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The textile industry is the largest industry of modern India. It accounts for over 20 percent of
industrial production and is closely linked with the agricultural and rural economy. It is the
single largest employer in the industrial sector employing about 38 million people. If the
employment in allied sectors likes ginning, agriculture, pressing, cotton trade, jute, etc. are added
then the total employment is estimated at 93 million. The net foreign exchange earnings in this
sector are one of the highest and, together with carpet and handicrafts, account for over 37
percent of total export earnings at over US $ 10 billion. Textiles, alone, account for about 25
percent of India’s total forex earnings.

India’s textile industry since its beginning continues to be predominantly cotton based with about
65 percent of fabric consumption in the country being accounted for by cotton. The industry is
highly localized in Ahmadabad and Bombay in the western part of the country though other
centers exist including Kanpur, Calcutta, Indore, Coimbatore, and Sholapur.

The structure of the textile industry is extremely complex with the modern, sophisticated and
highly mechanized mill sector on the one hand and the hand spinning and hand weaving
(handloom) sector on the other. Between the two falls the small-scale power loom sector. The
latter two are together known as the decentralized sector. Over the years, the government has
granted a whole range of concessions to the non-mill sector as a result of which the share of the
decentralized sector has increased considerably in the total production. Of the two sub-sectors of
the decentralized sector, the power loom sector has shown the faster rate of growth. In the
production of fabrics the decentralized sector accounts for roughly 94 percent while the mill
sector has a share of only 6 percent.

Being an agro-based industry the production of raw material varies from year to year depending
on weather and rainfall conditions. Accordingly the price fluctuates too.

The Ministry of Textiles under the Government of India has taken some significant steps to
arrest these problems. It has framed "The National Textile Policy 2000" to address the aforesaid
issues. This policy aims at negating these problems and increasing the foreign exchange earnings
to the tune of US$ 50 billion by the year 2010. It includes rational road-maps for the
development and promotion of all the sectors involved directly or indirectly with the textile
industry of India. Further, the policy also envisages bringing the unorganized decentralized
textile sector (which accounts for 76% of textile production) at par with the organized mill
sector. Furthermore, the policy also aims at introducing modern and efficient manufacturing
machineries and techniques in the Indian textile sector


The apparel industry supply chain can be broadly categorized into six major components - raw
materials, textile plants, apparel plants, export chains, retail stores and customers.

Diagram No: 4.1 Supply Chain of the Textile Industry1


Close to 14% of the industrial output and 30% of the export market share is contributed directly
by the Indian textile industry. Indian textile industry is also the largest industry when it comes to
employment that generates jobs not just within but also in various support industries like

1 (
agriculture. As per a recent survey the textile industry is going to contribute 12 million new jobs
in India by 2010 itself.

Indian textile industry is as old as the word textile itself. This industry holds a significant
position in India by providing the most basic need of Indians. Starting from the procurement of
raw materials to the final production stage of the actual textile, the Indian textile industry works
on an independent basis.

The final phase-out of the Multi-fibre Arrangement (MFA) and the system of quotas that has
governed the global trade in textiles and apparel for the last forty-two years has significantly
altered the institutional rules of trade in the textile and clothing industry. With the elimination of
all remaining quotas on apparel from January 1 2005, the textile and clothing sector is now fully
integrated into the regulatory framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Buyers are now free to source textile and
apparel in any amount from any country; suppliers are similarly free to export as much product
as they are able, subject only to a system of national tariffs. As global competition intensifies
under the new quota-free trading regime, countries are bracing for major changes in the structure
of sourcing and apparel supply worldwide. With the removal of the quotas, it was expected that
the developing countries, which have a major play in the textile industry will benefit themselves
as they have stable supply network, experience in networking, capacities for scaling up and the
ability to offer a full bundle of services. It was also expected that smaller countries, which
enjoyed the restriction on trade will fall out from the picture.

The textile sector has increased their investment in projects to upgrade their equipment amid
fierce market competition and to meet the growing demand for more textile products. Total
investment in the textile industry between 2004 and 2008 was around Rs.65, 478 crore in India,
which is expected to reach Rs.1, 50,600 crore by 2012. This enhanced investment would
generate 17.37 million jobs-- 12.02 million direct and 5.35 million indirect—by 2012.

