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Γιαννης Σκαριμπας - Το 1821 και η αληθεια

Γιαννης Σκαριμπας - Το 1821 και η αληθεια

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rIANNHL LKAPIMI1AL

TO 1821

KAI H AAH8EIA

naVVlJ~ LxaQL!1lta~

Th:AO~: To 1821 XaL lJ aA~8ELa © 1995 KAKTOL

EKLlOLEIL KAKTOL

OLl YLLEAL XATZOnOY AOL & LIA O.E. IIavEJlwTlJ"uOlJ 46

A8~va 106 78, TlJA. 38.40.524 - 38.44.458, Fax: 33.03.098

CACTUS EDITIONS

ODYSSEAS HATZOPOULOS & Co. 46 Panepistimiou Str., 106 78

KAKT01:

Av 0 uovo; oxaxo; nov a;t1;'£l wv xono xavet; va y£vv1](}t:f, eivtu 1] A. e V T £ Q l a, xai f.ta).,l~ Y£VV1](}t:f TOV T1]V vno(}1]x£vaOVv ta a v f.t cp E Q 0 v T a, ti aMO TOV anoutve: av aXl 1] enavdotaon;

MEragv oovAEia~ xca oovAEia~ Ocv Vna(}XEl xauuui Otatpooa. ME TO va xaueu; uiav exovaataon »a axottvdlieu; to ~vyo, OcV exaue; tixota. To '21 avro exaiu: To va f-lfJv gavaEf-lnEaEl~ oe ~vyo - avro eivai enavdataon.

(0 ovyyocupeac)

To ()avl-w 'WV '21 Ocv iYXElTat aT'f] aT(}aTlWTlxrj rjrra T'f]~ TOV(}Xla~ -It(}aYl-w EVXO).,WTE()O -aMa aTO (W~ EX ()avf,laTO~) aWaLf,lO TOV ana T'f]V EX()(}OT'f]Ta TWV XOTCaf,lnaa'f]OWv, TWV).,OY{Wv1 xai TOV JO.rj(}ov.

o xara f.10VOV to YEVO~ xcu to ()(pjaxEVf.1a rov OlacpEQWV eivai EVa~ aylO~, unoo; arov xara f.10VO to «xaxeotnuevo» rov OlacpEQovra.

- 01 ToVQXOI Ocv noa» 01 XElQOrcQOl ... 0 EM'fjVlXO~ AaO~ Oc ()aXaVE tnv enavaotoon via V' axoxataotnoei xat noAtrlXa rov~ XOr~af.1naa'fjOE~. 01 UYOvrE~ oa 'fj Exavaotaon ljrav f.10110V E()VlXlj, lj eivai aOla/3aarol, lj OE tuu; UVE tnv aAlj()Ela. 2xorwvovra~ rov~ Tocoxoo; lj£EQE oti oxorWVEI to a v f.1 f.1 a X 0 rwv xor~af.1naa'fjOwv. XWQ{~ rov cupavtouo nQwra avrovvov, OEV f.1nOQaE va £EnarWVE rov~ aMov~. To ott a 'avro 'fj Exavaotaan YEAaar'fjXE, Ocv naeivaxei OIOAOV ott rov~ Ecpda()'fj. ea rov~ nEQvaE EV otouau f.1axa{Qa~. To oti VOf.1WE oti via toino dXE xalQO, avro tnv EcpaYE ... HEn a va a t a o n a nor v X E ...

Ta 0150 Eixooteva

To Eixoaieva, ono»; TO giQOV/-lE ueoa ana T'f]V En{a'f]/-l'f] WTOQlxrj naQaooa'f], /-lOla~El tu: T' avaotoauuevo EfOWAo nov fJAinov/-lE va xa()Qccpn1;ETal ota ()a/-lna vEQa uuu; Afuvn«. Eivcu fJifJata 'f] iota etxova, ua ooouevn ana T'f]V avanoo'f]. Tta va vvoioiae: xaveu; T' aA'f]()lvo Eixoouva nQinEl va axvl/JEl navw a' aMa xeiueva, a' exeiva nov nQoETO{uaoav TO onxonui, a' aVTa nov YQacpT'f]Xav ooo fJQovraYE TO xaQvocpVMl sa datocapte TO ytarayavl xat ot ' anouvn/-lOVEV/-laTa TWV aywvWTWV - TOV MaxQvYlaVV'fj, TOV Kaao/-loVA'f], TOV KOAOXOTQWV'f], TOV cfJwTaxov, TOV l:nvQO/-lrjAlov, TOV IIEQQatfJoV, TOV l:n'f]AlaO'f] xat ToawvaMwv.

L1vo rjTav ta Eixooieva: To iva TOV Aaov xai TWV nLO nQooOcvTIXWV aV()Qwnwv EXEfVOV TOV xatoot), TO aMo TWV XOT~a/-lnaa'f]owv xcu TWV nOAlTlXavr'f]Owv. Tov noono» Ol Ql1;Es avrAovvE TOVs XV/-lovs TOVs ana ta «zl ixaia TOV av()Qwnov» TOV Prjya BcAEaTlvArj, navw ot ' aMO nicpTEl fJaQVs 0 ioxio; T'f]s «IIaTQlxrjs L1loaaxaAfas» TOV MaxaouoTaTOV IIaTQlaQX'f] T'f]s Ay{as IIoA'f]s IEQovaaArj/-l KVQAv(){/-lOV - rj nLO ooxrta TOV rQ'f/YoQ{ov.

H EAEU8EQLa 1:WV o:n:aboov "UUl:; XU~EQVT]OT]~ bEY ELvaL amo-bT]JlOxQa1:La,

IlT]JlOxQa1:La ELVaL to &xaLwJla

1:WV aV1:UPQoVOVvtWV va OXE:n:1:0V1:aL bLacpoQE1:LXU.

MIIAPMIlYL

1.

T'Y]V Iorootc tOU '21 CEV 8a t'Y] YQ<ltpW ~E~aLa EAOYOU !-lOU. 0 tanELva unoqxuvouevoc (OUVta1;LOVxO~ EXtEAwvtat~~ XaL - taxa - AOYOtEXV'Y]~, ouv XLoAa~ ... anaQao'Y]!-lo~) E1; acpoQ!-l~~ tWV OOWV (EnL t'Y] lS0-EtLa tOU) OE co1;ao'Y] XaL tL!-l'Y]O~ tou YQacpOVtaL XaL uxouovnn, XaL OE owaQt'Y]o'Y] !-lE t'Y]v «mLnEC'Y]V» aAA'Y]V ... £YXEXQL!-lEV'Y] roue IOtaQLa, va (CLa t'Y]~ !-lE8ocou tWV «naAL!-l1!J'Y]OtWv» *) E!-lcpaVLOW 8EA'Y]oa, note, xatw coto tOU '21 to xOAAaQLO!-la, EL-

* I1aAIJlljJ'l']01:a: OVOJlaOLa 1:WV aQxaLwv, ml :n:amJQwv ~ :n:EQyaJlT]voov, XELQOYQucpwv, om onotc T] aQXLx~ YQacp~ (JlE a:n:o~T]oT] ~ mlo1:QwoT]) acpavlG1:T]XE, xm YQUCPT]XE :n:avw 1:T]~ YEO XELJlEVO - ouv~8w~ xaAoYEQLXU 1:Qo:n:uQLa, ~ AT]Q~Jlam. H maVEJlcpavLOT] 1:T]£ aQXLx~~ YQacp~~ om :n:aALW4JT]Om (Jl:n:OQEL XEIJlEVa AQXa1wv ooqxov ~ otpoqxov rou AvaxQEOV1:a) :n:E1:UxaLVE1:aL JlE JlLa VEOO1:EQT] a:n:o~T]oT], EI1:E JlE XT]JlLXa JlEOa ~ JlE 1:T]V XQT]GlJlO:n:OLT]OT] 1:WV aX1:LVWV tou PEV1:YXEV. 'E1:Gl, avaM8T]xav - ~ava - 01:0 CPWt; :n:OAAU ceto 1:T]V, YLa nrrvtn a:n:oAEOJlEVT], aQxala Jla£ rQaJlJla1:Ela.

17

rIANNI-n: LKAPIMI1A2:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

vm ... lJ aAlJSLvij aAijSELa 'tlJ~ aAijSELa~! Kru amij Elvm noM nLO Evbo~lJ xm yijLVlJ coto ... LOU~ unEQSE'tLXO'lJ~ rcov E:rtLSErcov, To «to cmoubmo'tEQo YEYOVO~ a'tlJv Iorooto 'tlJ~ ... A YY Ala~ ij'tav lJ U A 00 a lJ r lJ ~ B a a 't l A Alj ~», unooouoe va ELnooSEl: «ornv IaLOQla LOU avSQdmou - E ( v u t t 0 '21». IIQuYllaLL, «nors rooo nOAu Al yOL bEY xUllavE YLa rooo nOAAou~ roco nOAAu» oco OL EAAaN 'tE~.

~. Eva bE1rtEQO ~L~AlO 1l0U, nou onoo~ cpal VELm Sa xuXAocpoQijaEL oro snousvo E'tO~, ouvonuxn xm 'taxunooaQlj Sa SEaoo - EXEl - rnv EAAElnouaa 'tQl'tlJ bLua'taaij LOU - toov LOU ~uSou~ ... <l>o~ullm Olloo~ OLL OL AOYLdna'tOL, Il' EXEl vouc ... LOU~ aXUAOu~ rorv cpoovoYQacpoov rtou nAUl LOU~ EXOUV v' oxouv (lla~L. ) 'tOV KUQLO LOU~, Sa 1l0U QLXLOW IlE «QELmVlE~» xm E:rtlQQijlla'ta, (J)~ ... avSUYlW~ -!lOU-- aXE:rt't0IlEVOU! Mljbu OL ESvaIlUV'tOQE~ rnrtot aou AEVE LO Yla'tl; ~'tExov'tm va ... Ila~ aVOl~OUV rn a'tQa~u Ila~; AU'tOl ~lAUV xa't' auSEvnov xm oou unrrvtrrv ... ~E YEVLXO'tlj'tE~!. .. «~laa'tQEcpEl~ mv laLOQLxijv aAijSElav EX nQoSEaEoo~, blU va unoLlllijalj~ LO MnaAElov 'tlj~ IIa'tQlbo~. (IIEQlxaAw; ... ) MUX'tlJQl~El~ 'tljV aUIl~oAijV MEYUA(J)V avbQwv, El~ LOV unEQ 'tlj~ EAEUSEQla~ aywva turv EAAijvooV. <l>umxu, blU va LO XUIlVlJ~ EXEl~ 'tOU~ AOYOU~ oou, E:rtlbLWXEL~ mv blu~Q(J)mv rcov UYlW~ - ljllWV - oxearouevrov ... ».

- ... IIEQLxaAw;

- ~E ana~LOullEv anav'tijaEoo~, lva ~lj dnoollEv n XdQov

nou Sa aou nQEnEl!. ..

Kca 'tQa~uv tou YLa ~ljlloxQa'tla ... xm aa~nuvLa, YLa lao'tlj'ta xm POA~-POU~ ... l¥OCPUVE yLa «~ij'too LO ESVO~» xm corcxoix, YLa «xcrco OL nAljQooIlEVOL» xru yLa xa~LuQL ...

Ma, YLa va IlE Oeoouv Exnobwv, bE CP't U VEL 'to «nl-

a'tEUE Ila~ xm Illj EQEuva». ~E CP'tUVEL lj «cero xaSEbQa~» xQoualj 'tOU xwboovo~, xm 'to «Aero; sqxrl» onOLOU XL av etvoi, To SElla nou SE'too nUEL nOAu mo llaxQUtEQa, ano 'tlj~ aaljllo'tlj'tU~ 1l0U LO «OUtoo~ ij UAAoo~». IIuEL a'tL~ '\j1EmollaQ'tUQlE~ xm rnv ayxuAooalj, nou XUVOUVE aULOl ornv Iorootc. IIuEL a'tijv ayuQ'tEla xm 'tlJv xanijAEUalj rorv UYLooV 'tOL~ aYlOL~ Ila~ = LOU 'tQln'tuxou: IIa'tQlfu, 8Qljaxda, aLXOYEVELa ... Touc ~UIlE OLL Ila~ Elvm aVa~LOnLa'tOL ...

Toix xa'tljyoQullE xm LOU~ AEIlE: AE'tE '\j1Ella'ta - bEY Elvci cuto LO '21: To IIa'tQLaQXElo LO acpoQLaE. Oi nQoxQL'tOL xm OL IEQuQXE~ LO xAEuaaav. a Kanobla'tQLa~ LOU yUQLaE LL~ nAu'tE~ LOU. a KOQaij~ «Ila~» LO IlUX'tijQLaE. a Kuouv't~U~, 0 MauQoxoQbuLO~ xm 0 IYVULLO~, 'to ~E:rtOUAayav, oroix ~EVOU~. XWQLa OL N EYQljbE~ xm OL KooAE't'tljbE~, xwQLa 0 KLOU'taxij~ XL 0 IllnQa4-tlj~. H xa'ta'tQEIlUQa LOU bE AEYE'tm ...

B vet abwaLO (xcu uaXE'ta nQo~ LO LbEOAOYLXO LOU auyYQacpEa) va ~ljv ayavaX'tuEL xavEl~ &a~u~ov'ta~ LOV xOQuqxuo IaLOQLxo Ila~, YLa LO avayxaaLLAlxL nou mv unijyaYE tnv «IaLOQla 'tOU EAAljVLXOU ESVOU~», LbLal'tEQa ore XECPUAma YLa LO oanobUQLxO aXUAOAOL, YLa mv '\j1wQa 'tljV cpavaQLW'tLXlj xm LOU~ AOYLOU~ 'tlj~ «~LaanoQu~» xm YLa LOV KAijQO. Bpioxetru IlnQo~ oe IlLa aua'tljllanxij xa'tabuvuoteuon 'tlJ~ xaxOIlOLQlj~ 'tlj~ aAijSELa~, oe IlLa «xovro« - vaLOUQLXlj» bLaAExLLxij LOU '21.

IatoQLOYQuCPOL '\j1Emo- TUXLtOL, ayvoljVt~ijbE~ ij '\j1EUtUbE~, naVljYUQLatE~ xm bO~OAOYOL, «bo~anatQlbE~ xm bEXUQLXOL» atauQoxonijtE~ xm MUXUOU~EV~, AEUtEQaVt~ijbE~ xm «XUQLEA.ElJbE~» xm oAm oorov «yaatQoQQayouvE» rc atO~UXLa tOU~ ceto to ayanUtE aAA ijAou~ xrn ... tL~ yaQlbE~

18

19

rIANNID: l:KAPIMIIA1:

TO 1821 KAI H AAH9EIA

(OL oanOCaQOL tLe; tQEAAaivam) rtou: « ... aCELaaav tnv notQica XaL tl]V EAE'U8EQia tl]e; tooo, nou xaJ,ua <poQa, SEOe; a'UYXWQEaEL flae;, uioouooue XaL tl]V natQica XaL tnv EAE'U- 8EQia ... ».*

ME to va mv naQLatavo'Uv rnv EAAl]VLX~ EnaVaataal] aav nQa~l] E~WAa'ix~ XaL E~WEAAl]VLX~ ( ... to onotov: OtL tl]v naQaaXEuaaav EAOYO'U roucl) ueuovouv mv a'UtOCuvafl l] a~ia tl]e;, YLa va roix AoyaQLa~01)flE aWt~QEe;. To orvriqxxo - OAWV mrtorv - «xatEatl]flEvo» roix, rotx xova va flLAav tl]v iCLa yAwaaa ... A; ~EQO'UV OtL flae; EiVaL ava~LOmatOL.

~EV <ptaVEL - oxrts. ~EV <ptaVEL - 0XL - l] «oetot VLa» ~ to «OYLa OQE!», rou BEAl]yxExa ... Sa XQELaatEL nQOl]YO'UflEvwe; va flO'll nouv av (XaL non) nAaVWflaL ~ ljJE'lJflatL~w. KaL rots, 8a ELflaL rou; otn cLa8Eal].

'Eroi, 0XL us to «1jJ l] A a ta X E Q t n!» onwe; amoi, fla ue ornv xaQCLa tovo uou XEQL, XaL ue t.' aAAO uou, to rcoraVO xQatWvtae; - uou - XEQaXL, 8a nQo~w OflnQOe; orou; tlflLO'Ue; XaL roix AEUtEQO'Ue; YLa to aXOALO uovonrrtuxt tl]e; aA~8Elae;.

Sa Ei Val rponov u va, onv va 'UnEQEn£l YOVto aXL tOaQLouo tl]e; <p'lJmoyvwfliae; rou '21, onwe; uuto (XaL a'Ut~) uo'u EXEL EtXOVLatEl flEaa oro nVEufla uou aav 'Val Q'UaxL nou naEL XaLOUflEVO nl]cwvtaoto, stoi on <pAoya flnaQomLou nou naEL flE aaA roue ...

To «'tpEUtLXO onv avaxOLvw8EV» ELVaL aCEQ<paxL tl]e; IatoQlae;.

«oooi CE ~o'UA~aOVtaL tWV re YEVOflEVWV to aa<pEe; oxo-

nElV XaL tWV flEAAovtWV nore au8Le; xata to av8Qwmvov tOLOUtWV XaL naQanAl]alwv EaEa8aL, w<pEALfla XQlVELV ama, aQxOWtWe; E~EL»

So'Ux'UbLco'U Ioroouov A', 22.

Av CE, mOtE'tpEL xavEle; tOY TIwA BaAEQu, «l] LatoQia EiVal to mo EJtLXl VC'Uvo ceto oAa tu nQo'iovta rou Xl]flLXOU EQyaatl]Qio'U tou av8Qwmvo'U fl'UaAou. ~LEYElQEL ru oVELQa, Cl]Al]tl]QLa~EL tn E8vl], YEvva ornv 1p'lJX~ rou; OtQE~AEe; flV~flEe;, yL yaVtwVEL, flEXQLe; 'UnEQ~OA ~e;, tLe; aVtLCQaoELe; roix, avoiYEL tLe; naALEe; nAl]YEe; rou e; , rc OtEQcL ceto to nVEUfla tl]e; ELQ~Vl]e; XaL tc flnOALa~EL us flEYaAOflaVla XaL flavia xotaCLW~EWe;». 'Eroi, 8a nw Xl EYW: OmE l] naVOUXAa, OUtE l] aQanO~AOYLa xaflaVE roco xoxo ornv av8Qwnotl]ta ooo OL LOtOQLXOl XaL l] Iorootc ...

TOUto'U, mXQ~, mXQotatl] va naQw - socoou - nElQa.

MLa AEJttOflEQELa, ~ Eva nEQLOtatLXO OAWe; aa~flavtO, us nQo~Al]flatL~E XaL u.' EQlXVE os OXE'tpl] ... TL AEEL rnrro; tL va EVVOEl; TOtE, avaaUQovtae; to aav nt'llX~, mrto floU aVOLYOtaV we; a'UAala. H nQLv axovo uou ~E8wQLa~E orrv to nOQtQalto tou Ntoourv rXQE'U ... M n Q E! ... XL EtQL~ ta flatLa uou ... H «NEa PWfll]» flOU xaxaVL~E ... 0 MWci!lE8 0 B' flOU EYEAOUOE ... ME tou Boonooou rc XUflata, uou OtEAVav XaLQEtlOflata OL A'UtOXQatoQLXOL «~lxE<paAOL» - flE <pEm!. .. 'QOtE rnrto ~tav to B'U~avtLO; Ki am~ l] TIoAl] rou flaQflaQWflEvo'U BamAla - naAflOl XaL OVELQO tou E8vo'Ue;; H <l>lAlX~ Etruoeto, OL XOt~aflnaOl]CEe;, OL flEyaAOL ClEQfll]VEle;, OL Oonoooooc; Exavo to nQoe; tOY TIana<pAEoaa «E~WAEOtatE!» tl VOl]fla ELXE; n08' EQXOtaV; K' OL tpUAAOL, flOUflnaLVaV at' a<ptla ...

* 9avos; qJLALXOS;, JtEQLObLitO «~T]l.UOUQY(ES;», l:EUXO; 11-12, MUQ1:l]S;- AJtQlAl]S; 1971.

20

21

rIANNID.: ~KAPIMrrAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHElEIA

'E,w~ nou, ~EOaV't~~ ore XEQLa ~O'U XU3toW'U 0'U~~a8l]'t~ ~O'U Eva 'tE'tQabw, bLaj3aoa 010 ~La oEAiba - EXEl - «Ex8EOEWV» roirto tn (YLa ~Eva rots) ~'UO't~QLa AOYLa:

- 'taQLXE'U~EVl] - O'tL~ LOCPLE~ 'to'U~, OU'tE ~E~ oto QaytubLxa xaAL~~aUxLa toix Xat 'ta cpEma. Ot KOQa~bE~, OL Ka3toblO'tQLOL, OL Ivvrmo, 'to ;oQxL~av, OL L\Eo3tO'tubE~ 'to acpoQi~av. Oi bE AOYlona'tOl 'tl]~ - 'tuxa2 - bLa03tOQU~, Eixav ~E 'tL~ «EAAl'\VLXOUQE~» 'to'U~ va XU~VO'Uv ... (Iluocxcnovre; 8a rc 3tOU~E ... ).

A'U'tU, W~ 3tQo~ a'U'tu. To «EV reo YLyvw8at» 20 f3lf3Aio uou, va 'to 't'Umbow AEw 010 xuva XQovo. Tur to 3taQov, rou'to ~0'U 'to 'taxma'tO ~EAE'tl]~a, a~ 3taQ8Ei ouv Eva~ XatQE'tlo~o~ oro '21. ME 'to xa'tEf3ao~a 'tl]~ oxoucpLa~ !l0'U (oxoucpla~ EVOU a A 0 Y 1 O'U a3tAoEAAl]va) va rou f3Qov'tocpwv~ow (Xl EYcb!) Eva ~~'tw: ZHTQ LOY - 8a tou 3tW - 'to '21 rtov EAA~vwv! ZHTQ A8uva'tE AaE rou MaQa8cbva xat 'tl]~ Ilrvoou!

«TIQuy~a'tL, EX'tO~ tou AVW'tEQO'U xA~Qo'U, tou 03tOLO'U 'to Eywta'tlXOV O'U~CPEQOV ~'to v' a3toAaUlj 'tl]~ E'UVoia~ rou bL~avio'U, ~iXE ~oQCPw8~ Xat XU3tOla aQlo'toxQa'tia, l]~ to ~EAl], sqxnvovro Al]a~ovow'ta EV 'tl] E'U~aQELa rou f3i0'U, 'to bva'tUxl]!la 'tll~ a3ta'tQia~... 'Horrv ourot OL <I>avaQLcb'tat EV Kcovorovn vo'U3tOAEl Xat OL 3tQOt'XOV'tE~ (xo't~a~3tUal]bE~) EV 'tl] AOL3t~ EAAUbl, UV8QW3tOL, o~WC; 'tOLaml]e; cp~~l]e;, cocre OL a'U~3ta'tQlcb'tEe; rrov 'tOue; wvo~a~ov Xpurnrrvotouoxoix». Kat 3taQaxu'tw: « ... XElQo'tEQa aXEbov uxououoiv OL 'tQEle; 3tEQll]Yl]'tai 3taQu nvoc 'EAAl]voe; l'\yE~oVO~: Ti 8EAE'tE; toix a3tOxQivE'tat 0 a;Lo'tL~O~ ouroc, 't'UQayvcb Xat yv~vcbvw 'tOY Aaov, bLU va aQEaw Et; 'to blf3UVL Xat va bla'tl]Qcb 'to xEcpuAl ~O'U». *

'Euave ~E 'to orouc avOLX'to... 'Htrrv qxrveoo: H blX~ ~a~, ~ «mbEQw~EVl]» Iorooto bE ~a~ EAEYE 'tl]v aA~8Ela, ~ 'to'UAaxta'tO bE ~ae; mv EAEYE OAOXAl]Ql]. 03tO'tE Eva a3t' rn b~o: 'H bEY 'tl]v ;E_QEl Xat -: coors - Eivat abLuj3aa'tl], ~ tnv ;E9EL xaL rn «~a?aEL», ?3tO'tE 3tUAL bE ~a; sivut a;Loma'tl]. M~Ata'ta, 3tOAAEC; CPOQE~ ... OL «aa3tQoQo'UXUbEC;» 'tl]e; (1..0- Ylw'ta'tOL, 3taVl]YUQLO'tEe; Xat 3tQocpEoaoQOL) Exavav rooo 'to ~auQo m';Qucp'tlXO, 3tOU va ~ae; E;a3ta'tuEl xru va ~ae; 3tAaVEUEl ... Mnv rotx morsuers, H xaQbLu tou '21 bEY E3taAAE

* KUQOAO~ MEV&AOWV BUQ8oA6l], «Io'tOQiu 'tl]C; EAAl]VLXTjC; ErmvuotuOEO.)~», GEA. 15, [!E'tUqJQUOl] I.M. OLXOVO[!OJtO'IJAO'IJ, A8Tjvu 1895.

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22

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

2.

vot amoxQatoQEe; l)aav Pw~aLOL ~E t11 voorpomu tWV KaLaaQwv ... «'Otav l) nQay~attxOt11e; xatEatQaCP11 (=11 Ptountxl) xoouoxocroo;«) 11 naQa()ome; ELXEV EAE'USEQLav E;anAwcsox. Ano t11e; EJtOxl)e; tou MEyaAo'U AAE;av()Qo'U, t11V avSQwnot11ta ()EV aCP11vE l)a'Uxov 11 L()Ea OtL 11 nOAL ttxl) EVOt11e; rou avSQwnLvo'U YEVO'Ue;, l)tO ouvcm» (O'UEAAe;, «Iluvxoa~LOe; Iorooto», t. A', aEA. 688). To ()E ycyovoe; OtL 11 EAA11VLxl) YAwaaa ~LALotav coto ()EXa()Ee; Aaoue; ()EV naEL va nEL OtL OL AaoL mrtot l)aav AaoL EAA11vLxoL. * L1ELxvEL uovo OtL 11 AatLVLXl) ()EV l)tav a;La va t11V avtaywvLatEL os nAomo, oe a'UvEL()11a11 XaL oe nVE~a. 'Eroi, my a - my a Ena1jJE va ~LALEtaL XL an' rotx L()LO'Ue;, toix AatLVO'Ue; tou B'U~aVtLo'U.

H B'U~aVtLvl) Auroxocroot« ()EV EtXE tLnOta to nEQLaootsoo EAA11vLXO ano ooo 0 Pw~a'(xoe; nOALtta~Oe;, amoe; to ELXE we; rtvsuuo; Krn ataS11XE Pw~a'(xo xQatOe; (<<NEa PW~11») ~EXQL tEAo'Ue; rou, ~E uovo t11 AaALa tou EAA11vLxl), xm roirto uovov E; a v a y x 11 e;. * * H YQacpl) rou, ru E~~A l)~ata ron, 11 xO'UAtouQa rou, E~ELVaV Acmvix« nEQa EWe; nEQa. Aomov, ~E uovo t11 AaALa. Ma to Qaao ()EV xaVEL tOY nana, YLa ()E, nour l)tav 11 avayx11 - naQaxatw. E()w, ae; ()waw tOY V011tO xanwe; nEQt1OQo, XEVtQO rou onotou EYLVE a;acpva to 330 ~.X. 11 «NEa PW~11»: Ito Aoyo'Ue; rtou ()EV ~noQEt va EXtE80w a' Eva taxu ~EAEt11~a (aS11va'(xl) sm()Qaa11, MEyae; AAE;av()Qoe;, EAA11VLatLxl) nEQtO()O, AAE;aVtQELa x.n.), 11 EAA11vLxl) YAwaaa tore ~LALOutavE, xaSoA11

, 0 tL to B'U~avtto aVant'U;E svov nOAL tiouov L()LOruno, xa~~La a~cpL~oA[a. 'On E;EnE~1pE XaL ~lav axtLvo~oAtav EAA11vt~o'Uaav - EJtta11e;. 'OtL o~we; ~E t11V aAwo11 ron B'U~avtLo'U aQXLaE xru 11 aywvta tou ESVO'Ue; - cL vm aVLatoQ11tO xm unonto. L1EV Et vm ()lOAo'U 'UnOXQEWtLXO va~aatE xm ~ELe; B'U~avtLvot, EJtEL()l)e; to B'U~aVtLO cvont'U;E evov nOALtLa~ov L()lOt'Uno, EnEL()l)e; E;EJtE~tpE xru uurv axtLvo~oAtav EAA11Vt~o'Uaav xrn EJtEL()l)e; JtEQt tOUtWV xa~~La a~cpL~oAta! ... 8atav to L()LO, on va, YLa va XatE~Ow ta ELm tl)QLa, mro avtte; ~ a Q u v tOY xacpE ~O'U - «~E 0 A iY 11 v»! « ... OL LatoQLxoi oAwv TWV AOYLwv (xQa'Uya~EL XL 0 8avoe; <l>tALxoe;, oro t()LO ~EQOe; OJto'U JtaQaJtavw tOY ~V11~OvEtpa~E) XaL OL JtaQa~'U8a()Ee; ELJtaVE xm YQatpavE JtoAAa. Eyw, xm a'U~JtaSatE ~E YL' mrto, ()EV JtLaTEUW oro B'U~aVtLO, * ()EV JtLatEUW aTO'Ue; Aoya()EC; tou <l>avaQLOu». QaTOoo, Sa mo XL £yw, ()EV nocv OAOL JtaQa~'U8a()EC;, aAAa OL JtEQLaaOtEQOL l)aav aVUJtoJtTOL xm a()La~a(JtOL ... OL B'U~aVtL-

• «IIOAAOL TWV 18uYEVWV AUWV Xuta T1]V EltOXi]V umi]v E~EAA1]vL081]ouv» .

•• «H EAA1]VIXi] YAWOOU EltEXQUT1]OE 0XI flOVOV w.; YAWOOU T1]'; OXE,ljJEW';, UAAa Xat TWV ltOAITIXWV OXEOEWV flETU~V TWV AUWV XUI TWV auvUAAUYWV Xal T1]'; XOLVWVIXi].; ~wi].;» (K. IIUltuQQ1]Y0ltO'UAO';, «Emrouo; Iorootc W'U EAA. 'E8vo'U.;», A8i]vaI 1955, OEA. 176).

• AXOflU Xal «E8vLXOCPQOVE<;» «ltElQuflunoTE<;» xru IOTOQwbicpE;, Oltw<; 0 CPLAO'; uou 0 I.M. XUT~1]CPWT1]<;, blEQWTWVTaI flE TLTAO'U<; TETOlWV flEAET1]flCHWV: «HtaVE TO B'U~aVTW EAA1]VLXO;».

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tnv E;arrAWa'l'] rou XWQO'U: Ano t'l'] LLXEALa EW~ ta MLXQamatLxa rraQaALa xm coro t'l']V AAE;aVtQELa EW~ t'l'] Pororr'l'] xm tOY EU;ELVO TIOVto. XWQL~ a'Uttlv ~taV ac5Uvat'l'] 'I'] usrn;U AaWV aAA'I']AOa'UVEWO'l']aLa - xm ~E to KEVtQO ( = to VEO a<pEVtLXO totx, to B'U~avtLo). 'Htuv, va rrOU~E, 'I'] AYYALX~ tWV xmQwv ... ME~ a' a'UtOV tOY EAA'I']VoyAwaao oixscvo, ~tav abUvato va ErrL~LWaEL to B'U~avtLO, av bEY exovs rnv EAA'I']VLX~ yAwaaa - XL outo - AaALa rou OL 0;00 coto toy EAAabLXO XWQO ;EVOL Aaoi (EXtO~ rcov xcec' Lrnav roue y Aooa ~ otov = rcov ESVLXWV toix) a'Ut~V t'l'] yAwaaa t'l']V EAA'I']VLX'I'] ava~Eta;'U tou; ~LAayav. * ME~ ororv cuovcov t'l']V rraQEAE'Uon, roix EYLVE xm a'UvELb'l']a'l'] oro tEAO~. 'Etoi, yAooamxa a<pO~OLoo~EVOL, ~aav «TIavEAA'I']VE~»,3 aAAa ~E rnv mo LbaVLX~ a;ia tou OQO'U. Koi ~tav route E'UtUx'l']~a - aVtE;av va ~'I']V ExaAa~LaSouv uno rou; Ptooouc, nou yUQoo oto 700 XataxA'Uaav X'UQLOAEXtLXa OAOV tOY Aiuo. E; evovnoc, orpo~OLwS'I']xav cutoi.; H bE, ~Eta rnv aAooa'l'], unouetvcoo (AOYLootati~o'Uaa) B'U~aVtLV~ aQLato~Qati~, EXtO~ nrto t~ yAwaaa, bEY EiXE ttnor« to EAA'I']VLXO - uno tnv ESVLXLatLX'I'] to'UAaXLatOV EWOLa.4 Auroc 0 «oQSobo;d)tato~» Axcon~a"(xo~ x. BEVE~'I']~, va tL ( os ~Lav ErtL<p'UAAica tou) AEEL YLa rnv EAA'I']VLXOt'l']ta t'l']~ (rrQw'I']v, xm a'UvEXELa uno rou; ToupxO'U~ ) LSUvo'Uaa~ EXELv'I']~ ta;'I']~:

«~La~a~oo ~La rrt'UX~ t'l']~ LatoQia~ rou AL yaio'U oro ~L~Aio nou ~a~ EatELAE 0 x. Baa. BA. L<p'UQoEQa~ "OL ~Qayo-

~avOL rou LtOAO'U". * MEyaA'I'] bUva~'I'] OL bQayo~avOL, crov xmQo nou 0 aQXLvauaQXo~, t'l']~ a'UtoxQatoQ~a~, 0 Kan;o'UCav rraaa~, Ei XE om bLxmoboaia tou rc vnoic tou AL ymo'U, Sa EAEYE~ OtL ~tav Eva~ SEa~o~ YLa to xaAo tou 'EAA'I']Va v'I']mwt'l'], rou Xoumnvou, Byotva arr' t'l'] ~EAEtl1 rroo~ bEY ~tav Etm~, to'UAaXLatOV, bEY ~tav rravta eror, Km ~E roix XQLatLaVou~ bQayo~avo'U~ Eixav va tQa~~;o'Uv rra~rroAAa OL V'I']mWtE~ ~a~. KaSw~ Eivm vvoxrro, to a;ioo~a rou ~Qavoucvo» rou LtOAO'U to bLExbLxouaav rra~t~ OL <I>avaQL~tE~ - OL ~cyaAE~ OLXOYEVELE~ tou <I>avaQLO'U; Hrov to rr~ooto axaAi nou ErrQErrE v' aVE~oUvE YLa va <ptaao'Uv oro a;Loo~a tou McyaAo'U ~LEQ~'I']VEa, XL Uat,EQa rou 'l']YE~OVO~ ~'I']~ MoAbo~Aaxia~.5 Km EiXE 0 bQayo~avo~ rou atOAo'U, Aa~tpl] xrn bUva~'I'] arro'Ubaia: tEQaatLa ELaob~~ata, cero to ~LbLXO xaQatm nou rou rrA~Qoovav OL vnouote; xm E,;o'Uma arravoo oroix rrA'I']S'Ua~ou~. ME to va avtLxaSLatow rroAAE~ <POQE~ OL bQayo~avOL tOY Karro'Ubav rraaa a~L~ aXEaEL~ rou ~E to'U~ V'I']mWtE~ yi vovtcv OL rrQay~atLXOL X'U~EQ-

V~tE~ 'to'U~. "

ArrOtEAEa~a: <paywvovtav ava~Eta;'U rotx OL qxrvcouotLXE~ OLXOYEVELE~ nom va rrQootorraQ'I'] to a;Loo~a - E;ayoQa~ovta~ rraaabE~ xm ~E~uQ'I']bE~ ~E ~EY~Aa noou, rro'U,UatEQa, yta va ta ;ava<pEQo'Uv oro rro'UyyL roix, ru a;LoovavE xrn ta rraiQvavE coto rou; vnouorsc».

KaXLat'l'] 'UrroSw'I'] ataS'I']xE YLa mv EAA'I']VLX~ Iorootc 'I'] cpavaQLWtLX'I'] rrEQirrtooa'l']. A v acpmQEaEL xavEi~ ,toU~ ~EAO LatoQLxoU~ EXEi v'l']~ t'l']~ EXatOvtaXQov'l']~ «ESVLX'I']~ - ~a~ -

• « .. .'AAAOL AaOL c')LUTTlQTjaavTE~ TTlV avvdl\TlaLv TT]~ Lc')ia~ E8vLXOTT]TO~, EaTEQvia8Tlaav EV TomOL~ TT]V EAAT]VLXTjV yAwaaav ... » (K. ITarcaQQTlyon:OUAO;;, «En:iTO!!O~», aEA. 176).

• Kat' otxnnv, amoL Tjaav Ol Yn:OUQYOL T!J)V Noonxcov, atT]V T01!Qxia.

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:rr;EQL:rr;E't"ELa~» (cpaVaQUbtLXTJ :rr;EQLOc5o~) oAm ot uAAm !l:rr;Qo~ a' amiJv tTJv xataxoQucpTJ !lE~ at' u:rr;ata tTJ~ aVeQd):JtLVTJ~ ava~LO:rr;QE:rr;ELa~ XL EmD..ELa~ j30mLu E!lVWXaV Xatu:rr;ATJXtm:

«KaL amo~ 0 MOJU!lEe 0 B' ELXEV E~aLQEnxiJv sumoromrvqv EL~ tOU~ 'EAA TJva~ XaL !lEtEXELQLaeTJ c5LU rn aVWtEQa a~LW!lata aQXEtOu~ uno EXEL VOU~ nou E L X a v c5 E X e iJ va E ~ L a A a !l L a e 0 U v (H u:rr;OYQU!l!lLOTJ c5LXiJ uou). 0 MaX!lom :rr;aau~, nou ELXE xataxtiJaEL EV OVO!latL rou MOJU~ !lEe tTJV LEQ~Lav, tTJv Boovtcv XaL tTJv Eu~mav, iJtO EAATJV E~LaAa!lLaeEL~ EL~ vEaQuv TJALXLav ... 0 Xcc Mouour :rr;aau~, !l:rr;E'LAEQ!l:rr;ETJ~ tTJ~ POU!lEATJ~ ... XatiJYEto coro tOU~ ITaAaLO~ AOyOU~. 'AAAO~ !lEya~ BE~UQTJ~ E:rr;L MOJU!lEe, 0 POU!l MEX~ usr, nto 'EAATJV. Em BaYLa~i]t tOU B', 0 ME~L :rr;aau~ XaL 0 Xotl,« Mouorcqxi :rr;aau~ ELxav YEVVTJei] 'EAATJVE~. Kern tTJV ~mAELav tOU LOUAE'L!lUV tou MEyaAo:rr;QE:1tOU~, 0 Iu~Qai]!l :rr;aau~ XaL 0 LOUAE'L!lUV :rr;aau~ i]aav EAATJVE~. 0 Nnoou :rr;aau~ nto ULO~ 'EAATJVO~ LEQEOJ~. ~UO UAAOL !lEYU~ Am ~E~uQTJc5E~, 0 ~a!lut Xnorrv :rr;aau~ XaL 0 TO:rr;UA Oourrv, i]aav ITEAo:rr;ovvi]mm. A vacpEQoVtaL E:1tLaTJ~ XaL 0 :rr;EQLCPTJ~ !l0~ T~OQALAE AAi] :rr;aau~ XaL EX tOJV vamLXWV 0 LaAi] :rr;aau~, .. » ( ~LOV, KOXXLVO~, «Iorooto tTJ~ EAATJVLXi]~ E~ :rr;avaat(iaEOJ~», EXc5. «MEALOaa», Aei]vaL 1956, r. I, aEA. 39),

«Q ~ a X W A TJ ~ ELaMOJv EL~ orouo ~OJv XaL ~L~QwaxOJv amo EOJ~ ou xataatQE'I'TJ tEAELOJ~ rc xUQLa autou 0Qyava, oirtco XaL ot «l>avaQLWtaL c5LU tTJ~ c5Ea:rr;OtLxi]~ amwv :rr;LEaEOJ~ XaL tOJV E:rr;L tOUtOJ E:1tL~ATJeEVtOJV VO!lOJv, c5LU tTJ~ ELaaYOJyi]~ c5u~cpeaQ!lEvOJv xaAoyi]QOJV XaL E:1tL tEAOU~ tTJ~ Lc5La~ ourcov c5LacpeOQU~ c5LEcpeELQav XaL E~TJ'U'tEALOav toy Aaov roirtov» (M. <1>. ZaAAWVTJ~, ~A. aTJ!l. 5).

o POU!lUVO~ Iotooixo; LEVO:rr;OUAO~ a:rr;oxaAEL rou; «l>avaQLWtE~ «aU!l!loQLa ATJatwv» XaL «tEQata ron 'Aoou, c5la~OAOU~ bE!la~ aveQw:rr;OJv a!lcpLEa!lEVou~» O~. 8EQELavo~ YQuCPEL: «XUQLV tOU TJYE!lOVLXOU eQovou ac5EAcpoL c5LE~aAAov ac5EAcpou~ :rr;aQu tOJ !lEYUAOJ ~E~ uQTJ, 0 c5' EAA TJvLa!lO~ i]to :rr;aQ' autou~ o n A 0 U v 'I' L !l !l U e L 0 v»,

KaL 0 KaLauQLO~ ~a:rr;oVtE~ EL:rr;E: «ITQOtL!lW !lUAAOV vo cpmE'I'OJ axoQoc5a XaL va :rr;EAEXW :rr;QLvuQLa EV tTJ :rr;atQLc5l !lOU LXO:rr;EAOJ i] v' orpevteuco tTJ~ BAaxLa~».

A~ :rr;QoaeEaOJ XL EYW on XL Eva~ UAAO~ yLO~ LEQEa uno tTJ rEOJQYLa, 0 ME!lEt PEaL r :rr;aau~, 0 XaL KLOmaxi]~ E:rr;LAE~ y6!!EVO~, 0 EX:rr;OAtOQXTJti]~ rou MWOAOYYLOU (1826) XaL E~OAOeQEmi]~ tOJV CPLAEAAiJAOJV atTJ !lUXTJ tou ITEta (1822), i]tav 'EAATJVa~. (KUQOAO~ MEvc5EAaOJv BaQeOAc5TJ, «Iorooto tTJ~ EAATJVLXi]~ Eacvoornoeox», aEA. 416).

«, .. OL uovoi nou :rr;OtE c5EV U:rr;EtUYTJaav iJaav ot :rr;OAUeQUATJtoL X A E cp t E~' XaL ot uovot nou O'UVE!lOQcpWeTJaav oQLanxw~ :rr;Qo~ tTJv vsrrv xatuatam v tOJV :rr;QaY!lUtOJv u:rr;i]Q-

o «MAO~ tTJ~ IatoQLa~» (rou 'EYEAOU) & eUxaVE amou~ roix «ECPEvtTJ&~» v' acpi]aow tc !laxQaLOJva «xatEatTJ!lEva» tOU~ ... YLa rn !lauQa !luna tou EeVOU~. ITOAU :rr;EQwaOtEQO tWQa ceto :rr;QLV, ELxav ~QEL toy XaLQO va tQL~OUV xaQu yLO!lUtm rn xEQLa. KOJAOtOU!l:rr;TJc5ov roue, QLXLOVtOUaav oro 1.$lAOtEQa a~LW!lata. EAEUeEQOL & XaL cero ... :rr;QOAi]\jJEL~ OJ~ i]aav, aAAa~o:rrian~av xaL eEATJ!lanxU ... m' ayaew :rr;atQLfu~!

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1;av OaOL l]'U'tO~OAl]aaV EL~ 'ta~ 't(i1;EL~ 'tl]~, acpou E1;LaAa~laSl]aav» (K. TIarraQQl]yorr01JAO~, «Emrouog Ioroptu 't01J EAAl]VLXOU 'ESV01J~», aEA. 379). Aa' a1J'tu tc rraQarruvw, Xa'taAaj3al VEL XaVEl~ u ElC01J~ ... rra'tQLO)'tE~ ~aav curoi rr01J axaQq)(UaUAWVaV ore avo)'ta'ta a1;LW~a'ta 't01J XQU't01J~ Xat rrQorruV'twv YLa'tl aAAa1;orrla'tL~aV: « ... TIAEla'tOL UAAOL XQLonnvot" (MEL 0 lCLO~ La'tOQLXO~ rraQaxu'tw, a'tl] aEAlCa 382) ~E'tErr~Cl]Uav ~E mv SEAl]alV torv EL~ 'ta~ 'tU1;EL~ 't01J Moxr~ESavLa~ou rrQo rruv'twv CLO'tL, orrw~ ElCO~EV rrQOl]Y01J~EVW~ va ~E'taClCl] Eva~ ceto 't01J~ rrQEaBEL~ 'tl]~ Evetiuc, l] OSw~avLx~ X1JBEQVl]m~ ECLCE rc uvormtc a1;Lw~a'ta Xat ErrLxEQCEa'ta'ta xa'tu xovovc EL~ o~oSQ~axo1J~ ~EV ~wa~EOovoix, aAAu XQLa'tlavou~ EX YEVE't~~». Tooo CE «ECQalOL» ... ml mv rrE'tQav 'tl]~ XQLa'tLavLX~~ Xat ESVLX~~ - uutcov - rrLorsco; ~aav 'tom' OL «ESvorrU'tQLCE~», oxrre: «Kuru rrQO'tluncnv EX rorv EAA~VWV ~EYUAWV CLEQ~l]VEWV 'tl]~ Y'ljJl]A~~ TIuAl]~ E1;EAEY0V'tO Xat OL l]YE~6vE~ 'tWV :rtaQacowaBiwv l]YE~OVLWV, OL oztoiot coto 't01J IZ' 'tEAEmwv'tO~ atWVO~, E:rtQmE va :rtQEaBEuwm 'to mrto SQl]aXEmLXOV Coy~a orrEQ Xat Ol AaOl 'tWV l]YE~OVLWV routorv» ( EYX1JXAO:rtatC. AE1;LXOV EAE1JSEQ01JCUXl], 'to E', aEA. 306).

Kutn note AOLrrov a1JVE:rtELa CLaAEx'tLx~ (xoi a1JVE:rtw~ E1;l]y~m~l]) xrn to TIa'tQLaQxdo, :rt01J 0 xa'taX'tl]'t~~ 'tou rtuQEcwaE ~ovorrwALaxu rnv l]~Lxoa~Lx~ Xat SQl]axEmLx~ CLOlxl]al] 't01J ESV01J~ (ui« aXECov «unnxootntc»), Sa coteunoAaE mv Errl 'tl]~ Y'1~ XELQomaa't~v E'tOml] j3amAda 't01J, YLa rnv rcov Oooovdrv xru mv TIa'tQlca; 0 MWU~ES 0 B' (xoi a1JVEXELa OAOL OL ~01JA'tUVOL): « ... CLE't~Ql]aE Xat E:rtQoa'tu'tEVaE 'tOY ~Eya al]~alvoV'ta EAAl]VLXOV XA~QOV, cero 't01J TIa'tQLUQX01J ~EXQL 't01J xavCl]Aavurr't01J Xat 't01J VEWXOQO'U» (K.

M£VCEAawv BaQSOACl], «Iorootu 'tl]~ EAAl]VLX~~ EnrrvamuaEw~», aEA. 11).

TIQuy~a'tL, :rtO'tE :rtQLV crnv Ia'tOQLu 't01J~, TIa'tQLaQXElo Xat TIa'tQLuQXE~ rou, CEV ElCav 'tE'tOLE~ amoxQa'toQLxE~ ore XEQLU roix E1;o1JalE~. MUALa'ta, AlYOL BamAEl~ reroux Elxav a:rtoAauaEL MEyaAda. (,O'tL, xa~~LU cpoQU, OL TOUQXOL, 't01J~ xQE~uyav, «uto YQUCPE'tO AU S 0 ~!). E:rtl B1J~uv'tLo1J OL ou'tOXQU'tOQE~ roix Elxav cLaXOa~l]'tLxu 't01J SQOV01J 't01J~ rtrnxv(CLa. OL lCLOL ~aav coa~EvOL ~E rc oUAa 't01J~ a't01J~ oraQO'U~ coy~a'tw~ou~ 't01J filioque xrn ... oro aAAl]A01;ouQLouc - ~E'tu1;'U 'to'U~ ... Em TO'UQXLU~, ~aav A1JSEV'tE~ MevoAo-ra'tOL, ~E «A1JAE~» Xat ava'tOAl'tLxE~ 'tEAE't01JQYlE~ lCLWV Xaxuv(J)v. «TIQU)'tEXCLXOL» Xat «TL 'to'UAUQLOL» 't01J~ :rtEQt'tQLyUQL~av, ouv 'tl] «j3aalALaaa - ~EAwaa» OL Xl]CP~VE~, AQXLCLUXOVOL Xat MEYUAOL AOyOSE'tE~. Kat A1JSEv'ta~ 'tou~ :rtQoaayoQE1JaV OL «COUAOL» 't01J~ :

«A'USEV'ta ~a~ xcn CEa:rto'ta ... Oaorure, 8EO:rtQoBAl]'tE, SEOxaQl'tw'tE, npovont« l]~wv XA:rt. C01JALXW~ :rtQ1Jax1Jvou~EV ... l]~El~ OL mwxol COUAOL a01J, OL LEQEl~ 'tl]~ MnrooxoAEW~ ASl]vwv XA:rt. xrn CPLAOU~EV tc lXVl] 't(J)V 'tL~lWV Xat ayLwv :rtoCwv cou ... » XArr. (~. Ka~rrouQoYA01J, «Iorooto nov ASl]vww, aE}.. 161).

« ... 0 OLXO'U~EVLXO~ TIa'tQLuQXl]~ mElXEv arrOA1J'tOv E1;o'Uotov" ml rcov EXXAl]maa'tLXwv uovoornotrov xrn 't01J XA~-

• ITO'll omE O'tOV unvo tou bEY ELXE bEl 0 UVW'tEQO<; XATJQO<; rnL B'll~UV'tlvTj<; umoxQmoQLUI; XUL xutomv 0'tO EAEU8EQO EAA1]VlXO xQu'tO<; ortou - 0' mrto - flOVO XUQl~ 0't1] us 'to xQu'tO~ uxoflU 'llnuQXouou «OlJ~uyLu» rou EXEL flLU tjJlAWvuu 1] uu8unuQ1;Lu.

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fIANNIU: ~KAPIMIlA2.:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

QOU, l]CWaTO va xaSaLQ~ aQxu'QEl~ XaL LEQEL~, va XELQOtOV~ aVT' aUTWV aAAOU~ XaL va CLXa~l] af,lEOW~ XaL Ef,lf,lEOW~ ta~ f,lETa~U XQLOTLavwv CLacpOQa~. Ta EXXAl]maOTLXU Xt~f,laTa aVEYVWQLOSl]OaV avacpaLQETa XaL acpOQOAOYl]Ta, l] CE CLaXELQLm~ TOmWV acpESl] EAEuSEQa EL~ tOY TIaTQLUQXl]V XaL tOU~ un' mrcov aQXLEQEl~ XaL AOLnou~ LEQWf,lEVOU~. TIa~ CE XQWtLaVO~ unEXQEwSl] va CLaSEtl] WQLOf,lEVOV f,lEQO~ tl]~ nEQLOUOLa~ TOU unEQ tl]~ EXXAl]OLa~ ... KaL ECl]f,lLOUQYOUV uev OL TOUQXOL CLa tl]~ avaYVWQLOEW~ EVO~ XQWtLaVOU ESvaQXOu, nEQLBEBAl]f,lEVOU CLa tOOOV nOAAWV CLXaLWV XaL nQOVOf,lLWV, XQaTO~ EV reo LCLw aUTW XQUtEL, aAAa tOY ESVUQXl]V nQooEBAEnov W~ oQyavov, TO onOLOV Sa l]Cwato va E~aocpaALOl] Tl]V COUALX~V unaxo~v tWV En~vwv XaL tWV AOLnwv cero tOU OLXOUf,lEVLXOU TIatQLaQXOU nVEUf,latLXW~ E~aQtWf,lEVWV XQLOtLavwv» ( EyxuxAOnaLC. AE~LXOV EAEUSEQOUCaXl], t. E, OEA. 305).

«H IotoQLx~ aA~SELa XaL l] avuyxl] tl]~ yvwol]~ tl]~ uno tOU~ tWQLVOU~ 'EAAl]Va~. H aVaLOSl]OLa tWV aQxovtwv. AnOXUAU'ljJl] XaL f,laOtLYWf,la - ta oQYLa TWV ~UVOCLXWV - f,luvcQa AUXWV. H xrrtrrvnn TOU KA~QOU. H CPLAoXQl]f,laTLa tOU tWQLVOU EAAl]VLXOU XA~QOU. H af,luSELa tOU TIatQLaQXl] - OL YQaf,lf,latLXOL rou, TIatQLaQXl]~, CLaf,lEOOL, ~uvoco~. OL CwCExa f,lWQOL tl]~ ~uvoCou. AQXLE:JtLOXOnOL, ouvaAAaYE~ toU~ us tOU~ OSwf,lavou~. AcpOQLOf,lOL, aYLaOf,lOL, f,lVl]f,lOOUva, XAl]QOVOf,lLE~ xAn. ~uXwQoxuQ'tLa. 3E:JtOUAl]f,la EVOQLWV. Aovax« xt ayUQwta. TIw~ ~OWE OL aQXLEnLoxonOL: axoAaaL£~, nQoCooLE~, avaWSl]OLa. Enioxonot XaL nQwtOouYXEAAOL. H A ~OTEUOl] tWV XWQLUtWV. TIw~ XELQOtOVOWTaL OL nanuCE~. Ot navtaXOuoE~ tWV uovcotnouov. KoxxoxomoAl]tE~ - uYLa AEi'tjJava. To xatuvtl]f,la tOU XA~QOU, nQwtl] arda tl]~ xaSUOtEQl]Ol]~ tOU AUtQWf,lOu. H EAEuSEQLa Savnouio af,laQtl]f,la YLa tOU~ LEQOX~Qux£~. TL CtCuoxouv to J,.ao OL L£QOX~QUXE~. L1LaOtQEBAWOl] - MXOL XaL xaSQEcptE~ tOU oxotoix. AEL 1jJaVOXanl]AELa XaL SaUf,laTOXanl]AELa - 0QYLa» (BLBALO 30 XaL 40).

To, va, ano Eva TEtOLO «xa'tEOtl]f,lEVLXO» nanaCa.QLo, nEQLf,lEVE TO '21 ESVLX~ E~aQOl] XaL XQEO~, ELVaL ou va tOU ~~TaE «vorpnvs to yaf,lo YLa va naEL YLa nouQvuQLa ... ». *

~XE'tLXa us routo, naQaSETw CWxaf,lw f,lEQLXU tLVU cero tnv «TIEQLAl]nTLX~ Ynorunoxrn TOU TIEQLEXOf,lEVOU tl]~ EAAl]VLX~~ NOf,laQXLa~» xaTa xEcpaAaLa ~ naQaYQacpou~, (OEA. 42-48 ).**

TL EL XE va XEQCLOEL uno rnv LCQUOl] EVO~ EAAaCLxou XaL AEUtEQOU BaOLAELOU; ~ta EUQmEQa vO~f,lata, tnv atovl]ol] 0' auto tl]~ £~ouoLa~ rou, ~Ta Ot£VWtEQa - to £LCaf,lE - to I1atQLaQXELo ayvo~Sl]XE XaL uno to cpoBo tl]~ an' TO VtOBAEtL E~aQtl]O~~ roir n nQLv CEono~ouoa E~ouoLa tOU, EYLVE OAOtEAa OXLWCLXl]. ~uvuf,la, f,lE to AutOxEcpaAov* anwAEOE XaL Xaf,lf,lLa tQLaVtaQLu E:JtLOXOnE~ rou, Trnrtn, XWQm XaL

"To QaytubLxo EXELVO IEQU'tELo, 0XL !iOVO btu xuva E8vo~ (= 1tQumv' UAOya) bEY ELXE - mrto - oxamAE~, aAAa OOOE xav 1tOtE~ LOU mOTEIjJE OTL 0 XQLOtO~ ELX' EQ8EL yta xuva «aya1tUtE aAAT)A01)~», T) «EOtE EYXQULEL; xru ELQT]VLXOL» (=aAAU XL aUTU YL' mrto, uAoya 1tQumva) aAAU OTt tOV EOTELAE 0 Ilcv«ya80~, YLa va - XaT01tL LOU - OL fl.W1tOTubE<;, at AQXLbtUXOVOL xrn OL HvoiueVOL 1tEQVUV (!iE XQUOE<; !iLtQE<; ore XEcpUALa L01J<;) liLa ~WT) «XO-raUVL» - tT]V !iayxoixpa ...

•• « EAAT]VLXT) NO!iaQXLa T)'tOL Aoyo~ 1tEQL EAEU8EQLW;;», CPLAOAOYLXT) ceto!iVT]!iELWOT] r. BaAEta,EXbOOT] I", BL~ALOEXboTtXT), A8T)va 1957.

• IIEQLoooTEQa Yla LO «Auroxerpoxov», ~A. fl.. Touxmv«, «To OlXOU!iEVlxov IIULQLaQXELov xoi LO AmoxEcpaAoV tT]c; EXXAT]OLa~ TT]<; Enubo~», ECPT]!i· «NEa IIOAl'tELa», 1.1.71.

32

33

rIANNIIT LKAPlMIIA1:

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8ElA

cero TOV EXTOTE (W~ EX TlJ~ xaXUJtOlfJLa~ LOU L\lBclVLOU) EmI1clAAOV xm I1clAAOV JtEQlOQl0l10 TWV JtQOVO!-!LWV LOU xm tWV OCPCPL rouov,

TIQclYl1atl, I1EyclAlJ, rcov I1EyaAOJtaJtclDwv, tOU~ EXa!-!E ~lJI1lcl lJ maVclOTaOlJ· Oi TOUQXOl, aV10"[()QlJLOl xru aYQcll1l1a- rot, SEYEAaOI1EVOl urto tlJV rrnrtomro; tlJ~ YAWOOa~, DEV SEQav OTl LO BU~clVtlO Xal1l1lcl Ill' tOY EAAlJVlXO AaO DEV dXE OXEOlJ· L\EV SEQaV on (W~ mrrot, W~ lJ MaXEDOVlX~ L\uvaotao, xm lJ PWl1lJ) LOU OtclSlJXE mLOlJ~ to BU~clVtlO xrrrnxtlJt~~ - EJtLOlJ~ - cpaUAo~.

L\EV SEQav ou aULOL Ol Ka'(l1aXcll1lJDE~ xm MEYclAOl TIoO~EAVlXOl, aUtoL ot OOJtODclQOl xm Ol L\Qayou!-!clVOl, Ol fEVtlJ-TIaTQLX xm Ol ftatLJt - xa!-!ouoL, Ol TIaJtcl~ - ECPEVtlJDE~, Ol !laAL - YXLO~ !-!aYYlOQOl (= Ol DLJtAW!-!cltE~ tlJ~), Ol AOYOSEtE~ xm aJtoMAOlJtOl QOUCPlclVOl- TEAOOJtclVTWV OAlJ lJ aQ10TOXQa'tLX~ EXEL VlJ XQOUOTa LOU BU~clVtlOU, 7 lJ OTO ow!-!a savaEmxaSlO!-!EVlJ TWV PaYlclDWv, ~tav 0 mo mOTOC LOU~ O~BOUAO~ xm ou!-!!-!axo~, 0 mo t0lQclX-OYAclV «!-!Jtm= VO(Tou~)BymVOJtOQTlJ;». Toix; vaUTE; YLa TOV KaJtouDclV Jtnocl, aULOL TOU;; !-!aUAlsav. L\nuTOl oi !-!£A10TclAaXLOl Xat !-!£lALXLOl, ~oav DLaBOAE!-!EVOl DlaJtQny!-!aTEUTclDE;. H TOUQXlXlJ L\lJtAw!-!aTLa avaDcLXTlJXE lJ lxaVOtEQlJ TlJ; EUQomlJc. H ~Ttn TlJ~ PWOLa~ orov KQl!-!a'(XO, DlJtAw!-!atlXO DlXO to~C EQYO. TlJ OuvS~XlJ LOU AYLOU LTECPclVOU, aULOL (OTO BEQO= ALVO) TlJV sETLvasav. Kat !-!E TlJ ouvS~XlJ TOU KclQAOBLT;*

aUTOL JtEQLowoav tlJv AULOxQaToQLa aJt' TO acpOVVTO. H KQatlX~ «aAAlJAoYLa» TOU~, EQxoTavE lJ JtQWTlJ (!-!ETa rnv KlV£~lXlJ) TOU XOO!-!OU. H YAwooo!-!aSaa TOU; (xru lDlaLTEga lJ TOUQXlXlJ) sEJtEQvaE Tl~ YAWOOOAOYlXE; YQa!-!!-!aTELE; XclSE TOJtOU: «AJtOCPEUYW va O!-!lAW !-!E LOV MauQoxoQDclLOV TOUQX10TL EJtt DlJtJ.w!-!aTlxwv UJtOSEOEWV aJto cpoBov !-!~Jtw; Xcll1W xavEva 00AOlXl0l10V I1JtQooTa TOU», EAEyE 0 Ynouoyo~ tWV ESWtEQlXWV tlJ; TouQxLa; LEQLCP Jtaocl;, Eva; coro TOU; JtEQlOOOTEQOV 110QCPWI1Evou; TouQxou; TOU XatQov TOU» (L\. KOXXlVO;, T. 3, OEA. 80). EXELVE; DE, Ol JtQo; TOV JtQEoBu TlJ~ PWOLa; OTlJV TIOAlJ LTQOYYclVWCP DlaxOlvc.ooEl; TOU L\l~clVLOU (EQYOV TWV <l>avaQlwTwv DlJtAWl1clTWV), ~oav aQlOLOuQY~l1aTa uCPOu; xcu YVWOlJ;, TOU coto XataBOA~; TIOAlT10110U EW; tOTE, XQaTOVvTO; L\lESvou;, KQaTlXOU xm L\lJ- 1100LOU L\lxaLou.

AOlJtOV DEV sEQav ... Tatl1JtlJl1EVOl coto TlJV aAOYOl1uya tlJ; UJt0lfJLa; TOU;, TlVclXTlJxav Ill'; OTO avaLOALTlXO QaxaTALXl LOU; xm TOU; QLXTlJXav - Xl a; OAOtEAa aSwou~. 'Htrrv I1la ouxoqxrvuu ... XQUO~ nou tOU; Xcll1aVE va TOU; 8EWQ~00UVE -aUTOU;! - EVOXOU;. Koi Ill'; OLO qxrvrmxo tUCPAlXLXl TOU~, DE OTLl1lJoav om' oXtQOV; OmE cpLAOU;. AJtOXEcpclAloav DQaYOUl1clVOU; xrn «JtQLYXlJJtE;»' EJtVlsav LO <l>aVclQLO OLO aLl1a' 0TQaYYclAloav, SEXOLAlaoav xm ooucpAwav xm tEAO; XQE!laOaV xm TOV TIaTQlclQXlJ TOV LDlO ... AlYclXl aQYOTEQa, Sa I1cl8mvav JtOOO xaAW; EAAlJVlX~ ~Tav lJ NEI1E0lJ SEOtlJ;:

~ 'On~'ll: « ... 1'] clnAWflaTLX~ CE~lc'rt1']£ rou AAE~avcQou MavgoxoQc'l<iTOu, "t~lO'llTO'll E"t'llXE 8Qlafl~ou, WG"tE flEyaAw~ E"tlfl~81'] uno tcov Touoxtov ... XaL wvoflao8~ . ME X Q E fl ~-E 0 X a g, toursonv E~ anogQ~"twv» (K. MEVCfAOWV Ba98o~1'], OfA. 36). ME "tOlOU"tOV nE~E~Ev1']V ELxav va xcuouv oi fllooaYQlOl EXElVOl avcgE~"tO'll '21, 0 KOAOX01:Q(ilvll£, 0 Kaga'ioxax1']; xru AOlnOl. To (ClO,

Egya <l>avaglw"twv ~oav xm Ol 8a'llfla01E~ (naQa "t1']v TO'llgXlX~ ~"t"ta) OVV8~XE£ rou Bao~aQ (1664) ue &angayflU1:E'll"tT] "tOY IIavaYlw"tll NlxOUOll, rou Iluougo~m; (1718) flE cLangaYflU1:Em~ TOV Icoovvn Ma'llgoxogca"tO xru torv ovv81']xorv rou LlG"tO~O'll xU[ "tau Iumou (1791 xrn 1792) us &angaYflU1:E'll"t~"tOV AA. MO'llgou~1'].

34

35

rIANNHL LKAPIMIUU:

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

« ... Ot'l'J ()La()QO!-l~ roue !-lEt; Ot'l'JV TQLJtOALtOa ( Xata t'l'JV aAW- 0'l'J), t' aAoyomhaAa tWV OJtAaQX'l'JYWv ()EV XQ01JaV JtEtQa _. tOOO Jtaxv ~tav tWV avaOXEAWV Touoxorv to OtQW!-la Jta OtOUt; ()QO!-lOUt; ... » (~. KOXXLVOt;, r, 3, OEA. 315). «Tltcouut« rooo Eixov OUOOWQEUSEi mi tWV OtEVWV O()WV, WOtE tou KOAOX.OtQWv'l'J 0 iJtJtOt; () 10 V 10 rt a t 'l'J 0 10 X W !-l a ceto tWV tELXWV !-lEXQL tOU oEQayiou», AEEL XL 0 BaQSOA()'l'J, Ot'l'J OEA. 361 t'l'Jt; IotoQiat; tou."

TWQa, SEAEtE XaL to ore uvortrrtu miJtE()a EmXQatOVV tLt; JtaQa!-lOVEt; t'l'Jt; EJtavaOta0'l'Jt; ... ESVLXO xAi!-la ornv nOAH; OQiOtE to. To JtalQvw coto rnv 35 OEAi()a rou ~L~Aiou «To MEOOAOyyt», tOU E1;aiQEtoU EQEUV'l'Jt~ rou '21, ~'l'J!-l~tQ'l'J <l>wtLa()'l'J:

oro UJtOCOUAO ESVOt;, tWV sncvcotrmxcov L()EWV tOU 180u aLwva XaL XUXAOCPOQEL - Ei re YQa!-l!-lEVO cero tOY i()w Ei re xut.' EVtoA~ tOU - Eva ~L~ALaQaxL ot" ovouo tou JtatQLaQX'l'J IEQOOOAV!-lWV AVSL!-lOU, nou Eitav ~aQLa aQQwotot; XaL toy VO!-lL~E EtOL!-lOSavato, ue toy tL tAO «I1atQLx~ ~L()aOXaAla - ELt; wcpEAELaV tWV oQSo()o1;wv XQLOtLavwv». L' auto tov(~ftaL a()LaxoJta to JtaQa!-lVSL JtWt; OL ()UOtUXLO!-lEVOL 010 WVt'l'J t'l'J ~w~ Ei Val OL tUXEQoi, YLatL Sa El Val OL EXAEXtoi ornv aAA'l'J: «Iloonvsrouo, (OL LEQaQXEt;) roix moroix ()La va aJtEQvwm tOY oAl yov XaLQov t'l'Jt; JtaQovo'l'Jt; ~W~t; us uno- 1l0V~V EL; tat; SAL tpELt;, XaL EAJtLCa 0XL EvtaVSa, aAAa ELt; t'l'JV !-lEAAOUOav ~(J)~V».

SEQftE YLatl 0 SEOt; YXQE!-lLOE t'l'J BU~avtLV~ cutoxpotoQla XL ECPEQE rou; TovQxout;; To ExavE YLa to xaAo tWV XQLoturvrov! M' axOVOtE tOY L()WV:

«'ICEtE Aa!-lJtQOtata ti OLXOV0!-l'l'J0EV 0 aJtELQOt; EV EJ.EEL XaL nrrvooqoc 'l'J!-lwv KVQwt;, ()La va cpuAa1;'l'J XaL aVSLt; aAw- 13'l'Jtov rnv ayiav XaL oQSo()o1;ov JtlOtLV 'l'J!-lWV tWV EUOE~WV, XaL va OWO'l'J toUt; Jtavtat;' ~YELQEV EX tOU !-l'l'J()EVOt; t'l'JV LOXUQav aut~V j3amAElav tWV OSW!-laVWV ovn t'l'Jt; tWV PW!-lalwv* 'l'J!-lWV j3amAELat;, 'l'J OJtOLa ELXEV aQXlOEL tQOJtOV uv« va XW-

«Tlrrora ()E !-lat; CElXVEL xaAVtEQa JtOOO ouxrto ELVaL auta JtOU AEVE 0 KOAOXOtQWV'l'Jt; XaL 0 <l>WtaXO;, JtWt; 'l'J snovcotao'l'J OtaS'l'JXE to EQYO rou Aaov XaL rou CtaCPWtLO!-lOV, uno t'l'JV "I1atQLX~ ~L()aOXaALa" tOU I1atQLaQX'l'J fQ'l'JYOQLOU XaL rnv aJtaVt'l'JO'l'J 0' aut~ rou KOQa~ us t'l'JV "ACEACPLX~ ~lCaoxaALa". 0 JtatQLaQX'l'Jt;, EX.JtQOOWJtOt; tWV JtAOUOLWV XaL tWV OUVt'l'JQ'l'JtLXWV ta1;EWV, aV'l'JoVXllOE* coto to 1;aJtAW!-la,

* TLe; LOLEe; aUTEe; aVl]OUXLEe; WU, ne; ELXE 0 I1avaYLcllTaLOC; aVExa8EV: Qc; Ml]"tQOltOAL"tl]C; Lfl1JQVl]e;, "tOOOV E8voltQE1twe; ELXE oQUOEl yLU "tl]V XaAlrtEQl] EAAl]VLX1'] ... altOXoLfll]Ol], WO"tE xa"tOQ8WOE va «OtamUOEL» EVUV"tLU ron Ou~uAo rov LflUQvaLLXo EAAl]V10flO, xrn avaYXUa"tl]XE 10 I1aTQLaQXELO va tov avaxaAEOEI: « ... I1QW"tl] EvaOXOAl]OLC; "tOU Ult1']!?~E vu EVWOEI tou; LfluQvaLOUe; &u onouommuwu EYYQUCPOU OUVlJltOOXEtlXOU cVlJlt0YQUCPOU ... E L C; 0 l l] V E X 1'] r l] C; E I Q 1'] v l] e; a a rp a A f L a v- (EwaywYlxa xm UltoYQaflflWl] OIX1'] uou, EyxuxAOltULO. i\E~. EAEU8EQOUOUXl], r. 4, OEA. 151) onors, YLa ta ltQooov"ta rou au"tu, WV «<xa8' ooov» - E1tLOtQEcpoV"ta Otl] LflUQVl]) l] LUvOOOe; 01tL08E WU (YQUCPE OL TouQxOL) rov ltQofX~aoE OE I1aLQluQXl] xcn WV XU8l]OE ow 8Qovo (1797). OL EltaXOAou81']oaoEe; cuo «E~OQLEe;» tOU (1798 XUl 1818) OEV

oq::EiAOV"tav otnv (XaLU WUe; La"tOQLXOUC; WQUloAOyoue; flae;) tUxa E8voltQE1t1'] (') muol] rou Ilcvcvuorcroo evovne ow D.L~UVI, aAAu one; uno tov YEVIXO ti TAo «01 AUXOL flEta~U wue;» xaAOYEQocpavaQLWtLXEe; aAAl]AOfll]xaVOQQacpLEe; Xl aAAa ooxava ... To Efl~Al]fla OAWV mrturv 1']1:Uv: «H E~OV"tW01'] OOU - avuoEI~1'] uoi» ... '000 Yla W UOLXO xQEflaoflu "tOU alto WUe; Touoxoo; - ... «YLaYVLe;oAvwu» - YQUljJE Au80c;!

* «Tn; TWV P W fl a L W v - mmov - BaOLAElac;». To EAAl]VLX1'] (1'] EO"tW, fQUlXIX1']) BaOlAELa 1']Tav ltQuY[la aOLavol]W va TOAEYE. Na, YLaLL, EYW (XL UAi.m, ltOAU alto uevc aQflOOLW"tEQOL) AEW on unotn ro EAAl]VLXO (EX"tOC; uno Tl] yAwooa - XI a'lJ"t1']v AOYLav) OEV ELxav W IEQaLELO xm OL <l>avaQLWTEC;. 01 EYXU-

36

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rIANNHI ~KAPIMI1AI

TO 1821 KAI H AAHSEIA

AaL VlJ EL~ tu tlJ~ oQ80bo;ov nLatEw~ CPQOV~llata' xm V'4JWoe tlJV f3amAELaV am~v tWV 08WIlaVWV nEQLGaOtEQOV cero Xa8E aAAlJV, bLa va anObEL;lJ avallcplf3oAW~ on 8ELW EYEVEto f3ovA~llan, xm 0XL IlE bwallLV rcov av8Qwnwv, xm va nLGtOnOL~alJ naVta~ tOV~ nLGtOV~, OtL IlE curov tOY roonov EvboxlJaE va OLXOVOIl~alJ IlEya IlUat~QLOV, rnv aWtlJQLav blJAab~ EL~ rou; EXAEXtOV~ tOV AaoV~».

