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Proyekto sa


Kalvin D. Cruz

VI – Rizal Mr. Medillo

Asekswal – paghahalaman na di ginangamitan ng buto

Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation widely used
in agriculture and horticulture where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse
with those of another. It is most commonly used for the propagation
of trees and shrubs grown commercially.

Grafting Method

Chip Grafts

 Chip grafting requires only one bud on a shield-shaped scion cut from the desired
plant. This small piece of dormant wood slips into a T-shaped cut in the bark of the host
tree's branch. As the graft heals and the bud grows, the farmer prunes back competing
growth until the scion dominates the tree.

Side Graft

 In the side graft, cutting a single diagonal slice into the stalk of a small plant opens a
wound in the host stem but leaves the host top in place. A branch of the scion trimmed
to a wedge fits tightly into the wound and the two plants join as the injury heals. Cutting
the original top forces the plant to nourish the new scion.

Whip Grafts

 One of the most important grafts for commercial orchards, the whip graft joins scion
wood to young saplings already dug from nursery ground and destined for transplanting.
Workers select rootstocks and scions of nearly the same diameter and slice each with
matching diagonal cuts. Plants begin healing the graft even before being transplanted to
permanent sites.

Cleft Grafts

 Cleft grafting replaces the top of a maturing tree with the scion wood of a more
desirable cultivar. Cutting the trunk above nurse branches provides a site for the graft
without killing the tree. Splitting the trunk carefully opens a wedge-shaped gap and
scions trimmed to fit slip into the split. When the grafts grow vigorously, workers prune
back the nurse branches.

Bridge Grafts

 Valuable fruit trees girdled by machinery damage or by browsing animals may

recover if "bandaged" with a bridge graft. A small branch of the same tree trimmed to
slip into a bark slit above and below the wound allows sap to flow across the girdled
wood. Several bridges might be required to save the tree. Gradually new bark covers
the open wound.
A cutting is a vegetative plant part which is severed from the parent
plant in order to regenerate itself, thereby forming a whole new

Method in Cutting
Stem Cuttings
Numerous plant species are propagated by stem cuttings. Some can be taken at any time of the
year, but stem cuttings of many woody plants must be taken in the fall or in the dormant season.

Tip Cuttings
Detach a 2 to 6-inch piece of stem, including the terminal bud. Make the cut just below a node.
Remove lower leaves that would touch or be below the medium. Dip the stem in rooting
hormone if desired. Gently tap the end of the cutting to remove excess hormone. Insert the
cutting deeply enough into the media to support itself. At least one node must be below the

Medial Cuttings
Make the first cut just above a node, and the second cut just above a node 2 to 6 inches down the
stem. Prepare and insert the cutting as you would a tip cutting. Be sure to position right side up.
Axial buds are always above leaves.
Cane Cuttings
Cut cane-like stems into sections containing one or two eyes, or nodes. Dust ends with fungicide
or activated charcoal. Allow to dry several hours. Lay horizontally with about half of the cutting
below the media surface, eye facing upward. Cane cuttings are usually potted when roots and
new shoots appear but new shoots from dracaena and croton are often cut off and re-rooted in

Heel Cutting
This method uses stock material with woody stems efficiently. Make a shield-shaped cut about
halfway through the wood around a leaf and axial bud. Insert the shield horizontally into the
Leaf Cuttings
Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for a few indoor plants. Leaves of most plants will
either produce a few roots but no plant, or just decay.
Root Cuttings
Root cuttings are usually taken from 2 to 3 year old plants during their dormant season when
they have a large carbohydrate supply. Root cuttings of some species produce new shoots, which
then form their own root systems, while root cuttings of other plants develop root systems before
producing new shoots


Marcotting (or air layering) can be easily performed with less skill.

Air layering is just slightly different from other methods of layering such as
tip layering, simple layering, compound or serpentine layering, etc. In all
these methods, the induction of root development is done by wounding the
part of the plant to be rooted.

The difference is that in marcotting, roots are induced to form on the aerial
part of the plant (stem) while in other layering methods the stem is rooted
on the ground.

Propagation in Marcotting

1. Plant and Shoot Selection

A shoot with plenty of leaves is chosen from a healthy plant. The size of the
stem at the part to be rooted is generally about that of an ordinary pencil,
but this is not essential. Both the thickness and length of the stem vary
depending on the plant part to be layered (trunk, branch or twig), the
intended size of the air layer or marcot to be produced, and the plant

In roses, air layers are normally thinner. In herbaceous plants like

aglaonema and dieffenbachia, the stem used in marcotting is always thicker.

2. Girdling and Scraping

This procedure is skipped in bamboo. For trees, shrubs and semi-woody

plants, a strip of bark is first removed from around the portion of the stem
to be rooted. This involves pressing of a sharp knife against the bark
preferably as close as possible below a node, moving the knife in circular
motion around the stem. A similar cut is made generally about 2 cm to 5 cm
below the first cut, but it can be wider with larger stems. The two cuts are
then connected by a straight cut and the bark is pried loose and removed.