Investments in the textiles sector can be accessed on the basis of three factors:

• Plan schemes such as the Techno Up-gradation Funds Scheme (TUFS), Technology
Mission on Cotton, Apparel Parks, etc. Under the TUFS scheme, a total of Rs 916 billion has
been disbursed for technology up gradation. There are around 26 Apparel Parks in eight states in
India, with a total estimated investment of Rs 134 billion
• Industrial Entrepreneurship Memorandums implemented from 1992 to Aug 06,
amounting to Rs 263 billion
• Foreign Direct Investments inflows worth US$ 910 million have been received by the
textile industry between Aug 91 and May 06, which account for 1.29% of total FDI inflows in
the country.

Though significant investments are being made in the textiles segment, the bulk of them are in
the spinning and weaving segments. A cumulative total of US$ 6.67 billion in investment was
done in 2008. Of this, more than two-thirds is in the spinning and weaving segments, while only
25% is in processing and garment units

The elimination of global textile quotas is expected to drive garment production to China,
benefiting consumers in North America and Europe at the expense of developing nations where
apparel manufacturing has become a bridge to an industrial economy. Africa received record
high foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2005 of US$31 billion, but this was mostly
concentrated in a few countries and industries. The textile sector has increased their investment
in projects to upgrade their equipment amid fierce market competition and to meet the growing
demand for more textile products.

The global fiber industry will continue to shift to the Asia/Pacific region, particularly China,
South Korea and Taiwan. Textile trade in the world is estimated to be around US$ 300 billion
currently. Industry experts predict that by 2014 the facilities in the west will close down and they
will source their textiles from more efficient areas of the world resulting in the trade volume of
around US$ 800 billion. The Indian textile industry, which has accelerated to an annual growth
of 9-10 per cent, is expected to grow at a rate of 16 per cent in value terms and reach a level of
USD 115 billion by 2012. With 8.6% growth rate, Turkey also recorded a very strong average
annual growth rate of its textiles and clothing exports but from a much lower basis. It could
increase its exports from 8.6 to 17.6 billion US-Dollars. Pakistan exports amounted to 9.9 billion
US-Dollars in 2005 which translates into an average annual growth rate of 5.4%.
As of now, the general impression any individual would get about the Indian textile industry
leaders in the past few months is that it is in a major decline state. The following could be the
reasons that attribute to this decline.

• Global recession

• Less export orders due to reductions in inventories by global retail giants like Wal-Mart

• Rising price of raw materials like cottons

• Infrastructure bottlenecks such as power, particularly in Tamil Nadu

In the times of adversity, like what we are facing right now, it is an immediate task for all stake
holders to pause for a moment and take stock of the difficulties and chart plans for sustainability
and growth of the Indian textile industry.

With the opening of world markets and the abolition of textile quotas since 2005, there came a
negative situation as well. But, hindsight is always 20-20. Indian textile industry should have
focused on all major sectors right from fiber to fashion and planned for an organized growth
across the supply chain so as to compete with China and even countries such as Pakistan,
Vietnam and Thailand, which are also growing from the textile perspective. Instead, the industry
had put majority of its stock in the spinning sector. This is clearly evident in the utilization of
Technology Up gradation Fund Scheme effectively by the spinning sector. Although it is a
positive outcome, the industry did not focus on many other value adding segments such as
weaving and finishing. Indian power loom sector, which enables value-addition is a highly
unorganized industry and needed major up gradation. As of now, the power loom segment is also
picking up where in many of the unorganized power looms are becoming organized. Technical
textiles sector is still in its infancy and a tangible growth will be highly visible by 2035 when the
growth in this sector will be exponential.

The weak links in the Indian conventional industry such as weaving and finishing have to be
strengthened. There must be consolidated efforts by Indian Textile Machinery Manufacturers
Association, end-users and the Government to undertake a major step and come-up with
alternatives to European Machinery, which the Indian weaving sector can afford. This should be
put into practice within the next five years, if dedicated efforts are undertaken with the financial
support for R & D by the Government through its various schemes. Technical textiles sector
must transform from a non crawling phase to at least a crawling industry in the next three years.
General awareness on nonwoven and technical sectors has been created with the recent marathon
training workshops and conferences such as, "Advances in Textiles, Nonwoven and Technical
Textiles", organized for the past five years in Coimbatore by Texas Tech University, USA and
those such as the Texcellance and IIT's Technical Textiles conferences. These have put India on
the international map in technical textiles. These conferences are of less use if they do not
translate into investments and new projects.

