Sei sulla pagina 1di 49

ffi

DURGAPURPROJECTLIMITED

(A GOVERNMENT OF WESTBENGAL TJNDERTAKING)

SUMMERTRAININGREPORT

DURATIQN:21106/2010TO20/0712010

SI]BMITTED BY.

SANJIVSHOME.

U.ROLL

071230116020

STREAM

ELECTRICALENGG.

.TH

SEM

o.

ID

EE/07 /37

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.

JIS COLLEGEOFENGINEERING,KALYANI.

,!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

THISISA

REPORT

ONTHEVOCATIONAL

TRAINING

ONDURGAPUR

PROJECTS

LIMITED.

DURING THISREPORT

ICANNOT HARDLY

FORGET MR.ANUPGHOSAT

MR.A.KBHATTACHARYA ANDI

{ASSISTANTMANAGER OFTRAINING DEPT.DPL) ,

AM GREATFUL

TOTHEMFORPERMITTING

REPUTED

CONCERN

FORA PERIOD

OF4

THEHEADS AND

TIMEANDCORPORATION

MEUNDERTAKE

TRAINING

INHIS

WEEKS.I ALSOPAYMYGRATITUDE TO

EMPLOYEES OFALLDEPATMENTS FORGIVINGTHEIRVALUABLE

WHICHHELPED

A

LOTINCLARIFYING OURDOUBTS.

3'oyear Electrical Engineering

JISCOLLEGE

OFENGINEERING,

KALYANI.

Inthismodernworldthe dependenceof electricityissomuchthat it

hasbecomea partof life.Therehasbeeneverincreasinguseof electric

powerfor domestic,commercialandindustrialpurposes.Thisis achievedwiththe helpof suitablepowerproducingunits,knownds

powerplantor electricpowergeneratingstation.Thedesignof power plantshouldincorporatetwo importantaspects.

Firstlythe selectionandplacingof necessarypowergenerating

equipmentshouldbesuchsothata maximumreturnwillresultfroma minimumof expenditureoverworkingof lifeof plant.Secondlythe operationof the plantshouldbesuchto providecheapreliableand

continuousservice.

"DURGAPURPROJECTLIMITED"wasestablishedinthe year1950.lt has

onepowerplant,waterworksandcokeovenplant.Ourinterestis regardingthe powerplant.lt has6 runningunitsof total671MW

(300+30+77+77+77+L10=671 ) generationcapacities.

DPL OVERVIEW

Formation:

The Durgapur Project Limited is a govemrnentorganization incorporatedon 6th September,I 96I consisting of coke oven batteries,by-product plant, gas-gndprojec! thermal power plant and water works . It is under the administrative control of the departmentof Power, Govt. of

w.B.

Location:

Theorganization-plants andadministrativeofficesarelocatedwithin 3 km. from Ddrgapur RailwayStationand1km from G.T.Road.

Business:

TheDurgapurProjectsLimited is the first undertakingofthe Stategovt.whichhasbeen engagedin developmentof infrastructurefor industriesandwasgivent}testatureofan "Industry for Induskies".It hashelpedin developmentofvarious large,mediumandsmallscale industries in andaroundDurgapurandotherplaceswithin thestate.

Activities:

1.Gederationof Powerandits distributionat l1 kV in its licensedareain Durgapurand transmissionof supplypowerto WBSEB. 2. Productionof metallurgicalcokeof Blastfumace,foundries,etc.,cokeovengasas industrialfuel andcrudecoaltar availablefrom its recoverytypesof cokeovenbatteries. 3. Treatmentantanddistributionof waterfor drinkingandindustrialuse.

Infrastructure:

Land- l9l0 acrescomprisingof 1060acresforplantand850acresfortownship.

RailwayNetwork-

maintained

Wieghbridgefacility.

Separaterailwayexchangeyard, @COP siding)with railway

o )

Powerplant3

Theorganizationis generalingpowerfrom its sevenpowerunitswith anaggregate capacityof 701M.W.anddistributingto its consumersatvariouscategorieslocatedin its comrnand areasat Durgapurandthereceivedpoweris transmittedtbroughthe WestBengalStateElectricity Board Grid. Thecompanyensuressteadyandunintemrptedsupplyofpower to its consumers.

More facts:

DurgapurProjectsLimited'stotal powergenerationcapacityaftertherecentrenovation andupgradation,todaystandsat401megawatt(MW). It is qngaged in all thethree functionalareasof a powerutility -Generation, TransmissionandDistribution.It generatesanddistributespowerin anunintemrptedmodeat grid frequency.It hasa clusterof six generationunitsof differentcapacities.Thelargestrmit is of I I 0 MW capacityfollowedby threeof 77MW eachandtwo of 30MW each.Two boilersareof B&W, UK make,n'voof B&W, USA make.Theremainingtwo boilersareof Mitsubishi andABL. Exceptoneof BIIEL make,all otherfive generatorsaresuppliedby Siemens. Thecoalinputfor all t}e six unitstakentogetheris 6669tonnesperday.Thepowertariff it offersto all its endusers,is reasonablycheaperthanmanyotherpowerutilities in the country.

Thegrowthin powerin theDPL commandareais aroundi0% perannum,thecurrent demandbeingaround120MW which is about30%of thetotal powergeneration capacityofthe utility. It meetslocaldemandthroughits captivekansmissionand distributionnetworks.

