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Tuyen Chon Chuyen de THTT Quyen 3

Tuyen Chon Chuyen de THTT Quyen 3

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Tuyển chọn theo chuyên đề Toán Học và Tuổi trẻ- quyển 3
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Tuyển chọn theo chuyên đề Toán Học và Tuổi trẻ- quyển 3
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MUCLUC

. .

Loi n6i dau

Nhtrng kf hieu trong sach

Bui Quang Truong Bui Quang Truong NguyEn Ngoc Huang Le Quang Trung NguyEn Hiiu Bang Trdn Xudn Dang Ngo Hdn

CHUONG]

KHAI THAC CAC BAI TOAN TRUNG HOC CO SO

Phii'nmqt

ToAN vt T ~P HQP s6 NGUYEN, s6 HUU rt

C6 th~ lam toan sinh dong hon diroc khong ? ..

Cong va trir them mot con s6 thich h<;1P .

T6ng cac chii' s6 cua mot s6 nr nhien .

Xay dung cong thuc tinh t6ng cac s6 tu nhien bang da thuc .

V ~ bai to an so sanh phan so .

Dinh If Trung Hoa v~ s6 du .

Phuong phap cl!c han .

U Hao Suy nghi tir lei giai mot bai toan thi vo dich qu6c te .

Bui Quang Truong Phuong trlnh can dong dang bac hai .

NguyEn N g9c Binh Phuong Mot s6 bai toan ve s6 hiru ti va s6 vo tl .

Le Quang Trung Tfnh bi~u thirc hiru ti bang each xet dang da thirc bang nhau tai nhieu

gia tr] .

Tap duot khai thac cac dAng tlnrc dii biet .

Trinh Khoi

u ss: KhOi va Dire

N go Van Thai

Ton NiiBich Van

Phdn hai

TIM GIA TR, LON NHAT, GIATR, NHO NHAT

v« m6i quan he giua hai bat dAng thirc Cauchy va Bemoulli .

Tir cac tinh chat co ban cua bat dAng thtrc .

Mot plnrong phap danh gia t6ng cac phan thirc .

Van dung hang dAng thirc .JAi = IAI vao giai toan .

Trang 3 4

5 7 9

11 12 14 16 18 20 22

24 26

28 29 31

33

va Duc

Nxuyin Di Trinh Vinh Ngoc Phan NX9(' Thao Vii Duc

Huynh Van Trong Nxuyin Van Hien Le Van Tie'n

Hoang Hdi Duong Nxuyin NX9C Khoa Pham Tht vu. Tluii N xuyin N X9C Khoa

Le Truong Tung Ngo Van Thai

Le Ng9c Thanh Vinh VoKimHu¢

va Hiiu Binh Nxuyin Minh Thonx Dam Hieu Chien Nxuyin NX9c Nam ce Quoe' Han

t» Toan, ostu« Hdi Nguyin Van Vinh NxoThe'Phi¢t

Ddng Van BMu Nxuyin Due Tdn

N xuyin Due Truong Hoang Ngoc Cdnh Nguyen Due Tan

ce Duy Ninh

Mot s6 bai to an ve gia tri tuyet d6i. ..

Chirng minh bat d~ng thtrc dang IAI5 a .

D6i dieu ve mot phirong phap giai phirong trlnh 0 cap trung hoc co so ,

Bai toan eire tri cua bieu thirc chua dau Can ..

Suy luan hop If trong loi giai co ve thieu nr nhien .

MQt s6 chu Y khi giai toan tim eire tri dai s6 ..

MQt s6 sai lam khi giai toan eire tri ..

MQt s6 hru y khi giai bai toan tim gia tri Ian nhat, gia tri nho nhat., ..

Giai roan b~t d~ng thirc va cue tri dua vao phirong trinh bac hai.. ..

Tim eire tri mot bieu thuc bang nhieu each ..

Sir dung phirong phap tham bien de tim eire tri mot bieu thirc ..

Giai toan eire tri dai s6 vci cac bien co dieu kien ..

Phdn ba

REN LUytN TU'DUY QUA ToAN HINH HOC PHANG

ve dinh If Steiner - Lehmus .

Tro lai dinh If Steiner - Lehmus ..

Sira sai thanh chua dung .

Dinh lf bon diem va each chirng minh hai duong thang

vuong goc voi nhau ..

Khi d~c biet hoa bai toan ..

Hay giai mot bai toan theo nhil'ng each nhln khac nhau ..

Khai thac mot bai toan ..

Tir ket qua cua mot bai toan .

Tir mot bai toan hlnh hoc lop 9 .

Tir bat d~ng thirc dai s6 den bai toan eire tri hmh hQC ..

Nhan xet 1m giai bai toan nhu tM nao ? .

Phuong phap dien tfch .

Giai duoc bai toan chua h~n la ket thuc .

Thay d6i dieu kien thu yeu trong bai toan hlnh hQC .

lmg dung cua mot he thuc ve ti s6 dien tfch .

Ren luyen nang lire nr duy thong qua viec khai thac cac bai toan ..

v« mot bai toan eire tri hlnh hQC ..

Phat trien tir mot bai toan hlnh hoc .

35 38 39 41 44 46 48 51 53 56 58 60

62 64 65

66 69 70 72 74 76 78 81 83 86 88 90 92 95 96

Trdn TUQudng Nguy!n Phu Chien Pham Bdo

Trdn Phuong Duong Quoc' Vi¢t

Pham Ngoc BtJi N guy!n V an Quy Le Thong Nhdt

N guy!n Anh Dung Ddng Hung Thdng Nguyen vi« Hdi

Phan Nam Hung UHao

UHao

Bui Viin vu«

Le Hiiu Dung Pham QuO(- Phong Cao Trung Chinh t-s« Viin Minh

N guy!n Dao Phuong N guy!n Dao Phuong Nguy!n Thuc' Hao

H6 Cong Dung Nguy!n Minh na Trinh Bang Giang

CHlfONGII

NHIN BAI TOA.N TU NHIEU HU()NG

Phdn m(jt

V AN Dt NGHI~M V A NGHI~M KEP CVA PHU'ONG TRINH

ve loi giai cua mot bai toan co ban.,...................................................... 99

Quy tich dai s6 101

Bac cua tham s6 va hlnh bao cua ho direng thang y = j(x,m) 104

Ho dirong cong tiep xuc voi mot dirong co djnh........ 108

Nhln lai khai niern nghiern kep cua phirong trinh

va van de dirong cong tiep xuc voi true hoanh 113

MQt s6 van de ve nghiern boi cua phirong trlnh.............. 115

Bai toan tiep tuyen khi khong dung phirong phap nghiem kep........ 118

Lai ban ve chuyen tiep xuc cua hai d6 thi 120

v« bai toan phirong trlnh tiep tuyen 122

v« co sa cua phirong phap nghiern kep 123

Ban ve sir tiep xuc cua hai d6 thi 125

Phdn hai

MOl LItN H~ GIUA cAc DU'ONG THANG, DU'ONG CONIC

MQt s6 dang khac cua bai toan con buom 128

Mot s6 he thirc lien he gitra duong thang va duong tron...... 130

Ma rong bai toan con birorn cho cac dirong c6nic.................................. 133

Ho tiep tuyen voi dirong tron.i.». 136

Giai dieu parabol.................................................................................... 137

Viet phirong trinh parabol bang phirong phap chUm...... 138

Di tlm mot loi giai dep 142

Khoang each tit mot conic den mot loai dirong thang 143

Phuong tfch cua mot diem d6i vci mot dirong conic 145

Duong conic d~ng phirong cua hai dirong c6nic..................................... 149

Phuong trlnh tiep dang cua dirong conic 15 !

na« ba

TU HINH PHANG nfN HINH KHONG GIAN

Giai toan eire tri hlnh hoc diroi each nhln dai s6 154

Di~m Torricelli cua ttl' dien 155

Thir rna rong mot bai toan...................................................................... 158

v 0 Giang Giai

H6 Cong Diing Trinh Bang Giang Nguyen Anh Diing H6 Quang Vinh Luu Hung

Pham Dang Long

M9t vai ket qua dep cua hlnh hoc chirng minh bang phirong phap

dien tich, th~ tfch.................................................................................... 160

Nhin tit dinh If Menelaus , 163

Di tim mot dang dinh If sin cho tu di¢n.................................................. 165

Tu dien gan dt!u 167

Mat cau tiep xuc vai dirong thing chua cac canh cua khoi tu dien 170

Vai irng dung cua dinh If con nhfrn , 173

Phat trien mot bai toan 176

CHU(}NG III

100 D:~ ToAN HAY

Phiin mot at BAI

Phdn hai U)IGIAI

S6 hoc 181...................... 191

Dai s6 182...................... 197

Giai tich 185...................... 211

Hinh hoc phang 186...................... 216

Hinh hoc khong gian 188...................... 232

C{;;u1jln chon theo chu1jen de'

ToAN HOC & TUGI TRE

* K~AI TH~f_~~~~~~AI"~!QA~_!HC.~ , __ . "

* NHIN HAl ToAN TV NHI~U HUONG

-'" ... -.-~~-.-- .... --

* 100 f)~ ToAN HAY

~M W "_' "_'"~""MM~m~'_"''_'~' _ __''' '_'_''_N"'_~'"""--'_,.",N,"'~._~,~.·~"~_~~.",.~.,~·,~

, ~ ., ,

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO DVC

e~ ! _

, , .... ,

KHAI THAC CAC BAI TO AN

TRUNG HOC co sa

---------------------------------- .

Phdn mot

, ~.... J .A. N'" ..,

TOAN VE T~P HQP so NGUYEN, so Hl1U TI

~ /I?,,,.I\ A

CO THE LAM TOAN SINH DQNG HaN ouoc KHONG ?

(Vi each gidi phuang trinh nghiem nguyen ax + by = c)

Cac sach tham khao v~ toan da gi6i thieu hang loat meo mire de tlm nghiem nguyen cua phirong trtnh vO dinh hai an dang ax + by = c vci a, b, c la cac s6 nguyen. DAy la mot bai toan dan gian va ta se phai l~p di l~p lai cling mot kieu If luan de t, t) , t2,... nguyen. COng viec d6 that dan dieu va rat nhieu ban ngai khi pMi tlm tui f3, t4, 's- ...

Chang han, mot lai giai mdu trong sach giao khoa nhimg nam 80 v~ each tlm nghiem nguyen cua phirong trinh

23x + 53y = 109

nhir sau:

Tir (1) ta e6

_109-53y -4-2 17-7y

x - 23 - Y + 23 .

M ' h' ., 17 - 7 Y la sf(

uon x nguyen p ar co f = 23 u

nguyen, hay

BiJI QUANG TRUONG tu« NM

23t + 7y = 17

T ..... (2) 6 17 - 23f 2 3 3 - 21

u e y = 7 = - f+-7-·

M ~ h'· 6 3 - 21

uon y nguyen p ar e -7 - = f) nguyen

(2)

hay 7/) +21 = 3

(3)

(1)

3 -7f 1- t

re (3) e6 f=-2-) =1-3f) +T. VI

, hai , 1 - f)

tva t) nguyen nen p ar co -2- = t2 nguyen

hay 2f2 + f) = 1. (4)

Ttr (4) e6 fl = 1- 2f2 va t = 1- 3f) + f2 = 1 - 3(1 - 2(2) + f2 hay f = -2 + 7t2. Khi d6 ta dtroc y = 2 - 3t + t) = 2 - 3(-2 + 7t2) + (1 - 2t2) = 9 - 23t2.

va x = 4 - 2y + t = 4 - 2(9 - 23t2) - 2 + 7t2 = -16 + 53t2.

5

Phuong phap giai da dan chiing ta tm dich, nhimg viec Hun that te nhat. Neu nghi ding moi dieu trong sach va la da tuyet voi, kin ke r6i thi chung ta se thu dong khong phat huy duoc kha nang suy nghi sang t<:10'

Chung ta hay thir tim mot con dirong khac, Xet bai toan : Tim nghiem nguyen eua phuang trinh 12x - 67y = 43 (5)

Tu(5) co

x=3-5y+ 7-7y =3-5y+ 7(I-y)

12 12 .

\G 7 va 12 nguyen t6 cung nhau nen de

x nguyen thi I ;/ = t phai nguyen. Tir do suy ra y = I - 12t va x = 67t - 2.

Phai chang phirong phap giai a day chi thuan loi cho viec giai phirong trinh (5) rna thoi ? De tra loi chung ta hay thii giai phirong trinh (1) theo kieu da giai phirong trinh (5).

Ttr (I) ta co x = 4 - 2 y + 17 ;37 y. Gia nhu 17 va 7 co vac s6 chung, hay dep han nira: 17 chi a het cho 7 (!). C6 t<:10 ra con s6 chi a het cho 7, cluing ta cong va trir them 4 thl diroc x =

4 - 2y + 7(3 -2~) - 4. Con s64 moi xuat hien da gay them phien plnrc. Neu no chi a het cho 23 thl t6t qua (I). BAng mot linh cam tnrc giac cluing ta chon con s6 khac : 46.

T·' 4 2 17-7y

a viet x = - y + 23

= 4-2y+ I7-7y+46-46 23

-4 2 7(9-y) 2

- - y + 23 -.

9-y

Tuyet ! Nhu vay phai co """""23 = t nguyen

suy ra y = 9 - 23t va

x = 2 -18 + 46t + 7t = 53t - 16.

Noi mot each khai quat, di tim nghiem nguyen da phuang trinh ax + hy = c vai cdc scI nguyen a, b, c (6) cluing ta co the lam nhir sau :

6

Chon A Hl boi nguyen cua a sao cho c + A chia het cho b, tire la A = ma va c + A = kh voi m, k la cac s6 nguyen. Liic do

C + A - hy - A kb - hy

x= =-m

a a

h(k - y)

= -m.

a

G·, , b d' d . d ,"" h h' Ian VC1c - e ira ve <:tOg tOl gran - = ---;-

a a a

vm (a', h') = 1. Muon x nguyen phai co k:, y = t nguyen. Tir do suy ra y = k -a't, x = bt - m.

Nhu the de tim roan bo cac nghiem nguyen cua phirong trmh ax + hy = c (6) cluing ta chi can tim mot cap nghiem nguyen (xo,yo) = (-m,k).

Thi du. Tim nghiem nguyen eua phuang trinh

2 2

-12x+3"9y=39"9

3+2 29 -9-=9

(7)

LUi gidi.

29y 353 Dod6 (7) ~ -12x+9 =9

hay -I08x + 29y = 353.

TIrd6

353 + 108x

y = 29

12 3 5+21x

+ x+ 29

=

=

5+2Ix+58-58, '

12 + 3x + 29 (VI nhan thay trong

cac boi s6 nguyen cua 29 thl 58, khi cong 5 se chi a het cho 21),

M 6 • hi 3 + x h" I' u n y nguyen t I 29 = t p ar a

s6 nguyen. Vay x = 29t - 3 va

y = 10-9+ 87t + 21t = I + 108t.

Vao mot luc xuat than, sir IUDn IUDn nghi den nhirng cai moi co tM khien ban tach ve ph iii c cua phirong trinh ax + hy = c (6) thanh hai

phan : mot phan chia het cho a, phan con lai chia het cho b, nghia Ut c = axo + hyo (8) vm

-o- Yo la cac s6 nguyen.

The thl (6) <=> ax + hy = axo + hyo

<=> x = Xo + h(yo - y) = Xo + h'(yo ,- y)

a a

Do (a',h') = 1 nen Yo - y = t la mot s6

a' ~

nguyen.

Vay x=xo+h't, y=yo-a't.

Ban chat cua phuong phap tach c thanh hai phan neu tren la gi ?

D6 la khi biet mot cap nghiem nguyen (xo,Yo) cua phirong trinh vo dinh (6) thi c6

ngay cong thirc nghiem cua (6). Dang thirc (8) da khang dinh (xo,Yo) la mot cap nghiem

nguyen cua (6).

Qua cau chuyen ve each tim nghiem nguyen cua phuong trinh vo dinh nay, toi khong mu6n

dimg a muc tieu gioi thieu vm ban doc mot phirong phap giai khac vm sach giao kho rna con mu6n n6i rang : dimg voi thoa man va yen long vm nhimg ket quit da neu trong sach va rna phai luon luon nghi den nhimg cai mot t6t dep hon, trong sang hon va hay dung cam, kien tri tiep can chung,

Ngoai cac each giai tren con c6 each giai cua nha toan hQC An D¢ Bokhatcara diiu the ki Xll, cac ban c6 the tv tlrn cac each giai khac, hoac xem trong cac cu6n sach sau :

- SrI va khoa hoc ve' so' ; G. N. Beeman ; NXB Giao due, Ha N¢i, 1962.

- Tim toi lai gidi cdc phuang trinh va dinh. ; Bui Quang Tnrong ; NXB Giao due, Ha N¢i 1995.

A , , ;'\ A A""

CONG VA TR(fTHEM MOT CON SO THICH HOP

. . .

Trong bai C6 thllclm todn sinh d~ng han duac khong ? THIT s6 154 thang 2.1987 uk giit da giiti phuong trtnh vO dinh ax + hy = c bang

each cong va trir them mot con s6 thfch hop. Cach giai d6 khong dung tm qua nhieu buoc bien d6i nhu sach giao khoa. Nghiem nguyen (x, y) cua phirong trtnh tren duoc tim ra sau mot vai thir nghiem va bien d6i.

Trong bai Phuong trinh va dinn ax + hy = c + dxy(*) (Tuyen t~p 30 nam, tap chi TOlin hoc va Tu6i tre NXB Giao due, 2004 trang 58 - 59) tac gia vAn dung each cong, trir them mot con s6 thfch hop de tim nghiem nguyen cua plurong trmh vo dinh ax + hy = c + xy va duong nhu

lung tung tnroc phirong trlnh

ax + hy = c + dxy

SUI QUANG TRUONG (Hd N~i)

(1)

Con duong suy luan hop logic khong thang tuot duoc ntra, n6 c6 ve da phai hron cong di ? KhOng ! N6 thuc sl,l' van thang. N6 dirong nhu chun lai, gay hang trong long ban va klch thfch ban muon tiep tuc di tren con duang thang bang : Cu cang, tru them mot con sothich hap thi dii sao!

Cac ban c6 nghi nhu vay khong ? nhtmg ban tre yeu toan va ham mu6n c6ng hien cho cac bai toan nhfmg Uri giai dep va trong sang.

C6 the va hie nao d6, ban nhln phirong trinh (l) tren trang giay trang tnroc mat va ban viet :

(1) <=> ax = c + dxy - hy = c + y(dx - h) (2)

Tnrong hop dx - h = 0 cho x nguyen, nrc Ut h : d thl ta chi viec thay x = % (nguyen) vao

7

(2) duoc ax = c. Neu ~ = ~ thl (1) co nghiem

b c khi d' r' b' kl ,

x = d = ;;' lOY a s6 nguyen at I; con

neu !:_ =F- -dh thl tnrong hop dx - b = 0 khong th~

a .

xay ra.

Trong tnrong hop dx - h =F- 0 (nrc b khong chia het cho d), ta viet

ax - C

(2) <=> Y = dx _ h

Neu a: d nrc la a = d.m (m nguyen) thl cong va trir them mh vao tu s6 diroc

dmx - mh + mh - c mh - c

y= =m+--

dx-h dx-h

mh = C

D~ y nguyen phai co = t la s6

dx-h

nguyen, hay

mh-c h--

dxt - ht = mh - c <=> x = t (4)

d

vci t la uac s6 nguyen cua mh - c = ~ - c.

Tat nhien chi nhtmg gia tri x cho b6i (4) la nghiem nguyen moi thoa man bai toan, luc do y = m + t. Nhirng neu a khong chia het cho d thl sao ? 0 (*) ta da biet mot each giai : Dieu kien

ax - c

c~ de y = dx-h (3) nguyen la ax - (0 = 0

hoac lax - c:I ~ Idx - hi. Binh phirong hai ve suy ra xI :5; x :5; x2' Nhung bay gia chung fa muon gidi (3) bang each cong, tm them mot con s6 thich hop vao tu s6. Va sam hay muon ban se nay ra mot y dinh : nhan hai ve cua (3) vci d

dax - cd diroc (3) <=> dy = dx _ h .

Con s6 thich hop d~ cong, trir them vao tu s6 ro rang la ah. Vay :

d _ dax - ah + ah - cd ah - cd

y- dx-h = a+ dx-h'

D·' ki . dil I' M ah - cd

ieu ien can e y nguyen a = dx _ h

la 6 A L' d' a + M

mot s nguyen. uc 0 y = -d-

8

ah - cd _ b

x = _=M:..__ __

d

v6i M la uac s6 nguyen cua

(3)

ah - cd sao cho x, y nguyen.

Chung ta goi do la Cacli 2 de giai (1) nham phan biet v6i Cdch 1 da dira ra trong (*).

Lay hai thf du 6 (*) nhirng giai bang each 2. Thi du 1. Tim nghiem nguyen cua phuang

trinh 2x - 3y = -5xy + 39. (5)

LUi gidi.

(5) <=> 2x = y(3 - 5x) + 39

(6)

Vi x nguyen nen 3 - 5x =F- 0, do do

(6) 2x - 39 Nh hai , ,0 5 d

<=> y = 3 _ 5x' an ai ve voi iroc

5 _ lOx -195 y - 3-5x .

Cong, trir them 6 vao tu s6 duoc

5y= lOx-6+6-195 = -2- 189

-5x +3 -5x+ 3

Dieu kien c~ de y nguyen la -5x + 3 la uoc s6 nguyen cua 189 = 3.3.3.7. Ttrc la -5x + 3 = ± k voi k= 1,3,7,9,21,27,63,189. Tir do x chi co cac gia tri nguyen x = -12, 0, 2, 6. Tirong ling la y = -I, -13, -5, 1.

Thi du 2. Tim cdc s6' nguyen (x ; y) thod

man ddng thia: 5x - 3y = 2xy - 11 (7)

LOi gidi. (7) <=> 5x = y(2x + 3) - 11

5x + 11

<=> y = 2x+ 3

ee 2 = lOx + 22 = 5 + _7_

Y 2x+3 2x+3

Di~u kien cdn de y nguyen la 2x + 3 = ± 1, ± 7 la cac uac s6 cua 7. Vay co x = 2, -5, -I, -2 va nrong ling y = 3, 2, 6,-1.

Tom lai, cong va trir them mot con s6 thich hop la plnrong phap tim diroc nghiem nguyen cua phirong trinh v6 dinh (1). Nhimg d~y co phai la phirong phap hay nhat khong ? Phuong phap do co tM giro quyet diroc phirong trmh tong quat han (1) hay khong ?

Chung ta se con gap nhau ban ve nhtrng phirong trinh vo dinh. Phai khong cac ban ?

".? / _ A/? ",,/ "

TONG CAC CHlJ SO CVA MQT SO tu NHIE1V

Voi moi s6 nr nhien n, ta goi Sen) la tong cac chil s6 cua n viet trong he thap phan,

I. Mc?t s6 tinh chat cua ham Sen) (cac ban hay tu chirng minh)

1) O~S(n)~n, S(n)=n <=>0~n~9.

2) n == Sen) (mod 9)

3) Neu n ~ akak_I ... alao

voi ai,k EN; 0 ~ ai ~ 9 ; ak ~ 1; k ~ 1 ; i = 0, 1, ... , k thl

a) Sen) ~ ak + 9k neu ak_1 = ak-2 = ... = al = ao = 9.

b) S(n)~(ak -1)+9k neu c6 it nhat mot trong k chu s6 ak_1 ,ak-2 , ... ,ao khac 9.

4) Neu Sen) ~ r + 9t vai r, tEN; 0 s r s 9,

t ~ 1 thl n ~ r99 ... 9 (sau r c6 t chu s6 9).

5) sen + m) ~ Sen) + SCm) v6i moi n, mEN

6) S(nm) s S(n).S(m) vm moi n, mEN.

Ta c6 the sir dung cac tinh chat tren de giiti cac bai toan v~ cac s6 viet trong h¢ thap phan.

II. Cac bili toan

Bai 1. Tim sotu nhien n hiet tdng cdc chit so' clia n bdng n2 - 1999n + 28.

LUi gidi. Neu 1 s n s 1998 thl ta c6

S(n) = n2 -1999n + 28 < n2 -1999n + 1998 = (n - 1)(n - 1998) ~ 0 (loai),

• Neu n = 1999 thl Sen) = S(1999) = 28 = n2 - 1999n + 28 (dung).

• Neu n > 1999 thi ta c6

S(n) = n2 -1999n + 28 > n(n -1999) > n (loai).

NGUYEN NGQC HVdNG au« Giang)

Vay n = 1999.

Bai 2. Biet tdng cdc chit so' clia mot so' tu nhien bdng tdng cdc chii so' clia tich sod» vai 1998, chung minh rang so'd6 chia he't cho 9.

LUi gidi. GQi s6 nr nhien da eho la n. Ta c6 n == Sen) (mod 9) va 1998n == S(1998n) (mod 9) rna theo gh\ thiet Sen) == S(l998n) nen

1998n-n==0 (mod 9) ~ 1997n:9 ~ n:9 (dpcm).

B"3 Chu . h rd S(2n) 1 ,.

ai o. ling min rang Sen) ~ '5 VOl moi

n E N.

LUi gidi. Ta e6

Sen) = S(lOn) = S(5.2n) s S(5).S(2n)

5 S(2) S(2n) 1 ,. . ~T

= . n ~ Sen) ~ '5 VO'l mQI n E 1'1.

Bai 4. a) Tim so' tu nhien n sao cho n + Sen) = 1998.

h) Chung minh rang co it nhdt mot trong hai so' tu nhien lien tie'p hilu diln duac dum dang n + Sen) vai n ta mot so'tlf nhien nao do.

LUigidi. a) Cadi 1 :Tac6n= 1998 -Sen) s 1997 ~ Sen) s 9.3 = 27

~ n = 1998 - Sen) ~ 1971.

D~t n=19ah v6ia,hEN;0~a,h~9. Ta c6 19ah + 10 + a + b = 1998

~ lla+2h = 88

~ 70 ~ l1a ~ 88 ~ a = 8, b = O. Vay n = 1980 .

Cach 2. Ta c6 1998 = n + Sen)

= n - Sen) + 2S(n) ~ 2S(n): 9 ~ Sen) : 9.

9

Mat khac n = 1998 - Sen) ::; 1997 => Sen) $; 9.3 = 27.

Do do S(n) = 9, 18 hoac 27. Thir tnrc tiep chi

co S(n) = 18 thoa man, irng voi n = 1980.

b) D<\it SII = n + Sen) v6i mei n E No Nhdn xet .

• Neu n tan cung bang 9 thl SII+I < SII'

• Neu n t~ cung khong phai la 9 thl SII+I = SII + 1.

D6i voi s6 tv nhien m > 2 bat ki, ta chon k la s6 Ian nhat sao cho Sk < m => Sk+1 ::; m + 1.

Do each chon k thi Sk+1 ~ m. Do do hoac Sk+1 = m hoac Sk+1 = m + 1.

B' . 5 Ch I' 6' tc ch - 6' , (29) 1999 ai e. 0 a a t ng cac ells cua ,

h Iii t6ng cdc chii so' cua a. Tinh t6ng cdc chii so' eua h.

LUi gidi. Ta co

n = (29)1999 = (23)3.1999 = 85997 < 105997 => a = Sen) ::; 9.5997 = 53973

=> h = Sea) ::; 4 + 9.4 = 40 => c = S(h) s 3 + 9.1 = 12. Vi n = (23)5997 == 8 (mod 9) va n == a == h == c == 8 (mod 9) nen (' = 8.

Bai 6. Tim so'tlf nhien n sao cho luy thua

bd 5 '0' tc chii 0" h~ 2

ac cua t ng cac ells cua nang n .

LUi gidi. Gill sir s6 n c4n tim c6 k chii' s6 va S ; ia tOng cac chii' s6 d6. Ta c6 SS = n2 v6i k ~ 2 ;

S s 9k, n ~ 1O/rl => 95k5 ~ S5 = n2 ~ 102k-2 (1)

95 k5 D~t uk = 102k-2

T ,9\k + 1)5 = (k + 1)5 < 25 102 =

aco 55 5 - <

9 .k k

102(k+I)-2

= 102k-2 v6i moi k ~ 2.

Til do uk+ 1 < uk v6i moi k ~ 2 nen day s6 (Uk) la day giam.

Vi 1 '95k5 102k-2 ,. .

I U6 < nen ta co ::; VOl mQI

k ~ 6 (2)

10

Til (1), (2) phai co k ::; 5 => S::; 9.5 = 45.

Mat khac t = n2 suy fa S phai la s6 chinh phuong. Vay S co th~ la 1,4,9, 16,25,36. Thir tnrc tiep thi S5 = n2 chi dung khi S = 1 va S = 9 img voi n = 1 va n = 243.

Bai 7. Kf hieu binh phirong tong cac chit s6 cua n la 11(n). D~t Ik(n) = .h(fk-I(n». Tfnh 11998(21999) va/1999(21999).

L" .? T' 21999 28666 2 ( od 9)

01 guu. aeo n = =. == m

It (n) == 4 (mod9) => I: (n) == 7 (mod9).

Mat khac n = 2.8666 < 10667 => II(n)::; (9.667)2 = 36036009 => hen) $; (2 + 9.7)2 = 4225

=> hen) ::; (3 + 9.3)2 = 302.

GQi S = S(f2(n» thi ta co S == 7 (mod 9) va S s 30.

Suy fa S bang 7, 16 hoac 25 => hen) bang 49 ; 256 hoac 625.

Vi 4 + 9 = 2 + 5 + 6 = 6 + 2 + 5 = 13 nen

14(n) = 132 = 169 => 15(n) = 162 = 256.

{Ik(n) = 169 n€ukehlfu Vay v6i k ~ 4 thl

Ik(n) = 256 neu k Ie

Do d6f199S(n) = 169,f1999(n) = 256.

III. Cac bai t~p tl! luyen

Bai 1. Tong cac chtr s6 cua mot s6 chfnh phirong co the bang 1995 hoac 1997 duoc khong ? Vi sao?

Bai 2. Nguoi ta viet day s6 tv nhien lien tiep til 1 den 1.000.000. Sau do m6i s6 diroc thay bang tong cac chir s6 ciia no. CU lam nhu vay eho den khi trong day chi con cac s6 co mot chu so, hie nay trong day eu6i cung chtr s6 nao xuat hien nhieu 14n nhat ?

Bai 3. T6n tai hay khong s6 tv nhien n sao cho Sen) = m, S(n2) = m2 voi m la mot s6 tv nhien eho tnroc ?

B"4 Clui inh rt S(8n) 1 , .. ai e, irng rrn rang Sen) ~ 8" VOl mQI

n E N, n > O.

Bai 5. Tim s6 tv nhien n nhonhat sao cho S(S(n» ~ 10 va S(S(S(n») ~ 9.

Bai 6. v m moi s6 tv nhien n, chtrng minh rang t6n tai v() han s6 tv nhien m sao cho S(nm) ~ 2S(m).

Bai 7. Tim s6 tv nhien n thoa man m6i dAng thirc sau :

a) n + Sen) = 1999; b) n - Sen) = 1998

c) 2n + 3S(n) = 122 ;

d) 3n + 2S(n - 3) = 6007

e) n + Sen) + S(S(n» = 1998

B" 8 Ch l' 6 ' h-;(? (38)1999 ar s. 0 a a t ng cac c U Su cua ,

h la tong cac chtr s6 cua a, C la tong cac chtt s6 cua h. Tinh t6ng cac chu s6 cua c.

A A ,,'" ,.? "",," A

XAY Dl/NG CONG THtfC TINH TONG CAC SO ttr NHIEN

BANG DA THUC

Gia sir f(x) la mot da thirc c6 bac n (n ~ 1).

Xet dAng thuc f(x) - f(x -1) = g(x) (1)

Ta nhan th~y g(x) la da thtrc c6 bac (n - 1) va khi thay x lfuJ. hrot bang 1, 2, 3, ... , n r6i cong lai ta diroc t6ng :

g(1) + g(2) + ... + g(n) = f(n) - f(0) (2) Do d6 xuat phat tu yeu cau tinh t6ng n s6 tv nhien nao d6 ta se chon g(x) va ddn. de'n bai toan : "xac dinh da thucf(x) thoa manf(x) - f(x - 1) = g(x)". Sau day xin neu mot vai vi du minh hoa.

Thi du 1. Tinh fling S = 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n.

Tir t6ng tren va (1), (2) ta chon g(x) = x va f(x) la da thirc bac hai. Do d6 ta xet bai toan : Tim da thirc bac haif(x) bie'tf(x) - f(x - 1) = x.

LUi gidi. Gia sir f(x) = ax2 + hx + c ta « 0). Khi d6 tir (1) c6 2ax - a + h = x,

1 hI" suyra a=-2' =-, ctuyy.

c

1 2 1

V~y f(x)=2x +2x+e.

Thay x Ian luqt bang 1, 2, 3, ... , n tir (2) c6

LE QUANG TRUNG (B[Jc Lieu)

S=I+2+3+ ... +n

= fen) - f(O) = n(n2+ 1).

Thi du 2. Tinh fling S = 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2n - 1). Tu t6ng d6 va (1), (2) ta chon g(x) = 2x - 1 va xet bai toan : Tim da thtrc bac hai f(x) bie't f(x) - f(x -1) = 2x -1.

LUi gidi. Giii sir f(x) = ai + bx + c (a "* 0).

Khi d6 tu (1) c6 2ax - a + b = 2x - 1,

suy ra a = 1, b = 0, c tuy y. Vay f(x) = i + c. Thay x lfuJ. hrot bang 1, 2, 3, ... n, tu (2) c6

S = 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2n - 1) = .f{n) - .f{0) = n2. Thi du 3. Tinh fling

2 2 52 2

S = 1 + 3 + + ... + (2n - 1) .

Tir t6ng tren ta chon

g(x) = (2x _1)2 = 4x2 - 4x + 1 va xet bai toan : Tim da thirc bac ba.f{x) biet

f(x) - f(x -1) = 4x2 - 4x + 1.

LUi gidi. Gia sir f(x) = ax3 + hx2 + ex + d (a"* 0). Khi d6 tir (1) c6

11

3ax2 - (3a - 2h)x - h + e + a = 4x2 - 4x + 1 4

a=-

3

<=> h=O

{3a = 4

<=> 3a - 2h = 4 a+e-h=1

1

e=--

3

4 3 1 V~Yf(x)=3x -3x+d.

Lan hrot thay x bang 1, 2, 3, ... , n tit (2) diroc

2 2 2

S = 1 + 3 + ... + (2n - 1) =

= fen) _ f(O) = 4n3 - n

3

Thi d1;l4. Tinh t6ng

3 3 3 3

S=1 +2 +3 + ... +n.

Ta chon g(x) = x3 va xet bai toan : Tim da

thirc bac b6n f(x) biet

f(x) - f(x -1) = x3• LUi gidi. Gia sii

f(x) = ax4 + hx3 + ex2 + dx + e (a:l; 0).

Khi do tit (1) co

4ax3 + (3h - 6a )x2 + ( 4a - 3h + 2a)x + h - a + d

3 .,. d

= x ,glal ra ta iroc :

1 1

a="4,h=2"' e="4' d=O, e tuy y va

1 4 1 2 1

f(x)="4X +2"x +"4x+e.

Thay x Ian hrot bang 1, 2, 3, ... , n tit (2) co S = 13 + 23 + 33 + ... + n3

1 4 1 3 1 2 n2 (n + 1)2

= -n + -n + +-n = _-'--___:_-

424 4

Qua cac thf du tren, chac cac ban da nhan ra each chon g(x) va tit do tim diroc fix) thoa man yeu cau cua phtrong phap nay.

Bay gio cac ban hay thir tinh hai tong sau day nhe !

Bai 1. Tfnh S 1 = 2 + 4 + 6 + ... + 2n. Bili 2. Tinh S2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + ... + n2.

A'" , , 1\ ",'

VEBAITOANSOSANHPHANSO

Trong phdn on t~p ve tinh chA't cua b6n phep tfnh cua phan s6 dirong co bili toan :

So sdnh bdng nhieu phuang phdp khdc nhau

h . hd ,,5 ,13 hi hd A'

xem trong at p an so "7 va 16 tntp an so

new Ian han ?

Day la mot bai toan dan gian nhirng chua dung nhieu dieu thu vi trong chuang trlnh Tolin 6. Tnroc het xin neu tom Hit nhtrng each so sanh phan so dirong quen thuoc la :

1. Quy dong mau cac phan s6 da cho r6i so sanh cac tii voi nhau.

12

NGUY~N HOU BANG (Ngh¢ An)

2. Viet cac phan s6 da cho dum dang cac phan s6 cung tii r6i so sanh cac mau voi nhau.

3. So sanh phan s6 dira vao tinh chat : Neu a e

ad < he thl h < d'

4. So sanh ti s6 cac phan s6 da cho voi 1 dira vao tinh chat :

Neu ~ < 1 thlx<y. y

5. Viet cac phan s6 diroi dang s6 thap phan r6i so sanh cac s6 thap phan do.

6. So sanh s6 nghich dao cua cac phan s6 dua vao tinh chat:

, h d ,a c Neu - < - thi - > -.

a c b d

7. Dua vim tinh chat bilc cau cua quan he thir

a m mea c

nr : Neu - < - va - < - thi - < - .

. b n n d hd

8. So sanh "phan bu cua cac phan s6 d6i v6i fnh h' N' a c d' nhc dan vi" dira vao n c at : eu h'd eu 0

a cae

han 1 va 1 - - < 1 - - thl - > -.

b d b d

Tiep theo xin neu them vai each gifti khac dua vao mot s6 tfnh chat rna rong han.

9. Ta co tinh ch~t (ban doc tv chimg rninh) :

, a c ,a a+e C Neu h < d thl h < h + d < d'

Ap dung vao bai toan tren ta co :

5 3 583

VI 7 < 2. nen 7 < "9 < 2.'

,5 8 5 13 8

tu - < - suy ra - < - < -.

7 9 7 16 9

5 13

V~y 7<16'

10. Til tfnh char da neu a each 9 ta de dang suy ra tinh chat sau :

, a c a an + c c

Neu - < - thl - < -- < - v6i n la s6

b d h hn + d d

nguyen dirong.

Ap dung vao bai toan tren ta co

5 3 5 5.2 + 3 3

VI 7 < 2. nen 7 < 7.2 + 2 < 2. suy ra

5 13

7<16'

MQt viii nhan xet v~ cac each giai.

a. Do bon s6 5, 7, 13, 16 doi mot nguyen t6 cung nhau nen khi ap dung cac each giai 1, 2, 3,4 vao bai toan tren ta deu quy v~ so sanh 5.16 va 7.13.

, 6 h' h 35 ,

b. Khi so sanh cac phan s c ang an 82 va

36 97 , 969 . 1991 ,1993 -, ta

83 ; 99 va 971 ' 1995 va 1997' ro rang

nen ap dung cac each 6, 7, 8, urong img la hop u nhat,

c. De van dung each 10 trong bai to an ban dfiu ta can viet

13 = 5.2 + 3; 16 = 7.2 + 2.

Tuong tv ta cling so sanh diroc mot each

. 6 h 2 h 89 , 895

nhanh gon hal phan s ,c ang an 95 va 954 .

T ,89 5 89 89.10 + 5 5 d

a co 95 < 4" nen 95 < 95.10 + 4 < 4" 0

,89 895

do 95 < 954'

d. M9t dieu tlni vi la nho so sanh phan s6 rna ta co mot each chirng rninh tinh chat sau :

Cho a, h, c, d la cac s6 nguyen dirong, neu a

< b ::;; e < d va a + d = h + c thi ad < he.