Following are the statistics calculated as per the contribution of the sectors in Textile industry in
India GDP:

* India holds 22 percent share in the textile market in Europe and 43 percent share in the apparel
market of the country. USA holds 10 percent and 32.6 percent shares in Indian textiles and

* Few other global countries apart from USA and Europe, where India has a marked presence
include UAE, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Bangladesh, China, Turkey and Japan

* Readymade garments accounts for 45 percent share holding in the total textile exports and 8.2
percent in export production of India

* Export production of carpets has witnessed a major growth of 42.23 percent, which apparently
stands at USD 654.32 million during 2004-05 to USD 930.69 million in the year 2006-07. India
holds 36 percent share in the global textile market as has been estimated during April-October

* The technical textiles market in India is assumed to touch USD 10.63 billion by 2007-08
from USD 5.09 billion during 2005-06, which is approximately double. It is also assumed to
touch USD 19.76 billion by the year 2014-15
* By 2010, India is expected to double its share in the international technical textile market

* The entire sector of technical textiles is estimated to reach USD 29 billion during 2005-2010

The Role of Textile Industry in India GDP also includes a hike in the investment flow both in the
domestic market and the export production of textiles. The investment range in the Indian textile
industry has increased from USD 2.94 billion to USD 7.85 billion within three years, from 2004
to 2007. It has been assumed that by the year 2012, the investment ratio in textile industry is
most likely to touch USD 38.14 billion.


Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based in the conversion of three types of

fiber into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. These are then fabricated into clothes or
other artifacts. Cotton remains the most important natural fiber, so is treated in
depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-
forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and coloration processes
to the production of a wide range of products. There remains a large industry that
uses hand techniques to achieve the same results.

Cotton is the world's most important natural fiber. In the year 2007, the global yield was
25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries.

There are five stages:

 Cultivating and Harvesting.

 Preparatory Processes.

 Spinning.

 Weaving.

 Finishing.

This process can be explained through the Exhibit displayed below

Cotton Manufacturing

Bale Breaker Blowing Room


Breaker Scutcher Batting

Finishing Scutcher Lapping

Carding Carding Room

Silver Lap





Roving Fine Roving

Mule Spinning - Ring Spinning Spinning

Reeling Doubling

Winding Bundling Bleaching

Warping Cabling

Sizing/Slashing/Dressing Gassing

Weaving Spooling

Cloth Yarn (Cheese)- - Bundle Sewing Thread

Cultivating and harvesting

Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low
humidity. Indian cotton, gossypium arboreum, is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand
processing. American cotton, gossypium hirsutum, produces the longer staple needed for
machine production. Planting is from September to mid November and the crop is harvested
between March and May. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle
pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton
plant, attached to each of the thousands of seeds is fibers about 2.5 cm long.

Preparatory processes- preparation of yarn

* Ginning

The seed cotton goes in to a Cotton gin. The cotton gin separates seeds and removes the "trash"
dirt, stems and leaves) from the fiber. In a saw gin, circular saws grab the fiber and pull it
through a grating that is too narrow for the seeds to pass. A roller gin is used with longer staple
cotton. Here a leather roller captures the cotton. A knife blade, set close to the roller, detaches
the seeds by drawing them through teeth in circular saws and revolving brushes which clean
them away.

The ginned cotton fiber, known as lint, is then compressed into bales which are about 1.5 m tall
and weigh almost 220 kg. Only 33% of the crop is usable lint. Commercial cotton is priced by
quality, and that broadly relates to the average length of the staple, and the variety of the plant.
Longer staple cotton (2½ in to 1¼ in) is called Egyptian, medium staple (1¼ in to ¾ in) is called
American upland and short staple (less than ¾ in) is called Indian. The cotton seed is pressed
into cooking oil. The husks and meal are processed into animal feed, and the stems into paper.

* Opening and cleaning

Cotton mills get the cotton shipped to them in large, 500 pound bales. When the cotton comes
out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter. The bale is broken open
using a machine with large spikes. It is called an Opener. In order to fluff up the cotton and
remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker, or similar machines. A picker
looks similar to the carding machine and the cotton gin, but is slightly different. The cotton is fed
into the machine and gets beaten with a beater bar, to loosen it up. It is fed through various
rollers, which serve to remove the vegetable matter. The cotton, aided by fans, then collects on a
screen and gets fed through more rollers till it emerges as a continuous soft fleecy sheet, known
as a lap.

* Carding

The fibers are separated and then assembled into a loose strand (sliver or tow) at the conclusion
of this stage. The cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, and is then taken to carding
machines. The carders line up the fibers nicely to make them easier to spin. The carding machine
consists mainly of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered
in small teeth, and as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer (i.e. closer together). The
cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver; a large rope of fibers.

Note: In a wider sense Carding can refer to these four processes: Willowing- loosening the
fibers; Lapping- removing the dust to create a flat sheet or lap of cotton; Carding- combing the
tangled lap into a thick rope of 1/2 in diameter, a sliver; and Drawing- where a drawing frame
combines 4 slivers into one- repeated for increased quality.


