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mle oats) Martin Podges deat de Acknowledgements The authors and publishers wish to thank the following persons and institutions for their invaluable contribution to the development of this publication and for permission to reproduce material: * The United States Agency for International Development (USAID), for funding the project. This Materials Development Project formed part of the Tertiary Education Linkages Project (TELP) which focused on capacity building at Historically Disadvantaged Technikons through the establishment of linkages with universities in the United States of America. * Contributors and moderators from the following South African institutions: Mangosuthu Technikon, ML Sultan Technikon, Peninsula Technikon, Technikon Eastern Cape, Technikon Northern Gauteng, Technikon Southern Africa. + Contributors and moderators from the United States University Consortium comprising Howard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Clark Atlanta University, and North Carolina A&T State University. * The Motorola Corporation, Atlanta, USA, for permission to reproduce the data sheets on pages 75, 85, 86, 89, 180-182 and 200-201. Various people have been involved in the development of this book, and I would like to thank them for their invaluable contributions: Jan Hattingh (Bothurpe Hellerman) for supplying photographs of the instruments on pages 2, 3, 8, 19, 20, 21 and 197; Abrie Michau and Pam Pike (TSA); and all my colleagues at Eastern Cape Technikon for their support with this project. } Martin Podges First published 1999 © Juta & Co, Ltd 1999 PO Box 14373, Kenwyn 7790 ISBN 0 7021 5214 5 This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. In terms of the Copyright Act 98 of 1978, no part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording. or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher. Illustrator: Hugh Lane, Malick Abarder Book design: Designworx Typesetting: AN dtp Services Cover design: Pumphaus Design Studio Printed and bound in South Africa by The Rustica Press, Ndabeni, Western Cape Dee Contents Note to the student ix ee ee | Outcomes 1 L1__Introduetion 2 L2__Multimeters 2 1.2.1 Analog multimeters 2 1.2.2 Digital multimeters 3 Basic operation 3 & Voltage measurements 3 & Current measurements 4 ®& Resistance measurements 4 & Range selection 5 & Comparison 6 Activity If 7 1.3 Oscilloscopes 8 1.3.1 Basic operation 8 > Cathode ray tube (CRT) > The sweep generator 10 b& The vertical attenuator and vertical amplifier TZ b Triggering 12 1.3.2 Oscilloscope measurements Is & Voltage (ac and de) 15 Period or frequency 16 1.3.3 Setting up an oscilloscope 17 Activity L2 19 1.4 Function generators 19 Activity 1.3 20 1.5 The de power supply 20 Activity 1.4 22 L6__Breadboards 4. Activity 15 23 1.7 Summary 23 Selfevaluation 00 Answers. 27