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Istoriya_proishojdeniya_ingushey

Istoriya_proishojdeniya_ingushey

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Published by: Berd Aziev on Nov 13, 2010
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07/30/2013

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J'OPHblX PY<.J:t,es, TeqeT B BepXOBhSX 6YPHO no TPYCOBCROMY YlI.i\eJIblO. p;aJIblUe -. ~Iepe3 fIepep;oBoi1: x peoeT" nO'fOM BphlBaeTCHS ,ll.a.PbJ;[Jlh~ cieoe yUJ;8JI1be H, :a:aKoaeU;.&I:.IXOP;Hf na nJlJOCKOCTib. no aanpSBJIeHHl!O K paanaae r'. Op.ll;mOHHlmp;ae (MEr., Buru Bypy) H p;aJlee Te'!e'!' He cesep, a rIOTOM. cnmWHHO CBOpa"Ul1Ba.R aa ,BOCTOK. BoaAaeT B KacllHij;. cxoe Mope, Tepex OMhIBaeT aarraztusre rpaHHu,lII HHrymeTHH O'lI' p;a.pt.,Hna )];0 If'. Opp;mOH1U{,H,p:3e H H3 581 KM sera oG:w;eJi AJIl1:Hhi OKOJIO ,26 Y2 KM npnxonarea HS p;OJUO I1HryrneTMII,.

IIol'.I't'HBce OCTa)fbHhl~peKH FbrrymeTHH Bna.rr.aroT B 'Petty 'I'epex, BXO,JJ;.H B q,aCTh ero 6aeceMHa. B ,1lapbRJIe, co CTOPOHhl IIHrymeTMH, CI!IP3IB3., C BocT~Ka, B Hero BIIa.a:aeT 6ypH3lSi ropaaa pe~Ka KHC1'WHKa, Ha3BaHHe HOEm B I"PY31IH:CKOM $!·3bIR€ OTOJK,lI;eCTBJI€HO C Hft3BaHHeM H:Hryrnen - «K'HCThl, KHCTUHbI»,

3aT.eM y 'CeJIeHH,a ¢IYPToyr au B6iHpaeT pexy )J.mepaxa - APMXM (Arm x i); TIIOTO:M, a:3 II)lOCKOCTn~ peI"Y K.aM6HJJeeBKY Ii lIlOJIHOiBO,lJ;HY:ro peKy CYHmy (Solz) e npHTOKOM .~ Accofi (Esa) (67 KMh a noeneaHK.H C npHTOKOM A3l>IlI@ti:, a raKme AP. 4,I1;aJIee Tepex npHHI1MaeT B ce6a peRH co CTOPOHbl TeppH:ToPHH ttetJ:HJL

BCJIe~CTBHe Taro, "ITO B M8.TepHaJlaX .. I'eorpa(prtM rpY3HM1> BaXYlll'TH QTC~TCTBYIOT .a;.8.UHbl€ 0 caMoK qe'lfHe, FIPJfXO,ll;HTCf[ orpasra'U[TbC.fI aTOIi KpaTKOK HHqlopMan;Men Or'H)J;porpa<inUJ: nUllIb O,lJ;HOll HH:ryweTMH.

Y BaxymTH 0 pexe 'I'eperc rOBopH'l'CJl1 CJIe.l'lyIO~ee.z «Pexa me XeBH r" aaasrsaerca AparBOH 6 .AO l:Ieplte3H 7, a '["aM. HCCTapH me ee [Ha3'bIBIllIO'r] pexero HOMeltH 8. a Teuep.b H83hIBaIOT TepI'H (Tspetc, - M. B,). OHa BhI'I'eRaeT !l!3 Cepep;ll:HlS>I KYPTaYJIH 'I, 3aKH H Marpaa,l1;BaJ.leTHH 10, C [lOCTOQHOH CTOPOHhl KaBKsaa. HTe'tfeT K 1BOCTOKY .AO illTaCaBaJIU il ... » Haace illT3CaBaIJHIi Apar-aa ~:e.:rraeT nOBopOT " TelleT K eeaepy ,lI;O KHCTHC-IJ,R8!Jl!U 12 H H.n;eT OqeHb 6hICTpO, •• M ylttl;eJlbeSTO 13 oRp;y:meaoKasE\:aaOM 101" •• » (C. 75, 76).

. c . :Ms. np1-[Be,!:(eHHOI'O SIBCTByeT, 'lTO Tepex HMeeT y Baxynrrn j[lfl)ll pa3JIHQHhIXHMeH: ,«XeBH>;> (ropHblH pyqeR), a aaTeM tlo qepE,:<eCHH (liTO .COOTBeTcTBye'F Tepp.HTopUM OT CK8JIHCTOro xpe6Ta zro ITJlOCKOera) Olt llMeHYe'I'C1t $AparaOH» (STO He CJle.n;yeT CMeIDluaTb C 3aK8SKa3CI{llMll! Aparsasra): ,IilaJ1ee, T. e. B paHOHe "tJepKeCNH, DB JU3hlSaJIca «JIOMeKH». lIIpUqeM JIO)'ij"tepJUISaeTCH; <,ITO A8HHoe HME CTapHHnoe (lH,C<:,TapHi», e a Tenepb (El XVIII n.) OHO 3a"MeHeHo TepeKoM'>.

B 3TOH IU1TaT~ Cn:€,IllY€T 'o6pa"FUTE:. BHliIMa,HIieltli. TepMHH (IJIoMeRFU, ROTOPhlM B8XYIDT~ H83hlBae'l!' Tepex aa TOM HM.eHHO npocrpaaCT'Be. aa KOTOPOM OR TeqeT B ropax B)J;OJrb HlhHl:eWHeif. MHrymenfM: (y BaXYWTH -.« QepiKe3H »), Iloaararo ,. '!'Fo:no HaaB8HM€, acrpesraeMoe B,u;peSHerpyaHHcKHX HCTOqHHK/iX. BOSHlHOW Y HHX OT HHI'yrn· CKoI'O CJIO!B8 «JI08M» (loam) - ropa , "l£TO snonae cocraercraver pensecpy MeCTHOCTH O"JJ' ,lJ;apbHJl8.l{O ,lJ;me!p3xa II>.

TaKHM ofipaaorc, lIS B'buueCKasa.HlHoro 0 peree TepeK€ Ml,IIlMeeoo 'tleThlpe ,n;peBHerpY3HHCKHX mt3BRHHR ee: Xean, Aparaa, JIo.M:eltH H

14

Teprn; Tflltjil,eBbI,HBJIJ'!eTca cnaas ee uaSBaHHH C HHrYlllIcKHM Ha.HMeHoBRHHeM J'OPbl «)fOaM» (loam).

CJle,m.ylOW;af.I ropaaa PENK8" ynoMFlHaeM8H TaM me, ~ STO 'KHCTHC-D,KaJlJI. Ee H8SBmum B KOMMeHTapUHX He HY"',!l;a,eTC~, TaR RaK

STO, oe3YCJIOBHO, KHCTMHKa" .

Haaaarrae ·BllOJIHe Il:OOTBeTcTByeT TOMY me MeCTY, rae Tepea B 'l'€CHUH€ CRaJI ,rI;apE> . ana pa3Bu.BaeT 60JIhmyIO 6hIC-:r.pOTY· Baxynrra Y'KaaanSTO B:nOJlHe sepao.

n erne HeROTopoe ynOMJHIaHH€ 0 Teperce y BaxYWTll1: «B KOHIJ;e me XeB» H8XO,1l;HTCH JIa3YPH 16. HHme Toro, iB ,lI.JKapHeXH J7, B XesCYPCRYIO Aparay J8 npH'l'eKaeT KHcTo-.D;3YP.tlsYKcRall1ll pe'um ... >) (C. 143).

TYT BH,ll;HO, 'qTO Baxynrrn rosoptrn 0 Xe:BH .KalK 06 yw;e.m,e 11 pexe

O,ElHOBpeMeHHO. aTa M:H<popMaII"KlI, BflOJIHe COOTueTcTsyeT asraemHeH TonOIH'rMHKe )J;apb.aJIhCKO:rO yrnem-a, HlWeWm;ero B EOHU;e, Y,BbIxoae na eeaepe, een. nape (JIa3ypH).

,r(aJlIee BaXYlllTH i3aphHpYJeT IU/lH pexa Tepexa yme mlThlM repMl1JIOM - (lXe:aCKasr Aparaa». .

I10TOM vxaasrsaerca, qTO HHmeJIapca. B pai1:oHe ,IJ;mepax,a, !B peKY TepeR snanaer KMcTo-,l!;aYP,lJ;8YKC:KaH pexxa, xoropas DIIOJIa€: coOTBe':rCT:ByeT HhlHeWH:efi HHl'YWCKoiI pexe Apxxa, e.ll.HHCTB8HHO.H B ,n;aHHoM paitoae HHrymcKoM 0: rrpHTeK.arow;efi rIa ,AmepaXOBCKoro ym;eJII>H., C BOCTO}{a aa a am: a,n , B pexy Tepex,

,llaJIee Mbl Bax{!IAMM YTO'qHes:U'e O'l'HOCUTeJIhHO APMXU: IJA B KOHne XeBHt rzte Apar,Ba. HJlU JIOMeKH., 8hIXO,lllli! H8! P3!BHl'IHY, B STy Aparsy, noasnne cen, XeTaA3e 2Q, arranaer pel.J:Ka KHCTCKBlH FI, ,na.yp,1I;3YK-CRax:; ona Bhl'TelKaeT H3 cepe;tunrHoro Memp;y LJ(aYP,Il;3YKeTueii 1'1 IImaBo.XeBcypeTHeH: KaBKB!3a, KOTopa8 ecrs nOCO'l3,eJIH KasKaaa Zl, Te'tleT c sora }(, cesepy H HeCKOJlbK.O no aanpaaneaaro 0'1' ceaepa K 3arraJl:¥, !H AJlIHHOIO OHa 0'1' KaBKaaa .22, T€'J:e'l' l1,0 JIOMeKH 23; Ha3TOH p8'IKe a ymexse, ssmre .I1,mapneXH, HaXO,IJ.HTcst RnCTerH.l1·C ceneaaaMM, CTpoeHlIlflMH ••. j) (C. IS0-161). B <lTOH B.bI,n;epmK8 ;!l;as;.o Bl1OJJ:He 'l'O'llHOe IIO,lljTBepm,n;elEH!e lIEpaSHJIlblllOCTH BbfrnenpliBe.n;eHHhlx coofipa-

.meHMM a 6aCC8H:He ApMXU. ..

OTHOCYTenhHO peF;¥li KHcTHHKa 'll'aKme eCTh erne OABO ynoMHHaHHe: «HH:iKe aroro rBHJl€TH 24 B Apar-sy .iRe 25 BTIap;aeT ~BH> BhfTeRa:l!Om;aH C roro-socroxa U3 rY.D:OMRKapcKo-,D,aYPA3YKCKoro KaBKa- 3826 l'I H)J;ym:a5I KceBepo-sana,n;y. ,.» (C_ 76-77). 9'1'0 anoaae COOTB8TCTByeT. M!eCTOnOJIOmeHHIO. CJIeAOaaTeJI:&Ho. rrpeAlblAYlIJ;FlH ''t'epMHH d£nCTUC-U;,KaJllH i' FI AaHHhtlf (fXeBli» CJIYJKMT ,iljJUI 0603Ha;Q,eHHH O,!!l- ' H'oit lli Toil me pe<.£RH KRCTlIHKU, :snap;aroru;eM TaM aTepex.

,IlLa:rr€e AaIOTCR CB,eAeHHfl 0 perce CYHme',. HeCKOJlhKO aeacasre, f!0TOMY 'L[TO BaXYlTITH CqHTaeT ee OTo.m,!ll.eCTBHMOlR C peRGA: TynreTun. T. e., BHAHMO; COBce'M ae yqHThIBae'I'CH HeeoOTseTCTBH€ cHCTeMM BO,!lOpa3,!l;eJla. Hm[ OH cMeWHBaeT ee c pelwil! AprYH (9 qe'!He). D;liTH:PYro :nOJlHOCTblO onacaaae TymeTHH:

«0. Tywe,nm. A T'ymeTHA: HaXOAM'FCR: HaBOCTOKe OT Jlorra'm, Tapra H naHKMCR,. B ceaepasrx qaC'T.fIiX FOPlJ KaBRaaa, II COC:'FOHT aa

15

,n;ByX Yll\e.nui1:: l'l n:eiRI1T no HanpaBJIeIUUO OT cenepo-aarrazta KfOI'O-' nOCTORY, III IIO HeH 'reqeT ee me pexaa !I'I eoenaaaerca e peKOH COli a '2:;,

lWl'Op.an npoxoznrr 1.J:e'!.HiIO 2:8 Ii B Boparne 29 nnaaaer B 'I'eperc ,>

(C. 131). I~ aacroamea BbI,nepa\lCe HMee'FCH IIOHc.neHHe co C'l"OPOHbl IlBTOpa nepeaona M_ I'. ,lJ;maHarnBHJlH, B KOTOPOM OH npenrro.naraer, 'ITO 3Ta perea CORa K eCT!b HMe.HHO IlTo.neMeeB,a Coaaa. OH erovarc KOMM8HTwpyeT: «Bepoa-mo, 3Ta pexa 11 ec'l'J:, Tlroneereena Coana , 'reM 60JIee qTO noc.ne Coaasr y Toro nTOJH~MeH C.JIe.uyeT AJIoHTa .. ,,,1);)0

(C. 1311).. .

3.aHl{'l'epeCOI:!ftSmHCh rrpe,ilnOJIo:meH.lIeM nepeaonxaaa .l(jltftHam.

BJlJIU, 11: 'C IJ.eJlbIO YTOtmeHH.1l flCCJIe.llOBaJI ,.u;aHHbln BOIIpOC no MaTepHaJIaM caM oro Tlronereea 3:1 BKyne c ,n:pyrHMH: HCTOqHHRaMH l'I npawen K 3aKJHOQeHHIO, t.[TO II'1'o .. rreMeeBa perca Coaaa HHRaK He Mow:e-r COOTB'eTCTBos.aTb CYHme. Y IIToJI,eMeH FOBOPHTCSI npa OTIHCaHHH CapM3TiHH $2. "'l'fO<' ••• rpaaana A.JI6aHHH 33 AO I'apxaacxoro Mopa 34. rne Haxo.n;wrcH YCTb,e peRu COaHhI... Ha DOC TOKe YTIOMSlin:YTi:lfi JIH· HHJ:I I<,OHQaeTCH xacr'sro Fapxaaexoro MOpH. TaM, aa YCTf,eM pexa COaR.,I, CJ1e.llyeT YCTbe PSKH A.1IOH'f,a ••• as.,) .• CJIe.n;OBaTeJIhHO, ,STa pexa He Mom8T 5hITb CYH.lK8H, xoropaa caxa He snanae'r B KaCllRHCKoe Mope. (Cxopee, 3Ta Coana COOTse1'CTBY€T YCThilO CY.lIaKa, ClIeAO.M aa KOHM ceaepaee HaXO,!l;HTCH ycrse Tepexa).

::ITO erne $ICHee nO,ll;TBep*AaeTcg ,[(QJIee, IIpH OllHCRHHH n·rO.lIeMeeM AJrORHHW: «AJI6a:e:H"H rpaHl'ItlHT •.. na DOCTOKe qaCThlO Tapxaa. cxoro MOpH AO peRM Coaasr, Ha aTOM 5epery JJemB'!' 3Bl YCTI,eM pexn CORHM rophI»3:11. BHatH-IT. COMHeHU:H ne Mml{eT 6bITh" t.[TO Ifronexeeaa perca Coaaa HMeeT YCTbe B KacnRHCKOM Mope, a soace He B TapeKe. Cneztoaarem.ao, npe)1;nonO)KeRMe M. r. )J,'maUalIlBH.I111 06 OTOm,ileCTBJIerUH1 nax YlliTOBCK.OM. (i CORbI.!) C IT TO)JeMeeBOH «COSHOll'!} 0U1H60"!:IHO.