The spinning machines take the roving thins it and twists it, creating yarn which it winds onto a
bobbin. In mule spinning the roving is pulled off a bobbin and fed through some rollers, which
are feeding at several different speeds. This thins the roving at a consistent rate. If the roving was
not a consistent size, then this step could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine.
The yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, and is rolled
onto a cop as the carriage returns. Mule spinning produces a finer thread than the less skilled ring

Units of textile measurement

* Cotton Counts: The number of pieces of thread, 840 yards long needed to make up 1 lb
weight. 10 count cotton means that 10x840 yd weighs 1 lb. This is coarser than 40 count cotton
where 40x840 yards are needed. In the United Kingdom, Counts to 40s are coarse (Oldham
Counts), 40 to 80s are medium counts and above 80 is a fine count. In the United States ones to
20s are coarse counts.

* Hank: A length of 7 leas or 840 yards

* Thread: A length of 54 in (the circumference of a warp beam)

* Bundle: Usually 10 lb

* Lea: A length of 80 threads or 120 yards [17]

* Denier: this is an alternative method. It is defined as a number that is equivalent to the

weight in grams of 9000m of a single yarn. 15 denier is finer than 30 denier.

* Tex: is the weight in grams of 1 km of yarn. [18]


The weaving process uses a loom. The length way threads are known as the warp, and the cross
way threads are known as the weft. The warp which must be strong needs to be presented to
loom on a warp beam. The weft, passes across the loom in a shuttle that carries the yarn on a
pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped
onto a beam and onto pirns before weaving can commence.
* Winding

After being spun and plied, the cotton thread is taken to a warping room where the winding
machine takes the required length of yarn and winds it onto warper’s bobbins

* Warping or beaming

Racks of bobbins are set up to hold the thread while it is rolled onto the warp bar of a loom.
Because the thread is fine, often three of these would be combined to get the desired thread

* Weaving

At this point, the thread is woven. Depending on the era, one person could manage anywhere
from 3 to 100 machines. In the mid nineteenth century, four was the standard number. A skilled
weaver in 1925 would run 6 Lancashire Looms. As time progressed new mechanisms were
added that stopped the loom any time something went wrong. The mechanisms checked for such
things as a broken warp thread, broken weft thread, the shuttle going straight across, and if the
shuttle was empty. Forty of these Northrop Looms or automatic looms could be operated by one
skilled worker

The three primary movements of a loom are:

• Shedding,

• Picking, and

• Beating-up.

* Shedding:

The operation of dividing the warp into two lines, so that the shuttle can pass between these
lines. There are two general kinds of sheds-"open" and "closed." Open Shed-The warp threads
are moved when the pattern requires it-from one line to the other. Closed Shed-The warp threads
are all placed level in one line after each pick.

* Picking:
The operation of projecting the shuttle from side to side of the loom through the division in the
warp threads. This is done by the over pick or under pick motions. The over pick is suitable for
quick-running looms, whereas the under pick is best for heavy or slow looms.

* Beating-up:

The third primary movement of the loom when making cloth, and is the action of the reed as it
drives each pick of weft to the fell of the cloth.

Finishing- processing of textiles

The grey cloth, woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including
warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential. Furthermore,
it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes.

* De-sizing

Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and then
rinsed, or enzymes may be used to break down the size.

* Scouring

Scouring, is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax and
non-fibrous impurities (e.g. the remains of seed fragments) from the fibers and any added soiling
or dirt. Scouring is usually carried in iron vessels called kiers. The fabric is boiled in an alkali,
which forms soap with free fatty acids. (Saponification). A kier is usually enclosed, so the
solution of sodium hydroxide can be boiled under pressure, excluding oxygen which would
degrade the cellulose in the fiber. If the appropriate reagents are used, scouring will also remove
size from the fabric although de-sizing often precedes scouring and is considered to be a separate
process known as fabric preparation. Preparation and scouring are prerequisites to most of the
other finishing processes. At this stage even the most naturally white cotton fibers are yellowish,
and bleaching, the next process, is required.

* Bleaching
Bleaching improves whiteness by removing natural coloration and remaining trace impurities
from the cotton; the degree of bleaching necessary is determined by the required whiteness and
absorbency. Cotton being a vegetable fiber will be bleached using an oxidizing agent, such as
dilute sodium hydrochloride or dilute hydrogen peroxide. If the fabric is to be dyed a deep shade,
then lower levels of bleaching are acceptable, for example. However, for white bed sheeting’s
and medical applications, the highest levels of whiteness and absorbency are essential.