Ever xm 0 E; anoQQ~tWV tOV nana NLXOAaov tOU E' rEWQYLO~ TQanEsovvno~ (1895 - 1486) ELXEV EtOLllaaEL Eva aXEbLO 8QlJaxEmLxonoALnx~s EVwalJ~ EAA~vwv xm OouovA~bwv. AlJAab~ tlJV ollabLx~ aAAa;onLatlJolJ tOV E8vov~.

navoVxAa) ... tQWVE ... IlE ta xouxoutrn« ta xEQama!. .. Onwab~nOtE, xm xa8oao EYW ;EQW, x a VEL ~ LGtOQLXO~, ;EVO~ ~ bLXO~ Ila~, bEY Ef3aAE tOY baXtVAO rou EJtL tOY runov toutou tOV ~AOV ...

H aywvLa tOV EAAlJVLXOV E8vov~ ELXEV aQXLaEL nOAAov~ nQl v coro tlJv aAwalJ mwvE~ = uno tlJ aVVtQLf3~ tlJ~ otooLlWtlX~~ laxvo~ tWV A8lJvwv ceto tlJ MaxEbovLX~ AwaatELa (<PLALnnO xm McyaAE;aVtQo), atlJ llaXlJ tlJ~ XmQwvELa~, * xm (IlE anoxoQvcpwlla rnv <l>QayxlxlJ xataxtlJalJ) tEAELwaE ClQallatlXa IlE tlJv to 1922 EvaWllatWalJ9 tOV MlxQamat~xoo EAA lJvLallOv (E;OV K vnQo xm BOQELO 'Hnaoo) ornv EAEV- 8EQlJ EAAaba. LtO avallEta;V mrto tWV 2.184 XQovwv, IlEaa ctov XWQo tOV aQxmOEAAlJVlXOV avtOv XVXAOV (coro tlJ P?bonl1 xm tOY EV;ElvO EWe; mv ALY1JntO, xcu coto tl1 LLxEAla EW; tl1 Mixocot«) bExabE~ AaoL aVEf3oxatEf3I1XaV ~ [3ovALa~av (IlE XaIlEVE; xru tl~ E8vLXE; tOV~ a1JVEiblJaE~), aAAa to IllXQO EAAabLxo EtOVtO E8vo;, axoAov8wvta; tl1 «xaM[3bLVI1 8EwQLa tWV xoxococov», aXUl-tnavE[3l1xEV a[3ovALaXtO n; UAAEJtaj.AlJALEe; tWV uuovorv, 'EIlELVE avaAAOLWtO xm uvtu~lO tWV nQoyovwv tOV nnovovo: a v a cP 0 Il 0 L co t 0, cP v}.EtlXO xal uu e t u x i v n t o: HYAwaaatOv(xmaQa I1 E8vlX~) ELVaL yv~mo tEXVO tlJe; aQxaLa~ rou, (OL QLSE~ tl1~ Elvm 0lllJQLXE; xm atnXE;):

AAAa lJ Iorooto bEY EL Val xallllLa xQElla «xaQaIlEAE» nou tQ(bYEtaL IlE XOVtaAaxL orn f3EQaVta. Ta LGtOQLxa aVtLXElusvo IlOLasow rc xEQama oro xaAa8L roix nov tQa[3wvta; Eva navw, aovQxovtm nEVtE;L, Mxa, oAa uvtriuo;

Meou a' ama, va xcn lJ a y W V (a - to XOVtQOtEQO. Tt ELvm am~; nw; tQwYEtm; M~nw; XL am~ ... IlE xomaAaXt; Ot EV LatOQLObLcpLm~ - roix - auvabEAcpOL, to ;EQOVV: ELvet, oou AEVE, lJ 'A A wall. nAlJV, naAl roix tSLcpO;. TSLCPO;, bLOtL bEY ELvm llaAALa rc yEvLa ... H aywv(a tOV EAAlJVlXOV E8vov~ bEY aQXLGE IlE tnv aAwalJ tOU Busavnov, onw; at «EV reo IlVlJae~vm tOV rnrtoix;» AOYLWtatat xa80vtm «noQaxAavaL8vQOL» xcn xAaLm. OnOtE «bVOLV 8atEQOv»: 'H tl1v Iorooto bEY tlJv ;EQOVV, OnOtE sivrn aXataAArIAOL va tl1V mnoouv IlE; oro orou« roix, ~ (EcpaQllosOVta; tlJV naQatIlLa nov AEEL on to IlWQO alla aaQaVtLaEl bE cpo[3ataL tl1v

«Ouoev EX tWV E8vwv tOV xoouou ayana mv EvcpwvLav

* Touro 'to nQaY[,la to AEEl XUl 0 I1anaQQl1yonovAo~ ~O'tI1V «Enlto[,lo»: mJ .. 140) aAAa 6EV 'to AEEl (OU'tE 'to 1;EQU ... ) aQX'iJ 't11~ ayUJvLa.~ toV EAAl1:'lXO,V EBvov;. To AEEl (10(60; ti: «[,lLa Xl O~UJ!») «mWOI1 ron naAUlov EAAI1VLXOV xoO~lOV». L\EV aa; SWl~El routoorh, 'to 't11; Aa'Lx'iJ~ naQO[,lOlac;: «To [,luQUJoa, to [,\c'(qmoa, SEAEl ac; ~'ijOEl, SEAEL a; nESavEL».

XAlf; toV; (r« «OLYlAALa») 'tUJV I1a'tQLaQXwv, OAEt;, nQw'ta toy ~ovhavo «xootruov» Sa OVO[,la'tL~av XL cno xovrc «AvSEV'tI1V tUJV PUJ[,laLUJY» - tUJV EAA'ijVUJV, Sa VnOtlSEtO.

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fIANNlIT ~KAPIMIIAI

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

(MEL 0 KugoAo~ MEVbEAOlOV BagSoAbl] OTl]V «Iorootu - TOlJ - Tl]~ EAAl]VLX~~ EJtaVaaTUOElO~», OEA. 29) OOOV TO EAAl]VLXOV, xm bl] uno Tl]~ agxmoTl]TO~ ~EXgL O~~EgoV. H AEJtTOTl]~ aml] TlOV CPlOVl]TLXWV ogyuvwv OlJVETEAEOEV oJtlO~ bLaTl]gljOl] 0 EAAl]VlXO~ Aao~ TOV YAlOomxov alJTotJ Sl]oalJgov aJtEvavn TlOV ~EVlOV». Koi JtagaxuTw (OEA. 31): « ... OvTlO~ EYEVV~Sl] l] YEa EX Tl]~ JtaAmu~ YAWOOl]~ xm aJtETEAEOE TOV bEO~OV ~ETa~v TOlJ JtgWl]V xm TOlJ V1JV. L1EV lJJtugXEl ~EL~WV ~ETa~v O~ ~gOlJ xrn SEVOCPWVTO~ blacpogu, ~ ~ETa~v ~EVOCPWVTO; xrn JtOAAWV Ol]I1EgtVWV Enl]VtxwV ECPl]~EglblOV».lO

JtO~, Ta~ axglOgla~ ~ Ta~ V~OOlJ~, W~ Tl]V Nu~ov xm Tl]V Kg~Tl]V, ElJgLoXEl xm O~~EgOV axo~a uvbga~ xm yuvaLxa~, exl n VE~ Sa l]bvVaVTO va xgl]m~EvolOm v lO~ JtgoTlJJta El~ TOV <PELbLav xm TOV LxoJtav ... Avuyxl] va blaTgE~l] xavEL~ TO EOlOTEgLXOV Tl]~ xwga~, blU va lb~ TOV yv~mov EAAl]VLXOV Aaov xm TOTE ~OVOV EXJtAl]XTO~ S' avayvlOgLol] OTl l] nrrAmu Enu~ ava~~ EV Tl] YEa, xm on 0 EAAl]VlXO~ Aao~ xm xmu tc ~Sl] XaL xaTu TOV I3Lov etvoi 0 alJTo~ ~E TOV agxaLov ... ».

Ta JtgoTlJJtU TOlJ (OL LocpoL), OL JtagabooEl~ TOlJ ( = Ta ESL~U TOlJ XaL OL YlOQTE~ TOlJ), l] ToaxlOT~ JtQOO~AlOO~ TOlJ OTl]V JtuTQLa yl] (Xat OTOlJ~ I3QuxolJ~ TOlJ EAAablxov XWQOlJ ceto TO TaL vago EW~ Tl]V TIL voo) bEL XVOlJV oaoto ~ETaAAo OTUSl]XE 0 t!mXta~O~ xm l] avTOX~ TOlJ. Evoi, 0 JtQo~ Tl] AElJTEQlU EQlOTU~ TOlJ E~EtVE aoLyaoTO~ XUTW ceto TOlJ~ oooO~QWT~QE~ TWV cuovrov: «Q~ aCPQ[~ovTa oQElVU QElSQa (AEEt o lbLO~ lOTOQlXO~) urto TWV I3guxwv Tl]~ OLTl]~ xm TOlJ OAV~JtOlJ ~UAAOV, ~ uno XE[AOlJ~ avSQlOJtlVOlJ, qxuvovtru Jtl]yuoaVTa Ta XAEcpTlxa TQayovbla ... ».

... Ma ... (axw ~ov qxuvetrn TOlJ~ AOytWTaTOlJ~ va AEVE) ... ~a n ~a~ rc AEEL alJTU; Km I1Et; tc ~EQOlJ~E ...

Q, I1ta OTty~~ JtEQlxaAw ... Km cxouts u AEEL, JtUAl on~ OEA. 50 xm 51 0 [bto~ olJYYQacpEa~ JtOlJ ELJta:

... TIEQlxaAw ... to ~EQETE, aAAu ytaTL bEY ~a~ TO AETE; naTL bEY ~a~ AETE n 0XEOl] EXOlJV alJTU ~E TO BlJ~uvno xm TOV ~uQ~aQw~Evo BamAtU; TIOLu 1pUQlU EXEl vl]~ Tl]~ Bul3w~ (xru JtQum vu uAoya) noo Tl]~ Jt~bl]ouv - tot TatQtaTU, aJt' TO Tl]YUVt; AlJTlj rnv aJtaywylj TOlJ EAAl]VlXOV AUOV, o~w uJt' TOlJ; I3w~ov~ TOlJ xru Tt~ EOTLE~ TOlJ, toe JtQo~ TU AUTLVtXU oxmubtu xm n~ 1pWQE~, ytaTl bEY Tl] ~UXEOTE Jtmblu, JtuQu Tl]~ XUVETE xm OEXOVTO; TIOLOV leo. KUQm~u xm JtOLOV Ivvrino, JtOLO\' KaJtob[oTQlu ~a~ xoJtavuTE; Tur JtOLOV fQl]YoQlO UOTQUCPTEl xm I3govTua ow; «btaAE~EL~» TOlJ 0 X. Tio~lctbuxl]~; L1EV ~u~ AEEL YlU Tl]V TIaTQLx~ L1lbaoxuALu TOlJ; L\EV ~a~ AEEL xm YLa Tl] «OVOXE1pl]» Tl]~ Boottrocc; Fur TOV I1aAatWV Ikrrocov,'! yta TOV Iyvrrno; Ttn Ta «LaAJtLo~aTa» TOlJ KOQalj - oJtw~ Sa bOV~E JtaQaxuTw;

«At YAwaom bEY bla~oQCPwvovTm btu TlOV alJ~l]T~aElOv, una coto Ta aQtaTOlJQy~~aTa, ru onour uovo," l]~JtoQovv ... »

« ... Ta JtUVTa JtaQu TOL~ 'EAAl]atv cotooaxvuotxn Tl]V bLaVOl]TtXljV aQlaTOxQaTlav. A v bE TEAO; EmOXEcpSlj xavcL; xru ~Egl] orrou a~tYEOTaTO~ blETl]Q~Sl] 0 JtaAmo~ EAAl]VLXO~ TV-

• AUTO TO I! 0 v a CEV EtVaL I!OVOV «aQLaTo'UQY1'Il!aTa», EtVaL ... XaL xavovLa xut SLCPOA~YXE~ XaL YXQaCE~. 0 &a(l61JTO~ YAwaaal!UvToQae,; MLOTQlWT1J~, one,; ;rUQUl!oVE; rou EAAljVOTO'UQXLXOU ltOAEI!OU tou 1897, cpwvaSE ETm a' Eva OUA-

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fIANNlIT LKAPIMIIA1:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHElEIA

XAJt. Tnv Lbta xataxoutEAtX'i]V AQt0tOXQatLttba ELXE, JtEQL aVOJQq..tOtlJtO~ tOU EAAlJVLX01J AaOU YLa dlJ!lOxQatLa, 0 xoQ'UcpaLO~ !la~ LatOQLXO~ TIaJtaQQlJyOJtO'UAO~. ME~ ornv ... 'UJtEQEAA lJVtX'i]V tou aVOJtEQOtlJta (OJtO'U JtavtOu btacpaL verca lJ JtQO~ tOY AaO JtEQtcpQOVlJalJ) flEOJQOUaE Ott. .. OL AaOL SEAO'UV ~OUQbOUAa. TWQa, to JtW~, !lEta uno !lta tEtOLa EXJtaLbE'UalJ YL vstru OXt aJtOXt'i]vOJalJ aAAa OJQt!lOtlJta, tOY TIaJtaQQlJYOJtO'UAO bEY tOY EyvOLa~E. Ti.' auto, EXEL vo tou Turvvn lP'UxaQlJ Ott «0 EAAlJVtXO~ Aao~, buo !lEyaAou~ xm aaJtovbo'U~ YVWQt0E EXSQOU~ tou: tOU~ TouQxo'U~ xm tou; baaxaA~u~» qw Sa tOAqa erot: roix btaVOOU!lEVO'U~ xm to'U~ AOYlO'U~ rou, Touc tatoQtX01J~ rou xm tOY XA'i]QO.

'Etoi, axo!la !lla cpoQa, Sa cpOJva~OJ orou; VEO'U~: MHN TOY2 III2TEYETE ... 2tOV xoJtQwva rou oxotoorouou, xm tlJ~ a!laSELa~, tOmOL OL HQaxAEi~, 0XL yta v' acpmQEao'Uv unnivouv, !la ... YLa va JtQoaSEao'Uv xm tL~ bLXE~ rou; ...

Km Sa roix Qwtaya:

a TIaAmoAoyo~ 'i]tav 'EAAlJva~; 'Hrcv 0 MEya~ AAE~avbQo~ «ASlJVaLo~»;12 <PuAEtLXa, xa!l!lLav bEY Eixa!lE cvo!lEta~'U !la~ a'UyyEVELa. 'Hoov XL OL b'Uo xataXtlJtE~ !la~. a JtQWtO~ (us to oo, rou) on dEaJtotlJ~ tlJ~, Sa tlJ; EXAa,ti VL~E bLaJtaVto~ mv Ilssozovvnoo, cv bEY (qxataAElJtOVta~ tlJv to 1449) aVE~mvE orov Ooovo rou B'U~aVtLO'U. a bEUtEQO~, ue tOY !lESUaO !lJta!lJtaxa tou tOY <l>LALJtJtO, JtQaY!latoJtoi lJos rnv xataxtlJalJ tlJ~ EAAaba~ - xa'UTO OVELQO OAOJV TOJV Moxsoovorv BamAEOJv. Tooo bE, ataSlJxE aVEA£lJtO~ ... «CPL-

AEAAl']V» , JtO'U !la~i us tOY AAE~avbQo LaoJtEbOJaE xm ~ExA'i]QWE !lLa YLa nrrvtu tl']~ tl'] E>'i]~a. No, u, 0 ibLO~ 0 ~EALyOJt'i]~ !la~ os Sa'U!laa!lou~ TO'U, TIaJtaQQl']yoJtO'UAO~, !la~ AEEt:

« ... TEALXW~ l'] JtOAL~ EXUQlEUSl'] xm JtaQEboSlJ a!lEaOJ~ EL~ Ta; cpAoya~ xm Tl']V acpay'i]v. Ot bLaaOJSEVtE~ !lataiOJ~ E~EALJtaQwav tOY oixrov tOU VLXlJtOU ( = tou AAE~avbQo'U).

aAOXAl']QO~ l'] XWQa TOJV E>l']~aiOJv WCPELAE va &aVE!ll']S'i] EL; roue a'U!l!laxo'U~ rou AAE~avbQo'U, 0 bE JtAl1S'Ua!lo~, a'U!lJ[EQLAa!l~aVO!lEvOJV xm tOJV yuvmxwv xm tOJV JtmbLwv, va JtEQlJtEalJ EL~ bouAELav ... EXEivOL nou Sa btECPE'UYOV EL~ aA".a~ JtOAEL~, Sa a'UVEAa!l~aVOVto bta va SavatOJSow. Kou!lLa EAAl']VLX'i] JtOAL~ bEY EbLxmOutO va JtaQaaXlJ EL~ a'Utou; aa'UAov ...

... E~'i]QEaE !l0VOV uno TlJV xutuorpoqmv mv orxicv tou JtOLl']tOU TILvbaQo'U xm aJt'i]AAa~Ev «no rnv bO'UAEiav roix aJtoyovo'U; tou, bLOtl 0 TIivbaQo~ EiXEV acpLEQwaEL OJb'i]v JtQO~ TOV OA'U!lJtLOVLXl']V JtQoyovov rou AAE~avbQov tOY A'» (<<EJtirouo ; Icrooto rou EAAl']VLXOU 'ESvo'U;», aE/.. 154 ).

TucpAa vaxo'UV OL xrrtom ron EQX0!lEVOL, 0 T~EVYXL~ Xav xm 0 Ta!lEQAavo~ ...

AnArl1:T]QLO nv8Qul1tl1lV n:oAE~6xnQl1lv yLn vc 'to ... uxoinxrouv xm Ol TOUQXOl: «Aev EXO~EV XQELnv 't1]AE~6Al1lv xrn AOYXWV - nQxEL 1] nQxn(n 1]~WV yAwaan!». (TouAuxw'tO vn 't1]V XU'tEXE. .. ).

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TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

3.

xaAW - n yL VE'taL; Tt Xa8Ea'tW~ (rrte, aa'tlxil~ 'ta~TJ~ Jl TJV n'HE lJrtaQxolJaa~) 8' aV'tlXa8La'taE 'to rtQw'tO; To Aotxo; (0 KOJlJlolJVWJlo~ CEV UrtaQXE tots, Yla va 'tOQQlxvav oro XOJlJlOWla'tocpa'LALxl ot E8vlxocpQOvm!. .. ). H EJtlJlaAAOV XaL f-taAAOV xurorptuvoixru Enuvcotnon ClfYQacpE LCPl YYWClXTJ 'tTJV xot VWVlOAOYLa 'tTJ~ fXQTJ~il~ 'tTJ~· Oi corou V't~ilCE~ (TJ <PtAlXTJ E'taLQELa) xa'ta'tQoJla~av. (To 'Aorooc, rc BfQ~aLva,TJ ZaQaxo~a, 'to AaoxQa'tlxo xLvTJJla 'tTJ~ 'YcQa~* AE~ JtW~ rtQoxa'ta~oAlxa roix fa'tEAvav 'tl~ aa'tQartf~ toix nrto 'to f-tfAAOV ... ). KaL rc YEYovo'ta EJtaxoAou8TJaav. EnnxoAou8TJaE TJ JlrtOVcpOVlXTJ XaL ~laa'tlxil EJtavaa'taaTJ tou YljJTJAav'tTJ, xru., TJ JlETa mv arto'tVXla 'tTJ~, E~acpavWTJ art' 'tTJ LXTJvil, 'tTJ~ E'taLQELa~. ~uo rtQaYJla'ta aTJJlaCl.axa.

Eyw CEV 8a mo, OrtW~ 0 artTJvil~ cpoQoElartQax'tOQa~* *

KaL Cwa'tolJ vaxolJv t ' artOCfAmrta: 'n il'tav 'to Ieo«teio, or <l>avaQlwn::~ XaL ot AOYlm yUQW XaL rtQl v art' 'to '21; 'Hcov ilOXl TOlJQXOYAE(cp'tE~ Xl svcvnoi os xa8E LCfa E8vEYEQa[a~; MTJV Xl amol 'tQayoucayav rc XAEqmxu; il JlTJ artaaavE Xl amOL ornv AAaJlaVa rc arta8la roue; OL oartOCaQm; Oi bQayolJJlavm; Ot VO'tlW'tEQa, xo't~aJlrtaaabE~ XaL oi «YEQOV'tO»; 'Icov OATJ TJ rtaVOuxAlXTJ xa'taQa rou XaLQou;

Ma, OU'tE Yla 'tTJv xmvwvLOAOYLa 'tTJ~ EJtavaa'taaTJ~ bEV Af'tE.. 'H bEV rnv ~fQE'tE il Jla~ 'tTJv XQU~ETE rnv aAil8Ela. ~EV Af'tE AOYOlJ xaQTJ on TJ EJtavaa'taaTJ bEV fYl VE JlOVO Yla toix Toooxotx. (~EV ilaav XElQO'tEQOl. .. ). 'EYlVE evovuc XaL oro ybaQatJlo XaL 'tOY xa'ta'tQEYJlo art' 'tOlJ~ rtQOXQL'tOlJ~ - bTJAabil Yla 'to ~EQQL~Wf-ta OU~lJAOlJ ron «TQlablxou» TOlJQxortartaboxO't~aJlrtaaflXOlJ xa8EOtW'tO~* ... KaL tots - rtEQl-

ruoruon ~la~ Aa'lxlu~ XU~EQV1']01']~ ot ' aVatoAlXu T1']~ EUQWll1']~» (:~::UTOl~QlUV/)0;, «Yllo~V1']~a yLU T1']V EAAu(\a», IIaQLOl 1825, OEI... 9).

* H XUTUA1']¢TlT1']~ KayxEAAaQLac; all' toy AVT. OlXOVO~ou Xal1'] aVUA1']- 1jI1']T1']~ E~ouoLaC; areo TOV Aao. (~. <PO)tlu(\1']C;. «KavuQ1']e;». OfA. 50. ~. KOXXlVO;, o.rt., r, 1., OEA. 325. K. MEV(\EAOWV BaQSoM1'], OfA. 317-318). L1']~flWTEOV Xl f(\W: 0 OlXOVO~OU, oro llQOC; TOV Y(\QalLxo Aa6 «ESVlXO llQOX~QUWu» tOU, EAfYE roue YOQaiouC; unovovotx tou 8qlLOToxA~ XaL TOU MlAllU01'], Xal 0Xl xcvsvo; IIaAaLoMyou ~ <POlxu.

*. «~UO XQovLa uerri T1']V UCPl~1'] TOU Ivvrrnou OT1']V 'AQTa, 1'] llEQLOX~ llEQaOf OTa XEQla TOU AA~ llUOU. AvayxUOT1']XE TOTE, YLa vu UllEQUOllL01'] TO 1l0L~VlO tOU vn YIV1'] ELOllQUXTOQae; TOlV CPOQOlV 1l0U EJtE~aAAE 0 BEsUQ1']e;, llf,1']QWVOVTUe; OUXVU nrto to OlXO TOU TU~ElO. ME ElllOtoAEC; xm llQOOOllllXEC; llaQE~pUOELe; CPQOVtlSE vu llEQlOQis1'] tle; aUSaLQEOlE~ tOU mHQUll1']T1']C; HllELQOU xcn TOlV OQYUVOlV tOU». (1.M. XatS1']cpWl1']e;, «NEa IIOALTfLa», 7.3.71), « ... o~Ole; otuv nrcv ~EOllOT1']C; T1']e; 'EllaXTou XaL t1']e; 'Aptc«; avaXUTEUTrlXE 0 Ivvrrno; OE oou),ELEe; 1l0U Yl' amEe; 1l0AAOl HllELQWTE; TOV (ax Tl rll~6s!) llaQE~~Y1']Oav, 0 IIEQgmfXJe; xloAae; TOV ovouuoe llQOOO11']. Ma Xl 0 Iyvunoe; ELXE ~La cpoQu ELllEL, nwc; 0 KOAOXOTQWV1']C; JtQEllEl va OXOtwSEl Xl rnrro Of V to ~Exaoav llOTE ot KOAOXOTQwvalOl» (N.A. BE1']C;, «'EQEVVEC; XaL oTOxao~oL Yla t1']V EAA1']VLX~ No~UQXla XaL TOV avYYQacpEU T1'];», o.n., OEA. 8-41).

• «Ttnotu OEV avo, (j)CPEAl~WtEQOV, OUlE EmSW1']TOTEQOV (EAEYE 0 AAE~av(\Qoe; A' OTOV aVllllQoOOllTO t1']£ raAAia; Movuopcvo») El; OAOXA1']QOV t1']V Poxrourv a1l6 TOV xaTU T1']e; TouQxlae; SQ1']oxEunxov JtOAE~OV. T1']v EuxmQluv llQOe; toUTO T1']V llUQEOXEV 1'] EllaVUOtUoli:; T1']C; EAAU(\Oe;. AAAa Ev6~lOU on Ele; me; TaQuxuc; t1']~ IIEAOllOVV~OOU (\LacpulVEtm to svcvnov t1']e; XOlVOlVlX~C; tu~EOlC; aVUTQEJtllXO OTOlXfLOV» (A. K6xXLVO;, T. 6, OEA. 39). <l>uOlxu XOlVOlVlX~ TU~1'] YlU EAOYOU TOU ~mv vnvrn UU10e; UUTOXQatoQUe; ... «~EV ou~q;EQEl 1'] Eyxa-

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45

rIANNIn: LKAPIMIlA.I

TO 1821 KAI H AAHSEIA

't?'U AA~naaa Ivvcno; OtL 'to, an~ TIaQla'tQLE~ llYEIlOVlE~, XL vn-u« rou Y'ljJllAav'tll, * CEV ~'tav ESVLXO XaL on OL <PLALX~( ~aav «xaQllnovaQOL» 13. Movo (CEV) anoQw (01JrE) xm E~L~'tallaL YLa mv (XaL) oro CVO a'U'ta ( = 'to a~mpvo tou xLvlllla'tO~ XaL mv E~mpavLall trov <PLALxwv) mo)Jt~ trov ioroQLOCl<PWV Ila~. KaL EVVOCO a'U't~v no'U ... OL «EYXEXQLIlEVOL» 1l0VO YQa<po'UvE. KallllLa E~~Yllall CE Ila~ Cl VO'UVE, cootrv va (naQa La'tOQLXOL) mrrot El Val ... <pw'tOYQa<pOL! AAAa, II qxo'tOYQa<pla ByaivEL EnLnEcll, EVW II Iorootn 8EAEL XaL Ba80~ ( = tnv «'tQi'tll cLaa'taall» - nou nQoElna). L'tllV CE Iotopto, II XOL vwvLOAoyia Ei Val 'to Ba80~. ~Lon X 0 L V W V L X a E l V a L <pal vousvc 'tll~ Ia'tOQla~ rn YEyoVOta. AAA' uuto, OL EYXEXQLIlEVOL'tO nvvoouv, ~ av 'to ~EQO'UV, 'ljJEVCOV'taL W~ 0 ltaQall'USa~ XElVO~ M'UyxaO'U~EV ...

AAAa exeivo lto'U ltQaYllan - mrro - CEV 'to ~EQO'UV, EiVaL on 'to '21 CEV ~tav IlLa 'UJt08Eall nov - 1l0VOV -llQwLourov toirtou rou ESVO'U~. Ta YLa'tayavLa ECW Eltm~aV QOAo altA~~ cLacLxaala~. ME'ta~v CE cvo llALSlwV LTQa'tllYwv, 0 Eva~ xa't' avayxllv Sa VlX~aEL. To '21 ~tav Eva rp a L V 0 Il EV 0 ~vanav'tll'tO an~ Ioroote; oAo'U rou xoouou, 'Hrov YJ n Q W t YJ xm II 'tEAE'U'taia EW~ ECW EnaVaat,wYJ nou EcwaE cutovvoxn« XaL vOYJlla, ltEQlEQYELa XaL Il V~1l YJ otnv Koi votnro trnv avSQwltwv. ~EV EYLVE, OV'tE Sa ~avaa'UIlBEl reroio

ll'Ua't~QlO. 0 «TIlva~ ~lXaLWllatWv tou AvSQwJto'U» wXQLa ~LltQO~ ornv xQa'Uy~ tou '21. H «~Lax~Q'U~ll 'tll~ AVE~aQ'tYJouu» rou Oixiotvxttov Elvm IlLa ELc'UAALaX~ vwnoYQa<pLa IlltQo~ orov ~Laxo. H CE <pw'ta'ljJia rou MEaoAoyyio'U - am~ - ExallE va xAEiaEL (Yla va Illlv t'U<pAwSEi) rc Ilana II IoroQla. Na 1l't't1l8Ei ~'tav aCvva'tO. H viXll, II rooo acwa'tll, ~taV XaL BEBaL ll ... OL KOAoxmQwvllcE~, OL A vrpoutooi, OL I1alta<pAEaallcE~ aVatQE'ljJav 'to L'UVECQLO 'tll~ BLEvvll~. 0 METLEQVlX, 0 KaJtocia'tQLa~, 0 IyvatLo~ xaSllxav !lE~ atL~ (XXAE~ 'tYJ~ Ioroou«; ...

'Ou to-Avorreoo Ieoctsto XaL 'to <l>avaQLo CEV tnv ~SEAav XaL av'ticQaaav* ornv Eltavamaall - xallllLa all<PLBoAla. AAAa XaL OL A6YlOL 'tll~ CLaaltoQa~, EJtiaYJ~ CEV rnv ~SEAav. AlJto~ roinoc 0 alt' 'to'U~ E~Exov'ta~, Acallavno~ KoQa~~, 'tYJV E~oQxLaE IlE route tou tn A6YLa, cer' 'to TIaQim: «Min EltaVamam~ 'tWV EAA~vwv uno 'ta~ aYJIlEQLva~ ouv- 8~xa~, xa'ta 'tll~ 08wllavLx~~ A'U'tOxQa'tOQia~, EivaL xan UCLUVOll'tOv! ». Ta lla811lla'tLxa tou (llaSYJlla'tLxa tou nrrvtots unorrtou oQSov AOyo'U - rou AEYOIlEVO'U) cicaaXE Xl a'U'to~! H CE Y'¢llAOtEQll EAAllVLX~ Iloootomxotnto, 0 KunootatQLa~, 0XL 1l0VOV E<PQva~E * * oro uxouou« 'tWV ltQW'tWV

* «l1aQu TOle; 'EAAl]atV (one; ltaQa!AOVEe; rou '21) OEV EAEllpaV oi xaAovusvoi <jJQovlIlOl, OlIlE'tU 'tTje; xa8w'tTjxtliae; Xtl~EQV~OEOJe; ovvTaoOO!AEVOl, Toioutot ~oav EV ltQUl1OlC; Ol aVciJ'tEQOl XATjQlxoi, Ol OtlXl Ol' EtJOE~Eiac; XaL !Aa8~oEOJC;, aAAa OLa OlIlOJvlae; flaAAOV xm oOJQoooxlac; Touoxou BE~UQOtl UVa~aVTEe;» (K. MivOEAOOJV BUQ8oAOTj),

** Tnv lOLU yvciJllTj xru XELQo'tEQa IlEVEU ELXEV EX<jJQaOEL OlOV BaQoaAuxo XaL 10V NEYQTj nou ym mv lOlU OOtiAELa - HOmOl - YLa va lOV QOJT~OOVV «TL orcon 8u 'tTjQOVOE flltQoe; ornv Xtlo<jJOQOU!AEVl] EAATjVLX~ Emrvuotuon 0 mrroxQa1OQUe;;» 'tOY EltLOXE<jJ'tTjXUV, LWUflu ESEOOJXE xrn svruxo <ptJAAUOLO, coto-

* ,l1otl ~E~mu, OE,V 10tI ,U~l<jJLO~Tj'tOV!AE 10V <<'tQEXOV'tU» ltu'tQlOJ'tLOllo 'tOJV UVtJltO~TOJV, 0 TjQOJ~XOC; Utl1O; «OALY0!AVUAOe;» OEV ~'tuv ltaQu 8~u 'tTje; <l>tAlx~e; E't<;LQELUe; xm lo~mTEQU tou E~ltu80V; xm IlEYUAOti <1l<:nUOVAU turv YLU 'tOV uYOJva lt~OO~OQOJV 10tI ltUVEAATjVLOti. To «v U t U rp a OJ fl E v!» tou IlUXUQl'tTj LOA(j)~OVLOTj LOX~OEV (uVUOQO~lXU) OE OATjV 0XEOOV 'tTjV UVciJ'tEQTj xAiIlUXU 't~e; <I>.E. Olt~C; 8u LOTj'tE OTTjV «TQUltOtlAU» 1101.1 xrn croix EJtl 8vQme; «fUAmUOEC;» uou (YQa<jJOJ 10 1975).

46

47

rIANNIU: LKAPIMJlA2:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHElEIA

xaguocpuAAU:DV coto tlj MUVlj, aAAU xm :n:glV, ornv :n:gOtaalj tlj~ ¢l,Alitlj~ va ljYlj8EL ton aywva, aJtELAljaE toix cneorcxIlEVOU~ (to V Suv80) IlE a:n:EAaalj xm on 8a tOU~ EbEVE

r I

wgma ....

LtOV raAUtlj, :n:OU :n:gWtO~ tOU IlLAljaE YLa maVuataalj, o Ka:n:obLatgLa~ EL:n:E rout«:

tLXU rou ... «Q tlj~ avmaXUVtLa~ (cpWVU~EL xm 0 A VWV'UIlO~ tlj~ «EAAljVlXlj~ NOllagXLa~» aTlj aEA. 109) axugLaTa TExva tlj~ :n:atgLbo~! Ano :n:OLOV :n:goallEVEtE :n:agaxaAw aa~ tljv EAE'U8EgLav; 'H :n:goallEVEtE va EAEu8Egw80uv IlOVOl tOU~, xm E:n:ELta va unuYEtE aEL~, va EUgljtE EtOLlla rn aya8u xm va xagljtE nUAL v xatu to auvlj8LallEVOV aa~ EL~ toix Lbgwta~ tWV UAAWV;». 0 «uyvwato~» t'l1~ «EAA'l1VLXlj~ NounoXLa~» ELXE IlLAljaEL ()J~ :n:gocpljtlj~! Ma 0 ... unEgEAAljVL01l0~ tou Ka:n:obLatgLa, twga cpogaE goumxo xaAnuxL. Y nugXO'UV XUtL UV8gW:n:OL nou oou XEVtUV tljv aljbia. Lta anLtLa roue, ll:n:ogEL va Aoyobotuv Ilngo~ cue yuvaixE~ roix uno to cpo~o tlj~ naVtocpAa~ (LM xm MEya - AEEL ... - Ncetoxsovtu) aAAu o~w, oev blvo'UV AOYO AEEl, nagu IlOVO atlj a'UVELbljalj tOU~ ... xcu ornv Iorooiu! ... LtljV EAAuba, OL «MsvoAOL» uv8gwnOL ljaav ... Ol xuxA08uIlLXO(, Ol umogEAAljVE~ xru OL ~OglXOl! 0 «MtyUAO~» naAallu~, EXEL nou aouAtyE:

«~LU va aXEntEtm xavEL~, XUglE, nEgL tOLOUtOu aXEblou, ngE:n:a va Eivm tgEAAO~. ~lU va tOAllljalj bE, va 1l0U OIlLAljalj :n:EgL rotrtou, EL~ tOY otxov tOUtOV, oaoo EXW mv tlllljv va U:n:ljgEtW evov IlEya xm xgatmov autoxgutoga, :n:gEna va EL voi VEO~ oonc IlOAl~ E~ljA8EV uno roix ~guxou~ tlj; I8UXlj~ (0 raAUtlj~ ljtav eLaxo~) lj 0 onoioc :n:agEaug8lj bEv lj~EUg(J) uno nOL()Jv tUCPAWV :n:a8wv. ~EV ljll:n:ogw va ourAW lla~L aa~ :n:EgL0aOtEgov :n:EgL rou oxonoe tlj~ anOatoAlj; aa~, aa~ abo:n:Olw bE, on OUbE:n:OtE 8a cvcvvrooto rn xagtlU one. H IlOVlj aUIl~vAlj tljv onotov ljll:n:ogw va aa~ bwaw, ELvm va ll'l1v a:n:ljTE TL:n:OTE Ell; xuvsvu nEgL TOUTOV xm X(J)gL; v' aVa~UAAEtE OUtE IlLav wgav, va EJtlaTgE'tjJljtE, iva a:n:ljtE EL~ toU~ EVTOAEL~ aa; ou av bEV 8EAOUV va xa80Uv OL (blOL xm va xataatgE'tjJo'UV lla~L tou; to a8wov xm buatUXE~ E8vo~ tWV, :n:gErtEl v' acpljaow tUi; mavaatatlXU~ aXE'UwgLa~ tWV xm va ~OUV o:n:w~ :n:gl v uno ta~ xU~Egvljaa~ vcp' a~ EugLaXoVtm, EW~ orou lj 8Eta :n:govOLa EuboxljaEL UAAW~». *

IIQw{ xai AtonEQ{xvTYj Xat AtOXaA1J E{V' 1J f,1£Qa

x ' 1J Aerjva Olaf,1avronETQa aTYj~ yYj~ TO OaXTv).,{OI ...

on! ... to «yUgl~E to cpUAAO» xm tOY uxouyE~:

MOVQArj, yAwaaoxonava nOAITEla, xouuiioi x ' OVEIQEVETal TOV IIEQIXArj. Ma 0 XaaExrj~, TYj~ nQ£nEl!

o uv8gwno; tou bLba~E XL aVTO;, tc aVWtEga lla8ljlla-

( 0 Xuosxnc, 0 Tougxo; ~oE~oba~ nou tnv tuguWljaE ceto to 1775 w~ to 1795).

tELVOf!fVO olJf!omu croix Of!OYEVEL<; XUL «LOWLtEQWe; reQo<; Mo EYXQLtOU£ «voQue; rou 'E8vou<;»(;) onou aWLGWUGE ... ELQl]VlJV XUL oo~u ooi 0 ElEO;!' .. (K. IIarcuQQlJyoreouAo;, «Em rouoc», GEA. 551).

* ~. KOXXLVOe;, o.n., t. I. GEt.. 136.

o UAAO~ EXEivo~ MqUAO;, 0 EAEu8EgLO~ BEVL~EAO~,

48

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rIANNfIT LKAPIMfIA1:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

ovroaeoovrov OtL «Axoun XaL axov to ESVO~ Sa to OWOEL». * 0 KanoNotQLa~ tEtOLO~ ~tav. « ... E~ anou dXE t11V YVW~lJV OtL fVW uno an0'i'EW~ 'UALXWV [)'Uva~fWV OL EnlJVf~ fUQioxovto EV ~ELOVfXnX~ SEOEL evovn tWV Touoxrov, x a l lJ n v f u ~ a t L X ~ X a tao tao L ~ e V E A A a b L b e V ~to tOLavtlJ co o r e va EnLtQEn11 t11V OVOtaOLv x Qat 0 'U ~ E U V 0 ~ 0 v ~ E V 0 U». * * ( H unoYQa~IlL011 blX~ uou). EcpSEYYftO «MfyaAavbQLOti» 0 xaxo~oiQ11~ XL a~ ~l1V dXE 0 ibLO~ outs nVEvlla, OmE ESVLXLOIlO. To tEAEutalO xouxi an' to ~E~nlAL tOU IlnaxaAlJ, ~EQEL 1l0vaXO tOU, nw~, QLXVOIlEVO OtOV x~no, va EXtEAEl tOY «XOUXLXO» nQooQLOIlO rou, 0 lbLO~, bEY IlnoQWE va EXtEAEOEL tOY bLXO rou, Tooo bE, xi VlJOE tnv alJbLa XaL autov tOU AAE~avbQou, nou (aurov - 'EAAlJVa unouQYo tou) tOU EbwOE (ust" aAAwv) yLa t11V nE~E~EvLXOtlJta tOU, rn ltaltOVtOLa: «OALYOV OIlW~ xcr.' OALYOV 0 toaQo~ AAE~avbQo~, agXtOE va ltaQallEQl~l1 tOU; Ulto'UQYov~ tOU XaL ... bL11VSUVE autonQoowlt())~ tlJv E~WtEQLX~V ltOALtLX~V, IllJ cxouorv ta~ yvwlla~ rorv OUIl~OVA())V tOU» ( Eyx'UxAOnaLb. AE~. EAE'USfQoubax11, r. 7, OEA. 251). 'EtOL, VOtEQa alto OUVEX~ «tQL~lllata rorv oovtuov» xata tlJ~ TouQxla~ XaL aVtaAAaYE~ tEAfOLYQacpwv tOU AAE~avbQou (XaL tOU bLabfxSEVtO~ «urov NlxoAaou tOU A'), cptaoous XaL OtOV p())OOtOUQXLXO nOAfllO tOU 1828, OltOU us t11 ouvS~XlJ tlJ~ AbQLaVOUltOAEW~ OL TOVQXOL avayxaotlJxav va avaYV())QLoOUV t11V aVE~aQtlJOla t11~ Enaba~.

Ta, YLa tOU~ A6you~ t11~ «altOxwQlJO~~» tOU alto to rooQLXO UltOUQYLALXL tOU, alto tOY L b L 0 V tOY KaltobiotQLa AEyollEva OtL~ OEA. 27 EW~ 31 rou 60u tOIlO'U tlJ~ IotOQia~ tOU KOXXLVOU, Elvm alto tL~ LOtOQLE~ nou 0 KlltALYX tL~ EAEyEV «a A A E ~» ... 0 tOaQLxo~ auto~ xa~aQLnO~, nou ElttUOOE IlltQO~ OtOV AutoxQatoQLxo KVQLO tOU, nou ltEta~E IlE tL~ XAWtOLE~ o~w alto to [QacpELo tOU, ornv IlEtQovltOAlJ, tov 3avSo, tOY [aAatlJ, tov BaQSaAaxo xm toy NEYQlJ, EltELb~~ tOAlllJOaV va tOU IlLA~OOUV YLa tlJv EAAlJVLX~ EltaVacreon, 0 avSQwlto~ nou alto to Aa'U~ax anEvSuvE rnv, alto 24 tau MaQtl11821, OtOV ~b11 EV nA~QEL EnaVaOtaoEL xata t11~ TouQxLa~ ~QLOXOIlEVOV AAE~. Y'i'lJAaVt11V, EXElVlJV emOtOA~V tOU, OltOU, IlEta~v tWV YLa tOY «KVQLO rou» autoxQatOQa ~EQamLxwv xWAOToullnwv rou, EAEYE OtOV Yipnj.avt11 Ott: «H PWOla El VUl EL~ ELQ~v11v IlEta tlJ~ Ofhourrwx~~ 1l0vaQxla~L .. » (E, EltLXELQlJlluL .. ) xrn rton IllJ yvwQL~Ovta~ to «XQovobtaYQalllla» tOU Y'i'lJAaVtlJ, va OltEVOEtltQO~ rc xatw (= ltQO; tOY MWQLa xm tlJ POVIlEAlJ) xm VOlll~Ovta~ on 0 OXOltO~ tOU ~tav ltQO~ uovov tlJV Eltavaotao11 tlJ~ MoAbauta~ (anWOtE xm on; EltaVaOtanXE~ ltQOXlJQv~El~ ron, no'USfva bfV cpal vovtov mSavo Xatl tEtOLO - toolJ ntov 11 altatEWVla t11~ <l>tAlX~; nou toy ~altOOtELAE) tOU EAEYf: «H, fL; t11V MOAba'U"tav fXQaydoa b11IlEYEQoia, bEY ("YlNCt.tm xut.' oubEva AOYOV va blXmwolJ blaQQlJ~Lv IlEta~v tWV Mo b'UvaIlEwv» (~. KOXXLVO;, r; I, OEA. 203) - Val, auto; AOlltOV 0 avSQwlto;, bEY ~ltoQfi lto'USfva va otaSd OE xaSaQa VfQa tOU '21... T11V fSvlxilv anoxataota-<JlJ rnv ~ ~AEUE, YLatl i1~fQE (OltW~ xm E yL VE) on bEY Satav auto~ 0 EXAEXtO; t11~ ... Lt11V EAAaba «XAlJSEL~» i1QSE xata ... ouyxata~aolJ Yla va t11~ YLVEL ~aOLALa; tlJ~. 'OXL on SaLav

* 0 !-IT] EXWV (mrtoc) anO(J1;OA~V, EiVaL Eva~ ouvav8Qwrm; XQ~Ol!-lO;. 0 vO!-li1;;wv (smrrov) au EXEl- an' uurov va qmAaYWtE. ..

** EyxuxAonaLb. AE~. EAEU8EQoubaxT], t. 4, OEA. 151.

50

51

rIANNfIT LKAPIMIlAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

XELQ6tEQO~ a:rto LO'U~ - rots - 'U:rt01jJ~cpLO'U~ xm E:rtLCO~O'U~ LO'U SQOVO'U 'trl~ (LO'U~ O:rtOLO'U~ - OAO'U~ - !lOAa'tU'lJm LO'U~ E'tLVa~E aLOV aEQa!. .. ) aAAa yta va EL!laa'tE pEpmOL xm :rtQaOL ...

To '21, !lOVO !lE 'tl']~ :rtvE'U!la'tLx~~ - !la~ - aQtaLOxQa'tLa~ 't'Y] SEA1']a1'] CEV EYLVE, aAAa EYLVE xm EVaV'tLa 't1']~ SEA1']a~~ 't1']~. H aVE~aQ't1']aLa CEV «EX!lmEuS1']XE» cero 'tll AOYLU)'tanx~ LocpLa rorv - 'taXa'tL~ - «~LCaaXaAWV LO'U rEVO'U~» (LO'U~ O:rtOLO'U~, OU'tE dCav :rtO'tE, OL 'tLVa~aV'tE~ rnv OSW!lavLX~ a'U'toxQaLOQLa otov aEQa)' :rtOAU :rtEQLaao'tEQo CEV EYLVE nrto Xa'tL SQ'UAOU!lEVO'U~ cpQayxoAEpUV'tL vou; xm I vvcuotx, aAAa xa'taX't~S1']xE uno tn YLa'tayaVLa rcov Ilssonovvqrnmv xm 'tll~ POU!lEA1']~. H E:rtaXoAo'US~aaaa AE'U'tEQla, 'tL:rtO'tL~ a'ULO'Uvorv CEV LO'U~ XQCJJa'taEl. Av, uno 't1'] SEAlla~ LO'U~ mrro ~aQnotrrve, axo!la CPEat Sa CPOQaya!lE ...

LLOV ~axo'Ua'to'tEQo a:rt' LO'U~ AOYLw'taLO'U~ a'U'tou~, LOV ACa~laV'tLO KOQa~, 0 ~'UaaEa~ - Eva~ «aYQa!l!la'tOc,;» - EYQa1jJE a'tL~ 20 LO'U A:rtQLAll rou 1821 Eva YQa!l!la coto LO 'Aotooc oto TIaQLat, YLO!la'tO coto OLX'tO a'tll aocpLa ron xru cero a'UyxaA'U!l!lEv1'], crnv OL 1']a~ tou, :rtEQLCPQov1']oll, rtou (usoro tou a'UyxExQL!lEVO'U, xrrr' emqxrvanv, ovourrtoc, 't1']V aV'taVaXAan :rtQO~ OAO'U~ rou xmQou rou):

naSwv, n EXEQCLaa~; H EAAa~ EXEL avayX1']v oou xm OAWV 't(J)V nEnmCE'U!lEvWV O!l0YEVWV. AOL:rtOV, a'U!lnaQaAapwv oooix c'Uv1']S~~ !la~L oou, EASE va a'UvaYCJJvLaS~~ us LO'U~ aCEAcpou~ oou rov CLxmo'ta'tOv xm VO!lL!lw'ta'tOv naQ' OAO'U~ roue AOLnouc; aywva~ tou xoouou ... 0 'ULO~ oou OC'UaaEu~ AVCQL roou». * TIQOC; CE rov N EOCP'U'tO Ba!lpa* * rc E~~C;: «TL 'tQounwaE;, OQE KaAoYEQE, a'U'tou orn <l>QaYXLa xm us E'UXE; xm Xa'taQE; SEAEL~ va p01']S~aEL; 't1'] c'Ua't'UXta!lEV1'] no'tQLCa; Lav 't1']v ayana; EAa ECW va LCEt; 'tL; nA1']YE; 't1']; xm va 't1'] p01']8iJGEL;».

o KOQa~c;; ~EV ~'tav ... xaxo~ avSQwno;! 'Evuc EAA1']VOyaAAO; CPlAEAA1']va; rtou exove xm 'UnoXQEW'tLXE~ ouoioxc'taA1']~LEC;: «raAAOt xrn rQmxot CE!lEVOL / ue cpLALav 1']VW!lEVOL / CEV etvrn rQmxoL ~ raAAOL / aAA' EV ESVO~ - I'ooixoyaAAOL / xQa~OV'tEe;: acpavtaS~'tCJJ / xm EX 't1']~ Y1']~ E~aAElcpS~'tW / 1'] xa'taQa'tOC; Co'UAELa. / Z ~'tW 1'] EAE'USEQLa! ... » (AC. KOQa~ « 'Aouo TIoAE!lLa't~QLOv», 1800). «Y n1']QE't~aa'tE touc raAAO'UC; !lE nQoS'U!lLaV, :rtQoacpEQa'tE Etc; a'U'tau~ 'ta nQo; ~(J)~v avayxa(a. B01']S~aa'tE us 'tCt XaQaPLa, us 'tae; XEtQa~, us 'ta; xaQciae;, xm !lE rnv ~w~v aa; a'U't~v, av 1'] XQELa 'to XaAEa1'] tou; cpLAO'Ue; LO'U EAAllVLXOU yEVO'U~ ... » (rou LCLO'U, TIaQaLvEatC; nQo; rQmxoue;, - nE~~ am~ - 'Uno 'toy 'tL'tAO «LaAmal.la nOAE!llm~QLOv», 1801.*** Na, E!lEtC; at ~'UnoA'U-

« ... A v a'UYYQa1jJ1']; a; tou; OAt yO'UC; oou XQovo'UC; 'ta 'U'V'llAO'tEQa nQaY!la'ta Xat 1'] EAA(iC; nEa1'], 'tL; 1'] wcpEAaa; A v OAat OL !lE'ta tauta mwvEC; oreqxrvoxroxn rou; xonou; oou us toix Aa!lnQOtEQo'U; maL VO'U~ xm 1'] EAAa~ lld vn naAL v 'Uno ~'Uyov, rtoiu co~a; Av ou, ne; oALya AOyta, anaSavatLat~; a'UYYQacpwv, Xat 1'] natQL; naQacoS~ a; ta~ XELQa; tou aYQLo'U t'UQavvo'U, ~ EL; t1']V CLaXQlat v t(J)V avSQwnl vorv

* ~lj!l~TQljC; <l>wuCtCljC;, «KaYCtQljC;», afA. 212.

** KAljQLXOC; (1770-1855). TuqJAOC; (J"UYfQyo.tljC; TO'lJ «fqJE'UQETlj» (<<&oQeWt~ tljC; X'lJ6a(ac;» TOY AEEl 0 K. rrWtaQQljyonO'lJAOC;) A6. KOQa~. ~L6aSf =atQo.~waE (EYW W sinu, lj a Y Q a !l f.I a Twa 11 Y lj 8 a !l n c; a 0) a f L... ) ornv IoyLO Axa6lj!l(u xru UQYOtEQa oro «A8~Yljat» rraYEnLOt~!lLO, !lEXQL W 1853.

*** «rrElQa'(x~-rrmQa'(x~» - «H LW~OA~ W'lJ KOQa~ orov AywYa TO'lJ '21». Tflr,(oC; 155, IaY.-<l>E~Q.-Mo.QTLoC;, 1971.

52

53

rIANNill ~KAPIMI1A~

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

'tOL ... ~0'll8~aO'U!lE rou; ... raAAO'UC;! (Iloptov xm oro ya!lO oou va oou nH ... xm tou XgOVO'U! Tov EiXav anO~AaXWaEL OL «E~A'llVLX01)gE~» rou, XOA'U!lnaEL ornv EYXEcpaALX~ !laAax'UVa'll tou), Kruerooot an' amouc; roix aocpOAOYLwtata'UC; t'll~ 6Laanogac;, OU'tE t'llv EAA'llVLX~ YAwaaa 6EV Xata6Ext'llxav (~ 6EV ~~Egav) va ygacpo'UV. LT'll AE~'ll EAAAL (r, 5, aEA. 403 rou Eyx'UxAon. AE~. EAE'U8EgO'U6ax'll) 6La~a~w route: «Kuto tOY mwva roirrov (= 170) wc; xm xata roue ngo'llyo'U!lEVO'UC;, 6LacpogOL 'EAA'llVE£ I.OYLOl E~E6wxav ~L~ALa ELC; Aa~LvLx~V YAcilaaav W£ OL Mat8aioc; ~E~ag'll£, MLxa~A Mago'UAoc;, Iwaw'll£ KwaTOuvLO;, <l>gayxiaxo~ Ilootoc, AL!liALOC; Iloorog, AEWV AnatLO;, NlxoAaoc; TIana6. Kouvnvoc, <l>gayxLaxoc; Ma'UgoAuxoC;, AAE~. EAAa6Loc;, Mag. Xag~oug'll; x.o.». Krn ama tc EAA'llvwVU!la axata, !lac; rn AEVE - XL' ama! - AOYLO'U:; xm ~L6aaxaAO'UC; taU E-

8vo'UC;!... -

EAA~VWV ... 0 raMo; ngotEivEL, va gwt~ao'UV Evav agXLEgEa, Yla va !la80'Uv tL cpgovEi Yla t'll aXAa~La to'U rEVO'UC; rou:

lam) a~ eooroioonu» rovrov rov nOAVYEV1]V M1]rQonOAir1]~ tpaivettu, xauve: rov LJ1]floaOEV1]V. E' avr6v OtAEl yvwQiaWflEV rov ~~AOV r1]~ Toaixiai; av eivai CPlAEAEVOEQO~ ~ cpiAO~ TVQavvia~.

XaiQE navieoostaie xat YEVO~ tn; Toaixuu;

nw~ vnocpEQEl~ rov svyov r1]~ TovQxo'U TVQavvia~; viaii exatavmoate tnv cpwrelV~V EMaoa

aOAWV, xaxOQQl1;,lX1]V· xas w~ aj3var~v Aaflnaoa;

o M'll'tgonoAi't'llC;

Twga, !lE'ta coto T'll 6ELY!lataA'll1jJia tau ... natglwna!lOU tWV ,AOYLWta'tWV" a:; nagO'U!lE Xl Eva cxouc 6Et Y!la TTl; - oro 21- a'U!l~OAlE rou AVW'tEgO'U IEgaTElo'U. Movov Otltou - 8avm ormo«, «EAA'llVlX~ tl:; otruou»" AEEl 0 TsoucVOC; amoc; Iorooixo; rou '21 rton tOY nOA'UavacpEgvcD (Xl aAAOL, Xl aAAOL ), acp'llYEitm t'llV El:; t'llV EAAa6a EAEUOlV tglWV ~EVCOV xm ooo a'UVCO!tLAl1aaV !lEta tCOV EVt'UXOVtWV

Na EXETE texva tnv WX~V uou

»a axovaare tnv axoxoioiv uo». Eyw rov ~vyov OEV rov YVWQl1;,W

ovre gEVQW va rov vofl((,W.

TQwyw, xivo), 1jJaMW ue w6vfliav OEV uxopeoco note TVQavviav.

Tore vnocpEQw a01]floviav

oatu; ue j3Aa1jJEl otnv exaoyiav. Avr~ rov Totioxo» 1] iuoavvia,

a ' EflE eivai ~W~ uaxaoia.

Acpov TO Qaaov touto eipooeoa, nUov Tlva ~vyov Ocv EyvwQwa,

avo xotk», xai ua ra~ Elxova~ tumoa nOMa xcu xaAa~ xoxxwva~. IIcQi r1]~ EMaoo~ nov Ure

OEV tu: flEMEl xt a~ TVQaVVIErat.

_ * «H o~uQa clt~~ (= n ~aQcmayw) ~01J ayaqJ,EQYEl ° rEQf.LayO~ Ioroorxo; (- 0 BaQ,8oAOl]) ~~E8l]XE tfllQa tEAEutma OE aYtlYQaqJ0, OE xwolxa EYCl~ f.L0- Y~Otl]QlOU tOU AyLOU 'Opou; cero toy Eu8uf.LLO KouQ1Aa nOl' XaL tl]Y EOl]f.L0- meum-: ota,"8woaAlxa XQOYlXa" (r, 3, 1931)>> (f. KOQocnoc;, «LE).iOEC; ctno tl]Y IOTOQLa tOU AYQotLXOU KlY'llf.LntOe; ctnv EAAaoa», EXOOOl] IOTOQlxou <IltAOAOYlXOU Ivoutourou naYYl]~ KOQMtoC;. A8~ya 1964, OEA. 23-25).

54

55

fIANNlIT LKAPIMIIAI

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

M' av f3aaui~EI XWQ{~ va OTEva~EI OAa~ ra~ af.1aQr{a~ Evya~EI.

( .... )

Cuva'tov va vLxT]8~ Eva rooov f.,lEYUAOV ~aoLAELOv; Hf.,lEL~ CEV T]f.,lJtOgoUf.,lEV va xU~EgvT]8wf.,lEV f.,lOVOL f.,la~. Ilof va EugOJusv Eva UAAOV ~amAEa rooo EuoJtAayxvov, XaL rooov xaAOV; ... f.,lUALo'ta EXELVOL OL ~gOJf.,lOUgXOV'tE~ 'tT]~ KcovoruvnVOUJtOAEOJ~, onou OOOV 'tucpo~ XaL aAa~ovELav Exoum, UA-

AT]V 'tOOT]v af.,lu8ELav TL AOLJtOV T]f.,lJtogw vn 'tOU~ ELJtOJ CLU

va 'tOU~ xa'taJtELoOJ; Na 'tOU~ xgu~OJ, LOOJ~, a'tLf.,lOU~; AU'

rnrtoi to EXOUV CLU JtgO'tEgT]f.,la» ( OEA. 201 - 204).

Axouo; Xl amo~ 0 KaJtoNo'tgLa~, roix mxaLvov'tav XaL 'tOU~ E~gLaE CLaygaJt'tws rou croix 'tgEL~ Nauugxou~ 'tOJV ~UVUf.,lEOJV - av8gwJtou~ ~EVOU~! Axouo, EVW T] EAAuCa Jtal~ov'tav f.,lOVU - 1;uyu aVUf.,lEOa If.,lJtgaTjf.,l XaL «JtgOJ'tOXOAAOJV» 'tOJV ~UVUf.,lEOJV va 'tT]~ acpE8d T] AEmEgLu 'tT]~, ~ va ~avauJtax8EL uno 'toy MaXf.,lou'tT], rn E8vLXU amu xa8ugf.,la'ta, OL AgXLEgEL~ XL 0 TIa'tglugXT]~ roue, 0 uev touto; us «oi YLAALa», VOU8E't~OEl~ O'tOU~ 'EAAT]VE~, OL CE EXELVOL o uv o Ss oo v t a ~ 'tOY KLomax~ XaL 'toy If.,lJtga~f.,l a u t 0 rt goo wJt OJ~, tnv EJtL~OUAEuov'tav Ef.,lJtu8Ixa ... Na 'tL ygucpEL 0 KoJtoNo'tgLa~ otou; Nauagxou~, O'tL~ 3 rou MUT] 1828 uno tnv AL yL va:

( .... )

Iliottv va EXOVV arov Baoisea xai aEf3a~ arov AQXIEQEa.

Etov Tovoxo r ' aoxoa va f.1YJ Avnovvral rote yaQ rqv 1jJvxrjv WcpEAovvral.

Kat AQXIEQEWV xaoonoias;

xat nana(jwv nOMa~ AElTOVQy(a~. o nVEVf.1arl'X,O~ TOV~ (jIOQI!;,EI

nw~ nQEnEI xaveii; va 6cCPTEQI!;'EI. AVTO{ aQxtaav va xaoaxovoi

xai OAOl EAEV()EQ{av cpQovovm.

LIla TOVTO xai 1]f.1d~ cnnupowocue« of.10V f.1E TOV~ Toooxov; TOv~ f3aQoVf.1Ev.

K ' 01 'X,O'X,'X,WVE~ eivai f.1Eya Oossua EV'X,OAVVOVV yaQ TO 'X,a()E nQaYf.1a. <P()avEI yovv YJ ioon axosovia I(jOV yvvrj CPEQEI naQQ1]a{a.

A~ Jtaf.,lE 'twga XaL orov Avorvouo 'tT]~ «EAAT]VLXTj~ Nof.,lagxLa~»: « ... Exsivot OL au'tof.,la'tOL XaL oU'tLCaVOL ,UgXOV'tE;, OL cpLAUgyugOL XaL af.,la8d~ agXLEJtLOXOJtOL ... EXEL VOL OL cu- 8uCEL~ XaL ovtox; ~ug~agOL JtgOEO'tOl... TL AEyoum AOLJtOV, cnrtot OL ~gOJf.,lEgO( XaL XuCaLo'ta'tOL uv8gOJJtOL; IIw~ EL Vat

« ... Keto f.,lEOOV CE roooutrov xaxoJta8ELwv XaL OJ~ EJtLcd vrou« Xat OL aJtEo'taAf.,lEVOL 'tT]~ TIog'ta;, acpou f.,lE'tU tou Klou'taxTj XaL rou If.,lJtgaTjf.,l Jtaou CLExOLvoAoyTj8T]oav, ~T]rouv CLU 'tOJV OUVOCEUOV'tOJV amou~ agXLEgEOJV EAATjVOJV va EA80uv Jtgo~ 'tT]v EUT]VLX~V xU~EgvT]mV XaL OUVOf.,lLATjOOUV. TIgoT]yTj8T] CE mrtcov EJtW'tOA~ 'tOU TIa'tgLugxou KcovoruV'tLVOUJtOAEOJ~ Jt g 0 t g E Jt t L X Tj Jtgo~ rou; 'EAAT]Va~, ~C T] v v co o t n OJ~ CT]f.,l00LEU8doa CL' OAOJV t OJ v lOU g (0 Jt a .( X w V E cp T] f.,l E g ( C OJ V XaL JtEgLExouoa

56

57

rIANNHI ~KAPIMIIAI

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

(~. KOXXLVO~, r. 12, aEA. 69).

Tooo CE ~tav to IlEVO~ X.al to JtEv80~ tWV av8gd)Jt{J)v ourcov YLa rnv uno tOY KaJtociatgLa taaxOOt~ JtgoaxOAAl]all otnv E~o'UaLa, coots: « ... otov mv 7l]v Invoucotou rou 1831, E{J)gtua8l], oJtOO~ xut.' EtO~, l] mEtELO~ tl]~ aJto~uaEOO~ rou KaJtociatgLa £L~ to NauJtALOv, 0 Koxrtuxrp; Kagat~u~, xatOLXWv EL~ IlEYUAl]V OLxiav tl]~ XEVtgLXi}~ JtAatELa~ tou rtAatUvo'U, CLEta~E va xAELao'UV oAa ta rtagu8'Uga xrn va Ill]v avu'\jJo'Uv OmE Eva <poo~ xatu tl]V vuxto, EVW xa8' oAa~ ta~ uAAa~ l]IlEga~ to artLtL i}to cpootaYOOYl]IlEVOV» (~. KOXXLVO~, t. 12, OEA. 412). Q~ rtgo~ tOY KartOCLOtgLa; A'UnUllal. 8a E~ayvL~OVtaV YLa rn rtaALu rou allagti}llata, av to'UAUXLOtOV OAO'U~ a'Utou~ (Kagat~UCE~, Ma'UgoxogCUto'U~ Xal KOOAEttl]CE~, ouv EXtLVOL~ tOL~ ... IlE rn E'Ugoona'Lxu uo- 8i}llata cptaaIlEvOL~) roue ECEVE XWAO IlE XWAO Xal tou; rpouVtUgL~E orov KogLv8Laxo xuva ~gaCuxL ... 8a ~Ellayugl~Ev o tOrtO~.

rounn«, E~ OOV nEgl rrov YL vstrn vax a g a x t l] g L a 00 tl]v EJtl~O'UA i}v Xal tOY oxonov tcov artOOtOAWV tl]~ Ilooru;» (Oi 'UnoygaIlIlLaEL~ CLXE~ 1l0'U).

~tOV c£ rtgL yXl]rta Mlxai}A LOUtOO OtO TIagLOl, va u Eyga<pE atl~ 27 tou rEvugl] to 1831 cero to NaurtALO, YLa rou; <l>avagLWtE~ YEVlXU, Xal ELClXU Yla tc xatacptuoavta cor' ta~ E'Ugwrta~ AOYla AExugla rou XaLgou, YlatL OL oopogocpavEL~ tuxa tou rEVO'U~ Ila~ ~lCUXOL, ~ Eixav nagaYEguOEl oro ClUatl]lla, i} dxov El~ KUgLOv artOCl]Ili}OEl ... « ... TIOLOL CE EL Val OL UV8gooJtOL Ot aaAEuovTE~ XaL ayoovl~oIlEVOL va CP£QOOOl to rtuv UVOO-XUTOO, * oa~ to EOl]IlELoooa Et; tn rtQOl]YOUIlEVU ygullllatU uou, EL Val (O'lJYXOOQi}oat£ IlOL va rou; OVOIlUOW IlE to nEQLAl]JltLXOV TOOV ovoua) OL <l>avagLWtaL, tLVaL OALYOL ~£VOL OL OrtOLOL CEV l]c'Uv~8l]oav va xuIlOOOl v UAAOO~ xatUataOl v, OAL yOL JtQOXQL tOL, oi tl VE~ i}8EAav va CLallOlQaa8wOl ta ntooxu ELao[)i}llata rou XOLVOU, X'UglEUOVtE~ £xaato~ tl]v EJtaQXLav rou, XaL OAL ym VEOL EQXOIlEVOL El~ rnv EAAuCa IlE E~ootEQlXU lla8~llata» ( ~, KOXXlVO~, t. 12, aEA. 398).

To ElJta XaL to ~avaA£OO: To '21 CEV i}tav ouoio IlE xallIllU mavuataol] tou xOaIlO'U. To Ott, nagu toy MEttEQVLX XaL to L'UV£CglO Tl]~ Bl£VVl]~, nagu tOY Illrtgai}1l XaL toy IyvUtLO, Jtagu toy Kogai} XaL toy BQ'Uwvl], nagu tl]v ovnCgaOl] tou IEgatELo'U XaL rcov ngoxgLtooV, unooeoe XaL va EXQayEi Xat va oTa8EL, mrro CEV ~tav 8aulla - YlatL to 8auIla Ei Val IlLa JtaQa~iaal] tl]~ <p'UOlxi}~ CLaCLxaoLa~ tl]~ UAl]~ (nguYllata tl]~ CtxaLoCooia~ rorv Ayioov Ila~). To '21 i}tav ~tla Edvtxo-Korvorvtxf mavuataol], ngwtl] Xat l] tEAE'UtaLu tl]~ Iorooicc. Xtunnoe tOY KLO'Utaxi} XaL toy ~gullaAl], ooo XaL toy VtOrtLO Toogllnat~i} XaL tOY c'Uvuatl]. Anoflerooe toy Kavugl], EVW XatEAa~E tnv KayxEAAagia tl]~ 'Y6ga; E~ ECPOCO'U. Ki}CE'\jJE tOY Mugxo Mxorouon XaL tOY MJtu'U-

* EJtQOXEtW TOTE, JtEQi EUQUTanjC; ouvcouootce; JtQoe:; uJtoJto!!nl'jv rou Kuno6ioTQtU, TOU atWVtOU MuuQoxoQcaTou xcn rou YEQO-I1ETQ~JtETl (U!!qJOTEQWv uJto~AEnoVTwv orov 8Qovo TTlC:; EAAafue:;!),~' uml'jv, oW!!E8£~uv XL EXEiVOL OL [!E TU «E~WTEQlxa !!U8l'j[!UTU» VEl'jAuCEC:; «EUEAmoWUvTEC;» OTTlV xa8E~l'] UVCJ:naTWV U~tW!!aTWV xrn O<P<PlTOtWV, OUV UVTa~La Jtmbta TWV «~Lcaxwv WU rEVOUC;» Xat TWV aA.A.wv TL'X0CtWXTWV WU «yAWOOEAATlvi~ovwc:;» OXUAOAOylOU:

Krrr' uwXiu WUC:;, 0 Kuno6ioTQtUC; CEV l'jTUV ... XmWTE(lOC; oru TEWlU. 'Htnv W «OXATlQOTEQO XUQVCt» TTlC; «!!ETEJt0Xl'jC;» TOU '21...

58

59

fIANNln: LKAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

QOV, EVW 01a BEQBmva SaOcpa~E 1:OV Ilusoiorv TIalQWV xm 1:OU~ :rtQOXQL 1:OU~. EL vor MEyaAo, 0XL YLa 1:L~ a:rtaV1:T10E~ (nou bEY boS'I1xav), aAAa YLa 1:L~ nou ESWE EQW1~OEL~: M:rtOQEL va Eva~ Aao~ VOEL tru AEU1EQO~, us !lOVO 1'11V ESVLX~ aVE;aQl'110La lOU; H aAW0'l1 1'11~ Ba01LAA'I1~, AEEL 0 X L. AAAa 1:OU '21 OL EQW1~OEL~ ELvm buo: XWQL~ 1'11V ESVLX~ aVE;aQ- 1'11oLa 1:OU~ OL AaoL !l:rtoQoUv va aAwvouv 1:l~ BaolLAAE~ 1:OU~; T'I1v EQW1'110'l1 aUl~, :rtQwla 1'11V ESEOE, !l:rtQo~ 01:OU~ L01:OQLxou~ 1:OU XOO!lOU, 1:0 '21. KL rnrtoi, E!lELvaV xoxxaAo - bEY ~;EQav lL v' a:rtaVl~OOUV... 010 10aQoUxt!... H EQW1'110'l1 1:OU~ ~QSE ouv xEV1La BOUXEV1QOU ~EUYOAal'11 01a O:rtLOSLct. 'Hoov 0 OVO~ 0 aQVOU!lEVO~ vn blctOXEAlOEL 1:0 ctUAaXL. BaAS'I1XctV va tjJaxvouv AOL:rtOV 1~V ImOQLa... Iloudevc, :rtouSEva xa!l!lLa lE1:OLct ... aAAOU ELbou~ laQctX~, xcvevo lE- 1:OLO 01QctBO!lOU100UvLaO!lct ... 1:OU «WQctLOU»! Mov'I1 '11 aVE;aQl'110La XWQL~ 1'11V XOLVWVLX~ Xalct;LWO~ 1'11~ etvru 1:0 CPUAAO 1'11~ OUX~~ us 1:0 O:rtOLOV '11 Eixr EXQuBE. .. 1:0 «:rtQa!lct» 1'11£. TL AOL:rtOV; Ta ~EQBEvaXLa xru 1:0 ZaAOYYO, 1:0 MWOAOYYL xm 1:0 BaA1Elm, 1:0 NctUaQLVO xm 1:0 TIQW10XOAAO (YLct 1'11V aVE;aQl'110La) 1:OU AovbLVOU, OA' ama Sa !lVEOXav !latrue, XWQL~ 1:0 ocpa;L!lO lWV :rtQOXQllWV; (XWQL~ I'll Ba01LAA'I1, '11 ctVE;aQl'11oLa 1:L 1:OU~ XQELa~OVlctV lWV faAAWV; TIoOE~ bExaQE; a;L~OUV O~!lEQct OL «aVE;ctQl'110LE~» 1'11~ EUQw:rt'l1~; ).