PeKOI-i TymeTHM, KOTOpaSl' snaaaer B percy CYH)Ra, e,n;HHCTSeR.ElO MOJtWT' 6bITb O,IHIiU H3 ,nByX ReTOKOS peRn AprYH. nporeaarcmax no J:'oprwH Tynrerna. 'qTO COHa Baxynrra HMeHHO COOTBeTCTseT H.MHemRe.a peice CYHme ,ll;OK83hlBatOT ero me MaTepHaJ1ibI. a IfMeHHO; 1) .mUlih ozraa CYH.ma nporexaer IIO HHI'ymeTMH H snaaaer B peKy 'I'epetc y nOCeneUM:H Bparyaer - e Bopar-aa»; 2) TO,_ 'lTO OEll HMeHy.eT ee (I Bopar-aac-rtxarra» :;17. ilOCJIe,n;Hee aaeaaaae .fICHO llo.n;'rsepm.n;aeTca MeCTOTIOJIOm8HHeM .llPYI'HX CMemHbIX reorparpn-recxax OD'beKTOB, xoropsre npHBO,[(1!TCH oc060 HHJI<e·.

o pexe Acce ynoMliHaeTCH rrpa OITflC8HJUl «fJIHI'BH »,38, HOee TepMIIHa OH. BH.n;HMO. Tome He 3HaeT, nOTOMY tlTO B TeKe're BM8C'I'O Hero HMeeTC.1l MHOI'OTmme. OH l'OBOPHT «Penxa CTpaHhl39 BhlTeKaeT H3 cepe,nHIUIorO Mejf{,(l;Y Ilnraanea H I' lIUl'BH KaDiKaaa H H.n;eT C 101'a K cesepy H snaztaer B •• _ pellfRy., IIOTOM HaJIHBaeTca: B Boparaacll,KaJIl'I» (C. 150-151).

Honararo, ::ITOH pelJKOll HBJIHeTC5E naasane MCTOK pexn Acca '10, KOTOPWI HMeHInO H,neT H3 rJUlEHOrO ItaBRaa,CKoro xpetira C lora aa CHBep, aa Xeacvperaa, a 3aTeM no :rOPHOH MHryrueTHIir,ll;O cen, IIyt1:, 0'1' rcoroporo npHH$ITO lrl13hIB8Tb :i)TY peRY Accojl, ,1laHHOrO Ha3BS-

16

lUiS! BSXYWTH, OqeBU.)!I;HO, He 3I-1iaJl, OCT8BRB ,n:JI.1l Hero Mec'ro HeaaUOJII'lCHHhIM. A nanee, BbIH,nSl aa nJEOCKOCTl:., perca Acca caopaxasaer aa IJOCTOK, BflaARSI B pexy CYHmy (HJIH, ITO Baxynrra, BoparHHC-IJ.K8JlH).

Haace erne pea 6y,n;eT YK8aaKO, 'tJTO Baxym'l'H CtlHT31JI percy Acca I' .11 .HJ'BllC-IJ,K8JI:H •

Ho ~.rrfl coxpaneuns nOCJl'e,ll;OaaTeJIbi-IOC'iI'H l13.lIOJKeli1'I:R: nepeHAY r~ M8TepHaJl8M 0 pexe A3bI~le~I. BOT ':ITO 0 HeH HMeeTCH y Baxyrnra: ~A I{ BOCTOKY 0'1' cero rJIHrBH (e I'azrane». - M. E.) HaXO,[(HTCiI ••. y (u,eJIbe. petlItS) KOTOPOro RCTeKaeT H3 opeztaxaoro Mf'!>KAY HUM H [[aHKMCU I{uBKa3a, iH.v;eT OT lOra R cesepy, cnanaerca c rJIHrBUCJ.l.KaJIH H nOTOM, CTeRaeT S BoparUHC-n;KaJIH C aanaaa ... !> (C. 150, 151), ,lJ;cacTBll1.',eJIl>HO, pexa A:n,Yll'etr resrer aa cesepo-aarran H Boa)J,ae'i' II pexy Accy (,*rJlH!'BHc-~KaJ!H:») crrpaaa, a rrOTOM B neR (HJlIM C Hen) snanaer .llCfiC'1'BH'l'e.Jll>HO BpeI<Y CYR:>KY (Boparrtac-mcana) c

urr~a_ .

Ha aTOM 06aop rH)l;pOI'paqmrqeCKHX Ma'I'epManO:B 113 cne.n;eHHM BaXYIllTH 38KOH'lJ!HM. CYMMHpya BbIDleCKa3UHHoe, Tenrepb MbI MMeeM HeItOTOpOe npeACTaBJIeHHe 0 ~peBHel'py3HHCKI1X Ha3BaHUH.x pex Harvnrerna B nepxon .ICO XVIII B. A 31'0 AJIH HC'I'OPHtl€CROH OPH'eUTHpOBKH B 3anyn1.HHbIX npOTHB.Ope1,ma:Mll C.se.n;eHHHX BaXYWTlI a t(pyrux .Il;omKHO 06JIerQHTb l'ICC.lIe,rn;oB8TeJ'I.HM KasKa3a HX pat6ioTY·

npHBOJKY erne paa ace rrOCJIe.n;OB3TeJIhHO:

1) perca 'I'epex HMeHyeTcR «XeH.:IH , e.Aparna» , (iJIoMeKH~. (,XeB-

cr~a:9 Apar-sa»; .

2) pexa KHcTHHKa - ·(,KnCTHC-UKaJIll» H «Xean»:

3) pexa APMXH - «KHcl'0-.llayp.n;3YKcKag peQKa.>;

4) pexa KaMOHJJeeBRa - (0 HeH Baxvnrra, :rUIJi:HMO, He aaan): 5)pClt3 CYHma - «Cona», «BoparHIfC-UKaJIH»;

6,) pexa Acea - <,r.iIl1rBliC-D;KaJIH&;

7) pexa A3blt.[e~1 - «pexxa BOCTO"iHee rmH'BH»;

8) pexa AprYH - «perca TYllIeTl1H».

2. 'TEPPIIlT'OPHAJIbHbIE E,lJ;HHHUbI HHrYillE:A: (IIEP'HClJEPHHHhIE):

rBHnETH, HAUBR, BAJITA (XET A,1J;3E), __

Hcropaxo-reorparpauecxae MaTepnaJIhI « reOI'pa<]>JiIlii rpY3Hl'I,) Baxynn-a 0 'l'eppU'l'optt:8Ji[bHlJX 8,1l;lIHHD;,tix }f rrOCeJI'eHHHX HHrymeil' npHXO,ll;HTClI HJlJIlOC1'pHpOBa'fb, oTcTynaH OT npHH:LJ;.HIIR IIOCJIe,n;o:aa~re.IIbliOCTR H3JlOmeH.HH, 'IJiTOOU coxpaaa'rs HCHOCTh caraoro eoaepn~aHlfa.

B 38.1lat.[y HaCTOHII(ero paaaana BXO,lllH:T 063;OP MaTepHa.rrOB 06 HRrymax, )Rt1BmrrXB 3aK8BKa3he, - raanernax Ii 6an;6H.1lX.

BOT tITO Y BaXYWTH lfMeeTCH 0 rBHJIe1'H C npHMbiKalOW;HM pailOHOM: «IIo.n; Apnia 41 C BOCTOKa npamexaer B Aparny (Tepex, - M. B.) AqXOpllO~XeBl'I. rAe RpelJOCTb rYAYlllaypcK8iI ••• 113 :nQT'O YlJJIeJIhR n:epeXO;:U1T nopora B ry,n;OM8Kap. Ha ceaep orerona CrerraaUMHHJJ;8, CeJIeHHe xopomee. Ha sanan 01' Hero. I'epre'rsr 42, ria .n:py-

2 3(H<a~ M 552

17

roM oepery Aparnst. .. Hnaee fepreTbI. K ceaepy, rrparexaer c aarra.o;a feJI8TJlC-XeSH: 4a, nCCTapM :ate TaK naasaaaas no mVleHH 8'1'01'0 CeJIeHIUJ: (I'erra'ra}, IliO HhlHe HaShlsaIOT ero fSHJI€TH .. ,.1> (C. 76, 77). ¥I3 llIpI,mep;eHHO[,O MamBO BH,D;eTI>, t:rTO yme K XVII] B. B fpY3HH, B ;:IDOXY camoro BaXY11lTH. cyw,eC'f'BOBaJIO .D;aSRIIllHee, «H.CC'l'apH>l TaR H8:SlBaHH.Oe, MHrymcKoe ceaenae fml.lle:FM, paenonoaeeaaoe TaM me rIO ceil: ,1I;€Hb, y pex Tepexa H YCTbR I'enarnc-xeaa,

C.neP;YKHD;H0: npaxep 0 etne 6oJli:ee .;:r;peBHHX HHrYWCKPlX noceJlel:Ul,aX B ceBepHOM: rpY3HH, TaR liaablBiieMh1X noaa-rynraaax, a TO'-Inee 6an;GURX. 0 HHX y.Baxyurra RocBeHHO cxasaao: «A aacynpoTHB 0'1' TIaHRHcn, ea lCasKa30M, naxozta'rca 11;08a .•. HHme I.l\oBbJfOMeuaplj: .•• H B ITapcMaHe-'FymeTH 36 CelIeHIiH. H .u,eJIHT ITapCM3IHH Ii UOBa-rOMeu;ap 'tbrMapTcKce ym;eJIh€ KasRaaa; Ii.D;Y1U,ee ,e KUCTOI' JUlTBfllH -)1 11 ,JIeiKalllee OT BOCTO.Ka K cesepy, If 06e TYllle1'HH orpaIHiltIllisalOT: C BOCTOKR -Cpe)l;PlHHUii Me:lfC,lJ;Y ABapHeH, l-!eqHeH I'l: nOM cTjpaBoH RaBRa3, C rora - Kas.Ka3 MB)KJJ;y STOll (CTp.3HO.H) M )l;'M'):lOeTIJ:eM,c aarrana - ropa KU,Kaa MeJK.iJ!Y 3'l'OH (crpaaofi) lI'KaxeTue:ii,c cesepa -KasKR3 MeJK,uy 3TOM: (cTpaROW) H rJIurBo-KlfcTkIeM ~ (C. 132).

YMhIlU.lleHlW rrpHBe)leHhl IIOJlHOCTbIO CBeJJ;eHllH U 0 TyrnHHax ITapcMaHcKoro YLt\eJEbJ1, iIlOTOM:yt;lTO 0 II,.OBa-Oamon (HHrywax B 3a· xaaxaase) Y BaXYIlITU BeT 6o.rn:ee aaxero. A no YRRaalUJJIM rpaHHII,. TyrueTiliH H .n;pyrHx MNf{HO onpe.u;emfTb pacnOJIOmeBH8TeppUTOPRil'I 5.au;6Mif~eB B enoxy cOCTaBJIeHH.fI MRTepaRJIOB Baxyw,'FH, OJJaro.D;apB' tJeMy npencraanaerca iB03MomUOCTb KOCSeHHbIll'I nYTeM BhIRBHTh p;peBHee MeC'iI'OHIaXmK.D;eln'Ie (,rxo XVIII B.) BbICeJlHBIJJMXCa lIB, EOr M!HI"YlIleliii:, KOTOPbre~ BepO.HTHO, OT'HOCaTCfI K nepseanmx nHOHe~ paM KOJIOH}Jaa~lI'OH!iihlX Tetle8llH !'op~eB-nHf'Y1l1eii: aa IOr- B 3a~ xasxasse (nOTOMY qTO, xax 6y,neT BH,ll),IO 3.!J:eCb HemWJllbKO aaace, na ceaep TOf',1I;3! co 'CTOP:OlRhl pO,ll;CTBeHHoil rpY3HH ',15, O'l!eBt-r,!l;HO, He ObI.rn:O

cephe3H~IX nperrRTcTBHi1:). .

Teneps npnaoacy CJle.n;YIOm;I1!ii nyaser, aa KOT'OPOM rrJil0jJ;eTCH OCTaHOBHThCR 3HaT.JMTeJI!,HO ,1I;OJThrne, nOCKOJIlbltY 0 HeM Tpe:i5yeTCJl YTOtIHlITb IDBe,n:eHlIJI. 3'1'00 MeCTo:s:axom.u;eHHH ce,n. «Xeranae»,

,D;aHH.hIM MaTepMaJI npHXO,ll;HTC,B' 00060 pa30HpaTb no ,1I;ByM npaqHHaM: so-rrepasrx, R3-3a HenQ.)l"HOlrO corJISOI1,g C S8'KJIlOqe'HHeM 0 HeM rrpocp. B. A. A.rroopona 46 M" BO-BTOPhlX,M3-:3a aaJIJJr"CrHR paspafioTaHHblX B ,m:pyroH TeMe cBe.n;eBl-!l! 06 9TO·M m:e caMOM sonpoce - cen .. Xeranae (cen, BaJl't&I).

ITY'reM anaaaaa SC8CTOpOJUIMX reorpa<pM.qeCKMX p;aHHhIX {H3 Baxyurra) () ,!l;peBlIeM rrocenenaa XeT8):13e MomHO YKa3aTJ:.,QTO MeCTOHaXOjKAeHl:U~ cen, XeT8A3e He COOTBeTcTByeT CeJI.qMIlI nJIn «MeCTY npennero ropo.n;ltIll;a» 17, an xoropoe YRaSbIBaeTrrpOC}JeCcop MOOpOB.

51 nonararo, Q'TO 3TO Ce.TI. Xerazae :a:aXOAH.JIOCb ae H.a MeCT'e pyHH .rtpeBHero rOPQ,1I;ril1:\8 HJIH CBRr.u;eHHhl:X MeC'T, a 3Ha't£HTeJIihHO ceaepaee, nil MeOT'e HbIHemHero 08JI .. BaRTa.. Taxoe cootipaaeeaae liIO)"lTBepm,l:laeTC . a, 110MHMO TeRcTyaJibFlhTX YK83aHMH Baxytrrra, ero :iKe

co6CTBeHHOM: KapTOR', aa . KOTOPOH MMeeTCJl! RaR cen. qMPl, TaR II cen. XeT'8,11;3e. npH'f'6M MM,eHHo B TOM MeCT€, aa rccropoe JI YKa· :lhrS8EO.

HO'tIToGhl He C03,11;aJlOChBDeqaTJIemUI rOJIOc.rrO:SHOCTH cy*,rn;:e-H:HY, npHBe)J\¥ Bhlp;epmKH >13 Ma'FepMaJIOB:. Y BaXYIDTH CR8a8ao: «B l:{OHue .me Xeaa :a8XO;n;IITCJl Jlaaypa. HHJKe Toro B )J;m:apl1eXH, B XeBCHyro Aparsy IIplI'I"eKaeT KHcTo-,11;aYPA3YRCKa.Ri pemca., HlIIme cere H8XO,ll;HTC:HI XeTa,n:3e,,,.1> {C. ][43). To ecns, KOMMeHTHpYR aTO onpe;ueJI8HHe Baxynrrao pacnozosseaaa XeTM3e, rm)lyqaeM, lITO B KOSne )J;apy,,aJlhCKOro yw;eJl!b.ff (<<XeSH») aaXO,lJ;RTC,fI JIapc (<<JIa3YPH»'); IHDKe HerO', :B paaoae ,llmepaxa (<<.llmapHexn:)}), B percy Tepeic (<<XeDCKyro Aparay») rrparexaer pexa APMXH (~Km::To-)l3YP,!il;3YKCKaR pexrca s ), a erne Hame STOro MeCTa (YCTbe APMxn:) HRXO,!J;HTCR 6I>IBWee eenenae «XeTa,iJ;3B», T. e .. aaxoaanteecs HhlRe T8!M cen, Barrra,

Ra.R. BH,!J;HO :H3 rrpaneaeaaoro, o TOM, qTO :;lTO ceor, XeTaA3e pacnonomeHO nparso npo't11:a ana,zxeHH:I'l pexa APMX:M Ii pElKy Tepex, HeT, 6YIKBtlJl!bl'lO, aaxaaoro aaxerca, Tor.n;a KaK OCeJI.qMH. JIemameM TaM HM€HHO aa lIeB,OM oapery pexa Tepexa, nITOJJH€ JICHa O'TM€"'I€aO n xapre Baxymna R B, MaTepUaJIax.

IIpo(~eccop B. A. A.rr60POB yKpeU,IlB'e'F csoe 3RKJ![IOQeHUe TeM, 1t{TO «06 3TOH *'e MeCTHOCTH Xeranse CJIhIIllaJI K.n:anpoT BO BpeMJI caoero uyrerneCTElHl1! no OceT:HR. ... !>~S, ll,HTlrpy.fI CJIe,n::yrom;ee ero rrpe;:t.llOjKl'!Hile: (f ., •• HHme cero (,I:(m::apHexH); RBK rOBopHT, H8 'I'epexe eCTb eute ,n;pyroe (HaCeJII€HHOe MecTo) IIO FIM€HIii Xeranae» (Klaproth. C. 352) ,10 • 1-13 :3THX eJIOB KJI.aIIPOT8 eAHHCTBeHHO JICHO BH.D;HO TO, 'lJ!TO ,1:18.HHOe ceJIO OhlJIO «lUlilKei> ,IJ;mep.axa. 11 COBeplIleHHO ner HHqerO ,!J;B.rom;ero OCHOR-aHUe IIO.TIaraTh, qTO T~l.M HaxoAlITcsr «XeTa;!l;3e» Baxynrra (HS- 060POT, OHO BhIIlle -¥3: MeeTe een. l{MM). ,ll;YMaeTCJI, '[[TO 8Ta~MTa'ra KJIanpo'Ea He BDOJEIIe O'FBe<raeT J!!pup;aBaeMOMY elii aaasemno.