That vay til gift thiet suy ra

{h - a = d - c b - a d - c =>-->--

O<h<d b d

a cae

=> 1 - - > 1- - => - < - => ad < he.

b d b d

Nghia la : Cho hai s6 tv nhien bien thien co t6ng khong d6i, the thi tich cua chung cang Ian neu hieu cua chung cang nho.

Vi du : 95.98 > 94.99 ;

19952> 1992.1998; a2>(a-1)(a+l).

That ra tinh chat nay cling dung v6i a, h, e, d la cac phan s6 dirong. Khi do ta xet cac ti s6 nrong img thay cho phan s6.

R6 rang mot bai toan dan gian nhimg cling chua dung nhieu van d~ lf thu.

Cu6i cung xin neu vai bai tap van dung,

Bili 1. So sanh timg c~p phan s6 sau theo

each hop If nhat :

47 49 38, 383 625, 3871

96 va 100 ; 43 va 428 ; 655 va 3874 ;

73 ,7345

65 va 6551 .

13

Bai 2. Cluing minh rang

1 1 1 99

a) 22 +3"2+"'+ 1002 < 100'

1 1 1 1

b) 3+3+"'+3<-4'

2 3 n

Huang ddn " ta co n3 > n(n - 1)(n + 1) ~

2 2 1 1

- < = - ---:--,..,-

n3 n(n - 1)(n + 1) (n - l)n n(n + 1) ,

voi n = 2; 3; ...

D!NH Li TRUNG HOA VB so DC!

Dinh Ii Trung Hoa ve so du diroc phat bieu nhir sau:

Neu ml,m2, ... .m; la n s6 nguyen duang nguyen to' cung nhau tung doi mot va aI' a2, ... , all la n so' nguyen bdt ki thi h¢ phuang trinh dong du sau co nghiem "

{X == al (mod ml) x == a2 (mod m2) x == all (mod mil)

N goai ra neu x = c la mot nghiem nao do coo h¢ thi x = Xo Iii mot nghi¢m eua h¢ khi va chi

khi t6n tai t E Z, sao cho Xo = e + (m1m2 ... mll)t.

Chung minh. Voi m6i i E {I, 2, ... , n}, d~t

Khi d6 n; E N * va

(m;,n;) = 1.

(Kf hieu (m., n;) Itt USG.N cua mi va nJ Vi vay t6n tai hi E Z, sao eho b.n, == 1 (mod mj).

II

D~t M = I.ajhjnj. Khi j =/:. i thl nj: mi' Vm j=1

moi i = 1, 2, ... , n thl M == a.b.n, == a;.l == a;

(mod m;). Vay x = M Itt mot nghiem cua he.

Gia sir x = c Itt mot nghiem cua he, Neu x = Xo Itt mot nghiem nao do cua h¢ thl (xo - c): m; voi moi i = 1,2, ... , n. (1)

14

TRAN XU.AN DANG (Nam D[nh)

D~t m = [mI' m2"'" mn] (m Itt b¢i s6 chung nho nhat cua mI' m2'"'' mn)' Vi mI' m2'"'' mn nguyen t6 cling nhau tirng doi mot nen

Theo (1) thl Xo - c ehia het eho m.

Vay t6n tai t E Z sao eho Xo - c = mt. Suy ra

xo= e+mt.

Ngiroc lai neu Xo E Z thoa man Xo = c + mt thl ro rang x = Xo Itt mot nghiem cua he.

Ap dung dinh If Trung Hoa ve s6 du ta co the giai ducc cac bai toan sau.

Bai to an 1. Chung minh rang vai m6i sotu nhien n, t6n tai n sdtu nhien lien tie'p ma moi so' trong n so'do de'u la hap sd.

LUi gidi. Gia su PI' P2'"'' o; Itt n s6 nguyen t6 khac nhau timg doi mot, Xet he phirong trmh

dong du x == -k (mod pi) (k = 1,2, ... , n). Theo dinh If Trung Hoa ve s6 du, t6n tai Xo E N* sao eho Xo == -k (mod pi) voi moi k = 1,2, ... , n. Khi do cac s6

Xo + 1, Xo + 2, ... , Xo + n deu Itt hop s6 (voi 1 s k s n thl (xo + k): pi).

Bai to an 2. Chung minh rang vai moi sd tu nhien n, t6n tai n so'tlf nhien lien tiep sao cho

heir ki so' tuio trong cdc so'do ciing diu khong phdi la luy thua (vai somii nguyen) eua mot so' nguyen to~

(De thi toan quae tt nam 1989)

LUi gidi. Cach 1 : Vai m6i so 11! nhien n, xet n so nguyen to khac nhau tirng d6i mot PI' P» ... , Pn- Theo dinh If Trung Hoa ve so du ton tai a E N* sao cho a == Pk - k (mod pi) voi k = 1, 2, ... , n. Khi do, de dang thay rang cac so a + 1, a + 2, ... , a + n deu khong phai Ia luy thira (voi so mii nguyen) cua mot so nguyen to.

Cdch 2 : Gia Slr n la mot so t1;1' nhien Mt ki va PI' pz,··., PII, ql' qz, .. ·, qll Ia cac so nguyen to khac nhau timg doi mot, Theo dinh li Trung Hoa ve so dir, he phirong trinh dong dir

x == -1 (mod Plql)' x == -2 (mod pzqz), ... , x ==-n (mod Pllqll) co nghiern.

ChI1 y rang cac so Plql' P2q2,.,.,Pllqll nguyen to cung nhau timg doi m¢t.. Hien nhien rang co the chon x = c la mot nghiem cua he

nay sao cho C E N*. Khi do cac so c + 1, e + 2, ... ,

c + n la n so t1;1' nhien lien tiep va Mt kl so nao trong cac so do cting chia het cho it nhat 2 so

nguyen to khac nhau (c + 1) : (Plql)' (c + 2) : (Pzqz), ... , (c + n): (Pllqll). Vi vay khong co so nao trong cac so do la Iuy thira (vOi so mii nguyen) cua mot so nguyen to.

Bai toan 3. Chung minh rang vai m6i so'tlf nhien n, t6n tai mot cap so' cong g6m n so' hang sao cho moi so' hang cua no diu fa fuy thua cua mot sdtu nhien vai sdmii nguyen IOn han 1.

LUi gidi. Gia Slr Pi la so nguyen tlnr i (i = 1, 2, ... , n) va d~t P = PIPz",Pn- Kf hieu qi =.E....

Pi

Khi do (Pi,qi) = 1 (1 ~ i ~ n). Voi m6i i E {I, 2" ... , n}, he phuong trinh dong du x == 0 (mod q;), x == -1 (mod Pi ) co nghiem x = ai E N*. Xet cap so cong gom n so hang voi cong sai

d = laI2a2 ... nan va so hang dau bang d. Voi 1 ~ k ~ n thi kd = lal.2a2 ... kak+I ... nan .

( al a2 ak+1 an )Pk

Khi do kd = 1 Pk .21'k ... k l'k ... n l'k

~ a2 £lk+1 an

56 11'k.2 Pk ... k Pk ... n Pk E N* vi ai : Pk voi

m6ii:;tkva (ak +1):Pk.

V~y moi so hang cua cap so cong tren deu la luy thira cua mot so t1;1' nhien voi so mil nguyen Ian hon 1.

Bai toan 4. Chung minh rang co va han so' tu nhien k sao cho cdc so' k.211 + 1 (n E N*) diu ta hap so~

LUi gidi. Voi moi so W nhien m, d~t

Fm = 22m + 1 thi vm m6i m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ta co

5

Fm la SO nguyen to con Fs = 22 + 1 = 232 + 1

= 641.p voi pia so nguyen to, P > 216 + I = F4. Do (p, 232 - 1) = 1 nen theo dinh If Trung Hoa ve so du co v6 han so ur nhien k thoa man k == 1 (mod(232_1)641)vak==-1 (modp).

Ta se clurng minh vci k > P thl k.211 + 1 (n = 1,2, ... ) deu la hop so.

11$ v~y so n viet duoc dum dang n = 2m(2t + 1) vci m, t ~ O. Khi m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 thl VI

k.211 + 1 == 22m(2f+I) + 1 (mod (232 -1» nen (k.211 + l):Fm. Vi k.211 + 1 > P > F4 (do k > p) nen k.211 + 1 Ia hop so.

Vm m = 5 thl k.211 + 1 == 211 + 1 (mod 641).

Mat khac (211 + 1) : Fs ~ (k.211 + 1) : 641, rna

k.211 + 1 > Fs > 641 ~ k.211 + 1 la hop so.

Voi m ~ 6 thi n = 26.h voi h la mot so t1;1' nhien,

6

Tir day ta co k.211 + 1 == 22 + 1 (mod p) hay

6 6

(k.211 + 1) : P vi (22 II + 1) : (22 - 1) rna

26 • " D k 211 1 k

(2 -1): Fs vaFs: p.o. + > > P

nen k.211 + 1 la hop so

Tom lai co v6 so t1;1' nhien k de k.211 + 1 la hop so.

15

Dang tong quat cua dinh if Trung Hoa ve so dtr nhu sau:

Cho n so' nguyen duang nguyen to' cung nhau tung do! mot m1, m2, ... , mil va cdc so' nguyen

U1,u2, ... ,all, hj,h2, ... ,hll sao cho (uj,mj) = (u2,m2) = = (ulI,mll) = 1. Khi do

UjXj == hj (mod mj) u2x2 == h2 (mod m2) h¢ phuang trinh dong du

UIIXII == hll (mod mil) co nghiem. N goai ra neu x = c la mot nghiem ruio do cuu h¢ thi x = Xo la mot nghiem cua h¢ khi va chi khi t6n tai t E Z, sao cho

Xo = c + (mjm2 ... mll)t.

Chung minh. Xet cac phirong trinh dong dir aiY == 1 (mod m;) (l ~ i ~ n). Vi (ai,mi) = 1 thi

he nay e6 nghiem Yi' Khi d6 (y,; mi) = 1. Vi vay phuong trinh dong du aix == hi (mod mj) tuong duong v6i phuong trinh Yiaix == Yihi (mod mj).

Nhirng phirong trmh nay lai wong dirong v6i phirong trinh x == Yihi (mod m,). Nhu vay ta dtroc he plnrong trinh dong dir

x == yjhj (mod m1) x == Y2h2 (mod m2)

x == Yflhfl (mod mfl)

Ap dung dinh if Trung Hoa ve thang dir ta e6 dieu phai chirng minh.

Cuoi cung la mot so bai tap danh eho ban doc,

Bai 1. Xet mot cap so cong tang e6 cac so hang la cac so nr nhien, Chung minh rang e6 tM chon tir cap so cong nay mot so tuy y cac so hang lien tiep nhau sao cho tat ell deu la hop so.

Bai 2. Gilt sir I(x) la mot da thirc vci cac he so nguyen va m la mot so nr nhien, Bi€t rang so du cua phep chi a eho m (m ~ 2) cua cac sof(I), f(2), ... being 0 hoac being 1. Chung minh reing m la Iuy thira cua mot so nguyen to.

PHUONG PHAp cue H~N

Khi giai mot so bai toan c6 cac yeu to roi rae hoac httu han, neu ta dung phuang phdp cue han de chimg minh nhieu khi rat thuan lei,

Noi dung cua phirong phap nay la phai chon diroc phdn til cue han (nho nhat hoac Ian nhat) cua mot t~p hop dii cho.

Dac biet neu tap hop dii eho Ia mot tap con cua tap hop cac so thirc hoac tap hop dii eho c6 quan he v6i mot t~p con cua tap hop cac so thuc thi c6 the sii dung mot tfnh chat (hay nguyen If) cua cac so thirc (xem bai Nguyen li khdi ddu cue trio Tuyen tap 30 nam Tap chi Toan hoc va Tu6i tre, NXB Giao due, 2004, trang 60 - 61).

16

NOG HAN (Hii Bdc)

Tfnh chat d6 nhir sau :

Trang mot tap hap hiiu han khdc rdng cdc so' thuc luon chon duac s6 nho nhd: va sdlan nlidt.

De cac ban lam quen v6i phuang phdp cue han, xin gioi thieu mot so bai toan sau.

Bai toan 1. 7 nguai vao rung hdi ndm duoc tfit cd 100 cai. So' ndm hdi duac cua m6i nguai de'u khdc nhau. Chung minh rang co 3 nguai hdi duac tdng so' ndm khong it han 50 cai.

LUi gidi. GQi so nam hai duoc cua m6i ngiroi la ai' a2 , ... , a7 duoc sap xep tu nho den Ian :

a1 < a2 < a3 < a4 < a5 < a6 < ~ (1)

Xet hai tnrong hop :

1) a5 ~ 16. Goi M la tap hop gom ba s6 nguyen a5, a6' a7. Khi d6 theo (1) thl as la s6 nho nhat cua M :

a5 ~ 16 => a6 ~ 17 ; a7 ~ 18.

Do d6 ta e6

2) as :-:;; 15. Goi N la t~p hop gom 4 s6 nguyen ai' a2' a3' a4' Khi d6 thee (1) e6

a4:-:;; 14

Mat khac a4 la s6 Ian nhat cua N nen a1 :-:;; 13 ; a2 :-:;; 12 ; a 1 s 11

Tae6 :

Cac bat d&ng thirc (2) va (3) chimg to bai toan dtroc chimg minh.

Bai toan 2. Chung minh rang phuang trinh

chi co mat nghiem nguyen duy nhlit.

LUi gidi. De thay phuong trinh dii cho c6 nghiem tam thuong

x=y =Z = O.

Gia Slr phuong trinh con c6 nghiern nguyen (x; y ; z) khac voi nghiem (0 ; 0 ; 0). Nhan thay nghiem nay phai c6 x va y khong d6ng thffi bang O. Suy ra z * o.

Xet hai tnrong hop :

1) z > O. Goi M la tap hop cac s6 nguyen z > 0 c6 diroc tit cac nghiern nguyen (x ; y ; z) cua phireng trinh.

M c6 s6 nhc nhai Zo ung v6i nghiem (xo; Yo; zd' Tac6

(2)

VI (x~ + y~) chia het cho 3 nen Xo va Yo cung chi a het cho 3. That vay, neu Xo va Yo deu khong chi a het cho 3 thl x~ + y~ khi chia cho 3 se c6 s6 dir la 1, do d6 (x~ + y~) khong chi a het cho 3.

Dat Xo = 3xI ; Yo = 3YI' trong d6 xI va va YI la cac s6 nguyen khong dong thoi bang O.

Tac6 :

hay

2 2 3 2

9X1 + 9YI = Zo

3(x~ + y~) = z~.

VI z~ ehia het eho 3 nen Zo cling chi a het cho 3. D~t Zo = 3z1 trong d6 zl la s6 nguyen dirong. Ta c6

2 2 3 2

xI + YI = zl'

(3)

D&ng thirc nay chimg to (xI; YI ; zl) cling Ia nghiem nguyen cua phuong trinh (4). Nhung VI

o < z I < Zo nen khong thoa man vm Zo Ia s6 nguyen dirong nho nhat.

Nhir vay phirong trinh khong c6 nghiem nguyen vci z > O.

2) z < O. Nhan thay neu (x ; Y ; z) la nghiem ciia phuong trlnh tht (x ; y ; - z) cling la nghiem, Do d6 phirong trinh dii cho khong c6 nghiem nguyen (x ; y ; z) vm z < O.

T6m lai phirong trinh dii cho c6 mot nghiem nguyen duy nhat la (0, 0, 0).

Bai toan 3. Trong m{it phdng cho n duang thdng (n ~ 3) trong do khong co hai duong thdng nao song song va khong co ba duang thdng nao d6ng quy. Chung minh rang t6n tai mot tam gidc duac tao thann til ba duong thang dd cho ma tam gidc nay khong hi chia cdt hin hat ki duang thang nao trong cdc duang thang con lai.

LUi gidi. Gia Slr d I Ia mot trong cac duong th&ng dii cho. Xet tat eli cac giao diem cua n - 1 duong thang con lai. Goi M la tap hop cac

(4)

17

khoang each (so do la so thirc dirong) nr cac giao diem do den dirong thang dl. M co so nho nhat la to.

Gia sir P la giao diem cua hai dirong thang d2 va d3 co khoang each den dl bang to. Cac dirong thang d2 va d3 cAt dl tai cac diem Q va R nrong img (vi khong co hai dirong thang nao song song). Nhu the tam giac PQR diroc tao

thanh tir ba duong thang dl, db d3 va khong bi cat bOi bat kl dirong thang nao, That vay, gia sir co duong thAng d4 cat canh PR hoac canh PQ tai diem T ~ P (vi khong co ba dirong thang nao dong quy). Khoang each tir T den dl la tl. Ro rang tl < to. Dieu nay trai voi to la khoang each nho nhat.

_ " ? A , /

SUY NGHI TU LaI GIAI MQT BAI TOAN

THI VO fJ!CH Quac TE

D6i hie mot van de da diroc ghii quyet xong lai goi Y tim ra mot van de hoan toan khac nhirng Iai rat co y nghia. Neu loay hoay mai van khong giai quyet duoc van de thrr hai, cac ban thir "mo phong" theo nhUng lap Iuan khi giai quyet van de thu nhat xem sao !. Mot sir "mo phong" co sang tao, ciii tien, b6 sung co the giup ta dat muc dich. Nhieu khi nho the rna ban bong tim diroc nhfrng ket qua thu vi bat ngo. Xin neu mot tnrong hop nhu the.

Trong cuon Tuyin ttjp nhiing bai todn thi vo dich quoc te' co neu mot bai toan do CHLB Due de nghi (nam 1988) nhu sau :

Bai toano a, b lil hai so' nguyen duang sao cho a2 + b2 chia he't cho ab + 1. Chung minh

• a2 + b2 I' " hi h h

rang b a so c in p 1I00ng.

a +1

Tac gia neu hai each giai khac nhau. Ca hai each deu hay, lam thu hut st,r chu y cua toi.

a day xu at hien van de sau khi thay ab + 1 bOi ab -1.

Neu a, b E N*, (a2 + b2) : (ab - 1) thl co

2 2

ket l " h a +b ?

et uan gr ve t irong ab _ 1 .

18

LE HAo (Phil Yen)

Ta thay

2 2

(e + 22) : (1 x 2 -1) va ; x; : 1 = 5

2 2. 12 + 32

(1 + 3 ): (1 x 3 - 1) va 1 x 3 _ 1 = 5.

Thir them vai cap so nr nhien nita, t6i cang tin rang menh de sau la dung :

M~nh d~ 1. Neu a, b la hai so' nguyen duang sao cho i + b2 chia her cho ab - 1 thi

a2 + b2

---=5.

ab-l

Chung rninh mai khong dtroc, toi bong nho den each giai thtr hai bai roan thi v6 dich quoc te 6 tren, Cai cot loi cua each giai nay la : Tir

cM (a2 + b2) : (ab + 1) chi ra co c, d E N* rna

a2 + b2 c2 + d2

c-s-d c a+b =-::----

, ab + 1 cd + 1 .

T6i nhan thay de chimg minh menh de 1 6 tren can giiii quyet deu cot loi sau : Tu

ch6 (a2 + b2) : (ab -1) chi ra co c, d E N* rna

a2 + b2 c2 + d2

c + d < a + b, ab _ 1 = cd _ 1 . Dua theo

each giai thir hai bai toan thi v6 dich quoc te ke

tren, co cai tien, thay d6i mot s6 lap luan, khac phuc mot s6 tra ngai, cu6i cung toi chirng minh diroc menh de 1 nhu sau.

Chung minh. Gia sir (a2 + h2) : (ah - 1). Ta thay a 7:- h VI neu a = b thi (2a2): (a2 - 1) , nhimg (a2, a2 - I) = 1 nen 2: (a2 -1), khong xay ra. Do vai tro cua a va b nhu nhau co the xem a > h. Neu b = 1 thi do (a2 + 1) : (a -1)

suy ra 2: «(? -1) nen a = 2 hoac a = 3. Liic do

a2 + h2 = a2 + 1 = 5.

ab -1 a-I

Ta xet a > b > 1. Tir (a2 + h2): (ah -1)

co h2(a2 + h2): (ah -1)

h4 + 1

=> (h4 + 1) : (ah -1). D~t k = ah -1 > 0 ta

cokah-k=h4+ 1 =>k=-1 (mod ej.do do

co (' E N* de k = he - 1.

Tir do b 4 + 1 = (ah - 1 )(he - 1). Ta co

h2(h2 + (2) h4 + 1 .

--'---- = he + 1 + -- = he + ah

he -1 he-l

2 2 h2 h4 1

h (a + ) = ah + 1 + __ +_ = ah + he.

ah -1 ah-l

2 h2 h2 + e2

D d' a + =

o 0 ab _ 1 he - 1 .

Tuong tv nhu tren thl b 7:- c. VI b > 1 va a> b nen ab - 1 = h2 + 1 + h(a - h) - 2 ~ h2 + 1 => (h2 + 1)2 > h4 + 1 = (ah - 1)(he - 1) ~ (h2 + I)(he - 1) => h2 + 1 > he - 1

=> 2 > bic - h). VI b » 1 nen b > c.

Neu (' > 1 thl lap luan nhu tren, co d E N*, a>h>c>dde

a2 + h2 h2 + e2 e2 + d2

---= =

ah - 1 he - 1 cd - 1

CU tiep tuc nhir the, qua trinh nay phai dan

den ton tai s6 u E N* rna a > b > c > d > ... > u > 1,

a2 + h2 h2 + e2

= =

ah -1 he-l

u2 + 1

=

u -1 .

VI (u2 + 1) : (u - 1) thi nhu da biet : u = 2

u2 + 1 a2 + h2

hoac u = 3, vay ~ = 5 nen ah _ 1 = 5,

(dpcm).

Tir menh de 1 ta co ngay he qua sau :

H~ qua. Phuong trinh

x2 +i - mxy + m = 0

co nghiem nguyen dirong khi va chi khi m = 5.

Dieu thii vi la tir each chirng minh cua menh de 1, ta co the chi ra each tim tl1t ca nghiem nguyen cua phirong trinh

x2 + i - 5xy + 5 = o.

Cac ban hay xet hai day s6 (ak) va (hk) voi k = 1, 2, ... xac dinh bm cong thirc :

al = 1, a2 = 2 va ak + ak+2 = 5ak+l (k = 1,2,3 ... ) hI = 1, h2 = 3 va hk + hk+2 = 5hk+1 (k= 1,2,3 ... ).

Taco:

Menh d~ 2. C{ip s6' nguyen duang (xo; Yo) la milt nghi¢m eUa phuong trinh

i+i-5xy+5=O (1)

khi va chi khi Xo + Yo la hai s6' kl nhau a milt trong hai day s6' noi tren.

Chung minh. Die'u kien can. Gia sir (xo ; Yo) la nghiem cua (1), co tM xem Xo > Yo' Khi do

2 2

5 = Xo + Yo .

xoYo -1

Neu Yo = 1 thl x; + 5xo + 6 = 0 nen Xo = 2 hoac Xo = 3, do do (xo ; Yo) la hai s6 lien tiep dftu tien a mot trong hai day s6 tren.

Neu Yo > 1, thea chtrng minh menh de 1, co

2 2 2 2

, Xo + Yo Yo + Zo

Zo E N*,xo>yo>zode 5 1 = r

xoYo - Yozo-

Khi do phirong trlnh bac hai

X2 - 5yoX + 5 + y; = 0 co hai nghiem xo' ZOo

19

CU theo lap luan tren eo uo' ... , vo' to E N*

rna xu> Yo > Zo > Uo > ... > "o > to> 1 v6i hai s6 lien tiep Iii nghiem cua (1), nghia Iii

v2 + 1

Vo + I = 5to' Vi 5 = -°--1 nen Vo = 2 hoac Vo -

Vo= 3.

Vay to' vo"'" uo' zo' Yo' Xo tao thanh cac s6 hang lien tiep cua mot trong hai day s6 tren,

Dieu kien duo Neu (xo ; Yo) Iii hai s6 ke nhau cua mot trong hai day s6 tren, Gia st't xo' Yo Iii hai so lien tiep cua day (ak) (k = 1,2, ... ), al = 1, a2 = 2, voi Xo = ak+I' Yo = ak' Ta eo nhan xet : neu a> b > c, a + c = 5h, (h ; c) Iii nghiem cua (I) thi (a ; h) cting Iii nghiem cua (1).

Vi ak+1 > ak > ... > a: = 2 ~ al = I, ai+l + Cli-l = Sai (i = 2, 3, ... , k), (a2; al) Iii

nghiem cua (1), nen theo nhan xet tren (ak+l ; ak) Iii nghiem cua (1) (dpcm),

Chung minh nrong nr khi (xo ; Yo) Iii hai so lien tiep cua day (hk) (k = 1, 2, ... ), hi = 1, h2 = 3.

NhtJ,n xet. Neu xo' Yo E /Z, (xo ; Yo) Iii nghiem cua (1), thl ro rang xo' Yo khong tM trai dau, V~y neu tim diroc cac nghiem nguyen dirong cua (1) se suy ra cac nghiem nguyen eon lai bang each d6i dau,

Den day moi cac ban tiep tuc suy nghi, Co the eon nhieu dieu thii vi khac chua dtroc khai thac het. Nhir cac ban biet, trang lich st't khoa hoc eo nhieu phat minh quan trong ra dm nho biet ke thira, cai tien, b6 sung nhiing thanh nru da eo. Cac ban tre hay hoc toan mot each chu dong, biet phat huy, ke thira de sang tao, Cac ban se thay toan hoc that sinh dong, If thu.

PHUONG TRINH CAN nONG D~NG BJ_C HAl

Trong mot kl thi chon hoc sinh gioi l~p d(>i tuyen thi Toan Qu6e te cua mroc ta eo bai toan sau day:

Tim tat cd cdc c(lp s6' nguyen duang (x .. y) sao cho vai x < y thi

-.Ix + fY = ~1980.

Neu cung cac phep bien d6i thong thirong r6i thirc hien cac phep thir cluing ta se eo (x: y) bang (55; 1375) ; (220 ; 880). Tuy nhien neu de

y rang ~1980 = 6.[55 Iii s6 vo ti thl 1m giai se dep han nhieu, Ve trai ean phai Iii cac elm tlnrc dong dang v6i .[55, nrc Iii -.Ix = a.[55, fY = h.[55 voi a, b nguyen dirong thoa man

20

BUI QUANG TRUONG (Hii N¢i)

dang thirc a + b = 6. De thay rang a = 1 hoac a = 2 vii ta lai eo cac nghiem da neu.

Neu ehi bien d6i vii thirc hien cac phep tht't se b~t 11!e v6i bai toan sau day:

Tim nghiem nguyen cua phuang trinh

13-.1x -7fY = ~2000.

LUi gidi. v« phai ~2000 = 20./5. ve trai Iii tong cua hai s6 nen : hoac mot trong hai s6 bang khong, hoac d hai Iii nhiing elm thirc dong

dang v6i ./5, tue Iii -.Ix = a./5. fY = hJ5 v6i a, b Iii cac s6 nguyen khong am nghiem dung phuangtrinh

13a -7h = 20.

Nh - 20 + 7h -1 7(1 + h)

u v~y a - 13 - + 13 .

Vi (13, 7) = 1 nen de a nguyen thl 1 + b = 13t v6i t nguyen. Suy ra b = 13t -1, a = 1 + 7t. De a, b ~ 0 thl t phai nguyen dirong. Cu6i cung x = 5a2 = 5(1 + 7t)2, y = 5h2 = 5(13t - 1)2 v6i t la s6 nguyen dirong,

Chung ta se tim nghiem nguyen cua plurong

trinh :

aJ"; + h.JY = JZ

voi a, b nguyen va c nguyen dirong khong chfnh phuong. Chung ta co the goi phirong trmh (1) la phirong trinh v6 dinh can dong dang.

De giai phuong trinh, ta viet c du6i dang c = km2 trong do k, m la cac s6 nguyen dirong, k khong chia het cho bat cu s6 chinh phirong nao khac 1. Ve phai JZ = mJk ro rang la mot s6 v6 ti. Ve trai Ia tong hai s6 nen : hoac mot s6 bang 0, hoac ca hai la nhirng s6 v6 ti dong dang

vci Jk. Truong hop a = 0 hoac b = 0 dan gian, Ta xet tnrong hop a ::;; 0, b ::;; 0, de thay a, b khong cung am. Luc nay x = uJk , y = vJk v6i u, v la cac s6 nguyen am. Thanh thir

au + hv = m

Day la phirong trinh v6 dinh rna cluing ta da co each giai het suc ngdn gon (xem bai Co thl tam toan sinh dong hem duac khong ? trong quyen nay). Bay gia toi xin gi6i thieu mot phirong phap giai khac,

Phuong trmh (2) co the v6 nghiern (nguyen), nhung neu co mot nghiem uo' v 0 thl cau tnic nghiem cua (2), do do cau tnic nghiem cua phuong trlnh da cho, co the xac dinh nhu sau :

Do uo' v 0 nghiem dung (2) nen

au + hv = auo + hv 0 = m.

auo + hvo - bv h(vo - v)

Vl vay u = a = Uo + a

h'(vo - v)

= Uo + I

a

voi a', h' nguyen va (a', h') = 1.

De u nguyen thl v 0 - v = a't voi t nguyen, nen v = "o - a't, u = Uo + h't.

Do u, v ~ 0 nen Vo - a't ~ 0 ~ a't s; Vo

Uo + h't ~ 0 ~ h't ~ -u.

Vl trong a, b co it nhat mot s6 dirong nen

(1) trong a', h' co it nhat mot s6 dirong. Khong milt

tinh tdng quat, gia sit h' > 0 ~ t ~ - ~~ .

• Neu a' < 0 thl t ~ vo, do do a

( -uo v 0 ) , • h' 0 I 0

t ~ max h" -;.- VO'I UO' V 0' > ,a < .

• Neu a' > 0 thl i s: vo, v6i UO' vO' h', a' deu a

(2)

dirong,

Cu6i cung x = ki = k(uo + h't)2, Y = kv2 = k(vo - a'tl

Phuong trinh v6 dinh can dong dang khong chi b6 hep a dang da neu. Nhieu phirong trlnh se dugc ghii mot each dan gian neu nhin du6i con mat do. Chfu1g han bai toan sau :

Tim ttit cd cac nghiem nguyen cua phuang

trinh 1 ~x _ .J2x + 1 = 3y - ~4y -1 + 2.

Nhan thay ~4y -1 la s6 v6 ti v6i moi y nguyen (vt blnh plnrong cua mot s6 Ie co dang

tr=: tz=:': 11x

(4m + 1) rna "'+Y - 1 - v2x -1 = 3y + 2 - 5

la s6 hii'u ti nen dieu kien can (va du) de phuong trinh co nghiem nguyen la eft hai ve bang 0, nrc

~ ~ llx DA

la ,,4y -I = v2x + 1, 3y + 2 - 5 = o. ~

dang rut ra x = 5, y = 3. Nghiem nay thoa man bai toan,

21

Cu6i cung, ta dung phirong phap vira neu de giai mot bai toan dii diroc de nghi dung lam de Thi Toan qu6c t€ :

Tim tat cd cdc s6' tu nhien x va y thad man phuang trinh

(J-; - JY)4 = 3361 - .J11296320 (3)

LUi gidi. Nhan th~y x, y la cac s6 nguyen khong am va .JI1296320 = 8.4IMs la s6 vo ti. Viet lai (3) thanh (x + y)2 + 4xy - 3661

= 4(x+ y)fry -8.41Ms (4) v € trai cua (4) la s6 hilu ti nen dieu kien cful va du de (4) c6 nghiem la ca hai v€ cung bang O.

{S2 + 4P - 3361 = 0 Tac6 he

. sF? = 82Ms

822.105 voi S = x + y, P = xy. Tir (6) c6 P = ---

S2

thay vao (5) diroc t - 3361S2 + 4.822.105 = O. Biet s6 ~ = 1 nen S = 1681, 1680. VI. 1681 = 412 nen S = 41, fO fang 1680 khOng la

s6 chinh phirong. Liic d6 P = 420 nen x, y la hai nghiem cua phirong trinh / - 41z + 420 = 0, giai ra ta ducc z = 20 ; 21. Vay (x ; y) la (20 ; 21) hoac (21 ; 20).

Cling c6 the chi xet dieu kien cful cua (3).

Dfing thirc (4) xay fa khi va chi khi fry

va Ms la cac can thirc dong dang, nrc la fry = kMs vai k nguyen dirong. Nhu vay

82 105k2 , , I' h .

x + y = T' xy = , ta co x va y a at

nghiem cua phtrong trinh t2 - 8~t t + 105e = O. Phuong trinh nay chi c6 nghiem neu ~ =

(5)

( 8k2 r - 4.1 05k2 ~ 0 ~ k s 2. N€u k = 1, phuong trlnh I - 82t + 105 = 0 khong c6 nghiem nguyen. Neu k = 2, phuong trlnh t2 - 41t + 4.105 = 0 c6 nghiem t = 20 ; 21. Sau khi thir vao (3) thay dung, ta ket luan (x ; y) la (20 ; 21) hoac (21 ; 20).

(6)

MQT SO BA.I TOAN VB so HUU ti V A. so VO ti

NGUY~N NGQC BINH PHUONG (TP. H6 Chi Minh)

Chung ta dii biet : Bai 1. Chung minh rang s6' a = J2 +.Jj la

Dinh li, N lu a la s6' nguyen duang khong s6' v6 ti.

chinh phuang thi Fa la s6' v6 ti. LUi gidi. Gia su a la s6 hiru ti, ta c6

Tdng quat. Neu a la s6 nguyen dirong a2 = 5 + 2.J6

khong la s61uy thira bac n cua b~t kl s6 nguyen dirong nao thl if;; la s6 vo ti (n EN; n ~ 2).

Sau day la mot s6 bai toan ap dung.

22

2

t: a - 5 r 'h- , ( If) ~ "0 = -2- a so iru u vo 1 .

V~y a = J2 +.Jj la s6 vo ti (dpcm).

Biti 2. Cho Fn la nghiem eua phuang trinh x3 + ax2 + bx + e = 0 voi a, b, CEQ, n la s6' tu

nhien khong chinh phuang. Tim cdc nghiem con lai.

LUi gidi. Ta co nFn + na + hFn + c = 0 <=> (n + h)Fn + na + c = 0

Neu n + b ;;j. 0 thi Fn = -(na: c) E Q n+

(vo li).

Vay n + b = 0 va na + c = 0 ~ b = -n va c = -na.

The cac gia tri cua b va c vao phirong trinh, ta duqc

x3 + w;2 - nx - na = 0

<=> (x2 - n)(x + a) = O.

Tit do ta thay ngoai nghiem x = Fn, phirong trinh con co cac nghiem x = -Fn, x = -a vm a E Q.

Bai 3. Cho hai thung dung nuac vO'i dung tich Ian tuy y va hai cai gao co dung tlch Ian

luat la .J2 lit va 2 -.J2 lit. Hoi co thl dung hai cui gao dl chuyln 1 lit nude tit thung nay sang thung kia duac hay khong ? T ai sao?

(D~ thi tuyen vao lap 10 DHSP Ha N¢i, 1995).

LUi gidi. Gh\ Slr c6 th~ dung gao a (dung tfch .J2) va gao b (dung tich 2 - .J2) d~ chuyen diroc 1 lit mroc tit blnh A sang blnh B bang each dong m gao a va n gao b voi m, n E Z (m > 0

neu dong tit A sang B va m < 0 neu dong tit B sang A ; nrong tv d6i vci n). Khi do

m.J2 + n(2 -.J2) = 1 <=> (m - n).J2 + 2n - 1 = 0

Neu m ;;j. n thi .J2 = 2n - 1 E Q (vo lf). n-m

1 h- ,. '71)

yay m = n = - (mau t uan voi m, n E !LJ •

. 2

Ket luan : Khong the dung hai cai gao do de chuyen 1 lit mroc tit thung nay sang thung kia.

Bai 4. Chung minh rang vai moi s6' tu nhien n phuang trinh sau day khong co nghiem hiiu tl :

(x + yJ"j)" = ~1 + J"j.

(V 6 dich toan Lien X6, 1987)

LUi gidi. Vrri n = 1, giii sir co x, y E Q thoa man

x + yJ"j = ~1 + J"j ~ (x + yJ"j)2 = 1 + J"j

<=> x2 + 3i -1 = (1- 2xy)J"j •

, 2x 0 hi {;:;3 x2 + 3 i-I E If1\

Neu 1 - Y ;;j. t 1 ,,-' = 2 "'-£.

1- xy

(vo 11).

Vay 1 - 2xy = 0 va i + 31- 1 = o.

Rut y tit 1 - 2xy = 0 the vao x2 + 31- 1 ta dooc 4x 4 - 4i + 3 = O.

Phuong trinh nay vO nghiem nen khong t6n tai x, y E Q thoa x + yJ"j = ~1 + Ji

Neu x, y E Q thl (x + y../3)" = xl + Yl ../3

(De dang chimg minh duqc bang each khai trien nhi thirc Newton).

Do d6 neu t6n tai n E N va x, y E Q sao cho

(x + y../3)1l = ~1 + J"j. Day la dieu rna ta da chirng minh la khong tM xay ra.

Bai S. Chung minh rang ifi khong thl hilu diin duac d dang p + qJ; trong do p, q, r E Q,

r c- O.

LUi gidi. Giii sir ton tai p, q, r E Q, r > 0 thoa p + qJ; = ifi.

Ta co p3 + 3p2qJ; + 3pq2r + lrJ; = 2

23

.Neu 3iq+q\ t:.Othl

2 - 3 - 3 2,.

J; = ~ ~q E Q (vo Ii).

3p q + q r

.Neu 3p2q+lr=0

2 2 [q = 0

¢:> q(3p + q r) = 0 ¢:>

p=q=O

R6 rang khong the xay ra p = q = O.

Neu q = 0 thi ifi = p E Q (vo 10.

Vay khong t6n tai p, q, r E Q, r > 0 thoa p + qJ; = ifi (dpem).

BAI T!P TV GIAI

Bai 1. Chung minh rang cac s6 a = ifi + ifj ; h = J2 + J"j + 15 deu la cac s6 v6 ti.

Bai 2. Biet phtrong trlnh x2 + ax + h = 0 voi

h trl\' hie I' J2 - J"j 11 '

a, E ".£ co mot ng rem a t: tz : im cae

,,2 + ,,3

e~p s6 (a, h).

Bili 3. Giiii phirong trlnh

~2J"j -3 =~xJ"j -JyJ"j

voi nghiem htru ti (V 6 dich toan Anh, 1970).

Bai 4. Cho a, b, c, d E Q va m, n la cac s6

nguyen dirong khong chfnh phirong. Chung minh rang dieu kien can va du de

a + hf;; = c + d.[;; la a = c va hf;; = dFn.

Bai 5. Choz, h la hai s6 hiru ti khac khong va n III mot s6 nguyen dirong. Chung minh rang

s6 x = aFn + hJ;+i la s6 v6 ti,

Bai 6. Cho a, h, c E Q thoa a if4 + hifi + c = o.

Cluing minh rang a = h = c = o.

, AI , _ ? ~ , ,

TINH BIEU tntrc uou TI BANG CACH XET D~NG

IJA THUC BANG NHAU T~l NHIEU GIA TR!

