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USTER® AFIS PRO

Measurement Principle
Test Results
Measurement Principle

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 2
Modules
• Nep Classification
• Fiber neps and seed coat neps
• Count and size distribution
• Length and Maturity
• Length by weight and by number
• Short fiber content
• Maturity ratio
• Immature fiber content
• Trash
• Dust
• Trash
• Total foreign matter
• AutoJet

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 3
Measurement Principle:
Fiber Individualizer

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 4
Measurement Principle:
Optical sensors/detectors

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 5
Measurement Principle

• Fiber individualizer separates the cotton


sample into three main components:

Lint Trash Dust


Fibers, short trash, dust, fiber fragments,
fibers, neps, very large seed coats with
seed coat little or no attached fibers
neps

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 6
Measurement Principle

• The nep module is able to distinguish


between neps and seed coat neps
• Each event (fiber, nep, SCN, ) has its own
distinct electrical waveform
• Each samples waveform is compared to a
standard waveform to determine which
classification it most resembles

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 7
Measurement Principle

Voltage U

Nep signal

Fiber signal

Time t

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 8
Measurement Principle
6

5
AREA

3 PEAK VOLTAGE

2 THRESHOLD VOLTAGE

1 TIME OF FLIGHT

-1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 9
Measurement Principle
Length & nep measurement
• Optical system
• Single fiber measurement
• Measured with an opto-electronic sensor
• Fiber creates signal/impulse  converted to an
electrical signal  analyzed and evaluated by
computer

Trash & dust measurement


• Separate sensor
• Same measurement principle as for the length &
nep measurement

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 10
Nep Module
Seed Coat Nep
Measures:
 Fiber neps and
seed coat neps
 Count and size
distribution

Fiber Nep
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 11
Nep Module

• Fiber Neps
 entanglements of several fibers
 generated under mechanical treatment of the cotton
fibers during harvesting, ginning, opening and
cleaning in the spinning mill
 amount depends on the cotton origin/variety and
harvesting method
 neps are mainly reduced in carding and combing
 amount of reduction depends on the machinery
performance and the quality the spinning mill wants
to achieve
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 12
Nep Module

• Seed Coat Neps


 fragments of cottonseed that still have some
fibers attached
 created mainly in ginning, when the fibers are
separated from the seed
 amount depends on the quality and the
aggressiveness of the ginning process
 removal in carding is very difficult, since the
attached fibers tend to stick with the process

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 13
Nep results

Data Product:
 Nep Cnt/ g – Nep Count
 Nep [m] – Nep Size
 SCN Cnt/ g – Seed Coat Nep Count
 SCN [m] - Size
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 14
Nep Classification Histogram

Nep Count per gram


Size
(m)

Distribution of
fiber neps (dark)
and seed coat neps
(shaded) by size (m)

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 15
Nep Module
• Ranges of Neps and Seed Coat Neps in Raw
Cotton (Upland)

Neps / gram Seed Coat Neps/ Description


gram
< 100 < 10 Very low
101 – 200 11 – 20 Low
201 – 300 21 – 30 Medium
301 – 450 31 – 40 High
> 451 > 41 Very high

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 16
Length Module
Meaning and significance of fiber length:
 Fiber length is one of the most important
characteristics of cotton
 Defines the spinnability of the fiber
 Basis for cotton trading
 AFIS length measurement targeted towards
process control of spinning mill

USTER® AFIS measurements:


 Length by weight and by number in [in] or
[mm]
 Summary table and histograms
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 17
Length Module
• Difference between by number and by
weight measurement

(n) “by number” (w) “by weight”

4 fibers = 100% 4 fibers = 300 g = 100%

2 short fibers = 50% 2 short fibers = 100g = 33%

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 18
Length Module
• Difference between by number and by weight
measurement
2 Systems

Europe USA

Johannsen-Zweigle Suter-Webb

by number by weight

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 19
Length Module
Comparison of the length systems
"by number" "by weight"
Measured Calculated
Biased towards the longer
Shows the true fiber length
fibers. Longer fibers "weigh"
distribution in the sample
more than shorter fibers
Short and long fibers are Result is looking "better" than
treated equally the "by number" results.
 used by mills that are used
 gives more accurate to the results of the comb
sorter array methods such as
results for the optimization of
the Suter-Webb-Array
the processes in spinning  UQL is close to the
classer’s staple

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 20
Length Measurement

Length by weight Length by number

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 21
Length Measurement: Data Product
Length distribution by weight:

L (w) Mean length (weight) of the fibers in the sample


L (w) CV [%] Variation of the fiber length around average (weight) [%]
SFC (w) [%] Short Fiber Content in [%] of all fibers below 0.50 inches or
12.7 mm (weight)
UQL (w) Upper Quartile Length (weight); length of the longer 5% of
all fibers in the sample

Length distribution by number:

L (n) Mean length (number) of the fibers in the sample


L (n) CV [%] Variation of the fiber length around average (number) [%]
SFC (n) [%] Short Fiber Content in [%] of all fibers below 0.50 inches or
12.7 mm (number)
L (n) 5% The 5% Length (number); length of the longer 5% of all
fibers (number)
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 22
Length Measurement
• Graphic representation of the length values in the
staple diagram

Fiber length

Short fiber content SFC (n, w)


L2,5%(n) L5%(n)

UQL(w) L (n,w)

L½"

0% 25% 50% 100%

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 23
Length (w) Report

L(n) Length (w)


[in]

Distribution of fiber
length (dark) and
short fiber content
(shaded) by weight

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 24
Length (n) Report

L(n) Length (w)


[in]

Distribution of fiber
length (dark) and
short fiber content
(shaded) by number

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 25
Length Module:
Short Fiber Content
• Cotton length is determined by variety
• first length development, then development of the
walls
 initially, the fibers have more or less the same
length
 length is reduced with any mechanical
treatment (harvesting, ginning, opening,
cleaning)
• mainly reduced at combing
• control of the SFC very important for the spinning
performance and the yarn quality

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 26
Length Module
• Ranges of Short Fiber Content (w) and (n)
in Raw Cotton (Upland)

Short Fiber Short Fiber Description


Content (number) Content (weight)
< 18 <5 Very low
19 – 23 6–8 Low
24 – 28 9 – 11 Medium
29 – 33 12 – 14 High
> 34 > 15 Very high

* For long staple cottons, other values apply. The differences


are smaller.