ALO~ lry~ :rtaQO~!lLct~ us rn QotJxa 1:OU: ~1av 1:0 «1:L fLavv'l1~, lL fLavvctx'l1;»: E rot EL voi. *

Krn W01E, !lLct u o v 0 V ESVLX~ encvcorcon, XWQL~ 1'11V XOLVWVLX~ Xalct;Lwo~ 1'11~, ELvm !lLU «qxnvousvoqxrvan» nou ~OVOV .ava~ct~O!l~VO 10 «xalE01'11!lEVO» 1'11V E:rtL1QE:rtEL; ~1at a voi, ':;-EcpuAALOctlE 1'11V I010QLa !lEXQL ru O~!lEQa xm

:rtE01E !lOU xcvo nou va !l'l1V ELvm - aUl0 - Elm. ExrrtovtnbE~ ESVLXE~ mctVaolaOEL~ :rtEluxav ~ ct:rtoluxav, aAAa Xct!l~La ESVLXOXOL:WVLX~ bEY mLXELQ~S'I1XE. OL !l0VO XOLVWVLXE~, onou lWV XQovwv xm lWV xmQwv, onot: 1'11~ Y'I1~ xrn 1:OU :rtEAaou, xrrtunvi Y'I1xav ucoo 010 aL!la 1:OU~, aVEAE'I11a ... Mo, Sa !lOU nsirs: '11 I' a A A l x~, bEY ~1av am~ XOlVWVLX~; Koi Sa or«; nco: Mo, :rtvLX1'11XE ... H 4'11 la;'I1, 0 Aao~ (OL xm «aBQaXWWL» El:rtWSEV1E~) X1U:rt~S'I1XE aYQLa xm «YOU)J,01'11XE» cero 1'11V ~01lX~ la;'I1 ccv Xlct:rtobL. MOAl~ :rtQoAaBE XL EBaAE CPW1Lct OE Xct!l!lLa EXctl00l~ TIUQYOU~ ctcpEVlabwv 1:OU XL Eoq;a;E !lEQLXE~ XLhabE~ EUYEV~bE~. Arto Emoxonouc; :rtoM AL y01EQOU~. Ln~ Mo M:rtQU!lEQ, «XctSaQLOE» XL aAAE~ 10U~ ~tEQlXE~ XLALabE~ yctAct~OaL!la1:OU~ xcu O!lOLOU~ 1:OU~ aAL1~QLOU~, 01a !l:rtOUV1QOU!lLa. AU10 ~1ctV OAO-OAO ron nou :rtQacplaOE. * * 'Y01EQct 0 (1~OXEU) Nct:rtOAEWV 1:OV XctBaA'I10E,

'Q01E, XWQL~ 1:OV E;OAOSQE!lO lWV X01~a!l:rtao'l1bwv xm 1:OV «a:rtoOX'I1!lalLO!lO» lWV ~Eo:rtmabwv, XWQL~ 1'11V ct:rtctAA01QLW0'l1 1'11£ Y'I1~ xm 1:0 xaAOYEQOXUV'I1Y'I110 o;w ct:rt' tc OgLa, XWQL£ OAOXA'I1QW!lEV'I1 I'll ZaQaxoBa xm 1:OV Xalct01QEuo lWV lmcpAlxabwv, '11 ESVLX~ aVE;aQl'110La ~1av 0 Mnvro-

, * «H JtQouaQTTjuTj tTjt; E>WOUAtUC:; xm rou Notou TTjC; HJtEtQOU GlllWlVE ESUltA~)UTj TTjC; EA~TjVlXljc; <PEO~baQXtUC:; Jt~vw GE vsu EM<pTj xru UE VEOUC:; ltATj~u~[.touc;, Ol,xoAllym t~ XatuAu~uv unto XUMtEQU ue tTjv Etuobo tou EAATjVlXO~ OTQatOU tTj~ Jt(louu(ltTjoTjC;. (L.t.L.: Kl uxo[.tTj xUAmEQu [.tE toUt; OXOtW[.t?UC; TW~ UYQOLWV oro KlAEAEQ, to 1910). ~fV ljTuv UJtEAEU8EQWtlxoe; OTQUtoe; «uroc, u« GLQatOc; xmoxlje;, UTQUTOC; wl<pAlxabwv ... » (M.M. IIuJtu'Lwavv~u, Ewuywyl] oro «LEllbEC:; coro TTjV Iorootc lOU AYQOtlXOU ... » rou r. KOQbmou, UEA. xb').

*: 'Ioox, 8u ~vUQWtTj8Et xuvEie;: Kat UUtO (= to u<pa1;l[.to tWV JtAouOtwv, to xU'I'L[.to rorv IIuQYwv, ro YXQE[.tLU[.tU, to XQE[.tUU[.tU xm Tj 1;ouQu TWV JtuJta-

60

61

rIANNtu: LKAPIMIIA1:

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

nots ouv ycubaQo ~wo..COtO xm note aav UtL ron IJ-E AOcpLO. A(yo aQYOtEQa (to 1848)* ~ava~wT]XWeT]XE oro rwbuQl. Nuv 'll:rtEQ :rtUVtCOV 0 aywv ... To 1pCOIJ-OtUQL EVUVtLa orov uoruxo, «to xaaXEtO EVUVtLa orov :rtLAO». * * ME bExubE~ XLALUbE~ :rttWIJ-ata rnv ~ava:rtA~QcoaE rnv mavuataaT] 0 AaO'llVt~(xo~. TT]v EXatO rou; EXatO xmvcovLx~, UatEQa a:rto ru :rtEV1]vta tm~ excto tou '21. Kru E:rtaxoAOUeT]aav - YQaIJ-IJ-~ - to xa~aALXEIJ-a, ceto toy Ncotoxeovrc toy I" xcu a:rt' «erov, ECO~ tOY 8LEQao XL a:rtE orov I10'llaVxaQE, XL UatEQa orov NtE rXCOA xm bwato'll VUXEL ... Eo»; nou xunou»; cnu~L~aaIJ-O~ ~QeE mLtEAO'll~ - XaL T] ~T]IJ-OXQatLa dvm t'llXEQ~... «M:rtoQEL va :rt'lJQO~AEL toY Aao»! ... * * * I1QUYIJ-atL, E~mQO'llIJ-EVT]~ tT]~ PoumxT]~ rou 1917, XaIJ-IJ-LU IJ-OVO XOLVCOVLX~ E:rtavUataaT] bEY :rtEt'llXE' OAE~ IJ-a~L, to rt:A~Qcoaav IJ-E :rtOI.AU EXatOIJ-IJ-uQLa :rttWIJ-Utcov ...

AA.A' a~ ~avUQeOWE oro «XEvtQO» !la~ - to &xo IJ-a~ '21. Nor, xa!l!.uu IJ-OVO xmvwvLx~ E:rtavUataaT] bEY :rtEtlJXE xrn

O'llbEIJ-La EeVLXOXOLVCOVLX~ E:rtLXELQ~eT]XE. E~aLQEaT] atUeT]XE IJ-OVO to '21. KL EVW, atT] !lLa rou :rtAE'llQU (tT]V EeVLX~) mrto eQLU!l~E'llaE, crnv uUT] rou (rnv xorvcovoot) ~QeE xo:rtUXL ... at TOUQXOL Ecpvyav xm ~QeE ... 0 'aewva~! H KatUxtT]aT] rooxcos xm qxataatUeT]XE T] Katox~ tWV ~T]IJ-0aLCOV 'll:rtaU~Acov. To «xoixpo aXOAELo» EYLVE IlcvemornIJ-LO :rtEQtAa!l:rtQo, onou ~QoVtT]~av XL uatQa1pav oi YAcoaaaIJ-UVtoQE~ xm OL uUm: a I1a:rtaQQl1Y0:rtO'llAO~, 0 LaQt:rtOAO~, 0 MLO'tQLWtl1~ XL 0 TQE!l:rtEAa~. (Eyw to EL:rta: H aYQa!lIJ-atcoauvl1 ea IJ-a~ ooxrsi ... ). Ken oAm outot OL AOYLOL UVtQE~ xm LOCPOt, OL KOL K. Torrroo; xrn 0 rQ. Kam!lutl1~, 0 CPLAO~ IJ-O'll I1. XUQl1~ xm 0 ZEQ~a~ AE(DVLba~, xm tEAoa:rtUVtCOV :rta~ oot«; us :rtLAOV 'll1pT]AOV, ~ !lE AQXLEQatLXOV qXOAmo an' to a~EQXO, uvegCO:rtOL ta ... IJ-UAa ao~aQOt xru Atav ... LO'toQLObLCPLXW~ ~E~aQl1IJ-EVOl - COV XU:rtOLO~ XU:rtO'll Lbovtm; IJ-O'll tt~ KaQaYXlO~lXE~ «cpt yOUQE~» IJ-O'll, sirte, !lEtU YXQL!lUtaa~ a:rtaQEaxaa;: « ... EEE - bEV EtvauiveQco:rto~ ao~aQO~!»,* OAOl curol (xoi 0 x. 1. 8EObcoQaxo:rtO'llAO~) «xaeaosuouort» !lU; xonovov on OL AoytOL tl1~ bLaa:rtoQu~ (:rt.X. 0 KOQa~~ xoi 0 Ivvrrnoc), to AVWtEQO Ieouteto (va :rtOUIJ-E 0 I1aAat(OV IIatQwv XL OL ~W:rtotubE~), UAAOL UVbQE~ EeVLXOL (w; :rt.X. 0 AVtQEa~ Za'C!ll1~ XaL 0 NEYQl1~), :rtQoaCO:rtLXOtl1-

oorv) AEYETm XOLvwvwAoyia Xl EltavoQ8wolj, MYETm mal;lX~ 1l.ljfloXQmla; 'OXl ~E~ma. AAAU sivcu OltW<; OTOV y(iflO W "[QaYlU, OltW; ow ltaVlJyUQl La Vw~ouAla. Etvm 10 lilxmo I;EOltaOfla uuovorv xmaltlwlj; Aawv ltOAU~OavlOflEVWV xm mpaYflEVwv. H xOLvwvLOAoYla, lj "[Ul;lj xm 10 oUOLwa EQxoVLm flETU rov XOQEOflO "[OU ylilXlWflOU W1JC;.

* Krn uxou« AlYo aQyo"[EQa '-"[01848, xru axofla AlYUXl"[O 1871 --lj Kouuouvu.

** «H flJtAov~a EVaVtlOV "[lje; QEVLlyxo'tac;, TO xuoxero sv.rvnov LOU l1LAOU» (AV'tQE Mroooun, «Iorootc 'tljC; ["a),.Alac;» OEA. 387).

*** Aoulio~xoC; <l>lAlltJtOC; (0 «~01AEUC; - ioomc», 1830-1848), A. Mopou«, o.rt., OEA. 391. ME 'tljV ltlXQ~V au't~ qJQUOlj EJtlYQaflflunOEV 0 <l>lAlJtJtOC; n; exo'tOfl~Ee; nov VEXQWV "[~e; (uno 'tljv aonx~ 1l.ljfloXQaLla) ljL'tlj8Eloac; EQyanuc;, EV o'UyxQlon us ru Alya mWflaLa ztou 'tlje; xoouos lj aVaLQolt~ lOU aJto TOV 8QaYO. (BAEJtE cI>E~Qo'Uav~v Enrrvdornon).

* IIQUYflaLl. Ken 8EAljOa va- orov xa8QEqJ'tlj -- lli(o ltWe; Elvm Evae; rrv- 8QwltoC; (xrn lilj ... LOLOQlolilqJljC;) oo~aQo::;. ["ouQAwoa tn fluna uou, EOflll;a r« qJQ111ilC! uou xt fOltaaa to XEIAla uoo onv va XULl ltOAU OTUqJO Elxa qJaYWflEvo. 'A:;aqJva, flla EyyOVOUAa uou flOU XUVEl: «Ilumrou, n xuvw; srm;», «Knvoi, 1lj; A£O), TOV xu8ljYlj't~ LOU Fkrvemormuoul.; 1l.EV Elflm uvnoxnoroc;». Kru ~flOUV. Ttc xaQayxLO~oltaIX'tljC; XQEluo"[ljxa lil(i~aOfla, xOJto'Ue; xm Jt(>ooJtu- 8Ela. It« Axalil]fla'Lxoc; xru IIQoqJEOooQo::;, 8a u' Eqrtavav AIYEe; YXQlflUWEC; ... xru T~l't~lcpa - au'tu lila 'tljV ... mUqJo'tlj'tU rou; we; rcou vc flE YQLflU(>OUV Ol xa(>ux£::; am flomQa - xm W'lI(jJEa ...

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n::e;, We; AOYOU XaQTJ 0 KanobiaTQtae;, or buo KaQaT~abEe; Xat 0 KWAETTTJe;, ~TJ bE ;Exva~E xat TOV Atovixno Pw~a - TOU xatQou TOU (aOE Xat TOV ... At80YQacptOTOv MuuooxopbaTO), aUToL AEmEQWOaV TO E8voe;! ... E~ELe; O~W; 8a TOUe; nOU~E, OTt OUTE OE XELVOUe; nou amOL ~ae; AEVE, OCPElAEt TL:rtOTa TO E8voe;, oirte an' amoue; rtou ~ae; TO AEVE nEQL~EVEL TLnone; - rnrro ...

Movov Evae; <l>EQaLOe;, OTTJ AOYLa (:rtQLV ceto TO '21) cpaQa amlj, TWV «AOYLWV TTJe; ~Lao:rtoQae:;» xat TWV cpaQbo~avlxcov IEQaQXwv, uovov amo; TTJV nQoavaxQouoE TTJ AEmEQLa xQaTOuoav ona8a. OL anm, aUTOL ~axQOTJ~EQEuoavnaVTa ne; «En TJVLXOUQEe;» TOUe; xomrvorvrr«; lj :rtVL yO~EVOt one; aAa Mnrrooov cpAOTav'e; lj OTa xOAAaQa TOUe:; ... Na, TL AEEL navw a' mrto; 0 rEQ~avOe; IOToQLxoe:; K. MEVbEAOWV BaQ80AbTJ OTTJV «IoTOQLa TTJe; EAA. EnavaoTaoEw;»,OEA. 200:

cP~ OAWV TWV bOUAELWV TOU AaouT~ixou), 8a TOUe; ExavE ~aTLa ~' ouv TOUe:; 0TJ~EQL voix «TmxAo~aoabEe;» A~EQLxavoue:;. ea ~a80uv Xat TO «EV TJ~LXAaoTW» avacpEQEa8at nQoe; TOUe:; a:rt' curoix nATJQw~EVOUe; TOU U:rtTJQETEe;. Kat xaTw, ~ETa Eva «EunEL8EoTaTOe:;» 8a 8ETOUV TTJV a:rtoAEmEQw~EVTJ u:rtoYQacP~ TOUe;: A'xae; <l>oxon~baQoue; ...

«EAEu8EQWTai am~e; ( = TTJe:; Enabae:;) unljQ;av ouXi 00- CPOl, avaTQacpEVTEe; :rtaQa TTJV EOTLav TTJe:; xAaomxlje:; aQXat- OTTJTOe;, aAA' avbQEe; E; axolje:; uovov TTJV aQxatOTTJTa yvwQLoavTEe; xat ~OALe; ~a8ovTE; v' avaYLyvwoxwm Xat va YQaqxoorv ouXi CPQOVL~Ot Xat EU:rtOQOt (L.T.I.: o:rtwe:; oi AQXLEQELe:; Xat ot <l>avaQLwTEe:;), an' av8Qwnm ceto EmEAouc; uoAL; EQyaoiac;, cero TaQlXELac; OQTUYWV Xat ounoy~; EAatWV a:rto~wvTEC;· avbQEe:; OUXL TOU xaAa~ou xrn TTJ; 8EwQLac; ... » xAn.

AAA' ae; ~TJ axa~av, bEY 8a - TO '21 - TOUe; xaTavTaE «naQaxAauaL8uQouc;» XEtQOTEQWV acpEVTabwv. ea, ~ETa TTJV «anEAEu8EQWOTJ», TOU; ExaVExaQ:rta~OElO:rtQaXTOQEC; TOU xQaTOuc;. H YQacpEtOxQaTLa14 (TJ mo «xaTWTTJ~EVLXTJ» ~oQ-

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4.

naYUA01J tl] cpQovl]al] n01J nQLV uetoromoa, bOXL!!a~EL xaAU rc ~1JAaQUXLa t01J XA01J~LOU t01J ... dLOA01J oxrrooo t01J~ bEY Ei)(ataaav, VUX01JV !!1J~aEL tOY BaQvaXLootl] - tOY onoto «CPQOVL!!W~» tOY «anEa1JQav» EV nA~QEL '21, an' rov uyrova! 'ASAO~ XL ouro, Ma1JQoxoQbUtELO~ ... « ... EnL!!EVWV (= 0 Mouooxopouto«) EL~ tnv nQoaOLXElWatV EXElVWV n01J t01J EXQELU~OVtO bLU va atEQmwSEL xm otuv axo!!l] t01J~ EUQLaXE bL(JtaXtlxOu~ xm xaxunonto1J~ xm mlcp1!AaaaO!!EVO~ va t01J~ EX!!l]bEVLaEL aQYOtEQa, onw~ EXa!!E !!E tOY BupvnXlootl]V .... » (d. KOXXlVO~, t; 4. m:A. 30). 0 8EO~, 0 nOL~aa~ tOY 01JyyaQo~AaXLa~ - XELOV - I YVUtlO, !!OVOV a1Jto~ ~EQEL nooov aQYOtEQa WtOLXLaE l] anooSl]ol] t01J BaQvaxLootl] nQo~ t01J~ TouQxo1J~: Tn 8EaaaALa OAOXAl]Ql], rnv 'Aorc xm to LouAL. (Tmrto, bLOtll] mavuataal] «AatxL~E» ... ). dEV !!noQEaE O!!W~ va anoauQEL xm tOY «SEOtQEAAOV» EXEL vov TIanacpAEaaa. Evoi l] EtmQELa (ore; naQa!!OVE~ t~~ 1Jno tOY Y1pl]AUVtl] EnaVUataal]~) !!nQo~ oro Em!!UAAOV xm !!UAAOV ~ExaSaQL~OVtO - W~ Aa'(xo - to ESVCYEQt~QlO, uQXlaE va nOLEl VEQU xm va bLatU~El, 0 lau~Lo~ a1Jto~ t01J ASavernon dLUX01J LEQW!!EVO~, tl]~ tuXa!!E ... SUAaaaa atl] Bocuroc. LaA tUQLaE atl] awa~l] tWV xot~a!!JtaaEwv xm LEQUQXwv xm t01J~ rpouoxmos oto 1pE!!!!ata: 'OtL l] P01JaLa a1JtOu~ nEQt!!EVE YLa va bLa~ouv tOY TIQouSo OL atQatlE~ tl]~! 'OtL t01J~ XO!!L~E tnv EVtOA~ v' aQXLaEL l] mavuataal] a!!EaW~ (Law~ YLat' ELXE «!!1JQLatEL» ru wQata VEQa ... *).

NatE tOOQa xm !!La UAA01J ELb01J~ taQax~: H cI> L A LX ~ Eta L Q E L a. Mnoo; ornv btacpav£laa mSavOtl]r« va (xatu LO 1JJtobELy!!a tl]~ ranlX~~) «XOLVWVlxtaEL» xrn l] mt SUQm~ t01J~ bLX~ !!a~ mavuataal], l] cI>.E. xatatQo!!a~£. E!!noQlx~v, a~ nco etrn, aatlx~ ... xru KcounQon01JAl]V rnrrnv tl1v naQaaxEua~E, xrn mv ~SEAE ~E~ma xm AOYLootatl]v. LLO «xoAno~~ ELXE !!1J~aElOA01J~ aXEbov t01J; TIaAmoEAAabL tE~ xOt~a!!nUal1bE; xm nQonavto; L01J~ AsanotUbE~. Ano t01J~ cI>avaQlavou~, EAaXLatootat01J~, YLatL noM t01Je; oixrmotouoe ... * OL IlE t01J~ VtO~f.EtlaVOU~ EYXUQbLE~ aXEaEL~ t01J; ... Ta !!E tOY XaAEt Erpsvtn «1pL-1pL-1pl» t01J; ... T01J~ bE AOYL01J~ tl1; bLaanoQu;, t01J; MCYUA01J; dlEQ!!l1VEL;, t01J; (u cpQoma!) MOAbo~AaXLtlX01J; HYE!!OVE;, xuSoo; xm t01J~ !!EYaAO!!oYEV~bE~ tl1~ P01Jaia~, aXEbov EJtial1~ OA01J;. AAAU, nQoXEL!!EV01J YLa t01J; EAAabLxou; onAaQXl1- you; xm LbLattEQa L01J; XAEcptE;, nQoxooQayav !!E t01J no-

• 'Oltw::; 8a lb01J~E ltaQaxcl'tw, xu~ltoaa alto La avo:rtEQa a'tEAEXl] xrn tL::; ltQoawmXot7JtE::; t7J::; fl>lALX~::; (OltWC; It.x. OAV~ltLOC;, «PaQ~axl]C; xAn.) I;mpVtaousvor alto roue 01j!l~OU::; &atay~ovc; 'tl]::; E'taLQElac;, uQXLaav va ~l]V mv noAUAoyaQla~ouv ~ va noioirv au8ulQEtl] XQl]m~OltOll]al] tOU ovourrto; tl]::;, OltWC; EV ltQOXEl~EVW 0 IIaltacpAEaaa::;.

• r. ¢(VAEii, «Ioropic tl]::; EAAl]VLX~::; Enovccrcosox». t. I, aEA.~65. C?l XWAOtOU~ltaQLE::; roue ~E toy XUAEt Xal TU XWAOYAELCPtlXU ~E tOY AXL xcuro~atU roue, os j3aQLU tl]v Eixuv BUAEl auAAo~ ...

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Ta «VEQa» ama "tlJ~ <l>t,ALX~~ ELXav aQXLoa JtOAU JtQLV aJto 'to JtEQW"ta"tLxo"tlJ~ BOO"tL roue, To «xaSaQwlw» "t01J faAa"tlJ coro 'tOV ~lJlll1"tQOJt01JAO ornv EQIlLOVl1, XQUBEL xan JtEQLOOO"tEQO coto rc «JtaQal)El)EYIlEva». Ev uvcuovn xaJtOLOJv OXEl"LXWV O"tOLXELOJV aJto;OJ, Sa "ta JtOUIl£ O"tO 20 '21.

Ikrrocrv, oru BEQBmva, ceto Saulla YAU"tOJoav 'to mpa;Lllo o ZatlllJ~, 0 I1£"tQOIlJt£lJ~ xrn OL aAAOL *. 0 KOAOXO"tQWVlJ~, Jtav"ta mrvro 't01J JtEQl)LxAOJvo"tav xaSE rooo. I100E~ CPOQE~ l)£v Sa 't01J BQOV"tlJ;E ;aYQLOJIlEVO~ "tlJ oJtaSaQa 't01J; 0 ~lJ- 1l~'tQlJ~ Y'¢TlAaVl"l1~ £lX£, aJt' 'tL~ Ml1xavoQQacp(E~ "t01J, IlJta'LAV'tLOEL. Koi "tL (IlEOOV "tOJV llaQLOvE"twV "t01J) bEY ExallE va ( aJt' tnv T QLJtOAL ton) 'tOV ;£X01JIlJtlOEL. I1aQaAl yo va l)LaA1JE 'to o"tQa"toJtEl)o. TE'tOLav aJtExSELa "t01J EIlJtVEE "t01J nuuntrrtou 'tOu't01J a"tQa"tLW"tlJ, Jt01J 'tOuQxov"tav onv ALJtOS1JIlLa"t' ovouu 't01J. L"tlJ ZaQaxoBa, ElX£ A1JOOa;EL JtW~ va 'tOY "tUAlYE omv E;01Jo(a TlJ~ fEQ01JOLa~ - ClJAal)~ "tOJV xm~aIlJtaOlJl)OJv. KaTOJ uno xaSE JtE"tQa, OAO xru Sa;£XE ceto 't01J QaOO1J 't01J xruu.' aXQlJ. 0 N EYQlJ~, 0 Ma1JQoxoQl)a'tO~, tov cpoBovto1Joav' etc uJtva 't01J nsrovorcv 0 KOJAEttlJ~ ... Ano tlJv Ikrroc (oJt01J EVECQE1JE) lla"taLOJOE, IlE aJtELAlJ EllcpUAL01J JtOAEIlO1J, rnv EXEl IlETaBaolJ t01J KOAOXOtQWVlJ, Yla to JtaQmilo 't01J <l>QOUQL01J, oJt01J - EVtO~ 't01J - ~oav XA£W'tOL xm OL l)LaBolJtOL AaAaLOL. 'Etoi, to 0lJllaV"tLXo route CPQOUQLO, EIlEl VE aJtaQ'tO EOJ~ to "tEAO~ - 'to JtaQEl)OJOE 0 Mm~wva~ OtlJ ~LOLXlJOl1 :

'On 11 E"tmQEla £LXE OtELAEL tc JtQWta JtOA£llocpOOLa, Jt01J XLoAa~ BQLOXoV"t01Joav O"tO l)QoIlO. 'OtL, £1JSU~ IlEta rnv EXQlJ;lJ Sa xa"tacptaVE l)OJ xm 0 Y1jJlJAaV"tl1~. 'On ... on, .. xm AOLJta. OL xm~aIlJtaOlJl)E~ 't01J ... xayxaoav! 0 I1aAmwv I1a"tQwv (un CPQ£VOXOIlELOJV torec 1JJtaQXOVtOJV) tOY aJt£lAlJ- 010 IlE XAELmllO (<<av l)EV xaSov"tav xaAa!») OE MoVaOt~QL: «E Loa L a Q Jt a;, a rr o r e W V x aLE; OJ A E 0 tat 0 s'» 't01J xQauyaoE. (BA. xm~. KOXXLVOV, r. 1. OEA. 262, xru LJt. MEAa «0 fEQO~ t01J MOJQLa», OEA. 222).

Toutoc 0 I1aAmwv Ikrtomv" ~"tav 0 1JJt' aQlS. 2 Iyvano~ 't01J '21. 0 10~ am) rnv I1(~a xm 0 20~ £l)w, Exwvav nrrvtou "tlJ Ilml1 t01J~ xrn OE oUAa. E; mt(a~ 't01J I1aAmwv

* ~w nEQwTUlUtO, roirto; ... 0 «aYlo~» Ilutpcov (0 II.II. rEQ!-laVo,;) uou SU!-lL~EL rov O!-lOLO rou EV ... ltaTQLWTlO!-lW Xal Aoma (OXL O!-lW~ xcu T1']ltalCEla rou) IEQo!-lovaxo Ma~L~Lov rov IIEAolTovv~OLOV, OTaV (Yla O!-lOLOV~ AOYov~) alTExaAEL rov 1']QWLXOV xcn ESVO!-lagTvga (1611) EXELVOV ~LOvUmo rov <l>LMoorpo, ElTLOXOlTO TQLxx1']~ (1601): «E ~ a Y LOT 0 v, 0 IT 0 Q EaT W v x a x W v x a LOA E S Q [ W V E <p E V gET 1'] V a v 0 1'] T 0 V T E X a l QJ Q E V 6 A 1']IT T 0 v, n n o A E 0 a v TaT a C; rp Q E v a e; IT a v T a IT a 0 L, S Q a 0 U T 1']T lEV TEe Q a !-l !-l E v 0 v. Tv <p W C a [ !-l 0 v a, s u ~ Q 0 V T 1'] T 0 v, as A L 0 v, !-l a L v 0 !-l E V 0 v, a Y U g T 1'] v, a IT aTE W v c, IT a 0 1'] C; a x aS a Q 0 [ a ~ Y E !-l 0 V T a, ~ a L !-l 0 v U 0 I 0 v, v E 0 v 10 v A l a v 0 v, v Eov cLa~oAov, lTavwA1'] x u t xaxEvTQEX~, x n x r o r' o rt o- 1,.0 U!-l E V 0 v, A U x 0 v x Alt.». (BA. «Aovo; ~T1']AlTEmlxo; xUTa ~LOvualov tou E:rtLXA1']8EVTo~ ~xvAooo<pov», oEA. 10, ELoayw~ ~. ~aQQov, ow aVaTVlTO altO TO I" ETO'; TWV «HlTElQWTLXWV XQOVlXWV», Iuxrvvrvn 1928),

« ... BAEJtOJV tlJV Xatao"tamv "tOJV JtQaYllatOJV, EJtQO"tELVEV o KOAOXmQWVlJ~, El~ 'to JtOAEIlLXOV 01JIlBOUALOV "tOJV EAA~VOJV, va EXIlE"taJ.A.E1JSWm taXEOJ~ rnv EX "t11~ Jt"tWO£OJ~ tlJ~ TQlJtOAEOJ~ l1SlX~V EVtUJtOJmv, xm va EJtLJtEOOJm xa"ta tlJ~ EJt'tOlJIlEVlJ~ CPQ01JQa~ tOJV Ikrtocov. TOLOU'tO~ bE "tQOIlO~ EJtE-

* To [&0 YLa T1']V XOT~a!-llTamx1'] I'eoouotc TWV KaJ.TE~wV, <pwval;,av «9aveto; OlOV<; T1JQawov~» 0 AaovTl;,[xo<; Xal OL KAEcpTE<;. (K. MEvCEAOWV BaQS6A.C1'], oEA. 348).

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rIANNIU: LKAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

XQCftEL EXEL, WOtE ExatOVtUCE£; Touoxcov ECQallOV El; toy mYLaAov xm xatEcp1JYov EVtO£; tWV reAoLwv, XWQL; xavEL£; va t01J£; CLwxll. MEtU tWV XatEXOVtWV tllV aXQoreoALv AaALwtWV 01JVEVVOEL to aVExaSEv 0 KOAoxOtQwVll£;, xm EyVWQL~EV, OtL ~oav CwtESELIlEvm va EXxEvwowm to CPQOUQLOV 1Jreo EvtLIlO1J£; oQ01J£;, WOtE ~tO aocpaAEotutllll EWO'LX~ tWV reQayIlUtWV Ex~am£;, ulla eqxuvsro 1l0VOV EXEL 0 'EAAllv oreAaQXllYo£;. 'Hro CE xm EtmllO£; ~Cll reQo£; tonto 0 KOAOXOtQWvll£;, xm ~Q~ato o1JVaSQoL~wV t01J£; avayxaL01J; El£; tllV EXOtQatELav uvcQar;. Ot uAAm D!lW£; WXEcpSlloav, on ElXE reoAV avaCELXS~ xatu ta tEAE1JtaLa 01JIl~UVta, xm E~ucpavav OXE1JwQLav reQo£; llataLWmv t01J 0XECLo1J t01J. Ot reQoxQLtm tll£; Axata£;, aQXllyoWtO; t01J rEQllavou xm t01J A VCQE01J Zatllll, EYQaljJav reQo£; tOY YljJllAUVtllv, OtL areEOtEQYOV tllV ~o~SELav t01J KOAoxOtQwvll, EmS1JIlOUVtE£; va areaAAaywm uovoi tWV coro t01J£; EV IIutQm£; Touoxoix. HreELAlloav IlUALOta, ou Sa avSLotavto EvoreAw£; xatu tou KOAOXOtQWvq, xm reaQExuAEoav toy XQUCPLOV EXSQOV t01J ~EAllYlUVVllv va roix ~ollS~oll.

~1JVEreW£; 0 IlEXQL toUCE 1l0VOV EvaVtLOV Touoxcov reoAEIl~oa£; reQwtOXAECPtll£; E1JQlOXEtO areEVaVtl EVCEXOIlEV01J EIlcp1JAL01J reOAEIlO1J» ( K. MEvCEAowv BaQSoACll, OEA. 365).

AAA' a£; ~avamUOO1JIlE tOY III to tllr; AQLUCvll£; ... EL vm rsroio; 0 Aa~uQLvSO£; toirrorv tWV xoxotomorv tll£; - tUxatL£; - Iorootoc, re01J XWQL; «Ill to» aCwato va ~ava~YEl£; oto cpw£; reuvw t01J XOOIlO1J. To «Qwta toy IlreuQllrea 1l01J toy ljJEmll» reOtE CEV ~Q~XE tEtma tEAELav avtareoxQLoll, 000 Ot01J£; LOtOQLOYQUCP01J£; rou '21. H sncvcorcon OtQa~OIlO1JtOOUVL~E xm YXU~L~E, ouv XELVO re01J reQLv ElreallE tou NtoQLav rXQE1J to reoQtQaL to ... ~tQa~o~AEreE IlEV tOY «IlO1JXTE-

olre ayao~» (rov Touoxo ayoQavollO) xm tOY «CL~CUQll» Tll; (tov cpQouQaQXo) Ila «oro IlUtL tll£;» El XE t01J; reQOXQLt01J£; ... Tonto, 01JCEV xaAov reQomWVL~OtaV Ot01J£; vouuiocpQova£;» a1JtOU£; xm «CPLAOVOIlO1J£;» ...

Oi XAEcptEr;, oi aQllatoAOl xm 0 AaOr;, Sa areODELXVOVTaV lOr; Illl are' t01Jr; 1JYLW£; - t01J£; - oXEretOIlEV01J£; ... aL KaQllreoVUQLxm, IlETU tllV EvaQ~ll, 1JremVLYIlOl (OQYUVWOll£; w£; yvworo OomaAl~01Joa£;) xm ot E~OQXLOIlOl tll£; maVUOtaOll£; xm w£; tEtma£; (CllA. w£; xmVWVLX~£;) CEV ureExav tll£; aA~SELa£;, XL a£; IlE tOY xaQllreovaQLOIlO a1Jt~ xallllLU CEV EiXE 0XEOll. AAAU xm 11 CLUOtaOll t01J BAaCLllllQEOX01J IlE tOY AAE~avCQo Y ljJllAUVtll, IlE areOtEAEolla tOY oxonouo tou reQ(.oto1J coto tOY UAAO, XQU~EL reoAAu, aAAu Yl' a1Jtu oro mOIlEVO. AXQOSl yW£; ECW Sa mo, Ott to x~Q1JYlla tou <PEQaL01J, CEV ~tav yta xallllLU 1l0VOIlEQW£; EAAllvLx~ mavUotaoll xm IlUI.LOTa ... reQo£; reOALttX~V areoxatuotaoll xm aVE~aQtllOla TWV xot~allreuollCwv, tWV <l>avaQLWtWv ... xm t01J KareoCLOtQLa. ~ECOIlEV01J CE, OtL «EXEl VW tOO xmQw» to BaAxaVLXO OtOlXElO ~tav aYQotLXO, II EXXAlloll rou P~ya ~tav Eva XUAWlla reQo£; tnv reavaYQotlU tWV BaAxuvlwV, CllAabll ~tav ym Eva E8NIKOKOINQNIKO avtuQtlllla, EVUVtta Ot01J£; tatcpAlxubE;.

TOtE, II EtmQEla cotoqxroios va EX~LUOEL rnv xatUotaon. ~EV tll orpcorvov UAAO rc VEQU, EVW xm 11 ~01J~ YLa tll QElloUAa tll£; cru; ELOCPOQE£; YLa toy aywva (ono»; Sa bOUIlE OE uno 1l01J ~l~AlO -oroix «raAatUCE£;») EtElVE va t01J£; XaSlOEl oro «oxaIlVl» IlreQo£; OtO KPITHPIO t01J ESV01J£; ... Kru ym va tllV SEOEL uno mv XllbEllovia tllr;, xm tov EAEyXO, S' UQXl~E tllv mavUOtaOll - reQwtll a1Jt~ - ... are' tll BAaxia. ~llAab~ o~w ceto tll cp1Jmx~ tll£; XOltll xrn tllV E-

70

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rIANNm:: LKAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHGEIA

O'Tta tll:; ... * TL; Mn bEY ~aav XL aVtOL 'EAAllVE:; IlEta rou - nOtE - ~aOLAEa rou; ~EXE~aAOV; Mnv OL EAAllVLXQnatoL «Oozoocoot» tOV:; bEY (bLa tou naQabEtYllato:; roue) roix bLba~av nw:; ybaLQvOVtm (<<KaQat~LOtL») OL «umpcoo!» roix; ME Eva «xoixpo» EJtLtEAELO OAO AocpLa xm nagaalllla, IlE atQatLOHLxoV:; tLtAOUxOV:; xm vnaanLOtE:; IlnovllnovvoxEcpaAov:; «(IlVEAOU:; ntllvWV os xQav(a ~oLbLxa») aaAtagLos, cr' aUTa ta ~Eva EbaCPll, ta ~EllatLallEva cero tll cpavagLWtLXll anAllatLa xm bLacpEVtEVall, onoi: vOLxoxvgll:; ~tav Eva:; ceto to'V:; IlEyaAun~Qov:;, aYQOtoEnavaatatll:; tWV BaAxavLwv (ELbo:; tL P~ya <PEQaLov tll:; BAaXLa:;) - 0 eEobwQo:::; BAabLllllQEaxov... -

acpOQIl~V vu xaQwmv EnL 1:11 EvaQ~EL 1:11:; maVaa1:aaEw:; nutWV EnL Yll:; ~Evll:;·

'O,Ll ElXEV agXLaEL EV LOVMW xm E~llXOAou8EL EV ITEAonovvnoui, llaQtvQEt tllV avton:A~ ~w~v, ~Ll:; EVE'ljJ1JXOV aQX~8EV to EAAllVlXOV E8vo:;. 'Hro bE nQawatL OAE8QLOV Aa- 80:; 11 vnEQ 1;11:; EAEv8EQLa:; nQoaxAllm:; EL:; ta onAa Aaou, ooti; bEY ~8EAE v' axouall tLnOta nEgL EAAabo:; xm EVExa toutou aXQL~w:; sivoi allllaVtLXWtatov OtL 11 ~OQELO:; aUtll E~EYEgm:; anEt'UXEv OLXtQW:; ... » (K. MEvbEAawv BaQ80Abll, aEA. 239).

«Emorp; nOIlJtQ)bll:; ~to xm 11 JtgOX~QV~L:; nv 0 [EVLXO:; tll:; EtmQEla:; 'Eqopoc; aJtllu8vvE nQo:; rou; xutolxou; tll:; MOAbavLa:; xm tll:; BAaXta:;, ~, onw:; xOIlJtaaLlxw:; EAEyE, nQo:; rou; ~axa:;.

ea blEaELaE ~E~atw:; rnv XECPUA~V 0 PWIlOWO:; XWQLXO:; orov axovaE: to 8uvllamov aYYEAllu xm JtLxQa XAEUll 8a Ecpavll EL:; tov:; JtAELOLO'U:;, OtL 'E),Allv JtQtYXll'I.jJ, 'Uno <l>avaQLWtWV nEQLxvxAOUIlEVO:;, EJtECPavll EL:; tU:; HYEllov(a:; w:; x~Q'U~ EAE'U8EQLU:;. AAAa xm OL 'EAAllVE:; UVtOL, bEY EtXOV

Kru IlOVOV 11 aVtLJtaQa~oA~ tll:; «Y'4'llAaVtELa:;» JtQox~QV~ll:;, IlE rnv, rov (bLO xmgo, orou; tbLOV:; AUOU:; (tll:; MOAbav"la:; xm tll:; BAuXLa:;) 0IlOLUV rou BAabL~tllQEaxov (13A. A Koxxrvov, t. 1., aEA. 197) bEtXVEL to XaallU Jtov ~EXWQL~E tllV nQwtll uno tll bEu1:EQll. 0 Eva:; EAEYE yLa ... toy AQIlObLO xru toy AQLOLOYEttOVa, XL 0 aAAO:; YLa tll bLavoll~ tll:; Yll:; avallEou 01:0'U:; BAaxo'U:;. 0 Eva:; yLa ... 1:11 llutWIlEvll XAulluba rou Kruoopn, XL 0 aAAo:; yLU tll «Pcoucvo taaQa», b11Aab~ YLU t11 BAaxollJtoybavLtLX11 Aa'Lx~ ~llIlOXQutLu.

Ma, a:; acp~aovllE n:; «~LUX~QV~E:;» XL a:; ~uvaQ80vllE otnv EtmQELu. 'Exovtu:; roue oix EtXE 'ljJ1JAAOV:; 1:11:; at' acpna, 8aaJtQwXVE nEQ' un' tOY IIgou80, oro YQ~YOQU rov (un.' uruov tWQa) Y'4'llAavt11. Ma, ortoin aAAll UtVXLa XL UVEJtUVtEXla, VUXEl nQollYllOEi, EXEL, 0 P~ya:;!... SEOL! Kat axovaov - oxoocov.

'IluQuoo!;{J)~ (bton UOUVEJtcO~ ytU TOV~ JtaflnAEioTOv~ TOV~) OAm at toto- 9txol flU~, m' U1JT~V flVEOXOUV OVflqJ{J)Vat. AXOflU xm tEQ{J)flEvm lOToQwacpE£, on{J)~ 0 AQXtflUvbQtTIl£ xm nQoAvTIl£ Til::; G€oAoy(a~ Aya8. IIanaYE{J)QyorrovAO~, GT1] OEA. 394 T1]~ «Iluvxooiuo» rEVtX~~ IOTOQia::;» TOV (Exboo1] La),,(~EQOv, 1906) YQaqJEI €LOVTa: <<...ATVXcO~ 1] EV POV[.lavia a1JT~ mavaowGl£ anET1JXE, xVQiw::; btOTt bEY ~TO EXEi 1] xaQbta TOV E)"),,IlVIOflOV, ot bE a8Atm BAaXOl xrn MOAoovoi, at xaTOLxm T1]£ XcOQu£ (L.T.L.: w btaoAE ... ncOC;; bEY ~oav XI aVTol TO:JQ~ 'EU1]VE~;) ou flOVOV bEv E!;IlYEQ81]oav, aAM xm rrQoE&Ciov TOV£ EAEV8EQ{J)W::; (!) H£ TOV~ TovQxov~ xcu ovOEv oirre E8vtxov, ours CPIAEAEV8EQOV ai081]!-lu Eixov».

«OVX EVl 'EAA11V ~ Iooooio;» Yla tOY P~ya toy <PEQaio: «'OAOl Ol av8QontOL, XQLOtLaVOL xm TOUQXOL, xuta qnxnxov AOYOV Eivm LaOL ... 0 BOUAYUQO:; JtQEJtEL vc XLVELtat otnv

72

73

fIANNHL ~KAPIMIlAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH9EIA

nctCJXEL 0 'EAA'Y]V' XaL 'tOUWe; J'tCIAlV Ol' EXELVOV XaL ourpoteQOl OlU 'tOY AA(3avov iJ BAUXOV» (Ano rc uQSQa 3 XaL 34 t'Y]e; XUQ'tae;* rou ~Qaio'U). « ... 0 AaOe; IlOvOV 'Y]llnoQEL va nQootu~EL, XaL 6xl Eva IlEQOe; avSQwmov, iJ IlLa nOAle;' XaL 'Y]llnoQEL va nQoOtU~El Ol' oAa, XWQLe; xuvsv« Ellnoolov» (Ano 'to uQSQo 25).

AX, no'll £lOaL «llaQllaQwllEvE (3amAlu»; Ilou, TIanaQQ'Y]yono'UAE XaL BEVl~EAO; Ot AOYlWtatOl nav'Y]YUQlOtEe; (twQa XaL aVExaSEv) tOY noooasovcv IlE ... YEVlxot'Y]tEe; 'toy <l>EQaLo. 'AQSQo nQoe; uQSQo (XaL IlE 'to vO'Y]lla) OEV tOAIl'Y]oav nOtE va Ilae; 'tOV OWOO'UV: «0 (3UQOoe; t'Y]e; EAEuSEQLae;!» ... Toix axoue;, aAAu n 0 l a e;; - aAAou (3QEXEl... 0 tQOIlOe; tWV t'UQuwwv, aAAu rt 0 l 00 v; - XQU(3E AOYla... Ano O'UOtUOEWe; 'to'll EAI_'Y]VlXOU BamAELo'U, 0 <l>EQaLOe; OEV E(3yaAE axolla 'to O'Y]llotlXO tou OXOAELO, Il£l vcvtn; OtO «we; note naAA'Y]XUQla ... ». Ilou tou X. K. Toutoou 'Y] CPlAOlluSEla, nou OQaOXEAaE nEvtE - nEVtE rou Lte; ta~Ee; ... Ta Il a 0 U v E ... Av ELXE oiJllEQa (3QESEL avaIlEtU~'U 'tOue;, Sa (Yla 'to 1l'Y] ••• noQE~'Y]yiJmllo) tOOtQl(3av an' t'Y] ywvla ron nQw'tO'U OQOIlO'U. Av ELXE (3QESEL 0'tO'U Y1jJ'Y]AUV't'Y] EXElO to xLv'Y]lla, rou BAaOlIl'Y]QEOXO'U15 Xl aULOe; SUXE 't'Y]V tUx'Y] ... A V, IlE tOV BEVl~EAO cLXE owanUvt'Y]lla, ... OtO «lOlWVUllo» rou SUXEV EllnEOEL. Av OE, IlE TIQwS'Uno'UQYo rov x, KavEAAono'UAo, Sa (00; 1l'Y]··· 'UYlWe; oxenrousvoc) t'Y]V nEQvaE EXEL Ot'Y] Mnxpovqoo, xotOUVl ... LtQayyaALOaVtUC; tov Ol TOUQXOl, yAUtWOE ana t'Y] <l>tAlXiJ Xat roix nav'Y]YUQlxOU; ton x, N. TWllaoax'Y] ...

A; XUIlOIlE 0IlWC; EOW xcrtourv naQEx(3ao'Y]:

AunUllat on 'to YUQw coto 'toy <l>EQaLo curo «lluo'Y]lla» to aoxEi - nwe; - Xat 0 x. K. L'tOAi yxa;. EXEi, o'rnv EnLS£coQ'Y]o'Y] TEXV'Y]; Xat TIvE'UllatlXou TIQo(3A'Y]lla'tLOllou «~'Y]lllO'UQyiEC;» (tEUXOC; 11-12, MUQt'Y]e; - AnQLA'Y]C; 1971, OEA. 106-109), t'Y]C; aQvuhat t'Y]e; EnaVaOtao'Y]; 'to XOl VWVlXO nEQlExollEVO t'Y]C;:

Kat AEEl 0 It. LLOAi yxa;:

«Ilpoxtsrtu tots to EQW't'Y]lla: IlnOQEL XUtW ana tEtOlEC; OWSiJXEC; Xat IlE tEtOLO anOYUIlVWIlEVO uno XUSE nvsourmXO, LOEOAOYlXO XaL XOlVWVlXO nEQlExollEVO EIl'\jJ'UXO 'UAlXO, va EIl(3QUwSiJ Illa XOlVWVLXiJ E~EYEQO'Y];».

Ei Vat 010 xatu tOY X. LtOAL yxa aUtEC; Ol 0 'U V S iJ X 10 C;:

TOUQXOl, alluSELa, (3QWlla Xat anA'Y]ma, 0 cpoQa't~iJc;, 0 roo- 1l0C; xru 'Y] cpo(3EQa, 0 MnE'Y]e;, 'Y] ExxA'Y]oia, 0 nQOEO'tWC;, 0 «xcvsvo.; XOlVWVlXO; OEOIlOe; avallEoa roix» Xat AOlnu xru AOLnu nov: «0 'EAA'Y]vac; rou 1820-1821 OEV EL Vat axolla IlLa 0Xl}llanoIlEvl} OUVEiOl}Ol} nOAL'tl}, OEV ELVat xov Illa ouvEi<'>l}ol} ESVlXiJ XaL nEQLOOOtEQO XOLVWVlXlJ» (<l>aAIlEQa'UEQ OEV oac; S'UIlL~EL;). «0 avSQwnoc; rou '21 Eivat Eva 'tQollaYIlEvo avSQwnaxL - AEEL nUAL aAAou - nou ~acpvLxu ol}XWVEtat oQSo Xat CPWVU~El:

Mdva aov Mw OEV flnoQw TOV~ ToVQxov~ va dOVAEVW ()a naoo: TO VTOVCPEXl uou, va auu» va yivw XAECPT1J~».

Kat naLQvEl to V'tOUCPEXL rou, 0IlWC; OEV ~EQEl axolla to YLatL

A YWVL~OIlEVOe; 'toy tLIlLOV aywva t'Y]C; unEQuomo'Y]; rouLOU rou XlALOXatatQEYIlEVOU Aaou Ilac; coto 'tOV 'UnEQEAA'Y]VL-

* 'Ortou UVuqJEQo~m Otll XaQtu tOU <l>EQUlOU, OEV EVVOW LOV YVWOtO YEW' YQUqJlXO xaQtll LOU, uAAa to 8E~EAlWOE~ IIoAltEluXO «KatUOTatlXOV», xur« tllV «Magna Charta» LOU 1ID00Ala tll~ AYYAlU; Icoovvn LOU Axt~~ovu.

74

75

rIANNID: ~KAPIMrrAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

XO «uvorrspeouo» xrn 't'Y]V rrVElJlla'tlX~ LV'tEALYX£V'tOla, S' aQonaya 'tOY XUQLOV ~'tOAlyxa: KaAa, OAE~ EXElVE~ 'tL~ E8vlXOXOLVUlVLOAOYLX£~ aOCplE~ ('tOV oooovo IlE t.' aa'tQa! ... ), OAE; 'tL~ ~~EQE~, xm CEV ~~EQE~ va Ila~ rrEL; rrou 'to ~Q~XE xm n 't08EAE route 'to «avSQUlrraXl» Eva v'tOlJCP£XL; Na aa; 'to nco EYW XUQLE ~'tOAl yxa; Axouo te:

Tooo CE, CLOAOlJ CEV ~'tav acpLAO'tLIlO mrto 'to avSQUlrraXL, 0 'EAA'Y]va; rou 1820-1821, nou Ila~ ElrrE 0 K. ~'tOAlyxa;, coors: «H 'ta~lI; rcov ~OX(IlUlV xcn torv BAall'Y]CUlV £cp'taaE va rrQoaxaA ~ rroAAou~ ovro.; EL; ro xacPEvda xm ru xQaaorrUlAda, axolla xru toix xaS' ooov arrav'twv'ta~ curotx, rrQo~ rou; OrrOLOlJ~ £AEYE: - IIaQE Eva xEQaxl xm £Aa xa'tL va cou mo. H 'tOLau't'Y] xa'taXQ'Y]Ol~ 't'Y]~ <l>tALX~~ E'tmQEla~ xa'ta 'to 1820 xm 0 arrEQl YQarr'tO~ EVSOlJOlaaIlO~ coto 't'Y]v rroAA~v 'tlJQavvLav, xrrrqvrnoe rou; arrAou~ va EXCPQa~ov'tm EV rro IlE'ta~u rcov ~tE rooov 8aQQo~, ())~ uv va ErrEQLIlEvav xalllllav £vco~ov xm AallrrQav rrav~YVQLv, a~ oAa~ am~~ 'ta~ co~a; xm EmlJXLa~» (AIl~QOOlO~ <l>Qav't~~~, otou ~. KOXXLVOlJ 't'Y]v «Iorooto», 'to I, aEA. 250).

Ilou 'to ~Q~XE AOLrrov 0 x, K. ~'tOALyxa~ (xru Sa 'tOuAEya xrn IlE rrOLO cLxal(JJlla xru ElJ8uv'Y] ... ) va Ila; 'toy rraQaa't~aEL, etoi, ercn aav tp(JJQaA£o rraQla, evov Aao £'tOLIlOV va QlX'tEl (ono»; xru Ql X't'Y]XE) xu'ta IlLa; rravlaX'lJQ'Y]~ * rou xmQou nu'tOxQa'tOQla~; TL El vrn ama - 'tL El Vat alJ'ta;

Ma a~ aXOUaOlJllE axolla Al yo 'tOY x, ~'tOAL yxa:

«Onoioc rraQa't'Y]Q~a'Y] 'ta rrm YVlcLa torv rralCwv xm rcov V£UlV a; 't'Y]v EAAaca, ElJXOAUl; 'Y]llrroQEL va evvonon 'to 'Y]QUlLxov rrVE'lllla rorv, coorrv 'Y] 'tUX'Y] CEV £XEL 'to rraQallLxQOV 11£QO; a; ama, aAAa 1l0VOV 'Y] avcQELa xm llaAAOV 'Y] aYXL VOLa. IIQo; 'tOU'tOL; 'ta rrmcaQLa alJyxQo'tOuv rrOA£1l0lJ; cvcuero~u rcov, rooov EL; oAa 'ta XUlQLa 0XECOV, xaSw; xm Et~ CtacpoQOlJ; rroAa; ... M' OAOV toirto 'Y] CPVOlX~ XALOl; 't(JJV vscov EL; ru aQlla'ta CEV tp'Y]CPEl OU'tE cpo~EQLallou;, OU'tE Xl VClJVOV, xm aXEcov EL; OA'Y]V 't'Y]v EAt.aca ElJQlaxE'tUl alJ't~ 'Y] alJV'Y]SELa» (<<EAA'Y]VLX~ NOllaQXLa», aEA. 212, a'Y]ll. 23~).

~'to 'taouyxQwlla torv rro't'Y]QLwV, «x a A 0 ~ 0 A i!» aAA'Y]AOElJXLov'tOlJaav avaIlE'ta~lJ roix OL XA£CP'tE~.

« ... 'OAOL OL 'EAA'Y]VE; Xat llaAta'ta OL XUlQLXOl £XOlJOl IlEyaA(JJ'ta't'Y]v XAlOlV EL; tn aQlla'ta. ~XECOV xaSEL; ceto amou; EXEL CUo xm 'tQLa aQlla'ta xm El vm a~L08aullaa'tOL XlJv'Y]yoL .. ». Km os lJrroo'Y]IlElWa~ rou o't'Y] aEAlCa: « ... 'EXOlJOl CE xm mv oQaOl v rooov o~c(av xm xa8aQav onoo ~A£rrOlJOl 't'Y] vUX'ta rrEQLaao'tEQov arr' 0, n ~A£rrOlJOl v OL AxaC'Y]lla'lXOL 't'Y]; KQouaxa; (~.'t.L.: xm Yla'tl 0XL xru rcov AS'Y]vwv;) 't'Y]v 'Y]1l£Qav» (0 LCLO~, a'tl] aEA. 211, a'Y]ll. 22).

«T£Ao;, CEV rrQ£rra va A'Y]allov~aoWE 'toy P~ya. Av 0 KOQu~; ELvm 0 rrmcaywyo; ton £SVOlJ~, 0 P~ya; dvm 0 ESvarroo'tOAo;. Koi EVW 0 KOQa~~ rraQ£IlEVE IlLa CPlJOlOYVUlIlLa ~£v'Y] rrQo; 't'Y]v ElJQELa Ila~a rou Aaou, 0 <l>EQaLo; ~EL uvu-

• T1']v 27 <I>E~QovaQ(o'U 1828, 0 PEt~ ECPEV'[1']~ (=0 Ylto'UQYo~ TOJV ESOlTEQlXWV T1']~ TO'UQx(a~) oljAwvE orov ltQW~E'UTlj T1']£ A'UoTQla£ OTt av 1'] Pooooto EsaxoAou8aE v' cvcquvvustru oro EAA1']vlxo ~ljT1]flU, 1] TO'UQxla ljTUV nnoqxioiouevr] va rptnoa flEXQl ltOAEflO'U, ax6f1u XUl EVaVtlU a' oAE£ Tl£ E'UQwltu·ixE£ Li'UvaflEl£. METa o'UO flljVEC; T1']~ XljQ'USE TOV ltOAE[!O. (Li. KOXXlVO~, o.n; T. 12, aEA. 17).

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fIANNID: LKAPIMJ:IAI

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

!lEaa t1']~ !lEaW tWV J'WL1']!latWV tOU XaL tWV bLaX1']QU;EWV tOU nou <PAOYWVOUV JtEQwaOtEQO tL~ aXAa~W!lEVE~ xaQbtE~ XaL bLvouv <ptEQa atL~ EIwtLbE~ rou, 'Yoreo« ELVaL XaL 1'] 8uotn tOU, 0 8avato~ tOU, nou tOY xavouv 8QuAo ern ouvsib1']a1'] tOU 'Eflvotx. LlEV EXEL XL 0 P~ya~ !lEya JtVEU!latLXO avaat1']!la. LlEV dVaL ooqxx, 'O!lW~ bLa8EtEL !lLa E8vEYEQttx~ bwa!l1'] nou bEY t1']v EXEL xavEL~ cero tOU~ aAAou~ rou LlLa<pWtLa!lou. TILatEUEL orov av8QwJto, otu bLXaLW!lata tou, ornv XOLVWVLX~ avaJttu;1'] XaL t1']v JtvEU!latLX~ avaJtAaa1']. KaL !laXEtat. KaL to !laX0!lEVO JtvEU!la ooo XL av tou AELJtEl !l Lao A 0 X A 1'] Q W !l E v 1'] E X Jt aLb E u t L X ~ a u y x Q 0- t 1'] a 1'] (1'] uJt0YQa!l!lw1'] bLX~ uou), EL Val JtLO YOVL!lO !lEaa otnv xaQbLa tWV aXAa~wv XaL tWV XataJtLE~O!lEVWV xa8E EJtOX~~·

H <pwv~ rou P~ya ELVaL 1'] !l0\'1'] Jtou axouYEtaL orov aXAa~W!lEVO rono, 'OXL, O!lW~, a' 01...0 to JtAato~. Exavo Jtou auyxLvEi XaL 1;Ea1']xWVEL ELVaL to tQayoubL rou

Ta "bLXaLW!lata", Ol bLax1']Qu;Et~ rou, oi XOlVWVtXE~ tOU 8EaEL~ JtoAu Aiyo ELVaL yvWatE~ at1'] !lEyaA1'] !la~a rou Aaou. AAAa ru tQayoubLa tou, tn 80uQLa, auyxAovL~ouv t1']V 1frUX~ tWV uJtobouAwv, t1']~ ava~ouv <PWtLE~ XaL T1']~ bLVOUV rptsQa».

aVE<pAE1;E tL~ xaQbLE~ tWV TIav~AxavLwv Xat bEY XOQoJt~b1']aE t1'] AEutEQLa atL~ XOQbE~ tOU ta!lJtouQa tou ...

KaL 8a toy aQWtaya!lE 1;ava: Auto~ EivaL oAo~-oAo~ 0 <l>EQaio~; autE~ ... OL yEVLXOt1']tE~; Kat on bEY ~tav ao<po~ (ono«; EAoyou !la~), XaL noi: bEY EiXE XL autO~ JtVEu!latLXO avaat1']!la (onu»; It.X. 0 x, TQE!lltEAa~), XaL OtL ooo Xat av tOU AEiltEL !lLa oAOXA1']QW!lEV1'] JtVEu!latLX~ auyxQOt1']a1'] (a1']!l. bLX~ !lOU: 'Ioox YLa va t1'] ~Qa~a!lE OltW~ t1']V E~QaaE tOU KOQa~ 0 LluaaEa~* ... ), oxrtooo bLE8EtE !lLav ESVEYEQtLX~ bwa!l1'], nou ... XAlt; Ma mrtu, XUQLE, !lOla~OUV aav t1']V (xata toy EYYAE~LXO taEAE!lEvtE) axoQbaALa XWQL~ to axoQbo ... H XaQt.a toU P~ya aXEbov EL Val cvn YQa<po t1']~ LlLax1']Qu- 1;1']~ tWV LlLxatw!latwv tOU AvSQwltou. H bE raAALx~ Enovcotoon bEY ~tav ESVLX~, aAAa Korvorvtxr] - !lOVabLX~ ornv Iorootu ltEQLlttWa1'] Aaou ltQwta xorvorvix« enuvoorrrrnouVtO~ XaL xcromv yLvaVtO~ 'Eflvoc. 0 P~ya~, auto~ 0 (aav tc ayaA!lata t1']~ vnoo» tOU TIaaxa) otnro; tQ0!lO~ t1']~ <l>LALx~~, tOU KaltobLatQLa Xat rou MEttEQVLX, «uxoua» XatL ... Emx~bELoU~ aav aUtou~ ltOU 0 O!lLA1']t~~ tpaxvEL va ~QEL XatL (tOU !laxaQL m) ltW~ ... EUaEQov! Na, YLatL bEY zsQl!lEVEt ttnoru coto !la~ tOU~ bLavoOU!lEVOU~ 0 Aao~. KaL va YlatL to '21 EYlVE Oxl !lOVO XWQL~ t1'] SEA1']a1'] rcov bLavooWEvorv XaL AOYLwv rou, aAAa EVaVtLa XaL oe ltEQL<pQov1']a1'] ltQo~ bamou~... H XOl vwvLOAoyia bEY EL Val Xa!l!lLa E<pEuQEa1'] YLa va ltEQvaEl 0 x. KavEnoJtouAo~ tL~ WQE~ rou, 'Ooo JtQWtOyova XaL XOVtQLxa xavEi~ va ronoiovs, ~tav avaJto<pEUXt1'] 1'] xOlvwvLoAoyia tou '21. ea ~tav oAotEAa avtLbLaAExtLxo to nvuflsro YLa !lLa ltEQa YLa ltEQa XWQa aYQotLX~, OltOU

Axou~ EXEL, va tOU AELltEl aut~ 1'] «!lLa OAOXA1']QW!lEV1'] ExltatbEUtLX~ auyxQot1']a1']» zou oAOL Ol a-<pQax !lattQ VtE ta!lltA tWV YXQav QWtwQav~ Xat Ol Chevaliers Servants tWV MEyaAwv KUQLwv t1']V ltaL~OUVE oro baXtuAa; TIQo~ xataA1']tpLv SEaEw~ ult081']xo<puAaxa ~ A1']1;iaQXou, aXQL~w~ taurc ru ltQoaovta altattouvtat. Ana xaVEva~ JtOtE UltoS1']xO<pUAaxa~ ~ A1'];LaQXo~, Axab1']!la'(xo~ ~ ltQo<pEaaOQo~ bEY

* 1M fJttm:OATjv ron Avtpoutoou JtQO~ rov KOQuTj, orov «Kuvuprp WU~. <I>ornabTj, afA. 212, xu8w~ xU! Of 1:0mO to ~t~A[o.

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TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

OAa rc f..tEOa :rmQaywy~; xm ayaSwv (Y'l'], EQyaAELa xm ~O)U XAJt.) nouv Lbwx't'l']OLa 'tWV ybaQ'twv 't'l'];. OL 'tQEL; LSWO'tJ- 010; L(i~EL; 't'l']; ( TovQxOL, EXXA'I']OLa xm xo't~af..tJtaO'l']bE;) xa'tExav LO OWOAO mmov 'tWV f..tEOWV. Km Sa Qw'taya LOV x. LLOALyxa: 0 KOLvoLLxo; L'UvE'tmQLOf..tO; trov Af..tJtEAaXLWV (1788 -1811 ) nou «vrrvoxre» X'UQwAExLlxa LOV oLOxaouo OAWV rorv XOl vwvwAoywv LO'U oiorvo, bEY 'tOV XQat'l']OE LOV Lbwv ALyaxL oxeqmxov, JtQLV Xaf..tEL LL; aVLlxOLVWVtOAOYLXE; EJtL rou '21 f..ta; aox~oEt; LO'U; TOOll aV'UJtOljJLa; Toon ayvOLa;

A; JtOVf..tE Of..tW; xm xcm aAAa 0XE'tlxa, f..tta rroi: LOV x.

LLOAL yxa Xt EyW bEY LOV SEWQW xrrvav ... 'tuxaLo. E~EvaV't[a; xm w; OLOxao't~ LOV EX'ttf..tW xm uooqxonx« o'UyxQOtllf..tEVO. Movov on ( O'tOV xmQo 'tll; EJtavao'taoll; ) toy [bw JtO'tE bEY Sao'tEAvav «urov xa'ta 'tll; Xioc LO JtEAao - us 'to qnrnAt ...

Km (f.LE LO o'UIlJtaSEto) Sa rou mo: KaAa, XVQtE LLOAtyxa, EO'tW, oJtw; 1..10;. Ma to «axQw't~Qwv» bEY lOt voi ... 11 «axQ'I'] LO'U L'UQLO'U»! I1w; a~acpva tWQa xm vnrr ~ExaQCPWto, rn SovQta LO'U <l>EQaLO'U O'UyxAOV[~O'UVE rnv l)J'UX~ rou Aaov, rtou xU'ta osv«, aXOf..ta xm LO 1821, bEY fiXE 'tLJtO'tl; aJt' LL; «o'UVEib'l']OE;» JtaQa ~'tav Eva a~LObaxQu'to «avSQwJtaxt»; 110'U:

Y'VIlVWf..tEVO coto xaSE JtvE'UllaLLxo, tbEOAoytXO xm XOlVWVtxo JtEQlEXOIlEVO Ef..t l)J'UXo 'UALXO, va EIl~Q'UWS~ Ilta XOL VWVtX~ E~EYEQoll; (L.'t.L.: 'Axco EIll)J'UXo 'UAtXa xo't~all Aao;! 'Axco E 11 ~ Q W 0 11).

LlEV ELllao'tE Ol JtQW'tOL nou SE'tO'Uf..tE LO EQW't'l']lla. EJtELb~, Of..tW;, EX0'UV yL VEt JtaQE~'I']y~OEt;, a'USmQEOLE; xm 'UJtOXElf..tEVtXE; EX'ttf..t~OEt; oXE'ttXa, aJtOJtELQOllaO'tE LO IlEAE't'l']lla LOVLO, yta va bOVIlE av EX0'UV ~aOll Ol aJtOljJEl; OOWV unoOtllQ(~O'UV on 'I'] Encvootoon LO'U EtXOOtEva ELXE XOlVWVLxo JtEQtEXOIlEVO, ~ otnv av'tLSE'tll JtEQLJt'tWO'l'] av f..tJtOQOVOE va EXEl, j3a~oVLa; JtAffi oro xaQ'UocpVAAt rou aywvtot~ Xat to aL'tllf..ta rorv XOLVWVlXWV btEXbLX~OEWV. Km yta va xa'taA~~O'U~lE, 1110 rnv JtaQo'Uoiao'l'] LO'U XOt vwvLxa avaYEvv'l']IlEVO'U 'Enllva - avaYEvvllllEVOU f..tEOa orn cpwJta LO'U aywva».

Km nou:

« ... Av 0 JtLvaxa; ama; O'UIlJtAllQwSrl us n; YEVtXOltEQE; O'UVS~XE; bla~LWO'l'];, o'tEyao'l'];, EQyao(a;, VbQE'UO'l'];, ouYXOLVWVtWV xAJt., EXOUIlE tnv EtXOVa EVa; AaO'tJ nou ~El ornv ESVLX~ LO'U oXAa~La, ornv XOLVWVtX~ ron aV'UJtaQ~La, OLOV JtatbEmLxo oxorcotouo LO'U. Km JtQOXVJttEt rote 'to EQWtllIla: IlJtOQEL, xa'tw aJta tEtOLE; O'UV8~XE; xm 1110 'tELOtO core-

«Fur va EXEl Eva XL VYIf..ta XOL VWVtXO - ~ oJtOLob~JtOtE ano - JtEQlEXOIlEVO JtQEJtEl va EXEl JtEQaOEl f..tla CPaoll EtblX~; JtQOEtOLf..taOLa;. LtllV JtEQLJt'tWOll 't'l']; EJtavaotaOll; LOU ElXOorevo Sa JtQEJtEl va 'UJt~QXE Illa llaxQoXQovll lbEOAOYLX~ JtQoELOLllaoLa, rtou Sa sxove ~(wlla orov 'EAAllva tll; (bla; LO'U 'tll; xa'tamaoll; xm Sa blllltO'UQyolJOE 'tll OUVEL(')ll0'l'] 'tll; aAAay~; T'I']; xutuorcorp; am~;, f..tE't'l'] SEO'l'] oacpwv XOLVWVlXWV m'tlllla'twv. '01..11 am~ 'I'] (')ta(')LxaoLa, ~E~ata, 8a ~EXtVOVOE XUL Sa JtQoXWQOVOE o'rnv oQyavwo'l'] EVO; JtaQollOLo'U aywva coto av8QwJto'U; rtou ELxav IlEAE't~OEt XOLVWVLOAOyLa» XAJt.

I1Q008E'tW EA6yo'U 1l0'U, WO'tE va f..tllV xa'tavtaEL aJtaQa(')EXLO xm va JtQEJtEt va O~'I']O'tEL cor' tnv IOLOQLa to Jtw;,

80

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fIANNlll: LKAPIMI1AL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

XooQL~ «!-lEya rtVE'll!-la'tLx6 aVUOtl]!-la» XaL ooqto, XooQL~ «!-lLa OAOXAl]Qoo!-lEVl] rtVE'll!-latLX~ O'llyxQ6tl]Ol]» 0 P~ya~, XaL XooQL~ 0 ~'llOOEa~ !-lLa «CPUOl] abLX~~ rtQOEtoL!-laOLa~» XaL xotVooVLX~~ «E!-lBQvooOl]~», 0 !-lEV rtQWtO~ aVUcpAE~E tL~ XaQbLE~ us tc tQayovbLa rou, 0 bE UAAO~ ( ... XO'll!-lrtovQa~ uno xowoivLOAoYLa 0 aSE6cpoBo~) t6A!-ll]OE va ta!-lrtO'llQooSEL !-lE~ 0' Eva XUVL; IlEQLxaAW; ME toy P~ya rtVLxt6v OtL~ ... YEVLX6tl]tE~ XaL tOY EAAabLx6 Aa6 MONO to'll~ TovQxo'll~ va !-lLaua, El Val oav to BQaot6 '\jJUQL rtO'll - oro BQum!-lo - toVX'lloav

so. '~' r ,

u'110 tQLa ,=,O'll!-lLa ... va VOO'tL!-lLOEL ....

«H rtQoortuSaa rou P~ya (AEEL OE yELtoVLX~ -!-lE n~ OEALbE~ rou x. LtOAL yxa - oEAiba 0 x, A. BQavovol]~) ava!-lcpLoB~tl]ta 'll rt E Q E S V L x~, rtQErta va tOrtoSEtl]S~ a'llotl]Qu rtEQLxaQaXoo!-lEvl] at~v mox~ rou» XArt.

KaL rou ~l]tU!-lE XL UAAO «aVUOtl]!-la»; KL UAAl]V «nvsu!-la'tLX~ O'llyxQ6tl]Ol]» * XaL ooqxo; Ta tQayoubLa rou rtou tn tQayovbaE 0 Aa6~ ~tav YLa to xaAiltEQO XooAOXUSLa!-la rou XA~QO'll; To «W~ nots Sa ~OV!-lE oro atEVU» ~tav YLa mo rtEQLao6tEQl] artAOXOOQLU oroix rtQOWtoV~ rou; 0 bE ouVtl]Ql]tLx6tato~, rtAl]V xaA6tatl]~ rtLOtl]~ ~. Kox:« VO~, va, tL AEEL ern oEALba 105 rou Ion rouou tl]~ «Icroou«; - to'lltl]~ EAA l]VLX~~ Enrrvorrtrursun;»:

«E~ a'lltov (EX rou on 0 P~ya~ BQLax6tav OE ouvsvvonOl] !-lE tOY rtaOU rou BLbLVLO'll IlaoBuvoYAo'll) bwataL va o'llvaxS~ on rtQuY!-lan EL~ to VEOV EAEVSEQOV xQUtO~ Sa O'llyxatEAEYE XaL rou; Toooxou; nou Sa EbEXOvtO v' art?- 0XLOSOW ron LO'llA rrrvou XaL va ~~OO'llV EL~ rnv EmxQarsurv, II orroic Sa EOXll!-lat(~Eto, us tou bLXaLW!-lata rtQO~ roix UAAO'll~».

«'Ortoo~ oi "a B Q U X 00 r 0 L" tl]~ raAALx~~ ErtavaatUOEoo~ ... OVtW XaL 0 P~ya~ ... EXUAEL rtuvta~ to'll~ uno rorv Touoxrov rtLE~O!-lEVO'll~ XQLonavov~, LEQBo'll~, BO'llAyUQO'll~ XaL AABavov~, va o'll!-l!-lax~owmv xatu tWV Touoxcov, 6rtoo~ avu'\jJl] OVtW tll~ EAE'llSEQia~ l] rt'llQxa'lu coto tWV OQEWV tll~ Boovice; !-lEXQL tWV EQ~!-looV tll~ AQaBia~:

L;UQlas xat wv nEAayov va AafJ,'l.jJTj 0 a'iavQ6~ xai s ' rnv OIXalOaVvTj va aXV'l.jJTj 0 EX()Q6~.

o xoouo; va YAvUOaTj ano f{!QIXUjv nATjyrjv

x ' EAEV()EQOI va ,WfJ,EV, aOEAf{!la eu; tnv YTJV»

( K. MEVbEAOWV BaQS6Abl], OEA. 39).

« ... H Bamx~ XaL tEALX~ LbEa ron P~ya ~tO va rtQoxaAEol] !-liav !-lEYUAllv artEAE'llSEQWtLX~V xivllmv 6AooV torv Aawv rcov unotstnvuevorv EL~ tllV OSoo!-laVlX~V X'llQLaQXLav, 6SEV 6XL uovov tWV EAA~VooV, aAAu XaL rcov PO'll!-lUVWV, trov LEQBwv, rorv BO'llAYUQWV XaL rrov AABavwv. Oirroi otrrv to 1814 bLU tll~ rtQootoBO'llAia~ tQLWV En~voov E!-lrt6Qoov tll~ Oonooou LbgVSllll <l>LAtX~ EtaLQEia - xatU B<iSo~ II Ertoovv!-lia EXEL tl]v a'llt~v Oll!-laOLav us tllV rtQollYllSEioav EtaLQEiav rou P~ya -ll at!-l6ocpaLQa ~tO ~bl] rtQoEtOL!-laO!-lEVll EL~ ta~ llYE-

* Moxutuurc 0 <l>EQaLo£ ELXE XaL tllV nVEVrWtlX~ oVyxQOtllOll, nov tou al-lcptO~lltEL 0 x, LtoAiyxa£. 'EYQacpE nEQL <l>v01X~£ <l>tAooocpLa£. MEtucpQaoE to «LXOAEiov turv vtEAtXutlllV EQaOtmv», tll «Booxonousu tlll~ 'A~nElIlV» LO,V MaQI-lOvtEA, coto toy 40 ropo tOV «AvuxaQoll» rou BaQ8~AEl-lll ~.a. AOXOAE,tto I-lE tll «LVYXQLtLX~ rElIlYQacpLa tll£ EAAuOO;» XaL wXE6La~E xaQt,E:; tll£ XlIlQa;, I-lE oAa to aQxaLa XaL tc YEa ovountu, Ot nVEV~attXE£ tOV E~WE:;, OE l-lu811011, OE I-lEAEt~l-lata XaL 0' EQEVVE£ ~oav noAVOXtOEt:;. Lta xaQtla nov tOV xutl::OXav at AvotQtaXOL, touxrnpcv xcn tEtotE£ EQyaoLE£.

82

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rIANNIU: L:KAPIMIIAL:

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

1l0VLa~ xm rc :rtVE'lJIla'ta EVVO'(XcD~ :rtQOXa'tELA TJIlIlEVa».

(K. T~OUQEaXOU, KaSTJYTJ't~~ 'tOU I1avEmatTJIlLOU tOU BOuxOUQEa'tLOU, 'tOY O:rtOLO Sa auvav't~aOUIlE xrn :rtaQaxa'tOJ ).