DPL's unit wisepower platrt capacity,Coal input and Availability

:CoalInputMT/D

BoilerMake

iGenerator Make

Availability(%)

Bdw, inaw,

Siemens Siemens Siemens Siemens lSiemens

100

100

MoreaboutDPL

'.1

Durgapur Projects Ltd continuously strives at not only maintaining but improving the qualityof its productsfurther.Water,air andnoisepollution is controlledby sophisticatedequipmentandmonitoredclosely.The processcontrollaboratoriesarefully equippedwith sophisticatedandcomputerizedequipmentssuchCSR , CRI , Gas Chromatographand SpectraPhotometer.

TheEnvironmentLaboratoryhasstate-of+he-artinstrumentssuchasBacteriological testing kits, Ambient air quality testing instruments , Stackmonitoring instrument , Gas analyzers , NoisemeterandNoiseSurreySystems.

Durgapurtodayassumesa significantpositionin the industrialmapof WestBengal.It

hasawhole gamutof manufacturingunits - fiom

steelto powerandfrom cementto

miningmachinery.In the growthandexpansionofthis

Ltd, themulti-utility company,wholly ownedby the WestBengal Government,hasbeen playingapivotalrolesinceearly60s.DPL-setupin 1961-isprimarily apowerutility

organizationbut it hasalreadymadea markin themarketalsoasa manufacturerof world

standardcokefor variousmetallurgicalapplications.It

which is beingsuppliedto theneighbouringdistrict of Kolkata.It producesanotherby-

produc! namely,crudecoaltar.It's rich humanresourcesof450 highly

andprofessionalsbesidesaround5000-trainedworkforce.A ll-member Boardof

Directorsactsasa watchdogofthe organization.

industrialbase,Durgapur projects

alsoproduces cokeovengas,

skilledengineers

DPL todayis a renovatedandupgradedpowerutility. A total of sixunitsof different capacitieshaveanaggregate4I O-megawatt of installedcapacity. After fulfilting total requirementof its commandareacustomers,DPL surpluspowergoes to the WestBengal StateElectricityBoard(WBSEB).DPL is theonly powersupplierwithin Durgapur.

One ofthe biggest advantagesfor DPL to serveits clients is its production facilities being logistically linked with all the t}ree major modesof transportation-rail, road and sea.Besides,Kolkata and Haldia in the qrst, ports like Vishirkhapatnam, Chennaiin the south andMumbai in the west also handleDPL products. Cutting acrossthe states-

from eastto west and south to

north- DPL is also

gearingup to spreadits marketingwingsabroad.Theproposedlist ofcountriesincludes SriLank4Bhutan,Dhakaand Quilon.

To ensurequalityin everyiep ofthe productprocessing,DpL hasa

laboratoryhavingsophisticatedandcomputerizedinstrumentssuchasGSR,CRI,Gas

Cbromatograph,Spectrophotometeretc.Environmentis authorities.TheEnvironmentlaboratoryis equippedwith

well equipped

a key concernto theDpL bacteriological testingkits,

ambientair qualitytestinginstrunients,stack

monitoringinstruments,gas analyzersetc.

Thesprawlingtownshipwithadequate

infrastlucturefacilitiesspeaksfor

for its mostvaluableresources-its emolovees.

Besidesadequateaccommodation facilities,the

companyrunsa hospitalandaneducational institutionto takecareof itsemolovees.

bpl,'s concem

6

THER

n*IAL PO }VER

S.f A"TIO N

produced by a heat engine that transtorms

therrnal energy, often irom c(lnrbustionof a fuer, into

Most tnermal p'lwer

stations produce steam. and these are sDmetirnes callect steam gower stations. Not all

th€nnal energy

thermodynamics.Therefore.there is

power piant is referred to as a

as useful neat, for industrialprocesses or cistric{ neafir'rg.d]e

always heat tostto the environment.lf this loss is employed

can Ile transfornred into mechanical power, according to me secon'f law 6f

In thermal power stations. mechanicai power is

rotatiol'lalenergy.

cogenerationpower plant or cHP (cornbinedheat-and-power)plant. In countrieswhere district

heatingis cornrnon,there are dedicated heat plants calledneat-onlylloiier

tlass of power statiol'lsin the Middie East uses by-productheat fDrthe desalinationof warer

A steam power statlon worl{s on

the heat of coal cornilustionthat

is condensed to he fed Into the

c'Jnvens meci'ianicailyenergiyof turlline int6 eiec-rricenergy. This type of power' stauon is suitahle

where

genefated.

stations,An iinpodant

{i_8.

steam turoineyano

the alternatorwhich

tne Rankin cycle, stearn is proctuced In the boiler hy utilizing

is then expanded in the prime mover

boiler again. The steam turbine drivds

coal anclwater are avail3ble in abundance ancla large amount of electric power is to be

 

Thermal

pourerplant

I

Coal conwaytr

Z

Stoker

3

Pulveri?er

4

Boiler

5

Coal Ash

6

Air praheater

7

Eleclr'oElalic

precipitater

B

Smok*slack

3

Turbine

L0 Candenrer

11 Trsnsforrneys

l? Cooling toweru

!3 General+r

14

HiEh-vdltsge

powar linas

In a thermal power plant. steam is

generator. Shown here is

ol'natural gas as fuel to boil waterto produce the

sentto cor)sumersthrougn high-voltagep'lwer tines.

produced and used to

spin a turbine that operates a

uses coal, oii.