* Mercerizing

A further possibility is mercerizing during which the fabric is treated with caustic soda solution
to cause swelling of the fibers. This results in improved lustre, strength and dye affinity. Cotton
is mercerized under tension, and all alkali must be washed out before the tension is released or
shrinkage will take place. Mercerizing can take place directly on grey cloth, or after bleaching.

* Shrinking (Sanforizing)

Finally, mechanical shrinking, whereby the fabric is forced to shrink width or lengthwise, creates
a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal.

* Dyeing

Finally, cotton is an absorbent fiber which responds readily to coloration processes. Dyeing, for
instance, is commonly carried out with an anionic direct dye by completely immersing the fabric
(or yarn) in an aqueous dye bath according to a prescribed procedure. For improved fastness to
washing, rubbing and light, other dyes such as vats and reactive are commonly used. These
require more complex chemistry during processing and are thus more expensive to apply.

* Printing

Printing, on the other hand, is the application of color in the form of a paste or ink to the surface
of a fabric, in a predetermined pattern. It may be considered as localized dyeing. Printing designs
on to already dyed fabric is also possible

What are the types and causes of fire hazards in textile industry?

Fire Hazards
Collectors are highly susceptible to fires due to the presence of fuel (dust particles) and oxygen.
Collectors have fan flow that further contributes to the fanning of a fire and helping it grow.
Since collectors contain all these fire-friendly characteristics it is necessary that proper filter
media is chosen and operating techniques are followed with care. There are many dusts that burn
(form a fire) but they have a low rate of combustion.
Causes of Fire
The main causes of fires are:
(I) sparks and
(II) Spontaneous combustion.

Sparks find their way into dust collector systems from the industrial process. They enter through
the hoods and ducts in the collector system. One way of tackling sparks was by having a long
duct. Traveling along the long duct would enable the spark to burn itself out or cool off.
However it is not an effective solution since sparks are known to travel over a 100 feet and
survive the cyclone before igniting the bags and dust in the dust collector. Fires in dust
collectors start when the system is in process.
To understand the nature of the sparks we may look at the example of a campfire where sparks
fly over the fire. Though sparks consist of a heavy particle, they ‘fly’ because they are
surrounded by a layer of ‘hot air’. This layer of hot air around it makes the spark behave like a
hot air balloon and it travels long distances easily. Dust collector systems have a smooth flow
duct design which helps. Sparks to travel unaffected by gravity and centrifugal forces of the

Spontaneous Combustions
Fume dusts are a classic case of fine dusts that have large surface areas. Fume dusts are known to
Oxidize and the process of oxidation produces heat which is a factor that can start a fire.
Oxidation does not cause a problem when the dust collector is in operation since the heat is
removed by the flow of dust through elements. However when the dust collector is not in
operation, heat generated by the oxidation of these dusts forms hot spots on the filter cake. These
hot spots in the filter cake could ignite when the flow is restarted in the system. Once ignited the
fires are fanned by the airflows and cause extensive damage.

Ways to Control Sparks

To extinguish sparks, it is essential that the layer of hot air surrounding the spark is removed.
This can be achieved by creating a change in air velocity. The change in air velocity creates
eddies in the air stream and removes hot air from the spark. Once the layer is disturbed, sparks
can be cooled in a fraction of a second.
The eddies can be created by
• Abrupt change in duct sizes in the system.
• Single/multiple plates with orifices placed near the hood inlet
• Change in direction of duct such as a square elbow instead of a smooth turning vane.
• Spark trap
Sprinkler Systems

Water sprinkler systems could be installed in collectors in the area where clean air is recycled
into the work place. However, one must remember to turn off the water sprinkler system when
the fire is put off because water could collect in the hopper and bins. If a large amount of water
accumulates, the structure of the dust collector could be affected badly involving expensive

Care and Maintenance of your Fire Extinguisher

Inspect fire extinguishers at least once a month (more often in severe environments.

Fire extinguisher maintenance is important for everyone’s safety.

You must ensure that:
• The extinguisher is not blocked by equipment, coats or other objects that could interfere
with access in an emergency.
• The pressure is at the recommended level. On extinguishers equipped with a gauge (such
as that shown on the right), the needle should be in the green zone not too high and not
too low.
• The nozzle or other parts are not hindered in any way.
• The pin and tamper seal (if it has one) are intact.
• There are no dents, leaks, rust, chemical deposits and/or other signs of abuse/wear.
• Wipe off any corrosive chemicals, oil, gunk etc. that may have deposited on the
• Some manufacturers recommend shaking your dry chemical extinguishers once a month
to prevent the powder from settling/packing.
• Fire extinguishers should be pressure tested (a process called hydrostatic testing) after a
number of years to ensure that the cylinder is safe to use. Consult your owner's manual,
extinguisher label or the manufacturer to see when yours may need such testing. If the
extinguisher is damaged or needs recharging, replace it immediately!


