 minutes. 73 ft. wide: 116.205 minutes. 1.625. (c) y = −0.5x2 + 3.5x − 4. (d) No solution.

p 7.13 (a) The distance between Sven and Rudyard

and 2 ≤ x ≤ 4. Decreasing: −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6. is 41t2 − 2400t + 36900 feet, where t is the number of

(c) seconds after they start moving. (b) They will be closest

together after they have been moving for 29.268292 sec-

onds, and will be 42.166916 feet apart at that time.

2x + 12 if −6 ≤ x ≤ −4

p

4 + p4 − (x + 2)2 if −4 ≤ x ≤ 0

y=

4 − 4 − (x − 2)2

if 0≤ x≤ 4 Answer 7.14 Michael M(t) = (5.547t,8.32t), Tina T(t) =

(400 − 8.944t,50 + 4.472t). Study the distance SQUARED

−2x + 12 if 4≤ x≤ 6

from M(t) to T(t). Michael and Tina will be closest when

(d) 2 ≤ y ≤ 6. (e) 2 ≤ y ≤ 4. t = 26.641 sec; they are 54.3 ft at that instant.

, b = − 35 , c = −3. Answer 7.15 In the first case, d = 0 or d = 12. In the

5

second case, d = ± √2 .

13

Answer 7.1 (a) 2(x−4)2 +9, Vertex: (4, 9), Axis: x = 4. (b)

3(x − 5/2)2 − 383/4, Vertex: (5/2, -383/4), Axis: x = 5/2. √ (d) There are two possible values for α: If

Answer 7.16

(c) (x− 3/14)2 + 2539/196, Vertex: (3/14, 2539/196), Axis: α = 8 + 2 17, then√ the unique solution

√ of the equation

x = 3/14. (d)2(x − 0)2 − 0, Vertex: (0, 0), Axis: x = 0. (e) will be x = −4 − 17. If α = 8 − 2 17, √ then the unique

(1/100)(x − 0)2 − 0, Vertex: (0, 0), Axis: x = 0. solution of the equation will be x = −4 + 17.