sieam. The eiectricitygenerated atthe plant is

a diagram of a conventionaltl'lertTtalpowerpiani.whicn

Powat

ttatlon

tans

DEHNAnON:

quanddas

now by supplylng

A

fan

can

bc

dafttpd

ona

as

ptaco b

o,

alr & gas

trom

the nud

wnh ',le enctgy

a volum*ftc

machrna

whrch

fika

Fumo

arrofil'.t. tn doing so k ovarco;&'lCEtan"i

n rcssary

fot

c-orrtatncC mot on.

mov.,s

t"

FANS USED IN POWER PLANT Fo/R Bo.'LER HOUSE:

t:

rupply

losras

Fo-read Ora{t,Fan

.''.ndalty

{pra3surtz.C

(F.D fan):- To-tak

at|

tt.c

syst

combqstion

ml orjust

air

from

atmosphGr.

ba

5t2.d

at ambirnt

to

tlinparatur.

rt't tnr

to

atr can

lattrrr

put tfi.

ov.rcom.

lofloi

air In firmrcG

(balanccd draft unlt3).

2. In-ducGdDrart Fan (t.D fan):-

th.

urcd

tr|mrc.

A throlr,

1tt.m int? th.

exc

c. sp.cd

r.ldom

d,

126-2txt c.g

ohry in barancad drart unal' to suck ttra

:ta9!!-Hrndt.s tooor.p.m.

fiy

ash tad.n

gas.i

ga5.5

at ta;p.ratur.

.rJt of

of

3. Primary Atr Fan

mill. Sp

air

d

(p-A fanl:-

Us.d for putv.riz.d

m||r baarings,

systam. Urualy

3tz.d ,or ISOOr,p.m du.

In casa of prassura

conliini

Typlcal

to hlghar prossurc.

4. Saar Alr Fan:-t sed to s.al

typ.

6-. Itnitor

damp.r

pr.33ur.

t460r.p.m.

6. Scannar Atr Fan:{rscd

sp.sd

coar ta.dars

and coar pip.s

ot tan.

alr

t.ltt

ls

a

d€p.nds

- urcd

on th.

to

typr

provrd.

ot arrangcmrnts

nlc

3sary

Fan:

combusdon

ii.tt

arry lgnitor

ls provld.d

3O(Xrr.p.m.

to ttrc rgnitor. A control

crirr-ri'nttai

h

on lhe dlacharg€ wrrlcn mdauliioi-to

cooling

labout 75mm ot w.ct acros3 tgntto, wh,r

to provlda

n.cqs3ary

;;t;;itt;;i;;;

alr to t'ra ,tama scannaf3.

RldrnaradvG

ECONOIdTCS OF FEED

talent and

tcad

haatino

svstam

HEAnN6:

any supe

tt'c ftuid

?at Is may -ui

bcc.rBa

(s|r,am) grvq

GoNDENSATE

SyStE/tt

_ t,

s'E,am is

btcd from

!trr,

a

turbina

is

ancr E

caltaat fegancfa,vQ,

mada up

tE

pos.s.ss

tp e trcatgr,

wo.rtd

systlz,

t|f,at whtch

dJimJiwsc

waspc

to

''rr-

A typical

cond.nsat

syst$

conslgts

0f tha following:-

1.Condenser(lnctuding hot_well)

2. Condensatepumps

3. Air Extracton

4. Gland cooters& L.p.heaterssystem

5. Deaerator

co roE rsER

The functions of condenser are:-

a) To provrde rowest

requtred per unit of electticlty. b) To convert exhaust steam td water reuse

economic heat rejection temperature tor the steam

thus saving on

introducingthe condenser.

Thus savrng on steam

feed warer requlrement.

c) Oeaera6on of make-upwater

{ -l

e

di To form a convenientpointfor introducingmake-upwate.

Coal

tji Electricitv

ft

-a.r

Trcat

m.nt

Plrnt

Tne above crlagramasnamed and pointed as below :

1. Chimney.

2. lD Fan.

3. ESP.

4. FO Fan.

6. PA Fan.

6. SCAPH.

7- Air Pre Heater.

8.

9, Feed Water

to. Primary SH(LTSri). 11- Final SH

12. Platent Stt.

13. Extended Steam Watl

14. Reheater.

15. Super Heated Steam.

16. Cold Reheat Line.

17. Hot Reheat Une.

Ecsnomlzer.

Llne.

18. Boiter Drum -

19.

Down Comrller.

20.

BR Header

2t.

Fumace.

Z2.Bumer

zil. \l/ind

24. ]{ot PA Header.

25. Cotd PA Heacter.

2€. Coal Milt. 2'I . Caal Crusher.

28. Seal Air

29- RC Burner.

30. PC Pipes_

31 . Water Platent-

31. HP Turblne.

33- lP Turhine.

34. LP Turbine-

35. Condenser.

3€- Ejector.

Box.

Fan,

3T.CondensatePump.

39.

Gland Steam Coolers.

39.

LP Heaters.

40.

Deareator.

41.

BollerFeed Pumo.

42.HP Heaters.

43. Makeup Fump.

44. CirculatingWater

Pump.

45.

Water Treatrnent plant.

46.

Confot Structure.

47.

Generator_

44.

HydrogenPlant

49.