1. Khi giai mot s6 bai toan g6m cac phan thirc hiru ti, neu khai trien cac phep tfnh tren cac phan thirc dai s6 thuong g~p nhiing bien d6i r~t phirc tap, Song neu ta bieu thi no duOi dang da thirc thl nhieu khi cong viec tr6 nen de dang.

Co s6 cua each lam nay dua vao cac menh de direi day,

Menh d~ 1. N {u nhi thuc dang f(x) = Ax + B (1) vai A, B fa cdc tham s6 rna

24

L~ QUANG TRUNG (CDSP Bac Lieu)

fix) trie: tieu tai hai gia tri khdc nhau eua x thi A = B = 0 hay fix) d6ng nhdr bdng khong.

Chung minh. Gia si't voi xI = a, X2 = h (a t:. h) maj{a) = j{h) = 0, hay Aa + B = 0 va Ah + B = 0, tit do A(a - h) = 0, VI a - h t:. 0 nen A = 0 suy ra B=O.

Menh d~ 2. Neu tam thta: dang f(x) = Ax2 + Bx + C (2) viii A, B, C fa cdc tham scI ma f(x) triet tieu tai ha gia tri khdc

nhau ('ua x thi A = B = C = 0 hay f(x) ddng nhdt bang khong.

Chung minh. Gia sil voi xl = a, x2 = h, x3 = d (doi mot khac nhau) rna f(a) = f(h) = fed) = 0 hay Ai + Ba + C = 0, Ah2 + Bh + C = 0, Ai + Bd + C = O. Tit cac dfulg thirc tren suy ra :

A(a2 - h2) + B(a - h) = O,A(i - (I) +B(a - d) = 0, VI a - h 1= 0, a - d 1= 0 nen A(a + h) + B = 0 ; A~+d)+B=OwyrnA0-d)=~~h-d1=0 nen A = O. Tit do ta suy ra B = 0, C = O.

2. M()t so thi du

Thi du 1. Tinh fling sau

(d-h)(d-c) (d-c)(d-a) (d-a)(d-h)

-----+ +

(a -h)(a -c) (h-c)(h -a) (« -a)(c -h)

LUi gidi. Tong tren chi xac dinh khi a, b, c doi mot being nhau.

Neu thay d bang x va d~t t6ng tren bang f(x) thi fix) la tam thirc dang (2) d6i v6i x. Ta nhan thay : f(a) = f(h) = f(c) = 1. Nhu vay f(x)- 1 la tam thirc nhan ba s6 khac nhau a, h, clam nghiem, Vay f(x) - 1 dong nhat bang 0 hay fix) = 1 vci moi x,suy raf(d) = 1.

Thi du 2. Chung minh rang vat a, h, c Iii cdc 56 d6i mot khdc nhau thi

a2(x-h)(x-c) h2(x-c)(x-a)

--'--::---'---- + +

(a - h)(a - c) (h -c)(h - a)

c2(x-a)(x-h) 2

+ =x .

(c -a)(c -h)

LUi gidi.

Xet bieu thirc

a2(x - h)(x - c) h2(x - c)(x - a)

f(x) = + +

(a-h)(a-c) (h-c)(h-a)

c2(x - a)(x - h) 2

+ -x

(c-a)(c-h)

Ta thay fix) la tam thirc dang (2) nhan ba s6 khac nhau a, b, c lam nghiem, vay fix) dong nhat being 0 va bai toan diroc chirng minh.

Thi du 3. D(Jn gidn hie'u thuc

a-h h-c c-a (a-h)(h-c)(c-a) p=--+--+--+-----a+b b+c c+a (a+h)(h+c)(c+a)

LUi gidi. Sau khi quy dong mau s6 ta duoc til s6la

j(a) = (a - h)(h + c)(c + a) + (h - c)(a + h)(c + a) + (e - a)(a + h)(h + e) + (a - h)(h - e)(c - a).

Ta thay f(x) la tam thirc dang (2) d6i v6i a va co ba nghiem : a = h, a = c, a = o.

Neu b, c khac nhau va deu khac 0 thi ba nghiem nay doi mot khac nhau nen f(a) dong nhat bang 0 va ta co P = o.

Neu h = 0 hoac c = 0 hoac h = c thi ta deu co f(a) = 0 suy ra P = O.

3. M()t so ba! tap ap dung Bai 1. Dan gian bieu thirc

a2 -he h2 -ae e2 -ah

----+ +----~ (a+h)(a+e) (h+e)(h+a) (e+a)(c+h)

Bai 2. Chung minh rang

h+c+d

-------~--~---+

(h - a)(c - a)(d - a)(x - a)

c+d+a

+ -~:-:-:-----:-7-:----::-:-:--::-:-

(c - h)(d - h)(a - h)(c - h)

d+a+h

+---------------:-

(d - c)(a - c)(h - c)(x - c)

a+h+c +-----:-:-:-:---~----:-:-:--~

(a - d)(h - d)(e - d)(x - d)

x-a-h-e-d

- (x - a) (x - h)(x - e)(x - d)'

25

.1\ , , 2 , - .1\'

T~P tntat KHAI THAC CAC DANG THtfC DA BIET

Khi da duoc hoc phep nhan da thuc, Mt kl hoc sinh nao ciing c6 the thirc hien phep tfnh de rut ra hang dAng tlurc :

(a + b + c)2 = a2 + h2 + c2 + 2ah + 2ac + 2hc (1)

Neu chi quan sat dAng thirc (1) trong trang thai tinh thl qua thuc ta kh6 c6 the rut ra duoc mot dieu gi thu vi ngoai tinh can d6i, dep mat cua n6. Ta hay nhln dAng thirc (1) vci trang thai dong xem sao ! Tnroc het cluing ta hay chu dong cho cac d6i tirong a. h. c thay d6i mot chut, chang han ta thay a. h. c nrong irng bOi

_!_ '-hI ,_!_, theo dfutg tlnrc (1) ta c6

a c

Ro rang ta c6 met k6"t qua thu vi : V m abc ;¢:. 0, a + b + c = 0 thl

_1 + _1 + _1 = I_!_ + _!_ + .!.I (3)

a2 h2 e2 a b c

Nhir vay, chi can thay d6i mot chut cac du kien, ta da thu duoc mot ket qua rat dep. Nhung neu ta dimg lai 6 day thl se khong thay h~t duoc tam trng dung cua k~t qua moi. Chung ta thir cung xem vai tro cua dAng thirc (3) qua mot loat cac bai toan 6 nhimg dang khac nhau dum day.

Bai 1. ChUng minh cae ddng thuc sau :

1 1 1 11 1 1 I

a) -+-+ = -+---- (4)

a2 h2 (a+hl a b a+h

26

TRINH KHOI (Ric Ninh)

b) a2+h2+ a2h22 =Ia+h- ahhl (5)

(a+h) a+

HU6"ng dtin gidi .• De chirng minh dfutg tlurc (4) ta chi can chu y rang (a + h)2 = [-(a + h)]2 nhu vay dfutg thtrc (4) duoc suy ra tnrc tiep til (3) khi ta thay c = -(a + h).

• Tirong nr (5) diroc suy ra tnrc tiep til (3)

khi h b ' b" b ' 1 1 ,

1 ta t ay «, . c nrong img 0'1 a so -;;' h va

Bal 2. Cho a. h. c ta cdc so' hiiu tl doi mot khdc nhau. Chung minh rdng

1 1 1

s = + + ta so'

(a - h)2 (h - e)2 (c - a)2

hiiu tl.

HUO'ng ddn gidi. Chi can de y

(a - h) + (h - c) + (c - a) = 0, nen til (3) ta

c6 s = I___!_h +-h 1 +_1_1 E Q.

a- -c: c:-a

Bai 3. Rut gon hilu thuc sau :

HU6'ng dtin gidi. Ap dung (4) ta c6

va ap dung (4) m<)t Ian nua dtroc

1 1 1 11 1 1 I

p = a2 + h2 + (a + h)2 = -;; + h - a + h .

Bai 4. Xit t6ng

5" =

1 1 1 1

1 + - + - + 1 + -32 + 42 + ... 22 32

1 1

+ 1+ 2+2

(n -1) n

a) Tinh 52000,

h) Chung minh rdng vai moi n ;? 3 thi 5" IJ sc/ hiiu ti nhung 5" khong the'IJ so' nguyen.

HUUng dtin gidi. Hay chu y

1 +(n-l)+(-n)=0,apdl;lng(3)taco

1 1 1 1

1+ +-=1+----.

(n - 1)2 n2 n - 1 n

Til' do de dang thay

5 =(1+.!.-.!.)+(1+.!.-.!.) + ...

" 2 3 3 4

+ (1 + _1_ -.!.) = (n - 2) +.!. -.!..

n-l n 2 n

Til' do giai quyet dugc a) va b).

Bai 5. D<U 5" =~1+99 ... 92 +0,99 ... 92 (hang tli thu hai trong can IJ hinh phuang cua s6' tu nhien c6 n chi1 so' 9, con hang tli thu ha trong can Iii blnh phuang c:ua s6' thdp phdn c6 n chi1 s69 d sau ddu phdy).

a) Chung minh rdng vOi moi n nguyen duang thi 5" luon IJ s6' hiiu ti.

b) Vie't 52000 duai dang so'thc}p phdn.

HUUng dtin gidi. Chu y 99 ... 9 = 10" - 1 (ve trai HI. s6 t1;1' nhien co n chir s6 9).

10" -1 ( , "}' 6 ha han ,

0,99 ... 9 = v~ trar as t ap P au co

10"

n chii' s6 9 sau dau phay). Do do

)2

10" 1

5 = 1 + (10" - 1)2 + ( -

" 1if

Ap dung (5) v6i a = 1, b = 10" - 1, ta thu diroc 5 = 10" - 1 + _1_ nen viec giai quyet cac

." 10'"

cau a) va b) khong con kho khan.

Bai 6. Gidi cdc phuang trinh sau :

1 1 3

a) + =---

(2x _1)2 (3x + 1)2 (x + 2)2

b) x2 +6X+6+(;:!Y =0.

HU6'ng ddn gidi. Ap dung cac dAng thirc (4) va (5) d~ giai cac phirong trinh tren,

Tren day cluing toi da gi6i thieu v6i cac ban mot huang khai thtrc dAng tlnrc (1). Ket qua thu duoc ro rang da giup cluing ta sang tao ra nhieu bai toan m6i.

Cac ban hay t$p khai thac hang dAng thuc khac dang hoc trong chirong trtnh,

27

Phdn hai

... ,.,. ,.f ;.. ? J'

TIM GIA TRI LON NHAT, GIA TRI NHO NHAT

A'''~ ,,_ ,," 2 ,

VE MOl QUAN H~ GIlJA HAl BAT DANG TH(/C

CAUCHY V A BERNOULLI

Bat dfutg thirc Cauchy c6 dang :

UI +u2 + ... +u" rr- __ ----- ~ ~UIU2···U" n

Bat dfutg thirc Bernoulli c6 dang :

(1 + .e)" ~ 1 + nx

voi moi x ~ -1, moi n E N* •

Nhu cluing ta da biet c6 nhieu each chimg minh cac bat dfutg thirc nay: tnrc tiep hay gian tiep, dai hay ngan, dan gian hay phirc tap, v.v ... Dum day trinh bay each chimg minh bat dfuIg thirc nay nho bat dfuIg thirc kia.

Gia Slr c6 bat dfuIg thirc Cauchy, ta cful chirng minh (2). Neu 1 + nx ~ 0 thl do ve'trai cua (2) khong am nen bat dfuIg thirc dung. Trong tnrong hop 1 + nx> 0, xet n - 1 s6 1 va s6 1 + nx, theo bat dfuIg thtrc Cauchy ta c6

1 + 1 + ... + 1 + (l + nx) ~ ~1.1...1.(l + nx) n

Nang len Iuy thira bac n hai ve' ta diroc (2). Ngiroc lai, giii Slr c6 bat dfuIg thtrc Bernoulli (2) ta can chirng minh (1). D~t 1 + x = t ta c6 the viet (2) dum dang :

tJ ~ 1 + jet -1), vm moi t ~ 0, Vj E N*,

28

LE HAl KH6J (Hd N¢i)

(1)

hay la

tJ ~ jt - (j -1), voi moi t ~ 0, Vj E N* (3)

(2)

Xet n s6 khong am ai' a2, ... , an" Trong tnrong hop c6 mot s6 nao d6 bang 0 thl bat dfuIg thirc (1) Ia hien nhien, do d6 c6 tM giii

thiet rang aj > 0 vci moi j = 1, 2, ... , n.

, . UI + U2 + ... + U J •

KI hieu SJ = . (j = 1,2, ... , n).

J

S· Khi d6 cac bat dfuIg thirc (3) vm t = _) S· I )-

[ S.)J S.

(j = 2, ... , n) cho ta ~ ~ jf.- - (j -1).

j_1 )-1

Do d6, sf ~ (is; - (j -1)SJ_1 )S;~: = a jsj~:

vmj = 2, 3, ... , n.

Vay Ia chiing ta c6 :

S" > S,,-I > S,,-2 >

II - a" ,,-1 - a"a"_1 ,,-2 - ...

(4)

Thay S" = UI + a2 + ... a" vao (4) va khai n

can ta diroc bat dfuIg thirc Cauchy.

, "" "," ?? "," 2 "

T(/ CAC TINH CHAT CO BAN CVA BAT DANG TH(/C

Ta dll biet cac tinh chat co ban cua b~t dang thirc diroc coi la nhtrng yeu t6 nen tang, co sa de tit do xay dung dtroc cac bat dang thirc moi phirc tap han. Ngiroc lai, mu6n chimg minh mot bat dAng thirc. ta can phai su dung cac tinh chat co ban cua bat dAng thirc va cac bat dang thuc quen thuoc nhu Cauchy, Bunyakovski sau khi bien deli bieu thirc hoac them bat vao bieu tlurc mot s6 hang nao do.

Sau day la mot s6 thi du minh hoa,

Thi du 1. V Vi a, b, (' fa ha s6' thuc duang, cluing minh rdng

(a+h/ (h+(i (c+a)2 4( b )(1)

_;__------'- + + > a + + C

c a h-

LUi gidi. cs.» 1. Ta co

(1) (a+h)2 (h+(i (c+a)2 4( h )

<=> c + a + b + a+ +c

~ 8(a + b + c) Mat khac ta co

(a + h)2 - 4(a + h)c + 4c2 ~ 0 (a + h)2

-'-------'-- + 4c ~ 4(a + h).

C

hay

Chirng minh nrong tu, ta cling co

(h+c/ (c+a)2

a +4a~4(h+c); h +4h~4«('+a).

Cong thea tirng ve ba b~t dang tlurc tren se

thu duoc (2). Tit do co dieu phai chimg minh.

Cach 2. Ta co (1) <=>

[(a+h/ (h+ci (c+a)2]( h )

---+ + a+ +c

c a h

~ 4(a + b + c)2

Ap dung bat dang thirc Bunyakovski, ta co

2 2

4(a + h + c) :: [(a + h) + (h + c) + (c + a)]

vu DDt (Ninh Binh)

= [( "2 }*+(h;'; }Fa+( c;';}Jb J <

[( '7?)' {7.)' {~n(*)2;{Fa)2;{MJ

[(a + h)2 (h+ci «('+a)2]( b .)

:: + + a+ +c.

c a h

Suy ra bat dang thirc (3) dung. Tit do co dieu phai chung minh.

Thi du 2. V Vi a, b, c fa ha s6' duang, chung minh rang

3 h3 3

~ + _ + :_ ~ a2 + h2 + c2 h c a

LUi gidi. Ta co

(4)

(2)

( a3 h3 (3)

(2) <=> 2 - + - + - + a2 + h2 + c2

h c a

~ 3(a2 + h2 + ('2)

Ap dung b~t dang thirc Cauchy co

(5)

hay

(3)

Chung minh tirong nr, ta cling co

'3 3

b 2 2 c 2 2

2.-+c ~ 3h ; 2.-+a ~ 3c .

c a

Cong thea tung ve ba bat dang thirc tren ta thu diroc (5). Tit do co dieu phai chimg minh.

Thi du 3. V Vi a, h, c, d fa cdc s6' duang, diJt

M a+b h+c c+d d+a

:: + + + .

a+h+c h+c+d c+d+a d+a+h

Chung minh rang : 2 < M < 3.

LUi gidi. VI a, h, (' la cac s6 duong nen a + b + c, b + c + d, c + d + a, d + a + b deu nho han a + b + (' + d.

29

Thi du 4. V IIi x ~ y ~ z > 0, chung minh rdng :

x2y y2z z2 X 2 2 2

-+-+-~x +y +z.

z X Y

LO'i gidi. Xet hieu

H= (x2y + lz + z2x)_(X2 + l +z2)

Z X Y

x2(y - z) i(z - X) z2(x - y)

= + +--~~

z X Y

Tir gill thiet z :::;; y :::;; X va i(y - z) ~ 0,

?(z-x):::;;O suyra

x2(y - z) ~ x2(y - z)

z y

i(z-x) i(z-x)

~.:.__- ~ .::...._.;_----'-

X Y

Do do, ta co

a+b b+c

M> + +

a+b+c+d a+b+c+ d

c+d d+a

+ +

a+d+c+d a+h+c+d

= 2(a + h + c + d) = 2 a+h+c+d

(c) ( d)

vaM= 1- + 1- +

a+h+c h+c+d

+ (1- a )+(I h __ )

c+d+a d s- a+b

(-c) (-d) (-a) (-h)

= 4+ + + +

a+h+c h+c+d c+d+a d+a+h

(-c) (-d)

<4+ + +

a+b+c+d a+b+ cv d

(-a) (-h)

+ + =

a+h+c+d a+b+c+d

= 4 _ (a + h + c + d) = 3 a+h+c+d

Tir (6) va (7) ta co 2 < M < 3.

Dodo

x2(y - z) + i(z - x) + z2(x - y)

H~':":'_~---':"__~,:____:,---:_---,-,-

y

30

=> yH~i[(y -x) + (x -z)] + i(z -x) + i(x -y) = (x - y)(l- i) + (x - z)(i -i)

= (x - y)(x - z)[(x + y) - (x + z)]

= (x - y)(x - z)(y - z) ~ 0 (do x ~ y ~ z > 0).

V~y H ~ 0 suy ra dpcm,

(6) Thi du 5. V IIi a, b, c IiI ba s(/ duang, chung

minh riing

a2 h2 c2

+22+22

h2 + c2 c + a a + b

a h c

>--+--+--. - b+ c c+a a+h

LO'i gidi. Do vai tro cua a, b, c la nhu nhau nen ta co the giii su a ~ b ~ c > O.

b c ( h )2 h ( C )2 C

VI 1 ~ - ~ - > 0 nen - :::;; -; - :::;; -

a a a a a a

b c h2 c2 2 . 2 2

suy ra - + - ~ -- + -- ¢:> a (h + c) ~ a(h + t: ).

a a a2 a2

(7) Tir do ket hop vci

o < (h2 + (?)(h + c) :::;; (a2 + (?)(a + c) co

a2 a a2(h + c) - a(h2 + (2)

---=

h2 + c2 b + c (h2 + (_.2)(h + c)

(8)

( )2

a b a a

VI - ~ - ~ 1 nen - ~ -

c c c c

(h)2 h

- >-

C C

suy ra :: +!!.. s (::)2 + (!!..)2

C C C C

¢:> (_.2(a+h):::;;c(a2 +h2). Tir do ket hop voi

0< (a2 + (2)(a + c) :::;; (a2 + h2)(a + h) co :

c2(a + h) - c(a2 + h2)

------=

a2+h2 a+b (a2+h2)(a+h)

c

(9)

h2 h h2(c+a)-h(e2 +a2) (10)

('2 +a2 c+a (a2 +h2)(a+c)

Cong theo tirng ve (8), (9) va (10), ta diroc

c h2 h

---+ --- ~O

a + b c2 + a2 e + a

a2 h2 ('2

<=:> + +--...,-

h2 + c2 ('2 + a2 a2 + h2

a h c

~-_+-_+--. h+c e+a a+b

Nhieu bat d~ng thirc trong khi thi chon hoc sinh gioi hoac thi vao Dai hoc co the chtmg minh nrong tv nhu tren, Moi cac ban thir strc voi cac bai tap sau.

Bai 1. VOi a, b, c la d(> dai cac canh ciia mot tam giac, chimg minh rang :

ggg.

1) + + ~ 3 ;

c+a=b a+h-c

2) a(h+c) + h(c+a) + c(a+h) h+c-a c+a-h a+h-c

~ 2(a + b + c).

Bai 2. VOi a, b, C la ba s6 dirong, chimg minh rang:

222

1) _a_ + _h_ + _(_. _ ~ 3(ah + he + ca)

b + c c + a a + b 2(a + b + c)

a2 h2 c2 ah + he + ca

2) -+-+-~----

h3 c3 a3 abc

Bai 3. V Oi s6 nguyen duong n chimg minh rang:

1 1 1 5

3"+3+···+3<-·

1 2 n 4

Bal 4. Hay tong quat hoa ket qua clla thf du 4 va thi du 5 a tren,

A "", "," , A ,

MQT PHUONG PHAP DANH GIA TONG CAC PHAN TH(/C

No6 vAN THAI (Truong PITH han cong Quynh Ph,!, TMi Binh]

Co nhieu bat dkg thirc doi hoi phai danh gia tong cac phan thirc vci cac s6 hang hoan vi vong quanh, trong do co hat ddng thuc Neshit

mo rong : 010 xI' x2' ... ' Xn (Xi> 0 vOi rnoi i, n E N*,

n ~ 3) thi :

Bat dkg thirc (1) trong tnrong hop tong quat la khong dung vOi moi n ~ 26. Tren tap chi THTT cling dii dang 1m giai cho tnrong hop n = 3,4,5,6. Sau day la each chimg minh cho tnrong hop n = 3, 4 kha gon danh cho cac ban THCS. Trong each chimg minh duOi day phai sir dung den hat ddng thuc Cauchy cua ba s6 khong am (chimg minh danh cho cac ban) :

C ho ha so' khong am XI' X2, x.~ thi Xl + X2 + X3 ~ 3~XI·X2.X3·

Ta chimg minh bat dkg thirc (1) voi n = 3 va n = 4.

1) Voi ba s6 dirong aI' a2' a3 (n = 3) thl

al a2 a3 3

---'--- + + > -

a2 + a3 a3 + al al + a2 - 2

De thay P + Q = 3.

31

GQi ve trai cua BDT tren la M.

M + P = ~ + a2_ + a2 + a3 + a3 + al

a2 + a3 a3 + al al + a2

M Q - al + a3 a2 + al a3 + a2

+ ----+ + .

a2 + a3 a3 + al al + a2

Theo bat dang thirc Cauchy ta diroc

M + P ~ 3 ; M + Q ~ 3.

3 Suy ra 2M + P + Q ~ 6 => 2M ~ 3 => M ~ "2'

Dang thuc xay ra khi va chi khi al = a2 = a3 > O. 2) Vm b6n s6 dirong aI' a2' a3' a4 (n = 4) thl

LUi gidi. GQi ve trai cua BDT tren la M.

( 1 1 1 1)

Dat P = -----+-----

. ~+~ ~+~ ~+~ ~+~

Ap dung bat dang tlurc Cauchy cua ba s6 dirong trong timg ngoac dan ta suy ra :

M ~ 3 - 1 + a I'P = 2 + a I'P M ~ 3 - 1 - a2'P = 2 - a2'P Neu P ~ 0 thea (2) ta diroc M ~ 2.

Neu P < 0 thea (3) ta duqc M > 2. Toml':liM~2.

Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a I = a2 = a3 = a4 > O. Bat dang thirc da diroc chirng minh.

32

v m plurong phap da trinh bay 6 tren, cac ban se giiii quyet diroc mot each ngan gon ba bai toan sau day.

Bai 1. Cho sau s6 dirong xl' X2' X3' X4' xs' X6 sao cho trong sau t6ng sau (X] + x2),

(X2 + x3), (X3 + x4), (X4 + Xs), (Xs + X6)'

(X6 + Xl) co (Xl + X2) nho nhat, (X2 + X3) 1611 nhat. Chirng minh rang

X] + X2 + X3 + X4

X2 + X3 X3 + X4 X4 + Xs Xs + X6

~ 3.

Bai 2. Cho n E N, n ~ 3 va xi > 0 voi moi

i = 1,2, ... , n. D~t

M= xl + X2 + ... + XII_I + XII

~+~ ~+~ ~+~ ~+~

Chirng minh rang max(M,N) ~ %-

Bai 3. Cho n E N, n ~ 3 va xi> 0 voi moi

(2) i = 1, 2, ... , n. Chung minh rang

(3)

~ 3n _ _!_ (X2 + x3 + ... + ~ + ~).

4 4 xI x2 xlI_1 XII

Mong cac ban tiep tuc trao d6i.

VJ.N DljNG HANG DANG THUC ~A2 =IAI VAO GIAITOAN

TON NUBfcH V AN (GV THCS Nguyen KhuYefl, Dd Ndng)

Trong chuang trinh toan THCS hang dang thirc fAi = IAI co nhieu v1P1 dung trong cac bai tap tu dan gian den phirc tap.

Tuy nhien, khi gap dang toan nay, nhieu ban tlurong lung tung, ngay ca hoc sinh gioi cling gi;ip nhieu sai sot khi trtnh bay loi giai, Bai viet nay neu mot s6 loai toan thirong gap co tM v1P1 dung hai dang bien d6i can thirc co ban sau day.

Dua ra ngoai ddu can

fAi = IAI = {A neu A ~ 0 -A neu A < 0

Dua vao trong ddu can

AJB = {~A2B neu A ~ 0

_~A2B neu A < 0

Loai 1. Bien d6i don gilln can tlnrc bac hai Thi du 1. Dua thua sc/ ra ngoai ddu can

r::42 21 1 {3x2y neu y ~ 0 ..y':Jx-Y- = 3x Y =

-3x2y neu y < 0

Thi du 2. DUa thua s{I vao trong ddu can

x.JiY = {~2X2y neu x ~ 0

_~2x2y neu x < 0

Mot s6 ban tlnrong nham a tnrong hop

thu hai.

Loai 2. Tinh gia tr. eua met bi~u thirc

Thi du I. Tinh ~8 - 2J7.

LUi gidi.

~8 - 2J7 = ~7 - 2J7 + 1 = ~(J7 _1)2 = = 1J7 - 11 = J7 -1 (vi J7 -1 > 0).

Co tM d~t ~8-2J7 = a+hJ7 voi cac s6 nguyen a, b r6i binh phuang hai ve d~ tinh a, h ?

Tirong tv, hay tinh ~2002+2~2000-2,j1999.

3.TUY~N CHQN . .TH&TI (QUygN 3)-A

Thi du 2. Tinh gia trl cua

A = 3x -1- ~4x2 -12x + 9 vai x = 1999.

LUi gidi. A=3x-1-~(2x-3)2 =

3x-1-12x-31. Voi x = 1999 thl2x - 3 > 0 nen A = 3x - 1 - (2x - 3) = x + 2. Luc do A co gia tri la 1999 + 2 = 2001.

Loai 3. Rut gon mot bi~u thirc

Thi du 1. Rut g(Jn B = ~3x - 4 - 2,j3x - 5. LUi gidi. Dieu ki¢n x ~ ~. Bien d6i

B= ~3x-5-2~+1

= ~(,j3x - 5 _1)2 = 1,j3x - 5 -11.

• Neu ,j3x - 5 - 1 ~ 0 hay ,j3x - 5 ~ 1 hay x ~ 2 thl B = ,j3x - 5 - 1.

• Neu ,j3x - 5 - 1 < 0 hay x < 2 thl B = 1 - ,j3x - 5.

{,j3X - 5 -1 neu x ~ 2

yay B= 5

. 1 - ,j3x - 5 neu - < x < 2

3-

Co tM d~t B = a + h,j3x - 5 voi cac s6

nguyen a, b r6i tfnh a, b ?

Thi d 2 R' C ~ x2 + 4x + 4

I 1;1 • ut g(Jn = Ixl- 2

T A-: .? C _ ~(x + 2)2 _ Ix + 21,. 2

LUlguu. - I I --I -I - vmx;t: ± .

x-2 x-2

Lap bang khir dau gia tri tuyet d6i

x ~ 0

Ix + 21 -(x + 2) 0 x + 2 2 x + 2

Ixl- 2 -x - 2 0 -x - 2 -2 x - 2

33

Tir do tinh diroc

{I neu x <-2

C = -I neu - 2 < x < 0

x+2" 0' 2

-- neu x;;:O: va x -:f:.

x-2

CO the dua mau s6 Ixl- 2 vao trong dau can ? Loai 4. Chung minh mQt dling tlurc

Thi du I, Chung minh 2~2 + J3 = 16 + J2 (*)

LUi gidi. Bien d6i v€ tnii :

2~2 + J3 = ~4(2 + J3) = ~8 + 4J3 = ~6 + 2m + 2 = ~(16 + J2)2

= 116 +J21 = 16 +J2

V~y 2~2+J3 = 16 +J2.

Co the bien d6i J2~4+2J3 = J2(J3+ I)

hoac binh phirong hai v€ cua (*) ?

Thi d1;l2.

Chung minh ~6 + m - ~6 - m = J2. LUi gidi. D~t v€ tnii la A, ta co

J2A = ~12 + 2m - ~12 - 2m

= ~(m + 1)2 - ~(m _1)2 = 1m + II-1m -11 = 2 Co the tinh A2 ?

Loai 5. Giai phuong trlnh Thi d1;l. Gidi phuang trinh

~x-2 +2~ + ~x-6+6.Jx-3 = 3 LUi gidi. Dieu kien x ;;:0: 3. Bien d6i v€ trai

thanh

~ x - 3 + 2~ + 1 + ~ x - 3 + 6.J x - 3 + 9 = ~(.Jx-3 +1)2 +~(.Jx-3 +3)2

= I.J x - 3 + 11 + I.J x - 3 + 31

34

= .Jx-3+1+.Jx-3+3 = 4 + 2.J x - 3 ;;:0: 4.

V~y phirong trinh vo nghiem.

Loai 6. Tim gia tri cua bien thoa man dieu kien eho tnrae

Thi du. Cho M = 4x -1- ~9x2 -12x + 4.

Tim x de'M = 3.

LUi gidi.

M = 4x -1- ~(3x - 2)2 = 4x -1-13x - 21

Xet dau ciia 3x - 2 ta tinh duoc

{ ,2

x + 1 neu x;;:O: 3"

M=

, 2 7 x - 3 neu x < 3"

• V oi x;;:O: ~ thl M = 3 <=> x + 1 = 3 <=> x = 2 (thfch hop),

.Vm x<~ thlM=3<=>7x-3=3<=>x= * 2

(loai vi khong thoa man x < 3")

V~y M = 3 khi x = 2. CO the viet 4x - 4 = ~9x2 -12x + 4 r6i binh phirong hai v€?

Loai 7. Tim eire tri cua mot bi~u tlnrc dal so

. " .

Thi du. Tim gia trl nho nhtit cua

D = ~1- 4x + 4x2 + ~4x2 -12x + 9. LUi gidi: D = ~(l- 2x)2 + ~(2x - 3)2

D = 11- 2xl + 12x - 31 ;;:0: 11- 2x + 2x - 31 = 2. Dang thirc xay ra <=> (l - 2x)(2x - 3) ;;:0: O. Lap bang xet dau

3

x 2 2
1 - 2x + 0
2x-3 0 +
(l - 2x)(2x - 3) 0 + 0 Tir do

1 3

(l - 2x)(2x - 3) ~ 0 ~ 2 :S; x :S; 2·

Y~y GTNN D being 2 voi ~:S; x:S;~.

Cac bai tap a cac thi du tren co th~ con nhieu each giai khac, trong pham vi bai vi~t nay, chi

xin trinh bay each giai co th~ van dung hang dtmg thirc fA2 = IAI va goi y mot vai each khac, Mong rang cac ban co the cung co, khac sau va van dung thanh thao, linh hoat khi g~p cac dang toan bien d6i bieu thirc co dau can.

MQT SO BAI TOAN VE GIA TR! TUY~T DOl

I. M(>t s6 tinh chat ella gia tr] tuyet d6i Cho a la s6 thirc, ta co

I I {a neu a ~ 0

1) a =

-a neu a < 0

2) lal ~ 0

3) lal = I-al

4) J:l = lal2 ; lal2 = a2

5) lal ~ a ~ -Ial

6) lal + Ihl ~ la + hi

Chung minh. Do hai v~ cua Mt dtmg thirc khong am nen (6) nrong dirong vm

{lal + Ihl)2 ~ (a + h)2 ~ lahl ~ ah. Vay (6) dung.

Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi ab ~ o. H¢ qua:

lall + la21 + ... + I all I ~ lal + a2 + ... + alii·

7) la + hi ~ Iial-Ihil .

Chung minh. Do hai v~ cua ba:t dtmg thirc khong am nen

(a + h)2 ~ (lal-lhl)2 ~ ab ~ -Iahl dung, do do (7) dung. Dtmg tlnrc xay ra khi va chi khi ah:S;O.

8) lal ~ Ihl ~ (a + h)(a - h) ~ 0

9) a ~ Ihl ~ a ~ b ~ -a.

vu DUt (Ninh Binh]

II. Phuong trlnh, bat phuong trinh co dau gia tr] tuyet doi

Thi du 1. Gidi heft phuang trinh

14x3 - 3xl :S; 1.

LUi gidi. Ta co 14x3 - 3xl :S; I ~ (4x3 - 3x)2:s; 12

~ (4x3 - 3x)2 - I :S; 0

~ (4x3 - 3x + 1).(4x3 - 3x - I) :S; 0

~(x+ 1)(4i -4x+ 1)(x-I)(4i +4x+ 1):S;O ~ (x2 _ 1)(2x - 1)2(2x + 1)2:s; 0

~ (i - 1)( 4i - 1)2 S 0

[ 2 r 2 I

4x - I = 0 x = -4 2

~ ~ cc-x S I

2

x -ISO 2<1

x _

~ Ixl S 1.

Thi du 2. Cho so' thuc a ~ I. Gidi hift phuang trinh :

Ix2 - 2ax + al ~ Ix2 - al.

LUi gidi. Ta co

Ix2 - 2ax + al ~ Ix2 - al

35

~ (X2 _ 2ax + a)2 - (X2 - a)2 ~ 0

~ [(X2 - 2ax + a) + (X2 - a)][(x2 - 2ax + a)

- (X2 - a)] ~ 0

~ (2x2 - 2ax)(2a - 2ax) ~ 0 ~ -4ax(x -I)(x - a) ~ 0

~ x(x -I)(x - a) ~ O.

Suy ra nghiem cua Mt phirong trinh la

[X ~O

1 s x s a.

Thi du 3. Gidi va bien ludn hf phuang trinh sau theo tham som

{Ix - yl + Ix + yl = m (1) x3 + IYl3 = m3 (2)

LUi gidi. Gia sir he co nghiem (x ; y). De y rang neu xy ~ 0 thl Ix + yl = Ixl + Iyl, con neu

xy ~ 0 thl Ix - yl = Ixl + Iyl nen tit (1) ta co m ~ Ixl + Iyl. Suy ra

x3 + IYl3 = m3 ~ <lxl + lyl)3 = = Ixl3 + IYl3 + 3lxyl(lxl + Iyl)· Ma x3 s Ixl3 , nen ta c6

Ixyl(lxl + Iyl) s 0 ~ [x = 0 y=O

• Neu x = 0 thl thay vao (I) va (2), ta duoc m=Ovay=O.

• Neu y = 0 thl thay vao (1) va (2) ta duqc m= 0 va x= Il.

Vf!.y neu h~ c6 nghiern thl m = 0 va tit do chi co m~t nghiem x = 0, y = O.

Kef ludn : Neu m :;:. 0 thl he phirong trinh v6 nghiem,

Neu m = 0 thl nghiem cua he la x = 0 ; y = 0 Thi du 4. Tim m di hf phuang trinh sau co nghiem duy nhcif :

{Ix + 11 + Iy - 31 = m Iy + 11 + Ix - 31 = m

36

LUi gidi. Gia sir he co nghiem (xo ; Yo) ; Ta th~y

1(2 - xo) + 11 + 1(2 - Yo) - 31 = 13-xol+l-yo -11

= Iyo + 11 + Ixo - 31 = m

va 1(2 - Yo) + 11 + 1(2 - Xo) - 31

= 13 - Yo 1+ I-xo - 11 = Ixo + 11 + Iyo - 31 = m.

Tit do neu he co nghiem (xo ; Yo) thi he cling co nghiem (2 - Xo ; 2 - Yo)' De he co nghiem duy nh~t thl hai nghiem nay phai trung nhau, tuc la

V6ixo=yo= I tasuyram=4.

Neu m = 4 thl de thay x = y = I va x = y = 3 la nghiem cua he.

Kef ludn : Khong t6n tai m de he co nghiem duy nhat.

III. Bflt dAng thuc co dflu gia tri tuyet doi Thi du 1. Chung minh rang neu t :;:. 0 thl

It +~I ~ 2.

LUi gidi. Xet hieu

It + !I- 2 = 1 t2 + 11_ 2 = t2 + I - 2

t t It I

t2 + 1- 21tl <ltl-l)2

= It I = It I ~ O.

Suy ra It + ~I ~ 2.

Thi du 2. Tim gia tri nho nhcif cua ham so'

F(x)=lx-II+12x-41+13x-9I+14x-I6I+15x- 2~ LUi gidi. Ta co

F(x) = (Ix - II + 12x - 41 + 13x - 91 + 14 - xl + + 125 - 5xl + 31x - 41

~~-I)+(2x-4)+(3x-9)+(4-x)+(25 -5x~+ 31x-41 = 15 + 31x - 41 ~ 15.

Mat khac, ta co F(4) = 15. Suy ra minF(x) = 15. Thi du S, Biet rdng da thuc fix) = ai + hx + c

co tinh chat 1/(1)1 s 1, I/( -1)1 s 1 va

1/(0)1 s 1.

Chung minhrdng I/(x)1 s % vai moi x e [-1; 1]. LUi gidi. Ta co j(O) = c ; j( 1) = a + h + c ; j(-I) = a -h + c. Suy ra:

2a = j( 1) + j( -1) - 2fiO) ;

2h =fil) - fi-l).

Thay vao fix) ta diroc

I(x)= 1(1).X(l;X) + 1(0).(1-x2)- 1(_I).X(l;X) Suy ra, voi moi x E [-1 ; 1] ta co

li(x)1 s 1/(1). X(1; X)I + Ii(O).(l- x2)1

+ !/(-I). X(I;X)!

= 1/(1~.IX(l;X)I+I/(0~.ll_x21+1/( _1~.!x(l;X)1

Ix(1 + x)1 I 21 Ix(1 - x)1

< + I-x + =

- 2 2

= 1- x2 + I~I <11 + xl + 11- xi) =

= 1 - x2 + I~I (1 + x + 1 - x) = 1- x2 + Ixl

= ~ _ (Ixl- .!.)2 < ~

4 2 - 4'

V~y I/(x)1 s % voi moi x E [-1 ; 1].

Thi du 4. Biet da thuc fix) = ai + hx + c co tinh chat !ltx)1 ~ 1 wYi moi x E [-1 ; 1]. Chung minh rdng

lal + Ihl + lei ~ 3.

LUi gidi. Quy uoc rang sO 0 co tM mang d4'u + hoac d4'u -.

Xet cac tnrong hop co tM xay ra :

• Neu ca ba sO a, b, c cung dau thl lal + Ihl + lei = la + h + eI = !It 1) ~ 1.