3aTeM CJEe)l!yeT yqecTh T8Rme TO, Ql'O CaMOM:y BaxymTM B XVIII B. 6bIJIO ropaszto i5o.rn:ee TOQHO H3BeCT'HO yxaaaaaoe MeCl'O «~eTa,n;3e>l, LleM I![03JKe .aBTOPMT8THOMY KnanpoTY KJIM HaM B XX a,

, He orpaaaaaaaaca, O)l!H.aKO, aTMM, rrpa seny erne P$lA I1ipHMepOB, nO,l(TBepm,n;:a101liI;MX HeKOTopbl8 MOM cootipaseeaaa. Hanpaseep, rrocne C~OB" t:JTO HiRliKe BUB.jleHHx B percy Tepeic peren APMXM «HaXO,1i;:HTCR Xeraztae» (C. 143), Baxvurm, onacsrnaa liCKJIIO'IH'I'eJIbHO KucTI1l1O (C. 150, 15th BTOPI-PHIO ynoMI1HaeT 0 Xeraaae. K8K 0 ee.ne, noasmre Koero. Haxo,n:MTC.H YCTbe ApMXM .. YtfHTbIBaa rOjpHI:,IH CKJIOH pycna peNH 'I'epesc, Y xoroporo OBO RaXO,!l;HTClI, nOJJ!yqaeTC.H nOJIHOe COOTB,eTCTBI1e C MeC'TOM can, Barrra, Hhlme KoeFO - yo The pexa APMXH._ Y BaXYlliTH TalK CKa3aHO 0 M€CTOHaXomp;eHMH Xe'J!'M3e:

«O . KMCTeTllH. Teneps me HS!'IHeM C BOCTOqi8blX 0'1' X,eBl1R&SRa3u;es 511, HOO Mhl y*eatl..BepIllHJIH OUHcaHHe 3ana.n;HoH HX 't.laCTlf .1. A B KOHue XeBH" :r,lle peRa AparBa,MJIH JIoMeKH, BblXO.1!:HT HapaBHlI" Hy, B 3TY Aparny, noasmre cerr. XeTBI)J;oe, anaaaer peqKa K:MCTCKa.fI II A3YPJJ;3YKCKaH. npHTeKnlOm;a,n C BOCTOKa ... » (C. 150, 151).

IIpuBe,ll;eHHoe 03HaQaeT, [[TO peru, Mp;eT 06 .l1HrYll1aX-KHCTax (<l.BOC-

18

2"

19

'i"O'tIH:bIX OT XeUH KaBKfl3ueB») B xonne XeBM; :B :3TOT 'I'epex (<<ApurBY»), «noasnne CeJIeHHJ! XeTa,IJ;3e j), B!lia.~ae'l'peKa APMXH (pemca I!;;HCTo-,I!;aYP)J!3YRCRaa); T. e. MeCTO coo'rse'l'C1'lByeT ce.n. "liflVIH.

EcnH aaaxane npHBI).n:H.ITH:Ch CBe)~eHHfl! H,;) Baxynrm '0 cen. Xeranae, (;fTO «llOHH)H8» yC'I'bJI peKH APMXM npa BTIa,1l.eHHH B lPefty Tepex , 'fO 3,!J;8Cb' BaOllb a-ro nO,!l;TBep:m,l(aeTCH YTO'-IHJ:llOIJJ;HM YK8aa:HHeM, 'lITO NJeC~O BTIa..neHlI1Ji peKl{ APMXH «nOBbHIIe» csrr. Xeranae.

K 'l'OMY me p;8lHI'IJile ero l:tapThl aa .~TO aarJlJl,lJ;HO YKa3bIBaIOT.

C.ne,n;OBaTeJIhHO. MO~HO Ql:>lTh YBepeHHblM B npaBMJIbHOCTH coo6paiKelUl:.H OTHOCM'TeJlJ,HO COO'fBe'fCTBHH BaxYIllToBCROI'O een, XeTap,se HhHIeruHeMY ce.n. Banra; ,!llame,eCJIH p,onYCTHT:b lfTO a'I'H TPIUk,l(bl CMelliI1lBaKl~HeC:R. YKa.S3HHH BaxYIll'I'n mrnr601lJ:ulbI:,, TO IJ,HTaTat H3 Toro :.>Ke KJlanpo'ra onpoaepraer COMHe:HHR, rOBOp.H HCHO, "ITO cell. XeTap;. ae «Hume» ,ll;mepaxa.

OCT3.HOBHThCK Ilia STOM sonpoce MIEH'! !lIP11:tuJ:tOC!b, l'JIaBHhlM o6pa- 30M, fIOTOMY JlHllIb, 'LITO BaJ![THHo-XeTa.o:3eBCR,H~ paaoa ,!lJ[.fI ~CCJI8.n:{)BatHH:1I .Ilpe!:metii MHrYW:8TJiUI HMe'8T lleCbM;3 SaJRHOe 3HaQe:euH:l. B aTOM sorrpoce Jt BITOJIHe C0J1Hllap8H eKOCBeHHbIMH Yl\;ll!SaBlHf[MH nporpeooopa B. A. Anfiopona B era lPa60Te ° «Xarrtaray».

Pa300paHHoe 3aKJII<QQ,8HH8 He nanpanneao aa OTPHD;8Iiwe ero xer'TOROH: IWRu;emJ,HH, it J:[~U:n> .~JIH enre 60JIbWerO Y'FOT.J!.HeHH.fI .n::pem:IeMCTOplI'l[eCKliIX CBe,ll;eHHH 52.

3. QBIII,EIIJIiEMEHHOil: 'fEPMHH (I)1.3YP.IJ;3YKlh

STO, rroaararo, IIQ,lJ;TBepJK,Il;8IOT.H apa6cKHe MaTepil18,JIhI_ ApaQi>I, 6bIBunIe B VIII-IX BB. B fpY.3MlI; O'tleBlt,ll;HO, 3HaJIH. r.naBUblM o6pa- 30M OT rpY3HH., 0 aapoaax KaBKa.3a. II B oco6eHHOCTH 0 Tex" ROH M'or,rrM ax 'HHT'epeCOBaTb B CBX<lH. C 06eCrreq€HHeM 6eaonaCHocnr OCHOBHbIX TpaE3HTHhlX nepeaazrsustx UYTe:fi:. nOCKOJIhRY aparion npaBJIeKaJl8 'l'OprOB.lI;)IC eesepasnea CTpaaBMH. B QHCJI8 xce npnrpaHWIH!bIX K TepCKOMY }....;.J,eJlIblO (BoellHO-rpY3HHCKOH: ,!liopore) aapo)WB Fmry:unt )J;mepaXCKoro YIrteJIl>fl1 HI'paJIH HeM<3ij';IOBaJKIHYIO PO!!h. Hx rpY3H}1hl HM8HOBa.Jl:H 113'!!;peBJJe «)l;3yp,n;3YRBMH», OTClO.n;a. O'1eInI,Il;1I0, H npoaexoaenenae apafcxono TepMHHa~,nyp3yKli» (HJIM «Ba6- 'uYP3YKM» - apara ~yp3yKOB H ,Il;mepaXOBn;eB).

JJ;anee :nOT TepMHH (a TaKme H tlPyroH - «BaG-Cyp» ,ll;J.lfI AcCHIIeNoro yw.eJIib.H) OHM, MOrJIM H CaN£HC.lTbImaTI:. OT CBOHX me apatiClurx RYFlin;OB" llYTemeCTBOBamrrH.X C .KapaB.aHaMU TOSa.POB na cesep no S'fOMY C8MOMY YII\eJl&lO MRMO )],*epax8_

H H81wHeu;! CpaBIUllT8JlbHO He TaR .,D:aJIeKO OT ::lTO.rO ,l1;mejpflxa HflXO,!l:IIJIOCh ApeJJHeiirnee norpaaasaoe vicpenneaae (JJ;.aphHJl), rne TOr,l1;a JKe C.TOaJl apal5cKHH rapnaaoa 5'1, )J;OKYMeHTOM, n:O.1l.T13ep:tK,n;a" mIll;I1M HaJIntlMe 5JIH3KMX KOHTaRToB apaeos C ,n;mepaXOlBCRIIMl1 HH" I'Y Ul8MlI (<<,I"(,yp3YKaMI! >) ), CJlymH'f O.o;HH Ita HX naMHTHHKOB MaTe-pH" aJIbROa RyJIb"l!'yphI - OP01I30BblH sCTpe6 (pO,l'llOBOH rep6 HHrywcKOH:' (l)8MHJIMM MaM!tl!JlOBhlX Hs.llmepaxa). Oa, 6e,3YCJWBHO, apaficxoro npoM3soP;CTB8, c,!:(eJll8:a B apa6CKOM CTHJIe H C COOTBeTcTsYIOw;ell apa6- CK,OH me Ha.uUHChlO :;~,

ApaObl, OB.n:a,ll;eSafl! KasR,830M, CTIHTaJIHCb C paonozoaeeaaex K cetie MeCTllUJX IlJIflMeHHblX crapeamaa fiRM 60JEee MOlt(HhIX pO.n;OB; TIpM ::ITOMSepO.HTHO II TO, 'l[TO 11M npMXO,l1;MJlOCh lI:l:JlaTHTh ,[IaHb (Mbn) aa npoxojt Qepe3 TeppIITOpm{lSTliX BOllHCTBeHHHlX aOOjpIFH'€HOlB rop ~ JJHirymeM ,11;mepaXCKOlI'O y.:rI\e.rrhfl.

llOTOMY ecrs ,D;OCTaTO'CfHOe OCHOBaHHe ~onYCTH'Fb (YCJIOBHO) '603" Mo:tlmOC"Fb 'l'oro.q'l'O ,lI;>Kepaxmm:e iHHryrniFli B Ty arroxy RI'~aJlH noBOJIhll'O 3HatfIlTeJIhHYlO B08HHo·nOJIHTH'qeCI\.yro POJlE., ,n;OMHHRPYjJ HnA oR;.peCTHOCTo.IO nepeS8JILHOll,L\OpOrH - 'I'OproBoti: apTepUH ,l(JUI csaan tora C ceBepOM. H:aa'le I1X: H'Me'HeM (,n;3YPlISYl'CH y rpysHH IT ~YP3y· ICH Y apatios) He Ba3MSaJIH OhI acax aeiil!;:aXOB, a BaXYWTl! He ccsr;raRCR 6u aa TO, 'eITO B QOJlee p,peB,HIOlO nopy <lTO UM.ff 6bIJIO €,u:,IUlCTseHHhIM ,rvraBcex Boot5~e BenHaXCKHX flJlleMelH lAO .TI(areCTaHa).

Ozraaao, npHBe.n;Sl! nepexaeneaarae coofipaxceaaa, :H 60JIee CltJIOHeH I10JIali'8Tb. "tITO OCHOBHOH npH.'1HHOif Tal:tOllTeH;n:eHliI(HM j/ rpy- 3I1H-HCTOPHKOB (neronacues) 06'he,u:uHHTb aero MHirYllUno non 3TMM TepMHHOM ()];3ypP;3YKMJ1), Bee me HBJ(ae'I'Cfi B€p;OC'fa'1'OqHa$l OCBe.JJ;OMJI8HHOCTb. llOTOMY q'JI'O, IWBTOPSID. y:me BIB . .o;oxp ... 8 • .o;peBHMe' r:J:Hca'I'emli: I'pelII;MH H PUMa 3SaJIt1 mnymeH: no,lJ; IIMeSeM raJu'aeB" a He p'3YP.ll.aYRoB (.z:tmepaXOBn;eB).

BaXYlliTH CqHTRJI .• 'ITO ;:lTHHT.J:eCKHX f[JIeOO€HHhrX Ilo,npa3AeJ!€HlHM B ,eocoraBelIHI'YIUCKoro ROHl'JIOMepaTa BeaBaXCH,HX HapOAOB ,0.:0 nepeaaIBaeMoll MM. 9TIOXII, T. e. AO XVII~XVIII BB., He 6:blJIo, a OHa (MHI'yweTH:a) lllMeHOB.aJUiC.o e.D;HHMM TepMMHOM ~ ,1l3YPJJ;3YK€TH.eM. BOT, 'LITO 06 aTOM Y aero llMee<rC.fl::: «Bee 9TH yr:q,eJTh:l'I, onacanHhle aaMH, rrpexene H8:3hlB8JIHCh 06~HM liIMeHeM ~3yp,!il;3YKneH. a rerreps (T. e. B XVIII B. - M. B.) nonpaaneneasr ras (Ka~, oaxaxeHO). ... » (I'am-an, KHCThl:Ii: T. )1;.- M. B. C. 150-152).

Taxoe YTBep:m,l!lelElfe, 6esyc.noBHO, HeBepHO: OHO IIPOTiI1.Bope"lM'I' He TO.l!ll>l'CO HC'rop:ll:lJIeC.KHM csep;eHl;UIM 0 cylII.eCTBOBaHHH yllie BIll. noxp. 3. ;seHHaXOB B .D;.mepaxe nOll.o6W:,J;IM MMeHeM r:UI[',aeB,~a, HO H ere me npe.n;hI,l!IYW;lIM Ma.Tepw.r3.JIaM, rAe OH pacC1<a3'hTBa'JI ° ,I1;peBHeH ilHryrue'FHH, XOPOlllO 3U8.:R TepMHH «)J;3yp,II,3YKOC».

KpOMe rpvanacaax HCTO'tfHUKOB, yrroMHHIliIOW;n:X oro H3.3B8HHe HHrywe~ (,Il;3YP;lJ;SYH:), OHO ncrpevaerca II yapa6CitllX rsorpaqios IX B. - «)J;YP3YKI>.

ECJIH Y'leCTb, 'ITO B rpy;nlHcKHX CBe,l1;efIIiJi.llX HHrYWll .IJ:mepa:XOBexoro pailolla UMeHOB81!HCb JJ:3YP.lJ:3ykRM_A. 'J'OT'.r:I,3 J¢8K OCT8.JlbHbIe UMeJUI HIlhie. H8aBaHHS:I (rJIHrBH, xaersr HT.,n:.)., TO MO)KHO .n;orrYCTHTb, '-ITO ,[(aHHhlH TepMHH (p;3YP;J;3YK) MomeT 6hlTb ornecea lfMeHHO K .n;.mepaXOBcKoH BeTBM IlHrymeH.

20

21

4. TEPPHTOPn:.a II I10CEJIE:HH.H:

r AJIr A~ KHCTLI, ,ll»tEPAXn, n;OPH H AHrymT

BblBOJtliTb reHeaJIOrHIO csoero pozta TOJIbKO H3 I'am-aue ~ «npapoaa-

HbI» BeeM Harymeraa. .

o KHCTHHftX: «Teneps JKe Ra'fHeM e BOCTOqHhlX aT XeSH 62 1{8BKa3Il;eB ••• B y~eJlbe :ShIIlle ,[(iKapHeXH HftXO.D;HTCJI KHCTeT11.ll e ce.neE[H.llMH 111 CTpoeHHHMH ... » (C. 150, 151). KaK BH.n;HO H3 npHBe,lJIeHHOJ'O, CBe.n;eHH.1l 0 KHCTHH KpaHHe OrpaHHTIeRHbI, ao scero sroro MOiKHO aaKJHO'LlH'I'b JIIUllb TO, '''lTO oaa fibUla pacrronoaceaa B lrJIy6HHe ,II,mepaxoBCKOTO ym;eJIb$I •.•

o AJKepaxax:(,A It lOry OT eero, asmre RHC'irQlHMH, HaXO)l;HTC.l'l ,IJ;ayp.n;aYKH.R: co C'l'pOeH1J£lMoH, CeJIeHHHMH; oam8HHbl€ me 06e (crpaH!M). 8TH ym;eJIbJ'I rpaansra'rca: C BOCTOKa - KaBKa30M ;j,'l, JIe:iK,am;HM Mem,D;Y KmCTo-)J;3yp.n;aYKHen 11 fJUU'BH., C sora - KaIl,R.a30M 64,JIe)KaID;HM, Mem.n;y Ilrnaao-Xeacyperaeti H )J.ayp.n;aYKeTHeH, C aanana - KaBKaaOM 65, .J[e}Kam;HM MemJty Knc.TO-,[(3YP,ll;3YKHen H XeBH 66, C eeaepa - cpe.u,HHHOIO Me)K,,lI;Y qepKeccEOH H RHCTHen 67 I'OPOH»68 (C. 150-152). I'ne CJIH:salO'rCJ'I ooe 3'TH peKJ{69, TaM MeJK.o;y HHMl'I naxonarca )1;mapnexH 70, OrpOl'lmRa CRaJIa, oropaacaaaiomaa DOJIhmyro ,l!;OJl!l'lHY 71, yTecMCTa.fi PI! =repea ~TO OHa O"tIeHb xpemca. TYT CTOHT 60JIbmaH 6alIIRfi 12, 06Be,ll;eHHaJl, nop;OOHO xpenocr'a, cTeHoro» (C. 150, 151).