Main Transformer

50, Aux. Transformer

51. Alr CircuitBreaker.

52. CoolingTowers.

53. CT Pump.

I

Essential

Equipmerrts

in poril,er Generation

Tulbihe

The conversion ts generaily

accomplasheclby passing tne

fiuadthrough a system

of stationafy

passages or vanes that alternate with

By arranging tne flow. so tnat

rotor turns. and work is Bxtracted.

finlike b'iadesittacneo to a rotor.

on the rotor btades, tne

resting on bearings and

vanes

a steam turbanecoutctbe

complex series of windmill-iike arrangements, alt assemblect on the same snaft.

passages cDnsistingof

a

tangentiai force, or torqu-, is exerted

A steam turlrine coniists of a-rotor

is tumecl by steam

enclosed in a

or blades on which it exerts a force in the

yjeweg as a

Here three types

(i)HighPressureTurbtneiHpt,

(ii)lnterm ediate

(iiilLovy Pressure Turhine{LF,

G€ncrator

G.e-neJatorsdriven hy

shafts. The rotor diameter is

hlgh centrifugalforces produced-

stator houslng illat extends between tne bearings at the two enos.

cylandricalcasing. The rotor

of turbines are used-

PressureTurbine(tp).

impinging agairist auainto

tangentlal direction. inus

high-speed steam turbines are almDst

usuatly limiterl to a maximum of

always constructed wiul horizontai

aglut one meter because of the

within a ctosed cytinclrlcai

ny-dyorogrn

HigrFspeedgenerators areiniroieo

Tney arJ .ooiio

gas circulatingwitrtinthe veqy',largegenerators are

This is a synchronousgeneratof-

Transformer

housing and also

rrequenttythrough cluctswithin the stator conduerors.

tnroirgn tne stator and rotor conductors.

cooled by circulatingwaier

Device that tEnsfers electric energy from one

clrcults, elther

change voltage through etectromagneticinductioruJf

builrJup and collapse with the cn-nges in current

altemating-cuffent clrcuit to one or more otner

{step-pingclown)the vonage. Transformers

tines of ,orce (flux unes)

increasing.{stepping

up) or reducing

pdssing tnrouln tne primiryioil,'lune.rt

uonaiu is

*-*:.

;ifletc

induced in anouler coil, called.the

:19-q113.y

tums in the primary

Circuat braaFer

A clrcult breaker is an

circu.itfrom

conditlonand,

which operates once

or automaticallyJto resume normal

small devlces that protect

protect high vottage cifcuitsfeeding an ertife city_

i,

voltage hy the ratio of seConoary. -Ih-1:econgiiv

coit, a quantity caflectthe turn's ratio.

automaticallFoperated

calcutatedhy multiptying

the number or turns rn ine ieTondary coit to the number ot

clesignedto protect an eiectricat

function is to detect a rautt

electricalflow. unlike

a fuse,

be reset (either manualy

in varyangsizes, from

to

electrical swltch

damage caused oy ovlrtdao or short circuit. rts nJs'i

by Interruptingcontinuity,to

and then

immediately discontinue

has to tie reptaced,a circuit nreaxJi can

operation. circuit breakers are made

an inc,ivicluitnousehoto apprraniJuplo-trrg"

switcng';Jide;rjnea

TYPES OF CIRCUITBREAKER lvlany different classifications of

voltage class, constructiontype, interupting type, and structurai features.

circuit breakers can

be made, hased

on thelr features such as

1, Alr CircultBrcaker

2.

Alr btast CircuitBreaker

3,

Tanktype ButkOit CircuitBreaker

4. MinimumOitCircuitBreaker

5,

6,

7,

Sulphur Hexaftuoricte{SF6} CircuitBreai<er

Vacuum CircuitBrealcer. Low Voltage European Circuit Breaker

Coofno

Tow€rs:

Ail

tfiermal power piants produce waste

neat as a byproduct of the

usetut electricat energy

some large fosiil

at

evaporation of water

in

the tmage

cooling rowers

power ptants.

{nuclear

producecl.

fuel -fired

the

left)

Natural dr_^ajtwgt,gooling towers at nuctear power plants anct at

power plants_ use

lalge

hypErtrotic cnimney-lii(e

(as

to the ambienf atmosphere oy'ure

structures

that release the waste ne#

seen

However, the mechanical Induced-draftor

force+draft wit

the right) in many

large.tnermalpower ptants.

petrocnemiial

plants use fans to provicte air movernent

chiftney-like

iiovter left image).

ias s"-en in tl|e lmage to

fossii fired power piants. petroleum refineries,

waste to energy

ancl are nol hype.boljc

typically rectangular. box-like structures

upflowing air and

In areas witn restricted water uie

necessaly'

evaporative cooling

consumption in fans than

where- economicalfy and

water from the ocean, or a iake rrr

type

ano

upward thiough

io6ting rowers ara

filled with a material that enhances the coniacting of the

do,r/ncoming water

plants, geotrrermir,'lriomass

sffuctures- The inducect or rorce+orEft

consequences

of

have

lower

efficiencf

fl1edownflowing datef.

cost

a dry

cooling tower or radlator. dlrecfly air cooled. may be

ontaining make-up water for

energl/

since the

or environrnental

woulcl he

prohibitive. These

inc

nifnur

a wet. evapo(ative cooiing tou/er-

environmentaltypossibte. etectric companies prerer to use

rivef, or

acooling

cost of a cooting towei

looring

planfs

heat

coogng

pond, instead of ;

bno may nave lorrverene-rgy costs for

iewer. This

exchangers. Hcwever, tne wasie heat can

cletectably. P*orryerptants ustng natural bodies of

of coollng can save the

pumping

cDoiing water through fte

cause-the

water for cooling must be designed to prevent intake of brganisms into the cofitingitiie.