• Neu a trai d4'u vm h va c thl

lal + Ihl + lei = I-al + Ihl + lei =

= l-a + h + d = 12j{0) - j{-I)1 ~ 2!f{0)1 + j{-I) ~ 3. • Neu h trai d4'u vm a va c thl

lal + Ihl + lei = lal + I-hi + lei = la - h + eI = !It-l)1 ~ 1.

• Neu c trai dau vm a va h thl

lal + Ihl + lei = lal + Ihl + l-eI = la + h - eI = !It 1) - 2fiO) I s !It 1)1 + 2!1tO)I~ 3.

V~y ta luon co lel + Ihl + lei ~ 3.

Sau khi da xet cac thf du tren, moi cac ban lam cac bai tap sau day.

Bai 1. TIm gia tri 16'n nhat, gia tIi nho nh4't cua ham sO F(x) = Lx + 11 + 2Lx + 21- 3Lx + 31.

Bai 2. Cho da thuc fix) = ax2 + hx + c co tfnh ch4't !ltx)1 ~ 1 vm moi x E [-1 ; 1]. D~t g(x) = ci + bx+a.

I

01\l'I1g minh rang 19(x)1 ~ 2 vm moi x E [-1 ; 1].

Bal 3. TIm a, h de h¢ phuong trinh sau co nghiem duy nhat :

{2Ixl+y=a x2 + Y = h

Bal 4. TIm a, h sao chol2i + ax + hb 1 v(ri moi x E [-1 ; 1].

37

, /\" 3 ,

CHtfNG MINH BAT DANG TH(/C D~NG IAI ~ a

Bai viet nay de cap Mt dfutg thirc dang IAI ::;; a , trong do ala mot s6, con Ala da thtrc hoac A la bieu thirc dai s6 co chua phan thirc. Nhirng thf du neu ra chi duoc giai bang kien thirc thuoc cap THCS.

Thi du I,

Ch 2 2 2 h2 h2 h2

o al + a2 + ... + a" = I + 2 + ... + ,,= 1.

Chung minh rang

lalhl + a2h2 + ... + a"h,,1 ::;; 1.

LUi gidi. De y thay rang

2 2 2 h2 h2 h2

(al + a2 + ... + a,,)( I + 2 + ... + ,,) =

= (alhl + a2h2 + ... + a"h,,)2 + (alh2 - a2hl)2 + + ... + (alh3 -a3hl)2 + ... +(a"_lh,, -a"h,,_1)2.

BcJi vay (alhl + a2h2 + ... + a"h,,)2 ::;; 1. Suy ra lalhl + a2h2 + ... + a"h" I s 1.

Thl du 2. Cho a2 + h2 + c2 = 1 va m2 + n2 = 1 Chung minh rang

lam + hn + cI ::;; .fi.

LUi gidi. Bai toan duoc giai nrong tl;!' Thf du 1 khi thay m2 + n2 = 1 boi m2 + n2 + 1 = 2.

Thl du 3. Chung minh rang neu i + l = 1, thi Ix + yl s .fi.

LUi gidi. Ta co x2 + i ~ 2xy (1)

1 =i + l (2)

Til (1) va (2) co (x + y)2::;; 2. Suy ra

Ix+ yl::;;.fi·

Thi d1:l4. Cho x2 + 4i = 1. Chung minh rang

15 Ix-yl::;;z·

38

x x

NGUYEN DE (Hdi Phong)

LUi gidi. Ta co

i + 4l = 1 ~ x2 + 4l- 1 = 0 (3)

Kf hieu x - y = a, suy ra y = x - a (4)

Thay (4) vao (3) ta diroc phirong trtnh voi an s6 x nhu sau:

5x2 - 8ax + 4a2 - 1 = 0

L\ = 5 - 4a2. Phuong trinh tren co nghiem khi L\ ~ 0 hay 5 - 4a2 ~ O. Til do suy ra

15 15

lal ::;; Z hay Ix - yl s z (dpcm).

Qua thf du tren ta thir d~t van de rang khi nao viec chimg minh Mt dfutg thirc dang

IAI ::;; a duoc dira ve tim dieu kien de plurong trinh bac hai co nghiem.

Thi du 5. VOi x, y, z la d~ dai cdc canb cua mat tam gidc, chung minh rang

I;:~ +~:; +;:;I<{·

LUi gidi. Tnroc het ta chimg minh dfutg thirc x-y y-z z-x (x-z)(y-z)(x-y)

__ + __ + __ = _:__~_-'c-'----'~

x+y y+z z+x (x+y)(y+z)(z+x)

(5)

Kf hieu ve trai ciia (5) la A va bien dOi x - y = (x - z) - (y - z), ta co

A= (y+z)(x+z)[(x-z)-(y-z)] + (x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

(y - z)(x + y)(x + z) + (z - x)(x + y)(y + z)

+....:.::._____:~----=-_:_:_-_:__;_-_:_:___::....:....:::-_;_

(x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

(x - z)(y - z)(x - y)

=----'-------';._

(x + y)(y + z)(z + x) .

Den day ta thay (5) dung, til do suy ra

Ix-y y-z z-xl Ix-y y-z z-xl

--+-+- = --.-.- (6)

x+y y+z z+x x+y y+z z +x

Mat khac Ix - yl < z, Iy - zl < x, Iz - xl < y, baiv~y

!x- y y-z z-x! xyz

x+ y" y+ z' z+ x < (x+ y)(y+z)(z +x) (7)

. ,j;Y 1 -r;; 1

La! co -- ~ - (8), -- ~ -

. x+y 2 x+z 2

Jfll

--<y+z - 2

(10)

,xyz cry. ry;.-r;;

va = __ ~V __ AYV~YZ _

(x + y)(y + z)(z + x) (x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

ro (6), (7), (8), (9), (10) suy ra

!x-y y-z z-x! 1 --+---+-- <- (dpcm). x+y y+z z+x 8

Thi du 6. Chang minh rdng vOi moi x E [-1 ;1] co hat dang thuc lax2 + bx + el ~ h thi

lal + Ihl + lei ~ 4h.

LUi gidi. Bai toan nay khong tnrc tiep chimg minh Mi dAng thirc IAI ~ a, nhung da si'r dung kien tlnrc co lien quan den b~t dAng tlnrc do de giai bai toan trong tnrong hop phirc tap han.

That vay, vci cac gia tri x = 0, -1, 1 ta co:

• VOi x = 0 thl !c] ~ h

(11) (12)

• VOi x = 1 thl la + b + cI ~ h .VOix=-lthlla-h+el~h .

(9)

Tit (12) va (13) suy ra -h ~ a + b + c ~ h (14)

-h < a> h+c ~h

(15)

Tit (14) va (15) ta duoc -h s a + c s h (16) Mat khac lai co tM viet (14), (15) nhir sau :

-h ~ a + b + c ~ h

h ? a - b + c ? -h

(17)

Tit (11) va (16) ta co -h s a + c s h (18)

h?e?-/z

(19) (20)

Tit (18), (19) co lal s 2h Tit (11), (17), (20) ta duoc

lal + Ihl + lei ~ 4h (dpcm).

A A' A' " "" ,

DOl DIEU VE M()T PHUONG PHAP GIAI PHUONG TRINH

? ,,' ?

o CAP TRUNG H()C CO SO

Trong cac kl thi hoc sinh gioi THCS, hQC sinh thirong gap cac bai toan giai phuong trinh va h¢ plnrong trinh rna each giai khong binh thuong. De giup cac ban tim hieu v~ de do, bai viet nay xin ban doi dieu ve mot phirong phap giai loai phirong trinh tren,

TRJNH VINH NGQC (Hd Tinh)

Cho ham s6 y = f(x) va y = g(x) co tap xac dinh nrong ung la Df ' D s . Xet phuong trinh f(x) = g(x) (1) voi tap xac dinh

=»>»,

39

N' {/(x)~m ,. . D l' h' , eu voi mQI x E ,m a ang so

g(x) ~ m

thi phuong trinh (1) nrong duong vm he

{/(X) = m (2) g(x) = m

Neu t6n tai Xo E D thoa man (2) thl Xo Hi nghiem cua (1).

De giai mot phirong trinh eho tnroc theo phirong phap tren, van de mau chot la phai dira duoc phirong trinh d6 ve dang (l) rna viec tim min I (x) va max g(x) khong g~p kh6 khan

lam. Sau day la mot s6 bai toan,

Bai toan 1. Gidi phuang trinh

6x - x2 - 2 = Ix - 11 + Ix - 21 + + 12x - 31 + 14x -131

Lm gidi. Ta e6 the giiii (3) bang each lap bang xet dau ve' phai cua (3), tit d6 suy ra nghiem. Song each nay nrong d6i dai, mat nhieu thoi gian.

Ap dung each tren ta xet hai ve' cua (3). • Xet ve' ph iii cua (3)

Ix -11 + Ix - 21 + 12x - 31 + 14x -131 ~ Ix -1 + x - 2 + 2x - 3 + 13 - 4xl = 7.

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi x -1, x - 2, 2x-3, 13-4x cung khong am hoac cung

khong duong. Tit d6 tim duqc 2 s x s I}.

13

<=>2~x~4'

• Xet ve trai cua (3)

6x - i - 2 = 7 - x2 + 6x - 9 = 7 - (x - 3)2 ~ 7 ~ max (6x-i - 2) =7 va dat duqc khix= 3.

Do x = 3 E [2; I} ] nen phuong trinh e6

nghiem duy nhat x = 3.

40

Bai toan 2. Gidi phuang trinh

(8.x - 4i - 1)(i + 2x + 1) = 4(i + x + 1) (4) Lai gidi. Neu khai trien ve trai cua (4) thl ta

duoc phirong trinh bac b6n du, nen kh6 tim nghiem bang kien thirc 6 TIles.

Ap dung each tren nhir sau.

Vi x = -1 khong phai Ia nghiem cua (4) nen

(4) <=> 8x - 44x2 - 1 = x2 + X + 1 x2 + 2x + 1

• Xet ham s6 y = x2 +x+l (x =t:. -1). De x2 + 2x + 1

dang tim diroc min y = ~ dat diroc khi x = 1.

(3)

8x - 4x2 -1 3

• Milt khac = - x2 + 2x - 1 + -

. 4 4

3 2 3 ) ( 8x - 4x2 - 1 ) 3

= 4 - (x - 1) ~ 4 ~ max 4 = 4

dat dircc khi x = 1.

Tit d6 phirong trlnh (4) c6 nghiem duy nhat x= 1.

Bal to an 3. Tim x thod mdn phuang trinh -16x4 +72x3 -81x2 +28-16(x-.Jx+2)=0 (5)

LUi gidi. Neu ~t .J x - 2 = t ~ 0, the' x = i + 2 vao (5) thl ta diroc mot plnrong trinh bac 8. De giai phirong trlnh nay phai c6 ki nang phan tich da thtrc thanh nhan tit hay tim nghiem da thirc.

De ap dung each tren d~t .J x - 2 = t ~ O. Khi d6 x = 2 + t2 va x - .J x - 2 = x - 2 - .J x - 2 + 2 = t2 - t + 2 .

• Xet f(t) = t2 - t + 2 voi t E [0 ; +00) thl min j'(r) = -i, dat duqe khi t = ~ hay

min (x -.Jx - 2) = -47 khix= -49.

XE[2;+oo)

-16x4 +72x3 -81x2 +28

• Mat khac 16

~ - ( x - ~ r x2 s ~. D~u bang xay ra khi

Tit d6 ta c6 x = ~ la nghiem cua phuong trmh, Bm loan 4. Tim nghi~m nguyen coo phuong trinh

LUi gidi. Neu trong ba s6 x, y, z c6 dung mot s6 am hoac ca ba s6 deu am thl xy + yz + zx < 0

. z x y

nen khong thoa man phirong trinh.

VI v~y trong ba s6 x, y, z thl ca ba s6 deu

duong hoac hai trong ba s6 la am, ta c6

A _ xy yz zx _ Ixllyl Iyllzl Izllxl - ~+-;-+y - Tzr+Txf+lYf

~ 3~lxllYllzl = 3~lxyzl ~ 3.

minA = 3 dat dircc khi Ixl = Iyl = Izl = 1.

V~y nghiem nguyen (xr yr z) cua phirong trinh la :

=

(1; 1; 1);(1 ;-1 ;-1);(-1 ;-1; 1);(-1; 1 ;-1). Bai toan 5. Tim m di h~ sau co nghiem x, y, z de'u duang "

{X + y + z = 1

xy + yz + zx = 9m xyz =m

Gidi. Sir dung b~t dang thirc Cauchy cho ba s6 dirong x, y, z ta c6

1 = x + y + z ~ 3~ = 3if; => m s 2~ (6) 9m = xy + yz + xz ~ 3~x2iz2 = 3:(;,2 => 1

m ~ 27 (7).

Tit (6), (7) phai c6 m = 217'

Nguoc lai voi m = 2~' ta th~y ngay he da cho c6 nghiem x = y = z = j. Vay m = 2~ la gia tri duy nhat can tlm.

Nhu vay, van dung phirong phap nay ta khong chi giai dtroc phirong trinh dang can thirc, phirong trtnh bac eao mot each nhanh gon rna con xet diroc mot s6 he phirong trlnh, Cac ban hoc sinh TIICS con duoc gap lai phirong phap nay khi giai cac loai phirong trinh, he phuong trinh phong phii va da dang han a cac lap TIIPT.

BAI TOAN Cl!C TR! CVA BrEU THUC CHUA DAU CAN

PHAN NGQC THAo (Truong THPT chuyen t.e Khie't, Quang Ngai)

Chuang I la chuang kh6 cua Dai s6 lap 9, cac bai toan tlm gia tri Ian nhat, gia tri nho nhat c6 chua dau can thirong hay g~p trong cac ki thi . tuyen sinh vao lap 10 va cac kl thi hoc sinh gioi.

DUm day la mot s6 dang toan thuong g~p va

mot s6 van de rna hoc sinh hay sai s6t. Trong bai nay khi n6i ve gia tri nho nhat (min), gia tri Ian nhat (max) cua bieu thirc Ptx, y, z) ta hieu rang cac bien x, y, z thuoc tap s6 T sao cho Ptx, y, z) c6 gia tri xac dinh,

41

A. Co so Ii thuyet

Xet bieu thirc P(x, y) vm cac bien x, y thuoc tap xac dinh T. De chimg minh

min P(x,y) = a (a la bang so) vai moi x, y thuoc tap T, ta chimg minh hai phan

I. P(x,y) ~ a voi moi x, y thuoc T.

2. Co (xo'Yo) sao cho P(xo'Yo) = a.

Chung minh nrong 1\, voi max P(x,y) = a, chi can d6i dau ~ thanh dau :s.

Cac dang thtrong g~p la :

a) P(x, y) = [Q(x, y)]2n + a ~ a voi a la hang

s6, n E N* (1)

Neu co (xo'Yo) sao cho Q(xo'yo) = 0 thl minP(x,y) = a voi moi x, y thuoc T.

b) P(x,y) = -[Q(x,y)f" + b s; b vm b la

hang s6, n E N*

Neu co (xo' Yo) sao cho Q(xo; Yo) = 0 thi max P(x, y) = b voi moi x, y thuoc T.

Ta van dung dieu tren vao viec tim GlNN, GTLN cua bieu tlnrc co chua dau can vm cac chu y sau.

I. 0 cOng thirc (1) neu a ~ 0 thl min~P(x,y) =..r;; vm x, y thuoc T.

o cong thuc (2) neu P(x,y) ~ 0 va b ~ 0 thl max~P(x,y) =.Jh voi x y thuoc Z',

2. V~ dung btlt dang tlnrc lal + Ihl ~ la + hi Dau bang xay ra khi ah ~ O.

3. N~u M ~ 0 mu6n tim GlNN, GTLN cua M ta tim GlNN, GTLN cua M2.

B. Bal tl)p ap dung

Bili 1. Tim GrNN ale hiiu thuc sau vOi x E R

1) D = J(.i -1996)2 - J(x -1997)2

2) F =. 1

x+.[;+1

42

Huang ddn gidi.

1) D = Ix -19961 + Ix -19971

(2)

each 1. Xet cac khoang gia tri cua x.

• v m x < 1996 thi D = 1996 - x + 1997 - x

= 3993 - 2x > I.

• Vm 1996:s x:S 1997 thi D = I.

• Vm x > 1997 thl D = 2x - 3993 > I.

Do do Dmin = 1 xay ra khi 1996 :S x :S 1997. each 2. Ap dung btlt dang thtrc

lal + Ihl ~ la + hi. Dau bang xay ra khi ah ~ O.

D = Ix -19961 + 11997 - xl ~ Ix - 1996 + 1997 - xl = 1.

Dmin = 1 xay ra khi (x - 1996)(1997 - x) ~ 0 ~ 1996:sx:S 1997.

2) F = - .1 . Nhan xet:x ~ O. x+ x + 1

each 1. Vi F < 0 nen xay ra minF x~o

~ max { .1 } ~ min {x + .[; + I}

x~o x + x + 1 x~o

~ min{x}. x~o

Vi x ~ 0 nen min{x} = O .. x~o

V~y Fmin = -1 xay ra khi x = o.

each 2. l :S 1 vi x ~ 0, do d6 1 + x + 1

1

- >-1

1+.[;-1-

V~y Fmin = -1 xay ra khi x = O.

Bili 2. Tim GrLN cua hiiu thta:

yz~+xz~y-2+xy~

K= .

xyz

Huang ddn gidi.

~ ~y-2 ~

K=--+ +-- voi dieu

x y z

kien x ~ 1, y ~ 2, z ~ 3.

Ap dung bat diing thirc Cauchy cho hai s6 khong am ta duqc :

r=; I l+x-l x

"X - 1 = "I(x -1) ~ 2 = 2"

t=:; 1 I 1 2+y-2 y

-s» -.:. = J2 v 2(y - 2) s J2. 2 = 2J2

,---;; 1 I 1 3+z-3 z

-s z - ~ = J3 v 3(z - 3) ~ J3 2 = 2J3·

Vay Kmax = ~(I + ~+ ~)

x = 2, y = 4, z = 6 .

Bfli 3. Xit hie'u thuc

p= 1 + 1 _a2+2

2(1 + Fa) 2(1 - Fa) 1 - a3 .

xay ra khi

a) Rut gon P.

h) Tim GTNN eua P.

HUOng dtin gidi. Dieu kien : a ~ 0, a:t:. 1. 1

a) P=----

a2 + a + 1

b) VI P < 0 nen xay ra

min P <=> min {a2 + a + 11. Dieu nay xay

O:5;a;e1 O:5;a;e1

ra khi a = O.

Ket luan : P min = -1 xay ra khi a = O.

Chu y : Mot s6 hoc sinh nham lan, quen dieu kien a ~ 0 nen dii giai :

1 4

P = - ( 1 )2 3 ~ -"3

a+2" +"4

P 4, khi 1

suy ra min = -"3 xay ra 1 a = - 2".

Bai 4. Tim GTNN eua cdc hie'u thuc :

a) H = 5- 3x ~1-x2

H uong dtin gidi.

a) H = R xac dinh khi -1 < x < 1 ~

1- x2 .

H>O.

Ta co H2 = [ 5 - 3x2)2 = 25 - 30x + 9x2 =

~ l-x2

9 - 30x + 25x2 + 16 -16x2 = (3 - 5x )2 + 16 > 16 .

l-x2 l-x2-

Vay Hmin = 4 khi x =~.

b) Dieu ki¢n : x ~ -1.

K = ~(E+i + 1)2 + ~(E+i _1)2 = 1E+i + 11 + 1E+i - 11

= 1E+i +11+/t-E+i1

~ 1.J;+l + 1 + 1 - E+il = 2.

Kmin = 2 <=> (E+i + 1)(1- E+i) ~ O.

Vi .J;+l + 1> 0 nen 1-.J;+l ~ 0 <=>X~O.

V~y Kmin = 2 xay ra khi -1 s x s O. Bai S. a) Cho hai s6' thuc a, b vai a < h TimGTNN cua

S = Ix - al + Ix - hi vai x E R

h) Cho n sdthuc ai' a2' ... , an vUi al ~a2 ~ ... ~an"

TlmGrNN cUa SII =f-al/+/x-azl+ .... +f-alll

vai X E R

H ucng ddn gidi.

a) Ta phan biet ba tnrong hop :

• Neu x < a ta co

S = a - x + h - x = b - a + 2(a - x) > h - a

VI a -x> O.

• Neu a ~ x ~ b ta co

S = x - a + b - x = b - a.

• Neu x > b ta co

S = b - a + 2(x - h) > b - a (vl x - b > 0)

V~y Smin = b - a xay ra khi a ~ x ~ h.

43

b) Ta xet hai tnrong hop :

• Vai n = 2p (chan) ; p E N*. Ta viet

S21' = (Ix - all +Ix - a21'1) + (Ix - a21 + - a21'_11) +

... + (Ix-apl+lx-ap+ll)·

Theo a) ta co

min (l- - all + Ix - a2pl) = a2p - al

XElR

khi a I ~ x ~ a2p ;

~E~ (Ix - a21 + Ix - a2p_II) = 22p_1 - a2

khi < <

1 a2 - x - a2p-1 ;

~i~(lx - apl + Ix - ap+ll) = ap+l -ap khi ap ~x s ap+l.

Vi X E [ap ; a,H-d c ... c [Clz, "zp-d c [ai, alp] nen khi x E [ap ; ap+d thl

min S2p = (a2p - al) + (a2p_l- a2) + ... XElR

minS2p = (a2p +a2p_I+···+ap+I)XElR

- (al +a2 + ... =.»

• VOi n = 2p + 1 (le) ; p E N* . Tuong nr nhir tren ta viet

S2p+1 = (Ix - all + Ix - a2p+ll) +

+ (lx-a21+lx-a2pl) + ...

+ (lx-apl+lx-ap+21)+lx-ap+11

- (al + a2 + ... + ap)

khi x = ap+1 (ap+1 la s6 hang dimg giii'a trong dayal' a2'···' an)·

Ngiroi viet bai nay hi vong lam sang to mot phan nao nhimg thAc mac ve cac bai toan eire tri v6n rat phong phti va phirc tap.

" , ,,,,,, A' J'\

SUY LU~N H(/P LI TRONG LOI GIAI CO VE THIEU TV NHIEN

Khi xem xet loi gh\i ella mot bai toan thirong xuat hien cau hoi : Tai sao ngiroi ta lai nghi ra each gh\i nhu vay ? Co nhimg loi gh\i xem ra thieu tu nhien, co phai do sl! may man trong qua trinh tim kiem each giai hay chung bAt ngu6n tu Sl! suy luan hop If tren eel s6 phan tieh cac ghi thiet ella bai toan, Sau day la met vai thf du minh hoa .

Tht du 1. (Bai TI/255). Chung minh rdng

vai cdc s6' duang a, b, c thi

5h3 - a3 5e3 - h3 5a3 _ e3

---2 + 2 + 2 ~a+h+e.

ab + 3h he + 3e ca + 3a

44

ve DOt (Ninh Binh)

D!;U1g bat dang thirc trong bai toan goi y ta thir dung phuong phap danh gia mot hang tu 6 ve trai,

can cu vao bac ella tu (bac ba) va bac ella mau (bac hai) ta co the du doan, co cac bat dang

5h3 _ a3

thtrc dang : 2 ~ xa + yb (1)

ah+3h

5e:3 - h3 , 5a3 _ e:3

---:-2 < xb + yc va 2 < xc + ya.

he: + 3e: ca + 3a

Tir do, cong theo tirng ve ella ba bat dang thirc tren ta co ve phai la (x + y)(a + b + c). Neu chon duoc x, y sao eho x + y = 1 va cac bat

dc1ng tren dung la bai toan giai quyet xong. Ta the y = 1 - x thl (1) tr6 thanh

5h3 _a3

----,,-2 ~x.a+(1-x)h. ah+Sb

Thir cac gia tri d~c biet cua a, b ta thay c6 th~ chon x = -1 thl (2) dung va du doan

3 3

5h - a 2 ~ 2h - a (3) voi moi s6 duong a, h. ah+3h

Viec chimg minh (3) xin danh cho cac ban, Tat nhien 1m giai S15 bilt dau bci mot cau c6 vi! thieu nr nhien : !ITa S15 chimg minh bat dc1ng thirc (3)" (!).

Bang each suy nghi nrong nr, c6 th~ giai dtroc bai toan sau.

Cho cdc s6' duang a, b, c, chung minh ding

a2 h2 (_.2 a + b + C

--+--+--~---

a+b b+ c c+a 2

(Hay suy luan hop If d~ tim ra BDT 2

a 3a - h ,. h 0)

a+h ~-4- vma, > .

Thi du 2. Cho cac s6' duang a, b, c va a2 + h2 + c2 = 27, chung minh rang a3 + h3 + c3 ~ 81.

Vai tro binh dc1ng cua a, b, c got ta du doan dau bang trong bat dc1ng thirc tren xay ra khi a =h=c= 3.

Ta can tim mot bat dc1ng thirc th~ hien quan

he giii'a a2 + h2 + c2 va a3 + h3 + c3. Tu su chenh lech s6 mG cua a3 va a2 ta nghi den ap dung bat dc1ng thirc Cauchy cho ba s6 dirong a3, a3 va hang s6 k. Nhirng can chon k la s6 nao ? D~ Y rang dau bang trong bat dc1ng thirc Cauchy xay ra khi a = b = c, hie d6 3a2 = 27 ~ a = 3. Do d6 ta nghi den thir chon k = 33 = 27.

Ta c6 a3 + a3 + 27 ~ 3~a3.a3.27 = 9a2. Tl1<1l1g tt,r h3 + h3 + 27 ~ 9b2

('3 + e3 + 27 ~ 9(.'2.

Cong theo tirng ve cac bat dc1ng thtrc tren ta ducc :

(2)

2(a3 + h3 + (3) + 3.27 ~ 9(a2 + h2 + ('2). Suy ra a3 + h3 + c3 ~ 81.

Thi du 3. Gidi phuang trinh

4x2 + ·,i2x + 1 + 5 = 12x.

Nho kinh nghiem giai mot s6 bai nrong tv, ta thir chuyen phirong trinh nay thanh he phirong trinh d6i ximg loai hai bang each d~t

.j2x + 1 = ax + b vm tham s6 a, b nao d6.

Khi d6, ta c6

{4x2 + ay + b + 5 ; 12x 2x + 1 = (ay + h)

{4x2 -12x+ay+h+5 =0

<=:> a2i+2ahy-2x+h2-1=0

Xac dinh a, b sao cho he tren la he d6i ximg loai hai, tuc la

a2 = 2ah = -2 = h2 -1 <=:> {a = -2

4 -12 a b+S h=3.

V~y, neu d~t .j2x + 1 = -2y + 3 vm dieu

kien -2y + 3 ~ 0 <=:> y ~~, ta c6 he

{4x2 - 2y + 3 + 5 = 12x 2x + 1 = (-2y + 3)2

<=:> {2< - 6x - y + 4 = 0 2y - 6y - x + 4 = 0

<=:> {(2:2 -6x-y+4)-(2i -6y-x+4)=0 2x -6x-y+4=0

<=:> {(X - y)(2x + 2 - 5) = 0 2x2 - 6x - y + 4 = 0

Den day viec giiii phirong trinh da cho khong con may kh6 khan.

Qua mot s6 thf du tren c6 th~ thay nhfmg 1m giai thieu tu nhien ciing nhieu khi la xuat phat tir sir tim toi, khai thac gia thiet ket hop voi viec nhan xet, danh gia d~ dira ra nhimg du doan hop If, r6i chimg minh cac bai toan trung gian don gian.

45

"" ",," "" ?", ",,"

MOT SO eHU Y KHI GIAI TOAN TIM eve TR! f)~I SO

Trong dai s6 cac bai toan eire tri co mot vi tri kha quan trong. Da co r~t nhieu tai lieu, sach, bao n6i ve van de nay. Bai nay trinh bay mot s6 sai lam thirong thay cua hoc sinh khi tim eire tri cua bieu thirc chua bien va mot vai dang toan tim eire tri dai s6.

Xet bieu thirc chua bien P(x), Pix, y) ... Ta ki hieu gia tri IOn nhat cua bieu thirc P tren tdp xdc dinh eua bien la GTLN (P) hay maxP, con gia tri nho nhat cua PIa GTNN (P) hay minP.

I. Cac kien tlurc thueng dung

1) Cho P = A + B thi maxP = maxA + maxB va minP = minA + minE.

trong d6 A va B la cac bieu thirc chua cac bien doc l~p voi nhau, hoac neu A va B chua cung bien thi cung dat GTLN (GTNN) tai mot gia tri xac

dinh x = xo' tuc la maxA = A(xo)' maxB = B(xo) thl maxP = P(xo).

2)ChoP= _!_ voi Ao Ofhl maxf"> ~A

A mm

;=1

voi moi kEN, m E JR, M E JR

4) A ~ 0 thi max(A2) = (maxA)2 va

min(A2) = (minAl

5) Cac dang cua b~t dang thirc Cauchy:

a) a + b ~.j2;;h (a ~ 0, b ~ 0).

Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = h. a h

b) - + - ~ 2 (ah > 0). h a

Dang thirc xay ra <=> a = h.

46

HUYNH V AN TRQNG (Binh Dinh)

6) Bat dang thirc Bunyakovski :

(ax + hy)2 S; (a2 + h2)(x2 + i).

Dang thirc xay ra <=> ay = bx.

Can chu y rang sau khi tim diroc gia tri cua bien de bieu thirc P dat eire tri can thir lai xem P co dat cue tri tai dung gia tri do khong va gia tri d6 cua bien co thoa man cac dieu kien gia thiet khong,

II. Nhfrng sai sot thuong gl)p khi ghii toan tim cue tri dl,li s6

Bai toan 1. Gid sit hai so' thuc x, y thod man x > y va xy = 1. Tim gid tri nho nhdt eua hilu

x2 +i

thuc -----'--

x-y

x2+i (x-y)2+2xy LUi gidi. Ta co A = ---

x-y x-y

Do x > y va xy = 1 nen

A = (x - y)2 + 2xy = x _ y + _2_.

x-y x-y x-y

x-y 2 x-y

Tbeo(5b) A =--+--+-- 2 x-y 2

~ 2 + x; y (*)

V~y A c6 gia tri nho nhat khi

x-y 2

--+--=2

2 x- y

<=> (x - y)2 + 4 = 4(x - y)

<=> (x - y)2 - 4(x - y) + 4 = O.

GiM Ifluong trlnh dtn;1C x - y = 2, rna xy = 1 nen (x;y)la (I+Ji; -1+Ji) va (l-Ji; -l-Ji)

x- y 2

=> minA = -2- + 2 = 2" + 2 = 3.

Bai giai tren la sai. co the bien d6i nhu sau :

2 ~[x-y J2) t;

A=x-y+--=,,2 ~ +-- ~2,,2.

x-y ,,2 x-y

Ket qua dung la minA = 2J2 khi (x, y) la

( J2 + J6 . -J2 + J6) .

2 ' 2 '

( J2 - J6 . -J2 - J6)

2 ' 2

Vay sai lAm cua bai giai tren la bien d6i den

(*) thi 2 + x; y khong phai la hang s6 rna con phu thuoc vao bien x, y.

Bai toan 2. Tim gia tri nho nhdt ella bieu thuc

p = x 4 + 2x3 + 3x2 + 2x + 1.

Co hoc sinh dff giai P = (x2 + x + 1)2 ~ 0 <=> minP = O. Dieu nay khong xay ra VI khong co gia tri nao cua x lam cho P(x) = O.

Co hoc sinh khac dff giai :

P = i(i + 2x + 1) + 2x2 + 2x + 1

( )2

2 2 1 1 1

= x (x + 1) + 2 x + 2 + 2 ~ 2

'nP 1

~ml = 2'

De thay dap s6 nay sai VI hie do x d6ng thoi

b' l vs b' 1

ang - va ang - 2 .

Cach giai dung nhtr sau : P = (x2 + x + 1)2.

( )2

2 1 3 3 ,2

VI x + x + 1 = x + - + - > - rna x + x 2 4-4

+ 1 > 0 nen min(x2 + x + 1) = ~ <=> x = - ~ .

Yay minP = (~)2 = ~ <=> x = _.!.

. 4 16 2

Bai toan 3. Tim gid tri nho nhdt ella hilu thuc sau viti x ~ 0, y ~ 0 .

P = x - 2.j;Y + 3 y - 2 J"; + 1977.

Co hoc sinh dff giai nhu sau :

P=¥(J";-3jY)2 +(J";_2)2 +(J";_1)2]+ 59;6

~ minP = 59386. Dap s6 nay sai VI khong the x = 1 va x = 4.

each giai dung nhu sau :

3P = 3x - 6.j;Y + 9y - 6J"; + 5991

1 [r C 2 (r 3)2] 3991

<=>P="3 ("x-3.yy) +2 =:: +-2-

3991

>--

- 2

. P 3991 khi {J"; - -23 = 0

~ mm =-2- 1

J"; -3jY = 0

nrc la (x; y) bang (~;~).

III. Bien d6i mot bal toan c1!C tr]

Khi giai mot bai toan eire tri ta co tM quy v~ bai toan g6c dan gian han, hoac ngiroc lai tit mot bai toan g6c co tM sang tao ra bai toan moi plnrc tap han.

Bai toan 1. Cho x, y E ~ thod mdn die'u kien

x2 + l = 1. Tim gia tri lim nhdt va gia tri nho nhdt ella x + y.

L ' . .•. T' ( )2 2 2 2x

mglal. U x+y =x +y + y~

2(i + i) s 2 dan den:

max(x + y) = J2 <=> x = y = if

,. ) ~2 J2

va mm(x + y = -" L. <=> X = Y = - 2 .

Tit bai toan tren co the bien d6i thanh cac bai toan khac nhir sau :

Bai toan 1.1 Cho x2 + 4l = 2. Tim gid tri lim nhdt va gia tri nhd nhdt ella

S = x+2y.

47

Bai toan 1.2. Cho 4x2 + 9i = 2. Tim gia tri Ian nhdt , gia tri nho nhdt eua S = 2x + 3y I'm x ~ 0, y ~ O.

Bai toan 2. Tim gid tri lim nhd: eua hie'u thuc A = ~x-2 +~4-x.

Huang dtin gidi. Xet A2 v6i 2 s x ~ 4.

Bai toan 2.1. Tim gia tri lim nhdi eua hie'u tlua: B = ~ x - 2.~6 - 2x.

Huang dtin gidi. B xac dinh khi va chi khi 2 s x s 3. Ap dung BDT Cauchy khi viet B=J2.~x-2.~3-x.

Bai toan 2.2. Gidi phuang trinh

~ x - 2 + ~ 4 - x = x2 - 6x + 11.

Huang dtin gidi. Dieu kien : 2 ~ x s 4. Tir bai toan 2 co ~ x - 2 + ~ 4 - x ~ 2. Mat khac x2 - 6x + 11 = (x - 3)3 + 2 ~ 2. Suy ra x = 3 la nghiem duy nhat.

Bai toan 3. Tim gia tri lim nhdt eua ham s{I

f( ) yz~+xz~+xy~

x,y,Z =

xyZ

tren mien D = {(x, y, z) : x ~ 1, y ~ 2, Z ~ 3} LUi gidi.

~ ~y-2 ~

f(x,y,z)= --+ +--.

x y Z

Van dung bat dfuIg thirc Cauchy cho timg c~p s6 sau:

r==: x ~ 1

"x-l.l~2 ~ x ~2

JY-2 . fi ~ l_2 ~ JY-2 ~ lr,:;-

Y 2,,2

..Jz=3 . .j3~_2Z~~Z-3~ IJ;;"'

Z 2,,3

DfuIg thtrc xay ra khi x = 2, y = 4, Z = 6. Dodo

1 ( 1 1)

max f(x,y,z) = -2 1 + r,:;- + J;;" •

(x,y,z)eD ,,2 ,,3

BAIT~P

Bai 1. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua m6i bieu thirc sau :

x4 + 4

a) A = 2 Y 2 v6i x > y va xy = 1. x -y

4 3 9 2

b)B=x -x +'4x -x+1.

c) C = x - 2';;; - -Jx + 2y v6i x ~ 0, y ~ O. Bili 2. Tim gia tri Ian nhat cua bieu thirc

p = ~2x - 1 . ~2 - x .

Bili 3. Giiii phuong trinh ~x-2+~4-x =2+~(x-2)(4-x).

A,/\" ",' ?"

Mf)T SO SAl LAM KHI GIAI TOAN cue TR!

x .. I'>!

NGUYEN V AN HIEN (GV THCS Quynh CMu, Quynh Ph~, Thai Binh)

Giiii bai toan eve tri thirong dira ve viec tim gia tri Ian nhat hoac gia tri nho nhat cua mot bieu thirc dai s6, trong d6 bien s6 lay gia tri trong mot tap hop xac dinh. Dang toan nay rat hap dan nhirng nrong d6i kho cii ve viec tim gia tri Ian nhat (GTLN) hoac gia tri nho nhat

48

(GINN) va cii ve phirong phap giiii. Bai vi€t nay xin neu ra mot s6 sai lam khi tim GTLN, GINN cua mot bi~u thirc fix) v6i kien thirc toan 6 tnrong THCS bang each bien dc.'Si dai s6 bi~u thirc d~ dira ve cac dang sau .

Dang 1. a) TIm G1LN cua/(x) khi xet I(x) ~ g(x) ~ a voi ala hang s6.

b) TIm G1NN cuaftx) khi xet/(x) ~ g(x) ~ a voi a la hang s6.

Dang 2. a) TIm G1LN cua ftx) khi viet I(x) = hex) + g(x) vm hex) ~ 0 roi xet g(x) ~ a vci a la hang s6.

b) TIm G1NN cua ftx) khi viet I(x) = hex) + g(x) vci hex) ~ 0 r6i xet g(x) ~ a voi a la hang s6.

Lam nrong nr d6i voi tnrong hop co hai bien s6 trc len.

Bai toan 1. Tim gid tri IOn nhdt eua hie'u thuc

I(x) = ~ + ~1 - x - 2x2 .

Loi gidi. Cach 1. Bieu tlnrc I(x) co nghia khi 2

1 - x - 2x ~ 0 <=> (x + 1)(1 - 2x) ~ 0

1 <=>-I<x<- - 2

A.p dung bat dang thirc (BDT) Bunyakovski

ta co

I(x) = ~x + 1.~1 - x - 2x2

~ ~~ + 1 . J x2 + (1- x - 2x2)

Tir do ket luan rang khi x = - ~ thoa man (2) va (I) tht bieu thirc I(x) dat G1LN la %.

NhtJ,n xet. GQi bieu thirc cu6i cung cua (2) la g(x) thi khi x = -~ co g( -~) = % nhung

I(-_!_) = -_!_ + Jl = ~ < g(-_!_) = 1

2 4 4 2 4·

so ill co dieu nay VI Mu being 6' BDT Bunyakovski xay ra khi ~1- x - 2x2 = 2x.

4.TUY~N CHQN .. TH&TI (QUY~N 3)-A

Giai plurong trmh nay voi x ~ 0 diroc

1 - x - 2x2 = 4i <=> 6x2 + x-I = O.

Phuong trinh co hai nghiem xl = -~ va

1 1

X2 = 3' nhung Xl = -"2 < 0 nen b~ loai, con

1(1) = % < %. V~y theo each tren khong tlm duoc G1LN cuaftx).

each 2. A.p dung BDT Cauchy ta diroc

2

Jl(l - x _ 2x2) ~ 1 + (1- ; - 2x )

Dodoftx)~1-x2~1 (3) Tir do ket luan rang khi x = 0 tho it man (3) va (1) thl bieu thirc ftx) dat G1LN la 1.