In the textiles industries, the main causes of risks are:

• slips and trips (nearly a quarter of all injuries)

• manual handling/musculoskeletal injuries
• struck by moving or falling objects
• contact with moving machinery

These four causes alone account for nearly 80% of all reported injuries.

The main causes of ill health are:

• Musculoskeletal injuries
• Exposure to noise at work
• Occupational asthma, and respiratory irritation from exposure to textile process dust

The main causes of injury and occupational ill health in the textiles, footwear, leather, laundries
and dry-cleaning manufacturing industries and include:
• Manual handling/musculoskeletal
• Slips on wet/contaminated floors
• Falls from height
• Workplace transport
• Struck by something
• Machinery
• Occupational asthma
• Noise

Manual handling/Musculoskeletal

Textiles – a presser needed physiotherapy and steroid injections to alleviate severe pain in her
shoulder and arm brought on by repetitive vertical steaming of garments. The job involved lifting
the iron repeatedly above shoulder height – the job was redesigned so that it could be done
without lifting the iron so high.

Clothing – a left hander sewing machinist, attaching buttons on a machine designed for right-
handed people, developed back and neck problems as a result of the awkward posture she had to
adopt. After some thought and a bit of adjustment of the system of work, the machinist was able
to sit comfortably at the machine.

Fabric warehouse – a warehouse worker suffered a back injury after manually handling an
awkward roll of fabric weighing around 28Kg. Afterwards, the employer reduced the weight of
rolls to 25Kg, provided training on lifting, and introduced new instructions on how to handle
loose rolls.

Slips management

Dye works – a worker cleaning a dyeing machine with hot water and bleach slipped on the wet
working platform and fell backwards, spilling the cleaning solution over himself. He suffered
burns and blistering. The floor of the platform is now better drained and has had its slip
resistance improved.
Carding – a maintenance engineer sustained head injuries and 3 crushed ribs after falling into an
unguarded shallow concrete pit close to the machine. The risk had been pointed out before he
started work, but no action had been taken to cover or guard the pit.

Falls from height

• Fall from teagle opening - a man fell approximately 70 feet from the top floor of mill building
whilst trying to free a pulley block which had become jammed in the transporter of a teagle hoist
when it over-hoisted. An unsafe system of work was being employed: the access was not safe,
there was no use of harnesses, and no thought had gone into how the task could be done safely.
The man lost his balance, swung out over the open edge and fell. He landed on some bales which
saved his life.

• Installing new machine – a guard rail had to be removed to allow a new steam hood to be
lifted into position above a carpet backing line. Whilst the hood was being manoeuvred, a
manager fell through the gap and died from his injuries. This accident brings home the
importance of having a lifting plan and a system of work to prevent approaching an unguarded

Workplace transport

Fabric warehouse – a worker was reversing a pedestrian operated truck used to move rolls of
fabric when he became trapped between the body of the truck and a wall. The emergency brake,
designed to operate when the control handle was released failed to work because of a poorly
adjusted brake linkage. The worker had also not had any training in how to use the truck.

Workplace transport accidents happen for 3 main reasons; an unsafe site, an unsafe vehicle or an
unsafe driver. In this case, 2 causes contributed to make an accident inevitable.
Fatal fall from vehicle – a dye house worker was standing on the bed of a flatbed lorry helping
a forklift truck driver to remove bales of yarn. He was manipulating the bales with double bale
hooks when he fell and tumbled 1.5m to the ground. He broke his hip and died shortly afterwards
from a blood clot.

Struck by something

A textile worker was opening a shutter door using a manually operated chain pulley. The pulley
block came off the main shaft and fell 10m on to the worker’s head, fracturing his skull.


Maintenance worker killed at textile baling press - an employee was carrying out
maintenance work at a vertical textile baling press. He reached through an access door into a
baling chamber to retrieve a tool that had fallen from his pocket. This action broke a light beam
causing the ram to descend. He was trapped between the ram and the side of the baling chamber
causing serious internal injuries. He later died in hospital. The press had not been isolated.