Generator Transform€r

Regarding to physical size of lines capacity are increased.

transformers incrsase the produce,:

it seems the unique

voltage of nationat grid.

temperature of the water to rise.

national power systerns,

oy

usJhg or

vditage of -6ign piwer

rate 6f power excnange and transmission

G[nnorogy.

step up or generator

voitage

in griAi powlJr pilnts. Tnerefore

tunction of these traniformers is the increasing-of generatoi voltage equat to

gerGrator!

But as you know. in small and individual

related power distribution system) the generator transiormers'are

Intefface stage

pow€r

and

used as thd electromagnetc

system the

voitage, ttiererore output of generator may be

systems

(e.g.

industrial

power

ptant

between g.enerator ano

powe_r clistributionsystem- tn this mentioned

transrnission anci distriilut,on

used directy in distribution system

voltage is'rfiedium

-

Coal mlll

I

A

by

dominates

provides the

Raw coal is fed rBtating grincting

forces the coal outward

grinding rollers- Grinding load.

roller assemtllles,nolds the rollers in

as

of

nozzle ring openlngs to be scraped into a re1ectsnoppjr. A sveam of low-veiociryatr carrtes

pulverized coaLfired boiler is an inclustrial or.utillty h.uming putverized coal (also known as po\fldereo

througn a lentral ioat inlet at fte

table,

mixing with classifier rejects

the depth of tfie coal loacl increases

the grinding ring feeds prirnary airto

boller fl'lat

generates thermal energy

This type of boiler

coal

coat or coat dust)

targe

tne electric power industry. providing steam to ctrive

thermal energy which produces

turbines, pulverized

elecfric supply.

about 5oo/oof ffre worlo'i

top or tne pulJerizer

andfalls by gravriy to the

centrifugat action

returneb for re-grinding.

lo tlle. grinding ring wnere it is putverized h;twee;

trinsmitieo rrom the tensioh

contact_wimme grinding

nng

or decreases. A noz]zle

the putverizer pyritei-Jno

the nng and three

rods through the lo;dlng irame to the

The roilers adjustverticalry

ring on the outside perimeter

trarnp rnetat fa1 through the

rn

|.+d

LA,/

ts-.

n

Itr-

:''t

h-{

V

F.t

ia

iE

I

Uq

n

+\\

.'rl

lir

rJ

Fnl

/a

'Y1fi-.' \J.,

,ffi

1

,1'l

'

.Q

liar'

.hr-

.(F't'

,FT

\.J

;Fl " t

J

,f$,':'

f-t

$D s.

O,

H

td

r

?

o

n

rl

-J_

t

./;l

l--n;*-.*"*

'Jl

{l

J.

!i

!'

-*l

I

L.,

***I,.

'i

I

I

t.--.

-/1

r.'--

",,*

1

"."

,,,.*

,

.t

I

; j

j

tl

tl

\.

.\

I I "jti

'\

I

I

I

, I i'.fl tr-*-+,-.-1

I

I

# l',,,i1

J l"i-Jl

i

'i

.,.i

;

li*i

ri'l

rt

r-.-".--.-*i--

!1',

ttl

/

,i;l

,'

.,''|'i

lll

t\

,i'**\

.r'

):-L

,il:\

i.l\

J\

,,"

r*.*T-_-_-r

t

.1".t.^"''

-

-r

\'-r-

i'

""--'--l--

,/

;.

2

,l

iii

|

'-.*_,'

i

'r

i-*{-',

. ,.i.", ,,".

-**1

,r".

-

:',

.

l,-

,.,.

:'r'l

.rl

a.-.'

i

l

I

i

'.,|

i

|

|

a

Thesteamgenerating plant consistsof

equipment for theutilization of fuel gases.

boilerfor production of steamandotherauxiliary

.

BOILER A boileris anindispensabie part

of a thermalpowerplant. In a boiler,we burnthe

makethewaterto superheated steam.

ve.y trigrrspeed.Fromboiler,

coalto

Thenthis steamis usedto rotatetheturbinJiotor into

steampasses throughsuperheater, economizer, andair pre-lreater andthen passes through

chimney to atmosphere.

produce heatenergy. Thisheatenergywill

I.nDyepur

descrintion-

Project Limited,therearesixboilers.Hereistheunit

nDuon-

wlse

boiler

Description Unit I

Bolier

Make

Babcock

& Wilcox,

UK

Coal

(Mr/D)

504

Unit 2

Unit 3

Babcock

Babcock

& Wilcox,

9,

E

UK

Wilcox,

UK

504

t'260

Unit 4

Babcock

&

Wilcox,

UK

t260

Unit5

Ir4itsubishi ABL

Unit 6

1293

1848

o

SUPERHEATER

rnt tGutnp,oGd

in

theutiter is wet andis passed througha superheater where

to

it is divided provides two

muchcondensation in

through the main valve.

andsuperheated by theflue

gases on_theiiway

chimney. Superheater

increased. s"rorrJiy

too

principal benefitsfirstly, theoveralleffrciency is

thelaststagesis avoided.Thesuperheater steamis fedto tr-ubine

ECONOMISEB

it

.

is basicallya heatchanger by which thetemperature of

feedwater,coming

from high

the saturation temperatue.

economizer beforesupplying to theboilir. gasto increasethe feed water temperature.