AAAa, XUQLE, 0 EAATJVLXO~ Aao~ bEY SaxavE IlLa 'tQOIlEQ~ E:rtavaa'taaTJ YLa va ceroxcrcotnoa xm :rtoAL'tLxa xm «xa~anLanxcD'tEQa» roix xo't~a,.maaTJbE~ xru tTJ Am:rt~ acpTJxocpOJALa tWV AaoybaQ'tOJv. OL Touoxo, bEY ntuv oi XElQO'tEQm ... OL AEYOV'tE~ on TJ mavaataaTJ ~'tav IlOVO ESVLX~, ~ cLvm yAuxollEa0vUxtLOl xm abLa~aatm, ~ bEY SEAOUV va Ila~ AEVE tTJv aA~8ELa, bTJAab~ (uno 'to «aEQa SEAEL 0 xauya~») «aEQoSEAoxauyat~~bE~». 'Onoio a:rt' rc ouo rou; aQEaEL, a~ 'to :rtaQouv. LXO'tcDvov'ta~ TJ mavaataaTJ tOU~ Toix» XOU~, ~~EQE on aXO'tcDVEL 'tOY IlEya aUllllaxo rou XOt~all:rtaoixou axuAoAoYLOU xm 'tOJV :rtQOXQL'tOJV. XOJQL~ 'toy acpaVLouo rr Q ()) t a mrtouvou, bEY ll:rtoQaE va ~matOJvE touc anou~. To on a' mrto TJ mavaa'taaTJ YEAaatTJXE, bEY :rtava:rtcL bLOAOU on rou; E<pELaSTJ. LtO 'Aotooc, etc BEQ~mva, xm a'tTJ ZaQaxo~a, an~ KaA'tE~E~, ornv TQm~~va xm oro 'AQYo~, Sa roix Eacpa~E OAOU~ ouv tQaYLa, av IlTJ EXEL o KoAoxmQcDvTJ~. L'tTJV 'Yooo, oro Nau:rtALO, roix ExallE va xa1OuQTJSOW IlE~ ata ~QaxLa tOU~. LtTJ LaIlO, atTJ ZaxuvSo xrn ornv KEcpaAAOVLa, rou; ~EtQEllouAla~E. 8a roue :rtEQvaE OAOU~ EV orourrn llaxaLQa~. To nou VOIlLaE OU yLa rouro cL XE xmQo, mrto mv Ecpayc. H mavaataaTJ cetotuXE ...

AO~ 'tTJ~ AxabTJIlLa~ KmvOJvLxcDV xm I10AL'tLXcDV E:rtLa'tTJllcDv tTJ~ PoullavLm; x, K. T~ouQEaxou, oro (os 'tQEL~ auvEXELE~ ornv ECPTJIlEQLba «EAEUSEQO~ Koouoc» 'tTJ~ 24TJ~, 25TJ~ xm 26TJ~ Iouvtou 1971) aQSQo tou «H <I>LALX~ E'tmQELa xm ot Pouuuvoi», onou la1OQloYQacpEL mL 10U SElla'tO~. A~ Ila~ EmtQa:rtEL oe Ila~ tOU~ LblOU~ 'tOU~ POJIlLOU~ va ~EQOUIlE xaAU'tEQa tc rou OLXOU Ila~, Ea'tOJ xm ono» ama ~QSav oe xa:rtma aXEaTJ IlE tTJ XcDQa 1OU. E:rtELb~ bE «TJ EUYEVEla unoXQEcDVEl», bEY Sa ron :rtOU,!E 10U x, T~ouQEaxou on bLaatQEcpEl EmllEQou~ tnv la'tOQlx~ aA~SELa tOJV :rtQaYlla'tUw Ila~, aAAa on bEY tTJv auvEAa~E blaAExnxa, aAAa 'tTJv EYQa1.!JE xa'ta to xm oro Bouxouoson «AOYLOV :rtvEulla» tOJV (YLatL 0Xl xrn XEl;) aa:rtQoQouxabOJv 'tTJ~ IatoQLa~. 1\; MTJ IlOVOV EIlEL~ Sa tOXOUIlE to «aa:rtQoQouXlALXL» Ila~ 1l0VO:rtcDALO; MTJ IlOVOV 0 x, I. M. Xat~TJCPcDtTJ~ Sa (IlE tTJv ll:rtataVO~ouQtaa ron aa~E01;cDllato~) aa:rtQL~EL roix AtSLO:rtE~ toU '21 - Ila~;

AEEl Am:rtov 0 x. T~ouQEaxou - EXEL oro A' IlEQO~ tou aQSQou rou:

LXEnxa IlE rn xata tov BAablllllQEaxou Xat Y'4JTJAaVtTJ xaSExaa'ta, Sa XQELaatEL tcDQa v' «uvuuermmoco» 'toy KaSllYTJt~ tou I1aVmLatTJIlLOU tOU BouXOUQW'tLOU xcn ME-

« .... H a'tam~ tTJ~ Poullavlx~~ La'tOQloYQacpLa~ ooov acpoQa El~ rnv Etruoetov EYVcDQLaE :rtEQtaamEQa~ cpaaEL~' xa't' aQxa~ xaSU)QL~E'tO coto 'ta~ auvE:rtcLa~ ta~ o:rtoLa~ ouvsnoyEtat ava:rt0cpEux'ta 0 :rtOAEIlO~, coto tov Savatov rou 8. BAablllTJQEaxou xm uno 'to on :rtoAAa EYYQacpa avayxaLn bla IlLnv ooxrrqv extumotv tOU :rtQo~A~lln'tO~, EAEl:rtOV' rc EYYQacpn trnrtu EVEcpnvLaSTJaav EV auvEXcLa IlE rnv :rtaQoboy tou XQovou xm XUQLOJ~ xa'ta ta~ 'tQEL~ 'tEAEmn(n~ bEXaEtLC(I;. Ano aUt~v tTJV aQXLx~v qxrotv xnta tTJV onotov llllcpla~~'tOuv xaSE oovosouov IlEta~U tTJ~ E'tmQELa~ xm rou Qowavlxou mnvaa'ta'tlXOU xlv~llato~, IlE'tn~u rou AAE~av-

84

85

rIANNlll: LKAPIMIlAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

bQou Y'tjJl]AaV'tl] XaL rou 8£ObwQoU BAabllll]QEOXOU ltEQaouv Xata to 1845 ElS Tl]V EX blallEtQOU aVtLSEtOV, m)IlCPwvc 1110 rnv OltOLaV 0 8. BAabllll]QEOXOu ~TO ltQaxtwQ tl]s EtaLQELas: 0 QOAOs TOU - toioutoc Ws tOY ELXEV cvtuistromOEt l] JtQOl]YOUIlEVl] QOUllaVlX~ LOTOQlOYQacpLa - UJt~Q~EV "Evas IlVSOs" XaL l] XLVl]OLs tOU xata rnv aQXlX~V tl]s cpamv bEY ~tO JtaQa Evas "aVttltEQlOltaOllos bl]lll0UQYl]SELs El; Tl]V OA revtov bLa va mwvQl] mv JtQOOOX~v tcov Touoxcov ELs auto to Ol]IlELOV XaL vc blEUXOAVVl] rnv bla~amv TOU ~ouva~Ew; w; TOV YljJl]AaVtl]". L~IlEQOV OltOU 0 XQovo; XatEVvcos tu ltaSl] XaL ltQOOCPEQEl lla~L 1110 tu VEWOtL uvcqxrvevro boxOUIlEVta tnv altaQaL tntov aVtLXELIlEVlXotl]ta, EL Val buvatov va cnoxcrootnocouev rnv aA~SElaV, vc ELltWIlEV rc JtQaYllata oJtw; ovvE~l'jOav, "XWQL; Ilioo; xm XWQL; JtQoXataAl'jljJLv". EillaL EUtUX~; bLOtt MvallaL va TO ltQa~w Ebw, El; tl]v xaQNa tl'j; EAAabos, ltAl'jO(OV TOU lEQOV AOCPOU alt' OltOU mOQEVSl] to EmOtl'jIlOvLXOV ltvEvlla» XAlt.

ovouc ~l]taIlE alto tOY KaSl'jYl]t~ x. T~OUQEOXOU. ~lOtt l'j aA~SEla ELVaL TOVtl]:

10: 'OtL ltQlV (XaL ltoM ltEQlOOOtEQO xata TO '21) xcVIOLS bEY UJt11QXE ouvoeouo; IlEta~v EtaLQELa; XaL Pouurvorv. (iloAv owota l'j PoullavLx~ 0XEtlX~ IOtoQlOYQacp(a route to EJtlYQallllattOE «E v as IlV S 0 s»).

20: H EtaLQELa EV tl'j ~La tl]; «XQl]mIlOltOLl]OE» TOV yEVvote BAabLIll'jQEOXOu 1l0VOV Yla va xallEl tl] bOUAltOa tl]s, E~altatWvtas TOV on XL am~ (I) XOlVWVLX~V mavaotaol'j Sa moLEl ... Auto EVYOEL XaL YQacpEll'j 1110 tOY OAVIlJ1W E YY Q a cp l'j OUIlCPwvia t~s 27 ~EXEIl~QLOU 1820 OTO BOUXOUQEon Xl 0XL ama no'u - ltaQaxattwv - OltWs Sa LboVIlE Ilas AEEl a v c n o bEL X t W sox. T~OUQEOXOU.

30: 'Ott ltQaYllan, OltWs ltaQabEXEtaL l'j Eyy(Jtata oro xata roirtnv Tl'jV cpaol'j YCYOVota POUllavlX~ IOtOQlOYQacpLa, 0 QOAO; TOU BAaCllll]QEOXOU (OXL amo; nou tOU altoNbEl- taxa -l'j IlETa TO 1945 YEa lOtoQLOYQacpLa - Xl ac; AEEl o.n t' aQEmol 0 x. KaSl]Yl'jt~s, aAAa 0 QOAO; nou, E~altatl'jSEL; alto Tl] <I>tAlX~, EltaL~E EV ayvola TOU 0 HYEtl]C;) ~tav aUto; nou XaL l] YEa aUt~ Poullavlx~ IOtoQlOYQacpLa ltaQabEXEtaL, bl]Aab~ ntov Evac; «cvtctsourncouo; bl]lllOUQYl'jSd; ElC; tl]V OAtEVLaV, bta va EmovQl'j rnv ltQoooX~v tWV Touoxurv lOt; curo TO Ol'jIlELOV XaL va btEUXOAVVl'j rnv bla~aorv tOU ~ouva~Ews HC; TOV YljJl]AavTl]v» (~A. KOXXLVOV).

40: Tooo xcvevcc OVVbEOIlOs bEY Ult~QXE - ltQlV - ueto~v BAabllll'jQEOXOu XaL cl>lAlX~C; (ro bE ltEQL Ilvl'jOl'jC; tOU BAabllll'jQEoxou alt' aUt~v ELV' oAa ltaQallvSla) WOtE l'j IlEV OUIlcpwvLa XaL l'j blaltQaYllatEUOl] tWV Am'TOIlEQELWV Tl]C; OVVEQyaoLas EYlVE alto 1l0VOV tOU tOY OA.1Jllmo, to bE 1l0VabLxo XaL 1l00QaLo ouvaltaVtl'jlla TOU ltQWtOU, 1110 TOV OAl yOCPQEV~,

Aqmvovtuc, IlEta ~aSutatl]C; UltOXAlO~; llaC;, xaTa IlEQOs aUta ta ltEQL TOU «LEQOV AOcpOU alt' OltOU EltOQEVSl]» XAlt., nou 1l0VOV lloQLa xaXUJtOljJLac; llaC; EYELQOUV, Sa tOU ltOVIlE Ott tour' ta ltQaYllaTa SEAOVV ltQwta ALYO «~Lam- 110» XL VOtEQa va IlltOUV ern «ooxo» YLa va rc OtQL ljJEL TO «OCPOVtVAl». Ta YEa vtoxomsvtn rtou 0 x. KaSl'jYl]t~C; (bEV) llaC; ltaQouoLaoE bEY a~L~ouv XaL ltOAAa - ltOAAa JtQaYllata. 'OAa ta ltQaYllata, AEEl l'j IlUOtLX~ ooqxo tWV Qa~~Lvwv, XOl ta~ouv tOY avSQwlto Yla vn tOU; bWOEl ltQOOWltO Yla va owSovv xm ovouo YLa vc ultaQ~ouv. To AOlltOV IlEC; 0' aUta (to tou x. T~OUQEOXOU cpAl'jVacpl)llata) IlEya XEVO ELVaL alto tl]v corouoto tl'jC; aA~SELa;. Kat tavtl'jC; to ltQOOWltO XaL t.'

86

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rIANNHL ~KAPIMI1A~

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

onoo~ toy AEEL 0 BaQSOAblJ, YtVlJAavtlJ, ~tav auto tlJ~ «xoo<JLa~» - oro TUQyo{)latL. TIAlJQO<pOQw bE tOY x. T~ouQEaxou OtL orov B' tOJlO tou «To 1821 XaL lJ AA~SELa» {)L{)AlOU uou, a' Eva JlaAAOV JlcyaAo JlEQO~ 'tOU, «LCJtoglobLCPW» rn xata toy BAabLJllJQEaxou aXQL{)W~. Ba (av unaQSoo Eoot; rou XQOYOU) cpQOV'tlaoo va rou naEL ore XEQLa ron XaL to 20 '21 JlOU, xaS(b~ XaL to c:rr;l SUQaLt; «Oi faAatabE~» (YQacpoo oro 1975).

XaL Jlovaxou~, coto tlJv aa'tLx~v tasLv, bLa va XataA~SlJ EL~ tOU~ XooQLXOU~».

KaL AOLnov a~ auvExlaOU~tE. fQacpEL 0 x. nOUQEaxou, nQLv JlnEL oro YEO rou SEJla:

«H unOat~QLSl~ lJ naQaaXESEiaa uno r co v Po U Jl a v 00 VEL ~ t lJ v <l> LA L X ~ vEt a l Q 10 La v».

TIOlWV Poinrrvorv oWJ)~; AX, cxouore! ... XaL xaAa toxa nEt; Ti; MlJ JlOVO'V EJlcL~ Sa tOXOUJlE to «aangOQOUXl/,lXl» Jla~ nQoVOJlLO;

«'Evc EQ(htlJJla tlSEtaL xcr ' aQXu~: TIw~ cvnusrcomocv OL aUYXQovOl aut~~ POUJlaVOl mv "Etoipsurv"; TIOLa un~QSEV lJ ata<JL~ 'tW'V ooov acpoQu EL~ auto 'to xlvlJJla anEAEuSEQwaEw~ tWV Aaw'V rcov unotetcvuevorv El~ mv OSWJlaVlX~V xUQLaQXlav; H ct:rr:avtlJ<JL~ El Val SEtlX~ XaL xatlJyoQlJJlatLx~. Oi POUWlVOL EVlJyxaAlaSlJaaV rnvunoueow tlJ~ <l>LALX~t; EtaLQElat; XaL tlJt; nagEaxov rnv unOat~QLSLV trov, L\lbOV'tE~ trnrrnv 'tlJv {)e{)alwmv bev EXOJleV un' 0tVLV Jlat; utuv JlLXQ~V oJlaba onabwv, neQLwQLaJlEvlJV ELt; Jllav JlOVOV XOLVWVLX~V xatlJyoQlav XaL nEQLAaJl{)avouaa JllaV anA~v llSlx~v oirvuiveow, aAAa avacpEQOJlESa ELt; OMXAlJQOV tnv XOlVWVLX~V LeQaQXlav, aQx(~ovta~ uno toy lJYEJlOVa, roix JlEyaA01J~ {)oYLaQous XaL toy cvorreoov XA~QOV, auvEXl~OVtat; Jle rou; JlEaOUt; XaL JlLXQOUt; {)oYLaQout;, urto roix XAlJQLXOU~

KaflUQwa'te nOlol Pouurvor «EVll')'XaAlaSllaav» (A Jl a v !) tnv UnoSEalJ tlJt; <l>LALX~t;: OAOXAlJQO~ lJ XOLVWVLX~ LEQaQxLa!. .. 0 HYEJlOVat;, OL McyaAOL BOYLaQOL!. .. 0 AVWtEQO~ KA~Qo~! ... H aa'tLx~ taSll! ... L\lJAab~ an:asanavTa ro AaoybaQ'tLxa «xa'tEatlJJlEva». BAEnEtt;, VEQO bEY YLVHaL to aLJla ... Om' EX0'UV natQlba tc aUJl<pEQOV'ta. <l>LALX~ E'taLQELa, oortobaQOL, <l>avaQlW'tEt; XaL AOLn~ auvOJlO'tasLa rou XaLQOU, {)E{)aLa XaL EVllyxaALaSlJaav XaL aAAlJAoEVlJyxaAlaSlJaaV tlJv UnoSEalJ 'tllt; EtaLQda~ ... MlJV, XaL n ~~'taE; To xaSwJla orov a{)EQxo tWV Aachv, XWQL~ - ma - ouvstrupo roix tOUt; Touoxotx. To mo axoJla atLtVlJlO ton Aa"ixou AEJlOVlOU JlEXQl xouxoirrotc. Ana, ana, aAAu, 0 x. KaSlJYlJt~t; 'tEAELWVEL rnv «noorcon» XaL JlE Eva avanaVtEXO XQPIKOY~!!

KUQLE KaSlJYlJta, Jlat; xOYLovaQEtE; LUSUAOL OL PouroVOL XWQLXOl {)QLaXOVtav oe aXEbov EJlnOAEJllJ xa'taataalJ JlE bautout; OAOUt;. Kutuotuon EmnoAu~ouaa XaL JlaxQalWvlJ - tWV aYQotwv svovuc crou; BOYLaQoUt;. To aYQotLXo QouJlaVl'x,o XL vllJla SEnEQvaE oe JlLao~ 'tOU~ LnaQ'taxou~. OL a'taaEl~, OL EnavaataaELt; XaL to ybaQ<JLJlo ~wv'tavwv tWV tmcpALxabwv toU~ ~'tav «tVWJlOtUQL» autwv rcov naQLwv 'tlJ; POUJlavlat; ... Kuvsvcc tonot; XaL xavEVat; Aaot; bEY cLXE reroto aYQo'tLxo XL VlJJla w; to QOUJlavLxo. EmxatQa bE, uson etc SEJla aat;, 0 BAablJllJQEaxo 'tou ~'tav 0 aYQO'tonQo{)AlJto; HY£tll~, XaL anOL, onw~ 0 NtLJlltQL MaXEVtOVaXl Xl 0 XaYXL Flpovtrrv, TL ELVaL auta - u ELVaL aUta, nou ~QSEt; Ebw va, JlE XEQEVla JlmlJ, na~ oro CPOUQVO; IIOLOV «EvlJyxaALaSlJ» 0 Poiudvoc X(J)QLXO~, nou EnL JlOVW reo nxouourrn

88

89

rIANNIU: LKAPIMIIA1:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

tou «'EAAlJVE~» nETaYOvraV aAacpLaO!lEVO~ OT' OVELgo tou; Auto to OXUAOAOL to oonobugLxo, OAOL, YLa 'EAAlJVE~ nEgvayav. Tooo bE roix ELXav ybugEl roue XaXO!lOLgou~, noo ngoonEcpTav axo!la Xat OTlJ AUnlJOlJ rou ~OUATaVOU: avacpogE~, EXXAilOEL~, SOS xAn.

To savuAEoo 'bw, Xat aXOO TO xat OU, POU!laVO~ ovtr«; XaL TIgOcpEOOOgo~: « ... 8a bLEOEtOE ~E~aLoo~ TlJV XECPUAilv 0 Poo!lOUVO~ XoogLXO~, otov ilXOUOE TO 8aU!lamoV aYYEA!la (= toy OUA TOV rou Y'¢lJAaVTlJ nrrvco coro rev TIgou80) xat :rtLxga XAEUTJ 8a EcpaVlJ El~ rou; nAEiOtoU~, on 'EAAlJV ngLYXlJ'¢, uno <l>avaglooTwv nEglxuXAOU!lEVO~ EcpaVlJ Et~ Ta~ HYE!lOVLa~ oo~ xilgus EA£1J8EgLa~... 'Hro bE, oAESgtov Aa- 80~, lJ unEg TlJ~ EA£1J8Eg(a~ ngooXAlJm; El; rn onAa, Aaou, OOTt~ bEV il8EAE v' nxouon TLnOTE nEgL EAAabo~ ... » (K. MEVbEAOooV Bag8oAblJ, OEA. 239). OgLOTE:

Toutou, !lla EJtlnAEOV anobElslJ ELVaL OTl, EVW on~ oooix tou Inotou TOLXOXOAAil8lJXE uno tou; TOJtlXOU~ EcpOgoU~ TlJ~ ETaLgELa~ ngooXATJOlJ YLa ngooEAEUOlJ !ll 0 8 0 cp 0 goo V E8EAOVTWV (juouorpoocov LOoo~ bla to noAU rcov «EvayxaALO!lWV» roue ... ), xaVEL~ bEV ngooilA8E Xl a; AEEL 0 x, T~ougEoxou on «ngooilA80v agxHoL vEagoL Iuouutrn». Tur va, bE,!llJ VO!lLOEL 0 avayvwOTlJ~ on «nagaAEoo», va, nw; 0 lbLO~ o x, T~ougEoxou !la~ nagWTavEL, 0'tO TloAfUraio !lEgO; 'tOU ag8gou rou, amilv TlJV «fvayxaALoTilv» ngooEA£1JOlJ ton gOU!laVlXOU Aaou uno TL; OlJ!laLE; 'tOU Y'¢lJAaVTlJ:

«Ta XoogLa EntOlJ; nugElXov f8EAOV'tCX;: bUvU!lE8a va avucpEgoo!lEV TlJV nfginToom v !lLa; o!lubo; TWOagoov aVbgwv EA8oVTooV ano TlJV nfgLOxilv 'tOU Buzau xoi !lLa~ aAAlJ; oucbo; ES avbgwv, fX TlJ; LbLU; nEgLoxil; E:rtL!lUgTUgOU!lEVOL El; avu~ilTlJm v Lnnoov, onAoov xm XglJ!laTWV' uvacpEgo~lEv sm-

0lJ; TlJV nEgLnToo(Jt v xunOLou ~ lJ!llJTgLOU ULOU TOU BumAELou, fX 'tOU XoogLOU Girlo Gani (VO!lO; Vilcea)». TIEgLXUAw;

Toooc bE ilTUV on~ !loAbo~AaXLnxE~ L8uvoUOE~ TUSEl~ xcu TWV umoxgaTogoov TOU XaLgou, 'tOU BAabt!llJgEOXOU Xat TOU <l>EgaLou 0 Tg0!l0~' nov 0 XUV!lEVO; 0 KanobtOTgLa;, us 'to uno 23 <l>f~go'l!agLou 1821 yga!l!la tou ceto ro Aau!lnaX, ngo~ TOV rEVLXO TIgOSEVO TlJ; Pouootoc oro Bouxouoeon, rov TIL vt, EygacpE on:

«0 unoAoxayo~ BAUbL!llJgEoxo; XU8aLgELTaL EX TlJ; LbtoT'YJTO; 'tOU 00; tnnOTTJ; !lLa; gwmxil; TL!lTJTtxil; btUXglOfW; (= nuguolJ!lOU) XaL bEV xaTEXEL nAEOV xm bEV bWUTaL va XU"[I~XlJ xcvevo btxa(oo!la ngooTUOtU; uno TlJ~ Amil~ Au'tOxgU'tOgLxil; MqUAElOTTJ'tO;».

'Omoc ~AEnft (xm 'to ygacpEl) 0 x. Ku8TJYTJTil;, 'to «w; nOTE naAAlJXagtU» "[OU Pilyu bEV ilTav ytU vn !llJV EXEL oxo!lU ~yUAEL OUTE "[0 blJ!lo"[LXO tou OXOAEtO OE !lU; - Ebw - onlv EAAUbu (nov 0 x. Iw. 8wbooguxonouAo; XaL 0 x. Kco, M lJTOUXlJ; ... ), aAAa onogo; fXglJXTLXO;, rtou 8u ~AaOTaL VE !lnugouTL xm cpoxou;, OE OAOXAlJglJ XanOTE TlJ XEgOOVlJOO tou AL!lOU.

90

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TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

TWQa OJ!W~, ElJ!aa'tE, otov JtQLV aUQ8El l'] J!CYUAl'] aUAala rou '21. TL EQYO ml LXl']Vl]~ AOLJtOV 8a mal~E'tO; «TIamxaQloiov» l] «aJta~oxoAwv», «uywaxE1pWv» l] ... xOJ!J!OUVL~OV; To qxrvrcouo 'tOU <l>EQaLou U1pwvov'tav JtEAWQLO usou aTOU~ tonour; XaL croix XWQou~ ... AAAU XaL LOU BAacLJ!l']QEaxou o laxw~ EJtECP'tE aLVLYJ!a'twcLxo~ a'tl'] BAaxLa ... KaL YLa'tL 0Xl XaL 'to 'tOU TIaa~uvoYAOU* «aJtQocp'taa'tO» J!ua'tl]Qw; Turu; na'tl l'] E'taLQda acpl]a'tl']xE va JtaQaauQ8El a' au'tl]v 'tl']v 'tvcpAa; na'tl ~Lua'tl']XE XaL ~aJtOAuaE 'tOY Y1pl']AUV'tl']* * ctn ~axLa; TI Q U ~l'] a Jt E A rt L a l a ~... nUL' l]~EQE OLL - EXEl xu'tw - otnv «EAAaCLXl] EAAuCa» xnt 'tOY EAAaCLXO Aao, CEV 8umavav xaQ'twmu OL «JtQlV'tal']JtE~» 'tl']~.16 ELXE mXQl] JtELQa 0 Aao~ coto rn OQAWCPLXU Xat 'tl']V «TIa'tQLXl] ~LCa-

axaAla». KULL dXE uxouorn XaL CLU 'tL~ «Y1pl']AE~» 'tOU KaJtorna'tQLa EmcpuAU~EL~. Exd VOL OL aXAl']Qo'tQUXl']AOL MWQa'('tOQOUJ!EALW'tE~ KaJtE'tUVOL va CLacpEV'tEu80vv cero toix xx. KaaJ!l']QOJtoUAOU~ XaL roix EJ!JtOQLXOV~ xaAaJ!aQUCE~; AJt' 'tOu~ taOUIlJt£CE~ 'tOU <!>avaQiou XaL tOU~ llYEJ!oviaxou~ tll~ BAaxia~; XWQl~ UAAO ... JtaJtu~ 8a roix XQELU~OV'tav! Toon CE l]'tav l'] avaJ!E'tU~U roix OAWV cutcov XaL 'tCOV EAAaCLXwv EAAl]VWV aUJ!Jtu8ELa XaL l'] E~ aJ!OL~aLOtl']'tO~ UJtOAl]1pEWV AaX'tUQa, oxrte 0 I. KaQa't~u~ (0 «JtQL vtorptcc» XaL emco~o~ ... BamAEa~ J!a~!) J!a~l J!E 'tOY MEcpLatocpEAE rou EXElVOV Ivvrrno, CEV 'toAJ!l']aav va Jta'tl]aouv* ornv EAAuCa. EJtOlOlJV 'tL~ J! l']xavOQQacplE~ 'tOu~ - aJto~w ...

To UAAO, 'to «ALJ!JtQOV'tOQLXO» * * CPQayxoAE~aVtLVOAOL tcov Iovuov, XaAALEQyovaE E~ aJtoa'tuaEw~ tOY «emotosiuruo» Jta'tQLwLLaJ!o roul. .. Movov 0 Aao~ XL EXEl J!a'tw8l']XE aJt' roix 'AyyAOU~. Koeucoov nrto 'to Ecp'tavl']mwLLxo «noJtOAO» xcn ~E'toJtLaav Exa'tOV'tUCE~ Xat XLALUCE~. AJt' toix A6ywu~ (OAOU~ EX'tE8ELJ!EVOU~ - oov aV'tlCQaal']) EAaXLeJ'twrcroi xa'tucp8aaav orn - ' Cw -- J!aXOJ!Evl'] EAAuCa. KL mrro - yLa ... CLacpEV'tE1pl']! ... KL EVW, Jtuvw EXEl, aTO ~QayaTauvL, rc aJ!ovaTaxa IEQOAOXLTUXLa, EJtEcp'tav XUTW coto Ta CPUayava 'tWV Touoxorv, ECW, mrtouvrnv 'tWV ... UJtEQEAAl]VWV, OV'tE svcvou l'] J!VTl'] CEV J!a'tw8l']xE ...

AOLJtOV - CE acpu~aVE!

5.

* IIaoflavbl yx, 0 &uatlrlOe; ltaouc; ron Blbl VlOU (= BOUA yaQlae;, 1738- 1807), 0 xQm:£Qo:; £ltaVaOTUTTje; evovnc orov LouATuvo, XaL £1twTTj81O:; cpi- 1.0:; TOU ct>£Qalou.

* * Ilou «£uTuxobuOTUxWe;» b£v EOWOE va qJTUO£l EWe; TTjV EAAuba. E>a rrixnvs us TOV xou<pLOx£(pa'"lOIiO WU WQalO X£QalilbaQ£Lo TTje; ImoQlae;. Tautn, £SEvaVTlUe; ltQoe; WV ab£Q<p0 tou TOV ~TjIiTjTQLO - 8aUliUOLOV aUTOV 'EAATjva XaL uvbQa.

* «K<;tTE~TjX£» Ii£V, TO 1825, )'La va TOV XUIi£l 0 MauQoxoQ6uTOC; ... ~amAEa rwc;, rlU ,£Ii£lVEV: .. aytJQEUWe; XaL avwVUIiOe; IiEXQl TOU TEAoue; XaL IiETU, EWe; nou, TO l&O abLa<poQoC; XaL UYVWOTOC;, ltE8av£ TO 1845 OTTjV A8Tjva.

*. T ~ X£QXUQElXO ltOltOAO £l X£ XU1jJ£l one; ltAUT£l£C; oA£e; TlC; «AlliltQOVToQlXEC:;» li£ya~$Aouc:; TWV «xovrqocov».

92

93

rIANNID: LKAPIMIlAI

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

BLaa'tLXa II <I>.E. E~anEAUaE 'to uno tOY OALYOCPQEV'ij* Y'ljJllAaVtll uvonro exervo XO~CPOU~LO, onou (EAAcL'ljJEL atL~ HYE~OVlE~ tOUQXLXOU atQatOu) AoyaQLa~E oro YQ'ijyoQa va oQyavwvE xa~~La bExaQLa XLALabE~ «tuxnxou;» rtou bLaaXl~OVta~ EV taXEL tTJV anoataall 8acptavav - cpavtll~ unoatOUvll~ - omv EAAaba: «II aLb L a - ~ 'ij t W II En a v ao t o cn.c ... Fl i o t t c, EAnL~ xaL AEQLa~a!».HYEaLa; AQXLatQatllYo~; KU~EQvllall; - oAa EtOl~a ... XaL t~a~na!!! Ti 8axavav - coore - tWV XEL va t.' aauvtaxta ~nOUAOUXta; Ot xot~a~naallbE~ 8' axAou8ayav ... Ot L\EanotabE~ 8a «EuAoyayaY»! Ot anavtaxou AOYI,WtatOl 8a xatacptavav ~E EtOl~OU~ tOU~ «navllYUQtxOu~» otu; xwAotamE~!. .. 0 t t Q 00 W V t E~ t W V t Q (0 00 V reo v!

Ebw a~ ata80u~E ~ta atty~'ij. TQEAA'ij~ xanOla~ axta~ II anELA'ij tll~ ~E ouuova: Tt 8a YlVOtaVE av 0 atQato~ tll~ <l>lAlX'ij~ xanOtE 8acptaVE ornv touQxo~axa 'ijbll EAAaba; EAAllVOtOUQxlxo~ 8atav 0 nOAE~o~ 'ij EAAllVOEAAllVlxo~Xl a~ XAaLEL nou taXEL; Aut 0 X a v cL ~ an 0 't 0 U ~ 1- a t 0 Q l X 0 U ~ ~ a ~ b 10 V t 0 a x E cp t II x 10, axo~a XaL o KOQba'tO~. 'On n tUXll tOU '21 naLXtllxE xOQwva-YQa~~a'ta EXEl nrrvro, x a VEL ~ ana tOU~ EUtUXEl~ EmcpuAAlboYQacpou~ ~a~ XaL toix ooqxnx «axootsvnxovots;» bEV tOXEL :rt(xQEL xa~naQaxL. .. Mov' TJ E~OU EXtEAWVWtlX'ij ... af3Qaf3Eurorntu to «'tEX~llQlwaE» XaL routo ...

Furn ayvooUv on II mavaataall 'ijtav - oro f3a80~ -

KOlVWVlX'ij. * 'On, XWQl~ rnv E8vLX'ij au8unaQ~la rou, abUveto Eva~ Aao~ va mv xa8E~El. AXQL~W~ YLatl rsroin 'ijtav (XOlVWVLXOE8vlX'ij) EXQaYllxE, anaa~wbLxa, au8oQ~llta XaL avoQyavWtll, XWQl~ llywla XaL xata tonou~. H aQX'ij ~OVO YlvllXE an' tOY MWQla XaL ~OVO uno tOY Aao tll~ KaAa~a'ta~. (0 IIEtQo~nEll~ au'tOELnw811xE AQXtatQatllYo~, Yla va xaaEl XaL to aQXtatQatllYllAlxl 'tOU EV teo a~a. Luva~a XaL 'to ~nEllAlxl tOU xataAu811xE. .. 17 Tooo bE 0 Aao~ ... rov dXE urt' o'ljJll tOU, nou aQYOtEQa 0 aa'tQanlaxo~ Kanobla'tQla~ rov EQQl~E - nrto E~na8ELa - oru ~nouVtQou~la!. .. ). To ~Exouqxrvnxo xO~CPOU~LO tll~ 'taxatl~ nQw'tOatatllall~ rou 110- Qatciou orov aywva (~La ~oQCP'ij Emf3lwa'ij~ rou am aUf.tcpEoovr«) ELvm ... YLa va to (3aAEL oro nobLa 0 vOlxoxUQll~. KaL o vOlxoxuQll~ - 'boo - ELVaL II aA'ij8ELa. E~aLQOU~EVOU 'tou nQawatl 'ijQwa Hootc rorv LaAwvwv (xrn f3EBaLa tWV bUo «xaAoYEQWY» -'toU IIanacpMaaa XaL tOU L\laxou* *) or EAaXlatw'tatOl ~E~ atl~ Exccrovruoe; IEQaQX~~, non «EUAOYlloov» tn mavaatatll~Eva onAa, roxoucv xa'tw «no to ~oQ~naALxl rou Aaou Xat rcov XAECP'tU)V ru Yla'tayaVLa. TQEl~ CPOQE~ (otn BEQBatva, om ZaQaxo(3a XaL oro 'Aorooc) OAOU~ aUtou~, nQoXQl tOU~, xaAa~aQabE~ XaL «YEQOV'tOU~», aav 'tQaYla 8a roue Eacpa~E o~ablxa 0 Aao~, av ~ll 0 KOAOXOtQWVll~ EnL roaou;

* « ... ElXE Ev8oumao[lov, aAA' OUXl oLatryELaV xQloEwe;'1O OE XE1QLm:ov, EAELnev alt' aUTOV 1] avayx.ala 1]QE[lla ltVEV[laTOe; XaL ltEQ10XE1jJLe;, OltWe; ltEQlCPQOV~ XutU me; [lEyuAae; ltOALTlXUe; XQiOELe; rn [lEOa 't1]e; UltoxQlolac; XaL T1]e; aYUQTElae;» (K. MEVOEJ.OWV BaQ8oA01], OE) v, 22).

* «To XOlVWVlXO ltEQLEXO[lEVO 10U '21 TO ltUQUOEXOVTaL XaL at mo UVTlOQaonxol urroptxot - Xl ae; YUQEVOUV vc 'to 8UljJOuv 0 rIaltaQQ1]YelltOUAOe; XL 0 TQlxOVlt1];. H uQvT]OT] lOU XOlVWVlXOV JtEQLEXO[lEVOU T1]e; E1taVUOTaOT]e; 10U '21 E1VaL uQv1]01] TT]; iOme; T1]; aA~8Elac;. Av xutucpEQav va Jtvi~ouv 10 XOlV(J)VLXO TT]C; JtEQlEXOJ.lEVO, oJtw; 8a OOV[lE, uuto m:EXETaL UAAO ~~TT][la» (~. <!JWTlU- 6T];, «KaQa'ioxuxllC;», OE!.. 89). «Eu8V; E~ aQX~e;, «rro (\uvao'tlx~c; ~ lto!.lTLX~C; (T] EAA. EltaVuo'taoT]) EYlVE XOlVWVlX~» (Ico. A. L1tT]AlWTUXT];, «H Kotou;», A8~va 1874).

** Kat 0XEOOV OV~UAOU 10U XutWTEQOU XA~QOU.

94

95

fIANNll: 1:KAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

Xla XaL xa8UCJ"tEQT]OE 'W nQcI)'ta aaXEQLa 'tT]~ - ' ouxctro. Ma fJtE!!paV'W~ XaL T] «E'tEQoyovia nov oxomov» f.qJEQE EVa av'tL8E'tO anOTEAEO!!a: H E t a l Q E L a X Q E 00 x 0 n T] 0 E ...

KaL, OlWnTjAa, aAaqJQla - 0XEMv om vUxw 'tTj~ na'twv'ta~ - ES~A8E 'tT]~ ElXOVO~ ... I'oiov EXOl EAacpQav ... ~EV, mL rtov no'ta!!wv rou '21, 'to E8vo~ 8a xAa1pEl EV 'tOO !!vTj08~vm 'tT]v aU't~~. «0 TQlxovnTj~ anoxaAEL 'tOY 0QyavlO!!OV 'tT]~ E'taLQELa~ a 0 V v E t 0 V xm a 0 x 0 nov XaL 0 rEQPLvo~ av 0 Tj t 0 V. 0 TQlxovnT]~ !!aALO'ta AEElO'tl Tj <I>lAlX~ E'taLQcta ~8EAE !!EL VEl 0, ti ~w, CTjAa[)~ t i n 0 r E, av CEV E!!EOOAapH W o'tQa't~yTj!!a 'tTj~ Poomx~~ OUVCQO!!~~» (on Tj <p.E. ~'tav EQYO 'tT]~ Poxnuc), AAAa XaL !!cyuAa O'tEAEXT] 'tTj~ E'taLQda~, 'tTIV EYQacpav oro naAla 'tOU~ nanOV'tOla: « .. .'O'tav xano'tE o I1anacpAEooa~, cuoaQW'tTj!!EVO~ uno 'tT]V AQX~v 'tTJ~ <l>lAlX~~ E'taLQELa~ xAn ... lOU fJtQO'tElVE (=WV OAV!!JtlOV) va OVVEWOTj80vv anoxooQl~O!!EVOl torv aAAoov xAn ... 0 OAVumoc ECEx8Tj ... » (~. KOXXlVO:;, 'to I, OEA. 246). L'tTj CE Boontou, onwc:; Eica!!E, CEV Cio'taoE va ClUXTJQVXVEl nQay!!a'ta Yla 'ta onoiu T] E'taLQEia outs tCEa CEV fiXE. « ... Oi EmLQOl smotsuov El~ rnv <l>LAoOOqJtX~V Ai80v XaL nQooEna8ouv va !!E'taBaAf.wOl v EU'tEA~ 'tl vc !!E'taAAa lOt:; nOAV'ti!!ou:; Ai80v~» (K. MEVCEAOWV BaQ80ACTj, OEA. 204). « ... Tt ~8EAE yLVEt TJ Enrrvurrtuotc, tvo xUTa <l>LA~!!ooVa ELnw!!EV, ov, uvn av8Qwmov rou AUOV Eixov aQxioEl 'to E8vtxov EQYOV avcQE:; emcpavEi:;, E!!noQoL, nAovmOl XaL avayoV'tE:; 'to yEvor; aV'twv Etr; tov ~la rov 'Auuorvo;» (rou LCLOU, o'tTJv LCta Of-Alca). AAAa notov vo UnaLVlOOETaL 'cw; MTJ tov oUYYQacpEa roo «LonQaXO!!t'to:;» XaL rcov «rEVEaAoytXWV» * (lCE 0Xl.mxa

«'EAATjYE~!. .. , roix EinE, vc ouxaoE'tE. Na OXO'tWOE'tE lOU:; 'AQxov'ta:; 8EAE'tE naAt; MTj qJopao'tE, XAELO!!EVOVr; lOU:; EXO!!E O'tOY I1vQYo onv nOUAta, !!a CEY EXOUY cptEQa vc nE'tasouv. Ki aY'ti~ nQLY OXEqJ'tOV!!E WV~ oxo'tWOOU!!E, WU~ OXOTWYOU!!E !!Eta !!la wQa aqJov OXEcptOV!!E, «v tOPQOU!!E orooro va axo'too80w. Elxb rou; EXOV!!E. Eyw oa~ lOU:; nagaClyW. 'EXE'tE AOtnOV unouovf ... » ( ~. Koxxrvoc, r. 2, OEf •• 244).

ELQ~08w oxrrooo EV naQocw, O'tL ~mY xrn ~lLa aAATJ: Oi OUYXATj!!EYOl ow 'AQYo~, tov NOE!!PQtO tou 1821, I1QoxQt'tOt yw !!La LUVEAEVOll nQo:; 1p~~Wll xanOLou ELCOU:; L'lJvtay!!aw:; xa't0xuQw'tlXOV 'taxa 'tON nOAl'tlXWY EAEU8EQlWY WV Aaov, aQXLOav to aY'tLCQaonxa WV~ 'tEQtlnla, n:; ayaBoAEr;, W XQUCPtOVAL, to 1pE!!!!ata XaL 'tL:; aAmOUCLEC:: - nov ~oav aOOoL. * AAAa 0 Aao:; CEY uotsiauovtuv XaL ta ytatayaYla 'tQaBTjx't~xay ... «H xa'taOtaOl:; wW8Tj xrn naALY xaQL:; Etr; rov KOAOXOtQWYTj», AEEl 0 KOXXlYO:; OTTJ oEAlCa 50 tou 40u rouo» 'tTjr; IowQla; rou.

AAA' ar; SayuQ80U!!E O'tll ... cptAEVaca !!a~ tTj <l>LAlX~ XaL mv naQanEQa «OU!!POA~» 'tT]~ orov aywya:

TEAOOnaYtwy II uno tOY Y1pTjAav'tll- 'tll~ - «snrrvootu- 0T]» anOtuXE, naQavtar; OtOY AaL!!6 'tllc:: toOOV XOO!!o. ~EV ElYaL ~~tTj!!a Ott xata to «O'lJCEv xcxov a!!tyt.; xaAov» fLXE evov XaAOY uvtixruno OWY ay(oya: AnaOXOATjOE 'tTJY Touo-

• «Ev8v~ 6~w~ ~ET(l rcnrru (1:.t.1:.: lWl tWQa mov Xl av ~tav ... ) acpixEtO () NEYQlJ~ ~Eta tWV JtQOXQL1;WV tlJC; Axata~ XaL 0 MavQoxoQcatoc; ~Eta tWV fl( tlJC; llv'tLxl']c; EAAaboc;. H ovyxQoumc; ouuo 1W.QlOtatO acpEVXtOC;» (K. MEvCEAOWV BaQ86Abll, OEA. 380).

'« yr. ME tllV fVXaLQLa tll~ JtaQanavw avayQacpilc; roocov JtEQtttWV ovo-

96

97

flANNHL LKAPIMIlAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

!l'USw'toglJ!la 1970 XaL EmqmAAlba EQ:J'rl!l. «EAE'USEgla» 't~~ 11.11.51 ).

'E'X.'t?'tE - :rLa bEY sava'X.oua'tlJxE. KaSoAlJ 'tlJ bLagXEla 1:O'U aywva, OmE yLa !lLa cpoga bEY avacpEnS'YlXE 01),,[E svcc

, t:' "I , ~

'tlJ~ E'taLgO~ bEY :rtgOcpEgE aAAlJ cpoga tovou« 'tlJ~. Q KOXXL-

VO~ rnrro 'to «Es~YlJaE» ( aav 'tga~lJY!lEVO a:rt' 'ta !laAALa 1:O'U) :rtw~ - 'taxa - uuto EYLVE «uno oxonou»: YLa va !llJv 'taxa, lJ <l>tALX~ avaXEna'tEl us mv Kag!l:rtovagla ... * ~'tlJ aEAiba 164 1:O'U 40'U rouou 'tlJ~ la1:Ogla~ 1:O'U, AEEl XaL O'tL: «Exet (an~ EnlJVL'X.E~ :rtagmxlE~ 'tlJ~ Pcootcc) Ea'UVEXtaSlJ lJ bgam~ TlJ~ <l>tALX~~ XaL !lE'ta TlJV bUIA'Uat v 'tlJ~ xaTa 'tlJv EvagSlv TlJ~ mavaa'tciaEw~», aAAa bEY AEEL bLOAO'U YLa rc :rtgaY!laTLXa at na a'U't~~ ... TlJ~ a 'U Y X 0 :rt ~ ~ 'tlJ~. H bta TWV Kuourtovugwv bLXaLOAoYlJa~ TlJ~ bEY orsxa ~E~aLa ot« :rtgaY!laTa. H «SE:ogLa» am~ ,~Tav EcpEugEalJ EXEtVO'U 1:O'U :rtOA'U!l~xaVou Ivvunou, E:rtablJ lJ <p.E. bLaAEsaV'ta~ 1:OV AA. Y'¢lJAaVTlJ YLa agXlJYo XaL 0XL mv acpEV'tO!lO'U'tao'Uvaga 1:O'U tov «:rtglvxrpto» Ito. Kaga'tl;a (bLaoAO~ 0 LbLO~), rnv ElXE oro xa'taa'tLxa 1:0~ bLaOAO'U 1:O'U - wgaLa yga!l!lEVlJ ... Toutn lJ SEwgla 1:O'U bEY agYlJaE va cp'taaEL XaL or' acp'tLa rou ME't'tEgVLX, nou ~E~ata 'tlJV «asLO:rtOL lJOE» bEOV'tW~.

Ana xat 0 Ka:rtobLoTgLa~ E:rtgasE «to 'X.a'taMVa!lL v» ornv xag!l:rtovagLxlJ gE'tmvLa rou Kaga'tl;a XaL 1:O'U Iyva'tLO'U. ~' Eva yga!l!la 1:O'U cero 1:0 Aa'U!l:rtax (24.3.1821) a1:OV E:rtavaa'tu'tlJ!lEVO ~blJ Y'¢lJAav'tlJ, !lE'tasu aAAwv .... :rta'tgLwnxcbv a'U!l~ovAcbv ... XaL a:rtELAcbv, EygacpE 'X.aL tout«: «Q'UbE!lla ~o~SELa a!lEaO~ ~ E!l!lEaO~ bEY SEAEl aa~ xoglJYlJS~ uno 1:O'U Auroxprrtopog, mELb~ E:rtavaAa!l~aVO!lEV O'tL avasLOv ELVaL va unooxcmrouev rc SE!lEALa TlJ~ QSW!laVLX~~ A'U1:Oxga1:OgLa~ bLa TlJ~ aLaXLa1:O'U 'X.at 'U:rtE'USWO'U EVEgYELa~ !lLa~ !l 'U a t L X ~ ~ E'taLgELa~» (~. KOX'X.LVO~, 'to I, OEA. 204).

Moscrcnrro, lJ <l>tALX~ E'tatgELa a'taSlJxE !lLa ogyavwon, «no TLs «:rta'tgLwn'X.dJ'tEgE~» rou XOO!lo'U. KaL :rtoAAa, :rtaga :rtoAAa, 'tlJ~ xgwataEl lJ mavaaTaalJ. To b'Ua'tuXlJ!la ELVaL on !llJ SEgoVta~ OtL Xa!l!lLa ESVLX~ encvcotnon bEY ELVaL !lOVOV ESVLX~ XaL on uovov o.u ELVaL Aao~ ELVaL XaL ESVO~ (lJ raAALa EYLVEV ESVO~ !lE'Ta 'to 1789)* otnv «c-ooyavwoLa» xcu 'TO «avagXlJYo» 1:O'U E:rtEgXOt-tEVO'U '21 bLELbE XaL oacpgaVSlJXE 'tlJ Aa'(x~ blJ!lo'X.ga'tla. * * Evco am~, 'tlJV ~SEAE aG'tLX~ xcn Taxo'Uvo:rto'UAlJ. 'Etoi, :rtgO~lJXEV asacpva rrro 'U:rt0 'tOV Y'¢lJAaV'tlJ cptaaxo. H mavao'taolJ aVa'TgLXLaaE!

. H ustrrtomor] tou ~ago'U~ a:rt' 'to XEV'tgo rou, XaL «no 'to ~gam!lO onou 'to oibEgO 'X.oAAaEL, os EbacplJ sEva XaL os auyoga o:rtO'U lJ 'toagLx~ Pouoto ExagaboxaE, 'TL:rtO'Tl~ bEY :rtgo!l~vaE TO xaAo a:rt' am~ ... 'tlJ !la!l!l~ XaL 'tlJ AExcbva. To VEO-

urrtrov, a£ _avacpEQw, nxouu Xat "tT]V axoAou8T] YEVEaAOYLX~ AErr"tO!-lEQELa: L"ta 1390, 0 M~ya£ ~O!-l~O"tLXO; Kcovoruvnvoc SLCPALVOC; Y1jJ1]AUV"tT]£ rrav"tQElrtT]XE "tT]v ,EuOo~La, ~UYU"tEQ~ tou au:wx9u"tOQ~ Mavou~A Kouvnvou. H unovovoc am~ tou ALVELa (0 QJWW£, xa8wc; ~EQETE nrov YULO£ "tT]£ AcpQobl "tT]£!) "tuYXUYEL va HVaL E,LC; "tT]Y 33T]v YEVEUV ~Qo!-la!-l!-lT] rou YQC(cpoV"tOC; nutnv "tT]v OT~AT]V. Av "tOY ~wQL~mE 8;X ~AmU"tE rrwc; xntuvrqouve "tT]C;". AcpQooi"tT]C; OL YULOi» Yrtoy~acpT]: ~LOV. PWfla£. (ErrLcp'Uj,Aiba ECPT]!-l. «EAEu8EQla», 11.11.1951). IIEQlxa- 1.00;".

* ,Muo"tlx~ rr?AL"tLx~ EtmqEia TT]~ NEurroj'T]£ (TEAT] "tOU 180u mwva) us a~orro TT]V ErtLxQa"tT]oT] torv cpLAEAEu8EQwv LOEWV XUL mv evonotnon "tT]; ItoALaC;.

* «".Ma OEY rrQErrEL va ~EXVU!-lE rrw; T] LOEU TOU E8vouC;, 1'] tbEa "tT]; rrmQl- 00£ OEV urruQXEL uxouo TOV XVIII nunvc Xat uovo T] raAALx~ ErravUomoT] aQxl~H va "t1']C; biYT] aUQxa Xat ocru otnv EUQwrrT]» (L"tECP. To~uLX «Maotn AVTOUClVE"tTa», "to B', oEA. 98, «MoQCPwTLx~ Etrupin», A8~ya 1956).

** LXE"tLXWC; ~AE;tE xru TO «H TQu;touAa», ExbooT] KUXTO£, A8~va 1974 Xat TO Em 81JQm; aOEAcpo TOU, «OL raAU"tUOEC;» - uno "tOY low Koxro.

98

99

rIANNHL ~KAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

YEVVrl'ro (= 'l'j UVEl;aQt'l'jOla) 8u xaVOtav ... KaL t'l'j; yUQLOE tL; rrAUtE; ...

OW~OVtE; ta; E8vlXU; cutorv rraQubooEl;* XaL to rrutQLOV CPLAEAEU8EQOV rrVEUlla» (EYXUXAOrraLb. AES. EAEU8EQOubuX'l'j, t. E, OEA. 305 ).

KaL va 'l'j MEr AAH I~EA!

A; bOUIlE rrEQl tlVO; rrQoxEltaL: ITQlV uno tl; LOtoQLXE; Xata~oAE; rou EAJ,'l'jVlOIlOU, IlEXQl XaL t'l'j; rrQwt'l'j; EAE'UtEQWo'l'j;, IlE t'l'jv lbQuo'l'j (to 1833) tOU EAA'l'jVLXOU BamAElou, o oQo; 'l)tav OAOtEAa uYVWOtO;, omu; XaL o'l)IlEQa ro YQUIlIlata orn cl>LAOOOCPlX'l) LXOA'l) tou Ikrvsmotruuou AS'l'jvwv. Auto tOUtO to BU~UVtLO orov SaVUYlVE !-ua ITo A L;, xatu to urrobElYlla 'tWV ITOAEWV - Kourorv (PWIl'l'j, Eveuo, I'eV01JU xArr.) rooo, rraQu tu rrQW'l'jv McyaAEla tOU, ~lU~OV'tav v' arrOOUQ8EL arr' t'l'jV Iorootc, rtou UCP'l'jOE (av bEY XaL to EuX'l)8'l'jXE ... ) va touQxoxatuX't'l'j8d, rraQu toy 'l'jQWLXO rou ITaAaLOAoyo. H, IlE toix «u rr o»(rrotE)Aaou; tau, aOUYYEVELa ro ob'l)Y'l'jOE otov rrOAltLXOV uqxrviouo tau ... (rrOAt nxo, YlatL 'l'j UQlOtaxQatLa ton OUVEXLOE XaL uno roix TouQxou; to «~LOAL» 't'l'j; ... ). Koveu; rrta bEV EvbtacpEQoVtaV Yla bauto. ELXE XUAU SE~OUIlLOtEL uno rnv lSuvouoa, Xl 'l)'taV me AEIlovox011rra YLa tOY yxa~OtEVEXE t'l'j; IOtOQlw;:

KaL trnrm EVW:

« .. .'A)'.Aw; re XaL rrQo t'l'j; aAwoEw; rroAAoL 'EAA'l'jVE; rrQo~AErrOVtE; 't'l'jv EJtLXEl!-tEV'l'jV bOUAOOUV'l'jV t'l'j; rratQlbo; XatECPUYov IlUALO'ta El; rnv ~umv, EUQOVTE; EXEl CPlAOI;EVOV bEI;Lwmv. Ex rorv xrrtorpuvovtorv El; T'l'jV ~umv EAA'l)vwv, OlIlEV AOYlOl (Bnoonouov, ~'l'jll. XaAxoxovbUA'l'j;, KcovoroVTLVO; XaL Ioxrv. AuoxaQl;, Icorrv. AQYUQorrouAo;,8EObwQO; fa~'l); xArr., xArr.) OUVEtEAEOaV IlEyUAW; ... Ot bE IlUXluot ETUOOOVtO w; "OTQatLWTaL" (~A. A.) El; Ta; atQatLU; tWV EUQwrra'ixwv xQaTwv, SfVOU; IlEV urr'l'jQEtOWLE;, aAAa

«EllcL; Sa AEyaIlE, OTt 'l'j acpUAaXT'l'j Ksoxonoorc lOt Val 'l'j ouvlatallEV'l'j XaL TO avayxaLo ErraXOAou80 IlLa; IlUXQOXQOVLOU xaxobaLllovla; XaL cpaUAOT'l'jTO; OTO XQatO; UUtO, onou toy XOlVOV VOUV cLXE cvuxcrcotnou 'l'j IlWQla XaL t'l'j OUunvoio XaL ouovour 'l'j rrOAlTtx'l) XaL 8Q'l'jOXEUtlX'l) cpaYWIlUQa. Eov amu EAElrrav, bEY 8a rrEQLIlEvav va ErravbQwoouv IlE 8.000 (L.T.L.: I; E v 0 u; - A a r L v 0 u;) 1l0VO o'tQaTtWtE; Eva TELXO; Il'l)xou; EJtTU XlAlOIlETQWV 'l) aXQl~Eon::Qa 21 XlALOIlETQWV (blOTl 'l)Tav TQLa rraQuAA'l'jAa TELX'l'j 'to EVU IlETU to UAAO). OXtW XlAlUbE; llaX'l'j'tUL v' uvuustcomootrv 150.000 0QyavwllEvo XaL EllrrElQorroAEllo oTQato!!!

H arrloTE'Ut'l'j a'Ut'l) aVlOOt'l'j; IlETal;U TWV bUo rruQuTul;EWV xaTavTu ESOQYLOTlX'l), otov OXEcp8'l) xaVEt; OLl 't'l'jV Errox'l) am'l), Tt; 'l')IlEQE; T'l'); urrEQTUT'l'); aYWVLU; 'tOU 'Eflvouc, 300.000 UAXLIlWV VEWV TE!-tJtEAlU~UV o'r' urrElQuQl81la uovoOt'l)QlU rtoi: urr'l)Qxav, CPEQOVTE; to QUoo XaL 'tOY XUAOYEQlXO oxoixpo, b'l)SEV YlU VU OWOOUV T'l')V '4JUx'l) roix» (<<ITUQEQyu 1971», ~. L. AUQ'l'jAlWV'l'j, UQXlUtQOU B. NUULlXOU E.U.).

'Omn; ~AErrETE, rooov EXElVWV tWV WIXlllWV AE~EVtWV, 000 XaL rourcov tWV XUAOYEQWV 'l'j oxaoLAu bEY tOU; 'l)tav rraQu 'l') UAWO'l'j T'l'); ITOA'l'j; ... Oi usv AOYlOL «tU; E8vlXU; nutWV rrUQubOOEl;», tu AEr~EVt6rraLbu OE SEVOU; O'tgUtOU; XaL

• Msvo I-W'U AE£!' ..

100

101

nANNIIT ~KAPIMrrAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHElEIA

OL 'Xl']CP~VE~ rou QCtaou oro «nw~ ru 'tQL~OUV - a~ nOV~E, tc mnEQLa». TILOW roue, ornv TIOAl'], 'tl']V UnEQaOm~av 6.300 (toooinouv) fEV01J~L'tE~, <I>Qay'XoAE~aV'tLvOL 'XaL Aa'tLvOL.

BE~aLa, bEY ELVaL «naQabELy~a nQoe;; ~L~l']mv», ana 'XaL nooo an' 'tl'] «MEyaAl'] IbEa» curo anEXEL!

KaL va, nou a'Xovw (uou cpai VETaL) n~ CPWVE~, 'XaL nc;; «bL'XaLE~» bLa~aQ't1JQLEe;; 'tl']~ Iorootuc: TIwe;; 8EAE'tE, 'XVQLE, MEyaAl'] IbEa, E'XEL onou tnv bLaAE'Xn'X~ EyW E8Eoa 0cpQaYLba uou; H MqaAl'] IMa ELVaL ... LbEa rorv Aawv nou ELxav nors E8vL'XE~ amo'XQa'toQLE~. TWQa nou 'to BU~aVTW EnEOE, 'twQa 8a rnv EVO'tEQvw8EL 0 Aao~ TOU. OL AOYWL TOU, OL ALbao'XaAOL, l'] B1J~av'tLv~ aQLO'tO'XQaTLa, 'to IEQa'tELo rou, bOUAW8l']'Xav, ana va ('XLoAa~!) nQw'tO~ tou TIaTQLaQXl']~ 0 Tevvnotoc! 18 N a'tOL OL Oonooooo. rou - aQyo'tEQa -, OL 'Xa'(~a'Xa~l']bE~ 'tl']~ BAaxiac;;, OL MqaAOL - 'tl']~ MOAbautae;; ron - noo'tEA VL'XOL, OL MEyaAOL - 'twv 'Xanoubav naoabwv - AQayOU~aVOL. OL ~aYYLoQOL (= oi nQEO~EmEe;;) rou MqaAOU AL~avLou on~ TIQW'tEVOUOE~ 'tl']~ EUQwnl']~, 0 ~LAE't-~naOL 'tou - 0 TIa'tQLaQXl']~. Ka~EUnO~OV~, 8a bEL; ...

KaL 'toba~E ... MEC;; OE ~La W'tOQWAOYLa 'Xa'tEJ[EL vouoc, ELba~E 'to 'XaL uno rou; TovQ'Xou~ mrto cou aQXOV'tOAOL. AnEQLonao'tO 'twQa 'XL an' n~ naQE~~aOEL~ rorv cpQaY'XOAE~V'tLVL'XWV OU~CPEQOV'tWV, Embo8l']'XE aV'ta~a 'tou; oro abLa'taQaX'tO ybuQm~o OVI;UAWV 'tWV QaYLabwv (oxouc 'XaL 'tWV CP'tWxo'tOUQ'XWV!). fQ~yoQa ELOxwQl']oav O'tl'] V'tO~AE'tL'Xl'] LEQaQXLa 'tWV 'touQ'XaAabwv oi 'tEW~ YAELCP'tE~ rou «IEQov E'XELvou TIaAa'tLou». AEV XQELa~OV'tav aAAWO'tE aAAa nQooov'ta coro routc:

YLaV tou ~E~VQl'], oxrcv V'tEcp'tEQV'taQl']V, cooev QEt~ ECPEV'tl']V, oxrcv rccooounconv, cocov mALX'taQl']V, aQXLEUVOVXOV re 'XaL ~qaAOV L~nQOXWQl']V rou 'A voxtoc 'XaL va YQuCPl'] :rtQo~ amove;; nOAAa'XLC;; 'XaL ~UQLa'XL~, bla va CPEQl'] 'to o'Xonm)~Evov tou EL~ E'X~amv».

Tcutu EYQacpE oro 1714 0 L'tEcpavo~ Ka'ta'Xou~l1vo~, HyE~WV (1. .. ) 'tl']~ BAaXLa~, orov TIa'tQLaQXl'] rcov IEQOOOAtl~WV XQvoav80 Norno«, nEQL n XQELa~E'taL YLa va YLVEL xovEie;; bQayou~avoC;; rou L'tOAOU. Tooo bE XQwnavL'XoL 'XaL OUVEAAl']VE~ noov XaL curet oi (rou EXaO'tO'tE xanoubav naoa) XWAO'tov~naQm, WO'tE oi vl']mw'tE~ XaL Ol axg08aAaooL'tEe;; rou At yaLou vnrvovtuv OL xaXOQL~LXOL ot« I-tavQa. Ta ~E~ O£ nOaYWYL'Xa ama X£L~£va, 'ta naLQVW, t;ava, an' mv Lbla EmcpvnLba ton BEVE~l']:

« ... Avayxl'] ELVaL va EX,l'] CPLAOU~ toioutotx coorrv XExa-

« ... 'Exov'tac;; ma XEQLa 'toU~ cuto 'to ~nouywugouAbL - 'to aYYEA't~QWV YQa~~a (= tov bWQw~o roue) EonEuDav ot bQayO~aVOL va 'to cvoxorvoxrouv ~E av8Qwnou~ totx 01:0Ue;; nQow'tOvc;; rcov vnouov. KaL nQw'tl'] nQal;l'] roix: va ~11't~oouv rnv ~0~8Elav 'tl']C;; vEae;; bQayo~avLac;;», bl']Aab'l1 tov Ex'tax'tO cpogo nou EnQEnE va Xa'ta~aAOUV OL vnouote; YLa va xaAVlPouv ru noaa nou banaVl']OE 0 bQayo~avo~ YLa va naQl'] 'to al;iw~a.

rOVa'tl~aV xa'tw XaL uno curo 'to XaQa'tm OL cpouxaQabEe;; Ol AL ymonEAaYL 'tEe;;. fLa'tL Ol bQayou~avm aAAa~aV ouxva, 0XEbov Xa8E buo xgovla. KaL OE Xa8E aAAay~ oi vnmW'tEe;; EnQEn£ va nAl']QwooUv YEO cpoQo. fLa va ~aA.axwoouv rnv XagbLa rou bQayou~avou eoneuocv va tou DllAWcouv bOUAlXa 'tl']v uno'tay~ toix. fgacpouv ot buo"[1JXEL~ TIa-

102

103

rIANNHL LKAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

'Q<J'tE YLa rima MEyaAll lbEa f!O'lJ EXaf!E 11 ... cpLAaA~Sllon Iotoot« 'W f!aSllf!a; Mou ELnE OLL 'twga nou 'W Bu~avno EnE<JE... (XL EWOOUOE O'tL 0 Aaos:; unocouAcDSllXE) Sa ... XaL AOLna ...

'OXL baL.. 0 Aaos:; acpEv'tll f!OVOV anal;E XaL (nAouma ru EAEll <JOU!) 'twga av'tLS:; evov, ELXE cuo: 'WV TOUgXLXO XaL 'tOY Bu~av'tLxo ... A v ~'tav vaxav unocouAwSEL aU'WL OL 1.0- YLOL, EXEL vll 11 agL<J'Wxga'tLa, xuga- 1<J'WgLa, nou f!as:; ELnES:;, XaL ~E~aLa OLL 11 MEyaAll ICEa ('tllS:; avax'tll<JllS:; LOU anoAE<JSEV'WS:; TIagacELaou 'Wu~) S' aI;L~E va rnv «EV<J'tEgVL<JSEL»

o Aaos:; Yla va 'WV l;ava~aAouv OL 't<JoUf!nEcES:; f!ES:; otnv 't<JEna 'WUS:;. Ma ourcov (au'twv nou ELnES:;= rcov ~Lca<JxaAwv, 'tllS:; agl<J'Wxga'tLas:;, trov TIa'tglagxwv) xagcpaxL amwv bEv 'WUS:; ExallxE, YLa tnv ... (nou xoucpla XL umnotu) am~ cou lbEa ... AU'tOL cLoAou CE vOXA~Sllxav otnv - mL 'WU Aaouxa~aAAagLa. Tt.' rnrro, orov 'WUS:; ~gSE 't' a X 0 U <J f! auutoi Ecpgual;av. IEga'tELO, LOCPOL, ~Lca<JxaAOL XaL <JuI;UAOl OL «xa'tE<J'tllf!EvL'tES:;» 'WU ngcDllv Bu~av'tLou 'to~gL<Jav, 'to xa'ta'tgEl;av ... XaL 'W SEogLl;av 'to EAAaCLxo '21. TIaga rtou f!ES:; or' acp'taxL, 11 <I>LAlx~, 'WUS:; ELXE xaSll<Juxa<JEl YLa 'tll <JuvEXEla: 'On 11 Enava<J'ta<Jll ovrcc tnv a<JLLx~ CEV (Sa) toix rnv ... naAaf!Lca af!cpL<J~~'taE. 'Ion-lou: Ba, XaL E S V LX a, tou; anoxa'taa'taLVE ... KL EnELC~ mrtot CEV Evvoou<Jav ... 'toy ooov (<<ESvlxa»), roix 'taxaf!av (nws:;) ALavo'tEga - va I;EgoUV: L'tO YEO xga'tOs:; nou Sa lCguov'tav, aU'WL SaXav 'to nQo~acL<Jf!a XaL 'tOY AOYo, XaL f!aAl<J'ta XwgLr; 'WV TovQxaAa me <JUVELaLgo roix, naga ... 'tllv naAaf!Lca ~UA 11 CLX~ 'WUS:;. ~lOLL to ... ESVOr; 'tous:; XQELa~ov'tav,19 aav ... JtEQ( 'to I;£JtouAuv20 nmELgaf!EVOUS:;! ME ~amAEa tou; xava «JtgLyxllJta» uno rou; nagacouva~LOus:; EXELVOUS:; (Mcuooxopoerov nva ~ Kataxou~llvov - onv, non va f!ll f!as:; ~a<JxaSEl, 'WY L'tEcpavov EXELVOV - ~ 'toy Ito, Kaga't~a - f!ELa BOUA~S:; ~ UVEU, 'to LCLO xavEL) Sa JtEgvayav <J'tas:; «~EA toix» <JOU (oJtWS:; ... xm nEga<Jav!) YLa ESVLXES:; CjJUmoYVWf!LES:;!! MaAL<J'ta xuga- 1<J'WQLa-~Lvu't<Ja ... MaAL(Jta xUQa-f!UAWVOu, oQ80ygacpL<Joo 'tOU xWAOU oou ...

«Ouoev aJta'tllAotEgov (AEEL 0 Po'CcllS:;) urto 'ta mL'tucpLa Emygaf!f!a'ta XaL 'tas:; yuvaLxas:;». OubEv ana'tllAo'tEQOY - as:; EA£YE - coto 'ta AOYOLExvlxa ~Qa~ELa XaL 'tllV Ioroot«:

Y1jJllAav'tllr; (JtQlV avaAa~EL tnv AgXllYLav 'tOU KLY~f!a-

'tf!LOL orov cQaYOUf!aVO 'WU L'toAOU Nixosnov Mougou~llv, navto'tE ELS:; axgaLav xaSagEuou<Jav:

«Tnv EXAaf!Jtgo'tll'ta <Jas:; couAlxcDr; ngo<JxuVOUf!EV.

Acp' 1lS:; <J'tLYf!~S:; EV~Xll<JE 11 ayaS~ aYYEALa LOU ELVaL uno tnv <JxEnllv 'tllS:; na<JaL aL KuxAacEr; LOU Aryctou, aVE<J'tll<JE XaL llf!as:; 'tOUS:; Eu'tEAELS:; couAous:; 'tllS:; Ilurutou; llf!lSavEis:; ovtr«; JtgcYtEgov, cOl;a<JaL f!EV 'to SELOV, lXELEUELV CE EXtEVcDr; UJtEg 'tllS:; aXAov~LOu aU't~s:; <J'tEQEcD<JEWr;, CLO'tL EAnL~of!EV aVE<JEws:; 'tUXEi v XaL ~ollSELas:; EV taLr; Aaf!JtQaL; 'talJ'tms:; llf!EgaLS:; 'tOU EXAaf!JtQotaLOu agxov'Wr; ... Mn cLaAELJtllS:; 'tOLVUV, aQXwv navExAaf!nQo'ta'tE, xaS' exorrtnv LOUS:; Of!0YEVELS:; nav'tas:; aVLlJtOLOUf!EVOS:; xm 'tas:; agE'ta; tcov naAaL llQcDWV cvavsorv, oJtws:; Cla 'tllS:; <JllS:; nQO<J'ta<Jlas:; XU~EQVWf!EVO CUVllSwmv uvnornvoi 'taLS:; evuvnn«; ngoa~oAaL;. KaL 'tama f!EV CotlAlXWS:;, EL 11 CE UYlaL vouo« xm EUCOXlf!OU<Ja xnt ' af!cpw.

Ev TIa'tf!W 'tll 22 AngLALou 1819.

Tll; EXAaf!Jtgo'tll'tos:; cou CouAOl xaf!EQnELr;, OL xcroixor 'tllS:; vnooi: TIu'tf!OU XaL JtL<J'tOl un~xoOL».

104

105

fIANNIU: LKAPIMIlAI

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

toe) Jl{)O~ TOV I()). KarwblotQLa: - TL YVeD~'IlV EXE'tE XO~'Il; Ev rtEQLrtTeDOEL ErtaVa<J1:;aOE())~ T())V EA.A.~V())V XaTa 10U ~OUA.rrrvou, Sa ELVaL EXSQLX~ 'Il P())OLa ~ Sa ~O'llS~O'll;

KartobLOTQLa~: -AQXcL 'Il E~cpaVL<JL~ OA.L y())V mavaotaTeDV El~ T'IlV EA.A.aba, bLa vc rtaQaOX'Il 'tT]V ouvbQo~~v 'tT]~ 'Il P())OLa EX T())V EVOVT())V!

(~. KOXXLVO~, T. I, OEA.. 161, XaL K. IIartaQQl]yortOUA.O~ ornv «Em touov», OEA.. 551).

IIaLbL ~OU, rnrto bEY ELVaL me Iotoour uuto cLVaL cuvc~aQL ... ELVaL rtVEwaotlxo TQartE~axl!

'AA.A.o: «N sov avSl]m v A.a~~avEll] EA.A.a~ xaTa roix XQovoix T'Il~ <l>QayxoxQm:La~ ... 0 lSaYEv~~ rtA.'IlSUO~o~ bEY EXCPQayxL~ETaL, aA.A.a ouv T()) XQOV()) E~EA.A.l]VL~El rou; <l>Qayxou~! ... » (EyxuxA.ortmb. AE~. EA.EUSEQoubaxl], X,Ecp. «~aoTQa T'Il~ <l>QayxoxQm:La~» T. 50~, OEA.. 293 ). To~'tO, T~OO cL Val buvaTo 000 ~rtOQEL v' avm:ELA.El 0 ~A.lO~ uno Tl] buol] 'tOU. Av ELVaL buvm:o, 'to amaA.lVO cuto oTQa~O~UA.o, nou A.EyE'taL <l>Qayxo~, 0 xaTaoxoTabo~ amo~ XaSOA.lXO~ YXExa~ rou boy~a'tO~, 0 ~E xaQbla arto ~UA.o* aUTo~ «rtaQayYEA. TO~» OTa cpQaYXlxa ~ovaOT~Qla «x, Vl]TavSQ())rtO~», 0 ouv otQELbl XOA.A.'IlTO~ orn A.a~aQL va 10U boy~m:o~ xaA6YEQo~, * * amo~, amo~ 0 ~E t« XaSOA.lXa ortA.ayxva avSQ())rtocpayo~, SaA.A.a~E O~EQXO xm ~aA.A.L, boy~a, ouvdb'llo'll xm TUcpA.a! 'OrtOU 'to rtObl TOU ErtEQaoE, A.aTlVlXo T60rtElQE ~rtaQou'tl.