NhtJ,n xet. Trong (3) d~t g(x) = 1 - i thi g(O) = I. Dau being trong BDT Cauchy xay ra khi 1 - x - 2x2 = 1 <=> x(2x + I) = 0 suy ra xI = 0

, 1

va x2 = -"2.

VI I( -~) = i < g( -~) = % ~ x2 bi loai,

Ta da g~p may khi 1(0) = g(O) = I, nghia la hai dau bang dong thai xay ra trong (3), va each giai nay chap nhan duoc sau khi tfnh duoc ftO) = I.

Bai toan 2. Tim gia tri IOn nhdt cua hie'u thuc

(2) l(x)=3-2x+~5-x2+4x.

(1)

Loi gidi. each 1. Bieu thirc I(x) co nghia khi 5 - i + 4x ~ 0 <=> (x + 1)(5 - x) ~ 0

<=>-1 ~x~5 (4)

A.p dung BDT Cauchy ta dtroc

I(x) = 3 - 2x + J1(5 - x2 + 4x)

s 3-2x+ 1+(5-;2 +4x) =6- x; ~6 (5) 2

Bieu thirc g(x) = 6 - x2 dat G1LN la 6 khi

x = 0 va x = 0 thoa man (4). Tir do ket luan rang G1LN cuaftx) la 6.

49

NhtJ,n xet. Ket luan nay khong dung vi

1(0) = 3 +.Js :::: 5,23 < 6. sa di co dieu do vi dau bang 6 BDT Cauchy xay ra khi

5 - i + 4x = 1 ~ 4 - i + 4x = 0 ~ (x - 2)2 = 8. Phuong trinh nay co nghiem x I = 2 - 2.fi va X2 =2+2.fi, luc do 1(2-2.fi)=4.fi ::::

5,65 va 1(2 +.fi) = -4.fi :::: -5,65. Nhu vay f(x) khong the dat gia tri la 6 vi hai dau bang trong (5) khong d6ng thai xay ra.

Cdch. 2. Ap dung BDT Bunyakovski ta diroc

I(x) = -1 + (-2)(x - 2) + ~1(5 - x2 + 4x) ~ -1 + .J4+i.~(x2 - 4x + 4)(5 - x2 + 4x)

= -1 +.J45 = 3.Js - 1 :::: 5,71 (6)

Dang thirc xiiy ra trong (6) khi

(-2)J 5 - x2 + 4x = x - 2.

Giai phuong trinh nay voi x - 2 ~ 0 diroc 5i - 20x - 16 = O. Phuong trinh e6 hai nghiem la

2 6.Js (I ., 2)' 2 6.Js

xI = +-5- oai VI xI > va x2 = --5-

:::: -0,68, nghiem nay thoa man (4).

V~y GlLN euaf(x) la 1(2- 6-;S) = 3.Js -1. Nhf!,n xet. each giiii 6 day la ap dung BDT Bunyakovski de sao eho bieu thirc trong can khong con bien s6 x. C6 the van dung BDT Bunyakovski de giai bai toan 1 bang each thay

x b" 1 .fi '2( 1)

"2 0'1 -S+4"·"L. x+4 .

Bai toan 3. Tim gia tri nho nha't cua hiiu thuc I(x,y) = 4x2 + 41- 4xy - 3x.

50

LUi gidi. Cach 1. Bien d6i nhu sau l(x,y)=x2 -4xy+4i +2x2 -4x+2+x2 +x-2 = (x-2y)2 +2(x-l)2 +x2 +x-2

~ x2 + x - 2 voi moi x

(7)

2 (1)2 9 9

VI g(x)=x +x-2= x+"2 -4~-4 (8)

khi x = -~ nen ket luan rang f(x. y) e6 gia tri nho nhat la _.2. khi x = -! va x - 2y = 0 ~

4 2

x 1

y="2=-4'

NhtJ,n xet. Dau bang xay ra 6 (7) khi x = 2y va x = I, con dau bang xay ra 6 (8) khi x = - ~ , nhir v~y hai dau bang xay ra khong d6ng thai nen GlNN cua g(x) khong phai la GlNN cua f(x. y).

cs«:

I(x,y) = 4x2 + 4i - 4xy - 3x = = 4i _4xy+x2 +3(x2 -x)

( 1)2 3 3

= (2y-x)2 +3 x-"2 -4~-4'

D' lui , khi 1, x 1 ang t ire xay ra 1 x = "2 va y = "2 = 4"

hie d6 I (~, ±) = -~ la GlNN euaf(x. y).

Cac ban hay giai cac bai t~p sau day va nho lit dirng sai nhe !

Bai 1. TIm gia tri nho nhat eua bieu thirc

I(x) = 3ix - J3 + 2x - x2 .

Ba] 2. TIm gia tri Ian nhat cua bieu thirc I(x,y) = -5x2 - 2xy - 2i + 14x + lOy-I.

1\ A." " ?,"

M()T so uro Y KHI GIAI BAI TOAN

, " " 1\"" ? A"

TIM GIA TR! LON NHAT, GIA TR! NHO NHAT

C6 nhieu plurong phap giai bai toan tim gia tri 16'n nhat (OTLN) , gia tri nho nhat (01NN) cua mot bieu thirc. Mot trong nhirng phirong phap c6 hieu qua la dung cac ba:t dAng thirc quen thuoc, Nhimg cling chinh phirong phap nay de gay ra nhfrng sai lam, neu khong nam vtrng ban chat cua n6.

Xet vi du sau day (Bao Toan hQC va Tudi tre, thang 2.1980).

Bai toan 1. Biel rang x + y + z = 1 va x, y, z duang, tim gia tri IOn nhdt eua

S = xyz(x + y)(y + z)(z + x).

• LOi gidi trong sf; bdo tren nhu sau :

z+(x+ y) ~ 2Jz(x+ y)} x + (y + z) ~ 2Jx(y + z)

y + (z + x) ~ 2Jy(z + x)

Nhan theo timg ve' ta c6

1 ~ 8Jxyz(x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

re d6 S ~ 614 ~ Smax 6~ .

• Nhdn xet. each giai tren cho dap s6 sai vi dieu kien xay ra dau bang cua cac bat dang thirc da dung khong dat duoc dong thoi, CI:I the:

S = ;4 dat diroc khi va chi khi

z=x+y

~ : ; : ; ~ {; : ; : : : 10

x + y + z = I x, y, z > 0

x, y, z > 0

Nhu vay khong t6n tai (x, y, z) de tai d6

S = 6~' Do d6 khong the ker luan Smax = 6~ .

• LOi gidi dung bai toan tren. VOi. x, y, z ~ 0 ta c6

S = xyz(x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

(x+ y+z)

~ 3 (x+ y)(y+z)(z+x)

LE VAN TIEN

1

= 27(x+y)(y+z)(z+x)

< _1 (x + y) + (y + z) + (z + X»)3 = 8

- 27 3 272 .

8

Yay S~-

. 272

,.. , _ {X+y+Z=I'

VOl mQI x, y, z thoa man

x,y,z > O.

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi

x=y=z

(1)

(2)

x+y=y+z=z+x 1

~x=y=z=-

x+y+z=1 3

x,y,z > 0

Ket luan : Smax = 2~2 dat tai x = y = z = 1· Nhac lai dinh nghia max f(x,y, ... .z ) va minf(x, y, ... , z).

1. Dinh nghia, Neu bieu thirc f(x, y, ... , z) vci x, y, ... , z xac dinh tren tap hop D, thoa man hai dieu kien sau :

i) f(x, y, ... , z) ~ A (hay f(x, y, ... , z) ~ B) voi moi x, y, ... , zED voi A (hay B) la cac hang s6

ii) T6n tai it nhat bo gia tri (xo' Yo, ... , zo) voi xO' Yo,,,,, Zo E D sao cho f(xo' Yo, ... , zo) = A (hay f(xo' Yo, ... , zo) = B)

thl A dtroc goi la gia tri 16'n nhat cuaf(x, y, ... , z) tren D (hay B diroc goi la gia tri nho nhat cua f(x, y, ... , z) tren D). Khi d6 ta ki hieu :

max/= A . min f= B

, . ,

hay fmax = A ;fmin = B.

2. MQt so chu y

a) Neu khong chi ra diroc bo gia tri (xo' Yo, ..., zo) de f(xo, Yo, ... , zo) = A, thi khong khang dinh diroc maxf= A, mac du c6f(x, y, ... , z) ~ A vci moi x, y, zED. Khi d6 ta phai tim mot each giai khac,

b) 13(> gia tri (xo' Yo, ... , zO> de j{xo' Yo, ... , zo> = A, tlurong duoc tim bang each ap dung dieu kien

51

xay ra dau bang trong cac bat dang tlnrc da dung. Chang hlp} :

• Bat dang thuc Cauchy:

v6i moi ai ~ 0, (i = 1, 2, , n). Dau bang xay ra khi

va chi khi al = a2 = = an"

• Bat dang thirc ghl tri tuyet d6i la + hi sial + Ihl

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi ab ~ O.

c) Trong cac bai roan dang eire tri co dieu kien neu chi chu y d~n dieu kien xay ra dau bang cua cac bat dang thirc da dung, rna khong ket hop dieu kien rang buoc cua bai toan thi d~ mac sai lam.

d) Trong dinh nghia tren, A va B phai la cac hang s6.

That vay, xet bai roan sau day.

Bai toan 2. Cho x, y, z ~ O. Tim gia tri Ian nhdt eua fix, y, z) = xyz(x + y)(y + z)(z + x).

• Xit /tJi gidi. Vm moi x, y, z ~ 0 ta co

f( ) < (x+ y+ z +(x+ y)+(y+z)+ (z + X»)6

x,y,z - 6

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi

{X = Y = z = x + y = y + z = z + x x,y,z ~ 0

tuc la x = y = z = O. Khi do v~ phai cua bat dang thirc bang O. Suy ra f(x,y,z) S O. V~y f(x,y,z) = 0 khi x = y = z = 0 (!)

• Nhdn xet. each giai tren mac sai lam a eM la da si'r dung mot menh de' sai sau day : "Neu

j(x, y, z) S g(xo, Yo, zo) vm moi x, y, zED va f(xo'yo'zo) = g(xo' Yo'zo) = A ; XO' Yo, Zo E D thif(x, y, z) sA vm moi x, y, zED".

D~ bac bO menh de tren, ta co tM xet phan thf du sau.

Bai toan 3. Cho fix) = i ; g(x) = 2i. Tim GJLN eua j(x).

52

• Xit lai gidi sau : j(x) S g(x), vm moi x E R Dau bang xay ra khi f(0) = g(O) = 0, tu do suy ra j(x) S 0 voi moi x E R

• Nhdn xet

Dieu nay sai vlf(x) = i ~ 0 voi moi x E R

e) Khi ap dung nhieu Ian cac bat dang thirc, chang hlp} si'r dung ea hai bat dang thirc sau :

f(x,y, ,z) S g(x,y, ... ,z) s A

thl f(x,y, ,z) = A

<=> {f(X,y"",Z): g(x,y, ... ,z) g(x,y, ... ,z) - A

(*)

<=> Dieu kien xay ra dau bang cua BDT ben trai cua (*) diroc thoa man va dieu kien xay ra dau bang cua BDT ben phai cua (*) diroc thoa man.

Neu chi xet dieu kien de dau dang thirc xay ra cua mot trong hai bat dang thirc da dung thi co tM mile sai lam nhu trong bai toan sau.

Bai toan 4. Cho ham s6'

y=(COSX+sinX)3+ .2 2

sm xcos x

Ham s6' dat gia tri nhd nhd: tai gia tri nao eua bien s6' x ?

• Xit loi gidi sau :

y = (.J2 sin (x + 1r ))3 + . :

4 sm 2x

~ -2.J2 + : ~ -2.J2 + 4.

sin 2x

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi sin22x = 1

~ Ymin = -2.J2 + 4 khi x = ±: + kst (!)

• Nhdn xet.

Khi tt ,

1 X = -"4 ta CO

Y = ( 1f -1f r + 4 = 4 :;I!: -2../2 + 4.

Mau thuan vci ket Iuan tren,

Nguyen nhan sai lAm III do ta chi xet dieu kien cho dau bang cu6i cung xay ra, rna be qua dieu kien cho dau bang thu nhat xay ra.

• Lai gidi dung

{ . ( 7r) 1

SIn x+- =-

Y = -2../2 + 4 ¢:> 4

sin2 2x = 1

¢:> [x ~ : ~ + kn

X ="4 + kr: 57r

¢:> X = 4 + 2k7r (k E Z).

V~y Ymin = -2../2 + 4 dat tai x = 5: + Zkn, f) D6i vm tnrong hop khi fix) = g(x) + h(x) va g(x) S; A, h(x) S; B) (hoac g(x) ~ A, h(x) ~ B)

thl cAn chi ra true tiep gili hi Xo de f(xo) = A + B la dii de ket luan maxf(x) = A + B (hoac minf(x) = A + B) nhir a bai toan sau.

Bai toan 4. Tim gia tri Ian nhdi, gia tri nhd nluit eua helm sci

Y = cosx(l + 2cos2x).

LlIi gitii. Y = cos x + 2 cos x cos 2x

= cosx + cos x + cos3x = 2cosx + cos3x.

Do -1 S; cos x S; 1 va -1 S; cos3x S; 1 thl -5 S; Y S; 5.

M~t khac khi x = 0 thl Y = 5, khi x = 7r thl y=-5.

V~y Ymax = 5 va Ymin = -5.

') ~ I\~ 3 "

GlAl TOAN BAT DANG tnuc VA cue TR!

DC/A vAo PHlfONG TRiNH BJje HAl

Trong chuang trinh toan rucs , cac bai tap v~ b9:t dang thirc (BDT) va C\!C tri luon III nhtmg bai toan kho, gay lung tung cho nhieu hoc sinh bOi vi kien thirc toan rucs r9:t it d~ cap tnrc tiep den vtln d~ nay. Bai viet nay trinh bay mot s6 bai toan chimg minh BDT va C\!C tri dua vao dau hieu co nghiem cua phuong trmh (Pf) bac hai.

HoANG HAl DUJNG (GV THCS Chu Mqnh Trinh, Van Giang. Hung Yen)

M()T s6 BAI TO AN CHU'NG MINH BAT DANG THU'C

Bai toan 1. Gid sa eho ba s6' thuc a, b, c thoa

- ic di A' ki A 0 b 2 2 b

man cac leu ten : a > , c = a, a + + c =

ab o« 'nh ~ ~1+2../2

e. ling m: rang a ~ 2'

53

L ,. .? T ' b 2 2 'h h

ot guu. a eo: c = a va + c = a (' - a

= 2a3 - a. Theo h¢ thirc Viete thi h, c III nghiem cua phirong trinh

} - (2a3 - a)x + 2a2 = O.

PT e6 nghiem khi ~ = a2(4a 4 - 4a2 - 7) ~ 0

2 1 + 2fi

~ a ~ 2 ,ket hop vm a > 0 diroc

a~)I+~fi .

Bal toan 2. Gid sit ha s6' thuc a, b, c thoa

_ , d'" ki {a2 + h2 + e2 = 2 (1)

man cac leu ien :

ab + he + ea=1 (2)

Chung minh rang -4 < a + b + c < 4.

L ,. .? T' (1) , 2 h2 2 2 4

Ul gzal. u eo a + + c + = .

Ket hop v6i (2) duoc

a2 + h2 + ('2 + 2(ah + he + ea) = 4

<=> (a + b + (i = 4 <=> a + b + c = ±2. Truong hap 1. Neu a + h + e = 2. Ket hop

voi (2) e6 he = 1 - a(h + c) = (a - 1)2.

Theo he thirc Viete thi h, c III nghiem cua phuong trlnh} + (a - 2)x + (a - 1)2 = O.

PT c6 nghiem khi ~ ~ 0 ~ a( 4 - 3a) ~ 0

~ 0 s a :::; i. Tuong nr 0 :::; h, c :::; i do d6

3 . 3

o :::; a + b + (' :::; 4 nhirng dfu1g thirc khong tM xay ra nen 0 < a + b + e < 4.

Truong hap 2. Neu a + b + e = -2. Xet nrong tu tnrong hop 1 c6 -4 < a + b + c < O.

Ket hop ca hai tnrong hop ta e6 dpcm.

Bai toan 3. Cho cdc s6' a, b, c thoa man

(a+c)(a+h+c)<O (3)

Chung minli rang (b -(l > 4a(a + b + c) (4) LUi gidi. 1) Neu a = 0 tir (3) e6 c(h + c) < O.

Neu b = (' thl 2('2 < 0, dieu nay khong xay ra. Vay b 7; c ~ (h - (i > O.

2) Neu a 7; O. Xet tam thirc bac hai [(x) = ax2 + (h - c)x + a + b + e, e6 [(0) = a + h + e, A-I) = 2(a + c).

54

Tir d6[(0)f(-I) = 2(a + c)(a + b + c) < 0 nen phirong trinh Ax) = 0 e6 hai nghiem phan biet

~ ~ = (h - (i - 4a(a + b + c) > 0 ~ (h - (/ > 4a(a + b + c) (dpcm),

Bai toan 4. Gid sit phuang trinh

a} + hi + ex + d = 0 (a 7; 0) (5)

co hai nghiem khdc nhau fa xl ' x2' Chung minh

• 4ac - h2

rang xlx2 ~ 2

4a

LUi gidi. VI xl' x2 III nghiem cua (5) nen ta e6

{axi + hx~ + eXI + d = 0 ax~ + hxi + eX2 + d = 0

Trir theo tirng ve cua hai dang thirc tren diroc a(xi - x~) + h(x~ - xi) + c(xI - x2)= o.

VI XI :;t:x2 nen 2

a(xI + x2) + h(xI + x2) + c - aXlx2 = O.

Ta nhan thay : xI + x2 III nghiem cua phirong trinh bac hai

2

at + bt + c - ax IX2 = O.

D~ PT nay e6 nghiem thi

2 2

~ = b - 4ac + 4a X I x2 ~ 0

2

4ae - b (d )

<=> xlx2 ~ 2 pcm .

4a

M(>T s6 BAI ToAN eve TR~

Bai toan S. Tim gia tri Ian nhdt va gia tri 2

ho hd , hie hu 2x + 4x + 5

.n 0 n at cua leu t ut: a = 2

X +1

LUi gidi. Bieu thuc nhan gid tri a <=> phirong

, h 2x2 + 4x + 5 (6) , h'

tnn a = 2 eo ng iem.

X +1

Do} + 1 > O'nen

(6) <=> }(a - 2) - 4x + a - 5 = 0 (7)

1) Neu a = 2 thl (7) e6 nghiem X = -1.

2) Neu a =t- 2.

PT (7) eo nghiem <=> S = 4 - (a -2)(a-5) ~ 0 <=> a2 - 7a + 6 :s; 0 <=> 1 :s; a :s; 6 (a =t- 2). Vaia= 1 thlx=-2.

V'· 6h' 1

tn a > t IX="2'

Ket hop ca hai tnrong hop 1 va 2, ta eo : gia tri nho nhat (GlNN) cua a la 1 khi x = -2, gia

tri Ian nhat (GTI.,N) cua a la 6 khi x = k .

Bai toan 6. Tim gia tri 11m nhdt va gui tri

ho hA' , h'A' h' b 2x2 4 52 h'A'

n 0 nat cua leu t uc = + xy + y, let

rang i + l = a vai a la hdng sdlan han hodc hang 1.

Ldi gidi. Vi a ~ 1 nen eo

h 2x2 +4xy+5i 2x2 +4xy+5i

=

a

a

1) Neu y = 0 => !!._ = 2.

a

h 2t2 +4t+5 2) Neu y =t- 0 d~tt = ~ thi

Y a t2 + 1

Theo bai toan 5 dieu kien de PT t\n t tren eo nghiem khi 1 :s; !!'_:s; 6 nen a s; b s; 6a (vi a ~ 1).

a

Tit do suy ra bieu thirc b eo GTLN la 6a khi x 1

- = - <=> y = 2x hay khi (x, y) lay gia tri y 2

(Fa 2FaJ . (-Fa -2FaJ 'h 'GINN

5'5' 5' 5 vaoo

la a khi ~ = -2 <=> x = -2y hay khi (x, y) lay y

., . (2Fa -Fa) . (-2Fa FaJ

gra tn --5-'-5-' 5 '-5-'

Bai toan 7. Tim gia tri 11m nhdt va gia tri nho

hd: , h'A' hu 2 r: 3 r:--1 7

n at cua leu t uc c = "X + "2" 1 - X + "2 .

Lai gidi. Dieu kien : 0 s X:S; 1. D~t z =.Jx , y = ~ thi i + l = 1 (8). Ta ean tim GTLN va GlNN cua d = 4z + 3y vOi 2c = d + 7. Dieu kien : O:S; z s 1, 0 s y s 1 va 0 < d < 7.

Thay 91 = (d - 4z)2 vao (8) duoc 25i - 8dz + ~ - 9 = O.

D~ PT nay eo nghiem z thl ~ ~ 0 => ~ s 25 =>d:s;5.

• GTLN cua d la 5 <=> GTLN cua c la 6 va

d d khi 4d 4 2 16 the

at iroc 1 z = 25 ="5 => x = z = 25 ( oa

manO:s;x:S;I).

• d = 4z + 3y ~2~12yz . Dang thuc xay ra khi

4z = 3y. Thay vao (8) tinh duoc z = ;0 ' y =~ ,

x = 4~0 (thoa man 0 s x s 1). Luc do GlNN cua d la 2~ = % => GlNN cua c la 41

10 = 4,1.

V Oi each Slr dung dieu kien eo nghiem cua phuong trinh bac hai, cac ban hay lam tiep cac bai tap duOi day.

BAIT~P

Bai 1. Chung minh rang 3x + 4~ s 5. Bai 2. TIm GTLN va GlNN cua bieu thirc

~-2~+3 ~ +2..J2-x +3'

Bai 3. TIm GTLN va GlNN cua bi~u thirc

~ ,. 0

x + V.A -r- -:;z voi x > .

55

, A ",,? ,,~ ",'"

TIM CVC TR! M(JT BIEU tntrc BANG NHIEU CACH

NGUYEN NGQC KHOA (GV THPT Huynh Thuc Khdng, Son Tinh, Quang Ngiii)

Viec gilti toan bang nhieu each vira giup ren luyen ki nang, vira phat trien nr duy trong hoc toan. N6 doi hoi ngiroi Hun toan phai nhln bai toan theo cac g6e d¢ khac nhau, biet van dung cac kien thirc phil hop voi tirng tlnh hu6ng. Ta thir xet viec tim gia tri nho nhat (GTNN) va gia tri Ian nhat (GTI..N) ella mot s6 bieu thtrc voi bien s6 thirc dum day.

Bai toan 1. Tim gia tri nho nhdt, gia tri Ian

h·' , bi A' h' x2 + 4Jix + 3

n at cua leu t lie 2 .

x +1

LUi gidi. Bieu thirc nay e6 dang mot phan thirc rna tii va mau d~u la tam tlurc bac hai mot bien s6.

Cach 1. Chuyen v~ xet eire tri ella phan thtrc rna tii la nhi thirc bac nhat r6i so sanh gia tri ella tii va mau

y = x2 + 4Jix + 3 = 1 + 4Jix + 2

x2 + 1 x2 + 1

1 ,. 4Jix + 2

= +zVaIZ= ---

x2 + 1

Vi x2 + 1 > 0 voi moi x nen GTLN (z) dat diroc khi tir thirc dirong va GTNN (z) dat diroc khi tii thirc am. Xet ba tnrong hop sau.

a) V m 4Jix + 2 = 0 <=> x = -'[2 thi Z = 0 =>y=I.

b) V oi 4Jix + 2 > 0 <=> x > -'[2 thl ta chuyen viec tim GTLN (y) v~ tlm GTLN (z).

Ta so sanh gia tri ella tii thirc va miiu thirc nho ap dung bat dAng thirc :

(2x2 + I) + 1 ;:::.: 2Jix + 1 > O.

56

Tird6

2( 4Jix + 2) 4(2Jix + 1)

Z = = ---'--:-------'-

2(x2 + 1) 2x2 + 1 + 1

< 4(2Jix + 1) = 4

- 2Jix + 1 .

Ji

DAng thirc xay ra khi x = 2' luc d6

GTLN (y) = 1 + 4 = 5.

c) Vm 4Jix + 2 < 0 <=> x < -'[2 . x« nrong tu tren, tir i + 1 = (i + 2) - 1 ;:::.: -2Jix - 1 =

(2 r;;2 1) 0' 2(2Jix + 1) - 2

- " .lX + > co z ;:::.: r;; - - .

-(2,,2x + 1)

DAng thtrc xay ra khi x = -Ji, luc d6 GTNN (y) = 1 + (-2) =-1.

Cdch 2. So sanh gia tri ella tii thuc va mau

thirc bang each sii dung BDT Bunyakovski

Tir (i + 1)2 = (l - i)2 + (2x)2 dan de'n

(l - x2 + 2Ji.2x)2

s (1 + (2Ji)2)( (I - x2)2 + (2x)2)

=> 11 _x2 + 4Jix I ~ 3(i + I).

T ' - 2 1 - x2 + 4Jix

a co y - + 2 .

x +1

D 1 - x2 + 4Jix hl I I 3

at t = thi Ir ~

. x2 + 1

hay-3~t~3,suyra -1 ~ y~5. 2

DAng thirc xay ra khi ~ = ~ <=>

1 2Ji

2x2 + Jix - 2 = O. Giai phtrong trinh nay ta

d .fi 1111' g vAt: GlLN (y) 5

iroc: xI = 2 VI =

x2 = -.fi img vOi GTNN (y) = -1.

each 3, Chuyen ve xet dieu kien de phirong trlnh (PT) bac hai co nghiem. VOi moi ghi tri

Xo ta co gia tri Yo cua bieu thirc thoa man

x~ + 4.fixo + 3

Yo= 2

Xo + I

~ (Yo - l)x~ - 4.fixo + Yo - 3 = O. Co the eoi Xo la nghiem cua PT

(Y0-1)i-4.fix +Yo-3=0

trong do Yo la tham so. Ta thay Yo = 1 ~

x = -'/! (1). Neu Yo :t= 1 thl dieu kien de PT bac hai luon luon co nghiem la L\ = -y~ + 4yo + 5 ~ 0 ~ (yo - 5)(1 + Yo) s 0 ~ -1 s Yo s 5. De thay Yo = -1 ~ Xo = -.fi

va Yo = 5 ~ Xo = 1f (2). Tit (1), (2) suy ra GTNN (y) = -1 khi x = -.fi va GlLN (y) = 5 khix= 1f.

Bai toan 2. Tim gia tri nho nhdt, gid tri lim hd: » hie h' x + 2y + 1

n at cua leu t lie 2 2 .

X + Y +7

L ,. . ,. D x + 2y + 1 B" thii ,

m guu. ~t z = 2 2 . ieu ire nay

x + y +7

co dang mot phan thirc rna tiI la ham hai bien bac nhat va miiu la ham hai bien bac hai. Co tM giai bai nay nrong nr each 1 va each ba noi tren.

Ca hI M- h' 2 2 7 0" .

ac , au t ire x + y + > voi mQI x,

y nen GlLN va GTNN cua z nrong img voi gia tri dirong va am cua tiI thirc. Xet ba tnrong hop :

a) V6'i x + 2y + 1 = 0 thi z = O.

b) VOi x + 2y + 1 > O. Ta co BDT

(i+ 1)+(y2+4)+2~2x+4y+2>0.

Tudo

x + 2y + 1 x + 2y + 1

z = = -"7"--7---

~+y2+7 ~+1+1+4+2

< x + 2y + 1 =.!.

- 2(x + 2y + 1) 2 .

Ding thirc xay ra khi x = 1, y = 2, hie do 1

GlLN(z)= '2

c) VOi x + 2y + 1 < O. Ta co BDT (25i + 49) + (25i + 196) - 70

~ (-70x) + (-I4Oy) -70 = -70(x + 2y + 1) > O. Tit do

25(x + 2y + 1)

z- -

- 25(x2 + I + 7) -

25(x + 2y + 1)

=-~-_;__-"7--'---

25x2 + 49 + 251 + 196 - 70

25(x + 2y + 1) -5

~ =-.

-70(x + 2y + 1) 14

D' hti , khi -7 -14 I'

ang t uc xay ra I x = 5 ' y = -5-' uc

-5

do GTNN (z) =14'

each 2, Chuyen ve xet dieu kien co nghiem

, PT x + 2y + 1

eua z

x2 + 1+7

~zi-x+zi-2y+7z-1 =0 (3)

trong do x la an so, y la tham s6' tuy y, con z la tham s6' co die'u kien. Xet hai tnrong hop :

a) z = 0 => x + 2y + 1 = O.

b) z :t= 0 thi PT (3) luon co nghiem x khi biet thirc khong am :

1 - 4z(zi- 2y + 7z - 1) ~ 0

~ -4z2i + 8zy - 28i + 4z + 1 ~ 0 (4) Coi (4) la Mt plurong trtnh an y. BPT nay xay ra vOi moi gid tri y khi

16i + 4i(-28i + 4z + 1) ~ 0

2 -5 1

~-28z +4z+5~0=> T4~ z ~2'

57

Khi z nhan cac gia tri nay thi dang thirc xay

"(4) " (3) khi do 1, 1

ra (j va (j , lOY = - va x = -2 .

z z

V~y GTLN (z) = ~ khi Y = 2 va x = 1.

-5 . -14, -7

GINN (z) = 14 khi Y = -5- vax = S·

Cac ban hay ren luyen giai cac bill tap dum day bang nhieu each.

Bai 1. Tim G1NN, GTLN cua bieu thirc : x2 +4x

x2 + 2x + 2'

Bai 2. Tim G1NN, GTLN cua bieu thirc

x4 + l + 4.J2xy + 4

x4 + l +2

Bai 3. Tim gia tri m, n d~ bieu thirc x2 +mx+n

---- dat G1NN la -1 va GTLN la 5.

x2 + 1

? / A' AJ,

str DlJNG PHUONG PHAP THAM BIEN BE TIM cue TR!

,1\ ",.9 ,

MQT BIEU TH(/e

PHAM THJ VI~T THAI (GV THY[ H6ng Linh, na Tinh]

Tren tap chi Toan hoc va Tu6i tre s6 303 thang 9 nam 2002 co bai Tim cue tri mot hie'u thta: bang nhieu each. Bai viet nay xin neu them mot each giai theo mot each nhln khac,

Gia su can tim eire tri mot bieu thirc Q(x).

D~ don gian ta chi xet bieu thirc Q(x) luon xac dinh tren tap hop s6 thirc, nghia la neu Q(x) co mau thirc thl mau thirc luon dirong. Ta dira them tham bien t d~ xet bieu thirc fix) = Q(x) - t. Neu [(x) ~ 0 (hoac fix) ~ 0) voi moi x thuoc tap xac dinh cua Q(x) va ton tai gia tri to d~ co fix) = 0 (tire la co Q(x) = to) thi to chfnh la gia tri nho nhat (G1NN) (hoac gia tri 100 nhat (GTLN» cua bi~u thirc Q(x). Xiri minh hoa viec su dung phirong phap tham bien qua cac vi du dum day,

Thi du 1. Tim gia tri nho nMt, gia tri lan

h' , hie h' Q x2 + 8x + 7 n at cua leu t lie = --2--

x +1

LUi gidi. Xet[(x) = Q(x) - t

x2 + 8x + 7 - t( x2 + 1)

=

58

Vi i + 1 > 0 vm moi s6 thirc x nen dau cua [(x) chfnh la dau cua tu thirc g(x) = i + 8x + 7 - t(x2 + 1) hay g(x) = (1 - t)x2 + 8x + 7 - t (1)

Xet tam tlurc g(x) = ai + hx + C =

= a(x + !!_)2 + -Ll voi Ll = h2 _ 4ac (*)

2a 4a

• Neu a = 0 thl g(x) = hx + c luon cung dau khi b = 0 (g(x) = c) va khi c = 0 (g(x) = 0).

• Neu a > 0 thi g(x) ~ 0 vm moi x khi Ll ~ 0 va g(x) = 0 chi khi Ll = O.

• Neu a < 0 thl g(x) ~ 0 vai moi x khi Ll ~ 0

. va g(x) = 0 chi khi Ll = O.

Ap dung vao (1) co:

Ll= 16-(1-t)(7-t)=-t2+8t+9. Ll = 0 khi t = -1 hoac t = 9.

.Vmt=-I thla= I-t=2>Oneng(x)~0 => fix) ~ 0, suy ra Q(x) co G1NN la -I va xay ra khi fix) = 0 <=> g(x) = 0 <=> 2(x + 2)2 = 0 <=> x=-2.

• v oi t = 9 thi a = I - t = -8 < 0 nen g(x) :$; 0 ~ fix):$; 0, suy ra Q(x) c6 G1LN la 9 va xay ra khi

2 I

fix) = 0 <=> g(x) = 0 <=> 2(2\'- I) = 0 <=>x= 2'

Nhir vay phirong phap tham bien cho phep ta chuyen viec xet eire tri mot bieu thirc Q(x), nic la xet mot bA't phirong trinh Q(x) ~ t (hoac Q(x) s t) v~ viec xet mot phtrong trinh L\(t) = 0, nen co the n6i phuang phdp tham bien la chiec cdu nOl giiia hdt phuang trinh va phuang trinh,

Ta co the rna rong viec xet eire tri cua bieu thirc mot bien Q(x) sang bieu tlnrc hai bien Q(x, y) bang plurong phap tham bien, hie d6 f(x, y) = Q(x, y) - tva xet tii thirc cuaf(x, y) thea mot bien nao d6 sao cho tii thirc luon cung dau va t6n tai gia tri bang O.

Thi du 2. Tim gia tri nho nhdt , gia tri lan 3i-4xy

nhd: cIla hie'u thuc Q = vai (x, y)

x2 + i

klulc (0, 0).

LUi gidi. VI i + llu6n luon duong trir gia tri x = y = 0 nen dau cuafix, y) chfnh la dau cua tii thirc g(x, y) = 31- 4xy - t(.>.? + i) hay

2 2

g(x, y) = (3 - t)y - 4xy - tx

Neu t = 3 thi g(x,y) = -3i - 4yx. VI L\ = 41 ~O nen g(x, y) = 0 chi khi y = 0, x = 0 (dii loai trir).

Xet (2) theo bien y c6

2 2 2 2

L\y = 4x + t(3 - t)x = (4 + 3t - t)x ;

L\y = 0 voi moi x khi t = -I hoac t = 4.

• V6i t = -I thi a = 3 - t = 4> 0 nen g(x, y) ~ 0 ~ fix, y) ~ 0, suy ra Q(x, y) c6 GTNN la -1 va xay ra khif(x, y) = 0 <=> g(x, y) = 0 <=> (2y - x)2 = 0 <=> x = 2y (7: 0).

• V6i t = 4 thi a = 3-t = -1 < 0 nen g(x, y):$; 0 ~ f(x, y) :$; 0, suy ra Q(x, y) co G1LN la 4 va xay ra khi fix, y) = 0 <=> g(x, y) = 0 <=> -(y + 2x)2 = 0 <=> y = -2x (7: 0).

Cac ban cang thay au the cua phuong phap tham bien trong thi du sau.

Thi d 3 T' d"h'''' h' Q ux + V

I U • tm u, v e leu t uc =--

. x2 + 1

dat GILN bdng 4 va GINN bang -1.

LUi gidi. D~t

ux + v - t(x2 + 1) fix) = Q(x) - t =

x2 + 1

VI x2 + 1 > 0 voi moi x nen dau cua fix) chinh la dau cua tii thirc g(x) = ux + v - t(i + 1)

hay g(x) = -ti + ux + v - t.

De G1LN Q(x) la tl = 4 (hie do al = -4 < 0) va GTNN Q(x) la t2 = -1 (hie do a2 = 1 > 0) xay ra dong thai thi dira vao (*) phai co

{L\I=1 {U2+16(V-4)=0 {V=3

hay <=> 2

L\2=0 u2-4(v+l)=0 u =16

nghia la (u, v) bang (4, 3) hoac (-4, 3).

Moi cac ban ap dung phirong phap tren (cung cac each khac) de lam cac bai tap sau.

Bfli 1. Tim G1LN, GTNN cua bieu thirc Q

(2) sau day :

1) Q = x2 + 4J2x + 3 2) Q = 1 + x4

x2 + 1 (1 + x2 )2

3) Q = (x - 2y + 1)2 + (2x + ay + 5)2

5) Q = x + 2y + 1 x2 + i +7

6) Q = 2x -1 x2 + x+ 4

7) Q = 2x+ 3 x2 + x + 1

x+m Bai 2. Tim m de bieu thirc Q = ----;:---

x2 + X + 1

chi nhan gia tri thuoc [-1; 1].

59

?" A" / , A" / A' A

GIAI TOAN Cl/C TR! D~I SO val CAC BIEN CO DIEU K/~N

"

NGUYEN NGQC KHOA

(GV truang tnrt Huynh Thac Khcing. Son Tinh. Quang Ngiii)

Chung ta dli quen biet bai toan tim cue tri cua hai bien rna cac bien co mot dieu kien rang buoc, chang han nhir bai toan sau.

Bai toan 1. Tim gia tri IOn nhdt (GI'LN) cua tich xy voi x. y la cdc s6' duang thod man die'u ki~n x + y = s, trong do s la s6' duang cho truac. Viec dira ra nhieu each giai bai nay se co fch.

LUi gidi. each 1. Ap dung tnrc tiep h~t dang thirc Cauchy

S2 V~y G1LN (xy) = 4'

each 2. Dira ve xet eire tri cua ham mot bien

2 s2 (2 s2 )

xy = xes - x) = sx - x = 4 - x - sx + 4

= s: _ (x - ~ r s s: .

i V~y G1LN(xy) = 4'

each 3. sap thu nr gia tri cac bien (theo dieu kien hoac khi vai tro cua chung nhu nhau) va so sanh voi gia tri khong d6i xen giua chung,

GiA Slt x s y. Tit x + y = s co x ~ ~ ~ y nen

(x-~)(y-~)~o ~ Xy~~(x+y-~)~o

i

~ xY~4'

i V~y G1LN(xy) = 4'

Trong ca ba each giai tren tich xy dat gia tri Ian nhat khi va chi khi x = y = ~.

60

Viec giai bai toan nhir tren se kho khan han khi cac bien hi rang buoc them mot dieu kien rnra.

Bai toan 2. Tim gia tri IOn nhdt cua tich xy vai x, y la cdc s6' duang thod man hai dieu kien :

(l)x+y=s;

(2) y ~ a

trong do s, a la nhiing s6' duang cho truac va a < s.

LUi gidi .

• Neu a ~ ~ thl theo each giAi bai toan 1 ta

. 2

co G1LN(x,y) = s4 khi x = y = ~ ~ a.

• Xet tnrong hop a > ~. Liic nay khong tM Slt dung each giAi 1 ciia bai toan 1.

Theo each 2, d~t y = a + t vci t ~ O.

Tit do xy = (s - y)y = (s - a - t)(a + t) = -t(t + 2a - s) + a(s - a) ~ a(s - a) vi t ~ 0, t + 2a - s ~ o.

Dang thirc xay ra khi t = 0, y = a va

G1LN(xy) = a(s - a).