The debarked portion of the stem is then scraped to remove the phloem and
cambium, that slippery coating on the wood, to prevent the wound from
healing and the upper and lower barks from reconnecting.

3. Slitting and Wedging

In herbaceous plants, a slanting upward cut is made up to the middle of the

stem at the portion where the node is located. To prevent healing, a
sphagnum moss, coir dust or a piece of wood is inserted into the wound to
serve as wedge.

4. Placing and Securing the Rooting Medium

A slightly moistened sphagnum moss or coconut coir dust is placed around

the debarked stem and wrapped with a piece of plastic sheet. A transparent
plastic sheet is preferred to be able to see later if roots have developed. In
many plant species, however, the stems can be marcotted even with pure

The rooting medium may be as thick as 1 inch (2.5 cm) from side to side or
bigger depending on the earliness to develop roots and size of the stem. The
longer is the time required to induce rooting and the bigger is the stem, the
thicker should be the rooting medium.

Both ends of the plastic sheet are gathered and tied securely against the
stem, with one end just under the bottom part of the debarked stem (lower
cut) and the other a short distance above the upper part (upper cut). It is
important that the upper cut should be covered with the rooting medium
because it is from this cut that roots develop

As an alternative, the plastic sheet may be placed first on the stem with one
end tied just below the lower cut. The rooting medium is then inserted
gradually and the upper end of the plastic wrapping is tied securely to the
stem. This technique is more convenient and applies with any rooting
medium which crumbles if not held by the hand.

To prevent breaking of stems with big and heavy rooting medium, it is tied
to another branch or to a stick attached to the parent plant.

In stems which are more or less erect, the rooting medium can be held by
any container such as broken or halved pots, cans or plastic cups with open
top. For big containers, a support is needed to prevent them from dropping.

A container can be made also with a relatively thick plastic sheet with the
bottom gathered and tied just below the lower cut and the top is expanded
to form a shape like that of a funnel. The sides are overlapped and stapled.

In plants which easily root like Ficus and croton, this funnel-shaped
container can be made out of some thick leaves. The sides are secured in
place by piercing with a stick. The container is then filled with rooting
medium which is kept moist by regular watering.

5. Separation of the Air Layer or Marcot From the Parent Plant

The rooted shoots are severed from the parent plant when plenty of roots
have developed. At this time the rooting medium becomes hard and rough
when touched. New shoots will also have sprouted from the portion of the
stem immediately below the rooting medium. In many plant species this
occurs at least 15 days from marcotting.

6. Potting

The marcotted shoot is immediately potted into suitable container. The

intensity of care that will ensure the successful establishment of the layers
will depend on various factors such as size of the shoot, size of the rooting
medium, and profuseness of roots. For maximum survival, the newly potted
layers are kept under partial shade and high humidity.
By actually doing it, you will realize very shortly that marcotting is easy.


Budding is a form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism grows on another

one. The new organism remains attached as it grows, separating from the parent
organism only when it is mature. Since the reproduction is asexual, the newly created
organism is a clone and is genetically identical to the parent organism.


Layering is a means of plant propagation in which a portion of an

aerial stem grow roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an
independent plant. Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative
propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by
horticulturists to propagate desirable plants


Ground layering

Ground layering is the typical propagation technique for the popular Malling-
Merton series2 of clonal apple rootstocks in which the original plants are set in the
ground with the stem nearly horizontal, which forces side buds to grow upward. After
these are started the original stem is buried up to the tip. At the end of the growing
season, the side branches will have rooted, and can be separated while the plant is
dormant. Some of these will be used for grafting rootstocks, and some can be reused in
the nursery for the next growing season's crop.

Air layering

In air layering (or marcotting), the target region is wounded and then surrounded in a
moisture-retaining wrapper such as sphagnum moss, which is further surrounded in a
moisture barrier such aspolyethylene film. Rooting hormone is often applied to
encourage the wounded region to grow roots. When sufficient roots have grown from
the wound, the stem from the parent plant is removed and planted.

Propagation in Layering

Simple layering is accomplished by bending and covering branches (except

the tip, which must be kept uncovered to maintain circulation) with soil and
holding them in place with pegs or stones until rooted. In a modified form of
this method the stems are laid in shallow trenches prior to anchoring or
pegging. The branches are often twisted, scraped, cut, or otherwise slightly
wounded on the under side at the points where rooting is desired to
encourage the quick formation of roots.

Compound layering, also known as serpentine layering, consists of

bending flexible stems in a series of curves along the ground so that the
"down" sections or "troughs" are in contact with and covered by soil and the
"up" parts or "crests" are exposed. Otherwise this method is the same as
simple layering.

Continuous layering works by burying whole branches, except the tips, of

plants that readily produce roots.