Axouo, UOTEQ' nrto roou XQovLa (E~ ())V Ta 150 ~LOU A.EUTEQOu) blaOrtaQTa ~E~ OTOV EA.A.abLXO XeDQo LbLaL TEQa OTa V'Ilma xm L&aL TEQa rc Iowr xm T())V KuxA.ab())v urtaQXouv ~ELO'ljJl]CPLE~ XaL OLXOYEVELE~ XaSOA.LXE~ oro boy~a xm ~E YQacp~ A.aTLVLX~ (rt.X. agapite mas coumpare, Imaste cala touth oper epithimoume cai thia elogou sas ... ).21 Av ~'Il bEY rtQOCPTaLvav OL TOUQXOL, rtaaLVE TO ESVO~.

EXEL VO bE 'to «veov avS'Il<JL v A.a~~aVEl 'Il XUQL())~ EA.A.a~ xaTa roue XQovou~ T'Il~ <l>QayxoxQaTLa~», 'tL OOU MEL; ELVaL v' ayavaXTaEL xavd~, ~E T'IlV TOO'll 'ljJEmOrtOLLa T'Il~ IOToQLa~. IILO xaXO~OLQl], mo ~EmEA.LO~EV'Il xm mo 'ljJ())QaA.Ea cpaOl] Tl]~ Iotopu«; ~a~, bEY OTaSl]XE aA.A.l] «no 'tOUT'Il. 'Efhxrv OL OxuA.ocpQayxOL XaL artoA.uav. MauQ'Il bOUA.ELa AyaQlv~ ELXE avaxo'ljJEl Tl]V cvcotvon T())V CPQayxoxQa'tOu~EV())V A.acl>v - T'Il~ Ilsxortovvnoot: LbLaL TEQa. EVeD xm 'to «rtEQL rn xaOTQa OUVOLXL~OVTaL ~aS~l]bov XaL vsru rtOA.El~, Ort())~ rt.X. 0 MuotQa~» bEY Sa 'to artOTOA.~aE OUTE 0 Muyxaou~Ev ... ~'tov Muoro« (xaOTQo rtaVLoxuQO XTLOSEV ceto TOV rOUA.LEA.~O BLA.A.CUQboULVO'tO 1249) ELxav ouvaXTEL xaTa XaLQou~ XaL ~u~avTl vOCPQayxLxE~, oxuA.oaA.A.maA.A.l]A.LE~ X1)QLaQX())V, OL OLXOYEVElE~ xcu rc oOYLa mnxov T())V TuxobLeDXT())V, cetoreA.EOaVTE~ ~La rtOA.l] - OA.'Il coto yUrtE~. EXELSEV QO~OA.eDVTa~ ... ~aScL~ XQLOTLaVOL Ort())t; ~oav, A.E'IlA.aTayav XaL b~())vav - XQLoTlaVlXeDTaTa -Tl] xeDQa ... Auto; ~Tav 0 MuoTQa~, 'to OE~V())~a T())V ~u~av'tLvoA.oy())V xrn T())V A.OyL())V! ...

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106

107

fIANNlll: ~KAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

't'll~ EAAaCla~. Kat JtQLV aJt' amTj (Q(t)~ab,Tj «rov xm;ax'tTjon) xaL~' amTjv, 0 EAA'llVLxo~ Aao~ E~VEaXE ClovAo<; rtuvn- 8ALO~ Xat JtEV'll~. TWQa o~(t)~, xat(t) aJt' t'll Aatt VtxTj ClovAcia 'tOV tou Bv~av'tLov, XtVME'l.!JE vc ExAE('l.!JEL Xat (t)<; E8vo<;. Kat uovov 'll xataQQIOV0'll t'll~ A v'toxQatoQ(a<; tOO(t)OE ceto 'tOY 'tEAtXOV aq:;avta~o rou, Kat avtA'll0c ceto ~Eoa 'tOV 't'll Mva~'ll, vc Ex'tLva;ct- urto Jtav(t) tOV - tOY Toooxo. Nu, u, xa'ta AE;'ll o't'llv «Iorootc - 'tov - 't'll~ EAA'llvLxTj<; Enuvcomosmc» AEH 0 MEvClEAo(t)v BaQ8oACl'll :

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«Av ~Eta to 1204* bEY EJtTjQXEto 'to 1453, bEY Sa Tjoav JtAEov E8vo<; at 'EAA'llVE~. ~Lon 0 EAATjVLXO<; Aao<;, ootu; lOS tbLa~ bvva~E(t)<; bVOXOA(t)~ Tj8EAE xa'tOQSWOEt v' aJtooEioTj 'ta<; aAvoov<; t'll<; JtQW't'll<; EXElV'll<; bunxl)<; bEOJtotELa<;, cvsuQEV ovt(t)~ ELJtEiv smrtov JtaAai(t)v xata t'll<; bEUtEQa<; eve'tOALxTj~ xUQLaQxLa~. Mer« 't'llv touQXtxl)v xaTax'tTjOL v, cvsuQE rnv JtoAltLxl)v xm JtvEV~atLxTjv av'tOv evotnto, Tjv EXtVMVlOUOlO v' aJtoAEoTj bta Jtavto<;, ~lOta 'tTjv xataxtTJOLv T(t)V Aa'tL vorv»,

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*nQa"{llaTt. H AattvtX~ an£tA~ !!a~ qJ£QVEl axo!!a xmmt6& !!a~. METa TaV; POJ!!alOV~ xm "to Bv~avno, £XOWE "to 1204. L"ttS; !!EQES; lias;, "to 1923 <HT]v K£QxVQa xor to 1940 o"tT]v Ilrvoo. Kat cero 1:0 19111lEXQt 1:0 "tEAO~ 1:OV B· IlcvxoO!!LOV, Ilas; £LXEV aQna~Et xm w ~OJ6ExaVT]Oa. Evoi xcu xm:a "tT]v KatoX~ - oruoreuro - !!OVOV ot [EQllavol (oJtOJ<; Jt01:£ OL Touoxor) Ilas; EOOJoav uno TOV BIA £XAanVLO!!6 !!ac; ...

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108

109

rIANNlfl: ~KAPIMI1AL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH6EIA

:rtOAlJ Bv~avtLo Xat lLl1aQLwnXl1 E:rtaQXLa lOU lJ EAAa(')a; Kat OL <I>a.vaQLavoL, sava «nrrtpixiot»; AXQL~We; 10110 10 EAAlJVLXO ESVOe; So. :rtalWVE sava - LOWe; YLa nnvtonvc lOV ornv a~avELa. H Poooto So. f.!ae; xm;a:rtL VE ocv 0 :rtEAaQyoe; lOV I1VSOV, TOVe; ~aTQaxove;... Axclta XaL Olav lJ TOVQXLa 111av WXVQOlaTlJ (xca CJlaSlJXE lETOLa I1EXQL 10 1918) 010 TEAEo~YQacpo nou E:rtE(')WOE 0 MEVTOLXWCP OlOV PEt~ ECPEVllJ, aQxEe; TOV 1853, u:rtaQXE xat lOUTOe; 0 oQoe;: «H TIuAlJ va unoYQa'¢lJ osveu (=ovvSl1xlJ) onou 11' aVll1S' avayvwQL~E llJ Ptootn :rtQoo~allJV oAwv lWV oQSo(')oslOv llJe; aSWl1avLxl1e; amoxQalOQLae;, 1110 10 (')LxaLW~ta va E:rtEI1~a( VEL OlE So. VOI1L~E :rtwe; OL XQLonavo( xaTa:rtLE~OVlav». EUTVxWe;, on OlOV :rtOAEI10 (=TOV KQLl1a"ixo) nou EnaxOAOUSlJOE, lJ Porxnc lJTTl1SlJXE. AAALWe; ... YQacpE 11' EVL01E. ..

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111

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'tavao'taOLllo Xavatl ....

• =r« ltT]ALva ToavuxtU not: ot vmxoxuguCE£ ltETUV (yta OltUmIlO) alto tn ltaguthJga TO rre<DtvO TOO Mtya ~@lTOO, TOO xru <<Jf{Xim] AvUaroO'T]» ~oo.

Ta tl')yavo'\jJaQa, l') TIOAl] , 0 llaQllaQ())IlEVO~ ~aOLALa~, ~'tav «1lE'taElXOOLEVlXl')>> ECPEUQEOl] rrov J[aJ[ab())v. (AJ[' 'tOU~ J[OUQOU~ «l>avaQLwtE~, cp'taaav Ebw OL an' au'tOu~ aJ[otUXl')IlEVOL ~ UJ[OJ['tOL oro dL~aVLO ... ). H MEYaAl] lbEa ~tav ayv())o'tl') O'tOV EAAabLXO XWQO xm O'tl') OXE'\jJl') rou, Oere oro «XQUCPO OXOAElO» J[O'tE~ aXOUO'tl]XE, OUtE xm orrv LOtOQLX~ OUVELbl')Ol] l]UQE 8EOl'). AL nVE~ xaXEX'tLxE~ AELXi}VE~ J[OU Ecp'IJrocoonv OE xatl LEQ())IlEV())V aAcpa~~'tE~, llaQaSl]xav EAAEL'\jJEl o1;uyovou, XaL xaXOIlOtQE~, IlE~ ornv xAayy~ trov OJ[A())V tOU '21. dEV axouYE~ aAAo uno EAAHNEL, cero AXlAAEou~ XaL i\E())vLbE~. To «XaL ornv nOAH» ~'tav EUX~ rorv «IlEtaELXOOLEvLXUlV» «l>avaQl())'twv XaL AOYL())V, rrov lla8l]tEUOIlEV())V o'tl') llaYELa 'tOU Homunculus xm ornv «ALSoYQacpl')urrtoxouu» rou KUQlOU LJ[. MaQxE~Lvl') ... xm YA())OOaIlWtLXl') aVaOtaOLoAoYLa rorv ll'llEAWV rrrqvou OE xEcpaAE~ ~owv u'\jJl]AOxaJ[EAA())V xm 'tl]~EVVOCPOQ())V J[QOCPEOOOQ())V Ila~. TIoM J[EQlOOOTEQO to Bu~avtLo. LtL~ J[Qoxl')Qu1;EL~ rou, bEY TO J[QOCPEQE Ol),,[E Xl «uro; 0 Y '\jJl]Aav'tl')~ ... Ltl')V J[QO~ tL~ duvallEL~ avaYYEALa 'tl]~ mavao'taol]~, uno rn MEOOl]VlaX~ fEQOUOLa 'tl]~ KaAallata~, oute oov UJ[mVlYIlO~ bEY avacpEQ8l')XE xovc 'tE'tOLO Il~vulla ~ oXi}IlCt. Movo roix aQxaLou~ Ila~ J[Qoyovou~ ovourruoe, tOY aQxa(o EAAl')VLXO TIoAL'tlOIlO - IlCt~ - xm 'tl') do1;a. Lta EYYQacpa, O'tL~ bLaXl]Qu1;El~ 'tl')~, ere aL08~lla'ta (J[aQ' OAO 'toy Muuooxooocto - 'tl')~) l') enovuotuon bEY J[QO~AE cro J[aAAl')XaQla reroi« ... LbEa. 8atov xa'tL 'to «blEYEQtLXO» ... cor' rnv CtvaJ[obl') - 8a 'tou~ ALaVL~CtV ouv TQaYLa, to mavaO'ta'tl]IlEVCt YLa'tayavLa ... Tooo nou l') «l>tALX~ (J[aQa J[O'U - EJ[LOl')~ 'tl]~ - OU'tE xa'ta bLavOtCt tl')~ ElXE J[EQaOEL) IlE 'to va ELVCtL uJ[oJ['tl] orov Aao, OU'tE XaL 'to blXO 'tl]~ 'to ovouo bEY 'tOAIll')OE va ovourrnoa xata 'tl')v

112

113

fIANNHI LKAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHSEIA

rraAll. To cpaalla tcov BEQBaLvlOv ... II ZaQaxoBa ... (<<MLa Vt01JcpExLa vcnerpre - nEYE 0 KOAOXOtQWVll~ YLa ru BEQBaLva - OL llQOXQLtOL 8a acpa~ovtav OAOL) (~. KOXXLVO~).

«0 ~llIlLWV to E8vo~, ouosv« ~llIlLOL» ~tav to EIlBAlllla rcov rrQoxQLtlOV. «TL lOQaLOtEQOV bL' amou~ cero EJtLXEQb~ ErraVaatam; EAallBavov t01J~ cpoQ01J~ trnv EAA~VlOV XlOQLXWV, OLtLVE~ ELOEQQEOV EL~ rc BaAaVtLa tcov (L.t.L.: <'>xL, XOQOLba 8a~auv!) taXtLXWtata, orrlO~ aAAOtE EL~ ta rorv ToupXlOV ta XQ~IlUta XaL aXEUll ... » (K. MEVbEAalOV BaQ8oAbll, aEA. 371). Tooo bE XaL ceto roix Touoxoix; t1JQavvLXWtEQOL XaL arrAllatOL ~aav YEVlXa OL XOt~allrraallbE~, rr01J rrOnE~ CPOQE~ rrAll81Ja~LO( xrn rrEQLcpEQELE~ xm Vllma ~~tayav rrQoorcoto ... arr' toy L01JAtavo!

QO~ rrQErrEL rrQo~ tOUtOL~, co EVtQorr~ aV1JrrocpoQo~!, rrQErrEL AEYlO va XOQtaall tllV Auaaav xm rou AllatoU tll~ EXXAlla(a~, iJtOL rou aQXLEJtLOXOrr01J ... » (<<EAAllVLXiJ NOIlUQx(a» a. 99).

« ... To mo EUCPOQO XaL XUAOIlEQO~ tll~ Yll~ ~tav LbLOXtllotc rorv uovcornouov. MLa cpoUxta xaAoYEQOL rr01J XL rrurot ~aav d;aQtllllEvOL arr' r' 'AyLO 'OQo~, ceto to IIutQLaQXELO ~ tOY M lltQorrOAL tll, ErrmQvav allu8llTa ELaob~llata coto YEvv~llatU, xaQrrou~ xm ~lOvtava. XLALabE~ aYQOtE~ EL rev aXAaBOL rcov 1l0VaatllQLwv xm EtQEcpav t01J~ IllXQOU~ XaL IlEYaA01J~ xaAoYEQ01J~ IlE to IlOXto xm toy LbQwta t01J~» r

(T. KOQbato~, «LEALbE~ coto tllV Iorooto t01J aYQotLX01J xlv~llato~», aEA. 11).

«EIlEL~ OL rrtlOXOL QaYLabE~ tll~ vnoo» LaIlO1J, ceto XQoV01J~ xataX1JQLE1JIlEVOL xm BuauvlallEvOL uno roue cvoocata~ tou uouxnt«, OLtLVE~ aUIlCPlOvOL IlE IlEQLXOU~ xot~allrraallM~ Ila~ xa8EXaatllv EmcpEQ01JV EL~ lllla~ roix b1Jat1JXEl~ aQrraya~, abLxLa~, t~EQEIlEbE~, ~01JAOUIlLa, rrQoboaLa; xm ana IlUQLa xaxa ... »

( Enou. LtallatLabo1J, «LaIlLaxa» aEA. 11).

«Tov MlltQorrOALtllV rrEQLEatoLX01JV OL bLa rorv bLacpoQlOV EXXAllmaatLXWV 0 cp cp L r o t lO v xExoallllllEvOL, Illl EVVOOWtE~ va rraQm tll8wm rcov tL tAlOV uutcov xm XUt' a1JtOU~ roue b1JaXEQEatEQ01J~ tll~ T01JQxoxQatLa~ XQOV01J~ ... 'Onnx tllv IIatQLaQXLx~v a1JA~V arrEtEA01JV OL xata rtevtrrba~ blmQoullEvOL IlEyaAOL 0CPCPLXOUXOL, ourco xm EXaatll~ MlltQorroAElO~ tllV a1JA~V arrEtEA01JV tocoutor ... rr.x. aaxEAAaQLO;, aXE1JocpuAa~, rrQlOtExbLXO~, 1JrrOllvllllatoYQa~o~, rrQlOtorrarra~, Aoy08E'tll~, VOllocpuAa~ x.u.» (~. KcunoeooYA01J, «Iorooto rcov A8llVWV», t, 2, aEA. 172).

Kru rrEQLIlEvUIlE arr' a1J'tou; va ~wao1JV t ' aQllata; va 1Jtpwao1Jv xata rcov Touoxorv xaQ1JOcpVnLa; Zououv ~lO~ Aourrcov IlrrEl1blOv, vtuvovtouocv ouv TOUQXOL xm « ... EIlcpavL~OVtaV IlE rnv ~aQBaQov rrollrrwbllv Acurtorv aQXoVtlOV ... ». H «tQLtll ta~ll» = 0 Aao~, T01J~ EAEYE «TouoxoxgLatLaVou~». ( ~. KOXXLVO~, r, I, aEA. 22). « ... Ana ll~rrlO; tEAWllVEL El~ ama IlOVOV II b1JatlJXLa ton; A1J'tO~ 0 taAaLrr(j)-

« ... EXELVOL AEYlO OL aCPQovE~ xm IllOQOL av8glOrrOL onoo xQa~ovtm rrQOEatoL xm aQXOVtE~, OLtLVE~ ceto rnv BQlOIlEQav alJV~8ELav Exaaav oxsoov xm tllV EVtQorr~v tlOV uv- 8QwrrlOv xm toy cpoBov rou ewu xm IlE aXQav aVULOX1J-

114

115

rIANNrn: LKAPIMIIAL

vnuv bEY bLatuto'Umv coto to va aQvwvtat nors !!EV 'ta~ nooomrc; rcov JtAl]QlO!!WV, JtotE bE va savatl]twm sxavo onou EAa~av ~bl] (=to'U; cpoQo'U~ xrn tc «boai!!ata») xm, to XELQOtEQOV, va xa'Uxwvtat EL~ to va bELxvUlOvtat motet oJtaboi Xat bOUAOL tou 1:'UQuvvo'U exoixnot»

(<<EAAl]VLX~ NO!!aQXLa», aEA. 99).

6.

Ma, Yla va a'UvuSo'U!!E OAO to xotta!!JtaaLbLxo aXHLxo 'U/.LXO bEY Sucptavav !!EQLXE~ ExatovtubE~ «a't'UAu» (XL Exom 'tQELa~!!Lm bQaX!!OUAE~ to Eva): «OL x01:~a!!Jtual]bE~ ~aav JtEQwaOtEQo !!Wl]toL XL aJt' a'UtOu; aXo!!a roix Touoxoix» (Ed Blaquieres, ~A. 8. <pwtLubl] «KaQa'laxuxl]~», aEA. 88). «ME tl]v aAa~ovELa toix, !!E mv avaLbELu roue xm 1:l]v xa!!EQJtELU rou; nou toix xaQaxtl]QitEL, ~u~avE oQLa uvoueoc a' a'ULou~ Xat oro EAAl]VlXO E8vo~» (F. Pouqueville, «Voyage en Moree», 'to 1, aEA. 106).

IIOLa MquAl] lbEa, Sa rou; EAqEV 0 KlOAEtLl]~ Xl a'Urouvorv, nou 'twQa xru !!E'tU - Xat YLa1:L 0Xl aXEbov xm !!EXQl a~!!EQa; - ~aav OL iblOL cutot l] MquAYJ IbEa; IIa'tQlxLOL xm JtQLYXYJJtE; B'U~aVtLVOL, «8LxEcpaAOL» nou avti~ xOQWva ... cpoQayav cpEm ... cpEm curet, xaAJtuxl 0 KaJtobiatQla~, Xl 0 KOQa~~ «JtVLX'tO XOAAUQO» lO~ t.' aqmu rou ... Ma, Yla ataSEL rs, QE Jtmblu ... Kutrr tYJ~ XLO~ rc JtoQ1:a ExEi, Eva~ ~QOVto~ a'UYXAovWE to JtEAao xm ta O'UQUvla!. .. Tt vutuv; ... Q, tLJt01:a ... KUJtOLO~ KavuQYJ~ - I.EEl - AqO!!EVO~, bibaSE ru blXU rou !!aSYJ!!atlXU orov KOQa~ xnt KaJtobLatQla ...

H MquAYJ lbEa bEY ~tav xm ... lbEa rorv EAA~VlOV. EAAHNE1:! ... (lO~ urtovovoix rurv aQxaLlOv) ~QovtocpwvaSE YJ Aa'lXOtEQYJ cp'UmoyvlO!!La 'tYJ~ snovccroonc, 0 :JtQlOtoXAECP1:YJ~ KOAOXOtQwvl]~, aJtotELVO!!EVO~ oro JtaAA YJXUQla xm toy Aao, Xl 0Xl IIaAatOAOYOL ~ BuotAElOL xcu KlOva'taVtLVOL ~ Kouvnvcoe«, TL~ eEQ!!OJtUAE~ xm toy Aeorvtou tou; SU!!l~E Xat 0XL 'tYJv A YlU LOCPlU Xat 0Xl 'tYJv nOAH. Tov IIaQSEvwva rou; EbElXVE. Ours !!La cpoQu bEY axOUatYJxE ornv EJtavaata1:YJ!!EvYJ EAAuba xuva; «!!aQ!!aQlO!!EVO~ ~amAlu~» ~ avaJtEtUSYJxE xuva~ «bLxEcpaAo~ us'to~» Yla !!Jta'lQuxl. 0 MaQaSwva~, YJ LaAa!!L va, OL eE!!LmoxA~bE~, Ol ~lOXQU1:E~ Xat OL IIAUtlOVE~ ~tav oro XELAYJ tYJ~ E'UQWJtl]~, otrrv to uxo'Ua!!a soxcce 'XEL - 1:0'U '21. ~to «xoixpo aXOAELo» (uvSo~ JtaAmOEAAablxo Xl mrto), JtOtE bEY AEXtl]XE oro EAAl]vOJtO'UAa xuva B'UtUVtLO. Krn 'xd OJtlO~ mrvrou, !!OVO YLa IIEAOJtLbE~ xm EJta!!ElVWvbE~ blaAqoVto'Uaav, Yla e~~E~, YLa tl]v AS~va xm YLa tl] ~JtUQ'tYJ. H <l>LAlX~ EtmQELa, 0 Y'ljJl]AUVtYJ~, 0 P~ya~ <pEQaLO~, to S'Umaat~QlO rou 8QayataavLO'U xm (cere) tou IIEta * ( lou-

* 'OltOU, O1:llV EXolQU'tEia (XaL 01'1'] rlUXll) nou Yla ltOAl1IXE~ ltQOOWltIXt; 101' Em6IciJ~EI~ OQYUVUJOE 0 AAE~av6Qo::; MauQoxoQM'tO::;, EltWaV OIltarmAEL- 010l alto lOU::; llQUJIXOU::; «l>tAEAA'I']VEC: rlUl:;,

116

117

fIANNlIT ~KAPIMI1AL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHElEIA

VLO~ 1822) rrmv 'to uO'tQo 11:01J - «IlE81J0IlEV01J~» - 't01J~ ob~vos: ~EV ~'tav 'to B1J~uv'tLo, aAAa 11 A8~va. Art' rnv A8~va Xat 't01J~ aQxalO'u~ sunveovrnv OAOL OL onAaQXl1yol 't01J '21:

'tat 111l0vabLxo't11'ta 't01J EAAl1VLXOV aywva ... » ( 1. M. Xa't~l1- CPWtl1~, «NEa TIoALtELa», 28.3.1971 ).

« ... MLa CPUA~, 11 mo LOtOQLX~ CPUA~ tl1~ OLXOUIlEvl1~, aut~ nou bl11lLOVQY110E 'tOY XQuoovv uuovo, ExaoE rnv EAEu8EQia 't11q;, 0llwe; nore bEY EnauoE v' avanvEl1 Xat va EAnl~l1. natl ElXE mlyvwOl1 tou nQooQLOIlOV Xat 'tOU QOAOU 't11Q; Xat YLa'ti nOtE bf,v ExaOf, 'tOY av8Qwmo~to tl1C;. Tov av8QwmollO, nou mv Ebf,VE IlE mv aQXato'tl1'ta, nou 't11~ 8VIlL~f, 'to naQEA80v 't11e;. 'OAOl OL IlEYUAOll1YE'tEQ; tou Erxootsvc: 0 Kosoxototovl1; Xat OL UAAOl, EcpEQvav IlEOa 'tOue; rnv naQabool1. Knnou 0 YEvvalOe; O'tQatl1yoQ; MaxQuYLuvvl1Q;, XWQl~ lXVO~ AOYLo'tl1'tae; ~ 8uQaSf,v oocpLac;, AEyn : '''OAOl aUtf,LVOL oi IlEYUAOl UVtQf,e; rou XOOIlOU XatOLXOvvE rocoix atWVEe; O'tOV 'Abl1 0' Evav rono oxora vov xcn xAai VE Xat j3aoavL~ovmL bLU ru nOAAU bELVU nou tQaj3un 11 buo't1JXLOIlEVl1IlEQLX~ na'tQiba roue. 'OAOL or nQOXOllllEVOl UV'tQEe; 'tWV naAatWV EAATjvwV, OL YOVEOl OAl1e; 't11~ avSQwnOtl1~, 0 AuxovQYO~, 0 TIAU'tUJV, 0 LWXQU'tl1e;, 0 AQLo'tElbl1~, 0 E>qlLO'tOXA~C;, 0 AEUJvLbae;, 0 E>Qaovj30UAoe;, 0 ~111l008EVl1e; xrn oi EnLAOLnOl no'tEQE~ yEVLXW~ 't11e; av8Qwno't11e; xonLa~av Xat j3aoavl~OVtaV vUX'ta Xat l1~tEQa Il' aQE"C~, IlE ELALXQLVELav, IlE xa8aQov av- 8QwnLOllOV va CPU)tLOOWE "Cl1V avSQUJnOtl1 vaXl1 aQEt~ Xat qxor«, Yf,vvato"Cl1"Ca xru na"CQLUJ"CLOIlO". To nVf,Vlla «uto un~QXf, Of, xu8f, aXAaj3wllEvo 'EAAl1va XL auto rov OnALOf, 0'tO anl8avo EYXELQl1lla ton Erxootevc, 8avIla tl1e; EAAl1VLX~; TIaAlYYEvEoLa~. MnoQf,OE Etm to E8voe; va EXIlE"CaAAE1J8ci "Cl~ buva"Co"Cl1"CEe; 'tOU Xat nQaYllatOnoL 110E 'to xoouototooixo YEYOVoe; "C11; Enovuornoecx. Kru 0'tO 0111lELO cuto EYXEL-

« ... Ta xooIlO·(O'tOQLXU yEyovo"Ca tl1; raAALx~~ EnnvoOtUOEW; Xat ru CPLAEAEvSEQa xl1QvYlla"Cu tl1~ EVQLOxav EL~ 'tOY bOVAOV tors 'EAAl1va 'tOY f,Una8EO"Cf,QoV bEX"Cl1V. AVEYVWQL~f,V autoe; OtL n; tnv aVYXQovov tOU raAALav ~ava~f,i 11 AQxaLa, 11 Auov;« EAAU~ ...

... 0 KOQa~; YQuCPEL "Co 1792, cvorpeoouevo; EL; rou; Ncxoxeovtetou; nOAEllou~: "EL; toy naQov'ta nOAEllov, CPLAf, uou, £ibov nQawata OVtUJe; EAAl1VLxu. ~EV axovEL xavELe; UAAO tl1v O~IlEQOV, nUQE~ MaQa8wva, LaAallL va, TIj,atmu~".

... Ta 8avlla"Ca "C11; LOtOQLX~~ Xat 1tQo·(O"COQLX~e; nEQLobou, aQX~~ YEVOIlEvl1; uno EXEL vo to uno TWV bf,XaOXLALwV EXElvorv ASl1vaLwv, oi onotoi, xcnu toy TIAatWVa Xat tOU; LEQEL; "C11; AL y'\J1ttOU, xrrtstoornuorrv "Ca~ lluQLuba; tWV A rAUVtWV EmbQollEwV xatu tl1C; Lf,QUe; autTjc; Yl1C; tl1C; A ttLX~C;, EllcpavL~ov"Cat bLU IlEOOU tWV nuovorv Xat mavaAallj3uvOVtat IlEXQL tou 1821 Xat OUVEXL~ov"Cm nEQav mrrou, IlEXQL tOU OXI tou 1940»

(AAE~avbQo; T~a"C~onouAo;, «0 tEXTOVLOIlO~ xrn 0 aywv tOU 1821», Of,A. 15 Xat 20).

~EV Elllat tEXtWV, aAAu IlLa nOl) YLa 'tOY Tf,X"COVLOIlO 0 Aoyoe;, 0'tO 0111lELo, va unortoco AEW Of, tOV'tl1 tl1 CPlAEAEv8EQl1 oQyuVWOl1 tOY cpoQo -IlOU - 'tL1l~~. Aev EXEL ol1llaoia O"Cl ~tE ~ ~WQLe; tl1 <l>LALx~ ETatQcLa 'to '21 Sa EYLvo"Cav,22 anu nOAAa OtOV Tf,XtOVLOIlO XQwO"CUEL 11 <l>LALX~ EtatQf,La. TIu-

118

119

rIANNHL ~KAPIMI1AL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

~rmAAOL uno tUU; <l>LALXOU; TJGaV tEXtoVE; (XaL uno mv t{:_navbgLa tWV Lbg1JtWV tlJ;, ngWtO; 0 3av80;) ELaCPEgOVta; tll; oagxa XaL ooro, aL~a XaL qxorc, KaL Xa~nOOOL nrto tou; t£XtoVE; (<I>LALXOL ~ 0XL, 'EAAlJVE; ~ ~lJ) ngoOEcpEgav OtlJ AE'U'tEgL(J., ~aXO~EVOL, XUl tlJV unEgtatlJ eUOla ...

Ilou ELVaL AOLnOV tn BU~aVtla, OL KO~VlJVOl XaL OL «~LXEcpaAOL»; EXELVa ta \jJagLa rtou ... n~blJoav ~LOotllyaVLa~Eva cero tll; f3af3w; to tlJyavL; Axouo XaL o~~Ega, onw; XUL tOY XaLgo tlJ; MEYaAo'(bEanXlJ; xatanAll~(a;, OL LbLOL autoL xonavoAoym tou Bu~avnou, ~EXwgL~OVta; mv aouyYEVELa ava~Eta~U roix (= rou Bu~aVtLOU XaL tlJ; EAAabLX~; EAAaba; ~a;) «X U Q L w; E A A a b a» AEVE 'tlJV natQLba ~ac;, EVtonL~ov'ta; tllV oro LatoQLxa XaL navaQXaLa (1)\10- Qa tlJC;. TIEQLxaAw; ... TlJ «~EYaAo'lbdx~» \jJwQa ~a; rnv ECPEgav ornv Ae~va OL <l>avaQUJnE;. AXQLf3wC; ElnELV, bEV rnv EcpEQav (YLati XL a1JtOL bEV TlJV ~EQav ... ) Cf..AAa TllV EcpEUQav smronou. TIQOlJyOU~tEVW;, xm:a 'tlJ btaQxElCf.. 'tlJ; na.AlJ;, E(xav ~E'tacpEQEl Cf..VCf..~EOW 'tlJ; (= aVCf..~EOW ton aycDva) ~a~L ~E toy MCf..XLCf..f3EAALO~O, XaL 'tlJ blXOVOLCf.. ((bE XaL «~(xlJ rou KaQa·(oxaXlJ»). * L'tlJV Ae~va ~E'tacpEQav auva.~Cf.., ot «Oeocpof3OL, XaL rnv ~EJtOUAll'tLX~ roo; abLXO'tlJ'ta. * * (8Cf.. tn nou~E naQCf..xa'tw).

yxouC;, oroix rEVof3( 'tE; XaL O'tOUC; TouQxouC; (XaL rote reAWVE(a XaL ~OVOJt(i)ALCf.., XaL rots «bLO~OAOy~OELC;» XaL nQovouur) ornv toUQXLXll ua'tEQa nOAH E~axoAOUelJOav rov ... EXnAElO'tlJQLao~o XaL 'tll; TouQXLa;, xovovrr«; ... 'tlJ ~E'tQllall an' t.' avanoba! T Q E, N t 0 U 0, 0 U v 01... EXEL va f3AEnEL; 'tEAwvda XaL ~OVOnWA.La! EXEL va f3AEnEL; OU~UAE; BoavLEC; XaL EQ~Eyof3LVE;! LLblJQobQo~ou;, AL~avLa, «rrvn(3aaLAELa», nQovo~La, «E'tEQobLXLEC;» XaL YLOcpUQla' «ofkouuVLXEC; TQa.nE~E;», xaQ'toolJ~a, nQo~~eElE; ocmcrv nOAE~LXQ)\' xm ... CPEOLWV eQaawv' OA' a1Jta, XL aJ..Aa oro acpuQLL .. Ilou 'tucpAa vaXEl 0 XOQ - XOQ Aya; ~E tn 40 naAAlJXaQLa! Ilou 'tucpAa vaXEl Xl 0 KaQaYXLO~l1; - ~OU!- ~E to ~EnoUAll~a 'tWV XO'tEtOLWV tou Axt EcpEV'tlJ ...

L'tOY aywva, oooi «xa'tEf3lJxav» xouf3aAlJaav xrn tnv Enl't~bELa 'tEXVlJ 'tlJ; ~moUAa;! ... MLa ~OQCP~ rou ~EnouA~ucroc ~'tav xm tc xo~~a'ta nou Exa~av: PWOOCPLAO, AyYAOCPLAO, raAAocplAO, ax~a XaL ... Aua'tQocpLAO - to'll ME't'tEQVLX· *

TIQay~an, nQollyou~EVWC; (oro nQLV ton '21 xm EnExervu), acpou ELxav ~mOUA~aEl 'to Bu~avno oroix <l>Qa-

H ~axo~EvlJ EAAaba aCPllvE t ' aQ~a'ta, OL XAECP'tE; ru YLa'tayavLa, to EuaYYEALa OL LEQEL;, YLa va aAAlJAO'tQWV 0 Eva; toy aAAo ... ME to acpuQL OL <l>avaQLW'tEC; - «blJ~onQaroosc» - XCf..'taxuQwvav otou; nAELObo'tE; rnv EAAa.ba. ELba~E nwc; rou Ito. KaQa't~a (TEWC; lJYE~ova 'tlJC; BAax(ac;) aQXLoav ~E n; nQw'tEI::; ~na'taQLE; va rou 'tQEXOUV, YLa oono-

• KaQa'ioxuxTj~ orov MauQoxoQoCtTo: «E, oQE MauQoxoQoUt£, EOU tnv nQoooaLa!-l£ tTjV EYQml'£~ oro xaQtL XaL YW oyA.~yoQa oA.nL~w va oou mv YQuljJw £L; to !-lEtWnOv oou OLU va qJClV~ noioc £Load» (Hua:; l1ana01£QLonOUA.o:;, «H OixTj rou KaQa'LoxuxTj», O£A.. 264).

** I1£QLoOOt£Qa, 8a 6ou!-l£ OtO 20 (onw~ £ina) '21 !-lOU.

• 'OOOL an' mrrou; Xal1:Ol1:; naQo!-lOLou:; 1:0U:; OWOUV£ vo. OQcwouv xm 10m 'Oflrova, «£LO~yuyav» xrn TTjV ~£nou)..Tj'tLX~ TOU:; £LOLXoTTjta tOU !-l<'iVtaVLOu xrn tcov «XT]QUX£LWV». «il>tUVEL va oou noi nw:; OL onaOoi tOU KwA.EttT] xuvav£ OLaOT]A.Wcm:; xQC1.tWVtu:; 0XL rrrv EA.A.T]vLx~ naQu ... tTl raA.A.LX~ OT]!-laLa!» (~. <l>WtLUOT]:;, «H E~WOTj rou 'Otkovo», OEA.. 41).

120

121

rIANNIIT ~KAPIMTIA~

TO 1821 KAI H AAHeEIA

baQLAbtL nUAL, t« oUALa= 'to oonobaQLALxL rou MWQEa! IIA1]Qwvov'tus 'to 010 ... aSLOnQEn~ LL!l~, a'U'tO'UV01J 8a rou 't6bLVE xa'lllaxallALxL 'to v'tOBAELL ... *

AAAU XU'tL nxououvtuc nEQL LWEbQLO'U 't1]s BEQ6vas, onoi: - 'tuxa'tLs - 0 AAEsavbQos 8uxaVE 't1]V EAAuba BaoLAELO, V'ljJWOE LLS oonobaQLxEs rou !lE'tOX£~ EWs 't1]V 'tL!l~ rou BamAEaL .. AAAu yLa ... va onuoELs XECPL, avayvwo't1] !l0'U, EnL'tQE'ljJE 1l0'U va naQa8Eow EbwXUIlO'U 0XEb6v OA6xA1]Q1] 't1] YLa roue KaQu'tl;aLo'Us (= na'tEQa XaL YVLO) nEQLobo rou Ll. K6xXLVO'U, an6 'tOY 30 't~o, o.z., 0101.. 96 XaL 97:

yuvbas anEvuV'tL av8Qwnwv E'UcpuEmu'twv, 'UnEQ1]cpuvWv XaL cptAob6swv ( ... ) rtou bEY 1]VELXOV'tO OV'tE xav 'tOY Ll1]Il~'tQLOV Y'ljJ1]Auv't1]V nou ELXEV EA8El Ws nA1]QEsovmos tou abEAcpov rou, fEVLXOV Em.toonou 't1]s AQX~s ( ... ). 'H'tO note bwatov v' aVEx80w 1'OV YEQoV1'a KaQa1'l;uv nou bEY ELXE uAAo EVEQY1]1'Lx6v ELS 'to naQEA86v rou naQu tnv 1]YE!lOvLav ELS 1'1]v BAaxLav XaL nou bLU va B01]8~01] ue tnv nEQLo'UoLav rou 'toy aywva, El;1]'tOVOE va 'toy avax1]Qvso'Uv 1]YE!l6va;

An~v't1]ouV AOLn6v ELs 'toy Koioroxnv KaQa'tl;uv 6'tL bEY ~'tO b'Uva1'6v va oXEcp80w 'twQa nEQL 'tOLOV'tWV l;T)'t1]llu'twv XaL tou Ebwoav va EVVO~01] 6LL ELxav avuYX1] nOAEllocpobLWV bLU mv noALOQxLav. To nAoLov rou KaQa'tl;u ~'to YEurrto,

AAA' 0 vEaQ6s <l>avaQLW't1]s (L.'t.L.: 'to !l~AO XU'tW an' 1'1] !l1]Alu ... ) bEY ELXE CPEQEl ru B01]8~!la1'a naQa bui va ru !lE1'aXElQw8~ blU 't1]V nQonayuvbav 1'1]s 1]yE!lovLas 't1]s EAAubos( ... ). 'ECPUYE AOLn6v 8'UIlW!lEVOs uno 'to NE6xao1'Qo, XWQLs va bW01] OU1'E Eva CPUOL yYLOV ELS roix nOAloQxovv'tas 'to <l>QOVQlOV xrn En~yE ELs 't1]V KaAaw!nav ... ». Ma as acp~OO'U!lE 'toy aO~!lav'tO KaQu'tl;u Xl as EQ80'U!lE O'tOV E3tLXLV1'WO Mcuooxooocro. WwcpaE Xl am6s va SE3to'UA~OEL 'toy MWQlU, 6Xl 61lws O'tOV Lo'Uhuvo am6s, Ila crnv AyyALa ... KaL uovo 'to ycyov6s 6LL bEY !ln6QWE va naQaAVOEL * tnv EnavuO'ta01], bELXVEL 1'0 n600 aV1'QELwIlEVO ~1'av 'to '21. «Yn~QsEv 0 oAE8QLOs 't1]s EAAubos baL!lwV un' aQX~s !lE-

« ... 0 KaQa'tl;us cLXE XUt a'U't6s llal;L rou SEVO'US nQw1]v aSlW!laLLxoVs !lw8w8Ev'ta; coto rov 3tCHEQa 1'O'U. Q; 'Unaomornv rou ELXEV evov I'eoucvov. Oi nOAloQx1]'taL rou Neoxuo'tQo'U rov 'UnEMx81]ouv IlE Ev80'Umao!l6v. 'H'tO 'Ut6; Ev6; 'tEWs 1]YE!l6vos 1'T); BAaXLas, us vvoxrrov ovouo YEO; nou EOnE'IJOEV coto 1'0 ESW1'EQlX6v va EA8T) va aywvwe~ btu 1'l1V XOLV~V nu'tQLba. EnL nAEov ~'tO nAovmo; XaL ELXEV El; 1'1]V btu8WL V rou 'to CPOQ1'LOV ron nAoLo'U nou tov ECPEQE XaL rro'U ELXEV ayx'UQoBOA~OEl EL; 'tOY AlllEva, nOAv'tL!lov btu rou; nOAtoQxow'ta; 'to EXEL CPQOVQlOV, bt61'l anE'tEAEL 1'0 X'UQLW; ceto nOAE!locp6blU.

( ... ) - 0 na'tEQa; !lO'U, roix ElnE, 8a 8'UmaollnoAAu exo- 1'O!l!lvQla btu rov aywva 'tll; Enubo; av nQooxA118~ w; llYE!lWV 'tlls·

At nQo'tuoEL; amaL ~oav 0 XElQ6'tEQO; 1'Q6no; nQona-

* « ... E8EWgOVOE ltt8av~v TllV bllflLO'Ugy(av H; tnv XCl.TW Ef.l.aba flla; llYEflov[a; xma TO ltgaT'UltOV TWV TIagabo'Uval3iwv, HC; TT]; ortourc TOV 8gavov altEPAEltE» (~. KaXXlVo;, T. 2, OEA. 204).

• « ... E~~8T]OEV bta TT]; O'UflfluXLa; TO'U flETa TWV ltgoWTwv Et; TT]V xmaA'UGlV TT]; E~O'UO(UI:; TOU Y1jJTJAavTOu ... Elt0flEVW; TLltOTE aAAo bEY xaTwg8woEv nagu flOVOV va xmaOT~ol1 amrvaTOv TT]V <J'UYXgoTT]<JlV aAT]8lV~; X'UPEgv~OEW; xa8' aAT]V TT]V EnaVaOTa<JlV» (K. TIanaggT]yono'UAo;, «EltLTOflO;», OEA. 576).

122

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TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

XQl 'to"O'll~*. 'HXO'llEV - MYEl 0 <l>LA~!lWV -, E~AmEv, w'taO!ll~EV, 'llbv XaL !lElALXLOV JtQooAaAwv rou; JtaOl XaL JtEQL JtaV'tWV. H JtQOO'llV~~ XaL a~Qa am'll JtOAl'tlX~ bEY nro ~E~atW~ 'll xa'taAA'llAo~ va JtQOOEAXV0'll 't'llv O'll!lJtaOElav rcov xAECP'twv XaL tnv 'llJtoA'll1jJlV ron KOAoxmQwv'll' uno 't'llv YA'llxa !lElblWocv ueoi nx~v (0. blX~ uou: LOW~ «!lwmax~v» Oa EL Val oro JtQ(J)'to't'llJto) EXEl vnv !loQCP~v wOcpQaL VOV'to OV'tOl rnv cpavaQlwnx~v JtaVO'llQyLav. To rp Q a x 0 orp' E'tEQO'll XaL tc bLOJt'tQa xaOLO'twv mrtov YEAoLov Et~ r« O!l!la'ta 'tWV 'tEXVWV amwv 't'll~ cpVOEW~ ... ». * * TIQaY!lan, bla~oAlxw'tEQOl avOQwJtOl cor' cutov XaL 'toy Ivvrruo bEY dxav «etoouosi» oto '21. 0 !lEYaAV'tEQo~ !l'llxavoQQacpo~ (0 <l>o'llOE) Oa wXQla~E !lJtQo~ 0' amov~ roix 'toaQAct'tavo'll~ ...

Auto; AOlJtov, 0 AQX'llYo~ rou AYYAOcplAO'll xO!l!la'tO;EV JtATJQEl JtoAE!lW - xQa'twv'ta~ oto XEQla rou 't'll cpavaQlw'tlX'll XO'llAlaQa 't'll~ Lv'tQlyxa~, avaxa'tE'llE !lE bav't'll aywvlO'tE~, xo't~a!lJta0'llbE~, VOlXOX'llQaLO'll~ XaL Aao'll't~Lxo. KElvov 'toy XaLQo, 't' acpEvnxa tou Ol EYYAE~Ol oveiosuovtcv va XWOO'llVE OE !lla urto 'tl~ 'tOOE~ aJtOlxLE:; 't'll~ AutoxorrtoQLa~ roue, 'tOY MWQla xru rnv KQTJ't'll. Ma~l us 'ta Iovio vnma Xat 't'll Mal.. rn, nou xloAa~ rnv xQamyav, Oa ornvove Eva XatVOVQLO xQa'tO~ xorco coto 'to o't£!l!la ron ~mAta roix - xao'tQo aJtaQ'tO O't'll MWOYEtO, 't'llOaAaooa aJt' onou JtEQvca 0 bQo!lO:; Yla 'tl:; lvbLE:;. LE touto 't' OVElQo, non bEY ~'tav ~E~aLa EAA'llVLxo, bOVAE'llE Xl a'll'to:;. 0 vou; tou XL 0

o'tOxaO!lO~ rou TJ'tav 'to Jtw~ Oa ytVEl 0 MWQla~ EYYAE~lxo JtQO'tEXWQ(i'tO XL 'll ESOXO't'll'ta rou JtQl YX'llJta~ OE bav'to. *

Ebto oW,r)~, ow «AEv'tEQo» - vO'tEQa - ~aoLAElo, at <l>avaQlWT£~ bEY ~QTJxav avOooJtaQ'tO 'toy bQo!lo. H Ba'llaQlXTJ aXQLba us, OTYJV xOQ'llcpTJ, svuv «xaO'llo'tEQ'll!lEVO» ~aOlAEa, bEY JtoAv rou; JtaQa!lEQt~aV, v' aAwvL~o'UV oJtw~ JtQwTa. Ot X'll~EQVTJOEl~ bEV, oJtw:; JtQlV, amobLOQL~oV'tav, aAAa 'tL~ «blOQl~E» 0 BamAEa; - b'llAab~ 'll A!laALa Xat oi JtQEO~El~! ... ~aQ(lAAYJACX, oi !lEYa)"oxaJtETavcxLOl 't'll~ mavao'tao'll~, xi ot 'tOJtOL (rQl~n:;, KQlE~W't'll~, Mrrvq, Na{m;Alo Xl aAAOl JtOAAOl) v1jJwvnv xaOE 't000 !lJtcx·LQaxln. LvyxatQa, XaL 'to 1jJW!lt TJHXV YXl'tLXO Xat bEY EcpTnvE yLn ~AO'll:;. 3nvnA'll0'tE{Jov'tav XaL snvnJtElvCXE a Ana:;, Ol !lJtaQo'll'tOxaJtvlO!lEVOl aywVl(J'tE~ 1jJCl)!lo~'llTlavE'Unv OLa oJtfna. Kat OL «VETJA'llbE:;» (<l>avcxQlw'tE:; Xat AOLJtOl) TJemv YQCX!l!lEVOl oro xa'tao'tlXo rou blCXOAO'll ... ELba!lE JtQLV, n JtQoyxa JtTJQavE aJt' 'toy Aao Xat 't'llv EOVOGUVEAE'llo'll XaL JtTJgav oi mo JtOnOL rcov 0!l!lCX'tLWV TO'll:; ...

Mo, E!lVEOXE 0 Mn'llQoxoQba'tO:; xm TO mvacpl rou, E!lVEOXE 0 KWAETT'l:; Xl OL «onuooi» rou, KA TI EJtQEJtE vc y( VEl, YLa va 0 Ano:; XaOEt oo« bEY ElXE XOOEL, urto t ' a'llya. ~EV TJmv ~wTJ, ('W'tOL nou JtcxLsnvE roue LO'llA't(XVO'll:; Xat 'toy AATJ Jtaoa otn baX't'llAa roix, 0 Eva:; Jtov OXCtQwo£ 't'll L'llVOTJX'll tou KaQAo~LT;, XL 0 aAAo:; nou XQ'll!lCX'tLOEl ELXE rou TmEAEVATJ «ES aJtoQQTJnnv», bEY TJHXV ~WTJ, va <~xa'ta'tQL~ov'tat» us !lla:; xn'tnJtLa:; EOV(xQLO - 01..0 'tocxQoVxLn. 'Eva BaolAELO

* ~. BfQvuQcaxT]1:; - XUElT]YT1'Ilj; 'IT]£ ImoQ[u~ ow Ilovemrrrnno AElT]vcuv. «NEU HIlEQU» 'IT]~ TEQYEotT]l:;, 1874. «EJIWWALlluiu BL~AloxQLo(a» (N. ~Qu, YOl'IlT], «Ioroprxul uvullvljOElI:;», EXC. I", OfA. 325.)

** K. MEVCfAOlOV BUQEloACT], OfA. 376.

* LnuQollljALO~, «AnollvT]lloVEUIlU-ra 'IT]C OEU'IfQUC; rroALoQx(UC; TaU Meoo-

I.OyyiOU», OfA. 113-114. ".

124

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TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

CPT(J)XO, !!E OQLa rtou bEY ~EJtEQvayav OE bnaoll TO E!!j)abov EVO~ !!EYaAo'U TOlCPALXLOV tll~ Po'U!!aVla~, ~ ton VllOloV nou dXE Ta~EL OTOV LavToo IIaVToo 0 Aov KLX~tll~!..· OL «Hve!!OVlE~», 11 nOAH, to B'U~avTLo, va OL !!EYaAE~ TO'U~ x,omaAE~ ... 23 80Aa VEQa, xomOXOQTO, xo'UbLa (YLa TOV A,ao) rtcrtaQo'Uvloa ... KL O;tL aQrta~o'U!!E!. .. 0 «!!aQ!!aQ(J)!!E~O~», 11 «Lll!!ala tou LTa'UQOv», tn «Tllyavo1VUQa»! ... A YVQTEL~, ow xartllAEla ouv O'U!!cpEQoVTa. 'Htov nou XaL TO OS(J)VLXO xaQBEAL ~Tav oTQaBo' xaSllOE XL 0 K(J)AEttll~ nrrvco tou XaL

art°YLvE.24 , ,

Auto AOlrtOV to KAT! ECPE'UQESllxE. LtllV rtQoortaSEla

tou va TQaB~~EL TOV EAAllvLXO Aao arto Tll ~vTll rou XaL ~ !!a~l - va rtEQwwoa TOU~ «ETEQoxSova~» xUAlloa~ rtOAAOL !!a~l, !!E~ Otll BO'UA~ (Iavo'UaQLO~ 1844) TOV b'Uva!!Ltll:

«H EAAa~ EX Tll~ YE(J)YQacpLX~~ Tll~ SEOE(J)~ ElVaL TO XEVTQOV Tll~ E'UQWrtll~, !!E rnv bE~Lav Tll~ m~VEl TW; XdQa~ T~~ ~VOE(J)~ XaL!!E TllV aQLatEQclV Tll~ ta~ XElQa~ Tll; AvaTOAll~ XaL ta~ O'UVbEEl», «Ev reo rtVEVWHL tll; !!EyaAll~ taVtll~ LbEa~» XArt.

QEU!!at(J)V tll; on y~t~;, !!rtal VEL !!EOa ornv 'UrtOSElJll !!E ~(J)llQOTllta XaL artOTEAW!!anxa: rtQErtEL va SE(J)QOV!!E on oxo!! 11 EXEl va rn XQovLa ta !!OvocpvAAa El re rc cp'UAAabLa tOW nomtorv rtQooEcpEQav !!La a!!EooTllta emxorvorvtce; !!E TO XOL vo tonus EXEl vnv tnv onoto rtQOOCPEQEL O~!!EQa 0 ll!!EQ~otoc tVrtO~' XL axo!! 11 a~ !! llv ~EXVOV!!E, OE evcv rtOAL tLO!!O axo!!ll evrovo uxoixrnxo, tll Oll!!aola rnv onoto ErtaLQVE YLa tll bLabooT] t(J)V LbEWV XaL t(J)V OWaLoSll!!at(J)v 0 E!!!!EtQo; AOyO~».

Ito TO «xEXllvo~ tou QUS!!ov» 0 LOVtOO~ !!EtaSEtEL xata !!iav ll!!EQa rc rtQuy!!ata XaL artE'US'UvO!!EVO; OtOV K(J)AEtTll YQacpEL: «avEbELxSll~ tllv bExatllV rtE~tJttllV Irrvouoptou / u'ljJllAO:; (J); !!ta at~All rou ~LO; tou OAU!!rtLOU». L'UV{oXt~Ovtr«; rtaQaCPQa~EL OE OtLX0'U~ rnv ayoQE'Uoll' xaQaxtllQWtLxo etvoi on bEY YlVEtm A.OyO~ YLa MEyaAll IbEa: 0 oQo~ bEY EXEl aX~tll artOXt~OEL rnv amOVO!!La rou «H EA/.a~ EV !!EO(J) XELtm tll~ E'UQWrtll~ XCH Aotuc / YEcp'UQa T'11~ uevoou t(J)V ESVCJJV ObOl:rr:oQLa~ ... / ME tllV rttwmv tll~ tc cpwta EL~ tllV ~t!CJLV ELXE XVOEL" /!!E tllV OQS(J)OLV tllC; SEAEL rnv AvaTOA~v qxunou».

Krn YQacpEL 0 K. 8. ~ll!!aQa; OTO «B~!!a» t~; 9.1.70:

«E!!rtVE'UOt~~ tll~ MEyaAll~ IeSEa:; ~tav to raAALxo XO!!!!a !!E aQXllYo TOV K(J)AEttll» (M.M. Ilcorcuouvvou ornv EwaylOy~ ron crou Turvvn KOQbatO'lJ tl~ «LEAlbE~ ceto tllV IOtOQLa rou AYQOtLXOV KLV~!!aTO~», OEA. xu').

AAA' a~ bOU!!E tl YQacpEL ornv «' E~(J)m rou 'OS(J)va» ow !!E tOY tttAO «H MEyuAll IeSEu» xEcpaAaLO rou 0 ~. <P(J)nabllC;:

« ... Mcoc OE Eva bExartEVS~!!EQO, tQEl~ tOUAaxtaTOV aSllva"lxE~ ECPll!!EQtbE; avubll!!OOlE'Uoav (=toU K(J)AET~ll) OAOXAllQll tllV ayoQE'UOll" 11 !!La xatoQS(J)oE, ,va TO~ ~aAEl ~llV enouevn tll~ll!!EQa~ OrtOV EAEXSllXE, OL UA,AE~ AL yo UQYOtEQU, XQUtWVTU~ Etm ~(J)VtUV~ Ertt ll!!EQE~ tllV rtEQLEQyaa, rou XOLVOV yVQ(J) OTO !!EYaAo SE!!a. Kat rtaAL, OALYE~ EBbo!!UCE; aQYOtEQa, 0 AAE~avCQo~ LOVtOOC;, E'UULOSllTO~ CEXtll; turv

126

127

rIANNill 2KAPIMIlAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

XE 0 KWAE't'tll~, vnaQXOVVE ~E~ata O't"Qa~E~ yVWI-tE~. KnI-tnOOOL VOI-tL~OVV nw~ OAOL Ol 'EnllVE~ lOal-tE X,,[ES; ~ouoav Xat "[QEcpOV"[aV I-t' aVLllv Xat I-t0Vaxa LOU"[a rc "[EAEULata XQOVLa ~QESllxav avSQwnOL va rnv aJWQVllSoUv. Ki 0IlWS; Oxt. H MEyaAll IbEa, onws; rnv naQovOtaOE OtO ESVOS; 0 KWAEL'tllS;, I-tE LEQocpaV,,[E~ LOV 'OSwva xat tnv Al-taAta, 0XL Ilovaxa XLVnlJSllXE 't"O,,[ES; ana LOVS; IlvaAWIlEVOVS; avSQWltOVS; LOV "[OltOV Ilas;, naQa XL alt' OAOVS; roue LatOQLXOUS; Ilas; nou EXOVV Eva ovouo, XWQt; Xalll-tLa oxsoov E;atQwll»·

Av "[0 ~lJ"[lllla dXE IlltE IlE LOULOV Ebco LOV "[QOltO - cereAEvSEQwOll rorv oXAa~wllEvwv abEQcpLwV Ila~ - ltOLO; unoQOUOE "[aXa VaXEl aV"[tQQllOll; KaSlJxov VltEg"[ct"[O O,,[EXOrev LO IlLXQO xQams;, nou O"[lJOctIlE IlE tOOES; SVOlES;, vc ELOLIlctO,,[Et YLa I-tLct ,,[ELOLa ct:rtooLOAlJ. KaSE aV"[t8E"[ll SEO'Y) Sarevs aQv'Y)OljOAWV tcov LbavLxwv nou EXltQOOWltOUOE 'Y) mavcoroon tou Eeeootevc.

MltlJXE 0I-tWS; E"[m 'to ~lJ"['Y)l-ta alta toy KWAELt'Y); KaSE 0..1..1,0. To ltaQO'uOtaOE, ctVriSE"[a, aVLLQEaAloLlxa, aVEbacplxa XL aVLLLO"[OQLxa. fUQE'I.j!E ... v' avaat'Y)SEl to BV~('WLlO! Kat "[wQa 010 QW"[w, eoevo LOV lta"[QLcJJt'Y) 'En'Y)va: MnogOUGE va ~QESEl mo b'Y)l-t0xomxo (JUVS'Y)llct CUt' auto; To 1l0VO nou Sa Xct"[acpEQvE Sa'mv v' altoxOLl-ti~£l "[0 ESVO~, tQEcpov"[a~ "[0 IlE 'l.j!EUtLXES; ltQOObOX.lE; xrn EAlttbE;.

H Bv~avLlVlJ ctULOxgaLOgi,a nrrrv to b'Y)l-tlOUgY'Y)llct IlI,ctS; bOOIlEV'Y); LO"[OQlXlJ; OLLYl-tlJ;. OL OUVSlJXE; nou t'Y) CPEQctVE om ~WlJ bEY VltlJQxav me, ltaga !lovaXa ueoo ons; OEAlbE; t'Y)~ Ioroou«; LVVELb'l']tlJ AOLltOV ctna't"'I'] 'I'] nQo~oAlJ TOV ogaucro; va mv ;avaatlJoovllE oro ]tOblct t'l'];. El rrrv to (blO woav va yvgEuallE v' avaO"['Y)SEl 'Y) agxaLct Enaba.

o KWAEL't'Y)S; bEY ELXE ,,[(Ixa'tES; xa"[aAa~El rnv "[000 arrA~

lOLOQlXlJ aULlJ aAlJSELa; H bllllOXoltia 0IlW; yLct LOVS; nOALLLxaVL'Y)bES; ELVat nrrvm 0 EUxoAOS; bQ~o;. 'OAa "[' aAAa XQELa~ovv,,[at bOVAELa. H MqaA'Y) IbEa, OltWS; tnv naQovOLa~E, bEY lOt XE avayx'Y) alto "[tnOLa! H oQyavwo'Y) rou xQawv;, LO 1l0iQaOlla "['Y); Y'I']; OLOV~ aYQo"[E;, OL bQOIlOL, 'I'] EXIlELaAAEVol] tWV JtAovLOnaQctywYLxwv Jt'l']Ywv rou ronou AoyaQLa~ovrov alto LOV KWAE,,[,,['Y) yLa I-tLXQOltQalla"[a, ava;La va Ila; altaOxoAouv. To A Xat "[0 Q "[WV oxE'I.j!Ewv Ila~ EltQEltE vatuv n MqaA'Y) IbEa. AULlJ mrrourrtu SaAvvE ... oAa "[a nQo~AlJllct"[ct LOV ESVOV;!

H ECPl]I1EQLbct «Auovu;» 010 I-tEAE"[l] rtou bl]I-tOOLE'I.j!E 1110 tov 't"L,,[Ao «MqaA'Y) IbEa» 010 "[QEL; OVVEXELES; - 10, 13, 17 rou LElt,,[EIl~gll1847 - ovolla~E «OCPLV cpaQllaxEQov EQltOv"[a a; "[a OltAayXVct "[l]S; Enabo;» "['Y) MqaA'I'] IbEct rou KWAE't"t'l']. «~EV lJLO a Y v Q r 10 L rr lJLO It Q 0 boo i a» AEEL. «AnAouv JtQoOX'I']lla xaAult"[ov uno E;WtEQLXlJV ESVLXlJV XQolav mv WW,,[EQLXlJV ouoiuv, lJLL; l]v 0 OVVLOllo; xrn 0 Acmvrouo; EV Avcrosn», L't"'Y)v 't"ELOLa alto'l.j!'Y) tOV «ALOJva» NVEL xanOLa aAl]SocpavEta l] SEQlllJ vnOOtlJQL;'Y) t'Y)~ MEyaA'I']; IbEa; uno rov 'Ofkovc xru rnv AllaALa. EIlEl; 0IlW; bEY Sa "[llv altobEXWUIlE. ~EV I-ta; XQELa~Etat 'I'] ltQoboota. Muc cptavEll] aYUQtEia.

A; bOUIlE 't"wga LL AEVE YLa t'Y) MqaA'I'] IbEa XL cutot oxoIla OL mo OVVtl]Q'I']'t"LXOt LOLOQlXOt tOV "[OJtOV Ila;.

o KaQoHb'Y); YQacpEL: «H MqaAll IbEa Xat xaS' OV a~aSlJ 't"QOltOV ctVtEAall~aVE,,[O 't"ll~ svvotu; aV"[lJ~ 0 KWAE,,[,,['Y)~ nv au"[w l-taAAOV "[Qono~ xat ogyavov ltOALLLXlJ; EOW,,[EQLXlJ~ 1J OXOltO~ AEAOYLOIlEVO; Xat ltECPW'tl0IlEVO; "[l]; OA'Y)~ LOV ovbQo; ltOALLELa;».

128

129

rIANNHL ~KAPIMrrAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

o K'UQLaxiD1']~: «To acpaAEQov DE T01Jto a1']IlEiov t1']~ TO'U KwMtto'U rtOAL tLX~~ xataD11Aov Yl vsrru E~ artaa1']~ nuTOU t11~ DLOLx~aEw~. Ikrvt« ta rou EAA1']VLXOU Bcoixetou EWl rtQoaxmQa xat' mrtov rtavta rn WWtEQLxa ~1']t~llata IlLxQa xm DE'VtEQEUOVtU' TO EllrtOQLOV xm 1'] ~LOIl11xavla O'UDaIlCD~ artaaxoAoum ta~ aXE'ljJEL~ xm T1']V bLavOLav TO'U' rtEQl a'UyxOLvWvla~, rtEQi bLaxaQa~Ew~ ODeDV, OUbE aXErttEtm, bLOn uiov xm 1l0V11V DLavOEltm va bLaxaQa~l1 ooov, T11v rtQo~ t11V 8EaaaAovix11v xm T11v Kcovomvuvounosrv rtEQl 1..1']OTEla~ O'UDE IlEQLllva, bLon OL A11aTai dvm OL IlEAAovtE~ OTQatuotru TO'U, aVE'U x'U~EQv11TlX~~ bartav1']~ YVllva~ollEvOL El~ to oQ11 t11~ EAAaDo~. ( ... ) EXQatEL t1']v a1']lla(av t11; IlEyaf,.11~ LDEa~ xm Ea'UQEv omoflev a'Vtou TO ESVO;».

KaSeD~ ~AErtEL~, XL OL mo a'UvT11Q11tLXOl LatoQLxol ~a~ rtaQabExo'UYtm rtW~ 11 McyaA1'] IDEa TO'U KWAEtt1'] xm TO'U 'Oflorvu (YEvET~ma ... arto~oA~ trov <l>avaQLeDTwv) ~Tav ~La artat11. Km YLa va rtELaSd~ oAoTEAa YL' curo, axo'U tL YQacpEL XL a'UtO~ axo~a 0 Lxavba~l1~:

o KQE~O~: «H cpaTQLa aUT11 ESEeDQ11 Eaut~V w~ CpLAEAEuSEQav ~EQlDa rou EAA11vLXOU Aaou, ~tL~ w~ yVeD~ova 1'1']; rtoALtda~ a'Vt~~ dXE t1']V "IlEyaA11v lbEav", 1']~ EV TW ovourrn Eb11~OXOrtO'Uv xrn tWV nrrvtcov xatEtoA~wv. Ta lEQa ovountc: A Yla Locpla, Korvornvn VOUrtOAL~, EAEuSEQLa, EAA 11vla~o~ xm ta rounrro artE~l1aav tEtQl~~Eva Q~~aTa o'UbE~iav rtAEov alaS11m v XL vouvto, ~aAAov bE ayavaxt11m v ECP' ocov EXQ110l~E'UOV rtQo~ lDLO'U; oxoxoix».

« Y rt~QXEV OIlW~ xm Eva~ aAAo~ AOYO~, 0 OrtOLO~ tOV 11~rtODL~E va rtQO~~ xm EL~ t11V EAaxiaT11V corco artortELQav ~EyaAo'(DEatLX~~ E~OQ~~aEw~. 0 AOyo~, toy OrtOlOV ELXE beDoa EYYQacpw~ El~ tOY rXL~eD, on Sa artElXE rtaa11~ EXSQLX~~ EVEQyda~ evovnov t11~ TO'UQxla~. Eivm rtQay~atL E~mQEtLXeD~ EVDLacpEQo'Uam rn EmatOAal m aVtaAAaYElam IlEta~U KWAEtt11 xm rXl~eD, TO rtEQLEXO~EVOV tWV OrtOlWV El vm OVtW~ artoxaQDlWtLXOV, bLOtl XataQQlrttEtm to rtQoaWrtElOv rou ~EyaAo'LDEaTw~ou, to OrtOlOV tooov EmDELXtLXeD~ ECPEQEV 0 KwMu11;, arto~AErtWV uovov xm uovov ELC:; to rtOALtL-

XOV to'U O'U~cpEQOV». -

KL 0 ~Qayou~l1~: «AAA' ErtElD~ 1'] xata t11; E~ouola; buoaQEaXELa, avacpAcyo~Ev1'] rrvuqxrvoov xm uno ~EVWV, ~TO YEVLX~, 11 bE X'U~EQv11m~ ECPO~EltO ~11 «vorpuoxn YEVLXeDtEQm taQaxal, 'UrtEXLV~S1'] 11 ~cyaA11lDEa, Ortw~ 1']AEXTQWS~ 0 Aao; xm avtLrtEQLOrteDIlEVO~ IlEtatQE'ljJ11 tnv rtQoaox~v arto TOU WWtEQLXOU EL~ to E~WtEQLXOV IlcyaAElov t1']; rtatQlbo~».

Exsl v11 T11v ErtOX~ 11 rtOALTLX~ T11~ raAAla~ aT11 MEOOYELO EiXE a~lw~a T11~ rnv aXEQmot11ta T11~ TouQxla~. KL mrto 0Xl ~ovaxa TO~EQE 0 KWAEtt11~, ~a rt~QE xm YQacptE~ ~'UatLxE; Urt0XQEeDaEL~ va a'Ull~oQCPwSd maTa ornv ErtLSU~la t11~ raAAia;, rtOU tUCPAo t1']; oQyavo ~tav ornv EAAaDa. KL o~w~, 0 aDioTaxto~ a'Vto~ avSQwrto~ XOQOLDE'UE to ESVOC; aVE~i~ovta~ to Mrta'LQaxL T11~ MEyaA1']~ IbEa~. ME XatL tE~ toLO'U~ UrtEQrtaTQLeDTE~ XQELa~Etm, xaSeD~ ~AErtEL~, va XO'U~rtwvOllaatE otov ~LAavE ...

Km YLa va IlrtEL; xaAUTEQa oro v011~a, Sa oou IlV111l0VE- 1pW tL ooi avSQeDrto'U~ ~EtaXELQiat1']xE 0 KWAETT11~ YLa t11 McyaA11 IDEa rou, 'E~aAE tOY LtEcpavo BaAALavo va «LbQu-

130

131

rIANNlIT ~KAPIMIIA~

TO 1821 KAI H AAHElEIA

alJ A()EA<po-rlJ1:a oxonouoov 1:lJV ngay~cnWatV 1:lJ~ MEYUAlJ~ I()Ea~» XAn.

MELU, ~a~ ~g8E 0 '08wva~, * ~E 1:lJ BauagLx~ AVLL~aatAEta. To '21 EtXE an01:VxEL ... H xgaLLx~ yga<pELOXQa1:Eta XL lJ xa8agEvouaa a<pLX1:lJXE am Aat~O rou E8vou~ onv X1:ano()l. AXOAOv8lJaEV 0 BEVL~EAO~ (a-va-8E-W-QlJ-1:L-X~!), o KovMAlJ~ Xat 0 TIuyxaAo~ Xat aUVEXELa 0 ME1:aI;U~ Xat ()WaLOU VUXEL ... Kat tEAO~ ~g8E Xat lJ 2lJ aJtEAEU8EQwalJ uno tOU~ va~L, Xat tc nat()LU yVgLaav moto:

'Ioox - ercn - avayvQ)(JtlJ ~OU, nagEl;lJywVta~ tlJv (ngo; rc n g 0, a U v XaL ~ E t U to' 21) EVaVtLWa~ uoo cto xa~w~ata 1:lJ~ «avanO()LX~;» IamgLOyga<pLa~ 1:WV AOYLWV ~a~ XaL tWV (EnL tOU ' 21) oo~ago<pav(})v coto Xa8E()ga~ «()EXUgLXWV» 1:WV Axa()lJ~a"(xwv, tWV TIaVE:1tLOtlJ~Laxwv Iloorpeooooorv Xat AOLnwv MEyaAoox~~Wv, VO~LOEL~ OtL lJ rnnELVOtlJtU ~OU aVLLtL8E~aL orn MEYUAlJ I()Ea - ouv LMa. Mnv, nagaxaAw, to nLotbjJEL;. To '21 ()EV ~tav xa~~Lu uno- 8wlJ ~EAO, YLa va tlJv xovouv ... anagE~<pCtta OL OlJ~EglVO( CtyOglJ1:U()E~. 'Htov ~La UygLCt av8gwnotCtgCtX~, OAlJ «qnmAL» Xat ~nagovLLa ... H MEYUAlJ 1M a, W~ LMa, ()EV ELVaL TO tOa~noWLO~a EXELVO LOU KwA.EttlJ. H MEYUAlJ IMCt ELVaL to a~vvEo8at EVUVtLCt OtOV OXOtCt()LO~O Xat TlJ ()OUAELCt. « ... eEAW va nOAE~~oW, mUAUXL01:0V ~E A.6YLCt Xat av EmuX~ow Xat ~E Egya OAOU~ oooix xa"mnoAE~ovV 1:lJ oxbjJlJ ... eCt I;EOlJXWOW, av ~nogEow Xat Ll~ nEtgE~ cxouo EVUVUCt OtOU~ 1:uguvvou~ 1:lJ~ YlJ; ... ». * Na, lJ MEYUAlJ IMa: ceto rev Maga8wva EW~ tlJv TIL V()O. KaL, EL rs VLXlJOE, El ts lJtt~8lJXE, ()EV XU8lJXE. Lta ()UO o~w~ (LO '21 Xat TlJV TILV()O ) ... tov ~EL()LCtOCtV, tOY EVEnaLl;CtV LOV EAAlJVLXO ACtO, OL «~nE~aXtU()E~» ... TCt aOtgano~oA~~atU LOU, OL EXatO~~E~ tOU XaL OL VLXE~ tOU, EI;agyugw8lJxav coto ta XatEOtlJ~EVCt tWV Xatgwv LOU~. OL ngLv nAovatOL EYLVCtV nAouatWtEgOL XaL OL <ptWXOL rptcoX~VCtVE JtLO uxouo,

«'OtCtv yugLOCt~E ACtO~ nOAv~ ~tav ~Ct~E~EVO~ XU1:W Ctn' ru ~nCtAxovla ... / ACtE tlJ~ nEL va~, ACtE LOU uioou <pguyxou, ()UVCttE ACtE, XOUgEA~, nou yVgl~E~ cero ~UXlJ / 1:gEAAaivo~aL vc ~AEn'J) to yu~vu ~ngutoa oou rc xoxxaAluQlxa, ru ()LXaLCt, tCt VLXlJ<poga. / EOXL08lJ LO nCtgCtnEtaO~a "XUtW OL ()WOLAOYOL, XUtW tu OXUAlU» / OL <PWVE~ yL vovtrn nouALu, EgXEtat 0 XEl~WVCt~ <PEVYOUV rc nouALu / EglJ~WVE1:at 0 tono~, cxouo xU~EgvoW OL ()CUOiAOYOL»

(Ano LL~ «eUOLE~» LOU ~lJ~. IIana()LtoCt).

Ti an' to '21 dX' Ctno~EivEL; OVACt trr nglv, XaL Eva CtXO~ct naganuvw: 0 ()lJ~oato~ UnUA.A.lJAO~ (~La Katox~ Xl CtUt~ - nAlJv ~OVL~lJ) ~EtCtXElgiotlJXE LOV Nouo aav OtUALUgL. Ihoro XaL cero LOV tEAEUtaio ()lJ~oato yga~~atoalJ~oXOA.A.lJt~ OtEXOVtaV «ouvorpoi«;» lJ Xwgo<puAax~, 1:0 LnJtLXO,

* MnauQov, OtOV «Aov Zoixrv- rou, BMnf «0 Ntovre xcu T] BU~UVtLV~ ltuALu», tot) AVOQeu Mopxetou, ofA. 369.