pressure heateris increasedto the saturatioi temferature or

slightly lessthan

corresponding to the drum pressure. The fed water is fed to

Theeconomizer extracts apart of heatof flue

r

AIRPREHEATER

An

t

airpreheater increasesthetemperature of

theairsupplied for coalburningby

by a forcedraughtfan

deriving heatfromfluegasses.Air

andispassed throughairpreheater supplyirlgto

tie.at {rgm nut gut.i

principle benefitsof heatingtheair

capacityper sq.meterof boilersurface.

is or?v1nfromtheut-orpt

boilernrmJce.Theairpreheater "r. exracts

coalcombustion. The

andincreases thetemperature of air usedfor

increaJedthermalefficiency andincreasedsteam

o STEAM TURBINE

t:tffXY}:.:^:4i]yv

ofttr;steamisfirstconverred

intokineticenergyis

ffi;

n,

j'"-Jj "

:::'l:: :: ?l g: tf :"q1 ruj err, velocitysteamfailsontrre.-ilffi

r,

universally usedasprimemovers in all steampowerplants.

o

ALTtrRNATQR

t')

t?

3

i^

Thesteam turbineis

of turbine

the busbar through transfornilr circuit

coupledt.

analtcrnat.r. '[-he alternator con'crts 'ttrc

Lreakers and isorators. D'

intoelectricd tncrgy.

mechanicar energy

clectricot outpuirr-o'i

(ESp)

a.i]iililem

thealternators iscielivercd to

pratetvpeof erecrrosraric

components of an

fromeachorher.Thefirsrset

carteacollecring erectrodes

er.ctroaes coisists

of wires,

eachpairpararel

;up;rared from

"

ELECTRO.ITATIC.prrECrprT.{TOR

Thereis variou gat

tl"*[iiui."r.

precipitator is very usefurasit

electrostatic

gau."99y",efficien;;."n;tn"ipr.

".;;;i;i;il oni

precipitator aretrvoset.s of electroderinrluiu,lJ

of

tscomposed

between which

calledthedischarge or emitrin! erectrodes rhar.are

rowsof electricallvgrounded

aredustladengasi" n"*r.'n.

,.iJf

particles arecoil"tt"J in rtrecotte.,irrg.r.rirodes andger

".";;;;i"cked

*i?#:.ash

SPECIFICATION OF E.S.P.

IN EACH SERIES

NOOr'etrarrrenpr-are

vtl

NOOFTBANSpOnrvfEn

TRAFO RECTIFIER sET

DCVO[-T(KV CURRENT(AI\4pS l, pH,q.S H o,

voL17m

4*6

6*I

n4?7 A

ot-HA 43180

360,157

49.45, l. 148

. BOILER FEED ptjt\tP

B4_IED PowER(K

REVOLUTION PER MINUTE

UENCY(HZ PHASE(

STATOR

-*

INSULATION-CLASS

RO'foR

EFFICIENCY h% POWER FACTOR(COS TOTAL WEIGHT (KC

MANUFACTURED Bi

HINLANDM

4, 6600v,400 A

RREL CAGE

t3

i^

A

'l

. INDUCED DRAUGHTFANI

RATEDPOWER REVOLUTIONPERMINUTE

FREQUENqY(HZ),Pr{ASE(0)

RATEDVOLTAGE(VOLT)

RATEDCURRENT(AMP)

RATTNG

INSULATIONCLASS

DU'1'Y

ALT

AMBIENTTEMPERATURE

MANUF

CTIJREDBY

.

FORCEDDRAUGHTFAN:

RATEDCURRENT (AMP

-

RATEDPOWER,PHASE(6)

REVOLUI'IONPERMINUTE

POWERFAC'|OR

MANUFAC']-I.JREDBY

r EI-ECTRIC OIL HEATER:

TYPE

SERIALNO

NO OF ELEMENTS

POWER(Kw)

BATED VOLTAGE(voLr)

lFrArE (0)

MANUFAC'ruREDBY

671.4KW / 900HP

740

-50, 03

6600

1A

,a

MCR

F

st,cD (MOTOR)

1000M

C

CI{OIviF'|ON GREAVES

.+)

^a

6600

375KW/ 5m HP.03

988

0.8

BHEt,

INDIREC'T t -84.6C1-0S I

ti0

60

440

03

PENNWALT

INDOAT

LIMI'TED

I

t4

ALTERNATOR

A'c' generators areusuallyca'ed

generators, Rotating machines that rotatesat a

thenumber

alternators .lhey arealsocalledsynchronous

speedfixed by the supplyfrequency

of poles arecalled synchronous machines.

and

goNSrRUCrIoN

:.

similar to theother rotating

machines, an alternator consists of fwo main

is generated. rire

namely' thestatorandrotor' Thesltor is

armature windins in which

fr:,T;rfi*. rheiotorir tr'

parts

thestationu.y port orthe machine. It carriesthe

butput

of themachineis

taken

thevoltage

olutinJi;; ortn. -*rri,,* il.,oro,produces rhemain

l.wucrroN

Thevariouspattt oFth"Gl*clude

theframe, statorcore,statorwi'dings

cooling arrangemen!.

steeltypefor

thestatorcoreis

Theframernuyu. or castironfor'small

and

sizemachinesandwelded

largesizemachines. In

orderto.reduce hysieresis andeddycrurentlosses

assembred witrrhilrr giadesilicon .on*ni *."r laminations.