Theo each 3 ta thay x < ~ < a ~ y nen (x-a)(y-a)~O ~ xy~a(x+y)-a2 ~ xy ~ as - a2 = a(s - a).

Dang thirc xay ra khi y = a va x = s - a. V~y G1LN(xy) = ats - a).

Trong bai toan 2 co tM thay dieu kien (2) bci dieu kien x ~ b voi b < s, hie do trong loi

giAi xet hai tnrong hop : b ~ ~ va h < ~ (chimg minh nrong tu tren hoac d~t b = s - a).

Bai toan 3. Tim gia tri lan nhdt cua tich xyz, vai x, y, z Iii cdc s6' duang thod man cdc die'u kien :

(l)x+y+z=s

(2) z > a

trong do s, a Iii nhiing so duang cho truac vii a < s.

LUi gidi.

• Neu a ~ ~ thl ap dung BDT Cauchy ta c6

.ryz ~ ( x + ~ + z J = ( ~ J

DAng thirc xay ra khi va chi khi x = y = z =

s (s)3

3' h1cd6G1LN(xyz)= 3

• Xet tnrong hop a > ~.

Theo BDT Cauchy: xy ~ ( x; y r (*)

Ta c6

x+y+a~x+y+z=s<~~

2 x+y

x + y < a ~ -2- < a.

A.p dung each giai 3 tir x; y < a ~ z c6

(X + y )

=r :: (z-a)~O

~ ( x; y ) z ~ a ( x; y + z - a ) (**)

Tir (*), (**) va sir dung BDT Cauchy c6

(x+ y)(x+ y) (x+ y)(x+ y )

xyz~ 2- -2- z s;a -2- --2-+z-a

[ )2

x+y x+y

-+-+z-a ( )2

2 2 s-a

< =a--

- 2 2

Dang thirc xay ra khi z = a va x = y = s; a , hie d6 G1LN(xyz) = a ( s ; a r

Ket qua cua bai toan 3 c6 the khong xay ra nhu tren neu ta them dieu kien x < s; a < y.

Bili toan 4. PMt hiiu nhu bai todn 3 vii them die'u kien :

(3) y eb v6i b Iii s6' duong cho truac, b s a < s. LUi gidi

• Neu b ~ s; a thl giai nhu bai toan 3.

Xe , h b s-a 2h

• et tnrong op > -2- ~ s < a + .

Luc do

x=s-(y+z)<s-(a+h) < a+2h-(a+h)=h.

A.p dung each giai 3 voi x < b s y, ta c6 (x-h)(y-h)~O ~ xy~h(x+y-h) (***)

L~i c6 x + y - b = s - z - b < S - a - h

< (a + 2h) - (a + h) = b ~ a.

Tlr x + y - b < a ~ z c6 (x + y - b - a)(z -

a) ~ 0 ~ (x + y - h)z ~ a(x + y - b + z - a) = ais - a - h).

Tir d6 va (***) suy ra

xyz ~ hex + y - h)z ~ ha(s - a - h).

Dang thirc xay ra khi z = a, y = h va x = s - a

- b, hie d6 G1LN(xyz) = ah(s - a - h).

Ket luan cua bai toan 4 :

• Neu s ;;:: 3a thi G1LN(xyz) = (~J

• Neu a + 2h ~ s < 3a thi G1LN(xyz) =

ae;ar

• Neu s < a + 2h thl G1LN (xyz) = ah(s - a - h). B~ hay phat bieu bai toan 4 khi thay dieu kien (2) va (3) bOi z ~ a va y ~ b v6i a~ b < s.

Nhu v~y tir mot bai toan tlm eire tri dai s6 voi cac bien c6 mot dieu kien ta da de xuat va giai bai toan eire tri dai s6 v6i cac bien bi rang buoc bOi nhieu dieu kien hon.

MID cac ban giai cac bai t~p sau.

Bai 1. Tim gia tri Ian nhat cua xy + yz + zx vm x, y, z thoa man dieu kien cua bai toan 4.

Bai 2. Tim gia tri Ian nhat cua tich xyztv6i x, y, z, t la cac s6 duong thoa man cac dieu kien : x + y + z + t = s ; t ;;:: a ; z ;;:: b ; y ;;:: c trong d6 s, a, b, c la cac s6 dirong da cho va c < b < a < s.

61

VEIJ!NH u STEINER -LEHMUS

Nam 1840, S.L. Lehmus glri cho nha hlnh hoc Thuy Dien J.Steiner dinh If sau day vm yeu cau dira ra mot each chimg minh hlnh hoc thuan tuy : Tam gidc co hai duang phdn giac trong bdng nhau la tam giac can. Dinh If nay ve sau diroc mang ten Steiner - Lehmus.

Trong chimg minh cua mlnh, Steiner sit dung cong thirc sau : Neu da, db' de la cac dircng phan giac cua ba goc nrong irng voi ba canh d6i dien a, b, c thi :

d; =hC(1- a2 2) (h + c)

d; =ca(1- h2 2) (c + a)

d,2 = ab (1 - c2 2]

(a + h)

Khi ay, dtuIg thirc d~ = d; sau khi bien d6i nrong duong thi duoc

c(a+h+c)«a+h+c)(c2 +ah)+2ahc)(a-h) = O.

Tir day suy ra a = h. each chirng minh nay gon, tuy nhien phai dung den cong tlurc (1) va khong mang d~c tfnh hinh hoc. HOi the, sau khi chirng minh tren duoc cong b6, nhieu ngiroi lao vao tim each chirng minh khac, Trong nlurng nam tiep theo, hang loat cac phirong phap chirng minh khac duoc dira ra, tuy vay cac phirong phap nay phai ke them nhieu duong va kern theo tinh toan kha phirc tap.

Den nam 1939, mot nu sinh lap 10 a Matxcova (Lien X6) ten la Lida Kopeikina tim ducc mot each chimg minh kha don gian sau day.

62

Ll3 TRUdNG TUNG tna N¢i)

Gia sit hai dirong phan giac AN va BP bang nhau. Ke NM va PQ song song voi AB, dt AC va BC theo thir W tai M, Q (h. 1). Ta se chimg minh PQ va MN trung nhau bang phan chimg. Gia sit MN gan AB hon PQ, khi do MN > PQ.

(1)

- -

Do PBQ = PBA = BPQ nen tam giac PBQ can

va PQ = QB. Tuong tv AM = MN. Hai tam giac can PBQ va AMN co canh day bang nhau,

- -

canh ben PQ < M N nen PQB > AM N ~

QBA < /iAB, tu day suy ra trong hlnh thang AMNB..:o AM < BN, rna AM = MN, PQ = QB, MN> PQ, QB > BN, dan den mau thuan. Dieu mau thuan nay chirng to M N va PQ trung nhau. Khi do AM N B la hmh thang can nen

CAB = CBA. C

A

B

Hinh 1

F

Hinh 2

Mot nam sau (nam 1940) mot hoc sinh lap 8 cling a Matxcova ten la V olodia Bolchianxki tim ra mot each chirng minh khac cling kha dep. Gia su 0 la giao diem hai dirong phan giac bang nhau AN va BM (h.2) khi do co la phan giac

cua goc ACE. Ta chuyen ve xet hai tam giac

-

ANC va BMC co goc ACB chung, AN = BM,

dirong phan giac a dinh C la co chung thl hai tam giac ANC va BMC bang nhau. De lam dieu do ta ve dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ANC vm dirong kfnh DF vuong g6c vm AN tai trung diem

cua AN. Ve day AC' sao cho NAC' = CiM va C', C nam cung phia d6i vai dubng thfuIg AN. Ta

co ~ = ACN (g6c noi tiep cung chan cung

,....---.... - -----

AN) nen ANC'=1800 -AC'N -NAC' =

1800 - ACN - CiiM = fiMC , suy ra MlMC = MNC' (c.g.c) (1). AN cat DC va DC' theo thu nr tai a va 0'. Neu C khac C', chang han cung

.---... ,..--..._

DC be hon cung DC' thl DO > DO'. Do DC <

DC' nen CO < C'O', dieu nay mau thuan vm gia thiet CO = C'O'. Chung minh nrong tv khi cung

.---... .---...

DC Ian hon cung DC'. V~y C' phai trung

voi C, til (1) suy ra BC = AC.

Hien nay L. Kopeikina va V. Bolchianxki la hai giao su toan hoc co ten tu6i a Lien Xo.

Nam 1961, cu6n "Nhap mon hinh hoc" cua giao sir Canada ten 1a H.S.M. Coxeter diroc in ra va gioi thieu tren tap chi Scientific American. Phan noi kha hay ve dinh li Steiner - Lehmus trong bai gioi thieu nay lai loi keo hang tram ban doc lao vao tim each chirng minh moi. Cach chirng minh cua hai ki sir ngiroi Anh la G. Jylbert va D. Mac - Donnell duoc danh gia la don gian nhat va duoc cong b6 tren tap chi American Mathematical Monthly nam 1963. Cach chimg minh nay dua vao ho'de' sau :

Trong tam gidc ABC, neu CAB < CBA thi duong phdn giac AN IOn han duang phdn gidc BM. Chung minh b6 de nay nhu sau :

Lay diem P tren doan AN sao cho

MiiP = ± BAC (h.3). Do MiiP = MAP nen b6n diem A, M, P, B nam tren mot dirong tron.

...----..

Goc MAB be hon goc PBA nen cung MPB be

...----..

hon cung AMP nrc MB < AP, suy ra

MB<AP<AN.

Dinh If Steiner - Lehmus suy ra tnrc tiep til b6 de vita chirng minh.

C

C D

A B

Hinh 3 Hinh 4

Trong mot thoi gian dai, each chimg minh tren duoc xem la don gian nhat. Gao day, cu6i nam 1982 tren tap chi The Mathematical Gazette cua Anh lai cong b6 mot each chimg minh moi bang phan clumg r~t don gian cua R.W. Hogg:

Gia su hai dirong phan giac AN va BM bang nhau. Dung hlnh binh hanh AMDN va ki hieu cac goc a, /3. r. 8 nhir tren hinh 4. Do tam giac BM D can tai M nen

a+r=/3+8

(2)

Neu nhu a > /3 thi xet hai tam giac ABN va

- -

BAM co AB chung, AN = BM va BAN> ABM

nenBN >AM rna AM = ND, do do r> 8, tir day a + r > /3 + 8, mau thuan voi (2). Tirong tv tnrong hop a < /3 khong the xay ra, tac a = /3 (dpcm).

Cac ban than men ! V m khat vong won tm cai don gian nhat, gao 150 nam troi qua de dira til each clnmg minh caa Steiner tm each chimg minh cua Hogg, va chac rang qua trlnh nay khong dirng lai a day.

BAy gio, moi cac ban giai mot vai bai t~p sau day:

Bai 1. SU dung cong thirc cos in, chirng minh cong thirc (1).

63

Ba! 2. Chung minh cong thirc t6ng quat han cong thirc (1) : Cho tam giac ABC, BC = a, CA = b, AB = c, D la mot diem tren canh BC, AD = p, BD = m, CD = n. ChUng minh rang

a(p2 + mn) = h2m + c_.2n (Dinh u Stewart)

Bai 3. Giai thfch vi sao each chimg minh cua Jylbert va Mac-Donnell khong ap dung dtroc

cho tnrong hop AN va BM la hai dirong phan giac ngoai ?

Bai 4. Trong tam giac ABC, A = l20, B = 1200, AN va BM la hai duong phan giac ngoai, Khong sir dung cac ham s6 hrong giac, chimg minh AN = BM.

TRO 141 DINH u STEINER -LEHMUS

Dinh li STEINER - LEHMUS : Tam giac co hai duang phdn giac trong bdng nhau la tam gidc can.

Day la mot dieu kien M nhan biet mot tam giac la tam giac can, nhung tai sao lai khong co mat trong chuang trlnh hlnh hoc 7 (co the diroi dang bai tap) ? Qua nghien ciru bai gioi

thieu ve dinh Ii STEINER - LEHMUS cua tac giii Le Truong Tung dang tren bao Toan hQC va Tu6i tre thang 1 nam 1987 tot thay cac each chirng minh dinh If r~t dan gian va gon, nhirng deu phai Slt dung d€n kien thirc ve tu giac hoac kien thirc ve dirong tron, Trong bai viet nay toi xin giai thieu them mot each chirng minh khac, tuy rang chirng minh do chua phai la gon nhat nhirng no chi can Slt dung kien thirc toan lap 8.

Theo giii thiet tam giac ABC co cac dirong phan giac trong BM va C N bang nhau. Ta clnmg

- -

minh bang phan chimg. Giii Slt ABC> ACB thl

ACE < 90°. Ke BH j_ AC tai H va l~y diem C' sao cho H la trung diem cua CC'. Xet hai tnrong hop sau.

64

NGO V AN THAI (Thai Binh)

C'

B

Hinh 1

c

1) N€u BA ~ BC hay BAC ~ BCA thi

- --

BAC ~ BC'C (vi BC'C = BCA) nen

ABC ~ CiiC' ~ MiC s iiiiC hay M nam tren doan HC (h.l). Dung tam giac A'BC sao cho

AiiC = ACE va m = ABC thl M'BC = MEC. GQi BN' la duong phan giac cua tam giac A'BC thi BN = BN'. Theo giii dieu giii Slt thl

m > ACE nen BN' cat AC tai K.

Tit do BN' > BK > BM, suy ra CN > BM, trai voi giii thiet.

2) N€u BA > BC hay BAC < BCA thi iiiC < BEe va diem M nam tren doan HA (h.2). Dung tam giac ABM voi M' thuoc tia AC

sao cho ABM' = AcN thi thea dieu giii sir ACE < ABC ~ AiiM' < ABM nen M' phai thuoc doan AM.

A

c

Hillh 2

BA CA

Do MEM' C/) MCN (g.g) nen BM' == CN

rna CA > BA, do do CN > BM'.

M~t khac BM' > BM, dan den C N > BM, trai voi gia thiet.

Vay dieu gia su ABC> ACE la khong xay

-

ra, nghia la phai co ABC == ACB.

?, ,

SCfA SAl THANH ... CHCfA DUNG

Trong bai "Lam the nao de du doan hlnh dang cua tap hop diem ?" dang tren Tap chi THTT, s6 210, 12.1994, tac gia dll phe phan mot s6 tai lieu toan hien hanh ve van de huang dan hoc sinh du doan tap hop diem. Sau do tac ghl dua ra each khac phuc : ve ba diem khac, nhau cua tap hop diem, neu ba diem nay thang hang thl tap hop diem co dang thang.

each doan nhan nay cling chua chfnh xac, T6i xin neu hai thf du sau.

Thi du 1. Cho duang trim tam 0, duong kinh AB ct/ dinh va mot diem C chuyen dong tren duang trim. GQi H la chan duang vuong gol' ha tit C xuong AB. Tim tdp hap tam duang trim noi tilp tam gidc CHO.

Tap hop la b6n cung chua goc

1350 ve qua cac doan AO hoac OB, va ta co the de dang tlm diroc bo ba diem thuoc tap hop rna cit ba diem do thang hang (h.l).

Hillh 1

5.TUY~N CHON .. TH&TT (QUY~N 3)-A

LE NGQC THANH VINH (THPT Ky Anh, na Tinh)

Thi du 2. Cho duang trim tam 0, day AB c{/ dinh. Tim tap hap nhiing diem M (trong nuit ph&ng chua duang tron do) thod man :

MA . MB = Mf2 vai MT la tiep tuyen l'ua duang tron tam O.

Loi giai bai toan nay dtroc dang tren bao THTT nhu sau :

Neu Ax la tia d6i cua tia AB va By la tia d6i cua tia BA thl de thay hai tia Ax va By thuoc t~p hop phai tim (h.2).

x

M

Gia sir M

khong nam tren dirong thang AB (hien nhien M nam ngoai dirong tron (0) de ton tai tiep tuyen MT toi dirong tron), Goi C Ja giao diem (khac B) cua MB vci duong tron (0) thi

MB.MC = MT2 = MA.MB ~ MA = MC ~

Hillh 2

- I -

MfAC can tai M ~ AMB = 2'(1800 - ACM) =

900 - a trong do a = !AOB (khong d6i).

2 2

65

M thuoc hai cung chua g6c nhln doan AB dum mot g6c 90° - ~ khong d6i. (phan ngoai dirong tron (0».

Nhir vay, tap hop M gom hai tia Ax, By va hai

,..---.._ .....--...

cung chUa g6c AMB, ACB. Trong ~p hop nay,

t6n tai b6n diem thang hang, cling t6n tai b6n diem trong d6 c6 ba diem khong thAng hang.

Thirc ra, viec dir doan tap hop khong chi dirng lai a each lam thu cong rna cac sach rna bai bao da neu, rna phai ket hop voi sir n6 hrc cua cac thao tac nr duy : nghien ciru tinh d6i xirng cua tap hop, tim cac diem "v6 tan" cua tap hop, dua vao cac phep bien hlnh ... hy vong tim dtroc hinh dang nrong d6i dung de xac dinh tap hop can tim.

",," ",? ,,,, ,

fJ/NH LI BON fJIEM VA CACH CHtfNG MINH HAl fJlfONG

2 "" " ,

THANG VUONG GOC val NHAU

MO R¢NG f)lNH Li PYTIIAGORE vA UNG Dl)NG Chung ta da qua quen thuoc voi dinh If cho tam giac vuong : Binh phuang canh huyen bang tdng binh phuang hai canb go(' vuong.

Neu xem dinh If Pythagore cho ba diem A, B, C thl c6 the phat bieu nhu sau.

Dinh li ba di~m.

V6i ba dilm A. B. C thi AB vuong goc vdi AC khi va chi khi AB2 + AC2 = BC2.

Ta c6 the rna rong dinh If cho b6n diem nhu sau.

Dinh Ii bon di~m.

Vai bdn dilm A. B. C. D thi AC vuong goc vai BD khi va chi khi AB2 + CD2 = AD2 + BC2.

Khi A trung D ta thay lai dinh If Pythagore cho ba diem.

Chung minh

Viec tim toi chirng minh dinh Ii h6" dilm cling r~t hap dan VI sV da dang cua cac tnrong hop can phai xet den.

Sau day la each chimg minh dinh Ii h6" dilm bang phirong phap toa d(? va dira vao dinh If

66

VO KIM HU~ (Cdn Tho)

Pythagore cho ba diem. Chu y rang vt trf cua b6n diem A, B, C. D la tuy y (khong doi hoi ABCD la tu giac 16i) nen sir dung phirong phap toa do tranh diroc viec xet cac vi trf nrong d6i ciia b6n diem nay.

Chon AC la true

I

hoanh, ta c6 : A(a ; 0) ;

C(e; 0). ChQn dirong thang vuong g6c vci AC di qua B lam true tung ta c6 : B(O ; h). Gia su Dim ; n) (h. I )

y

B b

A

a

Tac6 AB2 = a2 + h2 CD2 = (e - m)2 + n2 = e2 - 2em + m2 + n2

Hinh 1

BC2 = h2 + e2

Tir b6n dAng thirc tren ta c6

AB2 + CD2 = AD2 + BC2 ¢::> em = am.

Vi A khac C nen a =t: c, do d6 m = 0 hay D nam tren true tung.

Vay AC vuong goc voi BD khi va chi khi Til (1) va (2) co HB2 + AD2 = HA2 + BF2

AB2 + CD2 = AD2 + BC2. (vi CD = CF)

H~ qua 1. Trong tam giac ABC thi AH la rna AD = AE va BE = BF

dtrong cao khi va chi khi AB2 + Hc2 = AC2 + HB2.

H~ qua 2. Cho ttl giac 16m ABCD. Neu tong binh plurong hai canh d6i dien cua ttl giac bang t6ng blnh phuong hai duong cheo thl hai canh d6i dien con lai cua ttl giac vuong goc voi nhau va ngiroc lai, nghia la

AD vuong goc voi BC khi va chi khi AB2 + CD2 = AC2 + BD2.

H~ qua 3. H la tnrc tam tam giac ABC khi va chi khi HA 2 + Bc2 = HB2 + AC2 = HC2 + AB2.

Mc)t s6 hili toan giai bang dinh Ii b6n di~m Bai toan 1. Cho duang gap khuc khep kin AEBFCD thad man AD = AE. BE = BF. CF = CD. Dung cdc duong thdng EM .L AB •. FN .L BC. DP..l CA. Chung minh rang ha duang thdng EM. FN. DP dong quy.

Nhan xet

Bai toan tren day neu xet day du cac tnrong hop xay ra de cluing minh thea each thong thuong thl rat v~t va va de thieu sot, chang han khi AEBFCD Ia

A

luc giac 16m.

Chung minh. GQi H la giao diem cua hai dirong vuong goc FN va DP (h.2). Theo dinh li b6n diem cho B. H. C. F va cho A. H. C. D ta co

F

Hinh 2

HB2 + CF2 = HC2 + BF2 HC2 + AD2 = HA2 + CD2

nen HB2 + AE2 = HA2 + BE2.

Do do thea dinh If bon diem cho A. E. B.

H ta co EH vuong goc voi AB hay ba duong thAng EM. FN. DF dong quy tai H.

Bat toan 2. Cho hinh chit nhat ABCD.

Duong thdng di qua D vuong go(' voi duang cheo AC edt BC tai N.

G9i E va F Ian IU91 la trung die'm ella DC va CN. Chung minh rdng AE vuong goc vai DF.

Chung minh.

D~t DE = EC = x, CF = FN = y. AD = BC = a. Ta co :

AB=2x.BN=a -2y. BF=a -yo (h.3)

Ap dung dinh If bon diem cho A. D. C. N ta co DN vuong g6cAC

Hinh 3

¢::> 8x2 = 4ay.

Taco: AD2 + EF2 = DE2 + AF2

¢::> a2 + x2 + i = x2 + 4x2 + (a _ y)2

(3)

¢::> 4x2 = 2ay

(4)

Til (3) va (4) va ap dung dinh li b6n diem cho A. D. E. F ta co: AE vuong goc vm DF.

Bai toan 3. Cho ngu giac ABCDE voi AB = AE.

- - 0

DE=DC va ABC = AED =90 .

(1) (2)

G9i N fa trung die'm ella BC. Chung minh rang AC vuong goc vai DN.

67

Chirng minh. Ta co (hA) :

NC2 + AD2 = NB2 + AE2 + ED2

= AN2 + DC2.

Theo dinh If b6n diem eho A, D, C, N ta co AC vuOng goc v61 DN.

Chu y rang ta khong quan tam den ngii giac ABC D E 16i, 16m, don hoac khOng don.

Qua ba bai toan tren day, ta thay viec sir dung dinh If b6n diem co uu the r6 ret d6i v61 cac bai toan rna viec xet t~t ell cac kha nang xay ra la phirc tap va de thieu cac vi tri urong d6i cua cac hinh (bai toan 1 va bai toan 3), ngoai ra phuong phap nay giup ta dinh lurong r6 rang each giai bai toan (bai 2 va cac bai luyen tap), Di nhien ta co tM Slr dung dinh If b6n diem vao cac bai toan chimg minh hai dirong thang vuong goc, ke cii cac bai toan khi giai m61 tao them hai dirong thang vuong goc,

D

Hinh4

Mong mu6n cua tac gia sau bai viet nay la diroc cac ban yeu toan img dung dinh li b6n diem nhu la mot phtrong phap de giai quyet mot lap cac bai toan chirng minh "hai duong thkg vuong goc''.

Chuc cac ban phat hien nhieu bai toan hay khi sir dung phirong phap nay.

68

MOT s6 BAI TOA.N LUY~N T ~P

Biti 1. Cho tam giac can ABC dinh A. G<;>i H la trung diem cua BC, D la hlnh chieu cua H len AC. M la trung diem cua HD.

Chung minh rang AM vuong goc v61 BD.

(Thi chon hoc sinh gioi Cdn Tho)

Biti 2. Tam giac ABC co diem 0 la tam dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac, AB = AC, D la trung diem cua AB va E la trong tam tam giac

E ACD. Chung minh rang OE vuong goc v61 CD.

(Thi Olympic toan Anh 1983)

Biti 3. Cho hinh vuong ABCD, Jla diem bat ki tren canh AB (I khac A va B). Tia DJ cat tia CB tai E. Duong thang CI eM duong thang AE tai M. Chirng minh rang duong thang DE vuong goc v61 duong thang BM.

(Thi chon hoc sinh gioi TP H6 Chi Minh 93 - 94)

Bai 4. Tren canh BC cua hlnh vuong ABCD ta l~y doan BE = B~ , tren canh DC keo dai ta

lay doan CF = B2C. Chung minh rang giao diem cua AE va BF nam tren duong tron ngoai tiep hlnh vuong ABCD.

(Thi vO dich Hungari 1951)

~ ~

Bai 5. Cho ngii giac ABCDE voi A = B =

90° ; AE = BC. Chirng minh ba dirong thang di qua ba dinh A, B, D nrong irng vuong goc v61 cac canh CD, DE vaAB thi dong quy.

W' J'\ "" '"

KHI DJ)C BI~T HOA BAI TOAN

Chung ta btlt dau tu bai toan sau.

Bai toan 1. Tinh canh huyen cua mot tam gidc vuong hilt duang cao ung vai canh huyen co dt) dai bdng h va han kinh duang tron noi till' hang r.

LOt gidi.

Xet MBC VllOOg a A (h.l), GQi BC = x. Ta dat AC=h, AB = c. can

A

tinh x theo h B

va r. Hinh 1

Ta c6 he phirong trlnh

{h2 + e:c ==x~x ~~)

b + C - x = 2r (3) Tir (3) c6 b + e = x + 2r. Binh phirong hai ve diroc

h2 + ('2 + Zbc = x2 + 4,.2 + 4xr.

Tir (1) va (2) c6: x2 + 2hx = x2 + 41'2 + 4x,. ~ hx = 2r2 + 2rx

2,.2

=> x = h _ Zr '

D~c biet hoa bai toan 1 vm h = 5, r = 2, ta c6 Bai toan 2. Tinh canh huyen cua mot tam giac vuong hier duang cao ung vai canh huyen bdng 5cm va han kfnh duang tron noi tiep bdtig 2cm.

Ap dung ket qua bai toan 1, ta diroc : 2.22

x = 5 _ 2.2 = 8. Canh huyen cua tam giac

vuong bang Scm.

vo HUU BINH (Hd Nfli)

c

Cho vl>i bang long vci st,r d~c biet hoa tren, Ta thir phat bieu bai toan 2 dum mot dang khac, ti mi hon :

N eu co m¢t tam giac vuong co duang cao ung vai canh huyen bting 5cm va han kfnh duang tron noi tiep bdng Zcm thi tam gidc do co cann huyen bang Scm.

Khi dien dat bai toan nhu tren, nay ra mot cau hoi : Lieu c6 t6n tai mot tam giac vuong nhu vay khong ?

De tnt Uri. cau hoi tren, ta hay tinh tiep cac

canh g6c vuong cua tam giac vuong d6.

Tir (l) c6 h2 + e2 = 82 = 64. Tir (2) c6 he = 5.S = 40.

Suy ra

(h-e)2 =h2 +e2 -2he=64-S0= -16 (!). Nhir vay khong t6n tai tam giac vuong thoa

man gia thiet cua bai toan 2, nrc la khong t6n tai tam giac vuong nao c6 dirong cao irng vci canh huyen h = 5cm va ban kfnh dtrong tron noi tiep r= 2cm.

Bay gia cluing ta di sau them ve quan he giifa h va r trong tam giac vuong. Ta c6

Bai toan 3. Chung minh rang trong tam gidc vu6ng co duang cao ling vai canh huyen bdng h va han kinh duang tron noi tiep h&ng r, fa co

hdt ddng thuc 2 <!!_ s J2 + 1 (4)

r

LUi gidi. (h. I) Xet !\ABC vuong tai A c6 BC = a, AC = b, AB = c. Ta c6 ah = (a + b + e)r (cung bang 2S). Suy ra

!!_ = a + h + e > a + a = 2.

r a a

h

V~y - > 2.

,.

69

Ta lai co AH::; AI + ID (fla tam duong tron noi tiep) nen

h ::; rJi + r ~ !!_ ::; Ji + 1.

r

Bat d~g thirc (4) duoc clurng minh. Ta tro lai bai toan 2.

Trong d~ bai cua bai toan nay, ta co

!!_ = -25 > Ji + 1, vi pham quan h¢ ducc neu r

trong bat dang thirc (4).

NhU' vay, khi thay cac chir bang cac s6 de dac biet hoa bai roan, can IU'U y kiem tra xem cac s6 thay vao co thoa man cac quan h¢ rang buoc giira cac chtr trong bai toan hay khong, hlnh diroc neu trong bai toan co t6n tai hay khong.

D~c biet hoa mot bai toan dung la dan gian han nhieu so v6i tong quat hoa bai roan do. Nhirng ... hay than trong khi d~c biet hoa bai toan !

HAY GIAI MOT BAI ToAN

THEO NHUNG cscn NHiN KHAc NHAU

(j mot kl thi to an lap 9, trong d~ ra co bai toan sau : "Cho hinh chii nhdt AECF tao hdi ha hinh vu6ng bdng nhau, xep ke' nhau nhu hinh I.

Chung minh ding a + 13 = 45°".

F[;¥!f=J

A E

Hinh 1

Neu biet khai thac bai toan voi nhimg goc d<;> khac nhau ta se co nhieu each giai, Diroi day trinh bay tom tilt mot s6 each giai voi chu y rang cac hinh vuong duoc ve them deu bang hinh vuong dll cho.

each 1. Tao tam giac vuong can.

l.a) (h.2)

o

Hinh2

• MHD = /)J)KC = MFB (c.g.c)

70

" ~

NGUYEN MINH THONG (Vinh Phuc)

~ DI =CI =a.

~ ~ ~

• DA = DC va D = DI + D2

~ ~ °

= CI +D2 = 90 .

V~y MDC vuong can va

~ °

a + f3 = CI + f3 = 45 .

l.b) (h.3)

Hinh 3

• BI = 13.

~ °

• /)J)AB vuong can nen a + 13 = a + BI = 45 .

B C

l.c) (h.4)

Hinh4

- °

• MDC vuong can nen ACD = 45 .

Vay a + fJ= 45°.

I.d) (h.5)

Hinh 5

• BI = fJ.

- °

• MAD vuong can => ABD = 45 .

~ °

• Vay a + fJ = a + BI = 45 .

Cacb 2. Xet cac tam giac dong dang,

2.a) (h.6)

MDB C/) ACDA VI ADB chung va

AD J2 DB --

CD =2 = DA' V~y DAB = DCA =fJ·

- ~ °

Do d6 a + fJ = a + DAB = DI = 45

2.b) (h.6)

D B C

AL?f?V1

Hinh 6

MDB C/) MKC VI ADB = AKC = 135°

,AD J2 DB -

va AK = 2 = KC' Suy ra a = KCA.

Vay a + fJ = ITA + fJ = 45°. each 3. Xet cac ti so hrong giac. 3.a) (h.7)

F D B C

~

A K

Hinh 7

ADCK la hlnh blnh hanh nen AC cat DK tai trung di~m 0 ciia m6i dirong.

1 ~

Ta c6 tan a = 2' = tan C 1 (hoac MDP C/)

- 0 - 0

ACKO) => a = CI (0 day 0 < a, CI < 45 ).

~ °

Vay a + fJ = CI + fJ = 45 .

3.b) (h.8)

Hinh8

1 ~

• tan fJ = - = tan BI (hoac ACDA C/) 3

MOA) nen fJ = BI (0° < fJ; BI < 45~.

~ °

V~y a + fJ = a + BI = 45 .

Cu6i cung, can n6i them rang 0 m6i each giai tren ta con c6 the neu them mot s6 lUi giai khac mra. Khai thac cac each giai tren ta neu ra bai toan t6ng quat sau.

"010 hmh chir nhat tao hOi (2m + 1) x (211 + 1) (voi 11 > m) hlnh vuong bang nhau xep ke nhau nhu hlnh ve

1 Hinh 9

Chirng minh rang

Bai toan ban d~u chi la truong hop rieng cua bai nay ung vm 11 = I,m = O.

71

KHAI THAc MQT BAI ToAN

De co the phat trien kha nang nr duy va sang tao trong viec hoc toan va giiii toan, thl viec tim ra ket qua cua mot bai toan chua co tM coi la ket thuc duoc, rna can phai tien hanh "md xe", phan tich khai thac bai toan do.

Nhung khai thac mot bai toan nhir the nao ?

Chung ta bat dau tir mot bai toan sau.

Bai toan 1. Tic mot die'm M thuoc day BC cua tam gidc can ABC (AB = AC), ve ME, MF thea thu tu vuong g6c vOi AB, AC (E E AB, F E AC). Chung minh rang t6ng ME + MF la khong d6i khi M di dong tren canh BC.

Vai each ghii tom tat ella bai toan tren

De chirng minh ME + MF la khong d6i, ta co the giai theo hai huang giai nhu sau,

1. Huang giai thu' nhat (f)~c bi~t hoa)

Goi BH, CK la cac dirong cao cua MBC can

thi BH = CK = h khong d6i.

Chon M trung vci B thl ME = 0 va MF = BH Ta co ME + MF = BH (h.l )

Tuong tu, neu M trung voi C thi ME = CK va MF = 0 nen ME + MF = CK.

Ta co cac each giai sau. Cdch gidi thu nhdt (CI) Ve duong cao BH va ve

MI .1 BH (h. I).

M3ME=M1BI => ME =BI.

A

Taco ME+ MF = BI + IH = BH = h.

J

Hinh 1

72

DAM HIEU CHIEN (THCS Trung Vuong - na N¢i)

• Cadi gidi thu hai (C2)

Ve dirong cao BH va ve BI vuong goc voi dtrong thang FM (h. 1).

M3ME = M3MI => ME = MI.

Taco ME+MF=MI+MF= IF= BH=h. • Cadi gidi thu ba (C3) (h. I )

v« dirong cao BH va n6i AM. Ki hieu S la dien tich tam giac

SMAB + SMAC = SABC

=> ME.AB + MF.AC = BH.AC => ME + MF = BH = h.

2. Huang giai thrr hai

• Cacn gidi thu tu (C4) Goi M, M' la hai diem bat kl thuoc canh BC, giii sit M' nam giua C va M (h.2). v« M'E' .1 AB, M'P' .1 AC.

Ve MI .1 M'E', M'f .1 MF

M1IM' = M1'1'M => MI' = M'I.

A

Ta co ME+MF = E'I + MI' + I'F

= E'I + M'I + I'F

= M'E' + M'P'.

Do M va M' la hai diem bat kl thuoc BC, nen ta ket luan dtroc

ME + MF la khong d6i.

Bay gio, ta chuyen sang trong tam cua van de la khai thac bai to an tren nhir the nao ?

Hinh 2

Khai thac bai toan tren

Tnrcc het, ta viet lai ghl thiet cua bai toan

nhir sau:

{ME BC (1)

flABC co AB = AC (2)

ME j_ AB,MF j_ AC (3)

D~ khai thac bai toan tren, ta co th~ tien hanh phan tfch, "m6 xe" va bien d6i cac gia thiet va ket luan.

1. Khai thac ket luan

• Theo each giai (CI) (h. I), khi chimg minh !V3ME = MIBI ta con co diroc BE = MI = HF.

Dodo

AE + AF = (AB - BE) + (AH + HF) = AB + AH la khong d6i,

Tit do va ket qua bai toan 1 suy ra ME + EA + AF + FM = (' khong d6i.

Vay co tM chirng minh chu vi ttl giac AEMF

khong d6i.

• Mat khac cfing tit each giai (CI) (h. I ) ta co

IAE - CFI = I(AB - BE) - (AC - AF)I

= IAF - BEl = IAF - HFI = AH khong d6i. Nhir vay tit gia thiet cua bai toan tren co th~

chirng minh them diroc :

1) Chu vi ttl giac AEMF khong d6i.

2) IAE - CFI khong d6i. 2. Thay d6i gia thiet (1)

• Giu nguyen gia thiet (2) va (3). Ki~m tra ket luan.

• Gia thiet (1) duoc thay nhu the nao ?

Ta bo du kien M thuoc doan thang BC va thay being M thuoc dirong thang BC.

Gia sir M thuoc tia d6i cua tia BC (h.3).

Theo each giai (C2) vi:! Bf j_ MF ta diroc Mf = ME va fF = BH. V~y MF - ME = MF - Mf = BH = h khong d6i.

A

Neu lay M thuoc tia d6i cua tia CB ta ciing co ket qua ME - MF = CK = h khong d6i. Taco

Bai toan 2.

Cho tam gidc ABC can (AB = AC). Lily die'm M ndm tren duang thdng BC nhung khong thuoc doan BC. G9i E, F la chan duang vuong goc ha tu die'm M xuong duang thdng AB, AC theo thic tu. Chung minh rdng

IME - MFlta khong d6i.

3. Thay d6i gia thiet (2)

• Gitr nguyen gia thiet (1) va (3). Kiem tra ket luan.

• Gia thiet (2) diroc thay nhu the nao ?

Ta bo du

kien MBC

can tai dinh A. B~---~---~C

Tong quat hoa gia thiet (2) ta co MBC khong can.

Gia sit AB > AC (h.4).

Theo each giai (CI) vi:! MI .L BH ta diroc MI II AC va MF = IH. Ta con phai so sanh ME

A

Hinh 4

vaBI.

De dang chi ra diroc AB > AC ~

-

ABC < ACB ~ ABC < BMN ~ BN > NM

~ME<BI.

(Chu y rang "Trong mot tam giac, dirong cao thuoc canh 16'n thl nho thua duong cao thuoc canh nho'').

Khi M trung voi B thl ME + MF = BH. V~y ME + MF $; BH.

Tuong tv cilng co ME + MF ~ CK.

Ta co bat dfuJ.g thUc kep CK s ME + MF $; BH.

Ta dan den

73

Bili toan 3.

Cho tam gidc ABC vai AB > AC va cdc duang cao BH, CK. Lay diim M tren canh BC. G9i E, F la chan duang vuong goc ha til diim M xuong AB, AC theo thu tu. Chung minh rdng CK s; ME + MF s BH.

Tit d6 e6 tM de xuat bai toan sau.

Cho tam giac ABC vai AB > AC. G<;Ji E. F la chan duang vuong goc ha til diim M nao do thuoc canh BC xudng AB. AC theo thu tu.

Tim vi tri diem M thuoc doan BC sao cho

a) ME + MF dat gia tri nhd nlui:

b) ME + MF dat gia tri 1611 nhdt,

4. Thay d61 gia thiet (3) • Giu nguyen gia thiet (1) va (2). KiI~m tra, ker luan.

• Thay gia thiet (3)

nhu the nao ?

Ta bo du kien

ME j_ AB, MF L AC

va thay bang du kien B'___~----lC

ME II AC, MF II AB

(h.5).

A

Hinh5

VI AEM F la hlnh blnh hanh, nen AF = ME = BE.

Tuong tv

AE = MF =FC.

Suy ra ME + MF = AF + FC = AC khOng dOL

Han nua AE + EM + MF + AF = AB + AC khong d6i. Tit d6 ta e6 diroc

Bal toan 4.

Cho tam giac ABC can (AB = AC). Lay diem M tren canh. Be. Ke MEIIAC va MFIIAB vai E thuoc AB. F thuoc AC. Chung minh rdng

1) ME + MF la khong d6i.

2) Chu vi tu gidc AEMF khong d6i.