* « ... Ta "f8Vlxa xt~[!ata", wUQxLxa nQLv uno rnv Emrvnotuon rou '21, ovn vc [!OLQaOtoW a[!EOW; UOtfQa cero tT]v anfAfu8eQwoT] croix aywvwtec; XUl oroix aYQOtf;, ~ aQnaXtT]xav uno toue:; 1\uvawue:;, ~ XQTJOL[!OnOL~8TJxav ceto toy '08wva Xat mv aUA~ rou YLa va 1\TJ[!LoUQYTJ8fL [!La xaota 1\uvmwv, Ot~QLy[!a tou 8Qovou» (M. M. IIanu'(wawou, ELoaywyij OtOV KOQ1\aw o.rt., ofA. x8').

132

133

rIANNI-a: LKAPIMIlAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

"[0 JtE~LXO, 'to Jt'UQO~OALXO xm - aQy6-tEQa - II aEQOJtOQLa xrn tc niyxma. Ava' mrtov JtQoa8EaELE xm LOV ~uyo 'tl]~ «xa8aQoAoYLa~» aLl] YQacp11 (otooro aTQallJtouAllYlla Tll~ YAwaaa~ Ila~) xm tnv «xa'tw'tl]IlEVLXl]» JtAaaLOYQacpl]al] xa8E LCavlxou aJt' roix AOYLou~, aLOV xa'tac'Uvaa'tEuIlEvO Aao aAAo CEV EIlEVE JtaQa 1l0VO II sncvcorcon ...

To CE a'UIlJtEQaalla;

To EAEEL VO «xa'tw'tl]IlEVO» - 'UJt08wl] JtaALo'tEQll xm coto tnv TI'UQaIlLCa rou Xsono,

Arto 'tl] IlEQa nou Eva~ av8QwJto~ ~W'tOIlLOE on «c u r 0 E L v u t C l X 0 Il 0 'U», ceto 'tl] an Yll 11 EXEL vn YEvv11811XEV l] j3ia xm LO 'ljJElllla.

Koi a'tl] IlEV f3La IlJtoQd~ va av'tL'ta~El~ au uurv aAAl], 'tl] CLX11 oou, Ila IlJtQo~ aLO 'ljJElllla orexeooi xa'taEuxaQta'tllIlEVO~ xm llA(8LO~ «exntovtunevnvruxoovoc» xm llaJta~ ...

Tov Touoxo LOV waxLaallE, aAAa OL CO'UAELE~ IlELvav LCLE~:

H MEYUAl] lCEa oco xQa'tl]aE oov «xa'taQQax'tll~» rorv Ila'tLWV Ila~. H ExxAl]aLa oco IlJtOQWE va Ila~ xQa'taEL IlE~ oro oxotuoio. H TImCE'U'tLX11 l]YWLa coo JIQocp'taaE va Ila; IlELa~aAEL os cpwvoYQacpo'U;. To «xoixpo oxossro» EYlVE TIavmLO't11IlLO onou OL TIQocpEaaoQOL f3ya~o'Uv ucmo, Ao~aJta'tQ11CE;, K'UQLEAEl]CE~ xrn oruuooxonot u'ljJwvo'UV LXEnxa lluLLa JtQo; LOV KUQLOV - ElCO; ri: rrvco axwllEv 'ta~ xaQCla~! '" IImCl ovtoc; Elca IlE tc Ila'tla 1l0'U LOV BamALa va xa'taaJtu~E'tm 'to lEQOV E'UaYYEALO, Eiea ~EaJto'tl] va JtoLEi - EV xa'tavU~EL - LOV a'ta'UQo LO'U ...

f3L~Alo 1l0U - Aao'U't~Lclxo. Ilou Ol XQuaoCE'tE~ «TQlAOYLE;» * tou X. K. Torrtoou xrn Ol JtOAU'tOIlOl cpLAoaocpLxoL NlayaQE~ rou x, I'o, Kuouicrn.

MLXQO, aav 'vo xoxuAL rou YLaAou, JtO'U av or' acp'tl oou to ~'UywaEl~, 8' axo'UQllaa'tEl~ IlEaa tou oAl]V 'tl] f3o'U11 rou '21. 8' axouaEL; EXEl r.' aAoyoJtE'taAa xrn 'tl] f3QOV'tWClXl] laX11 tou KOAoxOLQwVl] (<<'hE JtalCE; EAA11VWV! ... »), ru rprsQW'ta 80UQLa rou P11ya LO'U BEAEanvA11. (<<'Q~ JtO'tE JtaAAl]xaQla! ... »). Axouo xrn LO'U BAaCLIll]QEaxo'U LOU; orsvov- 1l0U~, otov IlJtallJtEmxa 'tOV acpu~aVE oe xdvl] 'tl] «xwma»aLO T'UQyo~la'tl. 8' axouoEL~ LO'U~ X'tuJtou~ 'tll~ xaQCla~ touvou LOU E8vou~ - xaQCla; JtO'U (Jtaga LO'U~ «a'tnxi~ovrnc», LOV 60 OtOAo XaL ru 8aulla'ta tl]~ MEYaAoxaQl]~) CEV EJta\VE va JtaAAEL coto tQEl; XLALaCE~ XQOVta ...

Ki aoLO'U; a'ULOu~. 'Ao ' toy IIaJtaQQl]yoJto'UAo va 'ljJEUCHm, aOto'U~ roix «IlEYaAavCQLO'tE~» rou KaJtoClo'tQla. A'U'tOl, E~ ... cuoqxnornto; UJtOA11'ljJEWV, aAAl]Aoayvoouv'tm IlE TO E8vo~ ...

Movov on EYW EXW 'twQa ... tUljJE~ a'UVELC110EW~! To'U~ ota8l]xa axaQlatO~ - a'UtWV rcov JtAouma ru EAEl] LO'U~ 8QEljJaVtWV IlE, rcov yaAavtl]cwv cnrtorv agXL tQLxAL vurv 1l0'U - xm f3aAE. .. ME tal~av, IlE Jton~av, IlE XOQtmvav xm JtEQvaya xaQlaUIlEvll tl] ~w11 uou ... TWQa, rou IIaJtaJtaJtlAa, ron cpiAou uou, tc xoxxaAa 8a tQl~O'UV Cla~U~OVta~ 1l0'U to BlBAio: A X a Q r o t E! ... Ova' E 8QEljJav IlE uovv«, Exi VllOE~ TYJV JttEQvav xata tWV El!EQyEtWV!' .. Auttov ovsu, 8UXE~ JtE8avEl coro rnv Jtd va, cpo'UxaQa 1l0U.

TImcla, tEAElwoa. - KAElVW mv a'UAaLa. Tcotervo LO

* Tcilga EX01J[!E T'I] MEYaflt~Aa TaU, «~'I]1l008EV'I];» = coto YAEVTL OE YAEVTL! o Em81J[!wv va T'I]V ltEgaoH xallwa wg[ roc XOToaVL, a<:; bLa~aoEL T'I]V «AxooJtO/.l» T~£ 8.8.71, OEA. 8.

134

135

fIANNIU: l:KAPIMnA2:

nQuy~a'tl, ~La ~EQa ~'YJ EXOV'ta~ n nQusm, Xl EX 'tOU'tOU nA ~'t'tov'ta~ ~aQLU, 'tOU (oto XaAU xa8ci)v'ta~ 'tOU) UQXlOa 'tOU CPLAOU ~OU nanu Eva ... xa'tu tcov a~aQ'twAwv u~QcoA6-

'T' 11 ' , ''i: s ,

yLO.... OU~ eroi ... 'tOU~ all.lI.l{J)~ .... TOU~ mbou~ xm 'tOU~ oa-

sOU~!. ..

KL aU'to~ bE ~LAaE. D-E !J.LAaE 0 naxouAou'tmxo~ CPLAO~ uou nanu~, IJ-E 'to ouv 'tOU MEcpta'tOCPEAE YEVUXL ...

'Y o'tEQa (nQw'ta CP'tEQVlo8Ev'ta~ - xa'tu OUIJ-n'tw0'YJ) uoi: /..EEl. Mou XUVEL IJ-E IJ-Lav a8UIJ-La nou aMva'tO va 't'YJ; SEXUOW t'YJv EUYEvELa: «I' L a v v U X 'YJ IJ- 0 u, IJ- 'YJ v t 0 U ~ rt 0 A U X aX 0 A 0 you IJ- E 't 0 U ~ x a x 0 IJ- 0 l Q 0 U~, Y L a t ( X U Q l ;; 0' au 't 0 U ~ t Q W IJ- E X alE IJ- d ~ 0 L rr a nub E ~ o a ~ 'ljJ co IJ- U XL - a rr 0 't 0 b ( x a LOt l va cp a;; 8 a rr E- 8 cd v a IJ- E r 'YJ ~ n d v a ~»!. ..

TWQa, IJ-E «nnrta» 'YJ OUVELb'YJo'YJ ... 2:xE~ou~lm to «ova' E8QE'ljJav IJ-E urrvvo». XUQL~ 0' mrroix, 'tOU~ EV IotoQLOYQacpLa aIJ-aQ'twAou~ (= 'tOU~ «21 nav'YJYUQLtE~» nQocpEooOQOU~), Elxa XL EYW tOY «8U!l'YJbLXOV» IJ-OU emouoiov, 'to t'YJ~ 'ljJE!l!latoYQacpLa~ roue OAUIJ-mo VEXtaQ. Ano 'toy D-'YJIJ-~tQ'YJ <PWtLub'YJ, tL va cpa;; TL vc, coto 'toy KOQbuto, XOAatO(Ow::;; 8a nE8mva t'YJ~ rrElva~ ...

2:HMEIQ2:EI2:

1. Oi «[ClOl» av8QWJtOl, 1T]V iCta cla'lw'l~ ECELl.;aV, ~JtQoe; OE [Cla JtEQimwoT] - 1 0 V Co 'l! A W ~ E v 0 EAAT]VLXO Aao coto rotx rEQ~avove:; xmaX1T]1Ee:; tou, 0 3EV. AEuxoJtaQicT]e:;, xQL<Lx6e:; tou 8awamou Ka- 10XlXOV H~EQoA6'lLO'l! (OEA. 458) urto rov lllAO «Xoovco. Kamxl'je:; - MaQ1'UQiEC:; H~EQOAo'llO'l!», <011 X. XQ. XQT]m[cT], va, 1L 'lQacpEL 'lLa 1LC:; xalOXLxEe:; E~reELQlEC:; rou O'l!'l'lQacpEa:

«OL xalOXlXO( JtQw8'l!JtouQ'loi xm uJtOUQ'lOl CE ~Qioxo1JV xavEva O.EOe:; oro ~lma lOU. ~XEMv EI.; ioou a'UolT]Q~ sivru T] xQioT] rou 'lw. nc:; aJtoCT]~EC:; EAEV8EQEC:; Xll~EQV~OELe:;. Ot JtOAL<LXOl T]'lE1EC:; xm CLaVOOV~EVOl, EXtOC; uno oreavLEC; El.;mQEow;, nQoxaAovv 1T]V a'luvaxtT]oT] xm lOV ocoxcouo <011. To (ClO xm OL nEQW001EQOL 8QT]OXElI1LXOl uQXT]voi» (EcpT]~. «To B~~u», 18.7.71).

XaAx(&t. 1971

flE ~ava£JtE~EQyaa(a '[QU, 1:0 1975

2. LlLaoJtoQac:;, EWe; va (~E 1T]V UreEAE1I8EQWOT]) JtQwm 01QwBE[ T] 1QaJtE~uQia ... Oi reAElmOL uJt' amove:; xmacp1aoav ~E 101Ie:; «JtUVT]Y1lQLxove:;» oue:; xwMwmEe:; 10Ue:;. Fur va Xa8E1.;01JV tn oCPCPl<mu ... Fto va (Eflae:; 10Ue; urruvamux<oue:;) ~ae:; ClCaI.;01JV «1QWX1LXl'j» xuBaQEvolloa ... Ma~l TOlle:;, xU1acplaoav OL <l>avaQtW1Ee:; xm aAAOL «E1EQOXBoVEe:;» 'lla

1T]V J[(nQLw1LX~ (OAWV uvtnuc) OUVW1[aOT]:

« Oi "E<EQoX80VEC;" (EVU E[COe:; allAlx~e:; aQLOlOXQm[ae:;, 01JVijBwe:;

BallaQoi xm OL <l>aVUQHJJTEe:;), T] aQlO1OXQU1la 1011 ai~a1Oe:; rtou UOX(1)OE xut ' maY'lEA~a 1T]V JtOAnlX~ arro 10V xmQo 1WV 001lA1aVWV xm nov T]'lE~6vwv TY)C:; BAUXlUe:; xm lY)e:; MOAcu~[ae:;, EJtLCEl.;tOL, OJtwe:; ij1UV, xm ~E yvOJOELe:; 1T]e:; "COllAELae:;", aQrrul.;av U[tEOWe; BEOELe:; xm ~LoBove:; urea 10V reQoDreOAOYLO~O, EVW OL "amoxBOVEe:;", OL av8QwJtOL rtou sxcvov 1T]V maVa01aar] xrn UAwvwav, ~E 10 orea8l 010 XEQl MOQla, Pou-

137

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rIANNHI ~KAPIMIIA~

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~EA.T] Xat 8aA.aOOE£, aYQa~~a1:OL O1:T]v JlA.EL01!nlcpia TOU£ Xat aJlA.o·LxOL, ana ~E JlEQLOOOTEQT] yvwoT] nrto roix EJ'tLTl']CELO'll£ <!>avaQLwTE;, JlaQayxwvi08T]xav uno TO ~auaQoxivT]1:O xa8wTw£, uv CEV xWT]yl']8T]xav oav A.T]01:E£ YLa va avayxa01:Ow va unotovouv. 'ETm OTT] YEa JlQWtsuouou EJlEJlA.E'llOaV EXELVOL JlOU cpoQayav tc cpQayxLxa, xru tu ~aTOyuaA.La ... » (TIEQLOCLXO «fwaixa», T. 559, OEA.. 49, IowLO; 1971).

Kat JlaA.L ECW Ti8ETat TO ~l']TT]~a (OJlW; 8a COV~E JlaQaxaTW) ... TWV XEQamwv ~E TL; O'llQE£ TWV: ~XEOOV OV;UA.O TO OVVOA.O TWV - EV A.0YOTExvia- ~EYaMoXT]~wv owaCEAcpwv uou, EVW (CLOA.O'll EXA.EXUXO( cvcueTa;u toix) anT]A.OTQWYOVTat (oav tu C'110 EXEL vu A.LOVTaQLa rou MuvxaO'll~Ev ... ) YLa tn ~Qa~Eia Xat Ta JlaQaoT]~a, JlQOXEL~EVO'll YLa 1:0 JlEQL 1:0 '21 orvcqx TO'll; = TWV «~Lcaxwv - A.EEL - TOU fEVOU£» (KoQal']Cwv, Ba~~wv, fa~l']cwv xm A.OLJlWV OLXTQWV TT]£ moxl']; xaA.a~aQacwv) OE JlEQLocLxa, a' ECPT]~EQLCE£, OE QacLocpwva, OE aL80uoE; <'WA.E;EWV XaL OE xEvTQa, OWEQXOVTaL «mi TO mm» ... YLa vc VT]OTE1jJO'llV EV TW uvn- 08l']vm TOU£ = amwv TWV «TT]A.auywv», ~aowvTa£ xm ru atWVLa TOU£ ~A.l']ta. NT]OTEVOW OL av8QWJlOL, TT]V aA.l']8ELa ... 'OA.OL OL A.aOL ;EQOW TT]V 10000QLa 1:OU£, xcn ~EL£ (TT]V wQmoTEQT]) TT] CLxLa ~a£, TT]V ayvoov-

~E! KL rnrro TO ocpEiA.OU~E a' amou£ TOUe:: «E8EA.aYLO'll£» TWV ljJE~~a-

TWV Toix oav TO'll£ eT]~hE£ «VT]01:0XOQaXE£» nou TQwyavE TL£ 1jJElQE£

1:O'll£, v' aYLaoow! ... OL «8EO'llOavOL» ~a£ - JlOTE- 8a, ~ETa;u TWV ~EyaA.WV avaXWQT]TWV, TOU£ xatata;ow. Ken OTO H~EQoMyLO (xm CT] ... TO JlaA.ULo) OTT]V T]~EQo~T]v(a 29 Auvoixrrou, 8a bLa~a~oWE: «l to d vv 0 U t o u V T] o r s u T 0 U, a U v T 0 L; E V 1jJ E L Q 0 cp a y L a a 8 A.l']a a a L 'E A. A. T] a LA.O Y 0 T E X v u i £ ... ». '000 YLa TOU£ CLa~T]1:OU£ «~LcaxO'll£ rou 'E8vO'll9>, 8a ta JlOV~E n:aQaxcnw. I1A.T]v TOU MErAAOY <l>EQaLO'll, oA.m amoi - OL «EnT]VLXO'llQat~l']bE£» YQatXUA.OL, O1:a- 8T]xav xaTwTEQOL routou TOU JlEQl']cpavou A.aOll xcu ~EQLXO( (OJlW£ EXElvo; 0 taQLXEWEVO£ KOQal']£) ava;LOL TT]£ JlatQibac:;.

W£ Pcouotoc A moxQcHoQac:; WTECPTT]XE ~E Qw~a'Lxa ocpcpi Tma xm ETLxEna XaL ~E A.anVLXa mLYQa~~ata oro A.a~aQa xm A.aTLVLxl'] YQacpl'] O1:a EYYQacpa TOU. H iCLa T] Bu~avTLvl'] aQL01:0xQaTia TOU; ~a£ A.EyavE y Q a L x 0 U £, l'] JlEQLcpQovT]nxwTEQa Y Q a L x U A. 0 u;. (~XETLxa, (bETE cto A.anVLXa A.E;LXa, TT]V xataywyl'] xm TT] oT]~aoia UUTl']; TT]£ M;T]£TO «PW~LOl» ~a£ TO XonT]OaV aQYOTEQa OL TOUQXOL). Ana XUL 0 MLA.ET ~JlaOL (= 0 TIatQLaQXT];, mi TouQxoxQatia£) JlQo; fQULXOlIC:; unoTELVOTaVE xa8E rtou JlQooaYOQE'llE TO «JlOi~VLOV». «I1QO£ rou; ava TT]V fQaLXLaV IEQaQxac:;» EYQacpE, TL£ «EYXUXA.LOU;» TOU OTEA.VOVTa£ TOU;. 'O;w urt.' TOV xUQiw; EA.A.ubLXO XWQO (~EXQL tn fLaWEVu) 0 OQO; 'EA.A.T]VE; l'] EA.A.6.cu l']taV ayvwoTO£. To EAAHNEL!... uovo bWXaTO'll 0 KOA.OXOTQcl)VT]£ TO ~QOVTOCPWVU~E xa8E nou ow A.ao aJlOTELVOTav. 0 Avoueuvovoc umo£ TOU BaA.tETmOU, JlOTE lOU bEY 1;WTO~LOE TT] A.E;T] I' Q U L X 0 ( l'] P co ~ a ( 0 L.

4. « ... 0 TIuTQLaQXT]; EiXE TT]V E;o'lloiav TOU mi TWV POW - Prououov - ~E TOU£ onoiouc 'llJlEVOOW OL TOUQXOl YEVLXW£ TOU; XQLOTLaVOV£ TT]; amoxQaToQ(u£, OurlJlEQLA.U~~aVO~EvwV XUL TWV PO'll~avwv, TWV BoukyaQlOv, TWV ~EQ~lOV xm nov AA,fktvwv ... » (~. KOXXLVO£, T. I, OEA.. 37). Oi (ClOl OL I1atQLaQXE;, TT]V iCLa oQoA.oyia (w; E8vLXl']) ~ETuXELQi~ovtov, bLaYQaJlTW£ l'] bLa Myou, UVUCPEQO~EVOL OTOU; 'EA.A.T]VE£: «To YEvo; TlOV PlO~ailOV». To «EA.A.T]VE£» JlOTE CEV W ;WTO~LOUV ... 0 Hammond Atlas TT]£ MEYaA.T]; A~EQLXUVLXl']; Eyx'llxA.oJlaibELa£, 01:T] oELQa TWV LOTOQLXWV XUQT(ilv, E;uXOA.o'll8Ei v' avucpEQEL TT] Bu~avTLvl'] AutoxQawQia lO£ «AvmOA.Lxl']v PlO~U'LXl']V AmoxQatoQiuv» XUL 1:0 CLaOTT]~a TT]; cpQayxLxT]£ a' aml']v mLxQaTT]OT]£ (1204-1261) vc rou bivEL TT]V JlQoolOV'U~iu: «Arrnvrxr] Autoxpcrtopic».

3. flu TOV QW~U'LXOV 0XA.O TOU B'll~avno'll, axo~u XaL au; JluQu~oVE£ TT]£ aA.wol']£ rou, T] M;T] «EA.A.T]VE£» l']Tav ~LOT]Tl']. ~l']~mvE Yl' auTOV, ELcOJA.OA.aTQE;. 'Otov CE, uno TOV KlOVOTUVT(VO I1aA.atoA.oyo, EJlLXELQl']8T]XE TO «PlO~aiOL» v' uVTLxaTuOTa8E( ~E TO «EA.A.T]VE9>, bEY qxnVETUL VU rou O1:acLObQo~T]OE T] JlQ08WT] (Xl a; EXEl evcvno yvw~T] 0 ZaA.oxw01:u£ 01:0 «Kcovotovn YO; I1uA.ULoMyo;» TOU, OEA.. 51). 0 (bLO;,

5. TWQu 8EA.ETE va ~a8ETE, n yivovtav a' amE; TL; aT'llXE£ HYE~OViE£ ~E TOV Jlayat~o (YLU vo; u; T]YE~OVEVOO'UV) uutot OL TQaym; AxouaTE: «0 l']Xo£ TWV XWCcl)vOJV ooru; uvtT]XEi EL; TOV aEQu, CLaXWEL TT]V XUQav EL; ta£ xUQbia£ TWV aUA.LXWV (= rou <!>uVUQLWTLXO'll oX'llA.oMYLOU JlOU ECPEQVE ~a~i TOU 0 xu8Eva£ UJlO umov£ 1:O'll; UA.LTl']QLOU£ ... T]YE~OVE£, MEL ... ) EVW QimEL TOV A.UOV EL; 't'T]V CPQ(XT]v. E~JlOQEi TL£ vu xaiQETal, ~A.EJllOV TOV VEOV rourov T]YE~OVU, OOTL£ JlUQO~OLO£ ~E yUJlU EQXETal vc QLcp8l'] EJlaVW EL; TT]V VEUV rou A.Eiav;» (MuQx <PLA.iJl ZuA.Mvu,

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«llQay~aLELa JtEQL YJYE~OVWV MOADo~AaXlae; 'tWV EX KWVOLaVnVOllJtOI.E We; yVW<J'tWV uno 'to ovouo <l>avaQU:lnm, i] Ex8wLe; JtEQl 'tYJe; EV 08w~avLxi] amOXQa'tOQLa EJtlQQOi]e; uuttov XaLa 'tWV Eni]vwv», ~E'tacpQaOLe; B. BaAnvov, A8i]vat, 1855. BA. xrn A. <l>wnaDl], «KaQa'iaxaxYJe;», aEA.112). 'Evc«; anoe; ( ... rpuoiovvcoui« XL amoe; ton '21!) ~Eyae; DLEQ~YJvEae; (1812) xru YJYE~6vae; 'tYJe; BAaXlae; (1812-1820) rouvouo Ito. KaQaL~ae;, sxstvo rtou ElXE xaLoQ8waEL o'tYJ BAaXla i]mv YJ «cototn~iEllOLe; JtOAAWV EXaLO~~llQLWV» (A. KOXXLVOe;, 'to 3, aEA. 104). TWQa 8EAE'tE'tYJ ... CPOJ'tLOuXi] yvw~l] ton «xoQllcpaioll» IOLoQLxov ~ae;; AxouOLE 'tYJV: «~WJtEQaLvo~Ev XllQLWe; on oirroi (xoi EVVOEL roix l]YE~6vEe;) ElXOV 'tl]v OWELDYJOLV tou Enl]VLO~OV JtoAv LOXllQO'tEQav uno 'tOV xAi]QOv» (K. llaJtaQQYJY0JtOllAOe;, «EJtL'tO~OC;», oEA. 435). TWQa, av oi ~EV i] ot DE (=at OoJtoDaQOL i] 0 xAi]Qoe;) Elxav JtEQLOOO'tEQO i] ALyo'tEQo i] DEV Elxav oAO'tEAa E8vLXi] (i] anYJ) OWElDYJOl], 'to acpi]vw O'tOV ovcvvo» OLl] va 'to XQlVEL ... Kat ElVat v' aJtEAJtl~E'tm xavEle; ~E tnv mmaLQExaAa ron xopuqxuou lO'tOQlXOU ~ae;, rou tooo JtQoocpEQav'tO; OTl]Y E- 8VLXi] LO'toQloAoyia.

ALEe; yVQL~av 000 sayaa'tQwvav 'ta JtQay~aLa ornv llOAYJ. llEQ' aJt' nuto, EX'tOe; coro 'to on O'tYJv JtaQEAElloYJ rorv ouovrov amEe; at ALyoO'tEe; YL vrpcov (YEvvo~oAwV'tae;) JtOAAO'taLEe;, xru aAAEe; ~EYaAEe; ~ll~avnvEe; OlXOYEVELEe; uno ue; EJtaQXLEe; 'tYJe; amoxQa'tOQLae; «JtAOllOLw'tEQm xm EJtLOYJ~OJ'tEQat», torv llaAmoAoywv, rcov Ka'taxoll~YJvWV, torv Aoovov xm rorv PaAAwv, OWEQQEaV xa'ta xmQove; ornv, 'twQa, lloAYJ trov ~OllAtrrvurv ... AL JtAEov ovoucorru ES rnrtmv i]aav at «POOOE'tOL, at ALJtAo~aLa't~m, oi MallQoxoQDa'tOL, 01 BAao'tOL, OL ~omoat, OL MallQollDEie;, OL Pcurrvtrrvuo (Acxoouc),

'OAOl routoi, ~a~E1l8EV'tEe; ~E'ta 'to 1601 yVQw 0't0 llaLQLaQXELo, ortou ro <l>avaQw ... «~ll~aV'tL~av, EJti]QOY'to EJtI xaLaywyi] xrn EllYEVELa». rEVLXW'tEQa « ... OL <l>aYaQlW'tEe;, rtou srtuv va JtOV~E 'to aQxov'tOAOL 'tYJe; pW~YJooVvYJe;, susvov ornv llOAYJ XL eituv 'to DESL XEQl tou ~ollA'tavoll. OL xO't~((~JtaaYJDEe;, i] oJtwe; anOLCOe; AEyovmv, OL YEQOV'tEe; i] bYJ~oYEQOY'tEe; Xal JtQOXQL'tOL xrn JtQOVxOV'tEe; EL'tav l] aYQOLLxi] cpwllDaQxLa. 0 avoJ'tEQOe; xAi]Qoe; (DwJtOLaDEe;, llaLQlaQXELo xru YJyov~Evm uovcornQlWV) arcv mlAl 'to Eya ~E ue; DllO anEe; 'tasELe; xm 0 OWDEUXOe; rotx XQlXOe;. XO)Qle; 'tOY uvorrsoo XAi]QO, OL buo anEe; 'taSELe; bEY unooouoov vc llJtaQSow xot YU Jtuisow 'tOY Q6Ao rou; 'tOY EX~E'tUAAEllUXO, 6XL uovo OLl]V 'tOllQxoxQa'tOv~EYYJ EnaDu ~u xoi 0' OAYJ tYJ BaAxavLxi]» (I', KOQDatOe;, «~EAiDEe; coto 'tYJv IO'tOQlu tou AYQonxov ... », aEA. 13). 'OAa uma tu 't~aXLa EVEJtYEaV aJtEx8ELa croix JtaLQLW'tEe;. IDLaLLEQa O'tOV EnaOLXO AUo EVEJtVEaV xru 'tQ6~0. ~tYJv EXAoyi] 'tYJe; aQXYJYLUe; 'tl]e; <l>LAlxi];, OL LDQmEe; 'tYJe; SEQoxa'taJtlvuv xrn ~VEOXUV: 'tOY MUllQOxOQM'tO, 'tOY KUQaL~a i] 'tOY MOllQOV~l]; 0 MEVDEAOWV BaQ80AOYJ, OtYJ oEA. 213 'tYJe; IO'toQlae; tou VU, mi)e;, EJtLELX(i)e;, 'to JtuQlo'taVEL: «Hcuv aVtLOl]~OLlXoi xrn aXaLaAAYJAOl va YJAEX'tQioouv ro JTAi]8YJ ... ECPO~OVV'to (OL LOQmul) ~ YJY ES U1JTOV EQE8La8i] xm JtaALY YJ f3u8vmm EQQL~W~EVYJ xaLa rtcvtot; <l>avuQLwnxOl) buaJtlO'tia». Kat YJ E'tmQELu 'tOve:; YVQLOE ue; JtAa'tEe; tYJe;. ~XEtLXa ~E roue <l>avUQlW'tEe;, AEEL 0 lluJtuQQYJYOJtOllAoe; OTYJ aEA. 432 'tYJe; «Em TO~Oll» ro Esi]e;: « ... An' ucpov EyxaLw'ta8YJOUY OQLOTLXWe; EXEL, ucpov EJtETVXUV EJtL ~uxQov JtoAAa xm xaJtoTE ~EyaAu USLW~U'tU, acpov rrQoe; TOV oxonov roirrov wJtovOaauv ru EAAYJvLxa xru tn uQaf3Lxa xor tn EllQwJtaolxa YQa~~um, acpov WWi]8LOUV vc ~ouv EXEl aVETWe; ExOV'tEe; XU8l]~EQlva; xrn xarrOtE xm cpLALxae; aXEOELe; 0Xl uovov ~E rotx ovortntouc AEl'tOllQyove; tou xQa'tOlle; uAAa xrn ~E

6. Onoiu atbYJ~ooVvYJ!... <l>uVUQLOltEe; XUl 'Enl]VE; OEV sivru 'to lOW ... AEV ELvm TO lOW OV'tE XQLOLlUVOl xcn <l>avUQlW'tEe;. KoutonovqQO'tu'tu ~E'tuXELQi~E'tm tOY EAEcpuv'tu ... YLU 1(YUno, rtou taxa 1jJaxvEL va 'tOY ~QEL ~Ee; or ' aXEQa tou, AEOO~EVOll on ornv ll6Al] 6Am Ol XQLOtlUVOL i]ouv 'EAAYJvEe; (Ext6e:; UJt6 EAaXLO'tOll; AQ~EYYJbEe;), YlaLl ~ae; I.EEL «XQLonuvoi» xcn OEV AEEL «<l>avUQLWtEe;»; MEe; one; rroAAE; sxntovt«OEe; nou XaLEAuf3uv OlacpoQu USLO)~laLa, EAUXLOtwmTOL i]auy Ol ~l] 'EAAl]VEe; (LNwe; AAf3avol), OEOO~EVYJe; DE xru TYJ; TWV IEQaQXwy rra~rrAl]- 8vue;, YJ TOllQxu'l (nou XWQle; U1JTOVe; 8aXE EXQWOlO'tEl) XQ(XtYJOE - EYTYXQL - EW; to '21. <l>1JOLxa, U1JTO to EYTYXQI to CtYVOEL 0 llarraQQYJy6JtOllAOe;' JtAal rou rrEQaoE, ana OV'tE Elbl]al] bEY rri]QE ...

7. AEyov'tae; «Bll~UYnvi] uQLa'toxQUtlc(», bEY rrQoxELtm on (lAm OL <l>aVUQlWtE; xamyov'tolloav urto ~ll~aV'tlvE; OLXOYEYElE; 'tYJ; aAwo1'];. An' Ct1JTE; rroAv AlYE; (TEaOa(lEe:;) AEvE Ol LOWQLXOl on nCt(lE~ELyay. AOCPCtAch; 8aaav JtOAV rrE(lLOo6'tE(lE;, ~C)VOY ou amE; Ol EAaXLOTE;, ovror; tEe; un ' t1']v UVWtaLl] TaS1'] 'tWV ~EyaAwv ntAOUXWV, JTQo~Ai]8l]xov Ot1']V aAW~EvYJ Jt(lW'tEuolloa. An' ue; CPllyOUOEC:; anEe; tEtOLEe; cprl~l-

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rIANNID: LKAPIMIlAI

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

'tOU~ avn:n:Qoow:n:ou~ ;EVO)V LlWU[tEWV xm us oAou~ YEVLXU toix E:n:lOi][tou~, acpov E:n:l :n:oAM~ YEVEU~ T]0XOAow'tO xa8' OAT]V rnv ~wi]v 'tWV us La bT][toma :n:QuY[taLa, acpov Elbav rou; :n:AEov Emoi][tOU~ EX 'tWV EAAi]vwv :n:QOUXOV'tWV tmv E:n:aQXLWV va XatacpEVyOW OWEXW~ El~ au'tOV~ bLU va ~T]'ti]oow 'tT]v LOXUQUV 'tWV owbQO!lT]V, acpov 'tEAO~ :n:OHOl a:n:' amov~ ExuBEQVT]Oav a:n:oAmaQXLxu XWQa~ [tEyuAa~ xm :n:oAv :n:AouOla~, xm Elbov roix Eamov~ 'tWV va xmQE'tl~oVtm w~ T]YE[tOVE~ OxL uovov coro 'tOu~ u:n:T]XOOU~ rrov, aHu xm coto ;EVOU~ BamAE1~ xm u:n:OUQyov~, i]'tO :n:oM cpumxov (L.t.L.: sic) v' a:n:o'tEAEoouv E;mQEnxi]v tOU E8vou~ [ta~ (;) 'tU;LV (L.t.L ow8i]xa[tE!. .. ) T] oaotu u:n:EQElXE :n:oM uno 'ta~ uAAa~». L'tT] bE oEA. 433: «E; uuttov, OMYOL uovov ElXov a;Lo:n:QE:n:El~ OXEOEL~ :n:Qo~ 'tou~ xataxtT]tu~. Km 6[1w~ OL :n:EQLOOO'tEQOl ECPEQOV'tO U:n:EQO:n:'tLXW~ :n:Qo~ 'tOU~ O[tOYEVEl~ ... EcpLAobo;ovoav va OUYYEVEVOW ouvi]8w~ ava!lEta;V tWV xm E:n:EL'ta bEY EbloLa~ov, bLU va urtooXEAloow av8Qw:n:ou~ us tOU~ O:n:OlOU~ ElXOV OtEVWtU'tOU~ bEO[tOV~ E; al[tU'to~ i] EX yU[tOU, va !lEtaXELQl~oVtm EVaVtLOV tWV XU8E Elboue; QabwuQYlae; xm ouxocpav'tlae;. Ern :n:AEOV m aQxmo'tEQm OLxoYEVELm Ecp8ovovoav 'tae; vEae; xm us XU8E 'tQa:n:ov E:n:Qoo:n:a8ovoav va tae; ouVtQl1jJouv». 'OAOL OL uno rotx LOUATUVOUe; a:n:oxEcpGALo!lOl ttov «EHi]vorv» Oo:n:obuQwv, nov [tquAwv blEQ[tT]VEWV Xm 'tOuQAov 'tOuQAov [tEyaAoEcpEV'tT]bwv i] «'tLtAOVxWV rorv 8uQwY» 'tOU LllBuvwu, one; !IT]xavOQQacplEe; xm 'tTl bOALo'tT]ta mrcouvorv - OAWV - OCPElAOvtav ... Km mrto 'to acpLAO'tL[tO OXUAOAOL 'tOU <PaVUQlOU, [tae; 'to El:n:E 0 I1a:n:aQQT]yo:n:OUAO~ «E;mQE'tLxi]V 'tOU E8vou~ !la~ 'tU;LV»! 8EOOXWQEOtOV ...

Moe EAqE «E;mQEnxi]v tou £8vou~ [ta~ 'tU;l,\,» to :n:axuAO uuto xT]cpT]vaQElO 'tWV amoxQaLOQlXWV :n:QLyxi]:n:WV 'tOU BU~UV'tlOU, coro tOU~ O:n:OlOU~ !lOVOV 'tT]V T]!lEQa tT]~ UAWOT]~ xm ue Eva uovo :n:Aolo ('tT] yaAEQa 'tOU rEvoBE~OU ZWQ~T] Ntooiu) EcpuyabEmT]XaV (!lE'tU trov orprpeocpa!lEALwv mmov) 27 «N'tO[tlVOL» (=LlEO:n:OtE~) orv toy ovoucouxo xataAoyo (6:n:ou xm :n:EV'tE I1aAawAOYOl xm bUo Kataxov~rrvol) OWEta;E xm :n:aQEbwoE aLT] Bevetotuvixn I'eooootc 0 «LaBouAaQLo~» - AEEl - o M:n:aQtOAo!lalo <l>AwQLavo. (BA. G. Schlumberger, «H uAwm~ tT]~ Kcovotuvnvouaoseox», 0.284-285). ' Ioo»; 8a avaQWtT]8El~ tWQa, avayvOJo'tT] uou: Ma8E~ :n:w~ tT]v 'tEAEmaLa !lEQa 'tT]~ aAwoT]~, OLaV uno :n:oAAE~ !lEQE~ :n:QLV, OUbE :n:ouAl rtetriuevo bEY !l:n:oQaE va ByEl o;w ceto tnv I1oAT], !l:n:oQEOav OL 27 baVtOL «Nrourvoo (us tL~ oxuAocpa[tlALE~

'tOU~ !la~l) va EV :n:Ai]QEL aVEOEL tOV~ [t:n:aQxaQLOtOVV xa'tw uno 'tTl !lmT] tWV ME!lE't'rjbwv xm va ;EcpVyOUV aLT] <l>Qayxla; AlYov u alvLY!la bEY Elvm; LlLoAou: Ano xmQov~ xm XQovLa, oAOL mrtoi OL Lv'tEALXEVtOLXOL, OL MqaAOaXT][tOL xm LlOVXE~ oAOL AaLlVOL xm oxuA6<pgayxOL, xm oAOL OL Bu~aV'tlVOl a;Lw!lat0VxOL, tuxav «CPLAl - XAELbl» [tE tOU~ :n:aAlo'tOuQxou; xm 0XL !lOVOV EUX0VtOUoav, aAAU xrn bla:n:QaYf!U'tEVOVLaV!lE 'tOY MWU!lE8 B' 'to Bu~aVtLO. Tt 8a rou; «aLEVEUE»; Mi]:n:w~ 'to OEAUXL 'tOU~; TL 8a toix EXOCP'tE; MT]v T] ... E8vlXi] OWElbT]oi] 'tOU~; I1La rinotu BEY tOVe; ouvEbEE us 'to [touCPAov~Lxo BU~UVtLO. Kru ma OL TOUQXOL toV~ xaLEuwbayav us tE!lEVubEe; oro !louQayta ... AVtlO :n:aQtEVt~a xru rAagEVt~a 'tou~. Tono - !l:n:axaAov!l EcpEV't ... ya'iMQOL!

8. LtO oT]!lElO nuto bEY !l:n:oQw va !IT]v ExcpQaow tOY unoroomcouo [lot! - xm :n:aVtOe; EXOV'tO~ o:n:Auyxva av8Qw:n:ou - '(ta evov «vorrsocv LEQW!lEVO, TOY E:n:LOXO:n:OV 'EAoue; 'Av8L!l0, 'tOV T]8LXOV amouQYo tT]~ :n:aQaXutw - EV 1jJUXQW - tEQaLOUQyla~ :n:OU aLl!laOE 'tT]V Enovcoruon. o us trr [tavQT] 1jJUxi] toirtoc xaMYEQO~ E;EbwXEV e rt L X a l Q W e; btaxi]Qu;rr « ... xa8' T]v, rots !lOVOV EJ1E'tQE:n:E'tO EL~ :n:uv'ta otouudrrnv T] 8Ela !lEtUAT]1jJL~, OOUXL~ EJ1EbElxVVEV OtL ElXE CPOVEVOEL svov 'tOUAuxLOtoV Touoxov». 'EtOL xru curot « •.• Owi]8QOLoav bWXlALa :n:Qoow:n:a :n:UOl']~ T]ALxLa~ xm YEVOU~, LaWe; bE yuvalxa~ xm :n:mbLu, i]yayov amu El~ rive xaQubQav :n:aQu to MalvaAov xm La xU'tEocpa!;av !!EXQLe; EVOe;. T U cP ayE t 0 rp E Y Y a Q L, xU'tU 'to EAAT]VlXOV AOYLOV» (K. MEvbEAourv BaQ80AbT], oEA. 362).

9. To (bLO auto :n:gu!la, av xru E; UAAT]~ acpoQ[ti]~ xru XWQl~ bLoAou to ow:n:EQao[tauxo vOT][la to bLXO [tOU (0 lbLO~ [tOLU~EL vovm nvunomoe; OtO OTJ[tElo ... ) to AEEL - :n:we; - xru 0 x, I1av. KavEAAo:n:ouAo~, Otl'] oEA. 62 'tOU BLBAlov tOU «Ano toy MaQa8wva ornv Iluovn XL w~ 'tl']v xaLaotQocpi] 'tl']~ Kootvdou 490-149»:

« ••• 0 HQobo'tO~ !la~ AEEL O'tL, OtO :n:oAE!lLXO oU!lBoUALO rtou EYLVE OtTJ LU!lO, OL TIEAo:n:oVYi]mOL - xm [tLAWVLa~ YLa tou; TIEAo:n:Oyyi]OLou~ EVYOOVOE :n:Qo:n:UVtWV toix L:n:aQuu'tE~ - ou~i]tTJoav ore ooBaQu tnv OQLOtlXi] EXQl~WOTJ tWV EAAi]vwv tTJ~ Iwv(ae; (xm tl']~ ALOA(bo~, oao»; AEEL 0 LlLObwQo;), tl'] !lELaCPOQU LOUe; ornv Enuba, 'tTJV EYXU'tUOLaoi] tOUe; cr«; :n:oAEL~ xm OTa o:n:lua tWV "!lTJbwuvtwv" EAAi]vwv, xru tnv

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TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

naQa600T] 'tT]e:; Itovtr«; 0'tO'Ue:; ~aQ~aQo'Ue:;' "amrva'tOv yaQ EcpaLVE'tO oept ElVat Ewmove:; ts kovorv nQoxU't~08m epQO'UQEOVWe:; 'tOY naV'ta XQ6- vov ... ". 'EWL, "T] ~naQ'tT] 80 .. T]OE", 6nwe:; naQU'tT]QEl Evae:; aQLO'tOe:; ~EAE'tT]'t~e:; rou epatVO~EVO'U nou OT]~ElWOE T] n6AT] am~ ornv LO'tOQLa, "vo MOEL 0'tO nQ6~AT]~a 'tT] AVOT] zou nQay~U'tonOl~8T]xE Mo XLMa6Ee:; ts'tQax6ma XQ6vLa aQy6'tEQa: va ~E'tacp'U'tEVOEl ornv EAAaoo roue 'EAAT]VEe:; 'tT]e:; Aotor;". Avuotofirpeuv, ~we:;, ornv nQ6woT] turv ~naQna'twv OL A8T]vaLOL' "A8T]valOLC:; 6E O'UX EMxEL aQX~v IWvlT]V YEVE08at ovcorrrtov 0'U6E I1EAonOVVT]Olo'Ue:; nEQL rrov OepE'tEQWV anOLxLEwv ~0'UAEVELV". 'EWL ~U'taLW8T]XE 'to ~Eya xax6. QO't600, T] nQ&raOT] ttov ~naQncrorv ~ae:; 6lVEL 'to ~E'tQO YLa va XQLVO'U~E 'tT]v LO'tOQlX~ rou; 0'UVEl6T]0T] xru rnv nOAl'tlX~ roix OXE'lj!T] Xat ~OVAT]OT]».

Kat OE ~La naQano~n~, 'tT]v 'Un' aQL8~. 35, 0'tT] oEAL6a 1206 rou l6LO'll ~L~ALO'U:

« ... 0 Andrew Robert Burn oro ~~ALO tou "Persia and the Greeks (the Defence of the West, 546-478 J.e.)", London 1962 - 6EV ExepQa~EL xa~~Lav a~cpL~OALa (~A. OEA. 552) YLa tnv LO'tOQLX~ a~ia 'tT]e:; nAT]QocpoQlae:; on OL Ilesoxovvnoto, rtootsrvuv, ~E'ta TT] ~aXT] 'tT]e:; M'llXaAT]e:;, rnv EXXEVCOOT] 'tT]e:; MLxQae:; Aotr«; Ana naQU'tT]QEl, noAU ooxrto, on - Xat av ax6~T] 6EV av'tL6Qouoav OL A8T]valOL - T] nQay~a'tOnOl T]OT] svo; 'tE'tOLO'U 0XE6LO'U ~WV xa'tL 'to oXd\6v a6iJva'tOV».

QQala. AAAa 0 L6LOe:; 0 x, KUVEAAOnO'UAoe:;, ~T], 6L6AO'U ~acpw108Evwe:; an6 'to 'tEQaonov uuto - 'tT]e:; IO'tOQLae:; - oaA'taQLo~a (493-1922) ~Lae:; 0T]~a6Lax6'tU'tT]e:; nEQLmCOOT]e:; (va EXXEvw8El T] Mtxpornu), XCOQlC:; Xat oav lO'tOQLXOe:; XaL XOLVUlVLOAoYOe:; (oXEMv nQay~U'ta ~OLa - T] XOLVWvLOAoYla ElVaL T] a't~o~T]xav~ 'tT]C:; Io ropiuc), va tnv 'ton08E't~oEl6laAExnxa ~Eoa orov XQ6vo, XWQLe:; xL6Aae:; xa~!-LLa O'UOXE'tLX~ 'tT]e:; 10'tOQLae:; aV'tlAT]'lj!T] (aQLa6vElov - am~v - ~l 'to, yLa onoiov XWVE'taL 0't0'Ue:; Aa~vQLV80'Ue:; 'tu)V uuovmv) ~ae:; - oT]~Elco'ta - nAT]QocpoQEi anAwe:; XaL avamoA6yT]'ta xru aVEv8wa (avEv8wa YlU'tl XL ama 6EV ~ae:; to; AEEl anE'U8Efae:; 0 L6LOC:;, aAAa «Evac:; aQLOwe:; ~EAE'tT]'t~c:;») on mrto, 6T]Aa6~ T] «~E'tacpV'tE'UOT]» rou Mtxpumrrnxou EnT]VLO~OU, 0'tT] ~OVT] EAAaoo, nQay~U'tonOL~8T]xE 2.400 XQ6vLa aQY0'tEQa. (BQE ... u ov~mwoT]! .. Ei- 6Ee:; 0 6LaoAoe:; n xavEl;). Ti 6ELXVEL unto, u naElvanEL, nourv E8vLX~ avayxat6'tT]w E~ECPQaoE, 0 x, KavEAA6no'UAoe:; 6EV ~ae:; AEEl - EXEl ... TT] Aa'tQa tou 0 ooqxx, 'to VOlXOX'UQlAlXl rou omtiou tou, ~EV naEL OL xu-

~naVEC:; va A'UooayowE ... 6EV naEL Ol 'lj!aA~0'U6LEe:; va yxaQL~ow ... H uoxaQL'tLooa T] ucvo ~0'U, xaA~ XL am~ VOLxOX'UQa, ~wcpAaE ~E 'to SEO XaL rou; aYLo'Ue:; rou, xrrvovtce; naoa nQCOL ivo» o'ta'UQt) 'tT]e:;. 'Y O'tEQa, Em&60v'tav oto EQya 'tT]C:; xru 6EV naEL va xonavayav OL xa~naVEe:; ...

Tmnu tn naQanavw 6EV novunouv on 6EV OE~O~at Xat 6EV Exn~w

'tOY X. KaVEAAono'UAo. Ma, QE naL6La, nwe:; va 'to xa~w ... I1we:; va, oav .

a'Uyowx'U6aX't'UAO'UQYOC:;, xU'tamw 240 ... E'tT] - a'llya XCOQLe:; va oxaoco; .

10. 0 l1anaQQT]y6nO'llAoe:; o~coe:; 6EV qxuvsnn va o'U~cpwvEi ~E tn nQay~U'ta. KAElVEl ~anov nQoe:; 'tT] 8EwQLa tou ~aoxaQa (xoi aonov- 60'U EXElVO'U EX8Qou tou) ... <l>aA~EQa'UEQ, on T] EAAT]VLX~ yAwooa ELVat vouAa ... H YAwooa nou Ol XLALETLEe:; TT]V wXTaQLoav Xat 'tT] vcvoioios OX'llepT~ T] Move EHa6a, ~'tav «aXQT]o'tT] we:; 6Qyavov EJtT]XQL~W~EVO'U A6yo'll» ... Ev6e:; KOQa~ Xat turv AOyLCOV ... Na, YLa'tL OL 'tE'tOLOL LOWQLXO( Xat rcroio, A6yLOl ~AErrow, 6nwe:; AEEL XaL 0 ~. <l>w'tLa6T]e:;, 6XL 'tT] cp'Umx~ xa8aQLa ()'lj!T] TWV nQay~a'twv ~ae:;, aAAa tn avaO'tQa~~Eva, or«; AOU~nEr:;, EL6wAa roue, 0 't'lJX6v a~cpL~aHwv ae:; nxouosr ae:; naEl ornv 491 oEAifla TT]e:; «Ioropin; - rou - rou EHT]VLXOU 'Eflvotx» va 'to 6El: «Ev toirtotc, srrv T] yA(i:Jooa amT] acp~vEw EV oWEXELa Ele:; 'tT]v mO~lx~v, nxnVOVWTOV XQ~atV XaL xmaXQT]Olv rou Aaou (~.'t.~.: uuto 8a nEL vovcn xaVEvae:; AOYLcinmoe:;!), 6EV 8a ~TO 6wU'tov va XQT]m~EVOT] nAEOV we:; oovovov EJtT]XQl~W~EVO'll AOY0'U, onwe:; aQ~O~EL va avat 0 A6y0e:; 'tT]e:; EJtL- 0't~~T]e:; xrn 'tT]r:; aVW'tEQae:; C!) cpLAOAoyiae:;». Kca ~EQE'tE nOLoe:; ... ~ae:; EOWOE; AXOUO'tE: «TT]v nQw'tOBO'llAlaV TT]r:; O'llO'tT]~U'tLX~e:; am~e:; Xat xaVOVlx~e:; &OQ8WOECOr:;* 'tT]e:; YAWOOT]e:;, aVEAa~EV 0 aOL6L~oe:; KOQa~e:;». C~.'t.~.: orov

• < Q, 1tOOOV TaXUr£Qa xru E'U'XOMoT£Qa ~e£l.' CPOlTL08WOl OL :rcaib£<; rcov EAA~VooV, uvrn ;wQaoooEl; rorv EmOTl'j[!l;JV EYlvovTO w; tnv a1tl.~v [!a<; &aI.EXTov» (Tou ayvoooTOu yvooOTlXoV ouvrcxtn, 01t0l<; H1V £I.£y£ 0 navvl'j<; BI.UXOyLflVVl'j<;. Tl'j<; «EAAl'jVlX~<; No[!aQxia;»). «Aev - b£ - umlQX£l xubala yl.(iJooa, al.l.a uovov UV8Qoo1t0l XUOOiOl» (f. WuxuQl'j<;).

< •.• Ev toOO~'TOl o[!oo; £YOl 8£1.00 VO[!iO£l mv vsuv £AAl'jVLX~V mv mrtnv [!£ mv Enl'jVLx~v 1taI.ULUV, Ana TL 8£ va £L1t~ "fla8[!l'joov 1t1.T]OLa~OUOav", mrto bEY TO vow' av 1t1.l'jOLa~T], bEY eivru T] am~ xm:a rtdvtu, Xat errv eivru, 1tw<; 1t1.T]OLal;£l; Touto ~TOV OUI.1.0YlO[!O; torv (tJt£QUO[!£VlllV [!C(xaQovLOn;'v xut uov 1tQo T][!wv. AI.I.' av l'j 1taQOl[!ia I.£YT] "b£Ur£Qat cpQoVTib£; OocpwT£Qm", OOCPWT£QOl ~£!}aLa 8£I.£L £1[!£8a xru T][!£i; OL [!£1:U roue 1tQWTOU, srnvevousvor, errv &oQ8WOOJ[!EV 1:T]v yl.wooav, xa8w; a1tat1:d 0 l.6yo<; ... 'EI.I.T]v£<; ~ouv Ol 'EAAT]VE; xru rtoo 1:T]; £UQ£OElll<; TOt' T] xcu ui, 'EAAl'jV£<; 8£l.ow EiVaL 1tUI.LV, 0XL av ru qJUl.a~ow. XlllQl<; va rc XQ£La~oVTm, an' av t« a1toQQltjJow lll<; nsorrrn» (A8uvaOLo<; WuAi&1;, EmoTOI.~ 1tQO; IOJ. ZU[!i1£I.LOV, 13 <llE!}Q. 1812).

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onotov o[lW£ xan dXE 0cp1JQ1~EL - onw£ 8a SOU[lE naQaxatw - OtO 00- q)(inato acptaXL tOU, 0 ~uooEa£ 0 Avtoourooc). Kru OW£X1~EL: «IIQo nurou, aAAOL [lEV A.6yLOL EYQacpov xata aXQL~T] [ll[lT]OLV tT]£ attLXT]£, aAAOL EYQacpov EL£ tT]V xuSa1av». ~XOtaCLxWtEQO£ xm an' mrtov tOY ''LSQ'UtT]'' (= tOY KOQaij. BA. EyxuXA. AE~. EAEU8EQouMxT], t, E, OEt... 367, XEcp. «To yAWOOLxoV ZijtT][la - ASa[lavtLO£ KOQaij£) tT]£ xopuxoxQauyouoa£ xa8aQEuouoa£, EAEYE tT]v E8vLXij yAwooa [la£ xuSa1a ... Na CLaVOOU[lEVO£, va [laAa[la! ... Na LOtOQLXO£ ue blxw£ IotOQia! ... 0 Aao£ CEV EXa[lE tT] yAwooa, aA')."U T] yAwooa tOY Aao. Koi 8a tOY QWtaE xavE1£: WOtE xuSa1a ijtaV T] [lava oou; «H aAij8ELa E1vm, (AEEL naQaxatw) OtL m yAwoom SEV SLa[loQcpwvovtm SLa tWV oU~T]tijOEwV, at..t..a cero rn aQLOtouQyij[lata, tu onoto uovn T][lnoQow va EJtL~AT]80w EL£ tT]v E8vLXT]V OWdST]OLV ... ». ~T]AaSij a x Q l ~ w £ to a van 0 CO ... Koi oWEx1t,EL 8AL~EQWtEQa: «TEtOLa SE aQLOtOuQyij[lata, ano tn onotu dvm y~[latm ru yAwoom tWV at..t..wv E8vwv xata tOU£ tEAEmaiou£ mwva£, CEV T]'UtUxT]OE va CT][lLOUQyijOEL 1] YQa[l[latoAoyia tOU VEOU Et..t..T]VLO[lOU». ~av va [l1]v ervrn aQlOtOuQyij[lata 0 «EQWtOXQLtO£», to CT][lOuxo [la£ tQayouCl, rn [laVLatLXa [lOlQoA.6Yla, XL at..t..a, XL aAAa. TL; ea nEQL[lEva[lE va ' (l8El 0 X. A VtQEa£ KaQavtwv1]£ YLa t1]v not 1]01], T] y~a [lU8LOtoQT][lata 0 x, IIEtQo£ Xa(l1]£; 'EXEL aClxo AOLnov 0 ~. <Po)tLaCT]£; 'Exw aCLXO XL qw va AEW: M T] v to U £ n t o t E U E t E; Ervru avanOCLOtE£ t1]£ AOYLXT]£ xru avanOCOYVQlOtE£ (ceto tu noSta) t1]£ aAij8ELa£ ... IIavE va y(lal(!ow IOtOQ1a xru y(lacpow tl£ nEQlJtEtELE; tOU PO[lnEV tWV ~aoulV, ij QO[laVt~a yta nQocpwanXE£ IIU(lyoCEonOLVE;! ... KL EVW nEQnataV us tu nVEU[lattXa CExavixla roue, xa[lWVOvtat on nOLOW ... aA[lata «sm XOVtw» ... YLa va ~EQOWE! Krn 8a ( ... us to nVEwatLOtLXO t(lanE~aXL [lOU!!) toy Qwtaya toy usiuvnoro: KaAa, T] E8vLXij yAwooa rtou [lLAaEL 0 Aao; E1vm xuCaia. A~LOnQmij; eivcu [lOVO 1] attLx1~ouoa. Ma, CEV [la; AE;, OtO oni tL OOU otov ~OUOE; nw; [lLAaE;; 'EAEYE£ A.6you XaQ1] Ot1] [lava OOU: MijtEQ, XO[lLOE [lOL EV notT](lLOVooaroc! 'OXL ~E~ma. Kat acpou oirts OtO onL n oou bEv tT] [lLAaE; rnv attLxi~ouoav - va nOU[lE - yAwooa, at..t..a tllV at..t..T], C1]AaCij tnv E8vLXT] nw; AE£ OtL amij El vm xucaia;

Tluvtou XaL nrrvtote, OE OAOU; tOU; XaLQou; XaL tOU; tonouc, T] yAulOoa Ota81]xE to XU(lLWtEQO oxuQo [lEO' cote to oaoto a[lwEtaL to mwvLO «xatEOt1][lEVO». Tou xoouqxuou Iorootxou [la; tOU SECPEUyEL T]

&aAEXtLxij rou yAwomxou &acpO(lLO[lOV I!a; xm oWEnw; 1] ta~Lxi] rtu- 80AoYLa rou, P L ~ L X a to yAWOOLxo ~ijt1][la CEV EXEL nou8Eva cptaoEL Ot1] AU01] rou, H «yAwooa» cLaXELQ1~Etm to xQato£, «tunonOLE1» tL~ xOLvwviE£, 0cp1JQ1]AatE1 tn «LfuvLxa», xatE'll8wE~ tL; LSEE£ xm, CLOLXEL tn O'll[lcpEQOvta. 'Etoi to «IIatQl;» us to «IIatQlfu», to «VEQO» [lE to «oowQ», na1QvEL XLoAa; to ta~LXO v01][la tou xm ylVEtm ~LSLXOt1]ta ~m T]80;, lEQaQxia xm &axQL01]. I&aitEQa OE !la; 1] YAW<_JOLX1] «naQ,acp1Jla» (Yla A.6you; X a l tT]; xAaOLxij£ yAwOOOAOY1a; [la£) 1]Q8E Ta~LX~ naQaCO[lEVT], XEQL us XE(ll, urto YEVEa OE YEVEa, uno T1]V EAA1]VlOtLX1]V AAE~avtQELa, Cta [lEOOU tou Bu~avnou Xl EXE18EV TOU <l>avaQLwnXO'll AoYlWtanO[lOU, rou IEQatElOU xru TWV AOY1WV - [la~- TOU ~80u ru.: «T1]v xa8aQEuouoa T1]V EcpTla~av [l E t 0 [l u a A 0 OL AOYLOL TOU 180'll mwva ... Ei Val XWQi; Ota8EQT] [lOQCPT] xm bEV flLAit81]XE 0 t 1] ~ W it an_o xovevcv, outs Xl uno TOU£ A.6YlOU£» (A. II. ~EA!lOU~OU, «~1][lonXLO!W; xru IImCEia» EXC.« Et..t..T]VoEUQwn. K1v1]0T] NEWV», A8ijva 1971, OEA. 21). ea nQo;8EOW Xl qw OtL OE xevsvo yAWOOOAOytXO AE~lXO oAOU TOU XOO[lOU, 1] Et..t..T]VlXij xa8a(lEuouoa bEV xatataxt1]XE oav r AQLLA (ij CLaAEXto;). Movov OE E Y X U X A 0 rt a, L C L X a ~E~Lxa TT]V ~(ll?XEl xavElC; oav nAT] (l 0 cp 0 Q 1 a, xaTa toy AOyo xm T(lono nou avacpEQOvtru T~ «XO(lax10ttxu» ij OL ouv81][laTLx01 xwbLXE; xru 1] «Eonspcvtr» ...

11. Oi VOfl1~OVtE; it AEyOvtE; on 0 IIaAmwv IIatQwv rEQ[laVO£ EX1- VT]OE xm 8EAT]OE xrn EU'A.6y1]OE OTTjV AY1a AauQa TO '21, ceto TO ... nV1- yov curov nat(llwn'A.ixl TOU, nAaVWvtm nAaVT]v [lEyaATjv., ~T1]V nQ~yuunxotntu, OUtE ornv A yia Aau(la X1]QUXTTjXE 1] mavaOt~o1], O'UtE xava Aa~a(lO Ul(!w8T]XEV EXE1 uno xavEvav. ME; OTOV roxscvo T1]~ umonce TOU;, orcou LEQa(lXE£ xru AOYlOL, KanoC10TQLOL xm IyvaTLOL, KO(l~ijCE; xcn KWAEtl1]CE; nvi YOVTaL, a(lna~OVtaL coro ru ow01~La T1]£ l(!E'Utonmia; ztou TOU; (lLXVOWE LOTO(llx01 XUl «Eecootevcsovo,». Ma? tQwywv l(!E[l[lata, T] xmALa TOU to ~EQEL. ~uxa~EL 0 nOTa[lO; av CE ~[ll~El us t1] 8aAaooa; f(VETUl ~aJtL 1] nO[lnij av CE ~YEl xm OTO OLQYLa~L; o II.II.r. Ota81]xEv avnC(laonxo£ EW£ to xoxxaAo. To on XL mrroc

ijTav «<l>LAtXO£» xa[l[lLa CEV EXEl 01]fla01a. MaALOTa, 8aXE 01]~a01a .

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146

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TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

axo!-ta Xat TOU~ Aay01)~ ... xavEl ~QWE~! ('AVTE va xa!-tEl Eva~ ~Qwa~ OTQO<P~ 180 !-tOLQWV, [lETa oaATOU. 0 Aayor;, O!-tWr;, TO xaVEl ... ). No, nOLa ElVat lJ aA~8ELa: ITQLV cero tn nQWTa onOQac'\Lxa £JtELOOOLa (=nr;, xaTa rou AaAalou LE"lc'\~ ona~ xru rou ~OE~oc'\a nov TQlxaAwv l!-tnQa~[l AQvaOUTOYAOU EVEc'\QEr;,) nOAU nEQLOOOTEQO !-t£Ta an' aUTa, Ol TouoXOl nEQl!-tEvav OTlJV TQlJtoALToa Xat TOV IT.IT.r. rtou ([lE~ oru; unot!'iEr;, TOUr;, - 8£00TQa~0l) ELxav - Xl nutov - ~aAEl eno [lan ... KaT' aQX~v, TO [lETQO am~r;, TlJr;, nQooXAlJOlJr;, xQE!-toTav OTOV aEQa. Av ru EnELOoola Xat OL <P~!-tE~ ~oav O'V[lnW[laTlXa Xat lJ lJouXla £JtavEQxovTav, OAOL, Xat o IT.IT.r., 8a ~avayUQl~av OTU UQxoVTlxa TOUr;, naolxaQOL on M~u TW eEW «vouuiorppovouv» Ol QUYlac'\Er;,... A v 0WJJr;, Ta nQaY!-taTu EXTQaxuVOVTaV, lJ TUXlJ Xat rou IT.IT.r. ~TUV O<PQUYlO[lEVlj: K Q 12 [l a A a! '" Kat ano<pamoE va [llJV naEl. MnQor;, OTO ... lAlYYlWc'\lXO nUl~l[lO «uovo - ~uya» TlJr;, ~w~~ TO'll, Tl EUX~ emu ... xOQolbo 8u mcvorov; - JtQOTl[llJOE ... W QOfu! Mu naAl, c'\EV nOAuxaAuTEQEUEV lJ 8EOl] ron ... Av JtQay!!aTl 0 Auom~lxor;, E~EYElQOVTUV, 8n rou analTClE vu rou «EuAoyaE» tu OnAn. Ta c'\E XA£<pTlXa YlaTayavla c'\EV XWQaTEuav ... KaAW; - vc tn EuAOynE. Mo, u Oo yivovwv otcv 012 AlYO lJ Touoxi« Oo; onv xuvn YaTOOUI.t, TlJV «xaQlxwvE» TlJV «nvTuQoln» TWV QnYLac'\wv; ,1EV Sn (xuTa~wvTnvo) TOV EybEQVE; Mnoc; OTO nbLE~obo, ti SCtXnVE; 'EWl, OL YLa TlJV TQLnOALTOa «nQooxnA£O[lEVOL», [ln~l ue XL aHour;, WI' TOUr;, nQoxQiTOUr;, TlJr;, Axa"Lur;" OWCtXTlJXnV [lETa rou IT.IT.r. OTlJ Movn TlJr;, Ay(ar;, AauQar;" 0XL (YLn ovouc rou emu) v' cotoqxrourouv TlJV Encvcorcon, una YLa TO nw; Sn xaTnmyaoouv Tl; nAOYO[lUYEr;, HJJV Touoxcrv. «Arpou lJQV01JVTO vc !-tETn~ouv Elr;, TQlJtOAlWlCtV, EJtQ£JtE vc nEQL[lEVOW TlJV XaTnc'\lW~LV, nnQ' OAnr;, Tnr;, c'\LXaLOAoy(n; nov» (,1. KOXXLVOr;" T. I, OEA. 269). KaL uxouoov, oxouoov: tr Sn E'{lVETO XWQlr;, TL~ n<pEvTLE; TOUr;, lJ Ermvrnrtnon; «,1EV Sn qlClTaLOUTO 0 ny())v;». Erven ~ c'\EV ervoi vu ~EQVCtEl xavEl~ w:; nQoJtEQmvE; (noixpcve) JtaTCHEr;,; TL Elxnv vc XEQbL~UV urto !-tLn £JtaVCtOTaol] onoi: mrroi 8axnvav T' auyc1!-tE ru xnAaSLn; An6 TO c'\LW~L!-tO TWV Toopxorv, xaQLr;, ELr;, OU; noov nUTOl nnvTOc'\Uvcuoc Xat nAoumOL; «AVTlJnCtYlJOaV YVUJ[lat (AEEL OTl]V lc'\ta OEAlfu 0 K6xXlVOr;,): 0 rEQ[lnVOr;, xrn 0 AOlJ~lCtXlJ; Zat[llJr;" JtQO TlJ; EU8wlJr;, TlJr;, !-tEyaA% nm~~ anO<paOEW; (=vn YLVEllJ Enovcoroon) Elxnv nXO!!lJ c'\lOTay[lOU~». Ta YEYOVOTa O!-tWr;, (= 0 AaOl'T~lXOr;,) TOU~ EnQoAu~av: «To YEYOVOTa EJtT]ASnV TnXUTaTa (AEEL JtaAL 0 KOXXLVOr;, o.n.): Tnv 16lJv

Mnotiou 0 NLxoAaor;, LOAtWTlJr;, xut 0 KOQc'\~r;, EXTunlJOav EL~ TO AYQLc'\l totx '{UcpToxaQaVT~~c'\Er;, Xat TQElr;, YQa!-t!-taTOCPOQour;, rou xa'L!-taxa!-tlJ TlJr;, TQlJtOAlTmar;, nQor;, TOV XOUQOiT nnoCtv» - EVW [lE'ta JtEVTE !-tEQEr;, aQXL- 012 TO TOU<pEX(c'\L xcu O'tlJV Tlrrtpu ...

'EWL Xat 0 Il.Il.T. Exn!-tE O,U 0 Anor;, O[lJtQO~ OTO bLxavo: O'tQO<P~ !-tOLQwv 180 ow oaho [lE'tQa c'\wc'\Exn - xru «EUAOYlJOE» tn oJtAa ... IlcV'tWr;, 0Xl OTlJ ... «ALSoYQa<pLx~» Ayia AauQa!-tE TO Aa~Qo, ana OTlJV nAaTEln AYLOU rEwQyiou ttov llaTQwv. Ana TO !-tioor;, rtou 0 avc'\Qa~ EmoTQa'tE1jJE xaTa tou Anou c'\EV c'\uoWJt~SlJXE JtOTE rou, AQyoTEQa, wr;, Sa lc'\OU[lE, XOOTlOE OTl]V EnavCtO'taolJ 'tlJv llaTQa xru tou MWOAOYYLOU 'to OAOXnmW[la.

12. L E Q n rt L r;, - SEOr;, rorv nQxntwv Bn~uAwvlWV. TOUTOV TOV 8120 «WXEJtTETO vo nvaxlJQu~lJ UJtEQTCt'tlJV EV TW xQaTEl mrtou SEOTlJTa» (~A. JtQoXEiQwr;, «Tlovxoou. EYXUXA. llQwiar;,», OEA. 2504). L'tlJV Aiyumo ~QLOXO!-tEVOr;" un~Q~av an Y[lEr;, xu'ta nr;, OJtOiE~ a~lcpE~nnE xru 0 Lc'\LO; ... [llJv nQaY[lan c'\EV stvcn UlO; tou XQLuQoxEcpaAou «'A[l[lwvor;, ,1LOr;,» 'tUW aQxa(wv AL'{UJt't(WV!! Ta «EnlJVLXa» [lUaAa TOll TOOO ... UVTExav nou OmE svcv 'Auucov« c'\EV unopsouv va onxoxrouv ... Tooo c'\E nOAL'tLO[lEvocnrov xrn oav avSQwnor;, JTOU, OTO coro tn MLXQamauxa naQaALa nEQaO[la tou, XaTaO'tQE1jJE EX SE!-tEALWV TlJr;, 'tlJV TUQO (TO 333), !-tla usyaAOUJtOAlJ aX[lCt~O'uoa 012 <PWTO~OAlJ[la JtVE'lJ[laTlXO Xat a' E!-tnOQlav. AQYOTq)(l (<<EV XQatJTaAlJ [lEOlJr;,» EUQlOXO[lEVOr;,) EO'tElAE xrrn «OU[l[lESUOTEr;,» TOU xrn JtUQJT6AlJoav TlJV llEQOOUJtOAlJ, TlJV JtOAlJ - aQLOTOUQYlJ[la TWV «uovorv ... a c'\aoxaA6; 'tOU 0 AQLOTOTEAlJr;, [l6AL~ EyA.mWOE urto TlJV [l~VlV rou Xat JtE8aVE - E~OQLOTOr;, - OTlJ XaAxlba ... AAAa [lE TO [c'\LO TOU TO XEQL OXOTWOE TOV Emo't~8l0 CPlAO tou, TOV KAEtTO ... 'Htrrv OTlJV JtQay!!aTlXOTlJTa Evar;, ~aQ~aQor;" Xl ar;, tOa~lnOWaEL 0 llaJTaQQlJYOJt01JAOr;, o.n SEAEL: «I1CtVT(O;, !-ta~ ELVat uc'\VvaTOV va <paV'taoSUl[lEV svcv Ctvc'\Qa 0 onotoc ... (rou oaotou ... TOV OJtoIOV ... Xat AOlJtCt ... ) ... S' unoooorpououv OQLOnXUlr;, at nmauxa( UJTOAaUOEL; W01;E va nnoqxrotOlJ vu c'\lEASlJ TO UJt()AOlJtOV tou ~(01J TOU w; Aourm; MovaQXlJr;,· AAlJBellr;, JTUQO!-tOLOV c'\EV lJ[lJtOQEL vc XWQEOlJ av8Qwmvor;, vouc nQoxEL[lEV01J JtEQ( rou AAE~UVc'\Q01J» (K. lluJtaQQlJYOJT01JAOr;" «EnL'tO!-tO;», OEA. 171). No TO XWQEoa, ao(c'\l[lE !-tnr;" va TO XWQEOEL ... TL «tn !-tnoar;,»; To EnlJVlXO JtVEUWX c'\EV TO «~lE'tUAa[lJTac'\EUOE» U'lJ't6r;, our;, XWQEr;, rtou xu'taXTlJ-

148

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rIANNHI LKAPIMI1AL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

«ME LOV MEYU AAE~UvbQo 0 EHT]VLX6~ 1l0Al1W!l6e; blUM8T]XE IlEXQl LL~ IvbiEe; UAAa bEV Ql~WOE. 0 EAAT]VLX6e; 'tg01l0e; ~wi]e; bEV EYWE llQUY!lULLXa bEX16e;, U1l610Ue; AOLalEe;. Tc EHT]VLOLLXa XQalT] bEV ElXUV lluQa !llU mlcpaVELU, EVU XEA'lXjJO~ EAAT]VlX01J Iloxruouou To EHT]VlX6 llVEU!lU Qi~WOE uovov 01T] L1UOT] us IT]V PWIlU'(xi] AulOXQULOQLU XaL blU!l6QcpmoE LOV oUyxQovo, EHT]Vlxi]e; llQOEAEUOEWe; 1l0AL'tL01l6. Ot AOLalE~ 1l0U bEV bEX8T]xUV LOV EHT]VlX6 lQ6- 110 ~wi]e; uQvi]8T]xuv mlOT]e; XaL LOV XQLOlLUVLO!!6. 'EYlVUV Bouo» otnl, BQuXW1Vloml, Iocoolot, MWU!lE8uVOl uHa 6Xl Xoionovot»

(f. fE(j)QyuAae;, «Enl]VlO!l6e; XaL XQlOnuVLOIl6e;», ECPT]I!. «EAEU- 8EQOe; K601!0~», 30.6.71).