113 9TO[,0 MO;)J{HO C)J,eJIaTb CJIe·AYIOm;ee npeACTftBJI8HH@ 0 ,IJ;:tKepaxe, ,Il8BaeMOe MaTepnan:aMH Baxymrn:

1. Ha BOCTOKe·'OT Hero yru;e.1lr.,e Mem,Ily CHerOBbIM H,CKaJIMCTbIM xpeOTaMH. TaM tuna rpaaana c rJIlII'BH (raJII'aRMH), OT.IeB11.n:Il!O, 3TO r-opa H xpener Bap-Kop-re.

2. Ha rope - Caeroaoti xp86eT,QoT;~eJIHloUJ,H:i& ,[(.mep.ax 0'1' IlrnanoXeBcYpmr.

3. Ha aanane - I'OPbl Cneroaoro H CKa.1lHCTOI'O x.peDToB c ynrensaMn: 'PYCJIa pexa Tepexa, T. e. ,!l;O HbmeWHeH BoeHHo-TpY3HHCKOH.

,UOPOI'H. ..

4. Ha cesepe - aeprrrarra CKaJIHCTOrO xpefira MJ'IT-JIOaM (CTOJIOBaSI ropa), no xpe6TY RoeH lIiIJIa rpaaarta c 'IepKecHeH, nBo cenepasre C.K.JlOllhl ropsr OhliJII'[ B PYKax Ka6apAHHO-QepKeCOB.

ICpOMe 'Foro, BaxyrnTl'I paCCKa3bnBaJI, qTO MemAY peRRMH APMXH 11 TepeKOM~ BHAHMO, roJKHee: H Dr.Iille ctlYPToyra, HaXO,zllHTCH ropa( «orpOMHaJ'I CKaJIa >).) ,ll!.m,epax (<< ,l!.JKapneXH ~ )'11, ~OTopaSI oropamnnae'l' 60JIbUlYIO ,n;OJIHHy.

Ho.nararo, TaKOH ropoa B TOM paHOHe MO.lK8T 6bITh, cxopee BCerD, TOJIr.}tO CRMa aepnraaa ,[(JKepaX~qeq·KOp'l', a He MJ'IT-JlOaM (CTOJIOiBaJ'I ropa), nOTOMY <J!TO peTIib H,I.l;eT 0 HaCeJIeHMM <3TOH AOJliHHir.I. rcoropoe, RaR H3BeC'l'HO, 06HTano H3ApeBJIe 60JIee na lOmHhlX (TeUJlbIX) CRJIOnax Yll(e.JIj,s. T. e. 1'1a rope Mar-noasr, a He .D:,mepax-qeq·-KopT.

o nopnmrax. 3,!D;eCb npUBO.lr;}1TCfl RpaTHoe "ynoMHH8iHIIe B MaT'e· pnanax Baxynrra 0 JRHT8JIHX !BOCT01{HOH MHrYllIHH, npUqeM 3THH"'1E!C1WrO HMeHH OHM y Hero He HMeIOT.

(,A K BOCTORY OT eero rJIHI'BH HaXO,ll;.HTCR 14 ... ymam-e, pel-lEta xoroporo 75· HCTeRaeT H3 cpe,UMIlIHOI'O MemAY HliM n: TIalHtHCn !CaBKa330 76. H,u;eT 01' rora K cesepy, CJlHBaeTC.ll C rJIHr'BHc~nHaJlH 11 H

23

Marepaansr «I'eorpadia« rpya:HlH 11 Baxvnrra .n;aIOT HeKoTopoe o6m;ee npencraaneaae 0 cocraae rnasasrx nJIeMeHHhlX BeTlBeH sananao-aekaaxcxoro KOHI'JIOMepaTa o6r:a;ecTB (HHrymax) .. p;JJj!! :;lTOI'O nplIBO,D;,Wl'CJI lB OT.n;eJIbHOCTH nomrsre !BbI;rJ:epJlCKH" 0 ranraax, KH~'Ta:x, ,ll;,mepaxoBr:t;ax u: np, 8TH Cne,IJ.eHJl.R O'rHOCJlTCJ'I. !8 OCHOBHOM, K nepe.mfiBaeMoMY caMHM Baxymra nepHO,D;Y (linH HeMRoro paaee), npaOJlli3HTeJIbHO K KOHIl;Y XVI B.

o ranraax (HJIHI'BH» - no-epus.): (fA K BOCTOI<Y OT ceM KHCTOo)1;a.yp,D;3YKHH 56 HSXOAHTCJ'I rJlMI'BR 57 ••• rpaHn'IHTC£I me: C BOCTOtea - ropoto, Jlem8i~eii MemJJ;y rnHI'SH H •.• 58, C cesepa - cpennaaoro Mem.n;y qepKeCI"WH 111 rJlKr'BH ropoa 59, C rora - RaBK830M 6Q. JIe:IKa- " llIHM Me:)K,AY I' JilHI'BH H IIWilJI1JieH, C aarrana - roporo ,61, JIejKam;eii:

MeJi<tly I'JlHrBH H )l;3YP.D;aYKHe:ih (C. 150-152).

B. np·e.o;CTaBJIeHHl:I BaxYIllTH I'OPHblii panOH I'J1HI'BH (H.JIH I'anrase) onpezrerrea AOBOJIbHO UpaBUJlbHO H B TO'IHOM. COOTBeTC'l'BHH: C MHrywcKHNlH npe,!l;i9JHIoU'IMH, reorparpaaecrca B!i:ilOJIH:e TO'l£HO. OH YKa- 3brBM, G:TO I'am-axe Haxo,,IlHTC.:II aa BOCT'OKe OT ,lJ;mepaxa. 113 orracam:m rpaanu MOR\.HO 3aKJlroq:H'fh, qrQ <!rJIHl'BHl) BaXYWTM 3ftHl'IMaJIO TOT· me caMhIH paROH, r;J;e reneps Fanrane. Ha BOCTOKe «papa», BePOSITHO, Ta, xoropyto Baxyurra coaepnreaae He HMeHyeT, O'leBHAHO, He 3Ha» TO'£HO, KTO aa HeH .lliHBeT: aKK.HHUbJ; MeJIXHHIl;bI. MaifcTHH:a;bI ana qeqeEuu.I; nOTOMY ·~TO MeCTO Y xero C MHOrOTOqHeM. Ha tore (fRaBKaa» - 3''1'0, 6e3YCJIOBRO, CHerOBoii: xpefier, OT.n;eJI.Hrom;HH I'aarava OT XeBCYPHH H IImaBHH. Ha aarrajte «ropae , TaKllie neaaBeCTHO xaicaa.>: cxopee ncero <lTO BHp-K,epTY.lC C xpeOTOM. Ha cesepe .- «cpe,[lHHHaJi ropas , rho, KaK Y:>Ke YKtl3hIBa,nOCb, CKaJIHCT:bIH xpe6eT (Il,eH-JIaM), aa :KOTOPblM 6hIJ.!a repPHTOpK.R: Ka6ap,n;HHiO-TIepKeCCKMX naponon.

ECJIM -cenepx corrocranar's STH ApeBHerpy::nUICKHe reorpaqnr"tJ:eCRMe cBe,Il(eHMR C COBpeMeHHblMM, TO El!OJIy"tJ:aeTCJ'I paanaxae TOJIbKO B OTHomeHHU COCTaBa cocemrax HapO;AOB, ao He aOOpHI'eHOB I'anr-ave (,rJll'l.rBH» BaxYUlTH).:

1) C SOCTORa - aRRH., Me.rrXH, HO rJlaBHbIH cocezt - qe"'IRJ'I;

2) c iora - 110 cen ,,ll;eHb HeH3M8HHhle coceaa xeacypsr;

3) C aanazta - CBOH sananao-seaaaxcrcae nnesreaa RHCl'HHo-.n;»<epaxosnea .( qJeIilllHHIl;bI);

4) C ceaepa - renepr, HeT cosepmeaao 'tJepKeClur;, rpaamra c Ka6apP;,oH OTOJl;BHHYJI8iCr. zranexo tra nJIOCROCTb S8 ce,n. I~eClteM; y Ka6ap)ll;HHCKOro cen. AxJIOBO. Ilpa STOM TaM - rpaaana c MaJlOM Ka6ap.ll;ofi. a He t:IepKecHeH, 0 Koew (BHARMO, YCJlOBBO), rOBOpHTCJi Y BaXYWTli.

HaCToHllWH BhI.n;:ep»tKa 0 rJIHI'BH rrpuseneaa is nepayro Oqepe,ll;b JIHmb c ne.nsro coxpaaeana cxeMbI HCTOpnqeCKOl'O otiaopa, IW'l'QMy ~'ro B HHrymcKoM HapoAHOM (}lOJlhKJIOpe 'll'pa.,liIIUJ,liOHHO npHHHTO

22

nOl'OM C,T'eKaeT B BOparIlRC-'D;K3JI11 78 C aarrana, 11 3TO ymense CO crpoeiraaem, ceJIeHM.HMH. A rpaaana-r ero: C BOCTOKa - KaBKa3 79, JI8JKaW;HH Mem.n;y TymeTHeu M 3THM yW\em.eM, c rcra - Cpe,LJ;HHHhlH Mem~y ITaHKHcH H ltM Kaarcaa 80, c cesepa - cpeaaaaaa Mem,LJ;Y Hl:lM H "t.fepKecHeH ropa 'LfepKH3-MT8 81, C aanaaa - cpenaanaa Me)KlJ.Y HHM H rJIHJ'BH ropa 82» (C. 150~152).

B ,!lj£UIHOM c.n:y'tl:ae Baxym-rn onacsrsan BeHHaxcKoe IIJIeMJI, OTHOCRrn;eeC5I K BOCTO'tf,HbIM MHrymaM, - nopamrea, 8'1'0. nO,lJ,TBepm,!J;ae'rCR reol'pa<pMeii M,eC'l'HOC'fH, r.n;e OR I1X pacnO.JlO:>KH.JI; TJIa.BHbIM ofipa- 30M peKOR, l:IAy~el1 C rora II{ cesepy, a aatTeM M Brra,lllaroUJ,e:i1 c sana,lI.a lB: «BoparIlMC-IU~aJJIH;') (CYHij:<Y). 'TaKoH peRoH e,1l;l:IHcTB8HHO MO),KeT 6hITb TO.libltO A3bI'tI:e'tf.

06 AHrYI1ITe: «Ha .noM pexxe sa H8Xo.,!lJ;H'FCH AHryc'l!'11: 84, ceneBHe 60JIhillOe; H YJJ:teJIhe 3TO co cTpOeHHHMH' II CeJIeHIIHMl-r. •• A :>KHTeJIH AHrYCTll noxoxca aa qep:KecoB, no sepe - MarOMe'J'aHe, CYHHUTbl» (C. 150~152).

Baxyurra orracsrsan Aarvmr He rcax O'r~eJIhHYIO <.l'l'HHQeCKYro e,!l;H'HHIIS, a B COCTaBe ranraes. Ho nOCXOJIMW «AHrYCTIV> Bee n\e ynoMHH8i€TCa, TOt'.lI:a. KaK 0 ~pyrMx H.HrymcKHXCeJI,ax aer iIl:M]{a~HX CBe)l,em,di:. TO B0.3HiKKaeT sonpoc: nO'f.eMY R "aMY 'raKoe SHH:MaHHe? ,LE.YMaeTCR, 'tfTO B31XY:WTH KOe-"tlTO 3IHlJI 0 Ha'tfaJIe KOJIOHHaaIJ,HOHHOJ'O ,qBHmeHll.Ji uHFymen ]B' npezrropsa: 80 1'1 BMeCTe C TeM 6blJI_OCB:e,!J;OMJI'eH ° Ha.llH'tfHH TaM T8iK:lKe H HeKOW APyroH caMOCTO.RT€JIbHOll TeppHTOpHaJIbHOH e,lJ;HBHD;hl HHrywetl:" 8TO BH,l!;HO aa Toro. qTO OIl rnaTaJICH cpaaaasars BHe'WHO'CTb as!rYW'FOBIl,eB Ii qepKecOB. Ii KPOM€ TorO,3Ta MhiCJIb nozrraepzsaaerca 3aMeqaHl1eM BaXYlllTH 0 TOM, qTo. pe.JIHrHH HX He BIIOJrHe I,m:rYUlCKa,a:, T •. e. He XPHCTH8HO-SlI3b['tfeCK8.ll, .DIpeBHerOpCKa5l. a yme 4MarOMeTaHCRa.RCYHHHTCKaH» H T • .11:.

OqeBM)ljHO, BaXYWTH TOrAs, 'f.TO-TO CJILlWaJI 06 060co6,neF):HOCTH AH:!'ymTCKOl'O ofimeersa HHrYJll8H, HO KOHKpe'FHO He Mor HX 8THH~eCKH KJIaccmlmIJ;l1poB81'lrb.

O,ll;HO HeBO, '!TO XVIII B. qmKcRpye'l'Cll B MaTepHa.n:ax BaxYIIITH, Ral< O.!l:lIiH B3 nepnsrx .3TanOB RO.JIOHlf3aU;MH ropHhIMH HHrYIllaMH CBOHX cesepnsrx rrpeztropaa - Asrvnrroacaoa KOTJIOBHHbI.

q TO :IKe KaCaeTC.R pacrro.noaeeaaa na pexe A3bI'tfe'l can. AnrYWT, TO 3TO aeaepao, Y BaXYillTH npHB-O,l{HMaJI nsnne Bbl,l!{epmKa npoaoamaJIac:,b C.IlWU;Yl(nIl;I1MH CJJlOBaMH: «Ha 3TOK pesrxe (T. e. ,He o603Ha'tfeHHOH HM; a 'cpaKTH'<J:eCKH A3bIQeQ, - M. B.) HaXO',l{HTCsr CeJI€HHe 60JIbWOe; M yurense ::lTO co CTpoeSl{JlMH H CeJIeHII.RMH» (C. 150, 151). B ,ll;aHHOM CJIY'I'.(ae Baxynrea AonYCTHJl HeTO'tfHOC,rII, nOTOMY 'tfTO een, ARrymT pacnonoseeae Ha pexe :ICaMi5HJleeBRa (<< raJIMJH - nO·UH?.), l'5epym;eii HCTOKH He B Xescyperna (no Baxyurra) co CHerosoro xpefira, Ka.K ACC8; a H3 HurymeTHH - H3 CJIeAYlOltIerO ITa· panJIeJIbHOrO GKaJIHCTO:I''O xpe61'a, 60JIee cesepaoro. EpOMe'1''O(,'O, perca RaM6llJleeiBKa ID:IJI$Je'!"C:a np~TOI{QM peRM 'I'epexa, BIr~a1I B Hero rrocne nosopora aa ceaepo-aanan, rorna KaK y Baxyurra rOBopHTCH. '({TO Ta HeH3BeC'l'H8iI pexa H3JIHB8eTCJI B percy Accy, a ITDCJIe.n;HHH B «Bopar-

HHC-li,K8JIH», '1'. e. Hao6oPQT, Ha BOCTOKe, KaK, y:IKe pa36HpaJIOCh, - B pexy CYH:lKY.

CJIe.n;OBa'il."eJIbHO, ;;ITO nepersemexae ce.n. AHrymT HB SOCTOK Ha petty A3hft.le1.I, rrte naxozwrca U;OPH, - onmtirca, TeM 60JIee 'tfTO 11 HCTOpll'tfeCKM HeT HHI\,aKHX oCHOSaHH:ff AonYCTHTb STY B03MomHOC'rb.