Cac ban hay thir 19:y bai toan 4 lam bai toan g6e va khai thac nrong tv de e6 cac bai toan khac,

Co sa If luan ella phirong phap khai thac mot bai toan nhu tren la a eh6 thay d6i du kien ella gia thiet hoac ket luan bang plnrong phap d~e biet hoa, t6ng quat hoa va phirong phap nrong tv.

,,,,," ?? "" , ,

ttr KET QUA eUA MOT BAl TOAN

Tit ket qua hay huang giai ella mot bai toan ta e6 the khai thac sau cac ket qua va se tim them diroc cac bai toan moi. Cac bai toan nay giup cluing ta cung e6 nhieu kien thirc, sang tao han trong m6i bai va Om duoc m6i lien he, phirong phap giai d6i voi m6i dang toano De minh hoa ta xuat phat tit bai toan sau.

Bili to an g6c.

Cho tu gidc ABCD noi tiep duang tron tam

o him kinh R va AC vuong goc vot BD tai T (T khdc tam 0). Chung minh rdng 8 diem sau day cung ndm tren mot duang tron : trung diem

74

NGUYEN NGQC NAM (Hd Toy)

cua cdc canli eua til gidc va chan cac duang vuong goc ha til T xuong cdc canh. Tinh han kinh duang tron do theo R va d (OT = d).

LUi gidi.

GQi trung diem ella cac canh AB. BC. CD. DA I~n hrot la M. N. r. Q thl MNPQ la hinh chtt nhat noi tiep dirong tron dirong kinh MP hoac NQ (h.l).

Hinh I

Duong thang TN cat AD tai K thl AC2 + BD2 = (TA + TC)2 + (TB + TD)2

TAD+ATK = CBD+NTC = CBT+NCT = = 90° nen d~ thay TN 1. AD, do d6 K nam tren dirong tron dtrong kinh NQ. Lap luan nrong tu voi chan cac duong vuong g6e khac,

Ha OE 1. AC ; OF 1. BD thl AE = EC = MN ;

BF=FD =MQ. Tae6 NQ2 = MN2 + MQ2 =

= AE2 + BF2 = (R2 - OE2) + (R2 - OF2) = 2R2 - (OE2 + OF2) = 2R2 - OT2 ~

~ NQ = ~2R2 - d2.

Vay ban kfnh eua dirong tron di qua 8 diem tren bang r = ~ ~2R2 - d2 .

• Tir bai toan tren ta nhan thay : QONT la hinh binh hanh nen trung diem 0) cua TO dong thai la trung diem cua QN hay tam cua dtrong tron di qua M, N, P, Q chinh la trung di<~m cua TO.

Nhir vay, neu T e6 dinh thi 0) e6 dinh va d = TO kh6ng d6i nen

r = ~~2R2 - d2 khong d6i. Tir d6 ta e6 tM d~ xuat bai toan quy tich sau (h.2).

Hinh 2

Bai toan 1. Cho duang tron tam 0, A ta diem co'dtnh ndm trong duang tron (A khdc tam 0). Goc vuong xAy co hai canh edt duang tron (0) (} B va C. Tim quy tich trung diem M cua day BC khi goc vuong xAy quay quanh diem A.

• Tir lai giai bai toan g6e (h. 1) ta e6

NQ2 = MN2 + MQ2 = .!(AC2 + BD2) 4

~ AC2 +BD2

= 4NQ2 = 8R2 - 4d2. (1)

Do T A.TC = TB.TD = R2 - d2 nen

= TA2 +TB2 +TC2 +TD2 +2(TA.TC+TB.TD) = TA2 + TB2 + TC2 + TD2 + 4(R2 _ d2).

Tir d6 va (1) e6 TA2 + TB2 + Tc2 + TD2

= 8R2 - 4d2 - 4R2 + 4d2 = 4R2 (2) Ttr ket qua (1) va (2) ta e6 them bai roan sau. Ba] toan 2. Cho duang tron tam 0 ban kinh

R va mtjt diim T (T khdc tam 0) ndm trong duang tron. Chung minh rdng khi hai day AC va BD thay d6i nhung luon vuong gal' vai nhau tai T thi

1) AC2 + BD21a khong d6i.

2) TA2 + TB2 + Tc2 + TD21a khong d6i. • Khai thac them ta e6

OM2 +ON2 +Op2 +OQ2=

= ( R2 _ ~ AB2 ) + ( R2 - ~ BC2) +

+ (R2 -~CD2 )+( R2 -~DA2)

= 4R2 -.!(TA2 +TB2 +TC2 +TD2) 2

= 4R2 -2R2 = 2R2.

Dang thirc nay khong phu thuoc vao d mac du giao diem T e6 tM thay d6i. Ta e6 bai toan sau.

Bai toan 3. Cho duang tron tam 0 ban kinh

R. Hai day AC va BD thay d6i nhung luon vuong goc vai nhau. Chung minh rang tdng binh phuang khodng each til diem 0 den cdc day AB, BC, CD, DA la khong d6i.

• LUll Y rang trong cac bai toan tren, hai day AC va BD luon cat nhau tai diem nam trong dirong tron. Neu hai doan AC va BD khong eM nhau rna hai dtrong thang chua hai day d6 vuong g6e vm nhau tai mot diem T e6 dinh nam ngoai dirong tron thl ket qua con dung khong ?

Cac ban hay chtmg minh nrong tv nhir tren de thay cac h¢ tlnrc (1), (2) van dung. Ta e6 bai

75

toan sau tong quat hO'11 (khong yeu eau diem T nam ben trong dirong tron).

Bai toan 4. Cho duang tron tam 0 ban kinh

R. Hai cat tuyen AC va BD vuong goc voi nhau tai mot diem T co'dinh. Chung minh rang khi hai cat tuyen tren thay dbi thi

1) AC2 + BD2 la khong dbi ;

2) TA2 + TB2 + TC2 + TD21a khong dbi. • Di sau them ta e6 (h.l) :

(AC + BD)2 = AC2 + BD2 + 2AC.BD = = 8R2 - 4d2 + 8AE.DF

= 8R2 - 4d2 + 8~(R2 - OE2)(R2 - OF2)

= 8R2 - 4d2 + 8~ R4 - R2d2 + OE2 .OF2

Neu T e6 dinh thl d khong d6i. Luc d6 gia tri AC + BD phu thuoc vao tfch OE2.0F2 nen AC + BD Ian nhat <=> OE2.0F2 Ian nhat.

Ma OE2 + OF2 = d2 nen OE2.0F2 Ian nhat <=> OE = OF (hay OETF la hinh vuong). V~y AC + BD Ian nhat khi va chi khi AC va

BD tao voi OT cac g6e being nhau va being 45°.

Ta e6 bai toan 5 .

Bili toan 5. Cho die'm Teo' dinh. trong duang tron (0) (T khdc tam 0). Tim vi tri eua hai day AB va CD di qua T va vuong goc vai nhau de' tbng d9 dai AB + CD IOn nhdt .

Cu6i cung toi xin d~ nghi cac ban hay tim cac 1m giai hay hO'11 eho cac bai toan a tren.

TU MQT BAI ros» HiNH H()C LOP 9

Trong tac pham n6i tieng "Giai bai toan nhu the nao ?", Polya G. eho rang : "Vi nhir dong song nao cling bat ngu6n til nhtmg con su6i nho, mOi bai toan du kh6 Mn dau cling e6 ngu6n g6e til nhtmg bai toan dO'11 gian, e6 khi r~t quen thuoc d6i vci chung ta". VI vay, trong qua trtnh tim toi loi giiii cac bai toan, viec tim hh~u xuat xU cua chting se giup cluing ta nay sinh ra nhimg "y eh6i loi'', (til cua P6Iya) doi hie con tim duoc dung chla khoa de giai cac bai toan d6. Dac biet, neu phat hien ra bai toan can giai e6 ngu6n g6e til mot bai toan trong sach giao khoa (SGK) , thi tlnh hu6ng cang tra nen thii vi hO'11.

Xin hay I~y mot thf du. Cach day khong lau, trong mot kl thi hoc sinh gioi toan lap 9 toan qu6e, e6 bai toan hlnh hoc kha kh6 nhir sau (h.l).

Bai toan 1. Cho tam giac diu ABC n9i tiep duang tron va mot die'm M tren cung BC khong

76

LE Quae HAN (Khoa Todn, DHSP Vinh)

chua A. G9i H. L. K ldn luat La chan duang vuong goc ha til M din BC. CA. AB. Chung minh h¢ thuc

1 1 1

MH = ML + MK'

ali kh6 cua bai

Hinh 1

toan nay Iil cac dai hrong hlnh hoc nam a mdu thuc, va viec chirng minh cac he thirc nhu vay khong quen thuoc d6i vm hoc sinh a bac trung hoc co so. Tuy nhien, bai toan nay lien quan vm mot bai toan quen thuoc trong SGK hinh hoc lap 9.

Bili to an 2. Cho tam gidc diu ABC n9i tie'p duang tron va mot die'm M tren cung bC khong chua A. Chung minh h¢ thuc

MA=MB+MC

Giai bai toan nay kha don gian (h. 1 ). Tren MA lay diem N sao cho MN = MB. Khi d6 hai tam giac MBC va NBA bang nhau nen MC = NA. Do d6 MB + MC = MN + NA = MA.

Dieu thu vi a day la tit ket qua bai toan tlnr hai, de dang suy ra ket qua cua bai toan thu nhat, That vay tit su dong dang cua cac cap tam giac MHC, MKA va MHB, MLA suy ra

MC = MH.MA 'MB = MH.MA

MK va ML

Thay cac he thirc nay vao he thirc MA = MB + MC va rut gon, ta diroc he thirc

1 1 1

--=-+-.

MH ML MK

Phan tich cac bai toan tren, ta thay giii thiet tam giac ABC deu phai chang la qua chat ? Lap nrc nay sinh van de : Neu tam giac ABC tuy y thi se thu diroc ket qua nrong nr nhir the nao ? Luc d6 de thay cac h¢ thirc a (1) van dung, con he thirc MA = MB + MC khong luon luon xay ra, nhung theo dinh Ii Ptolemy doi voi tu giac noi tiep ABMC ta c6 he thirc

MA.BC = MB.AC + MC.AB (2)

Thay cac he thirc a (1) vao (2), ta c6

BC AC AB , h d b" ,

MH = ML + MK va ta t u uoc ai toan sau,

tong quat hon bai toan d~u tien,

Bai toan 3. Cho tam gidc ABC noi tiep duong tron va mot die'm M tren cung BC khong chua A, Goi H, L, K la chan duang vuong goc ha tu M den BC, CA, AB. Chung minh h¢ thuc

BC AC AB

MH = ML + MK'

Day la mot bai toan da duoc ra trong mot kl thi Olympic toan a My va la h¢ thuc thu 10 da diroc neu len trong bai bao "Tir giac noi tiep va ngoai tiep dtrong tron'' (THlT, s6 252, thang 6 nam 1998). Cling trong bai bao nay, toi de nghi cac ban giai h(> bai toan nrong nr.

"ABCD la nr giac noi tiep khi va chi khi cac chan duong vuong g6c ha tit D den BC, CA, AB cung nam tren mot duong thang'' (H¢ thuc 6). Rat vui vi ban Ng6 Van Thai da neu ra each giai

(1)

kha dep cho bai toan nay (trong bai "Ban tiep ve dieu kien d~ tu giac n(>i tiep'', THIT, s6 258, thang 12/1998).

a day xin neu len mot dieu kien can va du khac de mot tu giac la noi tiep.

Bili toan 4. Cha tu gidc ABCD. Gr;i H, L, K Ian luat la chan duang vuong goc ha tir D den AB, BC, CA. Chung minh rang uc giac ABCD noi tiep duac trong mot duang (ron khi va chi khi

CA AB BC

DK = DH+ DL'

Dieu kien can diroc suy ra tit bai toan 3. Ta chirng minh dieu kien duo GQi D' la giao diem cua BD voi dtrong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC. Khi d6 tu giac ABCD' la

tu giac noi tiep nen

AB BC CA

--+--=--

D'H' D'L' D'K'

B

D Hinh 2

(3)

trong d6 H', L', K' l~ hrot la chan cac dirong vuong g6c ha tit D' den AB, BC, CA (h.2)

D'H' D'B D'L'

Mat khac DH = DB = DL

D'H' - D'B.DH 'D'L' _ D'B.DL

nen - DB va - DB

(4)

Thay (4) vao (3) ta c6 ~~ + ~~ =

CA.D'B ,AB BC CA ., hi ')

DB.D'K' rna DH + DL = DK (gia t let nen

D'B D'K' D'M d' MIa . di

DB = DK = DM trong 0 giao iem

cua DB vm AC. Theo tinh chat ti l¢ thtrc, ta c6 :

IDB - D'BI IDM - D'MI DD' DD' ,

DB = DM ~ DB = DM rna

DB > DM nen DD' = 0 suy ra D' trung vm D. Do d6 ABCD la tu giac noi tiep,

77

De ket thuc, toi xin tam su vci cac ban rang viec hoc tap cac kien thirc trong sach giao khoa noi chung va giai cac bai tap trong cac sach ay la het sue can thiet, vi chung chinh la nhiing con su6i nho, giup chung ta tao ra nhiing con song Ion, con song sang tao trong hoc tap hay gib' va phat minh, nghien cuu khoa hoc sau nay.

Moi cac ban cung tim cac bai tap trong sach giao khoa toan a bac trung hoc co SO co lien quan bai toan sau day va tim loi giai cua chung.

Ba! toan 5. Cho hai duang trim (0) va (0') edt nhau tai A va B. Cat tuyln di qua A edt hai duang tron (0) va (0') tai M va N. Tim tap hap cdc trung dilm eua M N khi cat tuyer: quay quanh dilm A.

, ",' 2 , ",'

ttr BAT BANG TH(fC B~I SO

BEN BAI TOAN Cl/C TR[ HiNH HQC

Ta xuat phat tit 2 bat dang thirc (BDT) dai s6 rat quen thuoc sau day.

BDT 1. V (Ji cdc sdduang a, h, e co

(a + b + C)(! +.!. +.!.) ~ 9

a h c

Ddng thuc xdy ra khi va chi khi a = b = c. LUi gidi

(1 1 1)

(a+h+c) -+-+- -9

a b c

a a h h c c

= 1+-+-+-+1+-+-+-+1-9 b cae a b

(a b ) (h c ) (e a )

= -+--2 + -+--2 + -+--2

hac hac

(a-h)2 (h-c)2 (e-a)2 0

= + + ~ .

ab he ac

Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a - b = b - (. = c - a = 0 <=:> a = h = c.

BDT 2. V oi cdc soduong a, b, c co

a h c 3

--+--+--~h+c c+a a+b 2

Ddng thuc xdy ra khi va chi khi a = b = c.

78

, ~ ~ ~

T~ TO AN - DO TIEN HAl (TP H6 Chi Minh)

L , .. ,. a b c

lJl glQI. -- + -- + -- = b+ c c+a a+h

= (_a +1)+(_h +1)+(_c +1)-3

h+c c+a a+h

( 1 I 1)

= (a+h+c) --+--+-- -3

h+c c+a a+b

1

= "2[(h + c) + (c + a) + (a + h)] x

(_1_+_1_+_1_)_3 h+c c+a a+h

do ap dung BDT 1.

Dang thirc xay ra khi h + c = c + a = a + b

9 3 --3=- 2 2

<=:> a = b = c.

Co the van dung hai bat dang thirc tren vao giai va sang tao ra cac bai toan chua bat dltng thirc hlnh hoc hoac tim eire tri hlnh hoc,

Bai toan 1. Cho tam gidc de'u ABC co canh bang a. Goi duang vuong goc tu die'm M ruim trong tam gidc de'n cac canh BC, CA, AB Ian luat la MD, ME, MF. AnC dinn vi tri cua M de':

1 lid . , . h' h A'

a) --+-+- at gw tn non at.

MD ME MF' .

Tinh gia tri do.

I 1 1

b) MD + ME + ME + MF + MF + MD dat

gici tri nho nhdt . Tinh gill tri do.

LUi gidi.

G . h aJ3 I' d ' , ., d'

Ql = -2- a irong cao cua tam grac eu

ABC va d~t MD = x, ME = y, MF = z. Ta co

~ ah = ax + ay + az ~ x + y + z = h khong d6i.

a) Ap dung BDT 1 co

(X+y+Z)(_!_+_!_+.!.)~9 => x y z

I 1 1 9 6J3

=> -+-+-~-= --.

x y z h a

b) Ap dung BDT 2 co

(x+ y+ y+z+z+X)(_1_+_1_+_1_)~9 x+ y y+z z+x

1 1 1 9 3J3

~ --+--+--~-=--.

x + y y + Z Z + x 2h a

Trong ca hai tnrong hop dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi x = y = z, hie do MIa tam cua MBC.

Bai toan 2. Goi H fa true tam eua tam gidc ABC co ha goc nhon vai ha duang cao AA), BB), CCI' Chung minh rang

a) AAI + BB) + CC) ~ 9

HA1 HB) HCI

b) HAl + HBI + HC1 ~~

HA HB HC 2

D&ng thuc xdy ra khi nao ?

LUi gidi. Goi dien tich cac tam giac ABC, HBC, HAC, HAB Ian hrot la S, S), S2' S3 thl

S = SI + S2 + S3'

a) De thay

D d" HAl HB) HC)_

o o. AA + BB + CC - 1.

) I I

, AA BB CC

ApdungBDT 1 duoc -H ) +-) +-CI ~9.

. . A) HB) H)

Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi

HA) HB) HC) 1 S

AAI = BB) = CC) ="3 ~ S1 = S2 = S3 = "3'

hie do H vira la true tam, vira la trong tam cua MBC nen ABC Ia tam giac d~u.

b) T' HAl S) , 11--=- co

AA) S

HA) HA) S) SI

--= = =-~:-

HA AA) -HA) S-S1 S2 +S3'

Tirong nr : HB) = S2 ; HC) = S3

. HB SI + S3 HC S) + S2 .

Ap dung BDT 2 co' HA) + HB) + HCI > ~

. HA HB HC - 2'

Lap luan nhu tren dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi MBC Ia tam giac d~u.

Bai toan 3. Xh tam gidc ABC eo ha goe nhon noi tiep duang trim (0) vai ha duang cao AA), BB), CC) ldn luat cdt duang tron (0) ldn niia tai D, E, F. Aile dinh dang eua tam gidc ABC sao cho :

a) AA) + BB) + CC)

dat gid tri nhd nhdt.

DA) EB1 FC1

Tinh gia tri do.

b) AA) + BBI CC)

AD BE + CF dat gia tri nho nhdt .

Tinh gid tri do.

HUO'ng dtin gidi

GQi H Ia tnrc tam cua MBC. De dang chimg minh duqc HA) = DA) ; HB) = EB) ;

HC) = FC).

a) Ap dung bai toan 2. Tong dang xet dat gill tri nho nhat la 9 khi MBC la tam giac d~u.

79

b) AD + BE + CF =

AAI BBI CCI

HAl HBI HCI

= 1 + AA + 1 + BB + 1 + CC = 4

I I I

AAI BBI CCI 9

suy ra AD + BE + CF ~ 4"'

Dang thuc xay ra khi MBC la tam giac d~u. Bal toan 4. Trong cdc tam giac ngoai tiep

duang tron tam 0 han kinh r, hay xdc dinh dang cua tam gidc sao cho tdng d9 dai ha duang cao dat gia tri nho nhdt. Tinh gia tri do.

LUi gidi. GQi ha' hb' he la d¢ dai cac duong eao nrong img v6i cac canh a, b, c cua tam giac ABC ngoai tiep dirong tron (0). Lap luan tuong

b" , 2 d r r r 1

tv at toan iroc : h + h + h = .

abe

Ap dung BDT 1 co :

DAng thirc xay ra khi ha = hb = he = 3r, ha + "h + he = 9r, hie do MBC la tam giac deu.

Bai toan 5. Cho tam gidc ABC va M la diim nam trong tam gidc. Ki AM, BM, CM c&t Cal' canh BC, CA, AB ldn IUf!! tai AI' BI, CI. )(dc dinh vi tri cua ditm M dt

) AAI BBI CCI ,t • , • ho h'

a --+-M +-C aat gta trt non at.

MAl BI MI' .

Tinh gia tri do.

MA MB MC

b) MA . MB . MC dat gia tri nho nhdt.

I I I

Tinh gia tri do.

HII6'ng dtin gidi. GQi dien tfch cac tam giac ABC, MBC, MAC, MAB Ian hrot la S, SI' S2' S3

thl S = SI + S2 + S3'

80

a) Lap luan tuong tv bai toan 2 co

AAI BBI CCI

MA + MB + MC ~ 9.

I I I

S Dang thirc xay ra khi SI = S2 = S3 ="3' hie

do M la trong tam MBC.

b) D~t AAl = x thl MA = AAI -1 =

MAl MAl MAl

x-I.

MB BBI

Ttrong nr -- = -- - 1 = y - 1

. MB MB '

I I

MC CCI

MC = MC -1 = z -1.

I I

T ,1 1 1 1

a co - + - + - = <=> xy + yz + zx = xyz. x y z

T' d' MA MB MC 1 ) 1)

It 0 -.-.--=(x- )(y-l (z-

MAl MBI MCI

= xyz - (xy + yz + zx) + x + y + z - 1 = x + y + z - 1

(1 I 1 )

= (x + y + z) - + - + - - 1 ~ 9 - 1 = 8.

x y z

DAng thirc xay ra khi x = y = z , hie do M Iii trong tam cua MBC. (Day Iii each chirng minh khac cua bai T5/252 co Iai giai a s6 256 (10.1998».

Ba! tap tu IUY~D. Cho tam giac ABC v6i cac phan giac AAI,BBI,CCI. GQi al,hl,cI Ian hrot la cac khoang each tir Al den AB, BI den BC,CI den CA. GQi ha,hb.h. Ian hrot Iii d¢ dai ba duong eao cua tam giac ke tir A, B, C. Chirng minh rang

A " , ? ,,, A" ,

NHAN XET LOI GIAI BAI TOAN NHU'THE NAO ?

Hoc to an nhu the nao, do la van d6 kha rong, Trong bai nay, xin ban v6 mot khia canh. D6i voi loi giai cua mot bai toan co ba yeu cau mang tfnh chat bat buoc la :

- Uri giai khong co sai Jam.

- Lap luan phai co can cu.

- Uri giai phai day du, khong thieu, khong

thira.

B6n yeu cau sau dftY'ciing rilt quan trong d6i vci viec ren luyen nr duy logic, phuong phap hoc toan thong minh, sang tao :

- Loi giai can ngan gon, don gian, hay nhat,

- Loi giai phai r6 rang, sang sua va hop If ca

v6 noi dung Ian hinh thirc trinh bay.

- can bier giai thich con dirong dan den loi giai, lam cho 1m giai de hieu, nhat la khi trinh bay mieng 1m giai.

- Biet each nhan xet, khai quat hoa loi giai, rna rong bai toan, phat hien them cac bai toan moi,

Trong bai nay chung toi mu6n trao d6i cung cac ban v6 yeu cau phai biet nhan xet, khai quat hoa loi giai, rna rong bai toan va phat hien them cac bai toan moi.

Chung ta bilt dau tir bai toan I (h. I ).

Bai toan 1. Cho hinh vuong ABCD. T la mot die'm hat ki d tren canh AB (T khdc A va B). Tia DT ciit tia CB tai E. Duong thdng CT ciit duang thang AE tai M.

Chung minh rang duang thdng DE vuong g6(" vai duang thdng BM.

(D~ thi chon h9C sinh gioi Tp H6 ChI Minh, yang 2,1993 - 1994)

LOi gidi

Tren tia d6i cua tia AB lay diem I sao cho Al = BE (h. I ). AE car IC tai H va cat ID tai N.

6.TUY~N CHQN .. TH&TT (QUY~N 3)-A

NGUYEN V AN V~NH (DHSP TP H6 Chi Minh)

Taco

MBA = MAD (c.g.c) => JAN + AIN =

iiAB + ill = 90° => AE .L DI.

Ta co: !:JBC = MCD (c.g.e)

----

=>CEK+ECK=BIC+ECK=90°=> IC l_ DE

E

J~r-~~--------~~~B

N

Hinh I

Vay H la tnrc tam cua tam giac DEI. De thay T la tnrc tarn cua tam giac CEI, do do dirong thang CM vuong goc voi dirong thang IE.

CM l_ IE}

=> CM song song voi DH.

DH l_ IE

Tam giac EDH co TM II DH, suy ra

ME TE

--=-

(I)

MH

TD

Tam giac ECD

BE TE

co TB II DC, suy ra

(2)

=

BC TD

Tit (1) va (2) suy ra :! = !~ => BM II CH.

BM //CH}

=> BM l_ DE (dpcm).

CH l_ DE

Sau khi giai xong bai toan I, ta co nhan xet :

V m T la diem bat ki lay tren canh AB (T khac A va B), ta luon luon nhan diroc ket qua la BM vuong g6c vm DE. Noi each khac, neu hinh vuong ABCD c6 dinh, diem T di dong tren canh

81

AB (T khac A va B) thl fiiiij = 900, hay la diem F chay tren duong tron dirong kfnh BD (chua xet gioi han). Vci each nhln nhan nhir vay, cluing ta di tm bai toan sau.

Bai toan 2. Cho hinn vuong ABCD codinh.

Uly diim T tren cank AB (T khac A va B). Tia DT edt tia CB tai E. Duong thdng CT edt duang thdng AE tai M. Duong thang BM edt duang thang DE tai F.

Tim quy tich diim F khi diim T di dang tren canh AB.

Tir 1m giai bai toan 1 ta thay quy tfch cua di~m F Ut mot phsn tv dinmg tron dirong kfnh BD chan cung AB, loai trir cac di~m A va B.

Sau khi giai xong Bai toan 2, chAc cac ban se tu hoi:

Khi diem T tren canh AB thl fiiiij = 900• Neu T la mot diem bat ki tren tia AB (T khac

A) thi ktt qua con dung hay khong ?

Cau tra 1m la ket qua van con dung. Va dan den bai toan sau.

Bai toan 3. Cho hinh vuong ABCD cddinh.

Ldy diim T tren tia AB (T khdc A). Tia DT edt tia CB tai E. Duong thang CT edt duang thdng AE tai M. Duong thdng BM edt duang thdng DE tai F.

Tim quy tick diim F khi diim T di dong tren tia AB.

Trong wang hop diem B nam gitra hai di~m A va T, cac ban chi viec chon diem J tren canh AB sao cho AJ = BE. Sau d6, chimg minh nrong t1;1' nhir bai toan 1 se nhan duoc ket qua

fiiiij = 900•

Quy tich la nira dirong tron dirong kfnh AC bo di~m A va C.

Viec chuyen tir bai toan 1 sang cac bai roan 2 va bai toan 3 se diroc dinh hlnh ngay, neu nhir cac ban sit dung phirong phap toa d~ de giai bai toan 1.

That vay, chon he true toa d~ nhir sau : True DC la true hoanh, true DA la true tung.

82

D~ cho gon ta chon dan vi 1 = DC = DA.

D~t CiJE = m",

Ta co, trong h¢ toa d~ dii chon, cac di~m A (0 ; 1), B (l ; 1), C (1 ; 0), D (0 ; 0), E (1; tan m<J, T(cotmO; 1);

Khi d6 phirong trlnh duong thang AE la

y-l x-O

_.::..._--=--

tan m'' -1 1-0

hay la : y = (tan m" -1)x + 1.

Phuong trmh duong thang CT la : y -1 x -cotmO

--=----

0-1 l-cotmO

x-I y=----

cot m" -1

hay la :

Tir d6 suy ra giao diem M cua cac duong thfu1g AE va CT c6 toa d~

x=-------

cot zs" +tanmO-l

1- tanmO

y= .

(cot mO - l)(cot mO + tan mO - 1)

Viet phirong trmh dirong thang BM, ta suy ra dtroc duong thang BM c6 he s6 g6c

k = -cot m",

Duong thang DE c6 h¢ s6 g6c la tan m",

Tir d6 suy ra : duong thfu1g DE vuOng g6c voi dirong thfu1g BM. Sit dung phuong phap toa d~ giai bai todn 1, ban c6 the nhan xet ngay

diroc : g6c CiJE = m" c6 th~ diroc xac dinh mot each tuy y chi can m" khac vm 900 va 00 (d~ tan m" va cot m" xac dinh) ta van c6 hai dirong thfu1g DE va BM vuOng g6c voi nhau.

Chung ta di tm

Bai toan 4. Cho hinh vuong ABCD cddinh.

L{iy diim T tren duang thdng AB (T khdc A). Duong thdng DT edt duang thdng CB tai E. Duong thdng CT edt duang thdng AE tai M. Duong thdng BM edt duang thdng DE tai F.

Tim quy tich eua diim F khi diim T di dang tren duang thang AB.

Bay gia chung ta xet bai toan dum mot goc d~ khac (h.2).

Hinh 2

Xet mot vi trf cua diem T tren tia d6i cua tia AB. Neu xem BD la phan giac cua goc vuong TBE cua tam giac TBE. con BF la duong cao thuoc canh huyen, cluing ta di toi

Bili toan 5. Cho tam giac TBE (8 = 90°).

Ve- duang phdn giac BD va duang cao BF. Til D dung DA va DC theo thu tu vuong g6c vai canh TB va canh BE (A tren TB va C tren BE).

Chung minh rdng cdc duang thdng TC. AE va BF edt nhau tai mot dilm.

Cac bai toan 2, 3, 4, 5 nrong ur voi bai toan 1.

Viec giai bai toan 1 co the giup chung ta giai cac bai toan khac nrong tu vm no.

Nha sir pham va la nha toan hoc n6i tieng ngiroi My (g6c Hungari) Polya co nhan xet :

"Trong toan hoc sa cap ciing nhir trong toan hoc cao cap, phep tuang tu co Ie la co mat trong moi phat minh. Trong mot s6 phat minh phep tuong tu chiem vai tro quan trong han ca".

COn d6i voi nha thien van tai ba Kepler (ngiroi Due), ngum da phat minh ra ba dinh luat n6i tieng trong thien van hoc mang ten Kepler thi : "T6i v6 cung bie't an cac phep tuong tu, nhimg ngtroi thay dang tin cay nhat cua toi, Cac phep tuang tu da giup toi kham pha ra cac bf mat cua nr nhien, da giiip toi virot qua dircc moi tr6' ngai".

Qua trtnh khai quat hoa dua tren sl,l' van dung phep nrong nr gAo lien voi "phong thf nghiem" cua nr duy sang tao, Co the noi, do la mot trong nhimg phirong tien quan trong nhat cua viec nr giao due, nrc Ia viec m6' rong va dao sau kien thuc da co.

Phuong phap hoc tap khoa hoc nay, doi hoi sl,l' n6 hrc cua ban than cac ban, tren co s6' da nam vtrng cac phirong phap, dirong 16i giai nhirng bai toan da co.

PHlfONG PHAP DI~N ticn

Cac ban d~u rat quen thuoc cong thirc tfnh dien tich S cua mot tam giac ABC voi BC = a, CA = h. dirong cao AH = ha nhir sau :

S = ~a.ha = ~ahsinC.

D~c biet neu tam giac Ia tam giac d~u canh a

thi

S = a2..fj. 4

Ttr cac cong thtrc rat dan gian do chung ta co the giiii mot s6 bai toan kho,

NOO THE PHI~T (Dd Ndng)

I. Tinh ti s6 hinh hoc

Ba] toan 1. Cho tam giac ABC. Tren cdc cann BC. CA va AB cua tam gidc Ian luat My cac dilm A1, B1 ,C1 sao cho cdc duang thdng

AA1, BB1, CC1 dong quy tai P.

a) Chung minh rdng

SABP AB1

SBCP = B1C'

83

h) Chung minh dinh li Ceva :

ACI BA1 CBI

C B· A C ·11.4 = 1.

1 1 1

LUi gidi. a) H~ AA2 .L BB1 va CC2 .L BB1 (h. 1). Ta co

2S ABP = BP.AA2· 2SBCP = BP.CC2·

va.y SABP = ~ .

. SBCP CC2

Mat khac MB1A2 d6ng~gvm tlCB1C2 nen

AA2 ABI A

CC;= BIC·

Tir day suy ra

SABP = ABI (1)

SBCP BIC

b) Chung minh 8 A1

nrong nr dU<_1c Hinh I

SACP = CAl (2) va SBCP = BCI (3)

SABP AlB SACP CIA

Nhan theo timg ve cua (1), (2) va (3) ta suy ra ACI BAI CBI = 1

CI B . AIC . BI A .

II. Chung minh hai dal hrong hlnh hoc bang nhau

Bili toan 2. Cho tam gidc ABC co canh BC = a, AC = b va AB = c, cdc duang cao tu dlnh A, B, C tuang ung la ha,hb va he. G9i S la dien tich va r ia han kinh duang tron noi tiep. Chung minh rdng

1

a) S = 2" (a + b + c)r

1 1 1 1

h) -+-+-=-.

ha hb he r

LUi gidi

a) GQi I Ia tam dirong tron noi tiep MBC.

Taco:

S = SAtB + SBIC + SCtA

~ 2S = cr + ar + hr = (a + h + c)r

84

b) Tu (4) suy ra 2S

- = a + b + c (5)

r

Mat khac ta co

2S 2S 2S

a=h,h=h' =i:

abc

nen a + b + c = 2S(_1 + _!_ + _!_) (6)

ha hb he

So sanh (5) va (6) ta co

2S(_!_ + _!_ + _!_. ) = 2S (7)

ha hb he r

Rut gon 2S b hai ve cua (7) ta co he thirc phai chimg minh.

III. Chung minh bat dang thirc hinh hoc

Bai toan 3. Cho tam gidc ABC va dilm 0 hen trong tam gidc. D{it BC = a, CA = b, AB = c. G9i cdc khodng each ta 0 den tam giac la OM = da, ON = db' OP = d.; va khodng each

C

til 0 den each dlnh A, B, C ia OA = Ra,

OB = Rb• OC = Rc. Chung minh rdng a) a.Ra ~ c.d; + b.d.,

h) Ra + Rb + R; ~ 2(da + db + de) (Bdt dang thta: Erdos)

(D~ 48 cau II - be> d~ thi Tuyen sinh DH)

LUi gidi

1) H<;l BK va CL vuong goc v6i AO (h.2). D~t al = BK va

a2 = CL ta co

B~----~-T------~C al + a2 :os; a (vi

canh goc vuong

phai nho han Hinh 2

canh huyen)

A

(4)

T' d' al·Ra a2·Ra a.Ra 11 0--+--<--

2 2 - 2

S a.Ra

~ SAOB + AOC:OS; -2-

c.d; h.db a.Ra

~2+-2:OS;-2-

~ a.R; ~ b.d; + c.d,

(8)

Hinh3

Vay ap dung eOng thirc (1) eho 0' ta e6 a.Ra ~ b.d; + c:.db

suy ra

bd. c:dh R ~-(.+-

a a a

Tirong tv e6

ad; cd , Rh ~-h+h

adh ia, R >-+-

c- c c

(10)

(11)

Cong theo tirng ve cua (9), (10) va (11) ta diroc

Ra + Rh + R"

(a h) (a c:) (h c:)

~ -+- d. + _.+- dh + -+-h da·

ha' c:a c

Ap dung bat dang thirc quen thuoc vci cac s6 x y

dirong x, y la - + - ~ 2

y x

suy ra Ra + Rb + R: ~ 2(da + dh + de)·

? ? khi a h

Dau dang tlurc xay ra 1 h = ;;

a c:

-=-

c: a

b .5:'_ , nghia la xay ra khi va chi khi

c: h

a = b = c, hay khi MBC deu,

Den day cac ban da lam quen vm plurong phap dien tfch. Cac ban hay bM tay vao viec giro cac bai toan sau day.

(9)

Bai 2. Cho tam giac ABC deu. Lay dit~m P tuy y trong MBC. Tit 0 ha cac duang vuOng g6e PD, PE, PF Ian lirot tm cac canh BC, CA, AB. Tfnh ti s6

PB+PE+PF BD+CE+AF

Bai 3. GQi ra, rb' rc la ban kfnh cac durmg tron bang tiep cua MBC nrong img voi cac g6e A. B. C va r la ban kinh duong tron noi tiep cua tam giac d6.

a) Chung minh rang S = pr = (p - a)ra.

, 1 1 1 1

b) Chung minh rang - + - + - = -.

r: rb ~. r

Bai 4. Cho tam giac ABC e6 ba g6e nhon.

GQi H la tnrc tam cua MBC. Chan cac dirong eao ke tit A. B. C theo tlnr tv la A1,B),C). Chung minh rang

AH BH CH

--+--+--~6. A1H B)H C)H

Voi tam giac nao thl xay ra dau dang thirc ? (D~ 144 cau V - B¢ de thi tuyen sinh DH)

85

? ,/ :t, A/ /

GIAI fJU,(IC BAI TOAN CHlfA HAN LA KET THUC

Tim duoc 1m giai mot bai toan thl th~t sung strong nhung neu qua vui rna dimg lai de toa hirong thl that la dang tiec vi con biet bao di~u moi 1(;1 van con an dau trong d6. Neu ta biet khai thac bai toan vira giai bang each xet cac tnrong hop nrong t1:1', khai quat hoa thl chac chan se kham pha duoc nhimg bai toan mci thu vi. Xin bat dau tir bai toan dan gian dum. day.

Bai toan 1. Cho tam gidc ABC. G{Ji M La mot diem nao do thuoc canh BC. Lily cdc diim D tren AC va E tren AB sao cho MDIIAB va MEIIAC (neu M trung B thi My D trung A, neu M trung C thi ldy E trung A). Gid szi dien ticli

cdc tam gidc MBE va MCD La 5MBE = c2, SMCD = h2. Chung minh rdng

2

SABC = (h + c) (1)

L , .. ? DX S 2 0'1 gWI. ~t ABC = x .

Tren hlnh 1 de thay ~BE C/) ;)'CBA nen c MB

x BC'

h MC

~CD C/) MCA nen ~ = BC'

Tir d6 h + c = MB + MC = 1 => x = b + c

x BC

=> S ABC = x2 = (h + (i

hay ~SABC = ~SMCD + ~SMBE'

'Iir ket qua boo toan 1 suy ra ngay SADME = Zbc.

De thay ket qua tren van dung khi M trung vm. B (c = 0) hoac M trung vm. C (h = 0).

Bai toan da giai xong. Nhimg neu suy nghi them se xuat hien cau hoi : Neu M nam tren dirong thang BC nhung khong thuoc doan BC, chang han M' thuoc tia d6i cua tia BC thl dien tfch cac tam giac ABC, MBE', M'CD' lien he voi nhau theo he thirc nao ?

86

DANG V AN BIEU (GV THCS Dong Du, Gia Lam, na N¢i)

DJ!llg hlnh

blnh hanh M E'BF

D'

c

(h.l) thl SM'BF =

2 SM'BE = c. D~t

SM'CD' = h2• Ap dung ket qua BT I coi diem B thuoc canh MC cua ;). D'M'C thl h= x + C =>

2 2

SABC=X =(h-c) . Hinh 1

Ttrong t1:1' khi M thuoc tia d6i cua tia CB thl SABC=(c-hl Tac6

E'

Bai toan 2. V Cti gid thief nhu hili todn 1, chi khdc La diem M ndm tren duang thdng BC nhung khong thuoc dOCJn BC thi

2 SABC = (h - c)

(2)

Ta 1~ xet neu diem M nam ben trong ;).ABC thl se c6 he thirc gl gifra dien tich cac tam giac tao thanh bCri cac duong thang qua M rna song song vci cac canh cua ;).ABC ?