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LWOla. Koi OWllAT]Qwvw 10 «Y 1 U 1 t;», Furn OL lblOt mrrot Auol 1l0U ullw8T]oUV lOY EAAT]VLX6, EVlUXli]XUVE I!Ee; 010 1l0AU xmwlEQou; lOU EnT]VLXOU, aHoue; 1l0AllLOI!OU; Xl aAAE; 8QT]OXElE;; TL; MT]V blon laxu OL Auol UULOl i]OUV llQw16AElOL XaL U1l0M1L01OL, al!OLQOL 1l0AlnOruxwv XUlU~OAWV XaL llUQUbOOfWV, WOlf vu !ll]V fiVaL bl6AOU xUAoi UYWYOl lOU u8T]vu"lxou sxstvou llVEU!lUlO~ XaL lWV <PELblUXWV l!uYYUVElWV lOU ITUQ8EVWVU; Me, mrrot OL AUOl, XaL llQlV XaL I!Ela U1l610V - EXEl T61EMEYUAE~uvbQo, i]ouv OL lblOL AEllLOUQyol Xl EllE~EQyalE; ['qal-,mv AmOXQUlOQlXWV 1l0ALlLOI!WV, Emorrnuov XaL ~u8u'tU'tT]; ~ocplu;. Ot Ivblxol, OL AVU!llUXoi, 0 ITEQOLX6e;, 0 AOOUQlux6; XaL bExabE; aAAOl 1l0Al'tlOl!ol i]OUV oaQxu U1l61l] oaQxu LOU; XaL 0016 uno rn oorc lOUC;. Tt AOL1l6v OUVE~T]XE XaL ... «xOWllw8T]xuv» mlll] 8EU (XaL 'tT] llElQd) lOU MEyuAE~uvbQou OL UV8QWllOL; ...

'Ecp'taL~E 0 uST]vu"lxo; 1l0AllLO!lO~; I!l]v 'to EnT]VLonxo -I!u; - cpqyO~OAT]I!U; 'OXl: UllAOuO'tmu, 1!1lQo; OlU XUWDI!Um lOU xUXA08WlXOU EXElvou VEOU, rou xU'ta !lavu Xat xU'ta trrt« «OLbL1l6bEWU», I!E u; XAl]QOVO!llXE; XUlU~OAE; tou, EXElVOL OL (w; OL 8wl rou; XaL OL ~UOL).Ele; roix) llQaOl AOLUVOl xAEl01T]XUV EQ!lT]nxa [lE; am xuuxLa LOU~.

13. « ... AAA' UV'tO llQaY[lu E[lEVE ft; 'to vu ~0T]8WOL uovov rou; ToooXOU; XaL El; 10 VU llQO~EVWOLV E[l1l6blU El; toix fQaLxou;, 'to xux6v i]8EAE Ela8m IlE'tQIOV. To [lEYU xoxov, 'to onoiov EllQEllE VU cpo~El08E etvru l] L1Ll1AW[lUnxi] mrtdrv torv L1UVc1.[lEWV, i]u~ xmuylvE'tUl vc xctcllEloT] IT]V EUQwllT]v XaL 'tT]v Poxnov on 'to xlvT][lu lWV fQmxwv bEY stvrn E8vLXOV, UAA' on LO xlvT][lu [llU; fQaLXlXi]; E'tatQELU~, i]'tlC; ElXE bW[loue; us toix KUQ~ouvaQT]bE; 'tT]; hUAlue; ... 'On 'to xlvT][lu bEY i]'to EBvlXOv, route bEY Erl~alvEI Ele; UI!CPl~OAlUV, bL6u Oxl uovov LO YEVOe; bEY 'to i]~EQE XaL bEY fiXE llEQL TOULOU bL6AOU llQoiillaQXououv ElbT]OLV, una XaL 1l0Hol O[lOyEVEl; 6VlEe; [lEAT] IT]e; E'taLQElue; bEY Elxuv ELbT]OLV, Unr'l 'to E[lu8uv y.m «utoi, we; T][lEle; OL anOL uno 'tue; llQOXT]Qu~fte; lOU Y'ljJT]AaV'tT]» (fQa[l[la tou Ivvo.nou llQoe; roix ITEA01l0vvi]OLOUe;, ~A. L1. Koxxrvou, 6.1l., 'to 4, OEA. 47). Totoutoc 0 uvi]Q. Kat lluQuxalw, orr] 0101..48: « ... L1La vc [lElvT] AOL1l0V T] Pcootn us T][lac; ... llQEllE1 vo ~E~aLm8i] 611 a cp 0 U r 0 E B v 0; 10 ~ L a a 8 T] (T] ulloYQa[l[lLoT] blxi] [Lou) vu Aa~T] tn cmAU fte; me; XElQu; ... ». Ana 10 ElllUIlE: ITmbl [lEm~w't6! ... Mue; ue; m ~aAoWE route to; llQaYl!uw OTl] SEal] 'tOue;: 'On (A6yov rou ~Luonxortutou mrtou Xat 6XL ... 101J UV1E8vlXOU tou, omuc; LO AEft 0 bLU~OAOXUA6YEQOe; mrroc) 10 one; HYE[lOvlEe; xlvT][lu LOU Y'ljJT]AaV'tT] EYLVE UllQOElb01l0lT]'tU, xUlmEiyoVlo xru a~ucpvo, 'to AE£L xm T] XW[lLXOlQUYlXi] (mo'tuxlu rou, Tc llEQl <l>tAlxi]e; E'tmQElue;, xoi t ' anu tou, lU

150

151

rIANNIfl: LKAPIMITAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

bLa~oAoxaAoYEQionxa, TOU Ivvcruou, ELvm urto E~1t(i8ELU TOU OTOU£ <PLALXOU£, nou bEY ~uAavE ... nOAuEAaw OTa nQuY~aTa TOV nQoOTaTElJO~EVO TOU (XaL TOU MauQoxoQbuTOU - unou «nmbLOu» auTOwou! ... ) ~wQoE1tibo1;o ... BamAEa ~a£ leo. KUQaT~u! ... ElXE ~axQov ~io xm no·ALTELa 0 avi]Q.

«BEVOL nEQLllYllTE£ xm 0 AVcllVUIlO£ Tll£ "EAA. No~aQXLa£" (1806) EXOUV bLaTUncl)OEL xaTllyoQLE; svuvttov TOU Ivvrrnou YLa E8vLXU xm 118Lxu a~aQTi]~aTa ... Ito ~EQLXE; ana TL; EVEQYELE£ TOU XaTllyoQi]81lxE ana TOV IIEQQaL~o XaL aQyoTEQa ana TOV 'E~EQOOV, rtou E1tavEAu~E TL; XaTllYOQLE; aUTE; ... 0 Iyvuno:; nQoonu81loE va ~oYj8i]oll TOU; CUOTUXEL:; XaTOLXOU; TYjC:; IIQE~E~ac:;. 'ECWOE EVToAi] OTOV x~.i]Qo va qLTCoCioll TOV Aao va nUll ~E TO ~EQO; TOW [t'XAAWV xru XUTW coto TYjV nLwll TOU AAi] EnEWE TOU:; IIQE~E~uvoue: nOL' Eixav cpUYEL va 1;avaYUQlOOW OTYjV nOAYj TOUe: XWQL:; Vl1 nu80uv TLnOTa. QOTOOO TOU:; 400 nEQlnou ano UUTOU:; rtou E1tEOTQE1jJl1V oTlll:l1AawQl1 TOU:; ouvEAa~l1v xm TOU:; XaTEocpa1;av. H nQo8wYj 0llw£ TOU Ivvrrttou bEY i]TaV l1mi] ... KaTllyoQi]8YjXE axo~Yj yLl1 rnv l1vu~EL1;i] TOU OTl1 yqOVOTa TYj:; Bovirom; xrn UQYOTEQl1 TYj; IIuQyn£. Anu Xat OTL:; Mo aUTE; nEQLJtTWUElI:; 0 Ivvcnoc XlVi]- 811xE YLa TO OU~CPEQOV TWV OU~lnl1TQlWTWV TOU, WOTE Vl1 ~Yj YVWQLOOUV TllV 811QLwCil1 TOU AAi], rrot: bEV UQYYjOE Vl1 OTQacpi] xcn EvaVTLOV TOU LbLOU TOU ~llTQonoAlTYj» (l:.T.l:.: 'Ioox YLaTl 8a TOV XaTUXAE1jJE OTOU:; CPOQOU£! .. ) (I.M. XaT~YjCPWTYj;, ECPll~. «NEa IIoAlTELa», 7.3.71). Tl1 uc- 0ll~Eva TOU «l1UnQwTi]» TOU mo Ill1UQOll av8Qwnou TOU '21 ~a;, stvoi nLO EUYAwTTa l1no TllV LCLa TYjV aAi]8ELa. 0 lyvuno; OTu8YjXE TO mo OUVELbllTO TOU aywva nQobOTOIlOUTQO. l:TOV 20 TO~O (xoi OTOU£ «TcAaTubE;» uou) 8u YLVEL oAocpuvEQo. *

Ana TL; CPWTOYQUCP1E:; I;l1VayUQwE OTO T~i]~l1. Ana 'XEL ni]YE a' EVU xorpevao onou xu~ouv mTi]OELe:. Ano TO xacpEVELO, E1tELbi] EAELTCE 0 "ruT1l0U;", TOV EOTELAUV 0' EVl1 uAAO xorpsveio "onou ~Qi]Xl1 TOV XUQLO". o "XUQLO; ~E TL; aLTi]oEL;" TOV EOTELAE OTO nEQLnTEQo v' l1yoQuOll buo xaQTooll~l1. Ana TO nEQLJtTEQO ni]YE OTO TQlTO nUTW~l1. Ken 'XE1 TEAELWOE II TaAmnwQ1a TOll, bLOTL TOTE ~Qi]XE TOV UQ~OCLO UOTUVO~lXO, 0 onotoc TOV EnAllQOCPOQYjOE on ~OVOV ~CTU TO nQWTO EI;U~llVOV Tll:; nrrQa~ovi]£ TOU OTllV EAAuCu unOXQwmm vc Qu8~LOll TO 8E~l1. "MEXQL Tll; 61le: IouvLOU EL08E EV TUI;EL". 'HTO EV TUI;EL, UAAU EnEQL~EVE OE CLUCPOQE:; OUQEe: xu~nOOE:; WQE:;, wonou Vl1 TO bLamOTWOll. Tmrtu ~OU YQUCPEL» (ana ru « Y no rnv OXLUV Tll; AXQonoAEw<;» TOU x, ftuVVll MaQi], ECPll~. «Axoonox«;», 9.6.71).

14. «Botoxorov ow XWQLO MWOXWQl EU~OlU:;, tono TYj; YEVVi]OEW; TOll. IIEQl10E 0 oorevouo; TYj; Kl1QUOTOU, TOV gWTYjOE nocov xmQo EXEl OTllV EAAuCl1, TOU ELnE TEOOEQL; ~i]VE:; Xl 0 (WTW~O:; TOU OUVEOT1l0E:

IIQEnEL vo; XaTl1YQUcpi]TE OTO "unobl1nwv". 0 E1tWTOAOYQUCPO:; ~OU yUQWE OTOV IIELQmu, onou CLU~EVEL nQooWQl vc xrn E1tWXEcp81lXE TO UOTWO~LXO T~i]~u Tll:; nEQLqJEQELa; TOU. Ano TO T~i]~U TOV EOTELAUV OTO T~i]~u "AnoCunclJV". Ano 'XEL OTllV XEVTQlXi] ClEU8woYj Tll:; AOTUVO~Ll1:;. Ano 'XE1 nUAL OTO T~i]~U AAAObmtwv, "OTOV om08Ev bQo~ov, TQlTO nUTw~u". Aao 'XEL "XUTW OTO nUQxo" Vl1 ~yuAEL qJWTOYQl1qJlE:;.

15. BE~mu, oAiyov TL ... «l1V8UYLELVOV» yLl1 TOU£ AOYW)TUTOU<:; ~a<:; TO 8E~u. IIEQL nonOU EX~EVOL Tll<:; WUTWV ~aXl1QLOTllTm; CEV (OOOE XUV uno nEQLEgYEL(1) EUXU1jJav nuvw ceto Tll OXOTElVi] uno8wll totrtr]: Ium o Y1Jll1AUVTll£ (XaTOUULl1V Yj <PLALxi]) TOV UXOTlJ.lOE; BOAEuovTm ~Ll1 xaQu fIE TO «xAwE» Tll<:; «AL8oYQucprl~l1TOUoU<:;» IOTOQll1£ (=QcI)Tl1 xm TOV ~nuQ~nu uou TOV ljJEUTll ... ) on 0 BAuCL~YjQEOXOU EQWTOTQonOUOE ~E TOU£ Touoxouc, on OL XQLOnl1VoQOU~UVOL onAaQXllyol l:u~~l1;, ~EAi]~nl1oll:; XaL TOOAUXll<:; nQooxwQ1l0l1V OTOU£ TouQxou<:;. BEXVUV o~w:; on TOTE clXE XLVllTOnOl1l8EL 0 ~YjxaVLU~o<:; Tll<:; nuoa£ l1VTLCQaoll<:;: II unoxi]QUl;ll TYj:; EnavuoTa0ll:; uno TOV AAEI;l1VCQO, 0 l1CPOQLO~O<:; TOU IIaTQlUQXT], xru II EnL roaou XaTUCPTa0ll TOU nl10U TT]<:; BQl11Al1; IIEQxoqJWUAYj, TOU nl10U TT]:; l:lAWTQLU:; l:EAi]~ MEX~ET xru TOU ~EQ~L:; nuou TOU BlCLVlOU. 0 OAu~mo:; TOV BAuCL~YjQEoxou TOV 8EWQOUOE UVCQU TL~LOV xrn CEV i]TaV CUVaTOV va, yLU rnv TL~LOTllTU TOU, u~CPL~UAAEL. (~. KOXXLVO£, T. I., OEA. 191). Tnv EYYQl1qJll 0WqJWVLU nou ElXE XU~EL OTO Bouxouoso'n ~E TOV OAu~nLo (ll~EQo~llvia TOU «OWCPwvllTLxou», 27 ~EXE~~QT] 1820) VU UVUOTaTWOEL TT] BAl1Xll1, 0 BAl1CL~llQEoxou TllV CTi]Q1loE: IIQuY~aTL, Eu8u£ us Tll bLU~OT] TOU IIQou80u urto TOV Y1Jll1AuVTYj 0 BAuCL~T]QEoxou mavaOTuTlloE Tll BAuX1a xm OXYj~UTWE OTQaTO uno 7.000 EvonAou:; IIuvCouQou; (=BAuxou:; l1YQOTE:;) TE8EVTa a~Eou»; uno TL; CLaTaYE:; TOll Y1jJllAUVTll. Me ... ~U ... 8u ~OU now OL AOYLwTaTOL, 0 BAuCL~llQEoxou «TUXE xUAu» ~E TOV oOllATuvo. AUTO CEV i]TaV nQoCooLa;

152

153

lIANNfIT LKAPIMI1AL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

Ma ... fla ... 8a 'WU\; nco Xt EADYOU uou, aXQL~W\; auto ELXE otuqxovn- 8EL, !lEOa OTO EYYQacpa Tl]\; 27l]\; ~EXE!l~Ql] ue TOV OAvflmo: «Kcrc Tl]V O'UflcpWVLav autljv 0 BAabq.ll]QEOXOU unEOXETO nLOTLY EL\; Tl]V <PtALXljV EmLQELav Xat on 8a aVWTaTWVE T1jV MlxQav m.axiav orov Sa EAaflBaVE EVTOAljv. ElXE OUflCPwv1j8ljbta AOyoU\; OXOJtl!lOT1jTO; va utjJWOl] 0 BAabtfll]QEOXOU Ol]!laLav 6xt XaTa tou ~OUATaVOU, ana XaLa rou xa- 8WTWTO\; TWV EAAljvwv l]YEflOVWV Xat TWV nAOUOLWV BOYLaQWV Ota VU naQaovQl] TOV Aaov xru va fll] nQoxAl]8lj aflEOW; TOUQXtX~ mi8wl:;. 0 OAVflntO\; ljmv unoxgEwflfva; va LOU naQEX1'J bta LOVLO OTQanwm:;» (~. KOXXLVO;, T. 1., OEA. 219).

[lOLO oUflnEQaofla ByaivEL an' oAa toirtn;

10': 'On (XaLa m Y Q n n r W :; OUflCPCllVl]8EVW) l] maVaOTUOl] LOU BAaOt!ll]QEoxau 8aTaV smtom«, XOLVCIlVLX~, Xat 0Xl XaTa TOU ~ouhavou ... KaSaga aUTO LO AEVE at ~EVOl ouyygacpd;, a/J.a xat a btxo:; flU:; o Koxxivoc (o.n., T. 1., OEA. 190) OEV naEL :rrLOW: «0 8EObCllQo:; BAabt!ll]QEOXOU EiXEV avaOTaTWOEL Tl]V BAaxiav bLa XlVT]!laTO; Ef:lVlXOXOtVWVtXOV, oTQEcpaflEvou XaTa TCIlV <l>avaQtCllTWV l]YEflOVCIlV xru EVTOnLCIlV aQXOVWlV, xa8w\; Xat TOU <l>EOubaALxav xa8wTCinoc; ... ».

20: 'OTt, OXt atJT()\;, ana a OAVflma; Sa LOU :rruQE1XE oTQanwTE:;. 30: 'On YLa va LOV nQoOETatQLOTEi l] <l>LAlXT] (:rrQO\; LO Yla va Xa!lEl Tl] bouAELa Tl]\;) LOU naQaOTl]OE nw\; xru l] bLXT] Tl]::; maVaOTaOl] JtCtQa nou, xat EVaVTta OTOV ~ouATaVO, 8a T]Tav E:rriol]; XOLVCIlVLXi] ...

Ilococ - WOTE - E~anamE TOV anOV; EXaLO TOt::; EXaLO l] <PtALXi].

KL OLaV autlj EiOE on 0 BAaOL!ll]QEOXOU OEV - TE/.ELWUXa - EflnatVE OTl] cpaxa (bEV TOXE oxono va nOAEflT]OEL l] BAaXlCt Yla va Tl]::; xaWOUV mo xaAa OTOV OBEQXO oi <l>avaQLwTE;) bLam~E LOV Y\j!l]AaVTl] Xat TOV oxoTwoav ...

Amlj Ei Vat l] flavQl] aAi]8ELa ... Ana Ol «OUVabEAcpaL» uou (ot TaXa LOTOQLXO( rou '21) Tl]V EXOUV ~EYQa<l'EL an' rn XaQua TOU::;. OL OE aAAm, at AaYLwmTOl, bE cxov Tl] ~axaQEVLa LOU::; YLa TETOLa - nQay~taW, onw::; nQaELna ... «aV8UYLa» yta u; xaQtTCIlflEVE::;v:rraQ~E:; TaU\; ... ~LOV 20 TOflO (xoi OTOU::; «faAaLabE::;» uou) 8a lJJtaQ~OlJV nEQloooTEQa xu- 8fXaOLa.

YQafl~tEva OTOU\; LOoAoYLO!laV\; Tl]::; <PtALXlj;; H uno8wl] E~QwflaE. 'O~EE oixaoaotnor], E~EXVE OCPETEQtO!lO uno TOU::; «<PtALXaETatQLTE::;» TWV LEQWv AEcpLWV YLa TOV aywva. To «!lUOTLXO» ETQEXE OTOU::; bQOtt0u\;. 0 faAaTl]; (!lEya «<PtAlXO» OTEAEXO; TlJ; ELaLQELa::;) TO ~QavTOcpwva~E TWV LblWV xaTanQoowno xru OTt::; HYE!lOviE;, orov TOV xuvljYl]oav, Xat onou XaTacpuYE - :rrQocpavw::; YLa va OWOEL Tl] ~wlj rou, EnLTEAaU\;, nnQa:rrAavljOaVTa; TOV, TOV baAocpOvl]Oav (bta XELQO::; rou ~lJ!ll]TQonauAau) OTlJV EQ!lLOVlJ.

~XETLXa !AE La naQanavw, naQa8ETw bwca tn !lEQtXa naQaXaTW urto TlJV ELoaywyi] TOU X. 1. A. MEAETo:rrOUAau, EnL rou IIavaYLWLOU ~EXEQlJ - !lEYaAau XQl]!laLOMTl] LOU aywva (~A. Xat ECPl]!l. «To Bljfla» Tlj::; 7.1.1968).

«AQL8. 21 (nQo; LOV E!l!l.3av80) IO!lai]A

12 Iouvtou 1819

KVQtE 3av80, OE aOna~O!lat

16. EXTO\; an' aUTO, TL 8a yL vorovs ue tn «fl uonxa xovMAla» (YQaCPE TL::; QEf-LOVAE::;) TWV ELOCPOQWV LOU IIavEnljvLOu, Ta (anWOTE) XaL £yYE-

ME TOVTl]V rnv nocrov YQa!l!la bEY EAa~a OmE cero WE oirts ceto TOV xUQ II.A. ElSE va Eioat !lLOEWEVO\; bLa TO XQEOC; oou, ELbE XaL nEQLCPEQWaL flEVCIlV uutou aAAOL!lavov EL\; euevo, onoe mLOTEUoa Ta::; uno- 0XEOElC; oac; ... Errv flE aXaVaLE onou oac; dna va !lLOEVOETE Ebw8EV bta TOU AQXLJtEAayouC; lj8EAE OTa8lj O'UVTOWinEQov nAlJv m YLV()!lEva oux anOyLvOVTaL. K<4-tE va !lLOEOOlJC;, &0. ovouo 8£OV, Iliav wQav nQwMEQa XaL!ll] ~l]TTj::; va EcpobLa08T]\; us tn XaJtlTaALa rou Mcooou, ana oixovounoo» ECIl; va cp8aolJ::; n::; rov ronov ue ooo OALywTEQa bUVl]8Tjc; Xat av EJtlTVxl]C; TlJV 8EAl]OLV xru ngomaoiav LOU EUEgYEnxov (Ioxrv, KcnOCLOTQiou), TOTE EUQioxnc; xru au XaL £yO) Xat Xa8E aAAOC; OAa::; Ta\; EUxaALa::; EtCE xru anOTVXl]\; v' anEAJtl080v!lEV. Eyw anat:'Cl]oa nAtav mELcTj OOU ELVat YVWOTa tn 60a EXW ooouevo, Xat bEV uou !lEVEL Mva!lLC; nAEov v' av8E~w, 0XL ELC; Ta::; un08EoEL\; Tl]::; ouvTQocpiac;, an' OVTE n::; LO flEQlXOV TWV E~obwv uo» Xat nAEOV l] a!laQTia !-tEVEl EtC; TOV Aat!-tOV oou Cl' on AEinn::; coro TO E!-tJtlOTEU8EV XQEOC; oou, TO' onotov omv 8EAl]\; lJflnoQEl\; va TO EXTEAEOl]\; Xat!lE aMya T] xcu cavEl~6flEVOC; Eva !lE-

154

155

rIANNlIT LKAPIMIIA2:

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

»

1.500

'OJ'tW\; ~A.EJ'tETE, xaT<l XLAlabE\; tn YQoma (EXELVOU TaU XatQOU! ... ) OTL\; TOEJ'tE\; TWV avciHEQWV xcn [HOOaVOHEQWV OTEAEXWV TT]\; cl>tALXTj\;.

Kat AEEL a x. MEAETOJ'tOUAO\;:

«EVTL[.tOl aAA' aXaTOVO[WOTOL - us TT]V EVVOLa TaU aYVWOTOL xru aOT][WL - Tjoav, XaTa TOV K. naJ'taQQT]YOJ'tOUAO, OL avSQWJ'tOL J'tOU ESEXl vnoov OTa 1814 TT]V [.tqaA T]v E8vtxTjv UJ'toSwT] TT]\; cl>tAtxTj\; ETatQEla\;. Kat o[.tWC;, J'tQOOSETEL a LOTOQtXO\; TaU EAAT]VLXOU 'Edvotx, OL avSQwJ'tOL nutot EJ'tETUXOV TaU OXOJ'tOU, J'tQO J'taVTWV [.tEV btOTt aVTaJ'tExQLvOVTO EtC; Tac; J'tQOatQEOELC; TaU 'Ebvouc, aAAa J'tQOOETt bLon EJ'tOALTEUST]oav nc; TQOJ'tOV [.taQTuQouvTa OTt bEY Tjoav a[.tOLQOL EJ'tLTT]bELOTT]ToC;. TT]v "El'tLTT]bnoTT]Ta" aUTTjv TWV cl>tALXWV EQXETat v' aJ'tobELST], uOTEQa ceto too« XQOVLa, TO AQXElov TOU navaytWTT] ~EXEQT], TO OJ'tOLOV ESEbwOE J'tQoocPaTa a x, 1. A. MEAETOJ'tOUAOC; 0' evov TO[.tO cero 176 oEALbEC;» (o.rt., «To BTj[.ta», 7.1.1968).

AAAa TETOLa J'tQaY[-taTa oav TU J'taQaJ'tavw, El Vat «1j!tAa YQa[-t[.taTU» YLa TOUC; «aEQoSEAoxauYaT~TjbEC;» LOTOQLObLcpEC; [.tac;. Iloouuuv va «1j!wvL~OUV» Ta «oTOLXEla» TOUC;, uno TO LOTOQLX6 ETOL[.taT~Lbtxo Xat uno ... TlC; 0XETLXEC; TOlYXOY(;JaCPlEC;». Tooo bE XL OL LbLOL ELVat «ETOL[-tOL» J'tOU Evac; TETOLOC; «aEQoSEAoxaUYaT~Tj\;» TT]C; lOTOQLac;, EJtlXQL VOVTac; [.tOU ro ~L~Ma uou «<To '21 Xat T] aATjSELa» - lac; Xat 20C; TO[-tOC;) aAAa [.tT]v EXOVTae; TU xnv bLa~aoEL, (!!) EXEL OTO J'tEQtobLx6 <<IoTOQLa», T. 81 TOU 1975 OTT] OEA. 78, [.tae; TU AEEt EVTOC; ELoaywytXWV OXt us TO «~acpTlonXO» TOUC; OVO[la: «To '21 xcu T] aATjSEla» aAAa «AAT]SLVTj 10ToQLa TT]C; EAAT]VLXTjC; EJ'taVaOTaOEWC;».

Tooo xru TOmOe; 0 LOTOQlT~TjC; TOU '21 [.tac; ELVat [.tEAETT]Q6C; Xt EQEUVT]TTjC;, J'tou outs TOUC; XaTT]YOQT][.taTlXOUC; TL TAOUe; TWV ~t~MWV uou, bEY J'tQ60ESE! ~TOUC; EJ'tt SUQatc; «faAaTabEC;» uou Sa uJ'taQSouv J'tOAU J'tEQLOooTEQa. (Tpuqxo OTO 1975).

QOC; El'tavw ELe; TOV suutov oou bLa lbL6v oou XQEOC; EWe; va cpSaoT]C; Xat cpSavwv EtC; TOV TOJ'tOV bEY U[.tcptj3aAAw OTt SEAEL EUQT]e; owe; Tac; EUXoMac; us T11v bwa[.tLv TWV OUOTaTtXWV oou, AbEAcpE, TEooaQEC; axo[.tT] EXlVT]oav Xat SEAOUV va rtuv onou EblwQLoST]C; au, AOLJ'tOV J'tQtV cpSaoouv auTOL Xat btacpSaQouv tn J'tQaY[.taTa EXEL va &0. tc oxoto J'tT]ya£ VELC;, [.tLOEUE, bt' ayaJ'tT]v E>EOU, OOOV OUVTO[-tWTEQOV, bta va J'taQW[-tEV [.tETQa Xat va J'tQocpSaoSoU[.tEV EtC; TOV aAAOV, El'tELbTj [.tE El'tTjQaTE Ete; TOV W410V oae;.

E>EAELC; va EXW TT]V cpQoVTlba TT]C; cpa[.tlAtae; oou, TT]V oxourv SEAEl TT]V EXW OOOV aVTEXW, bEY El Vat bLxatov o[.twe; va EXT]C; xrn au TT]V amTjv EyvOLav bta TT]V EtblxTjv uou cpa[-tLAtaV, TT]V onoinv, xaSwc; CPEQWSE, SEAEL us Xa[.tETE va TT]V acpTjow ELC; TOUC; J'tEVTE bQo[.touC;; Kouvco TEAOC; xru oac; ~E~atW on bta Ebw unv CPQOVT(~T]e;, EJ'tEtbTj oAa ouv E>EW J'tT]yalvouv xaAa Xat T] ~aOLC; [-tEVEL va YLVT] uno TT]V aSLoTT]Ta OOU»

(Tlovcvunrn; ~EXEQT]C;)

Na bwoT] Mnlou

1818 H <l>LAlXTj ETaLQEla

5 rooo E[.tETQT]oa TW navaYLOJTT] A vayvw-

OTOJ'tOUAW ue aJ't6bnsLv.......................... YQ. 10.000.

6 T60a O[.tOLWC; TW amw xrn Euu. 3avSw

O[-tOLWC; .

24 roou O[.tOLWe; TW HALOU XQuoooJ'taST] [.tE bLaTayTjv ToaxaAwcp xru aJ't6CElSlV .... 7 rooo O[.tOlWC; TO) A vayvwOTT] naJ'taYEO)Q-

YLOU O[.tOlWC; II: T~., Xat 3avSou o[-toiwC;.. »

27 rooc O[.tOlW\; TW E[.t[.t. 3avSw O[.tOlWC;.. »

13 rooo O[.tOlWC; TW amw 0[.tOlWC;....... »

roou O[.tOlWC; TW [.tJ'tET]~aM fEWQY(W Muu-

QO[.ttXaAT] .

14 roou O[.tOlWC; TW aQXL[.tavbQlTT] fQT]Yo-

Qim LlLxalw us aJ'tOOElSLv........................... »

18 tooo O[AD£we; TW n AvayvWOToJtOUND ..... 11 rooo OfWLWe; TW ASavaoiw Touxusoxp. »

18 tooo O[.tOlWC; TW amw........................... »

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10.000

10UALOU

A UYOUOTOU

5.000 1.250 1.500

»

300

17. «0 MauQo[.ttxaAT]C; [.tJ'taLVOVTae; OTT]V Eaovcotuon, EAJ'tLba va xEQbLoEl TlJ'tOTa, Xa[.t[-tLa bEY ElXE. E>axavE ouo»; xaTt SETtx6 X.aL [-tEyaAO, TT]V Hveuovto TT]C; MavT]C;. Fi.' «uro, J'taQa[.tEQL~OVTac; TO XQEOC; TOU, J'tOU TaU qxnvorove bouAELa xa[.tEVT] Xat avwcpEAT] SUOla xortoe va OLXOVO[-tTjOEL TOV XatQO» (~J't. MEAaC;, «0 rEQOC; TOU MWQta», OE/ •. 238). Ana a naJ'taQQT]yoJ'tOUAOC; OTT]V «IOToQla» TaU (T. 6, OEA. 35-36) ... TOV bta1j!EubEL: «H J'tQWTT] J'tQoe; oU[.tJ'tUxvmmv turv [-tEQtXWV buva[.tEmv TOU

»

210 700 300 500

31.260

»

156

157

rIANNHL LKAPIMIIA2:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

f8vou~ anonELQa EYEVELO uno LOU T]yqLOVO~ LT]~ MavT]~ llELQOllnET], OOLL~ nQo8ullw~ DQal;a~ Lao rt A. a ... », H aA.~8ELa 0' aULOV ELVaL onaVLa. OL avaYVWOLE~ LOU IlOLa~ouv EXELVOU~ LOU~ naA.LOU~ XQuo08~QE~, nou YLa LT]V LXVEUOT] IlEQLXWV lfnlYllaw)V XQUOOU avoQUOOOUV LOVVOU~ mL LOvvWV nOLallLW::; allllOu XaL A.aonT]~ ... Ilour OnA.a; ME LT] nQwLT] ~OA.LDOOXOnT]oT] rtou ExallE T] ELaLQELa, amo~ anA.WOE ... Xat LL~ Duo LOU LL~ naA.aIlE~. 'EYQa1jJE LT]V 2 <l>E~QouaQ(ou 1819 «aqJEA.WLaLT]V EmOLOA.~V EL~ LT]V DLEu8wouoav aQX~V» ~T]LWVLa~ va LOU OLEtA.OUV (EVExa, "A.EEL ... , LT]~ nEvLa~ LOU) 500.000 YQooa! ... (MEVDEA.OWV BaQ8oA.DT], OEA.. 211). AA.M 1lT] nEQLIlEVEL~ XQuoaqJL cote IOLoQLxo, rtou OLT]V 22 OEMfu LT]~ «Emtouou» - LOU - YQaqJEL ELOma: «Ilu«; va EVVO~OOUV ( = EIlEL~ OL alla8EL~, at cvicroonto, XaL A.OLna XaL A.oma) on 0 IlWaLWVlXO~ EnlJVLOIlO~ EnExQaLT]oE XaL ww8T] Dla LWV Iouotrvurvrov, LWV HQaXA.ELWV, LOU BaOlA.ELOU LOU BouA.yaQOXLOVOU XaL LOU KWVOLaVLlYOU LOU llaA.aLoA.oyou, aVEU LWV onOLWV DEV 8a un~QXE O~IlEQOV EA.A.T]VLOIlO~». TL va LOU A.EyaIlE; Na LOU A.EyallE OLL OmE nutot OL Iouonviovot XaL A.OLnOL i]oav 'EnT]VE~, OmE XaL Ol 'EnT]VE~ Bu~aVLLvol, 8a Ila~ EYQaqJE OLOU ... DLaOA.OU LO xaLaonxo ... Av LOU "A.EyallE OLl aXQL~w~, av naQaLElVOVLav Duo LQEL~ axolla aLWVE~ LO Bu~aVLlo, lJ Enafu avmavoQ8wLa 8a EYLvomvE Eva AaLLvLxo BaOlA.ELO, ~ PlJyam xrrtco uno rODEqJQELDOU~ LLva~, i] BaA.bouLvou~, 8a Ila~ XOnaE LT] QELOlVLa LOU ... E8vonQoDOLT]. ~LOLL 0 qJouxaQa~, OmE unomEu8lJXE OLL Ila:; EOWoav OL TOUQXOL. 'On XWQl~ LT]V LOUQXLX~ «mEIl~aOT]» O~IlEQa EnT]VLXO E8vo~ DEV 8a uni]QXE ... TuxaLa - nw~ - onou va maOEl~, onoic nELQouA.a XL av OT]XWOEl~, 8a ~QEL~ A.t yo i] noA.u xaLW uno ama LOV ooxmxo YLa LO EA.A.T]VLXO E8vo~ gOA.O LT]£ TOUQxLa~. XLA.LaDE:; LELOLa. 'EWL, xaLl 1jJaxvOVLa~ va ~QW OLOV E' LOIlO LOU «EyxUXA.OnaLD. AEI;LXOU EA.EU8EQoubaxT]», EXEl OLT] OEA.. 388, DLaonaQLa LO urrn 1l0U EnaLQvE XaL LOULa: « ... T] OQ8obol;0~ EA.A.a:; EIlEA.A.E v' aVLLOL~ xaLa Ll]~ nOA.LLLX~~ XaL EXXA.l]OlaOLLxi]~ I;EvoxQaLla~ (=Ll]~ <l>QayxoxQaLla:;) ml bUo XaL~IlLou aLwva~ naQaLa8ElolJ~, XaL va DLaLl]QlJ8i] EV Ll] OQ8ocol;la ... AA.w- 8Elol]c Ll]~ KwvOLaVLLVOUnOA.Ew:; uno LWV LLauQoqJoQwv (1204) Xnt l] nOA.LL~xi] EA.EU8EQLa LT]~ EA.A.aDO~ xaLl]Qy~8l] XaL Eyxa8t<SQu81] EV ami] 1] AaLLvLxi] LEQaQxla ... TEA.O~ DLa Ll]~ XamA.~1jJEw~ LWV A8l]vwv, elLa bE XaL aA.A.wv nOA.EWV L1]~ EA.A.abo~ uno LWV Touoxcov, ELL8ELO LEQlla EL~ LT]V EXXA.1]OlaOLLx~v SEvoxgaTLav, EnavaouOLa8ElOl]~ Ll]~ uno LOU

llaLQLaQXou KwvoLavLLVOUnOA.EW~ ESaQLi]oEw~ ... » XaL ).OLna. Kat a~ 8UIll]80UIlE EDW LOV MEVDEA.OWV BaQ8oA.bl], nou (onw~ 8a LDOUIlE rtnQaxaLw) ElnE OU, av LO 1453 DEV aA.WVOLaV ceto LOU:; TouQxou~ LO Bu~avno, DEV 8a i]oav nA.EOV OL 'EA.A.l]VE~ EElvo~. Kat ~w~, W IlEya nA.amVE IlE trr nA.aLavoqJUA.A.a oou - IlEYaA.a oou tu 8allaLa Xat m xaIlWllaLa oou: aVTl~ va TT]V navl]YUQ(~OUIlE. .. Ll]V nEv80uIlE EIlEL~ LT]V aA.w- 0lJ: 0 x. N. TWllaMxl]~ ... nEv80qJoQEl xa8E 29 LOU MaT]! ...

18. rEvvaCLo~ 'LXOA.aQLo~, 0 nQwLO~ IlELa Ll]V aA.wol] llaLQLaQX1]~, qJLA.OLOUQXO:; (naQa Ll]V unEQaomo1] rtou LOU xaVEL 0 N. TWllaCaXT]~) Xat av8EvwLLXO~. Ilprv uno LT]V aA.wol], xaA.VaE LOV XOOIlO, xamQLollEVO~, EUXoIlEVO:; XaL anElA.wv LOU~ Bu~aVLLvou~ IlE LOV ... Mwa1lE8. MELa Ll]V aA.wol], 0 MwallE8 lOY ava~i]Ll]OE XaL LOV Exa~LE allEow~ llaLQLaQXT] (~A.. 0XELLxa G. Schlumberger, «H 'AA.WOl~ L1]:; KrovotuvnvoirroA.EW:;»). TOUL01_1 LOU I'evvcorou, lOclSLO~ xru unEgcll;Lo~ 0,,[(18T]XE 0 ouyXQOVO:; LOU, 0 Aouxa~ Norcocc, IlEya~ nLA.OUxO~ (Mevr«; ~ouxa~), ,0 onoioc; xa8w~ lla8atvoWE nrto rov LOLOQLXO T1]:; aA.(J)Ol]:; MLxa~A. ~ouxa, EA.EYE: «XQELL1:0TEQOV sonv lCEVaL EV IlEOl] Ll] nOA.El qJaxLOA.LOV ~aOLA.EUOV Touoxrov ~ xaA.umQav AaLLVLXi]V» (~A.. r. Koporrtou, «Ta LEA.Evmla XQOVLa Tl]~ Bv~. AVTOxQaTOQia~», A8~va 1931). « ... 'ELOl TO Eva xOlllla, OL EVWLLXOl, IlE EmxEqJaA.~:; TOV llaA.aLoA.0Yo, n8EA.E LT]V unomy~ Ll]:; Auroxoctoot«; OLOV Ilono, XaL LO ano, OL UV8EVWLLXOL, IlE EmxEqJUA.~:; TOV Noropc, xat LOV rEvvaCLo 'LX0A.aQLO, ~8EA.UV LOV EQXOllo L(J)V Touoxorv. (o.n, OEA.. 2).

« ... H Bu~avLLvi] <l>EOUCUQXlU ~mv LOOO OXA.l]g~ XaL aonA.Uxvl], rtou OL OXA.a~OL Ll]:; y1]~, OL COUA.OnaQOL'~OL, on(J)~ A.Eyovmv, LOTE~, ~uQuvxououoav XL ~8EA.UV v' aA.A.asouv xUQlaQXO ... Ta COOlllaLa uno Ll] IlLU IlEQla, nov xa8E TOOO yUQfUE TO KQaw:;, 1) ExxA.1)oia XaL OL aQXOVTOL, XaL Ol nOA.EIlOL coto rnv aA.A.T], LOU~ EixavE gT]llaSEl XaL SEXA.T]QlOEl ... Ft.' mrto OL mo nOnE~ maQXlE:;, T] Illa UOLEQU uno LT]V anT], Xat noA.u nQlv cero LO nEOLllo LT]C llo).T]~, xaA.vOUoav LOU~ TouQxou~ vaQ80uv va Lt~ rraQouv. Oi AYLOQElTE~ llaA.LOm xuA.6YEQOL - XaL unclQXOUV YQaqJLa rrou LO llaQTUQaVE - OLa XQOVta 1326 - 1390 tu ELxavE xaA.a IlE LOU~ Toupxou; XaL alla ErrwE T] LaA.OVlXT] om 1430, xa"A.Eouv LOV 'Louhavo Mouont LOV B' VU OLElA.El av8Qwnou~ va TOU naQaCwoouv LO 'AyLOv 'OQo~. 'Lm 1396 naA.l, OLav 0 BaYLa~~L rrepvouos coro LT] E>woaA.la

158

159

rIANNm LKAPIMnAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

xm TlJ POlJ!lEAlJ, OL nEQLOoc'nEQEe:; nOAELe:; (TQ1xaAa, ~O!loxoe:;, ACtQLoa, YnCtTlJ, Aa!lia) naQaoo8lJxav 8EAlJ!lanxCt. Ma xm OL KQlJTtxoi nQoTiunouv TOlle:; TOUQXOlle:; uno roix Arruvotx, xm Ol MWQaLTEe:; nOAE!llJoov XL OAae:; YLa vo bLW~01JV rotx <l>QCtYXOlle:; (bEmEQlJ XmCtXTlJOlJ) xm va CPEQOllV roix TOUQXOlle:; (1715 - 1821 »> (T. KOQMTOe:;, «~EAibEe:; uno IOTOQia AYQOLLXOU ... », OEA. 7-8).

To OLL EiXE bixLO 0 A01JXCte:; NOTUQue:; XL 0 I'svvaoroc, TO bixLO TOUe:; ~Tav xmCt OU!lnTWOlJ, XL 0XL bLXO TOUe:; aAACt bLXO !lae:;.

TQanE~iTlJ KCtQOAO MUAAEQ TO XWQLO AX!lETaya (TO OlJ!lEQLVO IIQoxomov) xm TT) yUQW nEQLOX~ (nrrvco ano 80 XLAtCtbEe:; oTQE!l!lma).

Ano notov !lnElJ TO ayoQaoE XaL!lE noaa XQ~!laTU bEY EivaL YVWOTO ~Ta aQXEia TOU XQCtTOUe:; ~QioxETm lJ E~~e:; !lOVO "EnLXUQWOLe:;":

"EnLXUQomm lJ ayoQCt TOU AX!lET ayCt llnEQ TWY XUQ1WV EboUCtQbOll NOEA XaL KaQoAou MUAAEQ"».

19. IIQCtY!lmL, xmacpTCtOaVTae:;, ue TlJ ouotoon TOU BaoiAELOU, OTlJV A8~va, Ecpayav uno roue onAaQXlJyoue:;, TOV Aao xm TlJ BOUA~ aX0!la, TETOLCI. nQoyxa (TO TL bE, TOUe:; EouQav bEY AEYETaL. .. ) nou, E~OV ana Tle:; xm O~!lEQa AEY0!lEVEe:; «~u~avLLvEe:;» - TtVEe:; - OLXOYEVELEe:;, OL CtnOL TO~aAav OTa nobLa ... H E8vOO1JVEAEUOlJ WELOTaV coto OQylAEC:; ayoQEuOELe:;: « ... Ertov 14 IuvouaQloll 1844. To 8E!lU ElTUV EJ1l!laxO xru AEJ'tTO Ylmi sttuv ouvuqxrouevo us TO ~~TlJ!la TWV aUTox8ovwv xm TWV ETEQOX80vwv rtou TO ELxav ~WlJXWOEL amox8ovEe:; nAT)QE~OUOlOL, bT)Aub~ nQOEQX0!lEVOL ana TLC:; EJtaQxiEe:; EXEivEC:; nou anoTEAouoav tots TO EAEU- 8EQO XaL aVE~CtQT11TO EAA11VlXO Ba01AELO. Ae:; J"[(O a!lEOWe; on TO ~~TlJ!lu TO EAUOE EUOTQocpa us svov wQaio nOALTLXo EAl Y!lo 0 AAE~avbQo:; MauQoxoQbCtToe;, U!l~AWOVTas ooo ELTaV W[OQETO Lte:; nOAu xaXE:; OUYEnELEe; oue; onotec 8a un~QXE x1vbuvoe:; vu uX8d 0 EAAlJVLO!lOC:; ana iuc EJtWlJllonoilJolJ TOU XWQWIlOV TWV EAA~V(J)V OE umQx80VEe; xm ETEQOx80VEe;'lJ YQall!l~ 11 E8vLX~ a.tov aXQL~we:; 11 aVTl8ETlJ: EnQEJ1E vc TOvi~EL xm va E~aiQEL TlJV EVclTlJTU TOll EAAlJVLXOU YEVOUe;, aVE~CtQtlJra uno TOlle:; 01JVOQLaxoue:; nEQLOQLO!lOue:; TOUe; oaotou; E1xav xu80Q(OEL OL 01JV- 8~XEe;. 'OIl(J)e; aXOIlT), t11V wQa tT)C; OjA.LAiac; TOU KWAETtT), 0 AAE~avbQoe:; MallQoxoQbCtTOC; bEY E1XE ELOlJYlJ8Ei tnv nQcJtao~ TOU xcu 0 aywvae:; naQolloiu~E IlLa TQaXlrtlJra tlJe:; on01ue:; 11 unoA11~lJ bEY ~tav cpavEQ~:

YEwaiOl, !laXlJTlxoi xm Lxavoi CtvbQEe:;, E!lnELQonclAEf,lOL xru Ct~LOL llYETEe:; aY8Qwnwv, ELtUY X11QUYIlEVOl unEQ TOU amox80VLO!lOU, !lE W!lOt11- rn XCtnOTE, aAlJ8LVCt tQO!lUXtLX~» (K. e. ~lJ!laQCt:;, ECJlll!l. «To B~f-lu», 10.12.1969).

20. « ... METU~U rorv xEcpuAm0Uxwv uutrovnocv xm 0 EboUCtQboe:; N6EA, nQonCtnnoe:; TOU x, <l>QCtVOLe:; N6EA Mnruxsp.

o E<'lOllCtQboe:; N6EA ay6QaoE TO 1832 ouvETmQLxwe:;!lE TOV EA~EtO

«EyxaTEOTlJOE !lWaLWVLXO cpEOllbaQXLxo ouoTlJ!la - YQCtCPEL OTLe:; OlJ!lELWOELe:; TOU 0 x, AcpEvbQae:; (T. K. ~~!lOll AcpEvbQae:;, VTonLOe:; OTlJV nEQLox~, O~!lEQa lJALxiae:; 90 XQovwv, MoxaAoe:; Eni 35 XQovLa a' amo TO ~wnOTCtTO TlJe:; ... AmoxQmoQLx~e:; am~e; OLXoYEvEiae:; TWV EYYAE~wv). EClJ!lLOUQYlJOEV allA~ us aQXlJYo TOV aQXLEnLOTCtTlJ TOll. Ka8LEQWOE TlJV EAacpo YLa OLXOOlJ!lO TOll. dLEta~E, otrrv TOV E~AEnav OL XWQLX01, va orpcorvovtm xm va TOV anoxaAow acpEVTlJ. IIOAAOUe:; xatoixove:; TOV AJ(l.Hhaya, VJtEQ1J<paVOVC:; aywVLOTEC:; TOV '21, nov lJQVOUVTO vo bEXElOW TO cpwllfuQXLXO xa8wTwe:; TOll, toix E&WXVE naiQvoVTae:; OTlJ 8EOlJ rou; aQ~VLT0f3AaXOllC:; TlJe:; IILVColl XaL TOll AonQonOTCt!lOll nov xaTEcpvyav OTa XWQLCt tlJe:; <l>8LWTLCoe; X1.M]YlJ!lEVOL uno TOlle; TOUQxoix».

METCt tOY Brrvrrro TOV <l>QCtVOLe; TlJ &aXEtQLOlJ TOll XT~!laTOe; aVEAu~E lJ xOQll TOll ELQ~VlJ, oU~1J)'oe; TOll <l>iALn NOEA MnaixEQ.

«H CPWvfuQXLX~ TlJe; ~we; O1J!lJI:EQLCPOQCt, - onwe:; YQCtCPEL 0 x. ACPEVbQae; - OTEVOXWQlJOE TOlle; xaTOixOlle; TlJe; nEQLOX~e;. Kat' uQX~v EnE~AE tlJv aYYALx~ YAwooa orrv ... EmolJ!llJ YAwooa TOll XT~!laTOe;, nQoOEI..a~E 'AyyAo EJtLOTCtTlJ xm anaLTOUOE va TlJV anoxaAow XllQCt, EV aVTL8EOEL nQoe; TOV oU~1J)'Ov TlJe; nou ~Tay E1J)'EvEoTmOe; xm noM xawe; !lE TOVe; XWQLXOUe; ... » (~.T.~.: Kuru bLaOT~!lata - am~ -lnjJWVE ... OTOV IIuQYo TTJe;, TlJV TlJe; Airtou BQEraWlX~e; MqaAELOTTJTOe; qYAE~LX lJ olJ!laia!).

AvacpEQEL !lCtALOta XaL TO E~~e; xaQaxTljQLoTLXO EnELOObLO: «~E Eva olJ!lEio TOll bQO!lOll XaAxiboe; - B. Ell~oiae; (OTlJ 8EOlJ Taiyxa), rtou nEQvOUaE usou ano TO XT~!la, llnCtQXEL Eva !lEYCtAO nAatCtVL, nou E!lJI:O&~E rn rnrtoxivnro; vo nEQCtOO1JV YLaTi XLvbwE1JaV va nEOO1JV OTO naQaxEi!lEVO nOTCt!lL. 0 VO!l0!llJxaVLXOe; &'ETU~E va xon~ TO nI..aTCtVL, TEAtXCt OftWe; bEv XOJl:l]XE !lETCt cero ... &rtAW!latLXO &'Ct~lJ!la TlJe; ~QETUWlX~e; nQE~ae;.

I&'oXt~lJe; TOV anEQUVTOV XTllllatOe; (VJtOAoyi~£Tm OE 50.000 OLQEIL-

160

161

rIANNIn: LKAPIMIIAl:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

uor«) ELvm twga 0 yW\; tT]\; ELg~VT]\; xm tOU «PtAL1tn:ou NOEl. Mn:aLxEg, o t, 'AyyAO\; j30UAEUt~\; x, <1>gaVOL\; NOEl. Mn:aLxEg»

('EgEuva tOU r. Koorovoiou, ECPT]fl. «AxgOn:OAL\;», 11.7.71).

VLXO OtOLXELO tOU VTjOLOU. Av ceto tT] &x~ tOU n:AEuga 0 oouAtavo\; EflELVE Lxavon:OLT]flEVO\; uno tOY bgayowavo tOU, cero tT]V &x~ tOU\; OL XgT]tLXOL Alyo EAEL'li'E vat 0 van: 0 x a A E 00 u vow r ~ g n!»,

(0 Tl;,avE Mn:ouvLaA~\; OtOU\; OtLXOU\; tOU «KgT]tLXOU n:OAEflou», n:ou ... XA.n:.).

I'in xan:ma mLOT]\; EvbLacpEgoVta aVExbota OtmXELa 0XEtLXW\;, n:agan:Efln:w tOY avayvwotT] uou OtT]V ECPT]flEgLba «To B~fla» t~\; 1.12.1974, onou 0 8awaOLO\; EAAT]V6cpLAO\; Mario Vitti, ornv un:o toy tL tAo «<l>avagLWtE\; xm vEOflagwgE\;» En:LcpuAAlfu rou, av xm bEY EST]yaEL rnv tEAEUtaLa cpaoT] EXELVTj\; tT]\; n:EgLObo\;, xaVEL oAocpavEgo YLatL OL KgT]lLXOL rou xmgou 8EwgT]oav toy ~gayowavo NLXOUOLO owt~ga tOU\;.

21. H MaxEbovLa xm T] Kg~tT] 8axav EXAatLVL08d, av bEY n:gorpturvov OtT] usv MaxEbovLa oi Touoxo; (nou n:OAU n:glV uno tT]v aAwaT] rou Bu~avlLou tnv ELxav xataXt~OEl), OtT] bE Kg~tT] 0 TIavaYLWtaxT]\; NLXOUOT]\;, 0 n:gWtO\; PWflT]O\; ~gayowavo\; tou ~ouAtavou. TIaga8EtW bwba, fllxga an:oon:aOflata (ceto to n:EgLOblXO «Icrootc»), to Eva tOU x, NLXOU TmaflT] - EYVatLa 103 E>woaAOVLXT] - Yla tT] MaXEbovLa:

« ... nou n:goj3aAav oi aELflvT]Otm xa8T]yT]taL <1>. KOUXOUAE; xm K. 'Aucvroc, OL onotoi bEY yvwgl~av cpa(vEtm tnv flagtugla tOU urtoorxou Iuxrv. Aubou (aou E~T]OE mi Iououwrvou), 0 onotoc fla\; eotoxcAUJttEL Ott OL MaXEMvE\; xm Amn:oi 'EAAT]VE\; tT]; Xsooovnoou fla; ~oav mL tT]\; mox~\; rou ltaA.6yAwoom, aga EXAatlvLoflEvm (I. AuM; OEA. 261) " ... bla to roix aut~\; OLX~toga\; xain:Eg 'EAAT]VE; EX tOU n:AELOVO; ovrcc tT] tWV ltaAwv cp8Eyyw8m CPWv~"» XA.n:.

To bE aAAo, Yla tT]v Kg~tT] (aut~\; tOmT]\; tT]; «Iorooicc», r. 56, <1>Ej3gouagLO\; 1973):

« ... 0 TIavaYlWtaxT]\; NLXOUOLO; avcu 0 n:gWtO; gWfllO; bgayowaYO\; nou EcptaoE OE u1f!T]Aa aSlWflata xm nou oi iblOL OL <l>avaglOltE; avayvwgi~ouv orrv YEvagXT] roue xru aSLa OtUAoj3atT]. ~n:oufuOflEVO; otnv TIaboj3a, bT]flwugyEi tT]v CP~flT] oorpou uorpovouou, aXEgmou av- 8gwn:ou, XatabEXtlXOU n:gootatT] tOU un:OtaYflEvou rEVOU;. Oi blaOtaOEl; tT]; bLn:AwflatlX~; n:goowmXotT]ta; rou yivoVtm cpaVEgE; all; blan:gaYflatEUOEL\; Yla tT]V n:agabooT] toU Xcvooxc, tOU OT]flEglVOU HodXAELOU, orou; Tougxou\;, oro tEAO\; rou flEyaAou XgT]tlXOU n:oAEflOU, xata tOY onoiov OL j3EVEtmaVOL fla~i ue aAAou; Aati YOU; xm ue tOU; XgT]tlXOU\;, xoitasav va uvnuetcomoovv tnv tOUgXLXT] ELoj30A~. TOtE, to 1669,0 TIavaYLWtaXT]; flwoAaj3T]OE, oov aVlLn:gooWn:O\; tOU OOUAtrrvou, fla~L ue toy j3E~UgT], us an:OtEAEOflata n:OAU n:LO j3aguo~flavta uno EVO; an:Aou bgayowavou. AcpEAEla oflW; 8a ~tav va n:WtEli'El xavEi\; o~flEga OtL 0 TIavaYlWtaxT];, acpou n:agouOLaOtT]xE cmv Kg~tT] fla~L us tOY Touoxo xataxtT]t~, xru toy ESUn:T]gEtT]OE OtO va un:OtaST] to VT]OL n:aigvovta; to cero tou; BEVEtOLaVOU\;, EYlVE flLOT]tO; OtO EAAT]-

22. « ... 0 Sav80\; n:gooma8T]OE va toy flEtan:EioT] (=tOV Kan:ob!> OtgLa). TIagEOtT]OEV EL; «otov Ott EL\; to OT]flELOV rtou Eixav cp8aoEL rn n:gaYflata, ~to aMvatov va ouyxgatT]80w, ou T] mavaotam\; onoxrb~n:OtE 8a ESEggT]YvUEtO xm Ott 0 Kan:obiotgLa; n:go tT]\; avan:ocpEuXtOU aut~; ESEAlSEW\; ... » XAn:. (~. KOXXlVO\;, r; I, OEA. 157). ~T]Aab~, bT]Aab~, bT]Aab~, uovo fln:gO\; OtO avan:OcpEUXto xrn xatmEiyovto, twga T] EtmgEia EVEgYOUOE. TT]; En:avaotaoT]\; to XOLVWVLXO Otgaj3ofloutOOWLaofla enota aut~v tgE~lELV. Ken acpou ~taV abwatT] T] flataiwoT] bEY EflEVE n:aga T] j3LaOttX~ XELgaywYT]o~ tT];. Krn aut~v flOAL\; va tT]v n:goXataAaj3alvav 8a n:gOcptmvav ...

23. TIgOT]yOWEvW; toirto (uvousou 0101840 xru to 1844) Xl autO; Xl OL <l>avagLWtE\; us tOY MaugoxogbatO UtT]V xogucp~, 8EAT]oav va to n:EtUxOUV un:o flogCP~V «OUVEWO~OEW;» us tT]V Tougxia - n:aALo OXEbLO, on:w; ElfuflE, tOU r. Tgan:E~OWtLOU XUL agYOtEga (to 1920) tou 'Icovc ~gay01JflT], fla~L us toy CPLAEAEU8EgO Ofhouovo n:giyxT]n:a ~afln:aXEVtLV (LbE ~T]fl. Tccxcovo, ECPT]fl. «AXgOn:OAL;», 9.3.71, xm K. E>. ~T]flaga, ECPT]fl. «To B~fla», 19.12.69). TEAEutaLO; (1930) 0 EAEu8EgLo\; BEVl~EAO; EbwOE oagxa xru oorc OE flLa xaA~ EAAT]VOtOUgXLX~ OUVEVVOT]OT] ue tT] YEa TougxLa.

24. AgYOtEga - toy MagtT] rou 1854 - tOmO; 0 BamALa\;, fla~i us tT] j3aolAloaa AflaAla xm us tL; KugiE; tT]; TLfl~; 8a ... bgan:EtEOOV ornv tougxLx1lv axofla E>EooaAla, an:' onot: xm n:Ega 8a mavaotatouoav,

162

163

rIANNll: ~KAPIMIIAI

A.EEL, rou; 'Unooo'UA.o'UC; 'EA.A.T]VEC; MaxE6ov(ac; xm 8QCtxT]C;, XL Elm, EnLXECjXlA.i]C; ... 300.000 !J,aXT]'twv, Sa !J,naivav ornv nOA.T] onou 0 'OSwvac; A.EEL Sa O'tHPO'taV AmoxQCt'toQac;. EmuxwC; OU ami] T] OEQVLXOSi]A.'UXT] T]A.iSLa «EcpLnnEia» nQoc; 'tT]v ITO AH, 'tT]v 'tEA.Emaia !J,OA.LC; O'tL Y!J,ovA.a !J,a'tmwST]XE, XL E'tOL ExaOE T] !J,EV nA.i]'t1:O'Uoa tots E'UQwnT] !J,La •.. aHQal;LOV cero 'tLC; XaA.V'tEQEC;, E!J,EiC; 6E !J,Lav ... acp' 'U'ljrr]A.ovayyA.oyaA.A.01:O'UQXLXi]V wQaiav cpCtnav.

AKP08rfOMENA 8EMATA

MEYaA.E~aV'tQoc; - XatQwVELa ASi]va - B'U~CtV'tLO Xat 'AA.WOT] IIa'tQLCtQXEC; xm nQov6!J.La TO'UQxoxQa'tia

KO't~a!J,nCtoT]6EC; xru A VW'tEQO IEQa'tEio Pi]yac; <l>EQUioC;

cl>tA.LXi] E'taLQEia

OL A.6ytOL 'tT]C; L1LaonoQCtc;

naA.atwv Ikrrocov rEQ!J,avoc;

KOQai]c;, IyvCtuoC; xrn KA.ECP'tEC; Kanorno'tQLac;, KaQa't~Ctc; Xat KWA.E't'tT]C; Y'ljrr]A.CtV'tT]C;

BA.a6L!J,T]QEOXO'U

T'UQyo~io'tL

To aYQo'tLxO QOWCtVLXO xivT]!J,a L1QayaWCtVL

Ma'UQoxoQ6Ct1:OC;

To XOL VWVLXO nEQLExo!J,EVO 1:O'U '21 To L1QayaWCtVL Xat OL A.6YLOL

To L1 T]!J,O'tLXO OXOA.ELO 1:O'U Pi]ya nanacpMooac; xru Boourou

H E'UA.6yT]OT] torv onA.wv

BEQf3aLva, ZaQCtxof3a Xat 'Aoroo; 'Y6Qa, ~Ct!J,OC; Xat KahE~mc; ME't'tEQVLX, Kanorno'tQLac; Xat Pi]yac; K. nanaQQT]yono'UA.OC; Xat T] yA.wooa H L1 T]!J,oxQa'tia Jt'IJQo~oA.Ei

H MEYCtA.T] 16Ea

o MaQ!J,aQw!J,EvoC; BaOLA.tCtc; EA.E'USEQLOC; BEVL~EA.OC; xm H nOAH 338 - 1922

o KaST]YT]'ti]c; x, K. 1tO'UQEOXO'U xm 1:0 QOWCtVLX.O x.ivT]!J,a.

164

165

TO 1821

KAI H AAH0EIA

TOMOL B'

Mia dfmaj /-lOVOV enavaotaon, XWQ{~ T1]V XOtVWVtx'tj xaTag{wo'tj T1]~, eivai tua «poivouevoqxiveio»

nov Ta «xaieotnto» T1]V exuoenouv.

Tt 8axavav; Kat 1] aVEgaQT1]o{a Otx'tj TOV~ 8aTav ...

Ot autoxodtooei; TOV Bvcavtio»

ovv'tj8tl;av /-lOVOV avaueias» TOV~ T1]V TVcpAW01]. Ot A6ylOt T1]~ LI iaonooac,

autoi TvcpAwvav OAOXA1]QO TO E8vo~.

o /-l1] EXWV - aVTo~ - anootohiv eivai Eva~ ovvav8Qwno~ XQ'tjat/-lO~. o vO/-lt1;wv (EaVTOV) OTt EXEl -

an' aVTOV va cpvAaYEorc ...

Mia axoua aotpta OTt~ vnaQxovoE~

eivcu Eva axoua anO/-lVl;1]T'tjQlO rov aiuatot; H ).{/-l1] rov~

8a uai; /-lETa{3aAEt OE avtixeiueva - (res).

IIEQwoorcQO ana T1] {3{a ro 1jJE/-la

eivai exeivo nov 01]XWVEt oav .:4rAa~ ta cnuupeoovta. Ttati EVW OT1] {3{a rov aMov

uxooei; {OW~ V' avrtTagEt~ T1] {3{a T1] Otx'tj OOV, oro 1jJE/-la /-lVEOXEl~ xaTawxaQwT1]/-lEVO~

xcu tuisuu; «ExaTovTanEV1]vraXQovo~» *.

* = avv;n;avrrrvQlarrj~ rwv Exarovram:V1JvraXQovwv rav '21.

169

MIA IYNTOMIA AIFQN AOFQN MOY

Etov 10 «T0I10» -rov exaiovxevnvtaetnotoixo -TOV '21 110V dX' avaY'/f{).fl via ro 1972 evav 110V 20. eaTavavToc; ilia avtixsaon CPWTOC; navw oto dJvlXO totno tonto uai; onou nAaVflJTQa XOQfVTQIa Tj Iotooia tuu; na{f,fl to vriCPl TWV 'fjJfvTlwv TTjC;.

l:xicpTTjXa OTt nQlV axo TTj «neoeooxoxnon» rov nAavov, OTjAaorj nQlV axo to j3a()oc; rovrov rov oQI1;ovTa, inQfxe Tj YQal1l1lxrj eixova va EXTf()d at: OAO TO dvotyua rov qovtov: ware va I1Tj OdXVfl ovaavaAOYTj, aav l1axQlvrj xai aav cpwyaTTj . ware va I1Tjv, aav CPTWXOC; aVYYfvrjc;, iXfl j3aA()d aXQTj-axQTj oto TQanif,l. 'Etot, ()a XQflaaTd (xcu eivtu aXfoov iroI110C;) eviu; axoua T0I10C; (TQ{roC; aVToc; aTTj aEIQa) nov ()a naQfl TTj ()iaTj TOV I1t:Ta TTjV XVXAocpoQ{a rov ava xdQac; uai; oWTiQov.

Buicouai. H TjAlx{a 110V nQoxwQd xcu nooo ()a f,rjaw axoua; 20; 30; 50 sa aMa XQovta; Ma fYW Ocv TOXW axono v' atpnoio TTj f,wrj (nov ()aj3QLaxa XfIQouQa,). Avavvoxnn 110V, aOeAcpi 110V xai avtioxaote, YfAac;; 0 C/>QOVVT Aifl OTt fVOOI1Vxa xaveii; tuu; Of V moteuei nott: OTI ()a nf()aVEt ... MnQaj30 TOV!

Exei j3toAla Ocv nal1;ovvf, AayovTa Ocv axavf.

l:Tixovv 01 VftoVOcC; ginAfxfC; X ' 01 veioi gaQl1aTwl1ivOI ...

'Eun, I1fui ana wv vnOOXfl1EVO 30 T0l10 110V Uw ... va OVVTQl1PW TO taWQLOOl(PlXO I10V OUiOLO xai va nuiao: ~ava Ttl; nfTOVtE~ 110V. EXTO~ av OcV 11 ' aqmoouv ... Ol OVVOlaoAOl! Tuiti (onox; eixe 0 'Ooxao OvalAVT) 1J KOAa01J wv XO- 0110V xaTa TOVTO eivai XflQOTfQ1J ana T1JV KOAa01J TOV NTaVTf, OTt 0' aVTrjv (=T1JV wv x 0011 ov ) 0 xaOEva~ tuu; viveuu o OlaoAo~ wv aMov!

'ETat, OT1J 0XfTtXrj Toauuateia tuu; xawOETw Tanflva W 20 '21110V (yvrjOLO TEXVO, aVTo, wv lov), CPQoVT[oaVTa~ (vux T1JV mOTfQ1J wv avayvwOT1J 110V WXOAVV01J) vavat - ncx; - olaQOQWI1EVO I1f W 10, WOrE va 1J TVXOv exeivou EAAfl1/J1J rj TO anQOXflQO WV I11JV - OTO Ola{JaOl1a - WV xaVfl avaxonec, xfva rj anooiu;

(0 OVYYQacpEa~)

Otrts l'] naVOUXAa, OU'tE l'] XOAEQa xa~av rooo xaxo ornv A veQo)J[o'tl']'ta ooo OL l(J'tOQLXOL xm l'] Ia'tOQLa.

Etvcu abwa'tO (xrn aaXE'ta nQo~ 'to LbEOAOYLXO tou avayvwa'tl']) va ~ l']v ayavaX'taEL xavEL~ bLa~a~ov'ta~ 'tOY xOQ'Uqxuo LO'tOQLXO ~a~, YLa 'to avayxaa'tLALXL nou rnv 'Un~yaYE tnv La'tOQLx~ aA~eELa otnv «Iorootov - rou - tou EAAl']VLxou Euvotx». IbLaL'tEQa oro KEcpaAma YLa 'to oano[)aQLxo aX'UAoAoL, Yla tnv 'tjJwQa 'tl'] cpavaQLw'tLXl'], YLa rou; AOYLO'U~ 'tl']~ «~LaanoQa~» xm YLa 'tOY KA~QO. Botoxetoi ~nQo~ oe ~La a'Ua'tl']~a'tLx~ xa'tab'UVaa'tE'Ua~ 'tl']~ 'tl']~ xaxo~OLQl']~ 'tl']~ aA~eELa~, oe ~La «xovro« - va'touQLxl']» ~LaAEX'tLX~ 'tou '21.

Ia'tOQLOYQacpOL xm KOJAE't'tl']bE~, Muuooxopourot xcn ML(J'tQlW'tE~, o'tuuooxom 'tE~, AEmEQaV't~~bE~ 'tl']~ «[)ExaQLxl']~» ELxomEvaAoYLa~ cpaQLaaLOL - L\EN ~~ III~TEYOYME. H AE~l'] IIATPI~ (XL aAAE~) oro orouc aa~ ~a~ e'U~L~O'UV 'tL~ ~O'UXALaa~EvE~ naa'tE~ rou K vout Xouoouv: 'Otnv ~AE:rtOJ YQl']E; va 'tQWVE naa'tE~ - ELXE nEL 0 eEO'tOu~nl']~ - ~0'U cpaL vetrn nOJ~ OAE~ OL naa'tE~ EL vca ~OuxA.taa~EvE~. AAAa xm usv«, «no 'tOY xmQo nou xanOLo~ [)aaxaAo~ ~a~ ~aeatVE ~E 'tl'] a'tQa~~ tou ~u'tl'] 'to «'OAl'] [)o~a-OAl'] xaQl'] ... », ~0'U qxuvstrn nOJ~ naaa xaQL~ ELVat «EVQLVl']» Xat naaa b6~a

I=l. ' ,

(J'tQapo~ma ....

'EvQLVa xm ~E a'tQa~E~ 'tL~ ~U'tE~ EL Vat rc A6YLa 'to'U~' YQl']a'tLxl'] ~ouXAa 'tl']~ oumooovtuo; ~QOJ~oAoyaEL 'to '21 'to'U~ ...

173

ME to va 3taQLOtaVOUV t'l']V EA.A.'I']vLx~ E:TtaVa(Jta(J'I'] onv nQas'l'] ESOOEA.A.a()LX~ (to onOLOV: OtL mv naQa(JXEua(Jav OL A.OYLOL!) nav' va flWD(JOVV mv aVtO()WaflYJ aSLa tYJ~, YLa va rou; A.oyaQLa~OVflE (Joot~QE~. To orvuqxxo - OA.oov avtwv«xatE(Jt'l']flEVO» tOV~ tOU~ xavEL va flLA.aV rnv L()La yA.w(Jon ... A~ SEQOVV OtL fla~ EL vm avasLonL(JtOL.

Toix xat'l']yoQaflE xm tOV~ ~oaflE: A.EtE 'ljJEflata ---{)EV ELvm «uro to '21: To TIatQLaQXELo to aqJoQL(JE. OL TIQOXQLtOL XaL OL IEQaQXE~ to xA.Eua(Jav. 0 Ka:rW()L(JtQLa~ tOV y'tJQL(JE tL~ nA.atES; rou, 0 KOQa~s; «flas;» to flVXt~QL(JE. 0 KaQat~as;, 0 Mcuooxooocro; xm 0 I yvauos; to sEJtouA.ayav (JtOVS; SEVOVS;. XWQLa OL N EYQ'I']()ES; xm OL KooA.Ett'l']()ES;, xwQLa 0 KOQa~s; xm 0 MnQaLfl'l']S;. H xatatQEflaQa tOV ()EV A.EYEtm ...

Km ~E~ma ... Sa floV SVflw(Jovv!

Ma, YLa va us SE(JOVV «exnooorv» ()EV rptrrva to «nL(JtEVE flas; xm fl'l'] EQEuva». ~EV qJtaVEL 'I'] «ceto XaSE()Qas;» xQou(J'I'] tOV XW()ooVOS; xm to «Autoc EqJa!». To SEfla nov SEtoo naEl noA.U flaxQutEQa uno tYJS; a(J'I']flOt'l']tas; uou to «outox ~ aA.A.ooS;». TIaEL (JUS; 'ljJEvtOflaQtvQLES; xm (JtYJv ayxuA.OO(JYJ nov xavouvE curoi ornv I(JtOQLa. To '21 avca ,'<HQaXA.ELa aQUO» YLa va flaS; to nEQnataV flE ()EXaVLxLa ...

nov va flas; EsanataEL xm va nA.aVEuEL ... M'I']v tOVS; JtL(JtEUEte, H xaQ()La rou '21 ()EV EnaA.A.E - taQLXEVflEV'I'] - (JUS; (JOqJLES; rotx, ours flES; ore QaYLa()LXa XaA.Vflfla1JxLa tOVS; xm oro qJEma. OL KOQa~()ES;, OL KanO()L(JtQLOL, OL Ivvrruot to SEoQQLxvav, OL ~WnOta()ES; to aqJoQL~av. OL ()E A.0YLWtatOL tYJS; - taxa - ~La(JnoQas; ELxav ue US; «EA.A.'I']VLXOUQES;» tOVS; va xalAvovv ... AA.A.a to '21 ()EV flLA.'I'](JE t'l'] yA.w(J(Ja tOVS;, ()EV ~omaE (JE xaA.aflaQLa nEwES; x~vas;. MLA.'I'](JE IAE tcov xaQvoqJVA.A.LWV Us; VtOVqJEXLES; xm flE rrov YLatayavLwv tOV us; a()QasES; ...

Auru, oos; nQos; mrtri. To «EV tOO YLyvE(JSm» 30 ~L~A.LO 1A0v va to tvnw(JOO A.Eoo (JE xava XQovo. Fur to naQov, xm toirro uou to taxmato 20, as; naQSd ouv Evas; savaxmQEtl(JIAOS; (JtO '21. ME to xatE~a(Jfla t'l']S; (JxouqJLas; uou (oxouqJLas; EVOU a A. 0 Y L 0 u anA.OEA.A.'I']va) va tOV ~QOvtOqJOOV~(JOO (XL EYw!) Eva s~too: ZHTQ ~OY - Sa tOV mo - to '21 tOOV EA.A.~oov! ZHTQ ASaVatE AaE tOV MaQaSwva xm t'l']S; TILV()OV!