5. CEBEPHhlE OKPAIIHhI: 'LIEPI('ECH.fI II EQPfAHbI

OT'HOCMTe.JIhRoqepKecHll y Baxynrra ITI0JIy'tfaeTCH, qTO OHa 6bIJIa CMe~HOH C HHrymeTHei:i:. IIoTOMY 'iTO )l1aBaR OITHCaHlie TeppnTOprra HHI'ymeTHH H OceTHH, Baxynrra BeH3MeHHO Kam,,lI;blM paa UHC8JI" 'ITO ceaepaee asraemaero CK8:JlIICT·Oro xpe6T8 6bIJIa. paerro.noxcena lJepKeCH.R. a nOTOMY ace ropsa (roaaee FIX cesepmae CRJIO~bI), DR HMeHyeT qepKeccKHMH (<< qepRH3~MTa»). ITo 3TOMY rtoaojry rrpan'OmS' CJIeAYIIOm;ne BhI~epmKH.

IIpH OIT'HCaHMH llHrymeTHH « ~rJIHrBH» - ranraennea) CK3a8HO; qTO «rJllIHBH me rpaHM'tfHTC.H: .... C cesepa cpenaaaoro Me)KJlY 'qep· Ree'Mea H rmlTBH ropoji» (I(eii-ROM). 11 )1,aJlbme 06 y~eJIbe B pallOHe pexn AS,bl'leq (paHOH U;OplI) rOBopHTC.a: <i ••• r-paaaxa-r era (ym;eJIbe. - M. B.) c cesepa cpezrannas Mem,qy HH'M H qepKecMeH ropa qeprH3-MTR» (Bem-eepra), 0 nmepaxe 'OR nacan: Q.D;aYP,lJ,3YKMR rpaHIIl.JiHTC.H: c cesepa - CP8,11;HIIHOIO Mem,i1,Y qepRecHeu 1iI rHCTMeH (KHC'I'ueii. - M. B.) ro·po,H., .. » (M.RT-JWaM H .1l:mep-JIoa.M) (C. 150-153).

IIOTOM, aapsnpya pa3JIn1JH!de naasaaaa pexa Tepexa, BaxYIIITH '1'aK:IK€ ynoMMHaJI. q-ro (' pexa :IKe XeBH Ha3hlBaeTCH Aparson (TepeR-OM. ~ M. B.) AO QepKe311, a TaM HCCT.aPH me ee gaaI.lBEU01' peHOY JIoMeRH)) (C. 75). To ecrs nOATBepAH.JI, 'tI:TO no BbIxo.u;e Tepexa Ha llJIOCKOCTb. rrOCJIe BOPOT CK8iJIMc'rof\O xpeera, OH rrporexan ITO "tJepKeCHH, lIMeBY.HCb TaM MHaqe.

3aT8M B omrCaH.~H CeB. Oc:eTHH - RYPTaTHECKoro ym;€ll'h.R - OR [[lHCaJI. 'tfTO pesea, H,llYJiJJjaH crop K ceaepy, «npopeaan ropy QepKH3' MTa, rro~o6uo TaraypHC'-I1;RaJlU:'>, H3.JllIBaeTCH B JIoMeKH, HJIH Teprn. Bsnne TOM, ropsr, rne OHa npopeasmaer QepK.H3-MTY, seTa TaraypacIJ,KaJIH IIpH1Hl!MaeT B CeOH C Jj,OCTOI<a pyqeHi> (C. 144). Ha xapre HMeHHOc 3,'1'01"0 .me MeCT,a MomHO CQHT·3Th aaxano CKaJIMCTOrO xpetiTa C O,LJ;HOM H3 sepuraa ropsr AAaH-xoxa. 9TE! ~HTa'fa OnaT'b·T8KH nO~TBepm~aeT Ha3BaHHe rop HblHemHero CK8JIHCTOrO xpefi'ra ropaMM qepKeCCKH'MH (qepKH3-MTa).

OCHOBaHO ::lTO y BaXYIIITH. BHP;HMO, na TOM, 'tfTO 'C XV a, aa cesepe, sa CKaJ!lKCThlM Xpe6T'OM (TO'lHlee - .n.OXO,!J;H AO era oenepnsrx CRJIOHOB), OOHTaJIH Ka6ap,ll.HHO-'tfepKeCCKHe JH:apOAl>I. TIOTOMY 't[TO, no caoeMY 06hLKHOBeHlpo, BaxYWTH ,lJ,aeTBCeM He H3BeCTUbIM eMY ropaer MJI.11 BepWIIHfl.M, BXO,!J;.RW;HM B JIlfHMlO CKfl.JIMCTOI'O xpe6T3, Ha3BaHMe no HM8HH cesepnsrx ero OOHT8T,e.JIeH'tfepKeCOB - « qepRH3-MT'a.), KaR ropa A);{aii-xox (era TpeTbJ{ aanaztaaa aepmaaa), TaK M MHT.JlOa.M (CTOJIOBaa ropa, )1.:lKepH-Jl08M H ~eH-JiOaM) BX'O,tl;.HT B COC'l'2B CKamWTOI'O xpefira, a no. Baxymra - t{epKeccKoro.

24

25

Bopraasr

4. (,rJI:idf'BKC-I1,Kamr» (pexa Acca) - Tome OT HMeHH HaCeJIeHHH (l'm:!1l'BOB. T. e. ram-aes) Ii T- • .u;.

CJIe,n;OBaTeJIbHO, aa aroro BH)J;HO, 1:!:TO. KOI',!!;R BaXYWT)I He pacnoJUlI'aJI MeCT'HhIMlf reorpaqHofl.{o(;JCKHM:id TepMHHaMH, OR HX caM COCTaBlUUI YCJIOBHO.

:?lTO Ha6JIlO,ll;eHHe .H cnenan AJlSl TOI'O, ,,[TOGh! OOOCHOBaTb aexoropsre HHmenpfiBO)J;HMble CBOM a3KJIIOqe}l[HJI OTHOCHTeJI.bHO 06HTaaHH aa D..IIOCROC'FBOM TeppHTopHH HbIBelliHeH: HJl1'ymeTMH npyrax naPO,1l;OB, ° KOHX BaXYIIITH ,!I;aJ!i ROCBelllHLI:H: nOBoA ,lJ;Jli,8 aaKJIlb'qeIl1M:R.

Bonpoe Kac3e'rCSI «6opraHOB') (TaTap-KpI>IMUeB), 06H'FaBmHX B XVXVII BB. aa ItaBKa3e. aTO nozrrsepacnaerca CJIep;yIOutHM <l)aKTOM: percy CYH)KY BaXYIlITH HMeHyeT «BopaJ'HHC-URaJIH», T. e. «6opnmCRaR sozta».

'TaKoii: TepMlfH OTHIO,ll;b HeCJlY'laHHOCTb; FI He TO.,1lbKOJIlUUb sa O,n;HO TO, "ITO HR CYfJ~e, y yCThR npx Bna,n;eHHH B Tepex, lfMenDCh nOCeJIeHHe 6opraHOiB Boparan, a, sepoarnee BcerO,BCJIeACTBRe TOro, qTO HMeHHO BO acexr 3TOM nJlOCROCTHOM paHOHe MemAY TepeIWM H CYHmeii: 06HTaJIH TorAa TI.JIeMeHa 6parYHCKHX Ta'rap.

3TO no.noaceaae ,n;OK8ShIBaIOT ,n;aHHbIe MaTepH8J1bHOH KY.JIbTypbl.

KaK, aanpmsep, MaB30J1eH, HB!XOAHlQ.HHCS;r B UJl!OCK:OCTHOH Haryme'rUM OKOJIO cen, IIJIFIeBo 1:1 CTaHI:UI;bl Kapa6YJIaKcKoii, Tome aa fieperax CYHmu, H83bIBaeiMblH MeCTHblMH HHrymaMn e Bopra-rcanre , T. e. «60pl'aHcKMIti CRJIen» (HJIG, Toqliee,. (l6opraHcKaR MOI'HJIa,» • .D:aRHbI!H rpyrmosof MorH.JIhHMK, OTHOCHW;HHCa. K :aepHO;ll;Y (peo.n;aJIbHOM c})OpMal!l!;HH y KpbIMD;eB (no ,l1;aHHl>IM TOll me MOrHJlhHOM yraapa), coopvseea H3 ltaMHH B TlOPltCKO-MYCYJIibMaaCKOMCTJilJIe, RYJlbTypa rcoero 11 ,o;8HHOM pafroae Kaarcaaa He RBJlHeTCH .n;peBHeH H MeCTHoH. Y noaoro IIJIOCKOCTHoro H8CeJIelfm:H l;iHrymeii ~TOT T8TapCKHM Ma1'iSOJIen IIOJIL30B8JI'CJJ 60JIbmUM YBameBHeM: era HIe TOJIhKO COXpaHJIJIH, HO H peCTaBp"pOBaJIH, IIQJlb30BaJIIfCh liM ~JI,8 COBepmEl;EUIR B HeM MYCYJIhMalIClKHX HaMa30B (MOJlUTB). Y UaCeJIeHHH OKpeCTHOH HHl'yweT.HH (nOS,l1;HeHWero B p;aBHOH MeCTHOCTI1) 0 HeM cyll3;ecTByeT MHOJKe(iTBO npe.n;aHliH, ITO conepxcamno B 60JIblURHCTBe COlBepLUeHHO He HCTOPHqHlbIX, H.a,l{y~aHHhIX, C pOMaHTH'lHOH, H,n;eaJIH3HpyIOw;ei1 T8Ma'FHKOH, IIOT'OMY HCT·OpHH CO CTOPOHbI {];lOJIbKJIOpa II STOM aonpoce He'lJeJlO noxepmryrs.

IIo'tlHTaHHe .me HHrymaMH 'lJym,lloro HM CKJIeUa 06'bSICH . .aeTCR TeM, 'liTO, H BbICeJlJ'J,8Cl> crop F.l KOJlOHH3Mpya :B XVIII B. 3TY HaapaHOBCKYro (6MBmylO Ka6ap~PIHo-qepReccxYlo) n.rWCKOCTb, OHR eoxpaH:HJIJil B· csoea H,ll;eOJlOI'UH e:w;e SHaQMT8JIl'>HOe rrpeoriaanauae ApemreI'OPCKHX POll;OB'hlX rrepeacarreoa..a QHCJ1e ROUX IIMeJilHCb If SJIeMeHTh.I aHHMH3Ma (KYJIl>T npeznecs), 6JI.arop;apJl -qeMY MOrUJIhl. XOTJl[ 61>1 U "IyJt<:He, Y HHX CqUTaroTca HenpHKoCHoBeHHhIMH, Tpa;ll;HIJ;ITOHHO noqHT'aeMhIMH. A c p;pyroH CTOPOHbI. B s'li'y.me caMYlO nopy, cpezra HHX napannensao pacnpocrpaaazrocs HOBoe Tiel-me - KCJIaM,. peJIHr'li.l'l xoero paaaasaaacs B YCJ!!OBMHX uoasmreaaoro )J;YXOBHO:rO rpaaareaMa, OCHOUaHHOI'O Torp;a na COD;HaJIbHO-IIOJIHTHT.JieCKMX H :3IKOJIOMll> 'IeCRHX npamranax 60p:b6bI "POTHB KOJIORHaJIl,HOI'O .3aKa6RJIeHMSI

.27'

CJJ;e,l1;OUaT8JIlbHO, H3 sroro MOj!(HO :3&1<JIlO'tlHTh, t.ITO npe:iKp;e, B rrePHO,lJ; ,lJ;O XVIII B., lIHI'YWH 1KMJI1:1 J!:Hmh ITO ceBepHhIM yrn;eJIbaM H ,l1;OJIMHaM OCHOBHOf'O, Hearpansaoro EaBlCa3CIWf'O rOpHOI'O MaCCHB8. T. e, M,em~y CH€!rOBlJM (aa iore) H CKaJIMCTfiIM (aa oesepe) xpefieaMH, a ceBepHhlH H:paft CKaJIHCTOrO, TIacTOWID,HblH: H JIecncThlH xpe6- TbI, a aa HHMH TIJIOCKOCTb na ceaepe ~ ace 6bIJUI aaH.RTbl Ka6ap,lllMHO\fep~eCCKHMH nJIeM8HaMl'1.

C APyroG: CTOPOHhI, p;aHHble MaTepMBJIhI Baxynrra nO)1;ToepJK;Il;IlroTCR napaJilJIeJIHMH M2. rrpe.u.aHHH HHrymeii 0 KaOap,B;HHU8X H '!'epxecax, KaK, aanpmrep, 3R(lmKCHpOB8HHl>le q. AxpHeBhIM 8? .lIereHp;bI o Ka6ap,lI;HHlI,aX B AlIrymTcKoft KOTJlOBHHe (8 'TapcRoii ,ll;OJIHHe), RO· T()!?<8.R KaK paa 'HaXO,lJ;MTCn 3Ha'IHTeJIbJ:lO cenepaee CR3JJHICTOro :11: A!PYrHX xpetiroa,

BOT, '<{TO HM eanacaao:

l-tJr BapHaHT - «QT XPMCTn:a.HCROI'O napa, nsrcemrarrrer-oca B TapCKYIO ,lJ;OJIlHHY, IIPOH30WJlO Ra6ap,!],MHCKoe rrJIeM;![)) ~r, •

2-n BapH8HT - «Kol'Aa mMTb CTa.1tO TeCHo, ranraeansr Ha1:!:aJIR BbIC€JIJlTbC;H aa ,IJlOJIHHY (Tapcievro). B&[CeJIHBI1IHCb, OHR 1l0CTPOHJIH 60 6aweH, 13:To6bI BeCTI! BOMHY C "Ie-qeHD;aMH, OeeTHE.aMH M Ra6ap-

~l'mIJ;aMH» 81. .

'lITo me K8CaeTCJI co,!!;€pmaHU$![ 060HX npnaenemrsrx rrpHMepoB:

UepBOl'O - C xapaRTe1?HOH Ten,m:eHUHeH BeeTH reIBeaJIOr!HIO OT u:apeH H BTOpOrQ - qnCTO' HHrYWCiKQJ'O, c xaparcreprrsna ,ll;mr .n;peBH€!BOCTOQHOft CYMepHM:CROlJ ~HBHJIli3aU:HH CHMBOJIHQeCKHM qUCJIOM (<<60 fiamea s ), - HX R He aHaJ'IFl3HpylO aaecs , nOCI{OJIhKY aTO He BX0.lllHTB aanaxy lllaHHOH TeMh} 88.

Tal{HM 06pa30M, nocae nepercpeernoro aHWU13a Ma'!!'epHliJIOB aaKJIIOQalO, "ITO rpY3HHCKH8 HCTO'-IHHKW )];0 XVnI B. BrIOJIHe nepno (PMKCMpyroT rpaHHUY IiHI'YW€TMM na ceaepe - C QepKecHei1,

EaK Y:)f\e IBhIme OTMeqaJIOCh,BaxYWTH npu.u;ep)KHBaJIC.H CJIBAYIOID;eH TeH)J;enD;UH: B Tex CJIyttaSfX, xorzta eMY He BnO.JIHe TO'IHO 6blJIH H3BeCTHbI reOl'pa<pHqeCRH€ :a:a3saHMR, TO oa BblBO,ll;HJI HX OT aTHHqeCIWl'O Ra3BaHM.fI: 06HT8rorn;ero TaM HaCeJIeHHSf, JI'H60. Hao6opoT, ",TBHtteCKoe MMH HaCeJl!e'HHJI ~ ITO Ha3BaHHIO Toft MeCTHOCTM. B .n;aH.HOM CJlY1:Ia8 rrpH:MepOM MoryT CJlYlKHTb asrmenpaaezteamae pexn, UJIN paHoa n.oCe.IIeHUR ,!l"mepaXOBIJ;eB H KHCTRHueB.

I. <lXeBCKaSl Aparaa» (Tepex) .. BYKBRJI'bH:O 3'1'0 BI:.lpameHRe YiK8- aiasaer aa M9CTHOCTI> B,!l"OJII> TeqeHMJI (OT «XeBR» ~ YlWieJIbe nO-ZPY3.), T. e. « Yw;eJIhHaa Apar-sa» .

2. (\KHCTHC-~Ra..JIu» (pexa KHcTiHHKa) (lltHcTHHcRaH nona», no I1Me:a:l1i HaC9.rreUHR (KHCTOB).

3. «KncTo-.n;3YPP;3YKcRaSl pemca» (pexa ApMXH) - TmK6 no aTH-mleCKOMY HMeRH HaCe,l!leHIIR.

26

POCCHHCKHM CaMO,llep:iERBH8M scero UX PO,!J;H'Oro rcpaa, 3TO HftU;MOHaJIbHO-OCB06o,lJ;HTeJlhHOe (6ypmyasHO-,ZJ;eMOKpaTHIJeC:KOe) ,l(BH.iT<e'fn~e KaBRaaCKRX naponoa 'ObIJIO BOSI'JIaBJleHO 1'1 opr8HH30BaHO BoeHHOTeOJfOrH't!eCKHM aarrpaaaeaaera HX MMaMOB. nponeaenoaaanrax «ra- 3aBaTI) (CB,;nI~elliHYro BofiHY npOTHB IfBOBep~eB).