Occupational asthma

A dyer’s job was to weigh and mix reactive dyes. He did the work in a proper ventilated booth
but then tipped the powders into open dye kettles. The process generated a lot of fine dust and
this is probably how he became sensitised. He started to get a runny nose and eyes and over a
period of a few weeks developed a wheezy chest. These symptoms got worse and eventually he
had a severe asthma attack. Now, his asthma means that he can no longer work in the dye house.


• Autoclaves
1.1 Autoclave Apparatus
1.2 Autoclave Procedures
• Baling Machines
• Cloth Finishing and Fabric Coating
3.1 Cloth Finishing and Fabric Coating Machinery
3.2 Cloth Finishing and Fabric Coating Procedures
• Dyeing and Printing
4.1 Atmospheric Dyeing Machinery
4.2 Screen Printing
4.3 Dyeing Procedures

• Fabric Cutting
5.1 Fabric Cutting Machinery

• Sewing
6.1 Sewing Machines

1. Autoclaves
a. Are safety devices, valves, gauges, controls, alarms etc simple to read and understand?

b. Are they easily accessible to operatives of all sizes?

c. Where machines have automatic door opening are alarms and trip devices fitted?

D. Is there a suitable safety valve fitted?

e. Is there a correct steam pressure gauge?

f. Is the maximum safe working pressure clearly marked?

g. Is a suitable reducing valve or similar automatic device fitted?

h. Is there an isolating valve in the inlet line for each machine?

I. For multi and single bolted door machines is a device fitted to break the seal?

j. For quick opening type doors are the required devices provided?

2 Baling Machines

a. Is mechanical equipment used to handle bales?

b. Is all bales handling equipment (including bale elevating systems) adequately guarded and
regularly maintained?

c. Are horizontal bale presses fitted with door interlocks of a suitable design and integrity?

d. On other bale packing machines are all conveyor nip points guarded and trap entanglement
areas guarded or safe by design?

e. Is access to the ram or other moving parts, guarded by fixed guards or interlocked to a suitable

f. Are shearing points guarded or safe by distance?

g. Where swivel boxes are in use is the control a "hold to run" type?

h. Where automatic swivel boxes are in use are trip guards and warning signals in operation?

I. Is working at height accessible by adequate steps and platforms?

j. Are these interlocked where moving parts are accessible?

K. Is there a safe system of work, including isolation, for use when working inside guards, for
example during cleaning and maintenance?

3.1 Cloth Finishing and Fabric Coating Machinery

a. Are all drive points, belts and shafts correctly guarded?

b. Are roller intakes on all types of finishing machinery correctly guarded with modern
interlocks or trip devices on fast moving equipment?

c. Are braking systems checked on a regular basis?

d. Are suitable safety devices (e.g. rubber needles) provided for feed scouring machines?

e. Are all hot parts/pipes etc guarded or insulated to prevent accidental burns?

3.2 Cloth Finishing and Fabric Coating Procedures

a. Are specific named employees appointed to carry out sharpening work on the blades of
cropping and cutting machines?

b. Where operatives need to climb onto machines to make adjustments, feed material or check
controls are they trained in correct techniques, use of ladders and steps etc?

c. Are pressure vessels subject to regular inspection by the company maintenance and schemes
of examination by an external competent person?

d. Are fault reporting procedures in operation for leaks of steam, solvents and other substance?
e. Where batch carts, 'A' frames etc are moved by manual labour, have measurements been made
of the effort required?

4.1 Atmospheric Dyeing Machinery

a. On open vessels are valves and other controls located in a safe position (no risks from
overflowing or boiling liquor)?

b. Are steam injection nozzles of a noise-reduced design?

c. Are hot parts guarded or lagged?

d. Are buckets with lids in use to prevent spillages?

e. Is adequate drainage provided?

f. Are pits and gullies guarded, fenced and clearly marked?

g. Where liquor preparation plants are in separate rooms are arrangements made for lone worker
emergency contact?

h. Where winding on or batching of operations takes place at speed, is access limited?

I. Where 'A' Frames are in use are precautions in place to stop them falling over?

4.2 Screen Printing

a. Are all traps and shearing areas guarded or safe by design?

b. On wide rotary or flat printing machines are platforms or walkways available?

c. During screen preparation where lasers, ultra violet or other special light sources are used, are
systems in use to prevent access whilst operations are taking place?
4.3 Dyeing Procedures

a. Where employees are handling hazardous chemicals and dyestuffs are they training and
competent and is such training documented?

b. Are special permits used where employee's need to enter enclosed or confined spaces?

c. Where employees are lifting or pulling heavy wet weights have measurements of effort been

d. Are employees trained in good lifting and handling techniques and are this recorded?

e. Where hazardous substances are pumped into tanks from delivery vehicles are Safe Systems of
Work in operation?

f. When such operations are taking place is a competent person overseeing the delivery?

g. Has a major spillage emergency plan been prepared and are all employees trained and aware?

h. Where hazardous substances are moved in buckets, are colour-coded systems in operations to
assist in preventing mistakes?