'Etoi, 0XL ue to «'ljJ'I']A.a ta XEQLa!» onoos; aVtOL, fla us ornv xaQ()La rove 1A0V XEQL, xm flE t ' aA.A.o uou, to rcotavo xQatwvtas; - uou - xEQaxL, Sa nQo~w oflnQos; (JtOVs; tLflLOVS; xm roix AEutEQOVS; Yla to (JXOA.LO uovonntoxr tYJS; AA.~SELas;.

To «'ljJEmLxo oov avaxOLvooSEV» sivoi a()EQqJaxL t'l']S; I(JtOQLas;. EL vm qxrvsoo: H ()LXLa tOVS;, 'I'] «m()EQOOflEVYJ» I(JtoQLa ()EV flas; AEEL t'l']v aA.~SEla. Onots EV' ana tn ouo: 'H ()EV tnv SEQEL xm - W(JtE - EL Val a()La~a(Jt'l'] ~ rnv SEQEL xm rc «fla(JaEL», onote naA.L flas; Elvm IALa 'ljJEvtQOtl. Mcxurtc, noA.A.Es; qJOQES; ... OL «a(JnQoQovxa()ES;» t'l']S; (A.0YLwtatOL, nav'I']Y"Ql(JtES; xm nQoqJE(J(JOQOL) Exavav rooo to flauQo (JtQaqJuxo,

174

175

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

1.

«'Otov lJ nQaY!latLxotlJ~ XatEOtQUcplJ (=lJ POO!la"(x~ X00!l0- XQatOQla) lJ naQubom~ ElXEV EA.cu8EQlav E~anAwoEOO~. Ano tlJ~ E:7tOX~~ tOU MEyuAou AAE~uvbQou mv A v8QoonotlJta bEY UcplJVE ~OUXov lJ LMa OtL lJ nOAL tLX~ EVOtlJ~ tOU av8QOOnL YOU YEVOU~ ~to buvat~» (OUEJ..A~, «nayxOO!lLO~ IoroQLa», t. A', OEA. 638). To bE YEYOVO~ OtL lJ EAAlJVLX~ yAwooa !lLALOtaV czro bExubE~ Aaov~ bEY nUEL va nEL OtL OL Aaol autot ~oav Aaol EAAlJVLXOl*. LlElXVEL !lOVOV OtL lJ AatLVLX~ bEY ~tav u~La va tlJv aVtayoovLOtEl OE nAOVto, OE OUVElblJolJ xm OE nVEV!la. 'Etoi, myu myu Ena1.jJE va !lLALEtm XL an' tOU~ lbLOU~ tOU~ AatlVOU~ tOU Bu~aVtlou.

, 0 tL to BU~UVtLO aVUntU~E svov JtOAl tLO!lO LbLOtUno xa~~.tLU a~cpL~oALa. 'OtL E1;EnE!ll.jJE xm ~LaV aXtLVO~OAla EAAlJVl~OUoavl - E:7tlOlJ~. 'OtL O!lOO~ !lE rnv UAOOOlJ tOU BU~avtlOU UQXtOE xm lJ aYOOvla tOU E8vou~ El vca aVLOtOQlJtO xm vnoJtto. LlEV El Vat bLOAOU unoXQEootLxo VU!laOtE xm !lEl~ Bu~aVtLVOl, EnELb~~ to BU~UVtLO aVEJttU1;E evov nOAt tLO!lO tbLOtUJtO, EnELb~~ E1;EJtE!ll.jJE Xat uurv aXtLVO~OAlav EAAlJVl~OUOa xm mElb~~ JtEQl totrrorv xa!l!ltU a~cpt~oAla! ... «Ot LOtOQLXOl OAOOV tOOV AOytWV (xQauyu~El Xl o eUVO~ <l>tALXO~ OtO JtEQtobtxo «LllJ!lLOUQYlE~», r. 11-12, 1971) xm OL JWQa!lu8ubE~ ElJtavE xm YQUl.jJavE JtOAAU. Eyw, xm ou~na8UtE ue YL' auto, bEY JtLOtEVOO oro Bu~uvtlo, bEY mcreixo OtOU~ AoyubE~ tOU <l>avaQLOv».

QOtOOO, 8a JtOO XL EYW, bEY ~oav OAOL JtaQa!lu8ubE~, aAAu OL JtEQLOOOtEQOL ~oav nvunorrto; xm ablu~aOtOl ... OL Bu~avtL VOL autoxQUtOQE~ ~oav Prouotor, us tlJ vootoomc turv Koioooorv. Tnv navtoxQatoQla OVELQEvOVtaV, lJ bE OLXOU!l~VLXOtlJta tlJ~ YAwooa~ !la~ tOV~ ~tav !lEya~ JtEtQaO!lO~* '"

« ... 0 blJ!lomo~ xm LblootLXO~ ~lO~ tOU Bu~avtLvov xQutOU~ JtQoxaAEl nrrvr« to EvbLacpEQov. LlEV ELvm uovov Ol ELbLXOl Bu~aVtlVoAOyOL, 'EAAlJvE~ xm 1;EVOL, rrou aoxoAovvnu u' «utov, aAAu xm Ol CPlAOl tlJ~ Ioroota; bElXVOUV !lLa 1;EXOOQlOt~ Eum08lJOla. To EvbLacpEQov rcov EQEUVlJtWV tlJ~ totoQ(a~ tOU Bu~avtLvov xQUtOU~ OtQEcpEtm LblaltEQa OE OQLO!lEVOU~ JtQOOtayoovLOtE~ tOU blJ!lomou ~lOU, nou lJ bQuon toix Elvm aVtLcpatLx~ xm JtEQlnAOXlJ ue !lla OELQU aJto 8EtlXU xm aQVlJtLXU anotEAEO!lata.

*« ... KUL 'tu 1tOAEl-UXU, EV 'tOlrtme:;, eQYu 'tl]e:; BumAELue:; rou Io'UonvLUVOlJ

ELVaL U;LOOl]!-LELO)'tU, !-LOAov6'tL nvu rnrtorv, E!-L1tVE~EVU O'UXL 'U1t6 'tl]e:; uV'tLATj\fiEWe:; 1tEQl 'tl]e:; uvuYXl]e:; &U'tl]QTjOEWe:; rou Kprrtoug, XaL bl] rou U1to'tEAmNtoe:; 'to XUQLOV OW!-LU umou, 't01J UVU'tOALXO'I) 't!-LTj!-Lu'toe:;, UAA' 'U1t6 'tl]e:; 'tUOEWe:; 1tQOC:; uvuauyxQO'tl]aLV rou PW!-Lu·(xou xQu'tOue:;, we:; ELXE tonto EV tro uXQw !-LEyuAELw rou ... » (Eyx'UxAon. AE;LxOV EAE'U8E(>o1JMxl], 'to 6, OEA. 778).

• «IToAAoL rorv L8uYEVWV AUwv xU'tu 'tl]v E1tOxTjv umTjv E;EAAl]vLo8l]ouv». «H EAAl]VLXTj YAwoou E1tEXQU'tl]OE OxL uovov we:; YAwoou 'tl]e:; oxe1jJEwe:;, uAAu XaL ttov nOAL'tLxwv 0XEOEWV !-LE'tU;U rcov AUWV XaL rcov ouvuAAuywv XUL 'tl]e:; xmvwvLxTje:; ~wTjc:;» (K. ITunuQQl]y6no'UAoe:;, «Earrouo; Io'tOQLu ron En. 'E8v01Je:;», A8TjvUL 1955, oEA. 176).

176

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rIANNID: ~KAPIMTIA~

TO 1821 KAI H AAH6EIA

To Bu~avnv6 XQCfto~ JtaQouoLaoE ,.!La lCLO~oQcpia 0't11 ouo'tao~ LOU, ornv JtaQax~~ xm ornv Jt'two11 LOU. H yEWYQacplx~ LOU SEOTJ LO UJt0XQEWVE va ~QLOXEtm OE ~la claQx~ JtOAE~lX~ XaL<lo'taOTJ, a~uvnx~ xm EmSEtlx~. TamOxQova 6!lwe; ~'tav UJtOXQEW~EVO va av'tl~E'tWJtL~11 xm JtoAAaJtAU JtQo~A~!la'ta CLOLXTJ011~ rcov aJtEQav'twv EX'tUOEWV LOU.

QLOCO xm owo'tu va EX'tl~~OOU~E 'tOY Q6AO rcov JtQw'taywvlorcov 'tTJe; XQL VOU~E OX6Jtl~0 JtOAU ouvoJtnxu va uvorpspSOU~E ornv xQanx~ ClUQSQWOTJ LOU Bu~av'tl YOU XQULOUe; xa'tu 't11v JtEQLOCO au't~.

To JtOAL 'tEu~a ton Bu~av'tLou ~'tav a rt 6 A U t TJ ~ 0 v a QxLa. H Bu~av'tlv~ MovaQXLa 0'tTJQl~6'tav ornv aQloLOxQa'tLa 't11e; TIQW'tEuouoa~ xcn OLOV 0'tQa't6.

o aULOxQuLOQae; ELXE U~EOOUe; ~o11SoUe; LOU 'tOY 'EJtaQXO LOU TIQm'twQLOu 't11e; A vaLOA~e;, LOV 'EJtaQXo 'tTJe; TIQw'tEuouoae;, LOV KOlEoLOQa, LOV MUYlO'tQO nov 0CPCPlXLWV (Magister Officiorum) xm CU~ X6~TJ'tEe; LOU LlTJ~6mou 811- oauQou. 0 JtLO oJtoucaLOe; a~lw~a'toUxoe; ~'tav 0 'EJtaQXo~ LOU TIQm'twQLOu 't11e; AvaLOA~e;. Auto; CLOlXOUOE 'tTJ ~1O~ AULOxQaLOQLa. ~UYXEV'tQWVE ere XEQla LOU XUSE u JtOU ELXE 0XE011 ~E 't11 VO~oSEOLa, 'tTJ CLOLXTJ011 xm 'tTJ cLxmoouv11 LOU TIQm'tWQLOU.

A~EOW~ XU'tW aJt' am6v EQx6'tav 0 'EJtaQXo~ 't11e; Korvotuvn VOUJtOA TJe;, nou XU~EQVOUOE mv Flororsuouou, 0 MUYlOLQOe; rcov 0CPCPlXLWV ~'tav, 6Jtw~ Sa AEya~E o~~EQa, o YJtouQy6e; LOU AmoxQaLOQLxou OLXOU. 'Hrov 0 EJtL XEcpaA ~e; 't11e; JtQoowmx~e; CPQouQu~ LOU ~ovuQXTJ (rorv oxoAWV - Scholae), rorv otouutrov aocpaAELae;, turv 'taxucQo~ELWV xru trov CLESVWV 0XEOEWV.

H clxaLOow11 xm 11 'tQExouoa VO~oSEo(a ~Q(oxoV'tav oro XEQla LOU KOlEOLOQa LOU IEQou TIaAa'tLou. 0 K6~11e; 'tWV IEQwv 8TJoauQwv CLaXElQL~6'tav 't11V aLO~lX~ JtEQLOuOLa LOU amOXQULOQa, rc JtaAU'tLa, ru x't~~a'ta, 'ta lJtJtO'tQocpELa XM.

TIAUl 0' amou~ LOUe; aVW'tEQOUe; JtOAl'tLXOUe; a~lw~anXOue; O'tEXOV'tav CU~ otouncmxot, ot MUYlO'tQOl 'tTJe; E~ouOLa~ (Magistri Militum) Jtou Myov'tav TIQE~EV'tUAOl. AmOL

LlEV ELvm oxozo; rou OTJ!lELw~a'tOe; mrtou va OXLaYQaCP~OOU~E 'tTJV JtOQELa 'tTJe; ~w~e; LOU Bu~aV'tl YOU XQULOU~. ~TJ~ELWVOU~E, 6~we;, ou UJt(lQXOUV ~EQLXEe; lOLOQlXEe; JtEQLOCEe; 't11e; ~w~e; LOU, JtOU 6Xl ~ovuxa ~EXWQL~OUV, aAAU XaL JtQoxaAOW LO ~EYaAULEQO EVClacpEQOV. Mur 'tE'tOla mox~ ~'tav, ava~cplO~~'tTJ'ta, xrn 6Jtwe; 6AOl YEVlXU JtaQaCEXOV'tm, 11 Iooouvicvao EJtOX~. To ycyov6e; am6 ocpElAEtm OE ~la OELQU cero A6youe;:

1) ~'tTJv xa'taywy~ xm otnv noooouuxorntc LOU Iouo'tlvurvou,

2) ~'to ~ovacLx6 qxuvouevo 'tTJe; lOLOQLa~ ~la yuvaLxa «EX 'tOU Jt0QVELOU» va YLVTJ AULOXQa't6QlOoa. Krn 11 yuvaLxa am~ va JtaL~TJ 'tE'tOlO Q6AO JtOU ououronxd va XU~EQV~011 'to KQULOe;.

3) ~LO YEyov6e; on 11 JtEQLOCOe; am~ O'tUS11XE ~ovaclx~ OE Em 'tEuy~a'ta. Koi

4) ~LO on ~'tav ~la mox~ ~ou'tTJY~EV11 OLO a(~a.

H JtAouma EAATJVlX~ xm ~EVTJ ~L~ALOYQacp(a ~ue; JtaQoumU~El LOUe; JtQw'taywvLO'tEe; 'tTJe; JtEQl6cou am~~.

KUQlEe; JtTJyEe; etvcn ru XEL~Eva 'tWV Bu~av'tlvwv XQovoYQucpwv (XQOVlXOYQUcpwv), ~LOYQUCPWV xrn lOLOQlXWV.

na va xntrrvonoorue xaAULEQa 't11v Iououvurvac JtE-

178

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rIANNHL ~KAPIMTIA~

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bLOLxouaav ru aW!la'ta 't'l']~ CPQovQa~ 't'l']~ KcovotovnvouxoA'I']~ xm ~'tav xm aQX'I']YOL 'tOV a'tQa'tOu.

IIAaL orov amoxQct'toQa ~'tav 'to ~V!l~OUALO 'tOV nov ouV'tOVL~E 't'l'] bQaa'l'] OAWV rcov uvdrtrrturv a~LW!la'tOuxwv.

~EU'tEQ'I'] aQX~ oro Bv~av'tLO ~'tav 'I'] L u Y x A 'I'] 'I O~, nov 't'l']v anO'tEAouaav OL 'tL'tAOUxOL xm OL EVYEVEL~ 't'l']~ IIQW'tEUOVaa~ xm OL !lEyaAox't'l']!la'tLE~. H ~UYXA'I']'tO~ ELXE 'to bLxaLW!la va naLQv'l'] !lEQO~ otn auva~'I'] 't'l']~ VO!l08EaLa~. ELXE yvw!l'l'] orov bLOQLa!lO rorv avW'tEQWV vnaAA~AWv xm exove vnobEL~EL~ YLa mv xaA~ AEL'tOvQYLa 't'l']~ xQa'tLx~~ !l'l']xav~~.

IILO xa'tw uno tn ~UYXA'I']'tO ~'tav OL x't'l']!la'tLE~, OL otoc'trlyoi xm OL avW'tEQOL XAl'jQLXOi.

H bLOLX'l']a'l'] ~'tav vnEQ~OALxa avyxEv'tQW'tLX~. Oi vnaAA'I']AOL a'tL~ EnaQXLE~ xm OAOXA'I']QO~ 0 a'tQa'to~ bLOQL~ov'tav anEv8ELa~ coto 't'l']v Kcovotuvnvourroxn, ax.O!la xrn a'tL~ mo aa~!lav'tE~ 8EaEL~. Oc vnaAA'I']AOL mrrot x.Qa'tOuaav x.a'tw nrto 't'l']v X'l']bE!lOVLa rou; 'toy nA'I']8va!lO 't'l']~ nEQLcpEQELa~ roue,

Exro; uno 't'l'] ~UYXA 'I']'tO ~'tav OL ~ ~ !l 0 L nov ooxououv nOAL'tLX~ E~ovaLa. TQEL~ AOLnov ~aav OL naQayov'tE~ 't'l']~ X.V~EQV'l']'tLX.~~ E~ovaLa~ oro Bv~av'tLO: a BamALa~, 'I'] ~uYXAl'j'tO~ xm OL ~~!lOL.

~'tov InnobQo!lo, nov ~'tav 'to ayan'l']!lEVO X.EV'tQO 1.J.ruXaYWYLa~ rorv nOAL'tWV, ouvxevroorvovrov OL onabOL rcov ~~ucov xrn Ex.b~Awvav rc ma8~!la'ta rou; x.m tc maYYEA!la'tLxa x.m 'ta YEVLx.W'tEQa ~'I']'t~!la'ta roix, KVQLW~ OL ~~!lOL ~aav a8A'I']'tLXa aW!la'tELa, nov ~EXWQL~av !lE'ta~u roix uno 'tl'j a'tOA~ nov rpooouotrv. Or ~~!lOL EX.'tO~ ceto 'toy a8Al'j'tLouo EL xav xm nOAL 'tLx.~ unootuor], YLa'tL yUQW a' amou~ ELxav aX'I']!la'tLa8~ noAL'tLx.E~ !lEQLbE~ - x.O!l!la'ta.

~'tov InnobQo!lo 't'l']~ IIOA'I']~, otov aVE~mvE orov Ooovo

o av'tOxQa'toQa~, ~'tav anaQaL 't'l']'to~ OQO~ 't'l']~ EXAOY~~ rou OL EmboXL!laaLE~ rorv ~~!lWV. a InnobQo!lo~ ~'tav, !lnoQouus va nOU!lE, Eva ELbo~ Aa·Lx~~ BOVA~~. Tr' mrto OL X.V~EQVl'j'tLXOL xrn OL aV'tLnOAL'tEVO!lEVOL CPQov'tL~av va EXOVV 'tov~ ~~!lOV~!lE 'to !lEQO~ roix, Krn E'tm ceto 'tL~ 'tE'tOLE~ ~ 'tE'tOLE~ Ex.b'l']AWaEL~ rorv ~~!lwv !lEaa otov InnobQo!lo YLvo'tav 'I'] acpuY!lO!lE'tQ'I']a'l'] 'tl'j~ KOLV~~ yVW!l'l']~.

~'t'l']v IIQw'tEuovaa OL ~~!lOL ~aav X.VQLW~ bUo nov Enm~av QOAO ornv nOAL'tLX~ ~w~».

(Ano ro «ELaaywYLxo ~'I']!lELw!la» 't'l']~ CPLAOAOYOV Ka8'1']Y'I']'tQia~ x. ~~!l'l']'tQa<; Av. Ilcroown, oro «Ilpoxomou IAAova'tQLov Kruonpeo»;» !lE anoboa'l'] 't'l']<; Lbia~. A8~vm - 1973).

180

181

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

2.

'to La'togrn.m (a811Va'(x~ mLbgaa11, MEya<; AA£~avbgo<;, EAA11vLa'tLX~ nEgLobo<;, AAE~avbgELa x.n.), 11 EAA11VLX~ YAWaon rote ~UALOirmVE xa8' OA 11 't11V E~anAWa11 LOU xwgOU: Ano 't11 LLXEALa EW<; 't11 MLxgamaLLx~ A va'toALa xm ceto rnv AAE~av'tgELa EW<; r« :rtagaALa 'tOU EU~ELVOU IIoVLOu2 ••• XrogL<; au't~v ~'tav abwa't11 11 !lE'ta~u Aawv aAA11AoauvEvvo11- oto - xm ue LO KEV'tgO ( =LO VEO acpEvLLxo LOU<;, LO Bu~aV'tLO). 'Htrrv, va norus, 11 «Eonsouvro» rorv xmgwv, ~ O,'tL 11 aYYALx~ YAwaaa YLa 't11V :rtava:rtEg!lLa 't11<; A!lEgLxa<; ... ME<; a' ourov 'tOV EAA11voYAwaao coxeovo ~'tav abWaLO va em~LWaEL 'to Bu~av'tLo, av bEY ExavE 't11v EAA11vLX~ YAwaaa - XL rnrto - AaALa LOU. OL o~w cno 'tOV EAAabLxo xwgo AaOL xaL 'tWV :rtagaALwv 't11<; MLxgaaLa<;, 't11<; LLxEALa<; xm 't11<; Kunoou (EX'tO<; 'tWV xct ' LbLav 'tOU<; YAwaawv ='tWV E8vLXWV LOU<;) au't~ 't11 YAwaaa 't11V EAA11VLx~ aVa!lE'ta~u LOU<; !lLAayav*. ME<; orcov «uovcov 't11v nagEAEua11 LOU<; EYLVE xm auvELb11a11 oro 'tEAO<;. 'Etoi, YAwamxa acp0!lOLW!lEVOL ~aav «IIavEAA11vE<;»3, aAAa!lE 't11v mo LbavLx~ a~La rou ooou, Koi ~'tav LOULO EmUX11!la - av'tE~av va !ll1V EXaAa~L080w uno LOU<; Pcoooix, rtot: yVgw oro 700 xa'taxAuaav xugLOAExLLxa OAOV LOV Atuo, E~Evav'tLa<;, acp0!lOLw811xav uutot.; H bE !lELa't11v 'AAwa11 unoustvcou (AoYLw'ta'tL~ouaa) Bu~avLLv~ agla'toxga'tLa, EX'tO<; coto 't11 YAwaaa bEY ELXE rinorc LO EAA11VLXO - uno 't11v E8vLX~ 'touAaXLaLOv EWOLa4• Auto; 0 «og80bo~0'ta't0<;» Axab11!la'lxo<; HA. BEvE~l1<; va LL ( os uurv EmcpuAALba LOU) AEEL YLa mv «EAA11VLxo't11'ta» 't11<; (:rtgw11v,

H BlJ~<;V'tLV~ Autoxprrtopin bEY ELXE rtnorc LO rrsourootsoo EAA11vlxO coto ooo 0 PW!la'(xo<; :rtOALLLa!lo<;' amo<; LO EL XE w; :rtvEU!la. Koi a'ta811xE Pco!la'(xo xgaLO; (<<N Ea PW!ll1») !lEXgl 'tEAOU; LOU, !lE uovo 't11 A~ALa LOU EAA11vlX~, xm LOULO !lOVOV E~ avayx11;. * H ygaCP11 LOU, ru E!l~A~!la'ta LOU, 11 XOuA'touga LOU, E!lELVaV AaLLVLxa :rtEga EW; :rtEga. AOL:rtOV, us !lOVO 't11 AaAla. Ma LO gaao bEY xavEL LOV :rta:rta- YLa bE nour ~'tav 11 avayx11 :rtagaxa'tw. Ebw, a; bwaw 'tOV v011'tO xa:rtw; :rtEgl yugo, xsvtpo LOU O:rtOLOU EYLVE a~acpva LO 330 u.X, 11 «NEa PW!ll1»: Tto; AOyou<; nou bEY !l:rtogEL va EX'tE8ouv a' Eva yogyo o:rtw; ELOU-

~ «H EAAl]VlXi] YA~aaa ,fJtExgUtl]aE Oxl uovov w~ YAwaaa tl]~ aXE1j!EW:;, aAAa xm tWV ltOAltLXWV aXEaEWV ~Eta~ll tWV Aawv xrn TWV auvaAAaywv xm ~l]~ XOlVWVlXi]:; ~wi]:;» (K. I1altaggl]y6ltOVf.0~, «Emrouoc Ioroot« rou EI.I..

Eflvou;», A8i]vm 1955, aEA, 176). -

«H A~tLVlXi] YAwaaa WtEgE1To btavol]tLxi]::; bvVU~EW::;, bEV Wtl]gt~EtO fJtl a~~UVtlXl]c: <P,lAOAOytU::; ~m f1ttaTi]~l];, oxrts v' alt01fAij avuyxl]v El; &uvoov~EVOV~ uv8gwlt,ov::; xrn flat ~u bLaTl]gi]al] VltEgoXijv altEVaVtL tl]::; EAAl]VlXi]:;", At YAw~am ~lU va ,fJtlxguTl]ao,:", ltgEltEl va <pEgOUV bwga, tc bE bwga tl]::; EAAl]VlXl]::; YAwaal]::; nocv uavyxglTW::; ~EyaAUtEgu alt6 La bwga Tl] AatlVlXi]::;".» (H.G. Wells, «I1uyx6a~LO:; Icrooto», t, I, a, 636),

* < < ",'AI.I.Ol Aaol blatl]gijauVtE::; rnv auvEtbl]atv tl]::; lbta::; E8vlX6tl]lOC; EVEatEgv(a8l]aav EV routo«; rrrv EI.I.l]VlXi]V YAwaaav",» (K. I1ultaggl]y6ltOVAO::;, «Elt( touoc.;», aEA, 176),

182

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Xat OUVEXELa U3tO 'tOU~ TovQxou~) lSWOUOa~ EXEl vll~ 1:(1- ~l]~:

«L\.laBut;,()) Illa 3t'tuxij 'tl]~ LOtoQia~ ton At yaiou OtO BlBAlO 3tOU Ila~ EO'tElAE 0 x. Bno, BA. LCPUQoEQa~ "Ot L\.QayoIlUVOL 'tOU L'tOAOU"*. MEyUAl] mrvalll] OL bQaYOIlUVOL OtOV XaLQO 3tOU 0 aQXlVaVaQXo~ tl]~ AUtOXQatOQla~, 0 Kunoubuv 3taOU~, ElXE O'tl] blXatoboola 'tOU ru vl]ma tOU Arvoto», Sa EAEYE~ on ij'tav Eva~ SEOIlO~ Yla to xaAO rou 'EAAl]Va vl]mWtl], rou Xpurnuvou, ByalVEL a3t' tl] IlEAEtl] 3t(J)~ bEY ij'tav Etm ij, tOUAaXlOtOV, bEY ij'tav 3tavta EtOL. Kat IlE tOU~ XQLO'tlavov~ bQayollavou~ ELxav va 'tQaBij~ouv 3tall3tO/.Aa OL vl]mWtE~ Ila~. KaSw~ El Vat vvoxrro, to a~l(J)lla tOU L\.QaYOllavou 'tOU L'tOAOU to blEXblxovoav 3tavta OL ¢avaQlwtE~ - OL IlEYaAE~ OLXOYEVELE~ tOU ¢avaQlov. 'Htrrv to 3tQwto oxaAl 3tOU E3tQE3tE v' aVEBovvE Yla va cptaoouv OtO a~((J)Ila tou MEYaAou L\.lEQIll]vEa Xl VOtEQa tOU 1']yqlOVO~ tl]~ MoAboBAaxla~5. Kat ciXE 0 oQayo/1aVOe; TOV aroAov Aa/1l/J17 xai OVVa/117 axouoaia: teodotta Ewoorj/1ara, ana EtOtXO xaQarat nov TOV nArjQwvav oi vnouircu; xat E~ova{a anavw move; nA17f)va/10Ve;. ME TO va avtixadtotouv nOMEe; tpoQEe; ot oQaYO/1avot TOV Kanovoav naaa ane; aXEaEte; TOV J1E rove; VrJatwrce; y{vovrav oi nQaY/1anxo{ xvf3EQvrjrce; rove;.

A3tO'tEAEOlla: cpaywvov'tav avallEta1;v tou; OL cpavaQlWtlxE~ OLXOYEVElE~ 3tOLa va 3tQ(J)t03tUQEl to a~l(J)lla - E~ayoQut;,Ovta~ 3taOUbE~ Xat BEt;,VQ1']bE~ IlE IlEYaAa nooo, 3tOU ixrteQa, Yla va ta ~avacpEQouv oro 3tOUyyl toU~, ru a~lwvavE Xat rc 3talQvavE coto tOU~ vnoiortec».

«Oi xa'tOLxOL t(J)V !-llXQWV vnotov rou aQXl3tEAayou~ El Vat

* Kut ' ouotuv mrroi Tjoav OL YnouQyoL rorv Ncvnxcov ornv TouQxLa.

IlEQlXWtEQOV ( = ElblXW'tEQa) 'to U3tOXE(IlEVOV rcov xa'tabQoIlWV tou L\.QaY0!-laVOU 'tOU NamlXOV' blOtl, EVW 0 TouoxtXO~ OtOAO~ E~axoAouSEl 'tOV yVQOV tOU, OVtO~ EIlBu~ El~ KOQBEtaV nvc Xat oovooeooaevo; uno tlVa~ Bo·(uQu5a~ ¢avaQlWta~ blatQEXEl tc vl]OLa tama, EX())V rnv abElav ceto tOY Kcetououv - 3taoav va 3taQaAa~l] rc XQOVlXU bOOlllatao Or Vl]OLW'tE~ 3tQOAall~avouv OIlO(())~ 'ta~ E3tlSUllla~ 'tOU, bla va a3tocpVyouv ta~ onou«; CPO~OWtat ceto to IlEQO~ tOU a~aQla~. AAAa llatatUL 3tQocpuAa~El~! 0 L\.Qayolluvo~, ml JtQocpaOEL OLL EXOUV bLxovo(a~ avaIlE'ta~v rcov, xl]Qm'tEtat, bUVa!-lEl tl]~ E~ouOla~ tOU, XQl tij~ rorv JtQOXElIlEV())V tOVt())V blacpOQWV· Xat UJtEQ~l V())V 3tQo~ toU~ OIlOSQijoxou~ LOU to aUtE~OvOLOV (=auSalQEto) rorv XQl'tWV tOU ~OLAE())~ CPEQEtaL JtQo~ aUtOv~ IlE OXAl]Qotl]'ta tQOIlEQ~V. M~'ta(())~ OL bUOtux.El~ oirtot ELA())tE~ SEAOUV va tOY 3tElOOUV on at Il~ta1;v roiv blXOVOLat EJtauoav! Ma'tal())~ 'tOV JtaQaxaAOUV vovuturu CPlAOWtE~ tOU~ 3toba~ tOU Xat b(bOvtE~ tOY ayaJtl]ta E3t(8Eta! ouro; bEY axovEl 'tlJtO'tE' Elbov LLva~ OLL cvroCPEAW~ Eta3tElvwSl]Oav El~ roioutov ~SIlOV, WO'tE va tOY ElJtOUV E cp E v t 1'] Il LOU A t a v 0 v Jl, LE IlE'ta tOY E>EoV YV())Qit;,OIlEV JtatEQa Ila~ El~ tnv Tnv, AU3tijoou ta~ buo'tuXla~ Ila~. 'Ooov tOY JtaQaxaAow oirrot OL buO'tUXEl~ rooov oAt YOtEQOV a3tOAall~Vouv XUQlV xat l] ta3tEl v())o:i~ reov U~AO bEY XallVEL JtaQa va XataO'tEvl] 'tOV L\.QaYOllavov 3tAEOV UJtEQijcpaVOV Xat auSabl]!».

«TIQOOtat;,El va mnoouv IlEQLXOV~ uno tOU~ rQatXOV~ toutoix, tOU~ OJtO(OU~ JtaQablbEL El~ ta~ AEOvtlXa~ ~ELQa? rou Kunouocv nnoo. EUtUXEl~, av EIlJtOQOW va EX~OUV uno ta~ XElQa~ tOU, blboVtE~ o.n EXOUV!».

«To a3tuvSQ())Jtov rooro CPEQOLIlOV E~1']yEL aXolll] Jtw~

184

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aU!lI3a(VEL va EvaaXOAOUv"taL axa"ta:rmua"t(JJ~ ot PaYLUCE~ EL~ "to va ~avaXU!lOUV rnv xa"tua"taa( v trov ( = JtEQLOuma "tOU~)>>. (Muoxo; <1>. ZaAAWv'T]~, «LUYYQa!l!la JtEQL <l>avaQLoo"tWv», aEA. 98. 'ExCoa'T] TQl"t'T], «EmxaLQo"t'T]"ta», A8'i]va 1972).

KuxLa"t'T] uJto8Ea'T] a"t(i8'T]XE yta "t'T]v EAA'T]VLx~ Ia"tOQLa 'T] <l>avaQLwuX'T] JtEQLJt"tooa'T]. A v acpaLQEaEL xavd~ "tOU~ !lEAO L<J"tOQLXOU~ EXEL v'T]~ "t'T]~ Exa"tOv"tuXQov'T]~ «E8vLX~~ - !la~ - JtEQLJtE"tELa~» (cpavaQLwUX'T] JtEQLOCO~) OAOl ot UAAOl !lJtQO~ a' am~v "t'T]V xa"taxoQucp'T] !lE~ err' uJta"ta "t'T]~ av8Qwmv'T]~ ava~LOJtQEJtELa~ XL EmEAELa~ ~omLU E!lVWxav xa"tuJtA'T]X"tOl:

«Q ~ a X W A'T] ~ EL<JCUO'UV EL~ aW!la l;oov XaL ~L~Qwaxoov mrto Eoo~ ou xa"taa"tQE'41'T] "tEAdoo~ "ta XUQLa amou oQyava, ouno XaL Ol <1>avaQLWtaL CLU "t'T]~ CEaJtOUX~~ cuttov msoso»; XaL nov EJtL roorco mL~A'T]8Ev"toov vourov, CLU "t'T]~ ELaayooy~; CLEcp8aQ!lEVooV xaAoY~Qoov XaL EJtL "tEAou; ClU "t'T]; LCLa~ aun.bv Ctacp8oQu~ ClEcp8ElQav XaL E~Yju"tEAL<JaV "tOY Aaov toU"tOV» (M. <1>. ZaAAwv'T];, ~A. a'T]!l. 5).

o POU!lUVO; L<J"tOQLXO; LEVOJtOUAO; aJtoxaAEL "tOU~ <PavaQLw"tE~ «aU!l!loQLa I.Yja"twv» XaL «"tEQa"ta tOU 'Aoou, CLa~oAou; CE!la; av8QwJtoov a!lcpLEa!lEVou~». O~. 8EQELaVO; YQUCPEL: «XUQLV "tOU 'T]YE!lOVLXOU Ooovou aCEAcpoL CLE~aAov aCEAcpou; JtaQu "too !lEYUAoo ~El;uQ'T], 0 C' EAAYjvLa!lo; ~tO JtaQ' amou~ a rt A 0 U v '41 L !l !l U 8 L 0 v».

KaL 0 KaLauQw; Aunovte; ELJtE: «I1QotL!lW !lUAAOV va cpmE'41oo axoQoca XaL va JtEAExw JtQLvuQLa EV"tYj JtatQLCL !lOU LxoJtEAw ~ v' acpEv"tEuoo tYj; BAaxLa;».

o «~oAo~ "tYj; Ia"tOQLa;» (tou 'EYEAou) CEV 8uxaVE amou~ "tou; «CCPEV"t'T]CE;» v' mp~ao'UV tu !laxQaLoova «xc"tw"tYj!lEva» rou; ... YLa tc !lauQa !luua "tOU E8vou;. I10AU JtEQL<Jao"tEQO "twQa ceto JtQLV ELxav ~QEL "tOY XaLQo va tQL-

~OUV, xaQu YWJlU"tOl, "ta XEQLa. KooAO'tOl'Q!lJtYjOOV rotx QlXLov"tOuaav ore u'41'T]Ao"tEQa a~LW!la"ta. EAEu8EQOl CE XaL

uno JtQoA~'41El~ oo;~aav aAAa~oJtLanl;av xcn 8EA'T]!lan-

xu «en.' aya8w Jta"tQLCo;!» ...

«KaL amo; 0 MooU!lE8 0 B' EL XE E~aLQEnx~v sumoroouvnv El; "tOU~ 'EAAYjva; XaL !lE"tEXElQLa8'T] CLU "ta aVW"tEQa a~LW!la"ta aQXE"tOU; ceto EXEL VOU~ JtOU E L X a v C E X 8 ~ va E~WAa!lw8ouv. (H uJt0YQU!l!lL<JYj CLX~ uou ). 0 MaX!lou"t Jtaau;, nou ELXE xatax"t~aEL m' ovourrn rou MooU!lE8 "tYjv LEQ~Lav, "tYjv Booviov XaL mv EU~Olav, ~"tO 'EAA'T]v E~LaAa,"ua8d; EL; vcaQuv YjALxLav ... 0 Xnc Mouorrt Jtaau~, !lJtE'LAEQ!lJtEYj; "t'T]; POU!lEA'T]; ... xattiveto ano 'rov~ nalaLOA6yov~. ~a~ f.dya~ BE~VQ1J~ ext Mouuud), a Pouu MEXj.dr, rjra 'EM1JV. Eni Bayta~{r TOV B' a ME~{ naacu; xtu a X6r~a Moootaspa naotu; dXav YEVV1J{)rj 't-M1JVE~. Kata r1Jv j3aat-

Adav TOV ~avAEr.uav TOV MEyalanQEnoV~ a IllfJQarjll naaa~ xai a ~avAEiiJ,av naaa~ noav EM1JvE~. 0 Naaoo xaaa~ rjra v16~ 'EM1JVa~ IEQfW~. Llva aMalllEyaAal j3E~VQ1JOc~, a Llallar Xaaav naaa~ xat a TanaA Oouav, rjaav Tlesoxovvnoioi. Avcupeoovtai En{a1J~ xcu a nEQ{CP1Jlla~ n,6QALAE AArj naaa~ xai EX rwv vautixow a ~alrj naoiu; ... » (~LOV. KOXXLVO~, «Iorootc "t'T]~ EAAYjvLx~~ Eacvcctcoeox», EXC. «MEAL<Jaa», A8~vaL 1956, "to I, aEA. 39).

A; JtQoa8Eaoo Xl eyw on XL Eva; uAAo; yLO~ LEQEa coto "tYj fEooQYLa, 0 ME!lE"t PEaL"t Jtaau;, 0 XaL KLOU"tax~~ EmAEY0!lEVO;, 0 EXJtOALOQX'T]"t~;"tOU Meocsovytou (1826) XaL E~OAo8QEm~~ rcov CPLAEAA~voov a"tYj !lUX'T]"tOu I1E"ta (1822), ~"tav 'EAAYjva;. (KuQoAo; MEvcEAaoov BaQ8oACYj, «Ia"tOQLa "t'T]; EAAYjVLX~~ Ennvuotnoenx», aEA. 416).

«H aAAay~ HI; 8Q'T]axda; EL<J~~EV EL; "to Eaoo"tEQLxOV rou

186

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(M. ZaAAWVY]~, O.Jt., m:A. 94).

JtQwtoOUOta8EV EJtL "tY]~ QoboomlQtou j3amAELa~" tOU ~EALfl tou A', tOU ETl:LXaAOUflEvOU YLaj30v~ ( =OXAY]QOV) - (1512 - 1520), flE JtQWty]v aQxi)v rnv Kcnncooxio XaL tOY Ilovto".

Ta JtaLbLa EJtQETl:E va EL Val uYLEOtata, wQaLa, otoucnXW~ tEAELa Xat JtQOLxLoflEva us EUcputav. OL yovEL~ tWV EJtQEJtE va EL Val cetovovot xaAwv OLXOYEVELWV xm tLflLOL XaL xaAoi av8QwJtOL.

AJty]AAaoOOVto uno ty]v otQatoAoyiav: a) Ta EX JtatQo~ xm flY]tQO~ ooqxrvc, bLOtL E8EWQOWtO aVaLbi) XaL tuxovta atEAOv~ aywyi)~. ~) Ta JtaLbLa tWV xExaYLabwv tWV XWQLWV W~ xa"LCEflEva Xat au8acy], EJtELbi) AOYW EJtacpi)~ ue tOY Aaov aJtEXtWV OLXELOtY]ta uer' mrtou. y) Ta JtmbLa tWV ~ouxoAWV, tWV JtOLflEVWV xm tWV UJtY]QEtWV, W~ xm ta tUXov autoJtQoowJtw~ E;aoxi)oavta ro EJtaYYEAflata auta, bLOtL aJtwAEoav rnv atoflLxi)v tWV OEflVOJtQEJtELav xrn tnv '4'UXLxi)v tWV EuyEVELav. b) Ta XQLOtLavoJtmba tc onotc Eta;LCEUOV EL~ tnv Kcovotuvnvowrosiv i) EYVWQL~OV utov tEXVY]V i) tOUQXLXi)V YAwooav, W~ Xat ta tUXov Eyyafla, bLOtL aJtEXtWV flEYaAUtEQav tOU bEOVtO~ OlXELOtY]ta flE tOY Aaov xm bLOtL, autoJtQooWJtW~ aOXOAOVflEva us mv ~LOJtaAY]v, EOtEQOWtO ty]~ EOWtEQLXi)~ Eu8VtY]tO~ uutorv, Y] bE EX YEVEti)~ xAim~ tWV JtQo~ to xaAov XaL Y] bEXtLXOty]~ tWV bL' aQflo~ouoav aywyi)v Y]AattOVto. E) OL cpaAaXQOl, OL omrvot, OL EX yEVEti)~ JtEQLtEtfly]flEVOL, OL LtaflOi, OL JtOAU UljJY]AOi xm OL

j3amAEiou aAAO Ei,bo~ av8QwJtwv. LlLOtl onotc XaL av i)tav Y] aLtia, Y] ortoin ExaflE tOY rQaLXOV V' acpi)oY] ty]v 8Qy]oxEiav tWV JtatEQwv tOU, Y] JtEQLtofli) bEY Y]flJt0QWE va E;aAEL'ljJY] uno rnrtov XaL tOU~ OUYYEVEL~ tOU tOY rQmxLxov tOU xaQaXti)Qa. '08EV 0 aQvY]oiXQLOtO~ XaL OL aJt0yovoL tOU CLaxQLVOVtaL JtaVtOtE uno tOU~ aAAou~ Mouoousunvoix coto mv cpLAoJtatQLav, YEVVaLOty]ta, EUXOAOxLvy]olav, ~wy]QotY]ta tOU xaQaxti)Qo~ tWV, JtvEvfla, EQWta JtQo~ ty]v bosav XaL J..lEQlxi)v tWV ayaJty]v bLa rc oJtAa. El Val axoQtayOl tY]~ bo;Y]~ xm tWV JtQOVOJ..lLWV. 'Exouv vcpo~ UJtEQi)cpaVOV XaL Ouxva J..lEYaAoJtQEJtE~. LlEV Ei Vat OVtE bELOLbaiJ..lovE~, OVtE EUAa~i~, aAA' uJtEQi)cpavOL OtL nvrpcouv EL~ to E8vo~ tOU MWaJ..lE8, tQECPOUV J..lioo~ xQucpov xata tWV EJ..llQY]CWV ty]~ 'A vco AOLa~ xm JtEQLOOOtEQOV ax6J..ty] xata rou rQmxtxov E8vou~. rvwQi~EL tL; EUXOAW; J..lEta;V tWV Toopxcov tOU~ aQvY]mXQLOtoU~».

«'OAOL curet OL aQvY]oi8Qy]OXOL nocv 0XEbov OAOL I'ooixoi aAAa bEY JtQOEQXOVtav OAOL * coto to JtaLCoJ..la~wJ..la,

• H !!:rtQO<; O'tT] 8'UQlc5a a'U't~v oUQa 'tT]<; «<&DOE !!O'U xaL !!EVa !!:rtaQ!!:Jta) E8Ef..0V'tLxT]<; af..f..a1;o:rtlo'tT]OT]<;, :rtQO<; V'to~f..EnXT] ma&obQOf.tT]OT] Qaytabwv un;' aQ)CT]<; 'tT]<; af..WOEW; rou B'U~avno'U, EIVat uno 'tL<; mo EX.1tf..~OOO'UOE; 'tOU XOO!!O'U. ~'UVao'tEIE; OLXO'(EVELWV xm roxcov 't1']<; NEa<; A'U'toxQa1:oQla<;, !!EXQL rorv EOxa'twv unovovorv 'tOU<;, o-ra&obQo!!oooav oro N'tO~f..E'tL onv IlaoabE<; xcu BE~UQE<; T] «oa'tQa~a!!» (=IlQw8'U:rto'UQyol), HYE!!OVE<;, «v'tL~av 'tEQ't~L!!avl» (=bQaY0'll!!aVOL rou ~L~avw'U) Xat f..OLnol a1;LW!!a'tOVxOL 'tT]<; IloQ-ra<;, 't000 nou «'I IlUf..T] xaL 0 Lo'Uf..'tavo<; MouQa't 0 I" (1574-1595) a:rt1']YOQE'UOE xm mrrov 'tOY EXO'UalW<; E1;LOf..a!!LO!!6v 'twv XQLO'tLavLxwv OLXOYEVELWV ... » (KaQoMb1']<;, OEf... 425, o.n.). 0 :rtQw'tO<; IlQw8u:rtouQYo<; tou Ka-rax't1']'t~ ~-rav 0 E1;w!!6't1']<; Potu (=Ef..f..T]va<;) MEX!!E't Ilaoa;, oon; EbQaoE w<; va E1;E&XEi'tO 'to B'U~aV'tw. (Konyali, Ev8' av., OEf... 6, uno to lbw ~MO, OEf... 21, rou E!!!!. ToaMxoyf..ou).

• ( ..... ) L'tQO<P~ 67

XEQ VE lEQOE!! Ilovroc rrotv a~ XEf..IQ· :rtO'UVOt1V L V'tLXU!! ~ m~E 'tE~ XEMQ'

1925 bE yta~ XEMQ'

LV'tlX<i!! af..!!ao~ OEviv&Q, Itouvcv,

188

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:rtoM XOVWl, ot aW~atLXW~ ~ 'VUXlXW~ EAattW~atlXOl xm ot :rta.aXOVtE~ uno OlaVC~:rtOtE vooov.

Ev tEAEl EatQatOAOY0VvtO rn :rtAEOV Xata.AAlJAa xcn tc EXOVta :rtaQ8EVlX6v tOY vow xm rnv 'VUX~V XQLatLavo:rtmca, oxrte taXEW~ va cEx8wm tlJv ~wa~E8aVlx~v xm tlJv tOUQXlX~V aywy~v, w~ xm tlJv touQxo~wa~E8avlx~v YEVlx~v xaAAlEQYELav».

(Konyali, Ev8' av., a. 36. TIEQl :rtmco~a~w~ato~ ~A. xm tlJv ~EAEtlJV t~~ B. B. Papoulia, Ursprung der «Knabenlese» in osmanischen Reich, M6vaxov 1963).

o KaQoAlClJ~ :rtaQEXEl ta~ E;~~, EV aXEaEl ~E to 8E~a, :rtA lJQocpoQ(a~:

« ... EV aQX~ ~EV 'EAAlJVE~ uovov catQatoAoy0Vvto, Elta CE Cla. tWV EV EUQw:rtlJ :rtQo~ roix LAavou~, AA~avov~, OvyYQou~, ItaAov~ (lClW~ BEVEtOV~) xm fEQ~avov~ (tWV auatQLaxwv XWQwv) :rtOAE~WV xataata8EVtE~ :rta.~cpuAOV xm :rta~:rtolxlAOV cpVQa~a XQLatLaVWV ECP~~WV E;LaAa~L~O~Evwv ...

TIQWtoV CE E:rtl rou Eyy6vou tOU IIoQ8lJtov LEA(~ A' 109- yavw8lJ, cpal vetm, to avatlJ~a tOU :rt a l C 0 ~ a ~ W ~ a t 0 ~ ~ to a 0 U Q ~ E, EVEQyOU~EVOU EV aQX~ xata. nsvtueucv, Elta CE xata. 4,3 xm xata. 2 EtlJ ...

... Ilovrec OL aUVELAEy~EvOl :rtalcE~ ~yOVtO El~ rnv :rtQo tWV «vcxrooorv :rtAatElav, Ev8a xatEQx6~EVO~ 0 aOUAta.vO~ E;EAEYE tOU~ xata. mv aW~atlX~v xaAAov~v cla:rtQE:rtOvta~ xru Eucputav :rtvEU~atLX~v EV tlJ 6'\jJEl ~aQtuQoVvta~ tWV :rtalCwv xm tOU~ outo»; EXACYO~EVOU~ :rtQoacLwQl~E Cl' eourov w; V6~l~OV ~EQlca tlJ~ AEla~, lJ~ to :rtE~:rttoV, xata. to KOQa.VLOV, av~xE reo aQXlJYw tWV mororv».

Ev auvEXEla, 0 aut6~ latoQlxo~ avacpEQEl on «oi claAE-

YEVtE~ :rtaQa. tOU a~UA trrvo» :rtalcE~ catEya.~OVtO EL~ rc rsoaaQa EV Kcovctcvnvounoxa xm faAata. nvnxropn rrutou xm E;e:rtmcEVOVtO auatlJ~atlXWtEQOV, Aa~~a.vOVtE~ xm EyxuxAo:rtmclx~v trvc ~oQCPwmv. E;~xovta CE ~ E~CO~~xovtu toutorv :rtQo~yOVto El~ toy AEyO~EVOV Xuc oca. ( = 8a.Aa~ov tlJ~ ~EyaAEl6tlJto~), E; ou E;~QXOVtO :rta.VtE~ aXEc6v oi aVWtEQOl AEL toUQYOl tou KQa.tou~, ~tOl ot BE~lQm, ~Eya.AOL ~E~lQm, aQXlatQa.tlJYOL XA:rt., :rta.VtE~ aXEc6v XQLatLaVlX~~ xataywy~~».

(II. KaQoA(coU: Iorooiu tlJ~ EAAa.CO~ coro tlJ~ uno tWV 08w~avwv aAwaEw~ (1453) ~EXQl tlJ~ BamAEla~ fEWQYlOU rou A', A8~vm 1925, aEA. 417 - 420).

o CE Xa.~~EQ AEYEl ~E xaUatlX~v ElQwvE(av:

«IIQo~ xoosouov aLaXQwv E:rtl8u~lWV 0 BE~(QlJ~ [AA~ :rtaaa.~ BaYla~~t tou B'] E8EAX8lJ uno :rtOAAWV XQLatLaVWV VEWV, OU~ ~EtEXElQ(~EtO uno tOvCE ou uovov w~ vcoauAAEXtOU~ rcov YEVltaa.Qwv (at~E~oyAa.V), aAAa. tOU~ E; cutorv clacpEQoVta~ tlJ wQm6tlJtl xm Eucputa w~ :rta(ca~ (ltaoyAa.v) EV tlJ EaWtEQlx~ u:rtlJQEa(a tlJ~ AUA~~. EVtEV8EV CE :rtQo~yovro El~ xt~aEl~ :rtAoualwv tL~aQ(wv xm tWV :rtQWtWV a;L(u~a.twv rou atQatov xm tlJ~ :rtoAltE[a~. OVtW~ ElaEcpQlJaEV El~ mv 08w~avlx~v E:rtlxQa.tElav lJ :rtaQa. qnxnv amatlX~ Clacp8oQa. rcov lJ8wv ... E:rtEVE~Eto CE ~Eta. toaavtlJ~ axoAaala; EX tou :rtaQacdy~ato~ tWV aOUAta.vWV xm BE~LQWV, w~ xrn EX tOU tWV vououcflorv, WatE EYEVEtO to XVQLOV EAa.ttw~a tlJ~ A UA ~~, tOU atQatov xm tOU Aaov xm to XQa.tlorov Ecp6cLOV tOU xt~aaa8m tl~a.~ xm :rtAOVtlJ, OUX( CE onoVlW; xm xUQla mt(a tWV :rtQo~ toix XQLatLavov~ :rtOAE~WV, cov fJ AEla soxoaa ava:rtA lJQwam tm; aQmou~Eva~ ta.SEl~ tWV vcoauAAEXtWV xm :rta(cwv Cla. vEa~ :rtQoa8~xlJ~ cuva.-

190

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J!ElO~ x.m TJbovwv... af..f..' EX.'tO~ 0f..L YlOV, OL naLbE~ EJ!EVOV avbQE~... Ex. rrov toroimov OXOf..ELlOV Es'iJf..80v OL J!EYlO'tOL avbQE~ 't11~ 08lOJ!avlx'iJ~ av'tOxQatoQia~».

(XaJ!J!EQ: IO'tOQLa 't11~ 08lOJ!aVlx.'iJ~ AmoxQa'tOQLa~, OEf... 273 - 275. ME'tacpQ. K. L. KQoxlba, TOJ!. A', A8'iJvm 1870).

3.

(Tmrm 'ta aJ!EolO~ naQanavlO = to Yla 'to nmboJ!a~lOuo, coro 'to ~l~f..LO rou x. EJ!J!. I. Toaf..Lxoyf..Ov: «TIO'tE xm nw~ E'tovQX.OCPWVTJOEV 11 KannaboxLa». Es aVattmOV EX. rorv «MlXQama'tlx.wv XQOVlXWV», I~', 1970).

O l uovo, nov notE bEY 'UJtftaYT]oav 'iJoav at nof..v- 8QVf..TJ'tOL K f.. E CP't E~' xm OL uovo, nov OVVE«... J!oQcpoo8TJoav OQlO'tlXoo~ nQo~ mv veov xatacroot v rcov nQaYJ!cl'tlOv vn'iJQsav OOOL TJv'tOJ!Of.. nonv El~ 'ta~ tasEl~ tTJ~, acpov ESLOf..aJ!L08TJoav» (K. TIanaQQTJyonovf..o~: «EnL'tOJ!o~ IO'toQLa tou Ef..f..TJvlxOV 'Eflvotx», OEf... 379). An' aVtcl tc naQanavlO x.a'taf..a~a( VEL xaVEL~ 'tl ELb01J~ ... na'tQlWtE~6 'iJoav curet nov ox.aQcpa'toclf..lOVaV oru uvortrrru aSlOOJ!a'ta 'tOU xQa'tOv~ xm nQonav'tlOv Yla'tL af..f..aSOnLO'tl~av: « ... TIf..ELO'tOl af..f..Ol XQLO'tlavo(7 (f..EEl 0 LblO~ LOtOQlXO~ naQaxa'tlO, OtTJ OEf..Lba 382) J!E'tEn'iJbTJoav J!E mv 8Ef..TJot V rcov El~ 'ta~ 'taSEl~ 'tOU MlOaJ!E8avl0J!ov, nQo nav'tlOv blO'tl, onlO~ EiboJ!EV nQOTJyovJ!EVlO~ va J!E'tabLbTJ Eva~ ano rou; nQEa~El~ 'tTJ~ Evsttcc, TJ 08lOJ!avlx'iJ X.v~EQVTJm~ EblbE to avwtata aSlool!ata xm EnlxEQMa'tata xaTcl xovovc Et~ 0J!08Q'iJoxou~ J!EV J!lOaJ!E8avov~, af..f..a XQLO'tlaVOV~ EX. YEVEt'iJ~». Tooo bE «EbQaLOL» E:7tL 'tTJv nE'tQav 'tTJ~ XQLO'tlaVlx'iJ~ xm E8vLX'iJ~ - amoov - n(O'tElO~ 'iJoav rotrr' OL «E8vonclTQlbE~», 0001:10: «Kuto nQO'tLJ!TJOlV EX rorv Ef..f..'iJvlOV Mcyaf..lOV ~lEQJ!TJVE(j)V tTJ~ Y1VTJf..'iJ~ TIVf..TJ~ ESEf..EyOV'tO x.m OL TJYEJ!O-

192

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TO 1821 KAI H AAHElEIA

VE~ rorv J'taQabouvaBioov TJYE!lOVLWV, OL OnOiOL, ceto LOU IZ' 'tEAEmWVLO~ mwvo~, EJ'tQEJ'tE va J'tQEaBEuoom LO aULO 8QTJaXEU'tLXOV bOY!la OJ'tEQ xru OL Aaol rrov TJYE!lOVL())V LOUrorv». (EyxuxAoJ'tmb. AE~LXOV EAEU8EQoubuxTJ, t. E' aEA.

306). '

, KaLCl J'tOLa AOLJ'tOV auvEJ'tELa bLaAEX'tLX~ (XaL auvEJ'tw~ E~TJYTJm!lTJ) xm 'to I1a'tQlaQXEio, J'tou 0 xa'taX'tTJ't~~ LOU J'taQEbooaE !lOvoJ't(oALaxu 'tTJv TJ!lLXoa!lLX~ XaL 8QTJaxEmLx~ bLOixTJaTJ LOU E8vou~ (uin aXEbov «unrpcootrpxr»), 8a aJ'tE!lJ'toAaE mv EJ'ti 'tTJ; YTJ~ XELQOJ'tLaa't~v EtOU'tTJ Bamf,Eia LOU Yla rnv rrov Ououvurv xm tnv I1utQiba; 0 MWU!lE8 0 B' (xm auvEXELa OAOL oi L01JA'tUVOL): « ... bLE't~QTJaE xrn EJ'tQO<JTUreuos tOY !lEya aTJ!laivovta EAATJVLXOV KA~QOV, uno LOU I1a'tQLUQXOU !lEXQL tOU xavbTJAUVUJ'tLOU XCU LOU VEOOXOQOU» (K. MEvbEAaoov BaQ8oA(')TJ: «IaLOQia 'tTJe; EAATJVLX~~ Enovoa'tuaEOO~», aEA. 11).

I1Q~Y~la'tL, J'tOtE J'tQlV (JTTJV wLOQia LOU~ I1a'tQLaQXELO XaL I1a'tQLaQXE~ LOU bEY Eibav tELOLE~ aULOxQaLOQLXEe; oto XEQLa LOU~ E~ouaiE~. MUALOta, AiyOl BamAELe; 'tETOLCt Eixav aJ'toAaUOEL MEyaAda*. (,Otl XU!l!lLU cpoQu oi TOUQXOL LOUe; xQE!luyav, auto YQuCPto AU 8 0 ~!). Em Bu~avtiou ot au~ LOXQUtOQE~ LOU~ Eixav bLaXOa!lTJ'tLxu ron 8Qovou tou; nrnxvibLa. OL ibLOL ~aav bOO!lEVOL !lE 'ta OUAa LOU~ OtOUe; O'tEL-

QOUe; bOY!laLlO!lOU~ tOU filioque xm ... OtO aAATJAO~OUQW!la !lELa~u tOU~ ... EJ'tl TOUQXLU~ ~aav Au8EVtE~ MEYaAOtatOL, !lE «AUAE~» XaL avaLOAitLxE~ tEAETOUQyiE~ ibLOOV Xaxuvoov. «I1Qoo'tExblXOL» XaL «TLLOUAUQLOL» 'tOU~ J'tEQLtQLyUQL~av, ouv 'tTJ «BaaiAwaa - !lEAwaa» OL XTJCP~VE~, AQXLbLUXOVOL XaL MEYUAOL Aoy08E'tE~. Koi Au8EVta~ 'tOU~ J'tQoaUYOQEuav Ol «bOUAOL» 'tOU~:

«Au8EV'ta !la~ XaL bEaJ'tota ... 8 ELO-ta'tE , 8EOJ'tQoBATJ'tE, 8EOxaQi'too'tE, J'tQovoTJ'tu TJ!lWV XAJ't. bOUALXW~ J'tQoaxuvou!lEV ... TJ!lEi~ OL J't'tooxoi bOUAOL oou, OL LEQEi~ tTJ~ MTJ'tQoJ'toAEOO~ A8TJvwv XA:It. XaL CPLAOU!lEV tc iXVTJ ttov ruurov XaL ayioov J'tobwv oOU ... » XM. (.8. Ka!lJ'touQoYAou: «IaLOQia rorv A8TJvwv», T. 20~, OEA. 161).

« ... 0 OLXOU!lEVLXO~ I1U'tQLUQXTJ~ EJ'tdXEV aJ'toAmov E~OUotov" EJ'tL rurv ExxATJmaaLlxwv !lovao'tTJQioov XaL rou XA~QOu, TJbuvaTO va xa8aLQ~ aQXLEQEie; XaL LEQEi~, va XELQOLOv~ cvr' mrrcov UAAOU~ XaL va bLXU~TJ a!lEooo~ XaL E!l!lEaoo~ 'ta; !lELa~u XQLO'tLaVWV bLmpoQU~. Tu EXXATJmaatLXU X't~!luta uVEyvOOQia8TJouv avucpaiQE'ta xrn UCPOQoAOYTJta, TJ bE bLuXEiQLm~ roimov ucpE8TJ EAEu8EQa ELe; tOY I1atQLuQXTJV xm

• IIou OV1:E 01:OV VltVO rou bEY ELXE OEl 0 UVO),[EQOC; KAT)QOC; EJtL B1J~UV1:lvT)C; amOXQU1:OQLm; XUl xcromv oro EAEv8EQo EAAl]Vlx6 xQCl'[OC; OltOU - o ' UUto-- 1l0VO XUQl; m11IlE 1:0 xQU1:OC; UXOIlU llltUQXouou «OU~uyLU» 1:OU EXEl Illulj!tAwvUIll] au8UltUQSLa. Movov ... 11 UQOEVlXT) bQuOt11QlOtl]1:U 1:OUC; ELXE (mL Bu~uV1:LOU) ma8El 1:600 nvoixovourm], nou (ltQOC; UOlj)(lAElU rou umOXQU1:OQlXOV ltEQl~UAJ..0V1:0C; - XUl TLC; OLOE uv XUl 1:WV lOlWV U1JTOXQU1:0QWV!) «E8WltLo811» TO - OV1:WC; ElrtE( V - ... «EJl:aYYEAIlU1:lXo» 1l0UV0VxlOIlU 1:OtlC;: «OL UltOXEXOllllEVOl (= Ol EWOUXLOIlEVOl) AQXlEQElC; T)Ouv 1:000mOl xmu Tl]V moxl'jv EXElVYlV, WOtE o ltQEO~UC; rou 'Ouorvoc AlOumQuvboc; UltE~),EV OU 1:0 E U V 0 U x 0 C; T)1:0 TLIll]UXoC; tl1:AOC; 1:WV rQUlXWV EltlOXOltWV» (EIlIl' PotOl]C;, 01,1.. 76 XUL 162, «H Ilumoou Ioxrvvc», T61l. 1 - «AltuV1:u», Exo. O(XOC; «Bi~AoC;», A8T)vu).

• AXOIlU, XUl ltU~U6EC; ltavlO~UQOl, xu8wC; ~YUlVEl uno to ltuQUXU1:W YQullfLU 1:OU ~UO~ H]e; AUQLOm; BEAl'] (YULOtJ TOU 6w~ol]tou N.T) rtuo«), ltQOOltfcp1:UV OLU o~ucpoQu ~OUOCPETlU OTl']V Auton Fluvuvrotnrn: «Aourov vu fllAT)Ol']C; 1:OU rrU~QLUQXl] OIl~LwC; XUl ELC; to,t~UIlUETl TOU IIUtQl]XUVE VU ELITT)C; UU1:U OITOU oou YQ<lCpW, tn onour IlE cvurpopcv 1:OUC; m ltlA&Qbi~ow XUl Ol QuyuibEC;, oTEAvow XUl, av8QwltouC; Ilasou~ va roue ltAl]QocpoQT)oow XUAT)TEQa .. » (MlxuAl']C; L1:acpuAUi:;, IIEQlOblXO «IIvEwatlxT) EltaQXlu», TEux0C; 60, oEA. 43, Arrp.,

MULDe;, low. 1972). -

194

195

rIANNIU: LKAPIMIIAL

TO 1821 KAI H AAH8EIA

A T]VLX~~ N O!laQXLa~» xa1:a xEqJaAma ~ JtaQaYQaqJou~ (aEA. 42 - 48). *

«Tov ExoQ'taaa!lEV JtAEOV (JtQoxEL'tm YLa 'tOV MntoonoAL'tT] TIoAvxaQJto 'tT]~ AaQLaa~) EuxaQw'tT]8EV'tE~ EL~ aXQov aJto'tT]v JtvEU!la1:LX~v 'tOU bLOLXT]aLV xm ceto tc aqJEux'ta 'tOL~ aQXLEQEVaL JtaQabEL Y!la'ta, xouaovQL bEY aqJT]aEv EL~ ooo xaxa T]!lJtoQEaE va !la~ xa!lT] !lEXQl'tOOOE, bLa rooro xm T]!ld~ OUbEJtOLE 8EAEL mnxxousv coto rou va ~T]'t~aW!lEv 'to bixmov !la~ xm rnv 1:L!l ~v !la~ uno mrtov 'tOV a8E6qJ0~oV xrn xoxorponov 'tvQavvov, xa8' otovonnots rponov T]!lJtoQEaW!lEv. Koi bLa ooov 8T]aauQov Eavva~Ev aJto rnv maQXLav 'tavtnv va 'tOV ~LaaT]'tE va ~mEaT] !lEQLXOV ... ~La 'tOl)1:0 JtaQaxaAOV!lEv JtaALv, xrn JtoAAaxL~ rnv XOLV~V T]Wbv !IT]'tEQa, va ~lT]V JtaQatbT]'tT]v 'taJtELv~v T]!lWV bET]aLV, xa8w~ xm 'tT]v EL~ 'ta~ JtQoAa~ovaa~ avaqJoQa~, aAA' amo~ 0 av8QwJto~ va Ad 1fJT] uno rnv EJtaQxiav tmrrnv, mELb~ OAT] T] maQxia EAa~E xax~v UJtOAT]1fJLV JtQo~ uutov, XaL bEY eivm 'toJto~ va 'tOV bEX8~ EL~ 'to E~~~ bLa xUQLaQXT]v 'tT]~. Trnrtu !lEV mLJtOVW~, m bE JtavaYLm xrn 8EOJtEL8EL~ au't~~ EUXOEuAoYLm d nocv !lE8' T]!lwv qJUAax't~QLoV bLa ~ou. TT]~ U!lE1:EQa~ LOqJw'ta'tT]~ xm LE~a!lLw'ta'tT]~ T]!lL v JtavaYLo'tT]'tO~ bOVAOL UJtOxALVEaLa'tOL xcu JtQo~a'ta EuJtEL8Ea'ta'ta. 0 'tT]~ AaQiaT]~ Aao~. 1814:

Invouapiou 26: AaQwa» (MLX. L'taqJUAa~, W~ omv JtQoT]yOV!lEVT] aEALba).

«H W'tOQLX~ aA~8ELa xm T] avayxT] 'tT]~ yvwaT]~ 'tT]~ «no 'tOU~ 'tWQLVOV~ 'EnT]va~. H avma8T]aLa rcov aQXov'twv. AJtoxaAU1fJT] xm !laa'tLYW!la - 'ta OQyta 'tWV LuvobLXWV -

'tou~ uJt' uutov aQXLEQEL~ xm AOLJtOV~ LEQW!lEVOU~. TIa~ bE XQwnavo~ UJtEXQEW8T] va bLa8E'tT] wQLa!lEVOV !lEQO~ 'tT]~ JtEQLOuaia~ rou UJtEQ 'tT]~ EXXA T]aLa~ ... Koi EbT]!lLOVQYOUV !lEV OL Touoxor bta 'tT]~ avayvwQiaEw~ EVO~ XQLa'tLavov E8vaQXou, JtEQL~E~AT]!lEVOU bLa roorov JtOAAWV bLxaLwv XaL JtQOVO!lLWV, xQa'tO~ EV 1:(0 LbLW amw xQa'tEL, aAAa 'tOV E8vaQXT]v JtQoaE~AEJtoV W~ oovovov, 'to OJtOLOV 8a T]bwa'tO va E~aaqJaA(aT]'tT]V bOUALX~V uJtaxo~v nov EAA~VWV XaL rcov AOLJtWV cero 'tOU OLXOU!lEVLXOV TIa'tQLaQXOU JtVEU!la'tLxw~ E~aQ'tW!lEVWV XQLaLLavWv».

(EyxuxAOJtmb. AE~LXOV EAEU8EQoubaxlj, t, E', aEA. 305).

To va cno Eva 'tE'tOLO «xa'tEa'tT]!lEVLXO» JtaJtabaQLo JtEQL!lEVE 'to '21 E8vLX~ E~aQaT] XaL XQEO~ ELVaL ouv va 'tOU ~~'taE «vaqJT]vE 'to ya!lo YLa va JtaEL YLa JtouQvaQLa ... » *.

LXf'tLxa !If 'tov'ta JtaQa8E'tw bw xa!lw !lEQlxa LLva uno rnv «TIEQLAT]Jt'tLX~ Ynotunoxrn tou TIEQLEX0!lEVOU 'tT]~ EA-

* To QaytUbu{o EXEivo IEQmEio OXt flOVO oui xava f8voc; (= 1tQumv' UI.Oya) OEV ciXE - U1J1::0 - oxaaiI.EC;, fla oVOr xov 1l0TllC; TOU lliotEtjJf Ott 0 Xoioro; ELX' EQ8EL yta xuva «ayallUtE aAAi)1.0UC;», i) «EOtE EYXQatEii:; xcn ElQT)Vlxoi», aAAu on toy EOtftAf 0 IIavuya80e; Yla va - xutom tOU - OL L'1WllOtUOf;, OL AQXLCtUXOVOL Xat OL HY0U!lEVOL llEQVc:lV (ue XQUOEC; ML tQEe; om XEqJc:lALU roue) flla ~wi) «XOtOc:lVL» - tT)v flayxovqJa ...

«L'1EV oUYXWQOVflEV xavEva Yc:lflOV i) oLa~vyLOv, 1taQu flE tT)v tLfli)v flEYc:lAT)e; llAT)QWfli)e;. AlloAafl~uvoflfV flfYc:lAa XEQOT) uno rou; fllXQOVe; xm f1fYUAOUe; orpoQLO!lOV;. Mae; llAT)QWVOUV OLc:l v' aqJoQLOW!lEV nv«, Xat m'thv !lac; llAT)QWVOUV bLa va tOY auYXWQi)OW!lfV».

«AAA' 0 1tQriltLOtO; X/.ClOOe; tWV fLOOOT)!lU"!:wv flae; ouvtorntrn EL; rnv rtuQaAa~i)v tou OEXU'tOU: To onotov XUIlVOIlEV euVc:lIlEl <l>lQ!luviou. XWQLC; 'tT)v axatT)yoQT)'tOv mmT)v 1tQoomyi)v CEV T)8EAOfJ,fV 1l01:E Om'T)8i) vc AU!l~aVW!lEV 'ta fLOOOi)fJ,U'tu rcnrrn, av xcu T) OWUSLe; tOU OfXatOU etvrn LEQa, blatt ELVaL YfYQallflEvov fte; 'tT)v IIaAatav L'1la8i)xT)v» (M.<I>. ZaAAWVT);, o.n., OEI.. 121).

* «EAAT)VlXi) NO!luQXiu, i)tOL Aayor; llEQL EAEU8EQLUe;», qJLAOAOYlXi) uno!lVT)IlflWOT) r. BaAEm, ExbooT) I", BL~ALoExbonxi), A8i)va 1957.

196

197

rIANNID:: ~KAPIMILU:

TO 1821 KAI H AAHE>EIA

~avbQa AUXWV. H xutrrvnu tou KA~QOU, H CPLAOXQl']~atla tOU tWQLV01J EAAl']VLX01J KA~QOU. H a~a8ELa tOU I1atQLaQXl'] - OL YQa~~atLxoi tOU. I1atQlaQXl']~, bLa~EOOL, ~wobo~. OL bwbEXa ~WQOL tl']~ ~uvobou. AQXLmlOXO:n:m,OUVaAAayE~ tOU~ ~E tOU~ 08W~aV01J~, AcpOQLO~OL, aYLaO~OL, ~Vl']uoouvo, XAl']QOVO~LE~ XA1t. ~uxwQOxaQtLa. 3E1tOUAl']~a EVOQLWV. ~aVElXa XL ayUQWta. nW~ ~OWE Ol aQXlE1tLOX01tOL: aXOAaOLE~, 1tQObOOLE~, aVaL08l']OLa. E1tLOX01tOL XaL 1tQWtOOUYXEAAOL. H A~OtEUOl'] tWV XWQlatWV. nW~ XELQotOVOUvnn OL 1ta1tabE~. OL 1tavtaXOUOE~ rorv ~oVaOtl']QLWV. KoxXaA01tWAl']tE~ - aYLa AEl1vava. To xatavtl']~a tOU KA~QOU, 1tQWtl'] attLa tl']~ Xa8UOtEQl']Ol']~ tOU AUtQW~OU. H EAEU8EQLa 8aVaOL~0 a~aQtl']~a YLa t01J~ LEQOX~QUXE~. TL blbaoxouv to AaO Ol LEQOX~QUXE~. ~LaOtQEj3AWOl'] - AUXOL XaL Xa8QECPtE~ rou OXOtOU~. AEL'ljJaVOXa1tl']AELa XaL 8aU~atoXa1tl']AEla - OQYla (Blj3Aio 30 XaL 40, «EAAl']VLX~ NO!!aQXLa» )>>.

TL EiXE xEQbLOEL urto mv LbQuol'] EVO~ EAAabLxou XaL AEUtEQOU j3aoLAELOu; ~ta EUQUtEQa vo~~ata tnv atovl']ol'] 0' auto tl']~ E1;ouoLa~ tOU. ~ta OtEVWtEQa - to ELba~E - to I1atQLaQXEio ayvo~8l']XE Xat coro toy cpoj3o t~~ a1t' to VtOj3AEtL EsaQtl']O~~ toun 1tQLV bE01tO~OUoa Esouoia tOU EYLVE OAOtEAa OXLWbLXl']. ~uva~a, ~E to «AUtOXEcpaAOV» * a1tWAEOE XaL xa'.t~La ESl']VtaQLa EmOX01tE~ XaL Ml']tQ01tOAEL~* *.

Tmrtn, XWQLa XaL ceto tOY EXtotE (w~ EX tl']~ xaXU1tO'lfJLa~ tou ~Lj3avLOu ) mi ~aAAOV XaL ~aAAOV 1tEQLOQLO~O tWV 1tQOvouuov tOU Xat tWV OCPCPL tOLWV.

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