IIoToMY see, CBJl3aHHOe C HOSOH aepoii, Y HHryweii: npxofiperano BeChMa no't!HTae:Moe 3Hiii'tIeHHe.

06HapymeElme me aa M€CTe csoero R080ro noceneuaa (na UJIOCc JWCTH} MOI'HJIhHHKa, IK TOMY me e HaqepTaHHhlMH Ha HeM eaatrteaHMOOH CJlOSaMIJ: Ha apa6CKOM SlSh!Ke - fli3hIKe KopaHa, - Bce STO BMeC'Fe coanasano CHTYSD;HlO Ay:icOBHOI'O nOKJlOlHeElIHR ,lliaHHOMY MecTY. IIoSTOMY eCT8C'I'BeHHO, "lTO HOBOrrOCeJIeHIJ;aM - MYCYJI:gMa.HaMHiHryuraM. :Ha3paHOB~aM - aTilT Ma:B30JIet1: KUSaJlCSI aaaxane Ber:bMa CBflTlbIM, 1104HTanHe Y,ll;.Ba.nBa.m:OC.b (ApeBHepO,LlOBOe - HOBhIM. MyCYJIhM8HCKHM). 6.narop;apH 'lIeMY 6E>!!JIO T;'Utoe YBRJReHMe K He~y, a noace He 113-3a Rali'W!H:-JlUOO HEOR nplitIrUlbI.

o cymeeraoaaaaa B6JIll3H aroro M,aB30J1en IIOCeJIeHHa TaTap ['0- BOpHT npecpeccop JI, n. CeMeHOB 89> Il)1:THPYJ'I .KS 11 •. M .. POJIOBHHcreoro CJIe.m:ymrn;ee: <f ••• rrpe,n;;ITOJIOmeHFI8 0 CYiLll;8CT;BosaHHlf 6JIH:3 naM,J'('rHHKa Bopraxam IlQCeJIeHHsr 60pl'aHmJ., ROTOPhlX :Ka6apAHH~br 0'["TeCHI1J!H IlOTOM It '!e"IJ!e:SCKHM I'OpaM •. BnOCJIe.n;CTBIHli 60praHhI 3TM, C-1:laCT:E.JO qeqeHrr;eB,. noce,.TIKllKCh H3 Tepexe H OCROBltJlBlI ayn BoprafiLl, cyrn;e:CTByroID;l1H M,lIOCeJle, AO Ha3hlBaeMhIM MlEiar'le: eBparvma» 9". CaM me npocpeccop ,JI. 11. CeMeROB aaKJIIDqae'T cJIe)J;yrorn;ee:«B aa'tJiaJIe,lllOnYCTHMO, qTO Bopra-Karn, eCJlH He c caeroro OCHOiB8.RH.H, TO noaxee, aanaaca q)8MHJlbHhIM CKJIenOM O,lllHoro H3 6parYHCKHX po,o;Olh> n.

C.mep:OlB8TeHE>RO, Moe 3aKJIJO"teililHe BD.OJIHe OCHOBaTeJIbHO; qro Me:lKJl:Y CTaHH~ei1 BparyHcKoH. (<< BOPI'8H!I'I» - no BaXYWTH) H W3;nSOJleeM Bopra-Karn HM:eeT'C:,a: 06W;HOCTh, XOT.R OHM n: He COBceM 6.JlH:3RO iP3CIlOJImK9HibI .lI;pyr R ,z:r.pyry. MOlKHO,[lOnYCTHTh, 'ITO 'fa"FapbI-KpbIMD;hI (6<;lpraHbI) B H3BeCTHbrn: rrepnOA38HHM8JlM necs rIJWCKOCTHOH paJ:i:OIl: Me}R~y pellt8MR CYllmej;f Iii: TepeKoM H ,ZJ;8m€ eme asrme, AO peRU RYMbI, rae aa MeCTe npe,lllnon:araeMOH ApeBHexasapCKOH CTOJIlill;bI g2 T8Rme coxpamVTCll TepMIUl «Byproa-Manxcapsr». T. e. fiopr-aacrcos rOjp0AlilW!e, Ma,umapbI .. [IO-BHAllMOMY. BIIOCJIe.a:CTBBH l:)TOT l-CpyrrH!.Iii HCTopnqeC!<HH IJ;eHTp X8aapCKOM CTpaHhl rronan II PYKH TaTap-6paryHoB, oTKyp:a!li B03HHKJ10. sepOHTRO, orrpeaeaaromee em HOBYro npnRa,nJI1emHOCTh a3a,BaJUi.€ «ByproH-Mam,apbU.

FI3 aeero nepel!M:CJIeHHOrO C03,1J;aeTCf[ BUeqaT.JIeHHe, QTO TepPl1:'I'OplI.K HhIHemHeH TIpHCYHm.eHCKo:a Q IIpwl'epeqHOH UJlOCKOCTH Harymen:HI (l1 )1(a1Ke asnne aa eesep AD pexir RYMhl. B 60JIee p.UUUQlO llOPY) B XV 11 XVI DB. 6l'>IJIa aaceneaa lWqeBbflMI1 IIJIeMeH TaTap, O.a:HO lIS KOlIX' RPbIMo;hl-60jpraHhI.

TOJIh.EW 6JI8ro,!!:,ap:s 3ToMyBaxYUITlI', pacnOJliaraSUHiH HaJIH~n1eM fiones TOqRibEX CBe,n;eH'HU 0 60praHax Kalt lKllBIIHI!X B cpaBHlITen:l>EO He.n;aBHIoro 0'1' Hero :moxy, p;aJl, no CBoeMY 06MKRosemuo, ::ITO naasaRRe He H3B8CTHOH eM'Y pexe CYB!m.e, ilia 6eperax KoeH OHM. TOl'p:a

28

06II'raJIJ![ (6parYRM). BOSMOjRHO TaK.iK€ erne H TO, qTO B COCTaBe xa- 6apAHHo;eB oa 3aCTaJI C3.MHX, nOTOMKOB erapsrx 60praHOB (KphIMu,en). CJI8J,l;Ona'E'eJlbHO.TepMHH <iBoprSHTIC-u,KaJIM1> ,l],JIH H3i3BUHlilJ'l peRM CYH}KH ,n:;aeT ,ll;JIH HCTOPHH OP;Rl1 H3 apl'YMeHTOB, yRa3lbIBalOm~X aa CSHSt. AaHROI'O YCJIOJ3.HOrO 0603HaQeHM.H pexa BaXYWTM: COCMem!:lbIM nOCe'JIelUieM: '60prSHOB, 0 KOYX M.MeIDTcsr npe,D;lrlOJIOj-KeHHK, 't[TO OHM 06HT8JlM. ,B pa3Jll'['t£HblX p3l'to:e::ax Cesepaoro KaBW;l.3a. J;l 'X'OM 1{UCne, BH,1l;l1iMO, H a,n;eCh. Ha Ha3paHOBCROI1: nJlOCR.oCTH.

3AEJIIO'l.J:EHHE

B 3aK.JIIOqeH1H:~ Mom.HO KOHCT8THPOB8Tb, qTO nCTopMRo-rsorpa'qlH'leCltHH MM'ep:aaJl, 'C06paHHbln BaXYWTH no rpy3MHcKHM lICTOl.!HHK3M 06 I1HI'ymeTHH, npH sceM era CKy,n:OCTR II npPlMHTHBHOCTH Bee me nponaaaer 3HaqWFeJIbHhI:H CBeT Ha TepPJITopn:aJIbHOe pacnonoaceirae HH!'YrnCKD:X I:!IJIeMeH II l!l!POlI1.1tOM. B TOM nOJIOmeHHl1, B HO'l'OPOM npe6blBaeT enre aeropaorpaqiaa [IHI'yweTlu1, Ka.JR,1l;.hlM HORbIn: MSTepHaJI HMeeT MC'ItJIIOqHT€JIbHO neaxoe 3Ha't[eHHe. IIoToMY CR.llOHeH C'CflIT8Th,. l.J:TO eC.lIH: .!J 3.ZleCh CnpaBHJICH C 3Ma-qell aCHOro Ii[ rroa . .R:THOro KOMMeHTHposaIUUJ: TeRCTa BaXYllITH, 'I'O A.JIfl HCCJi[e· ,!l;OBaTeJlei:i: HCroPHM ,m;aHHhlM reorpaq,lltIeCKH:M pasnen CMOmeT 06" .neT'-[H.Th nOHHMaHHe ee rrpOlllJIOH UCTOpHH. K TOMY ,l'K,e KapTBI, COCTaBJIeHHaH no ,n;aHHO:A 'lJaC1'H, see 3TO ,lJ;OmKHa HJln:IOcTpaTHBHo ,ll;OnOJIHHTb.

nPHMEl£AHH5I

I Jlenu« B. H, Pa3aumue Icanuma.aU3M.a, 8 Poccuu. 1930. T. 3. I'», 06pa.10~ eauue 6Hympeuneeo pl,/./uea; 3li,alteuue ollpa-un. Bnympenltuu I,UI:U C'uimultuu: pb.·

no«. C. 463, ,464. . ..

2 C.+t.: Ba.'lOpIi:UN, M. M.: Xem(lto'8efutQXClcaa, npo6.n,,!MI.a,. (B 8a,f1,HQU xnuee.

Fmn081J,mCll Ii· usitanuso},

:J C8eaen~UJ,UJ jll aJlD'U COB€lnc:twli, 8uuu/(;.lwl~eauu.

4 BUJl.bJ'U)U A JL reozparj;u'le.cl(uu ovep« Hltzywemuu, 1928. FA. 3.

,S X ,{! 8 U (no-epY3. «eapiuat; p'!I'leuv) _. nomQlt, Yl4e.libe ([lPUM. M, r. /1,J!lG' IW,UL6UJ/,U. C. 7:5),

~_ n A P a a r3 a ~ 8 lJalUWJlt C_'ly'we mepJluJ.-1:t omltocumc.a If, ucmOKy Tepexa. HI:) 6' FP/i/3UU nOa maKUJI' JlCe na::1£1anue~t C.!lll~cm/Jyem I-Jt?CUOJU;IUJ pCIC •. 1:Ca1G, uanouJltep.!1paum tiesa«, Apat6a 'tepH.(1H,. Apa86r1, IlucaeceasiApaeea It iJp.

( g e p. If, e ;3 U; - ii 'Iepxecue» nO·,tpY3. (3 iJammAI cJl.Y'tae 3mo nlOOc IWe(lll> aa

CIt.Q,JjUCIlUJUt xiJe6nwM. Ita ceeepe.

II Jl o AI: e sc u. ~ pexa T'epeic,

fI K y p ,//1. a y ,/I U - Kypma.mul:tclCoe YW,€Jlf1e Ceoepnou Ocem..uu,,,

I" ,4 B a It emu s ~ .II 8axY;ULmu cmpGltu, pacn:o.!toJICennaR. na l3oemoltft,(Jl'I. ()ICpa,UH,e n!>/./teumeii Ceeepnot; Oc,emiUL Off, rwpmo omO;JfCaeCmBJLiU!mee C Ifi!u.. " III a e a 8 a Ji U (,.!j;(lCUdUJl.U»). - no·zpY3. «ctujctc» (Flpu.»: M. I'. Jl.xanaut8UJw. C, 7 ()).

12 K u c m o . I~ Ie a Jl U ~ no-epus. «Eucmunexas: 8Qa(l~.

29

W Pelto ul)em 0 ~apbR/l,bC1COJlt yil4eJt&e. 14 To ecrn!> f!opa.Mu.ICa(J~a3a.

/0 CJI!. paQOln!} <eX emmo-eelucaxctcas: ilpo6JLe.ua,>. eae UA!('1el1lCR OOllH 3KC' IC!lpc. ,/tQc6Rl4e,H.nbtu eonpocu e.iiuHcm(Ja: eeuesuca mep uuua (lJlOUAt» iJJLR. zeozpatpu'teclfux. 311lnU'le.cltuX u "YJlbm08bix o6o'3Ha'teffui'l e zpyauHCICOJI. U UII.ZYW· erco.ll! ,R,:JbtICUX.

/8 JI a 3 Y' P u - .Jl,apc., ceJtel-tue .Ita BoelUiO·rpY3uH.C.K.Oit Bopoee.

/7 A »: a p u. e x U - no·zpy3. ('80UCJCO(Joe AlecmOf>, om. «iJ:JICapw> - l3'OUCfW (JIpUJI!. AJf:C,(lffaw,13uJtu. C. 148) . .l1c;m;epa.xo,6c"oe Y14eJi.be 6 80pHOU. Hn.rywuu npuJlf.btKaem C60itM 6btXOaOJlt fla JanaiJ H: PyCA!} Tepexa.

Ilf X e 8 C /(. a RAp a z 8 a ~ no·ItPYJ. "Yw,eJLbIUU/, ApaZ8a», no B iJ'anrto.M. csupcae ainO peltQ. Tepel("

19 K U C In 0 - A .1 Y P a J Y 1C C K a g - .ICucmaJKU U fJ3ypiJaYlfaJlw nasueanmc.n ,6 opet.mezpyaullc/Cux uemopuueexux UcmOIf.1tuX:GX 3anafht06eunaXCICue n.se.1ltetl.a - O:HCepaX08CKue UflZyW.U.

to X e m a a .1 e - no ~ap,ne Baxpuunu ceno na JI.€80.!>t 6epezy pesu Tepetca; cOGm6emcm6yem HbuLCUllleAty cex. Basma KG BoenHO·rpYJu.ItCIf;OU oopoze.,06 31nO;iI, iJen.la.ltbH.O eM .. MOIO pa(jomy: Xemmo-eetueaxcxax npo(jJl.e.1lfa.

u Boi}op.a 3 {}e.n. , c teomopoeo na ceeep cnaiiaem e Iizeepax: petca ApJI!xu.

22 iloo <rl{aBl(Q:JOlfP) 6 (JaHIiOJlt cJlY'l-ae nOIi!lJIwerncJl. ZOPftl>!lJ. xpe6elll M(!:If(' a,Y HHzywemueu u ilWa6Q-Xc8cypueii, C «omopoeo cmexaem pexa Apscxu,

2.~ CM. I'll>lwe - 911W pexa Tep€JC.

24 r 8 U J/. emu - It.a3Banue UHZylJ.l,eKOZO cenenusc no Boenuo-Tpusuncxot; iiopoze" tWXaon.UFUOCR. G n.pefJel!(Lx ZPY·3UftCIWU meppumopuu. •.

21;' C.",. Bbt.lUe: iJal-tl-tQ:R. peea Apaeea - .7mo P(UW Tepex,

26 To ecm.1> C xpel5ma, pa,1iJeJI:R.IOw,ezo ryoOJllafWpCfCoe Y!ll;eJlbe !t eopnYj{) HlizywemulO,

!; C o It a Baxinumu coomeesncmeuem IlblftCWHeU e Hluywemuu pes» c.yn· :HCe (1l10.fl.",a~).

21/ B ,'4amepUaAax Baxyw.mu 3mo eiiumcmeeunoe yno.Munaff.ue 0 IJe.ute, ecna ne C'Lumamr; e~,e 08yx noiJoVltblX KOCB€Ul-tbtX .1(J.JltemOI( (6 onuca/-IUI/. epaH.uq 3a1Ca6lCa3CICUX nnesuue}.

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32 Cap JIt ,a m U JI. - o6!l~ee naueanue }J ape131iux -{JJ~R zpynnbl Upm-WICUX tconeeu.x n.nesse« (nocne CIWtpO(}), »aseuiu» c III 8. fi'oxp .. 3. no II (1, /1" 1iJ. a cmenJlX llpU\tepHOJlt0pbJl U Ceeepnoeo KaaICQ3a. Hx nomO.4tfCQJlUl ( moxuee npeeMHuKaMu) C'lu,ma./OlnCJl Q.JlQ.Hbt" a ';,bi/U, ""' oce.mul-t!>l.

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36 Ta.r.t J/Ce. C. 169 (KJla6(JUu. I1mOJLeMeU 06 An.6a1£ U,U ).

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40 HClnOicu ACCbl Ui!~e/Om pa,JJlu'!ubt€ JiaJflauU.R.: 6 .«reoap(Upu'teCltOM olf.ep'Iff' Hl-titywemuu» A. K. BUJlb,RMCa OIW, uJlteny,l()lnCR zpy3U1H,.lSUpo(JanHbU1U mep· .AIUliaJ>lU: «Apxomuc,> Ii «Ko.JlomaliuC'», a. ua «apme Hlt?o(JI1JY, (1928) ~ «gyp' iI./JtX'XU') •.