I. Is there a safe sampling procedure?

j. Is a documented Safe System available and used for clearing blockages?

k. Is a permit system available and used for entering vessels to clean and carry out maintenance

l. Are formal fault reporting systems in use to cover leaks of steam or other substances?

m. Where batching, winding and automatic feeds are in use, is a documented Safe System
followed which reduces the likelihood of entanglement?

n. Are emergency showers available and tested weekly?

o. Are safe systems of work in place to protect employees from trapped pockets of superheated

p. Are high pressure dyeing machines subject to a written scheme of examination?

q. Are operators trained and instructed in correct operating procedures and the purpose and
function of controls and safety devices?

5.1 Fabric Cutting Machinery

a. Are danger areas clearly marked, and access restricted by barriers, especially at cutting tables?

b. On motorised and automatic cutting tables are warning signals fitted to indicate when blade is
in motion?

c. Where layup machines are in use, are trip guards or other devices in operation to prevent

d. Is the machine fitted with automatic adjustable guards to fully cover the exposed part of the
cutting blade?

e. Are electrical conductors in good condition?

6.1 Sewing Machines

a. Are robust needle guards fitted and used?

b. Has a risk assessment been carried out on the provision of eye guards?

C. Is the lighting adequate and does the light remain on when the motor is switched off e.g. for
safe threading?

d. Does seating allow for good posture and ease of movement?


Risk inspection of textile industry

As name suggests, the purpose of risk inspection is to give existing facts and figures as they are
seen with an intention to evaluate possible risk factors which may potentially cause financial loss
either due to fire or flood and other perils as and when they occur.

Need of risk inspection report:

Report gives a panoramic view of entire lay out design of a textile industry. It shows the possible
ways the risk can trigger. So that necessary preventive steps and required measures can be taken
as to avoid the risk or mitigate the frequency of the risk.

Details of the report:

It gives the information regarding the

(1) Date of the report.

(2) Assessed by whom***

(3) Checked / Validated* by

(4) Location of the industry

(5) Assessment ref no ***

(6) Review date

(7) Premises

(8) Activity

(9) Hazard
(10) Who might be harmed and liability

(11) Existing measures to control the risk

(12) Risk rating

(13) Result

Information to be collected in the report

• Approved block wise civil plan with measurements of each building and distance from
each block etc.

• Details of content of each block

• A brief note on process utilized in the industry

• Fire safety and fire extinguisher system installation on each block and their working
condition, maintenance and utilization

• To check the existing facilities, machinery equipment and technology used in proper
manner or not.

• To collect the name plate details of the transformers, boilers, diesel sets etc

• To take the photos of each block and contents

• To collect the full schedule details of the plant and machinery

 Name plate details

 Year of installation
 Cost of the item.

Significance of risk inspection report:

The risk inspection report is important and significant for two parties

1. Insurer

2. insured

From the point of view of insurer:

• To know the exact state of affairs of the industry as they stand by on that date.

• Insurer needs to know the existing facts to decide the acceptance of risks

• It will determine the potential risk factors and possible aspects of accumulation of risk
compliance with regulations.

• To provide preventive steps and safety measure required by the insured in order to accept
the risk.

• Under rating the risk.

• It helps in determination of the premium rate.

• Special warranties to impose in the contract.

• Goods for stored in open – rating will be higher.

• To know the nature of the material like hazardous.

From the point of view of the insured

• It also gets the panoramic view of its industry.

• It contains the possible ways the risk can occur.

• It contains the information regarding the possible risk factors and preventive management
techniques to avoid the risk.

• To guide the safety measures on a longer term basis


The purpose of risk inspection is to give existing facts and figures as they are seen with an
intention to evaluate possible risk factors which may potentially cause financial loss either due to
fire or flood and other perils as and when they occur.
Report gives a panoramic view of entire lay out design of a textile industry. It shows the possible
ways the risk can trigger. So that necessary preventive steps and required measures can be taken
as to avoid the risk or mitigate the frequency of the risk.

As the report plays an important role for both the insurance company and insured. The
report had to be properly prepared and analyzed.



Problems and Prospects of Textile Industry in India by Mittal publications.

The Complete Book on Textile Processing and Silk Reeling Technology by H.Panda