2. tgro4

"r,,"*HTl,T#:

coNsrRACrroN

tvpts.Ft6Gristruction namelv, thesalientporetypeand

Theterm salGnt il

orprojecting' Thus,asalientpole

:.*::**':,9,-",::3:T3;'y".i;"d;#."J:b;;*fi :tJiffiffi:"

)olesnroiecrinonrr+ffJ::::lfc

andoperateatlowerspeed,o it

and operate

at lower

generators. lindrical rotor

sneerl sn ir dri'o-

ariu"n d;Jilffi;

L'

r,,^+^- !--L:

rotorconsists .f

;ff;"':::,ff;,orpores

mescalled hydro alternators or hydro

A

constructed

or

turbine' cylindrical

Themachines arebu't in iit"*u.i

In thisplantcylindrical rotortyp. uri

cylindrical rotormachine isalsocalledanonsalientpore.rotor

thatit formsa

cylinder. Thecylindi.ui roto,

fourpoles ontherotor.cylindrical

lmooth

machine.It hasitsrotor

lvpe

alternator hasrwo

steamor gas

rotortypeaiternators aredrivenby

rotorfypealternators aracalledturboalternator or turbogenerator.

from to Mv,ito

nrors "ii^rings

over1500MVA.

a{eusedfor generation.

*

Excitation *"*ip-tffii

bypassing curent in thefield winding.In for excitation.

this plant

therearetwo typesof system used

r) D.C.SYSTEM

Direct current is machine' D'c' is

suppliedcurrent by a smaller D.c. generator caltedlilot

exciters

required to excitethe

field_winding on the rotor of the

uy u o"!"n"raiol

supplied to therotorfield

synchronous

cdteo exciter. Ths exciter

exciter. Themainandpilot

aremounted on the main siaft of ,fr" alternator.

2)A.C.SYSTEM

is

\>

+

Therearetwo typesof ac excitation

excitation

excitation is

transformer.

system. Rotating system:this

exciteranduncontrolled

is a high frequency

rectifier. static

system'pennanent magnetpilot

generator fed staticexcitation system with controlled rectifierandrectifier

* coqLING SYSTEM

In thisplant coolingis

donein unit1and2 by

air.Theclosedcircuitairclosed

generator hasshaftmountedfansfor aremountedin thehotduct.rn caseof

horizontal hydrogengas coolersareaxially *o*t"j'on

casing.

circulation unaiori"ontur watercooledair coolers

unit

3,4,5 hy;;;;;;';oo[ng

isdone.Four

ti;i;p

halfof thegenerator

\6

B

I}

SPECIFICATION OFALTERNATORS

r UNIT NO 1&2 ALTERNATER

RATEDVOLTAGE

RATEDCURRENT

BASEMVA

PFIASE

SPEED

FREQTJENCY

POWERFACTOR

EXCITATION

CONNECTION MANUFACTURED BY

. UNIT NO3&4&5 ALTERNATER

RATEDVOLTAGE

RATEDCURRENT

BASEMVA

POWERFACTOR

EXCITATION

r1000v+-7.5%V

3440A

37.5MVA

I

J

3000R.P.M

5OHz

0.8

205VOLT! ,408Amp YY

bNUHLISH ELECTRIC

11000V+-75%V

4650t4600t4330/3940A

88.sI81.5t82.5/7s.0MVA

3000R.P.M

0.87l0.88/0.8/0.9

381/3721384/366Volts,665 I 650I670I 640

FORF]2COOLING

MANUFACTURED BY

e UNIT NO 6 ALTERNATER

.I'\TDtr

L

LL

L

RATiNG HYDROGEN PRESSUREE(AlI\d)

APARENT O/P(KVA)

ACTTVEo1P(Kw)

POWERFACTOR(COSd) RATEpVOLTAGE(VOLT) RATEDCURRENT(AMPS) REVOLUTION PERMTNUTE FREQUENCY(HZ) PHASECONNECTION GENERATEI{TERMINAL

MANUFACTURED BY

1.05/1.05/0.5/0.065 KG/CM

t

TGP234260t2H

UUNI INIOUS

2

137.500

I IU,UUU

0.8LAG

I 1000

220

3000

50

YY

o

SIMENS

'l

TRANSFORITER

r INTRODUCTION:

A transformerisastaticdevicewhichconsistsof

twoormorestationaryelectric

circuits'Interlinkedbyacommonmagneticcircuitforthepurpose of transferringelectrical

energybetweenthem.Thetransfersof changein frequency.

energyfromonecircuittoanothertakesplacewithouta

r CORB

Thetransformercoreisaclosedmagneticcircuitthroughthemutualflux

i.e,theflux

whichlinkswithboththervindingpasses.Thecorematerialandconstructionshouldbesuch

thatboththemagnetizingcurrentandthecoretossebareminimum.Thecoresof

arelaminatedinordertoreduceeddycurrentlosses.Thelaminationsaregenerallymadeupof

0.33-0.5mmthick.Theselaminationsaremadeof

containing3-5%silicon.Thesteelusedfortransformersaregenerallyhotroilerjorcoldrolled.