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45 CAt • .111010 pa60my «Xemmo-eeiinaxcxae npoti nesu:», Itoe eonpocv 6J1.,£l:jonn,u (am/i.,u't,ecKou U KYJH"m.ypuou) ultzywei'L C epy3unCi.M.1l 6 MY(}OKOiJ. fJpe8H.Q<"mu omeeiieno 3H,a'l,UmeAb'·'O .liUfDZO 6nUJltlUtUiI..

46 AJl6op06 B. A.Tep;ILUH. «Xatiagau» acemu-uc/lCUX .napm06CI(UX ('·ICQ,3aHuu.

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40 T'ast. »ce.

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H Kapaljlw6 H. A. C6eJeHUJl apa6c'lCu.x eeoepaqioe IX-X 66.0 Ka6ICaseil Co. suimepuasoe OJIR. onucaftu.ll Jltecm1l.ocmeil. u nJ/.e.Ju'.1/,. Ka~nw.1a. Been. 38.

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30

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,,' ema 111~eAbe IU! n(J.laaH.O.!J Baxgusreu; (}·te6UQ1iO, smo pna ytl,e,jtUU l..{o· pUIUY/cOZO palsoua, «omopeiu, ei}ulI.cJn(Jeftfi.biU, naxoiiumcneocmoxuee FUJuue,(J-

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iii Cxa.nucmeui xpe6em - z, Betu-tiepmu,

112 O'teouano. amo eopo: tJepzaJl.nu.t Jlr:(!JlCdy ayJla.Jtu Xaii,paxoJi1. !l BO(jIlYuu~'U .. It& no cof}ep.lICaHu./Q npeObtayw;eeo metccma Baxtjuunu, 3'mo pexa A;ll1/-lJ,elJ.,

11.0 ees. AH.2yulm 1IUXQch,,"WJI na pexe raAMU (KaMOU.llee6x:a). - 64 Cen, A1£2yu'tm.

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ee T{, Axpue,6. H/iZyutU/ /011. ceeeenuu 0 KU61W:WX/.lX zopl~ax. Bb1l1. 8.187.5.

C.19. .

M TaM »ce. C. 30. 31.

~8 CJ11. • .111.010 pafJomy «X em~lo·6eUH.a:l:CH:aJl npo6Ju!Jrlu)}, ili1e u..-neem-c.fl pusoe,t, nOc.BJI.'4lmUI,lu aonpac/J 0 iU)'/umaH.IJ.U y unzyweucYMepuucx:ux cusieouu'H~CI'C'UX uucen.

so' Cessenoe J/. II. Ma63QJl,eil Bopea-naui] I H36eCrnUJL, 11 HZYWCKOZO HHH

KpaeeeoeHuP" 1928. T. t. 1/1) Ta.At .?iCe. C. 2'22 •.

MJ Ta.u :ur.e. C. 2'30.

~r M a i} :JIC a p bl - (ibtf}IUOJl cmOJiulta (Qrrlopa.ft. a nepea« - HIlWA/> Ita pexe Bonee ) Xasapctcoeo uapcmea. Ita CeoepnoM Ka(JIt{J~:e: Omft.QCllJnCJI. tc IXX 68. (y apa6cIGux 2('.(Jzpa(jJQ8 VIII-IX 88. - (j_B(,;JteFtf}:JH:ep~, c nepc. r,BY.ll.enf)· MaiJ:JICap» - «60.ltbIUUe MaOJiUtpbt'). a na .. ltecme «MaJl./>lx Mao:m:llp", I€omo· p!Jte nQxof)Jlmc.R Janaih~ee; OCrna.llltCb .'lUWb pa;J8aJtUl;I.bl: uccneooeasue« 8 1934 e. Apxeo·.ftOZll<t€CICOU X:O'Atuccueu (C,u. !laiJ.: ITpI'JJlemapllli. Ocemuu. Oap:H(O/tu.x:u{)'se .. 1934. 16 a·8Z, .M 186;.

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33

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B ,liIaHHOM CJIY"'I!ae MO»l(HO ,l:IOnJIyC'PHTh, 'iTO :21'1'0'1' JIeI'eSAapHblH Tnprareoc C (HTOTOMKaM1:I» t BepOJ!THO, OTHIO,fII. He MH¢U'IeCKOe JIHUO, 11 cj)UK'l'HqeCKHR nepcoaaac zrpeanero KYJIbTOBoro HJIK ponosoro 06- UteOoCTO\.li1l0I'O 118HTeooa. HM.H xoero Tapr, BUJl;HMO. rny60Ko nOBJIH.H)1100 n81. [lCJ]xonOFHIO Ii TPMHII,M:IO nO'IHTaHHSl Tex .o;pemnrxHapoAoB, (mpe'l'H,1l\OB). na HOKX CnO)KHJIaC!b rpY3HHCK8JI, BeHHaxcKaH H He~o'l'OPhIe APyrMe KaBK8aCKMe ~THl{l{eCKMe 06W;HOCTH poacraeamrx no roneancy naponaocrea.

I1apaJlJl:eJIbHO C rpY3liHc:xoii JIeTOnMChIO 06 ~TOM Ji<.e «repoe» (;OOOrn;aeTC$I: H B apMHHcKOH HCTOpHM. Mon.ce» XopeBcKHH OTMe'laJI, 'ITO a Mnxere «PO.n:HJlIOCh nOKOJIeHHe ,QoMa <PoropMhIl) (Taprazaoea) (C. 43)2.

B MaTepHaJIaX Bu6JIHH Tal<}Ke 8CTh YnJIOM11HaHHe 0 HeM, nplf4:eM (I~OHe'I-Hqecn:H-qwpMa KMeHR 'fa me caxaa ':ITO R Y M. Xopeacxoro, )~n H I'80rpa(p1I'IeCKH :enOJIH:e COOTBeTcTByeT M8CTY, y'K8i3J:,lIlaeMOMY B I'PY31IHCltoii IfeTonHCH «ltOPTJII'IIC Hxoapeda». OHO rPHrYPHpyeT B I' 116mUI RaR naTpHapXaJIbHO-3THH1:JeCKHH TepM111t. B dCHlIre rrpopoxa He3eI<UJIH»; B rJI. 38, !HMeeTCJ:I npencxaaaaae yxeaea H .aaxaaaIIH.l1, 00 ROTOPOMY H3J H3pSJfJ.lb'F.flH ,m:OJ1}KeH HanaC"Fh JIereH.n;apHblH 1~I'IPl:. «1I3: C'FpaHhI I'ora H Marora», BCOCTaBe Boi.J:cK KoerOHMeeTCH YIIOMI1HaJure ° Hapo,n;e H,el<oero 'I'apraraoca < ... > - IlJIeM:j,CCIlorapMIJ: c cesepasrx npeAeJIOB»~. ECJIH yqeCTI., 'ITO MaTepMaJIhl rpY3HHCKHX Jle'I'o:nHce:ii He nonsepraror 'COMHoeHH!IO rpY3HHCKoe rrpOHCX02K,rn:eHHe (\ r-oroa H MarorOB i> 4. H 'ITO ,lli,ame B rpY3HH HMeIOTCH aHl.'iJl!Ol'H"T.IHhIe reorpadiaxecaae TepMM:Hbl 5, TO MO}KHo',n;onYCTHTh, OTHOCHTeJIbHYIO IIpaBHJIbH!OCT1b 3'1'0I'0 OHOJIeHCKOro coo6~,eHHJl H ilCTOPHqHOCTI. ztarr- 1'101'0 'repMHHa (Tapearaoca).

Aanea, nOMUMO :3TOrO, BDOJIH~ npaBHJIbRO 6H6JIenCKOe YKa3aIlHe na B03MOlKHOCTL nOHBJleHHSI: IlJIeMeHII 'I'apraxoca «e C€BepJ-lbIX opeIIt:JtO'B, nOTOMY"iTO rpY3HHCKHe npeaaae HapO,D;hI 06RTaJIK cesepaee flr,IJleCTHHbi '} 6 •

Ilpennoncaeeane, lI1'O aexoraa B HCTOPHH I'pyaaa ,n;aHHbIH 60l' H l'epoi'i 'I'apra HI'paJI 'K,aKYIO-TO BeCbMa SHaqHTeJIbHYro pozrs, .n;0.K83b[· naer FI MeCTH!bEH 1~)OJIbRJIOpHE.rH MaTepH8JI. Ero HM.H aoorresaror B nanfio.nee CTapHHHhlX aapoamrx necaax ropnsr - Xe!BcYPbJ H nnra- 11M, o6HTalBlIIHe H3:t(pe'BJle B BeCbMa H30J.lHPOB8UHOM ropnora paaoae ICnBR838. OHM: COXpaHHJIM .B 60Jlee lI(e,lU,HOM H aenpHKOCHOlBeHHOM BloJ,n;e MHonw 3JIeMeHTf>1 .n;peBH€liWeH ltYJIh,Typbl rpya,MH. CJle.u;on8- 'I' -'JIbHO, IIX crapnnasre necnn xpaasrr 3Ha':lHTeJIbHYIO ,n;,OJIlO ,n;peBIll-IX npe,n;a.an-H.

ABTOP nepesozra «f'eorpaqraa rpY3HH') M. I". ,1lmanaUlBMJlM B (cIIpHJIo:ti<eHHM K 8THorpa<1)H~eCKOMY OT,n;eny» coofiman CB€,QeHHJl HS MaTepH8.JIOB l"pYS:MHCKUX HCTopHlieCKHX JIeTOTIHCeM OTfliOCHTeJlbHO MHqnnrecKoro reaeanca ee e npanpenxa» II « npapozrmrsr»,

IIPMBOAH''FCH nonaoeesro BCSI II;HTa'l'a 1'13 aaxana aroro 3-ro paa,IleJIa; «Hpeztaaae ° IIepBOHa'Ia.!lbHOH pozncae r'pY3MH. IIo nocrpoeEMIl HMMB,PO..n;OM (»tHJI OK. 2:716 I' • .aoxpv s ) Oa.IIIHH B BaBHJfo, He,- I'OBOPHT «RapT'JIHC Ilxospetia», - H paCrld,[(eltYlU .H3hIKOB. Tap-

, raMOC, Ilpn6I.IH C OOTOMCTBOM CBORM (M3 BaBHJlOHa), IlOC'eJIHJICH B MemI'opie Apapara H Macnca: nO'rOMCTBO .me eI'O 6hlJIO neJll1Ito U MHOrOt:IRCJIeHHO. jEHJI OR TYT 600 ne-r, Bee pa3MHO>KaH'CE. H YBeJIMllHBaSICb B CTpaH8 • ..n;OCTaBlIIeHeSI: 8MY B ,!I;O.:rllO H MMelO~eH C BOC'1'OKa

.Mope I'ypraaercoe (rnJlSIHCKOe, .UJIH KaCIIHHCKoe), C sanana - Mope TIoHTCl<Oe (l:fepHoe), c rora - ropy OpeTH, tITO B crpane KypTOB npoTHE MH,lIHH. 111. C cesepa - ropy KaBRa3. ChIHOBhH ero Ka.PTJlIOC. 3rpOC, Bapnoc, MOBaNaH, Jlexoc, I'epoc, KaaKa30C H I'aoe 6bIJIH repoaMH. OHR pacnonaranacs 1I paaMHOmHJIRCI. TaK, qTO aeMJ:lH ApaparoMaCHCCKaH y:iKe He BMem;aJI,a !B cefie IIOTOMCTsa Tapraxoea, H :nOTOMY on, 'I'aprassoc, nOnoBRHY CBoeI'O nJIeMeIl!H OCTaBliJI TYT me, a .n;pyrYIO nOJIOBHHy OT1B,eJI K cesepy R paCCeJIMJI no KapTJIHH. Brpaca, Bapae, MO,BaKaHY, JIeKeTHH, repeTHH Ii KaBKacHH. I'aoc OCT8JilC,H TaM me, B Apapa,TCKOM 06'.lIaCTll» (C. 33).

B 3TOM MaTepn.an8 JfIpHBe,u;eHa nerenna H3 .n;peBHeHwero H HaH- 6oJ'ree aeroptrrerxoro rpyaaacxoro n:CTopH~,eCROI'O HCTOt,IHHKa. OHa

34

35

TaRllt'enOKa3a'Il'eJlbCTBOM, ,!l;OnYCJ{mOIU:HM 3IU"l!H,)q-eHH8 0 ,ll;OMJiJHnpYI0I48l'!l: nOJJOJK,eHHH B ;TJ;peBHOCTll y rpy:mH 11 HHrymeti MMe}!H «Tappa it. cnY,)l{HT erne TO. r.rTO. II- Ka"'8TUH GlTHM HMeHEH"11 aaanaao neC1tOJIl.RO cen, KpenOCTen H p;an\:e KH:fl]II:-C€CltNM ztnopen. Yt,IH'FLmaR }IW TeH,l{eHl..l,mO <CB.fl3bIBan.lIpeSHH:e H8H!rI-leaOsaHHH. YI~pen.llelfiH:I1:, noOeJI8HHH [1 T" )l,. C I'I!MBn3MH 6(H"OB, n,apeHM repoes, a xporaerero , UN .lljJ1IIT8JIhHYlO YCTon~lHBocTh, coxpaaaoees B E!ep:plil~OCH0l3eJ.moc'rH, MOJKHO C'l£HT8Th, tJ:'l'O B ,!l;3HIfOM cnyt:lae llMeIDTC,H HeIWTOp1Ie caaavIOrn;*e 3JIeMeH'r.bI c OCT8JlbHhlMU CSe.lleHHaMH 0' 'l,'OM;>i<e 'I'apre.

Kp01\'1e Taro. B Kax:eTHM B nepu:op; lI;apCTBOS3HUfl TaMllp'bl (<<BeJ'n1· I{oii»; no Baxynrna, 1184-1212 rr.) YUlPaB)l1IJU'l' H8KH e Tcpranae. B03MO)KHO. ;no nOTOMKK ,lJ,pesHeKY1l11'1'OBMXmpell,OB. CJ[y,,!orreJIefr neaaaeeraoro 60,:fKeCTB<l Topt-a, YlrIacJre,ll\On$SmI{e B 'leCTb Illl,TPOH;;:t CBOHX npenxcs M ero cnameaaoe lIMH, crasuree pOnOBDtM H83B81HreM l]}eo,~aJIiO!B 'I'opranae,

Y M, f'.AacaHaDJ;BHJ]H 06 3THX Me,C'l'aX (JJ;!BOP[~8 Topr-a iEI. KaxeTun) B npUMe'I8HHJi TaR nOSH;:r·I:IIeTca: (I 'I'opr» , lilJIB «1'oI'~., 6hVI reo ]pOM:, rcoroporc .H Hb1lte socnenaso'r xencvpsr U TIIllaBhL Bo BpeMJf ~apcTBOBaa;HJ11 TaMaphI BeJ1MKO:M TOp:r.3;zJ;3e HJlM <ChlROD:b.l'I TOPI'H C".IJ1- TaJIMCh I'J!3.BapHMH Kaxenul .. , l'IMeHeM 'Ioprrt B KaxeTMM Ha3bIBalO'r HeCRO)JhlW TSep.Di:hIHb>) (C. 120, 121),

ITo Bce:i1 B,epO:!ITROCTPl, y ~[I1'Tarom;eI"O 3TH CTPOKH U03RHKae'J' BOnpoc: 'lITO me o6.ru;epo Mem,n:y <lTMMl! MaTepIH1JI8MH, KacalOWJ;l1MHCil icarc 6Y,n,'ro TO.111>KO OP;HOD I»y3Hl1 H HCTOiPMH Hnrytrrerttn? RD.!" H:JBeCTHO, no HaU;lIOHaJIhHbIM (})OJIbK.:rroPUhIM ABHlIl>IM U }lnf'ym8'1'HH Ta.K.'IKe cyrnecrayro'r aHaJIOI'M~iH:ble JleteHp;apHbIe cne,n;€IUUI C I~MeHeM no.u;o6HOl"O repoa, TOJIhKO RHCKOJ[hIW B J(l)HOM aapuaare, HO B npnanane Tapr (asroe) rpY3HI-l! If Tapr (HM) HUI'YLUeTHH - 8'.IleMeHThl oanoro lWPll.R H reH83Hca.