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 27
Maturity Module

Measures:

• Maturity ratio
• Fineness
• Immature Fiber Content
• Summary table and histograms

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 28
Fiber Maturity
After length development, cellulose is deposited inside
the hollow fiber:
 fiber is maturing
 maturity = degree of cell wall thickness
= amount of cellulose inside the fiber

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 29
Fiber Maturity
 Calculation of the fiber maturity

Perimeter P Perimeter P

Lumen

Area A1 Area A2

To calculate the mean degree of thickening theta, a


circular cross-section of the measured fiber having a
perimeter P is calculated, and subsequently area A1 is
divided by area A2.

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 30
Fiber Maturity
 Calculation of the fiber maturity
Example
Cumulative percent Theta Frequency

Mature
fibers (R)

Thinwalled
fibers

Immature
fiber
content (IFC)

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 31
Fiber Maturity
 Calculation of the fiber maturity

For this example, the following apply:

Mature fiber content R = 37.6%

Immature fiber content IFC = 10.3%

Maturity (according to Lord):

R - IFC 37.6  10.3


M  0.7   0.7  0.83
200 200

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 32
Fiber Maturity Measurement
• AFIS measures the fiber shape

• Each fiber is measured from two different angles by


the optical sensor

• Depending on the shape, cotton fibers are divided


into:
• Fully mature - typical convolutions of a mature
fiber
• Immature - less obvious convolutions, more flat
• Dead - no convolutions, completely flat, “ribbon
like”

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 33
Immature Fiber Content

• IFC = Immature Fiber Content


Percent of all fibers within a cotton sample that
have a cell wall thickness  25% of the full area

• Effects of immature fibers


 Dyestuff is deposited in the cellulose
 immature fibers: no cellulose for the dyestuff to
remain

 color differences, barré, white specs!

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 34
Fiber Maturity Measurement
Convolution of mature cotton fibers

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 35
Fiber Maturity Measurement
Cross-section of mature cotton fibers

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 36
Fiber Maturity Measurement
Mature and immature cotton fibers

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 37
Fiber Maturity Measurement
Immature cotton fibers

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 38
Fiber Maturity Measurement
Immature fiber nep in the fabric (shiny nep)

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 39
Fiber Fineness [mtex]

• Determined optically by analyzing the fiber shape


passing the sensors

• Algorithm determines fineness based on the shape


and form of the fibers and their specific weight

• Mature fibers contain more cellulose  heavier

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 40
Fiber Maturity
Medium perimeter & Large perimeter &
“fairly mature” “well mature”

Small perimeter & Medium perimeter &


“fairly mature” “less mature”
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 41
Maturity Measurement

Data Product:
Fine mtex Fineness [millitex]
IFC [%] Immature Fiber Content [%]
Mat Ratio Maturity Ratio [%]

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 42
Maturity Report

Maturity [%]

Distribution of fiber
cell wall thickness
(dark) and immature
fiber content (shaded)

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 43
Fineness Report

Fineness [%]
[mtex]

Distribution of fiber
fineness (mtex)

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 44
Maturity Module
• Ranges of Maturity, IFC and Fineness in
Raw Cotton (Upland)
Maturity Ratio Immature Fineness Description
Fiber Content
(%) (mtex)

< 0.75 <6 < 150 Very low


0.76 – 0.85 6–8 151 – 160 Low
0.86 – 0.90 9 – 11 161 – 170 Medium
0.91 – 0.95 12 – 14 171 – 180 High
> 0.95 > 15 > 180 Very high

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 45
Trash Module
Measures:
• Dust particles smaller than 500 microns
• Trash particles larger than 500 microns
• Summary table and histograms
• Count and size distribution

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 46
Trash Module
• Definition Trash:
 “foreign” particles, i.e. not related to any
physical properties of cotton fibers.

ITMF
Definition

Dust Trash

Respirable Micro
Dust Dust Dust Trash

15 20 500 Particle
Size [m]

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 47
Trash Module

Data Product:
Total Cnt/ g Count of all particles per gram
Mean Size Mean size of all particles [m]
Dust Cnt/ g Dust particle count per gram
Trash Cnt/ g Trash particle count per gram
VFM [%] Visible Foreign Matter [% by weight]
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 48
Trash Module: Trash Report

Size Particle Count per Gram


[m]

Dust

Trash Distribution of dust (dark)


and trash (shaded)
by size (m)

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 49
Trash Module
• Ranges of Trash, Dust Content and
Visible Foreign Matter in Raw Cotton
(Upland)
Trash Count/ g Dust Count/ g V.F.M.% Description
< 25 < 200 < 0.60 Very low
26 – 75 201 – 350 0.61 – 1.20 Low
76 – 110 351 – 600 1.21 – 2.30 Medium
111 – 150 601 – 1000 2.31 – 3.00 High
> 151 > 1001 > 3.01 Very high

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 50
Trash Module
• The amount of trash / dust particles in raw
cotton depends highly on:
• origin of the cotton
• harvesting method
• soil conditions

• The amount of trash / dust particles in cotton


in the processes in the spinning mill depends
highly on:
• the performance of the machinery
• suction systems

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/AFIS 51