Butin recentyearscoldrolledsteelispreferredoverhotrolledasit

densitiesuptoabout1.8wb/mz.

transformers

thesocalledtransformirgradesteel

allowsmuchmorEflux

. BUSHINGS

Transformersareconnectedto

higltvoltagelines,and,therefore,caremustbetakento

theearlhedbanks.Thebushingconsists

porcelaincftinO.1.

carryingpart.The

rhrough

preventflashoverfromthehighvoltageconnectionto

of

installedin a holein thetransforrnercoverandusedfor isolatingthecurint

simplestbushingis a

itscentre.Thisbushingis

havingvoltagesabove36KV areeitheroil filled orcapacitorfype.

acurrertcanyingpartin theformof aconductingrod,busorcable,a

molded,highqualityglazedporcelain insulatorwitha.onju.ioi

used {or voltagesupto33KV.Thebushingsusedfor transformers

. TAP CI{ANGER

Thevoltageof

power-networks suppliedbytransformerscanbecontrolledby changing

ratioof transformationcanbe

turnsatanothertap.Thetappingsmaybe

calledofi-circuittap

occasion;ladjustments,asin distribution

energizedor onload.

theratioof transformationof thetransformers.Thechangein

affectedby providingtappingsonthetransformerwindings.Ihetappingsareconnections

provided atdifferentplacesin thewindingsandtherefore,thenumberof tumsincludedin the

circuitatonetapis differentfromthenumberof

changedwhenthetransformerisdisconnectedfromthesupply.Thisis

changing.Theoff-circuittapchangingisusedfor

transformers.Thetappingscanalsobe.changedwhilethetransiormeris

Thisisknownason loadtapchanger.- FERRANTI TAP CHANGER GEAR:

NO,OFPOSITION RESISTOERVALUE SUPPLYTO MOTOR OIL QUANTITY:

SWITCHCOMPONENT GEARBOX WEIGHT(EMPTY) TOTAI.,WEIGHT MANUFACTURED BY

.

T7

0.855c2

230V.

382LTR,(330KG)

137LTR,(l lSKG)

715KC

ll63KG

SIEMENS

t8

t0

o

COOLING

th" ttansflo.merisa staticdevicewhichconvertsenergyatonevoltagelevelto another

voltagelevel'Duringthisprocessof

of

dissipatedto thesurroundings.Forthisemissionof heat,coolingbecomesnecessaryin transformers.

energytransfer.lossesoccurinthewindinesandcore

thetransformer.Theselossesappearasheat.Theheatdevelopedin thetrans-formersis

tq

Thedifferenttypesof coolinginvolvedin transformersare:

l. Oil naturalairnatural. 2.Oil naturalairforced. 3.Oil naturalwaterforced. 4.Forcedcirculationof oil. a)Oil forcedAir natural. b)Oil forcedAir forced. c)Oil forcedWaterforced.

WINDTNGS Theanangementaswell asconstructionof

.

transformersvariesin shellandcoretype

coilsshapedin

coils.h,achhigh

windingsisprefenedfor

transformers.Shelltypetransformersusesandwichtypeof windingwith

pancakes.In thatcaseL.V.andH.V.windingsaresplitupintoanumberof

voltagecoilisplacedbetweentwo lowvoltagecoils.Thissubdivisionof H.V andL.V coil

givesa benercouplingbetweenthetwowindings.Concentrictypeof

coretypeof transformers.Eachlimbiswoundwithagroupof coilsconsistingof bothprimary

andsecondarywindingswhichareconcentricto eachother.

ll It

r

GENERATINGTRANSFOBJVIERFORUNIT(l&2)

KVA RATING (KVA)

RATEDVOLTAGE(ATNO LOAD)KV)

HV

LV

SIDE

SIDE

IMPEDANCEVOLTAGEAT 75"C

CONNECTION SYMBOL

FREQUENCY

37s00

r32

6rv

f,v

I I .IO%AT ABOVERATING

Yndl

50Hz

WEIGHT OF CORE& WINDING(tones) TOTAL WEIGHT (tones) 66

QUANTITY OF Oll(gallons)

JJ

4048

MANUFACTUREDBY

Thereisareactorthatlimitsthefaultcunent.Theratingof thereactoris6.6KV. It is

usedfor feeding6.6KV fortheplant.

ENGLISHELECTRICCOLTD.

19

.

GENERATINGTRANSFORMERFOR UNIT(3&5)

a

MVA RATING (MVA) RATEDVOLTAGE(ATNO LOAD)KV)

42.559.585

TIVSIDE

t32

lcv

LV SIDE

II

KV

LINE CURRENT(Amns)

 

HV

SIDE

372.22

 

LV

SIDE

4679.3

CONNECTIONSYMBOL

Yndl

FREOUENCY

5OHz

TYPEOFCOOLING

ONAN.ONAF.OFAF

TEMPARATURERiSEOiL("C)

40

TEMPARATURERISEWINDINGflC)

55

MANUFACTUREDBY

B.I{.E.L.

 

r GENERATING TRANSFONMN,N FOR UNIT 4

KVA RATING KVA) RATEDVOLTAGE(ATNO LOADXKV)

HV

SIDE

LV

SIDE

LINECURRENT(Amos)

85000

t

an

L)Z

:'

Kv

ll KV

FIVSIDE

372

LV

SIDE

4680

CONNECTIONSYMBOL

Yndl

FREOUENCY,

5}Hz

TYPEOI"-COOLING

oFw

2l

t1,

EARTHING TRANSFSRMER

RATEDVOLTAGE (V)

FREQUENCY (HZ) NO OFPHASE(0) CONNECTION ON SYIV{BOLS TYPE OF COOLING

TOTALMASS(KG) VOLUMEOFINSULATINGOIL (LTR) INSULATIONLAVEL RATEDSHORTTIME CURRENT& DURATION(AMPS, SEC) ZEROSEQUENCEIMPEDENCE MANUFACTUREDBY

3</