Bai toan 3. Qua diim M ndm trong MBC ki cdc duong thdng DK II AB, EF II AC, PQ II BC (D va Q thuoc AC, E va P thuoc AB, K va F

thuoc BC). Gid szi SMPE = c:2, SMQD = h2,

SMKF = a2. Tinh SABC theo a, b, c.

LUi gidi. (h.2)

Cdch. 1. Ap

dung ket qua BT 1 ta c6

A

c

SAPQ =(h+(l, SBEF = (c:+al, SDKC =(a+h)2.

Hinh 2

D~ thay

SABC = SAPQ + SBEF + SDKC - -SMPE - SMQD - SMKF

= (h+(i +(c+a)2 +(a+h)2 _c2 _h2 _a2 = ta+b+cs",

Ngoai ra c6

SAEMD = 2hc, SBKMP = 'Ica,

SCQMF = 2ah.

H¢ thtrc SABC = (a + b + c)2 (3) that dep, phai khong cac ban !

Khi M thuoc canh BC thl a = 0, va ta thay lai ket qua bai toan 1.

cs» 2. D~t SABC = x2•

AADC ' KF a Tit !1MKF Cf) IJ.t1D co BC = ~

MJMQ Cf) MBC e6 ~g = ~

MP c

tillPM Cf) MBC e6 BC =~.

Tit cac dang thirc tren ta e6

a+h+ c KF + MQ+ MP

---=

x BC

= KF + FC + BK = 1 BC

~ x e a-s-b w c

2 hay SABC = (a + b + c) .

Con M nam ngoai MBC nhu b hinh 3 thl sao?

Truong h9]J M thuoc goc xAy

Sit dung kf hieu va l~p luan nrong tv each 2 Uri giai BT 3 ta thay (h.3) cac tam giac MKF, EPM, DMQ deu dong dang vci MBC nen e6

a KF c MP b MQ tit d6

~ = BC' ~ = BC' ~ = BC'

a-h-c KF-MQ-MP = KF-CF-KB =1

x BC BC

~ x= a-h-c.

V~y SABC = (a - b - Ll. Khi M thuoc Ax hoac thuoc Ay thl b = 0 hoac c = 0 ta thay lai ket qua bai toan 2.

K

Hinh3

Truong h9]J M' thuoc goc BAC nhung ndm . ngoai LlABC

Lap luan nrong tv nhu tren ta e6 (h.3)

SABC =x2 =(h+c-a)2

Khi M thuoc canh BC thl a = 0, ta thay lai ket qua bai toan 1.

Khi M nam ngoai MBC rna b cac mien khac hai tnrong hop tren ta cling e6 cac he thirc nrong nr, Ta dii cluing minh diroc bai toan sau.

Bai toan 4. Cho dilm M ndm ngoai LlABC, M thuoc goc BAC hoac goc dOl dinh cua goc BAe. Qua M ki cdc duang thdng DKIIAB, EFIIAC, PQIIBC (D va Q thuoc duang thdng AC, E va P thuoc duang thdng AB, K va

F thuoc duang thdng BC). Gid szi SMPE = c2, SMQD = h2, SMKF = i, the'thi SABC = (h + c -al

T6m lai tit bai toan 1 kha dan gian ta dan den xet cac bai toan 3 va 4 t6ng qUI it han, xet du cac vi trf nrong d6i cua M d6i vci tam giac ABC. Cac ban hay thir giai bai toan dum day r6i tim ra nhirng bai toan mci t.6ng quat han.

Bfli toano Cho tam giac ABC. Goi M la mot diem nao d6 thuoc canh BC. Lay cac diem D tren AC va E tren AB sao eho MDIIAB va MEIIAC. Chung minh rang

BA CA

SABC = BE ,SMBE + CD ,SMCD

87

"'? A.' A ~ A~ ,~

THAY DOl DIEU KI1f,N TH(fYEU TRONG BAI TOAN

HINHH(JC

Khi nghien CUu ki clumg minh cac bai toan hinh h9C ta thay mot s6 dieu kien Ut thiet yeu, con mot s6 dieu kien khac dong vai tro thu yeu, khong co anh huang Ian de'n phirong phap giai. Neu thay d6i dieu kien thir yeu nay ta se hieu thirc chat m6i lien he giira gia thiet va ket luan, tir do se dan den bai toan tong quat hem. Xin minh hoa dieu tren qua cac bai toan dum day,

Bai toan 1. Cho hinh vuong ABCD. Lay (liem M tren canh BC. Duong thdng AM edt duong thdng CD tai P. Duong thdng EF vuong goc vai AM trong do E, F tuong ling tuim tren AB, CD. Duong phdn giac cua goc DAM edt CD tai K. Chung minh ding

a) EF=BM +DK

I 1 I

b) -=--+--.

AB2 AM2 AP2

LUi gidi (h. I )

p

Hlnh 1

a) Ke AN ..L AM, cat dirong thang CD tai N thl AN FE Iii hinh binh hanh nen EF = AN (I)

Ta coDAN=BAM, AD=AB, ADN=ABM = 90° nen MDN = MBM => BM = ND, AN=AM ~)

Mat khac co NAK = KAD + DAN =

-

KAM + BAM = KAB = AKN nen NA = NK (3)

88

NGUYEN DDt TAN (GV TP. H6 Chi Minh)

Ket hop (1) (2) (3) ta co EF = AN = NK = ND+DK = BM +DK.

b) Ta co NAP = 90°. Trong I1NAP vuong tai A voi dUOng cao AD ta co

I I 1

--=--+--

AD2 AN2 Ap2'

T' de '(2) I I I

ir 0 va suy ra --2 = --2 +--2'

AB AM AP

Nhdn xet. Dieu mau ch6t trong duong 16i

giai tren la ve them MD N d~ co MD N = MBM. Neu 6 de bai thay dieu kien ABCD tit hinh vuong trti thanh hinh chit nhat (h.2) thl trong Uri giai se co MD N en MBM =>

AN DN AD ( 0) L' d' , AM = BM = AB = t t > . uc 0 ta co

A E 8

~

N 0 K F C P

Hinh 2

a) EF=AN=NK=ND+DK=t.BM+DK

I I I

b)--=--+-

AD2 AN2 AP2

I 1 t2

suy ra --2 = --2 + --2 .

AB AM AP

Ta co bai toan tong quat hem bai toan nhir sau.

Bai toan 2. Cho hinh chit nhdt ABCD vai AD = t.AB (t > 0). Lay di€m M tren canh BC. Duong tluuig AM edt duang thdng CD tai P.

Duong thiing EF vuong goc vai AM trong do E, F tuang ung ndm tren AB, CD. Duong phon gitu: eua goc DAM ciit CD tai K. Chung minh rang

a) EF = t.BM +DK

1 1 (2

b)-=--+-.

AB2 AM2 AP2

Ba] toan 3. Cho go(' ;Py = 1200 va diem A ndm tren tia Px. DZf11g tam giac de'u ABC sao clio B thuoc tia Py va C thuoc tia phon gidc cua go(' xPy. G9i Q fa giao diem eua AB va PC. Chung minh rting :

1 1 1

PQ = PA + PB'

Lm gidi. Lay diem D tren tia d6i cua tia Py sao eho PD = PA

- ~

(h.3). Do APD = PI =

60° nen MPD la deu => PD = PA = AD (4)

c

D

Hinh3

....... .............. 0

Ta co PI = P2 = P3 = 60 . Trong MaD co

PQII DA nen theo DL Thales thl

PB DB PB+PD PB PD

-=- =-+-

PQ DA DA DA DA

1 1 PD

=> PQ = DA + DA.PB (5)

, 4) 5) , 1 1 1 (6)

Tir ( , ( co PQ = PA + PB

Nhq.n xet. Dieu mau eh6t trong dirong 16i giai tren la ve them MP D deu de co PQ I I AD.

Neu thay dieu kien goc ;Py ur 120° tra thanh a

o 0 ....... --- 0

(0 < a , 180 ), thi goc PI = APD = 180 - a

khong d6i. Dieu kien MaC d~u eho phep xac dinh dtroc diem C khi biet diem B tren tia Py, hie do khong can yeu du diem C thuoc tia phan giac cua goc xPy.

Ta xet hai tnrong hop rna rong bai toan 3.

a) Gia sii diem C nam ben trong goc xPy (h.3). Ke AD II PC eM dirong thang PB tai D.

Goi AH, DK Hrn hrot la duong eao cua MPD (co tM khong deu) thi :

PAsin~ =AH=DAsin~ =DAsin(a-P2) (7)

PDsinPt = DK = DA sin PAD = DAsinP2 (8) Vi PQ II AD nen van co (5). Thay (7), (8)

1 sin(a - P2) sin P2

vao (5) du<,>'C PQ = PAsinPt + PBsinPt (9)

Truong hop rieng cua he thirc (9) la he thirc (6) khi a = 120° va Pt = P2 = P3 = 60°.

Khi cho a = 90° he thirc (9) tra thanh

1 cos P2 sin P2

PQ=~+~'

b) Ta xet xem khi ;Py = a thi diem C nam tren dirong nao ? Dung bon tam giac d~u ABC va ABC', PAE va PAE', thi diem E, E e6 dinh

- -

(h.4). Ta co AC = AB = AC', EAC = PAB =

-

E'AC', AE = AP = AE' nen MEC = MPB =

-- -

ME'C'. Tir do AEC = APB = AE'C' = a.

E'

Hinh 4

Nhir vay khi MaC va MaC' la d~u con B chay tren tia Py thl diem C chay tren tia Et va diem C chay tren tia Et va diem E chay tren tia E't'. (Cac ban nr chirng minh phan dao).

Ta co bai toan tong quat han bai toan 3 nhu sau.

Bai toan 4. Cho goc ;Py = a (00 < a < 180°) va dilm A tuim tren tia Px. DZf11gt am gidc de'u ABC sao cho B thuoc tia Py. G9i Q fa giao dilm eua AB va PC.

89

a) V di C la dilm ndm trong goe xPy, chung minh rang

-

sin APB sin BPC sin APC

= PA + PB

PQ

b) Tim quy tieh eua diem C khi dilm B di dong tren tia Py.

Cac ban hay thir thay d6i dieu kien thu yeu trong bai toan hinh hoc nao do de sang tao ra bai toan moi.

, ? A """ , ",,'? A" 1\ "

tfNG Dl/NG eVA MQT H~ TH(/e VE TI SO DI~N TIeH

Trong bai viet nay, cluing ta se de cap den mot irng dung cua mot he thirc hlnh hoc xuat

phat tit cong thirc tfnh dien tfch S ABC =

l AB.AC. sin A va diroc phat bieu nhir sau.

Neu mot dirong thAng d1.t hai canh AB, AC cua tam giac ABC tai B', C' thl

SAB'C' AB'.AC'

--'-=~ = (1)

SABC AB.AC

Viec chang minh he thirc (1) kha de dang va xin nhuong cho ban dQC. Dum day thong qua mot s6 bai toan, cluing t6i mu6n chi ra rang sii dung he thirc (1) co the giiii duoc mot s6 bai toan hlnh hoc kha ngan gon.

Bai toan 1. Cho tam giac ABC co AM la trung tuyen. M(Jt duang thdng d edt cann AB, AC va AM Ian luat tal E, F va I. Chung minh

~

rang

AB AC _2AM AE+AF- AI'

LUi gidi. (hlnh 1) A

Do SABC =

= 2SABM

= 2S ACM nen sii dung he thac (1) co

2AE.AF = 2SAEF

AB.AC SABC

Hinh 1

90

NGUYEN Due TRUONG (GV THCS Da Ton - Gia Lam. Ha Noi)

2SAE1 2SAlF AE.AI AF.AI

= + = + .

2SABM 2SACM AB.AM AC.AM

T' d' AI.AC AI.AB 2 S d

u 0 AM.AF + AM.AE = . uy ra pem.

Bal toan 2. Cho goc xOy nhon va dilm M

ndm trong goc do. Duong thdng d di qua M edt Ox, Oy Ian luat tai A, B. Aile dinn vi tri duang thdng d dl dien tich tam gidc OAB dat gia tri nho nhdt.

Lot gidi. Qua M ke ME II Oy va cat Ox tai E, ke MF II Ox va eftt Oy tai F thl E, F c6 dinh (h.2). Theo he tlnrc (1) va sii dung Mt dang thirc

4xy ::;; (x + y)2 co

SOEF OE OF SOAB = OA' OB

::;;! (OE + OF)2

4' OA OB

= ! (BM + AM)2 = 1

4 AB AB 4

=> SOAB ~ 4.S0EF, rna SOEF khong d6i nen . OE OF SOAB nho nhat bang 4S0EF khi OA = OB

hay dll EF.

F

B Y

Hinh 2

Bal toan 3. Tren ha canh AB, BC, CA cua tam giac ABC Ian luat My M, N, P sao cho

AM _ BN _ CP -k

MB - NC - PA - .

Tim k de SMNP = ~SABC' LUi gidi. (hlnh 3)

Ttr gia thiet c6

A

AM BN

-=-

AB BC

CP k

=-=--

CA k+l

,MB NC

va AB = BC

PA

=-=--

AC k + I'

Tir he thirc (1) c6

SAM P _ AM AP _ k

S ABC - AB' AC - (k + 1)2 .

Ht'nh 3

Tirong nr ta c6 SBMN = k ;.

. SABC (k + 1)2

SCNP _ k . Tir d6 c6 SMNP

SABC (k+I)2 SABC

_ SABC - SAMP - SBMN - SCNP

- SABC

=1-3 k .

(k + 1)2

De c6 SMNP = ~ thl 1 - 3k 2 = ~

SABC 8 (k+l) 8

<=:> (k + 1)2 = 8k <=:> k2 - 6k + 1 = O.

Bai toan c6 hai nghiem kl = 3 + 2.J2 va k2 = 3 - 2.J2.

Bai toan 4. Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD.

Tren cac canli BC, CD Ian luat My cac dilm M,

N sao cho BM = CN = k. Goi P, Q theo thu

CM 2.DN .

tu la giao diem cua AM, AN vai BD.

a) So sanh dien tich cua PMNQ va APQ

h) Tinh dien tich tam guu: AMN thea k thea dien tich cua ABCD.

LUi gidi. (h.4)

a) Ap dung he thirc (1) c6 SAMN AM.AN

SAPQ = AP.AQ

= AP+PM AQ+QN =(1+ PM)(I+ QN) (2)

AP . AQ AP AQ

Theo gia thiet c6

BC BM+CM

M

c

c

=--=---

BM BM

= 1 + _!_ = k + 1 (3)

k k

DC DN+CN

DN= DN A

o

= 1 + 2k

Hinh 4

(4)

Theo dinh If Thales va (3), (4) thi PM BM BM k ,

-=-=-=--va

AP AD BC k+l

QN DN DN 1

AQ = AB = DC = 2k + 1 .

Thay vao (2) diroc

~:~; = ( 1 + k ~ 1 ) ( 1 + 2/+ 1 )

= 2k + 1 2(k + I) = 2

k + 1 . 2k + 1 '

suy ra SPMNQ = SAPQ'

b) Chu y rang SABCD = 2SABC = = 2SADC = 2SCBD'

Ap dung he thirc (1) va (3) c6

S ABM BABM BM k

S ABC = BABC = BC = k + 1

SADN DADN DN 1 SADC = DADC = DC = 2k+l'

Ta c6 CB = 1 + k DC 2k + 1

CM 'CN=~

91

Tir d6 va tu he thirc (1) e6 SAMN _

SABCD -

SABCD -SABM -SADN -SCMN

- SABCD

= 1- SABM _ SADN _ SCMN

2S ABC 2S ADC 2SCBD

1 (k 1 2k)

= 1 - 2" k + 1 + 2k + 1 + (k + 1)(2k + 1)

2k2 + 2k + 1

= __ ----

2(k + 1)(2k + 1) .

Su dung h¢ thirc (1) se thuan I¢ khi giai mot s6 bai tap sau.

Bili 1. Cho hlnh blnh hanh ABCD. GQi E, F, G, K Ian hrot la trung diem cac canh AB, BC, CD, DA. Tinh dien tfch da giac la phan chung cua cac tu giac AGCF, BGDK, CEAK, DEBF theo dien nch cua hinh binh hanh.

Ba] 2. Tren cac canh AB, BC cua tam giac ABC Ian hrot l~y cac diem E, F (khac cac dinh), GQi D Ia giao diem cua AF va CEo Chung minh

rang SBEF = SDEF .

SABC SDAC

Bai 3. Tren canh AB, BC, CD, DA cua tu giae ABCD Ian hrot I~y cac dit~m P, Q, R, S sao

AP BQ CR DS .

eho PB = QC = RD = SA = k. Xac dinh k sao

5

eho SPQRS = 9SABCD.

Bai 4. Cho g6e xOy va diem M nam trong do, mot dirong thang d qua M e~t Ox, Oy theo

thu nr tai A B. Chung minh rang SOMA .SOMB

.. , SOAB

e6 gia tri khong phu thuoc vao each chon duong thang d.

REN LUY$N NANG Ll/C ttr DUY THONG QUA VI$C KHAI THAC cAc BA.I TOAN

Viec tim ra 1m giai mot bai toan nhieu khi khong phai la qua kh6, nhung thuc ra sau mOi bai toan e6 biet bao dieu If thii. Neu nguoi thay khong bier khoi day 6 hQC sinh 6e to mo, sl,l tim toi kham pha nhfrng gl an sau mOi bai toan rna chi giai xong bai toan Ia ket thuc thl viec day hoc tr6 nen nhat nheo, Dieu quan trong Ia neu sau mOi bai toan tim duoc mot chuoi bai toan lien quan tu de den kh6 thi e6 the ren luyen nang luc nr duy sang tao eho hoc sinh, dong thai kien thirc se duoc me rong han, he th6ng han. Sau day la mot s6 thf du minh hoa,

Bai toan 1. (bai toan goc). Cho gac xOy va mot diim I codinh tren tia phdn giac Ot. Duong

92

HoANG NGQC CANH (GV THPT Nang khieu HiJ TTnh)

thdng d thay d6i luon di qua diim I, edt cdc tia Ox, Oy tan luat tai M, N. Chung minh rang gia

• ? b·,:t h' 1 1 I'h. '

tri cua leu t uc OM + ON a ang so.

Loi gidi.

Dung hinh

thoi ODIE voi D, E thuoc Ox, Oy nrong img (h.1). Luc d6 cac diem D, E e6 dinh va OD = a O~~-~---~~ khong doL

Hinh J

Tac6

_!!__ .E: = IE + ID = IN + IM_ = 1

OM + ON OM ON MN MN

1 1 1

~-+-=- (dpcm).

OM ON a

Ta c6 the khai quat hoa bai toan khi xet diem I nam trong g6c xOy.

Bai toan 2. Cho go(' xOy va mot die'm I cff dinh. tuim trong goc do. DUCmg thang d thay d6i luon di qua die'm I, edt cdc tia Ox, Oy Ian luat tai M, N. Lay die'm D, E tren cdc tia Ox, Oy sao cho IDII Oy va IEII Ox. Dqt Ol) = a, OE = h.

, a h 1

Chung minh rang OM + ON = .

Chu Y rang

D, E c6 dinh nen a, h khong d6i (h.2). ChlhJg minh nrong t1! bai toan 1.1.

Tiep tuc cho diem I chuyen tit 0 mien trong g6c xOy ra mien ngoai g6c d6 ta c6 bai toan sau.

Hinh 2

Bai toan 3. Cho hai duang thang x'x va y'y cdt nhau tai dilm O. M (Jt die'm I co' dinli ndm ngoai cdc goc xOy, x'Oy'. DUCmg thang d thay d6i luon di qua die'm I, ('dt cdc tia Ox, Oy ldn luat tai M, N. Lay cdc dilm D, E tren cdc duang thang x'x, y'y sao cho ID II y'y va IE II x'x. Dqt

, a h

Ol) = a, OE = h. Chung minh rang OM - ON

luon la hang so:

Chung minh nrong tv cac bai toan tren, chii y rang (h.3) neu diem I nam trong g6c x'Oy thi

_!!__ - _!!_ = -1 con neu diem I nam trong

OM ON '

, '0 th' a h - 1

goc Y X 1 OM - ON - .

Mot each bien d6i bai toan la xet rnenh de dao cua cac bai toan 2 va 3. De lam giam mire d¢ phirc tap cua gia thiet c6 the chuyen viec xet bieu thirc chua hai tham s6 a, h ve bieu thirc

chua mot tham s6 k =!!_ nhu sau.

. a

Hinh3

Ba! toan 4. Cho hai duang thang x'x va y'y elit nhau tai dilm O. DUCmg thdng d thay d6i cdt cdc tia Ox, Oy ldn luot tai M, N. Nell t6n tai

, 1 k 'h' oh' '0'

so k sao cho -- + - luon ang m tang s

. OM ON .

khdc 0 thi duang thdng d luon di qua m(Jt die'm cddinh.

1 k 1

LUi gidi. Gia sii OM + ON =~.

a) Xet tnrong hop k > 0, hie d6 a > O. Dung diem D tren tia Ox sao cho Ol) = a thl Ol) < OM (h.2). K6 DI II Oy va cat doan thang MN tai I. UlY diem E tren tia Oy sao cho OE = ID thl ODIE la hlnh blnh hanh. Chung minh nrong tv

aD OE

cac bai toan 1, 2 ta c6 OM + ON = 1 ~

93

1 0 E 1 T' d' , ., h' ~

OM + OD.ON = OD' It 0 va gia t ier suy ra

OE

OD = k => OE = k.OD = k.a > O. V~y D, E

deu la diem c6 dinh nen I la diem c6 dinh nam trong goc xOy.

b) Vci tnrong hop k < O. CAn xet a> 0 hoac a < O. Chung minh danh cho ban doc.

c) V m k = 0 thl M lA diem c6 dinh can tim.

D~t AG = m, BE = p, CR = n. Theo bai toan 2,3 ta co

1 1 1 1 1 1

AM + AN = m ' CN + CP =-;;'

---=-

BM BP P

Cong cac h¢ thtrc nay theo timg v~ r6i bien d6i ta co dieu phai chimg minh.

D~t biet hoa bai toan 5 ta co bai toan 6.

Chii " khi 1 k 0 thl ON k

u y rang 1 OM + ON = 1 OM = - Bal toan 6. VOl gid thief cua bai toan 5,

nen cac dirong thang d song song vm nhau. trong tam gidc ABC diu, canb bdng a, chung

Ta lai co the thay d6i gia thiet bang each xet mot diem c6 dinh nam trong ba goc trong cua mot tam giac,

Bai to an 5. Cho tam giac ABC vai I fa tam duang tron noi tiep, Duong thdng d thay d6i luon di qua diem I, edt cdc canhAll, AC va tia CB ldn 11I{Jt tai M, N va P. Chung minh rang gia tri hie'u thuc sau la khong d6i.

AB AC BC

AM.BM + AN.CN - BP.CP

LUi gidi. Dung cac hlnh thoi AGIK,BEIF,

-

CRIS (h.4). Do BMP = FMI > MBI = IBE =

-

BIF > F1M = BPM => BP > BM.

A

p

c

Hinh4

94

minh rdng

1 1

a) AM.BM + AN.CN

9

1

--=

BP.CP a2

1 1 1 18

h) --+--+-=-

1M2 IN2 Ip2 a2 .

Tiep tuc phat trien cac bai toan tren ta co

Bai toan 7. Cho hinh hinh hanh ABCD.

Duong thdng d thay d6i, edt cdc doan thdng AB, AD, AC ldn 11I{Jt tai cdc die'm M, N, P. ChUng

. ~ AB AD AC

minh rang,' AM + AN = AP'

BAi nay danh cho ban doc tl,l giai, Moi cac ban tiep tuc khai thac them cac bai toan moi.

vi MQT RAI TOA.N Cl!C TR! HiNH HQC

Cue tri hinh hoc Ia mot de tai luon hap dan nhimg ngtrei yeu toan.

Bai viet nay nham trao d6i cung ban doc xung quanh mot bai toan dan gian ve cue tri hlnh hoc, giiip ta gild mot s6 bai toan khac kha hay,

Bai toan g6c Cho duang tron

tam 0 han kinh R, day cung BC (khdc duang kinh) va A La die'm chuyen d¢ng

-----

tren cung lan BC.

)(de dinh. vi tri eua die'm A de' dien tich tam giac ABC Ion nhdt .

x

p

Hinh 1

Bai toan co nhieu each giai, Sau day la mot each giai dien hlnh, GQi P la diem ehinh giira

-----

ella eung 1611 BC (h. I ). Ve tiep tuyen xy ella

dirong tron (0) tai P.

-----

Suy ra moi diem A thuoc cung 1611 BC deu

nam giffa hai dirong thang song song xy va BC ; nen A khac P thl khoang each til A den BC nho

han khoang each til P den BC, do do S ABC < SPBC (sir dung kf hieu dien tfch tam giac ABC la S ABC) suy ra S ABC dat gia tri 1611 nhat khi va chi khi A trung voi P.

Trong bai viet nay ta xet day CUDg BC khac dirong kinh cua dirong tron,

----- -----

Neu thay cung 1611 BC bOi cung nho BC thl

xet nrong nr, Neu A chay tren ca dirong tron thi phai so sanh hai gia tri tim diroc.

Til bai toan g6c co the khai thac de dan deD cac bai toan moi.

Bai toan 1. Trong tat cd cac tam guu: ABC co d¢ dai canh BC va goc BAC khong d6i, tim tam gidc co duong cao AD 16'n nhat.

NGUYEN Due TAN (TP. H6 Chi Minh)

Til bai toan g6c DeU I~y hai diem E, F e6 dinh tren duang thAng BC thl S AEF 1611 nhat khi va chi khi A trung vai P.

Ta co bai toan 2.

Bai toan 2. Cho BC La day eung e{/ dinh. eua duang tron (0) .. E va F La hai die'm co' dinh. thuoc duang thdng BC, A fa die'm chuyen d¢ng

y

-----

tren cung L6'n BC. )(dc dinh vi tri eua die'm A de'

dien tieh tam giac AEF dat gid tri L6'n nhdt.

Ta lai biet khi A chuyen dong tren CUDg

-----

1611 BC thl tam I cua dirong tron n¢i tiep

tam giac ABC chuyen dong tren CUDg chua goc

-

900 BAC d ' ,

a = + -2- ung tren doan BC, Dam cung

phia voi diem A d6i vci dirong thang BC.

Do do S JBC dat gia tri 1611 nhat <=> I == I' <=> A == Pil' la diem chinh gitta ella cung chua g6c a) Ta co bai toan 3 sau.

Bai toan 3. Cho BC La day eung c6' dinh. cua duang tron (0). A fa die'm chuye'n dong tren

-----

cung L6'n BC, I fa tam duang tron n¢i tiip tam

gidc ABC. )(de dinh vi tri eua die'm A de' dien tich tam giac IBC dat gid tri L6'n nhdt.

Va DeU chu y rang khi A chuyen dong tren

-----

cung 1611 BC thi tnrc tam H thuoc CUDg chua

goc 13 = 1800 - JiAC dung tren doan BC, nam cung phia vai diem A d6i vci duong thang BC.

Do do SHBC dat gia tri 1611 nhat <=> H == H' <=> A == P. (H la diem chfnh giiia ciia cung chua goc 13). Ta co bai toan 4 sau.

Bai toan 4. Cho BC fa day cung cddinh cua duang tron (0), A fa die'm ehuye'n dong tren

,..-...

eung L6'n BC. G(Ji H La true tam eua tam gidc

ABC. )(de dinh vi tri eua die'm A de' dien tich tam giae HBC dat gia tri Ian nhdt,

95

Neu goi K la trung diem cua BC thl de dang chirng minh diroc AH = 20K (khong d6i), AD la duong eao cua tam giac ABC thi AD Ian nhat <=> HD Ian nhat, Ta lai co bai toan moi.

Bai toan 5. Cho BC la day eung cddinh' eua duang fran (0), A la die'm chuye'n dong tren

------.

cung Ian BC. G9i H la true tam va AD la duang

cao eua tam giac nhon ABC. Xt1e dinh vi tri eua diem A de'do{ln thting HD c6 dt) dai Ian nhdt.

Goi AD, BE, CG la cac dirong eao cua tam giac ABC voi H la tnrc tam.

Tir tam giac AEG dong dang voi tam giac ABC, suy ra GE = BC eosA, hoac tir R.GE = R. AH sinA = 20M.R sinA = OM.a, trong do M la trung diem cua BC, ta chirng minh diroc

SABC = ~ (DE + EG + GD), suy ra ehu vi tam giac DEG Ian nhat <=> SABC Ian nhat <=> A == P. Ta den voi bai toan sau.

Bai toan 6. Clio BC la day cung codinh cua duang fran (0), A la diem chuye'n dong tren cung ion BC. G9i AD, BE, CG la cdc duang cao Clia tam gidc ABC. Xt1c dinh vi tri clja diem A de' tam giac DEG c6 chu vi Ion nhdt.

Bai toan sau day (bai 4, thi hoc sinh gioi toan qu6e gia lap 9, 1995 - 1996) co tM dira ve bai 2 a tren,

Bai toan 7. Cho duang tron tam C ndm trong gal' xOy rna duang tron (C) khong co

die'm chung vai cdc canh eua goc xOy. Hay tim tren duang fran (C) mot diem M sao cho t6ng Cal' khodng each til M den hai duang thdng chua cal' canli czla goc xOy la nho nhdt.

H uong dcin gidi.

Goi Oz la tia phan giac cua goc xOy va PQ la dirong kfnh cua dirong tron (C) rna PQ II Oz. Gia si'r P 6 gao diem o han (h.2). re Q ke dtrong thang AB ..l PQ, cat Ox, Oy theo tlnr tu tai A, B. G<;>i MD, ME, MF nrong img Ia cac doan thang vuong goc vci AB, OA, OB. Chu y rang AB va OA = OB

khong d6i, SOAB khong d6i. Tir SOAB = SMOA + SMOB + SMAB suy ra ME + MF nho nhat khi va chi khi MD Ian nhat, dieu nay xay ra khi M trung voi diem P.

Trong bai toan nay cling co tM tim diem M de ME + MF Ian nhat,

E

A

Hinh 2

"Gia cong" bai toan g6e, ta co bai toan hay sau.

Bai toan 8. Trong tdt cd cdc fll giac noi filp trong duang tron tam 0 han kinh R tim tir giac co dien tich IOn nhdt.

"H<;> hang" voi bai toan g6c la bai toan sau. Bai toan 9. Cho duang fran (0), day cung BC va A ia diem chuyen dong tren cung Ian (cung nho) BC. Xt1e dinh vi tri cua die'm A de' chu vi tam gidc ABC IOn nhdt,

Cac ban hay tim nhieu Uri giai cho bai toan 9 va tim cac bai toan rna khi sir dung ket qua bai toan 9 co the cho Uri giai dep.

" ",?, A , " ,

PHAT TRIEN Ttl MQT BAI TOAN HINH HQC

Trong bai bao nay chung toi mu6n gioi thieu vci cac ban mot s6 ket qua khai thac tir mot bai toan giup ban doc hieu duoc ro qua trinh tao lap bai toan moi tir bai toan ban dau, tim diroc

96

LEDUYNINH (Nguyen GV truang DHSP na N9i 2)

nguon g6e cua bai toan va bircc d~u lam quen vOi tap dirot sang tao toan hoc. Tnroc het ta hay xet mot ket qua het sue quen thuoc.

Bai toan 1. Cho tam giac ABC va die'm I trong tam giiic d6. Cdc duang thdng AI, BI, CI ctit cdc canh BC, CA, AB Ian lU91 tai A', B', C. Chung minh rdng

lA' IB' IC'

AA' + BB' + CC' = I (I)

Lili gidi. G<;>i S), S2' S3' S Hi dien tich cac tam giac IBC, ICA, lAB va ABC theo thu nr. Khi do ta co cac he thirc ve ti s6 dien tfch

lA' h) S) IB' S2 IC' S3

AA' =h =5 ; BB' =5; cC' =5' V~y

II

lA' IB' IC' S + S + S

_+_+_ =) 2 3 = 1 (dpcrn).

AA' BB' CC' S

A

T' (1) ,IA IB IC

u co AA' + BB' + CC'

(lA' IB' IC')

= 3 - AA' + BB' + CC' = 2.

IA IB IC

Vay AA' + BB' + CC' = 2 (2)

A. v an dung cac he thirc ve ti s6 dien tich va cac bat d~ng thuc Cauchy, Bunyakovski de chimg rninh diroc Ian hrot cac ket qua sau :

AA' BB' CC'

lA' + IB' + IC ' ~ 9 (3)

IA IB IC

lA' + IB' + IC' ~6

lA' IB' IC' 3 -+-+-~IA IB IC 2

IA IB IC

re (4) va (5) rut ra lA" IB" Ie' khong

cung 1611 hon 2 ; khong cung nho hon 2 AA' BB' CC' 9 -+-+-~-

IA IB IC 2

IA !.!!__ IC > 8

lA' . IB' . IC' -

AA' BB' CC'

lA' . IB' . IC ' ~ 27

7.TUY~N CHQN .. TH&TT (QUY~N 3)-A

AA' BB' CC' 27 --->IA . IB . IC - 8

(10)

Ngoai cac BOT tir (1) den (10) cluing ta con co cac ket qua sau voi n la s6 nguyen duong.

JIA + JIB + ,lIe ~ 3ifi (11)

~IA' ~Jjf ~IC'

~B' ~C' ~

+11_+11_ >311-

IB IC - 2

~B' ~C'

+fl_' +fl_ ~3ifj

IB' IC'

(12)

(13)

(14)

2~ IA + 2~ IB + 2~ IC :s; 2tif6 (15)

AA' BB' CC'

Dau d~ng thirc xay ra trong moi BOT tren khi va chi khi I la trong tam MBC. Xin hu6ng dan chimg rninh mot s6 BOT.

• Ap dung BOT Cauchy va BOT (8) ta co BOT (11) khi n = 2 :

3 IA IB IC 3~ t:

~3- IA"IB"IC' ~3\1,,8 =3,,2.

• Tir (1) va BOT (10) ta co BOT (12) khi n = 2. W+{Bif+/cC

~/A ~ffi ~lC

(4)

(AA ')(BB')(CC') (3

~ 3.3 IA IB IC ~ 3~2'

• Ap dung BOT Bunyakovski va (1) ta diroc BOT (14) khi n = 1.

(5)

(6) (7)

tn: rffi' {IC 1. fAX' + I.~ Bif + I.fcC'

(lA' IB' IC')

:s; (12 + 12 + 12) AA ' + BB' + CC ' =.J3

Moi cac ban chimg rninh tiep cac BOT conl~i.

B. Ta co the rna rong cac bai toan neu tren sang khong gian bang phirong phap nrong nr.

(8)

(9)

97

Bai toan trong khong gian duoc chirng minh nho ap dung he thirc 11 s6 the tich gi6ng nhir viec ap dung he thirc ti s6 dien tfch trong hlnh hoc phang. Cach lam nay g6p phan ren luyen ki nang chuyen hoa cac tinh chat hinh hQC gitta mat phang va khong gian, til d6 thay duoc m6i lien he khang khit gitta hai loai bai tap hlnh hoc nay.

Bai toan 2. Cho til dien ABCD va diem I ndm trong til dien do. Cdc duang thdng AI, BI, CI, DI e{it cdc mat dOl dien ldn luat tai A', B', C', D'. Chung minh rang

lA' IB' IC' ID'

1 (1 ')

AA' + BB' + CC' + DD' =

Loi gidi.

lA' hI V/BCD

AA' = hA = VABCD '

IB V1ACD

-=~=:....

BB' VABCD

IC' _ V1ABD . ID' _ V1ABC CC' - VABCD ' DD' - VABCD .

lA' IB' IC' ID'

Dod6 AA' + BB' + CC' + DD' =

_ V/BCD + V1ACD + V1ABD + V1ABC = 1 VABCD

A

B

C

Tuong tv nhir b phan I, chiing ta c6 cac ke't qua sau v6i n la s6 nguyen dtrong :

IA IB IC ID 3 (2')

AA' + BB' + CC' + DD' =

98

AA' BB' CC' DD'

lA' . IB' . IC' . ID ' ~ 256

AA' BB' CC' DD' 256

------>-

IA . IB . IC . ID - 81

)IA + JIB + nflC + n{lii > 4'i3 V fA' V lif V lC' V ill' -

(9')

(10')

(11 ')

,,(M' JiiB' "fcC' JDiY .J4 VIA + ~m + ~1C + ~ID ~ 4~3

#FB' ~C' ~D'

+n_ +n __ +n __ ~4~

IB' IC' ID'

12')

(13')

2{-f;A' 2~B' 2~C' 2J{f;D' 2~4211-1 (14')

fI_+ fI_+ "_+ fI_~

AA' BB' CC' DD'

2~ IA +2f1rm +2~ IC +~ ID ~2~3.4211-1 (15')

AA' Vliif CC' DD'

Xin moi cac ban tv chimg minh cac bat dAng thirc (1 ') - (l5'). Rat mong cac ban tim diroc cac ket qua nrong tv gitra hinh hoc phang va hinh hQC khong gian til cac bai toan khac,

L TS : Toa soan nhan duoc mot s6 ke't qua nrong tv, cung noi dung v6i bai bao nay cua ban Nguyen Htru Hau, K38D, khoa Toan, DH Vinh. Mong nhan duoc cac bai bao khac cua ban.

e~~2 __

NHIN BAI ToAN --------TUNHIEU HUaNG

A', ? ? A '''' ?

VE un GIAI eVA MQT BAI TOAN eo BAN

Trong cac ki thi tuyen sinh vao dai hoc, ta thirong gap cac bai toan xet phirong trinh bac hai co it nhat mot nghiem trong mot khoang hoac mot doan, chang han :

XQc dinh a de' phuang trinh

(a + l)x2 - (8a + l)x + 6a = 0

co dung mot nghiem thuoc khodng (0; 1).

(De 18 cau II. B¢ de tuyen sinh vao Dai hoc)

Loi giai bai nay trong cu6n HIICmg ddn gidi de' thi tuye'n sinh vao Dai h9C qua van tAt nen hoc sinh khong ro mu6n giai tron ven thl phai xet nhirng tnrong hop nao voi dieu kien gl.

LOi giai tlur hai cua bai nay trong cu6n Gidi de' thi tuye'n sinh dai h9C - chuyen de' Dai sc; (NXB Tp. H6 Chi Minh) viet:

Phuong trinh

I(x) = (a + l)x2 - (8a + l)x + 6a = 0

co dung mot nghiem thuoc khoang (0 ; 1) <=>

TRAN n:J"QUANG (GV THPT Huynh Thuc Khang, Vinh, Ngh¢ An)

{a + 1 = 0

-(8a + l)x + 6a = 0

la + 1:;t: 0

t1 = 0

8a + 1

x = 2(a + 1) E (0 ; 1)

{a + 1:;t: 0 f(O).f(1) < O.

co mot nghiem thuoc (0 ; 1)

ea hai 1m giai tren deu dan toi dap s6 dung la : moi a ~ 0, tuy nhien viec ghi dieu kien can va du aIm giai thir hai la chua chuan xac,

Ve van de nay, khi xet tnrong hop tam thirc bac hai f(x) co hai nghiem, mot s6 sach co neu

dink li :

Dieu kien de tam thirc bac hai I(x) co hai nghiem, trong do co mot nghiem nam trong (a; /3). con nghiem kia nam ngoai, laj( a)ftjJ) < O.

99

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