OTHOC}['Te)lhHO p;aHHloro rspos Tapr(HMa) }'iMee'l'CH ,!!;peBueiirnee, BeCbM8 YCTO:HYHBOe HHryrncKoe rrpenaune, aarrncaaaoe B rconue nponrrroro CTOJIeTM:ff HH!f'YlIlCI<I{M <)TFIOrpaq)OM q:., Axpl:reillblM. OR 38.q)ll(RcHpm~aJ1 THlll1'JlUJM: sapaasrr B8ChM8 nonYJIJ:lpHOrO Han;HOHUJIJ:,aoro npe,n;aHK:ff 06 O,ll;HOM H3 e nparrpezncoa» I'anraeacxoro I"OpHOrO otinteeraa, c~mTalOrn;.eroca, rIO Hapot(HhlM CR8.a8HI'InM, B 'UfCJle <!npaOT~OB!) MHor;0:X POAOB M:HrYLUeTHIL 1:.1. AxpMea 0 HeM uepeztanan Cne,!l;ylOll.!I;ee:: «Cnaxana B faJII'aeOCKOM ytnease 6bIJJ OCHOBaF1 ayJI A8HI'H.·KxaJIJH17 TpeM.H 6paTh:flMU. Orapurero 6paTa :3SaJ'lH A:tiiJ'H. or KOTOPOI'O npcaaeruno H83.S3iHlIe ayna; aroporo 6paTa - XaMXO, OH OT.lI;eJII1JlC:!l 01' 6paTa H OCHO!BaJI ayn Xaxxn; MJla,lunero - TaprHM 1';. OH cxasan: dl noCeJUOCh Ha 6eper'Y peqKH ACCbl, rne Mory KynaTh csoero KmU!i;'> - ~ OCHOB8.JI ayn 'rapt'M1\'):!)ll.

Paa6HpaTb .)l1e'I'a]fbHO DHyTpeHEIee coaepaeaaae ,ZU~HHOI'O HHryUlCK0I10 sapaatrra npenaaas He BXo.P;HT B aanasry aToM: patiorsr HJ; noaTOMS 3,l1;eCh aarpaeaaaercs 'l'OJlbKO acnercr, KaCaJEOllUIMCSl nenocpezrCTseHHoiH TeMaTHIUl: HCCJIe.tlyeMOI'O nonpoea: TmK,IJ;eCTBa 'I'apraraoca rpY3HR C TapI'HMOM HHI'ymeTllll.

ITpemp;e BeeI'O, ClOlli'€ThI npep;aHHH HM8W'I" OOIIl;lIH CTH.J1h - raOCTO'lI-

III,li1: "!'aM, B rpY3HI1, - oren C caMhro CbIHOBbaMM, a 3,lJ;e'CJ;, B HHPYIIiOTHW,- 'tpn 6pa'l'a. T.e. HanMII;o oH6n8HCHHH MOTHB CHMBOJ]H:~a· I~VI H MHC'l'HIIeCKIlx 'urce.ll 7 H3; CJIe,u:OBaT8Jl .. bHO, STO [l[epe';oI\HTKI1 UOC'l'OqHO~j cYMeprrM;clwttcaKpaJrH3a:n;rrH MaI'H"lIeCKMX "lHCeJ1 ll,::lJIeMOWI'bl P0JJ;OBlbIX O'FHOm€!HHn; Hp;eOJIOPHt,reOiKHe ilpe,u:CTa!BJl8HHH B 06(~HX JrereHlliax KpeITlW npHp;epmHBaIlOTCJl Kpyra nOH,fITHH 0 pO,U· trrse (TaM oren C. CbIHOBh.RMH. a a;rteCh 6paTb;R). ,IJ,aJlee. B fpY3U¥-I :31'a JIII'IHOCTb-repoi1. a y HHrymen It TOMym.e nO'IMTaeMhlfI, xpa6peii:;l:rnUl 'lIpl)-OTeu.~ MHorHX PO,llOB. TaM no)]; TaKHM HMeHeM eersapeaaae UOCeJJeHHH H 3p;eCl>, B HHryrrreTMH, Tome. H HaROHen. TaM )J;peSHHe Mw!'epM:8nbl <dCap"r.11.HC Ilxospetia» H tjlO.ll'bKJ.IOP Ji'OpUJ;eB I'pY3HH (IlIlJ8- nO-X8HCYP) B03BO,!l;HT CBon r€He3MC K :JTOMY repOlltIeCROMY T€pMHHY !'! 'l'y'I' T,aiK~e HapO)J;Hble npenaana BbEBO,n;RT caOH poasr OT Hero.

KpOMe '1''01''0, ee.na TaM, B rpY:1I1U, HMeIDTCJl COUYTCTByro.I.QHe el'tlY JlCTOTIl1CHhre H 6M6:n:eti:cKH8 T'SpMliHhl (<<rOI'& Ii « Maror» ), TO H B ['[IH'Yllle'rHl1 B oepemUTRax RYJlbTOB. n CPOJIibKJIOpe cy~ecTBylOT. BepOS£'rHO, OTronOCKH Tex :me carcsrx )J;peBHliX l3apHaU;I10: (Fora II MaroI'll). TaR, aanpmsep, B ropaors HHI'ymcKoM ayJI9 Illon HHXO;n:HTCR IHlJpeMElblH PO;o;OBOj;j:' MOrJel.llhHHR C KOJTJIe~THBHhIM rrorpe6eHHeM, IW~['ophdi C'lJ!.MTaeTCJ:l npHHa,ll;JIe:1Kam.HM Hen3BecTHoMY pO)J;y I'oroa I~. A B6J'H13M HHrymcKOI'(J ropHOI'O aYJlR CaJII'H, B 1,5-2 RM, HMeeTCH JU.lCBHee <CBaTH.lmlll;e HHrywen «MarHep.u.ht~ L3, a Ta.Kme ropa, I')J!e tl"j,o CIJ.HTHJUll.I.Q€ aaxoznrrca - «Mar-re»!", Ii T.)]i.

Cnoaore, XOTR: aTH TepMHHhl (<lToI'» ,H «Maroc») He HMeIOT 'tJ:eTlwii JlONlltfHOR CBHau C TapPHMOM y HH I'yru en , op;HaiKO aTO He HCttJ.I,lo';!aeT B03MOJRIWCTH p;onycRa1'h, "lITO HHrym3:M o6a aTH TepMUHa aauecr asr KaR 3THlil'l!eCKI1-pOp;OBble If KYJlbTOBhle H r.rT"o OHM OTHO~ {\HT HX KTOH xce JlpeBHOCTH, R KOTOpoii H CBOerOJlereH,.n;.apHOI'O

1'np1l'UM.a. .

C ,lJ;pyrou CTOPORibI. ecna npIII'JlI'r,1J;8ThC.f[ .R reorpaqnrtlieC'ROM Rap'1"0 ['Canta3a tr rrpoc;r.re,rr.llT& aa IHi.TIpalBJJeHM'eM JJ:Ittll.meHllH .ll;aHHb~x IIOJI.yMuqlHqeCKHX CBe.n;eHHH (paKTH"lIeCKW! ezraaorn MOTusa, cpa6YJIhI. 'I'() CHIli npHB'e,n;yT 113 HHI'YIIHl'l!'lIH npRMO B Manyro A3HEQ [5" Ha ICPI1i11H8M tors HaXO,l(HTCS Ba'BH.lIOH (Mil ROeI'O .!IKo6hI asmren «npaoreu» uapo.nOB fpy:nrH - Taprasroc): ziarree - ,u:OJIHHa Apapara H Mae'Bca (r,ll;8 OH«pa3MROmaJIC.f[>) 600 JIeT); saTeM - 3aK9BKa3be (.I(y;:.~a n:03:J{{'e <!IIepelIl.JIO» ero «rroToMcTB,oi>, 06p3!30BaS co6mo OCHOBY ~tpelliHerpY31'raCKftX OJIeMeB H POt(OB); UOTOM - RaX8TlIH (6 KOTOPOH coxpana.nacs ero «lliOTOMKH 1> 11: )JlpeBHHe nOC8.IIeHJI.H, npH·t,m:CJI.aBHI"I1e ce6n OK SlTOMY me ElMeHH); cesepnee me - XeBcypeTHJI (eoxpauusrnaa 0 HeM ,llpeBHeihuHH 11: l)oraT8:HllnrM: cpO.11bRJIOPHhIH MaT€pHIIJI) 1:1, HaKOHe~, sa nep8BaJIOM" aa :KpaHR8M ceaepe rpY311H - fopIII flJ[ Hmf'YlIleTH:!I (npe,D;8HH.H RoeR Be.n;yT 1'pap;Hn;aOHHb[j:j:, lI!.!JJ;UOHaJIbHhlH POP;OBOM reaeaac qaCTM csoero OO.I.QeCTBa T81Kme OT )In lHrOI'O.« repoa - npanpemea- , <IT}l(>Tbero 6paT1l.» TaprUMa, I',n;e no I:(!i,j )J;eHb O,z:t;HO M3 ax PO,ll;OBbIX rrOCeJI'elHHH RR3hmaeTCfl B "feCTh S'TO- 1.'0 nte CaMOI'O CB:R:meHHOI'O na'rpoaa-reposr ere HMeHeM - 'TapI'HM).

)J;aJIee )Ke, '1'. e. Hll1:me n: ceaepaee rop HHryweTlHi aa nJIOCKO-

86

37

CTH, I',n;e B:HI'ymlf OOOCHOS8JIH:Cb CpaBHlfT€JIbHO He,II.aSHO, 06 STOM UMeHM HeT HHKaRHX .ltpyrux HOBLIX MJIH aHruIOrn't£HliIX Cne,lteHliH. MM8JOTCB JIllmh Te, 1:fTO Bhl.H€C€Hhl liMB: sme IC rop. Cne,a;OB8:TeJIb!E!O. B ropax Ha:rYllleTHH 6bIJI nOC.Jle.u.IIlHH 1{3 Bap..raHToB 0 TOM ):IpeaHeBQC~ TOqROM rtparrarpone (Ta.pre), rrpep;a.H}JJi 0 KOTOpOMCO.xpaHMJlHCb II :npe,n;aHH.fl!X HIlPO,PllB,CBH3aHHhIX 13006m;enC'rOpHtteCKO:H: 06l:t1;HOCTblO. a C liJTHM HMeHeM B. ocooeHlHOCTH (T. e .. rpyaaa If HHI'ymeiI).

Ha OCHOBaHUli. TOJIhKO JIMmIb rrpaaenenaoro aaecs TO~.lleCTBa OGOfiX npep;IlHraiii (lrPY3HHCIWIiO B. HHrymclwro) MO:)KHO C yaepeatroCTloID KOHCTa·'Jj'HpOBST~ ol'lIJU;Hll: peReSHC aTIiX HCTOPUqSCKHX rrpeztaHJlR. 0 cn:y-qaihIiOM COBrra,n;eHHH'. npeeMC'FBeHHOCTH HJIH HCTOpH'leCKOrll8lHanOli'ir!li; nOJ'I8raW, He MOJKeT 6hlTb It pesa, nOTOMY 4TO, llOM!Ii:MO O,!l;BOpq,lJ;HOCTM: cpOJJhKJIOPHOii cpaoyJIhI" HaJillD;O COD;H.SJlbHbre, :reorpacpMtJeCKHe H KYJrbTDBhle :3JIeMe'HThI, a TRKJRe H q,OHe'TH"!eCKoe e,n;HHCTBDTepMHHOB, H6D reopem, TepMHH6 - 0'11' caxorc BaBH.llOHa. 18 BH6JIHH, JISTODn:C.!lX n npe.l(a:S:IUlIx, xepee Apapar, Baxaaxaass, KaxeTlUO. XeBCYPHlO H ropHYIO MHrYIII€TMIO - B€3,U;e nponao CQXpaHaeTCJl! xoperrs <1.Tapr» (paaaana me ORDH"1aHHit 06'DJlCHHMa n03,i1;HenmHM paCXOJR,lJleHHeM Jl!3ibr:KDB - rpyanacxoro H HHrywcKoro).

8aKOH1.JRB 0630p MaTepn8JIOB no. STOMY BOIllpOCY H3 rpyallHCI:WH H HHrYWCltOll HCTOPHH H CYMMupyaBLllllleCRR38.HHOe, aaKJlI01.JRro. ttTO,lJ;aHHhll'H )'.Ipe13HU0 Mli:!p rpy:nIH! o'Fapre S8JCJIYJRHBaeT HCK.JIlOt:!:rflTe,)Jh80I'O BHHM·a:a:HH nplf M3yqeHu,W,ll;peBHOCTM HHrymeTHH, KaR O)Jll-EEI! H3 MHomeCTBa <lJIeMeHTOIl H poaerna c rpy:m:HcKHM aaponon H BeAYll:!;~H npOM'cXOm,lleltRe 0'1' oemero J<OPBJ1 B Ma.l1l0H A:mH 16,

C.Jre.!lDBaTe,llhHo.,p;.aaE!l>l~ ,aHaJIIII3, npe)J;ITOJIomeHH,fI 06 HCTOPHtJHO· CTH TepMHHa Tapr(aMoc) MJlH Tapr(HM) a paccymp;eHHHo conYTC'rtlyro~HxeMY'~:ror'e Ii Marore /) MC}mHO BhIABllfHyTh B Ka1.JeCTSe apry'M,eHTa B IIOJlb3,y KOHD;enD;MM OOW;HOCTH HCTOPHR MHryweTHH Ii rpY3HHS npearrocra, nOCHOJllbKY nee HHTH reaeaaoa .o60HX HapoJJ;QB

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.1.9CXHJI - 525-456 rr. ,a;Oxp. 3.; Y HeFO rOBOpHTC,H 0 B~ICO-

l'tIilX ropax Ka.BKaaa w. '

4. r EPO,lJOT - 480-426 rr-, ,n;o:xp .. s.: «oren HCTOPIUt», Y nero III MfHOTC,H 3H3!1l£lITeJI:bHble c006w;eH:F:I:.R: 0. I{aBRaae; IIWTOPblH OR SHan a

onacsraaa f!O. '

5. rpYK1f!1.Hp, - 430-400 IT • .u.Oxp. 3.; OH TaK:lKe 3IIaeT 0 KaBKa3e, ynOM.HHa..H 0 HeM :11.

, 6 .. AIIOJIJlOHHH POp,OCCKHH - 250-200 rr., p;oxp. a.: OB n IH,;ttiI 0 KaBRa:ae; rrpHI;Je'M, cpenz .l(peBHiUX RSTDPOB y He'I'D snepasre ucrpe-raerca YKa38.HH,e OTHOCHTeJIhHO TIpoMeTea, npHKOBaHHOI'O 1'1 MeHl'!O R; ropaM KaBRa3a Z2.

CJ],e.n;oBaTe.IIhHO, TepMHH «KaBKaa!) KaR T8KOlBOH 6hIJI H3.B8C'reH t 11.1;8 B T'JIyGoROH.D;peaHOCTll., ec.mr Ha'<{l{Haa o VI B. noxp. 3'., [I'exa'I.' iJi) 0 HeM y.me Ha'laJIH nHcaTb A;peBltHe KJiERCCMiKll.

TIo C006IIljeHHIO Ii3 asnnerrpaaeaeaaoa D;HTaTl.l H3 «KapTJIH:C J Ixospetia» 23 CJI,e;lYIO~HM H)leT ,O,!!;HH FrS JIerefI/lapRbIX Cl>IHoBeij 'I'aprasroca - KaBK&COC.

OTHOCHTeJlhHO 3TO[,O «aRC.Jle.n;HHKaj), nOJIRraID, <ll\apTJIHC UXOBpeon» c'rapaerca JIHmb pa'CIIHIg.pDBaTb 'il"epMHH «EaBKa3». 8TQ"BHJIHMO, oopaaen nDap;,HeR 3THMOJIOrHsao;a:H {nOITbITKa JE8rOll'HCU;B UI5'bJJCliMTh. Ii npeAe.Jlax CBOUX KllillCCOBbIX n]!le)J;CTaBJIeHHM - 6M6.il€ij. OIto-l(j)90,n;aJlbHl>IX - HerrOH:fJ:'l'B:OrD eMY CJIOBa; a .IlJUI 3anOJIHeH:a.a: rraI(YI~ 1>1 He,llDCTalOl1IJ;UX. HC'FOpmleCKlIX CB.e,lllelUI:H, B yro}J;y cymecrao,11Il11meM MeTo,a;OJlOI'HI1. npOBD.IlMTCH <ITa napa.1I.lIeJllb. c CaKpSJlbHhlM0:

J~JU'l .IJ;pelm€rO BOCTOKa MarU<ieCKHMFr 'tJ'HcnaMI1! 0 ceMH «C:hlHOBb3X;" 'l'up'!'aMoca)..

rpY3I:'IHCKRH JIeTOEmCHblH {PDll;1X, 6y.u;y'tJ'lI XpOHDJIOr.HI;JeCl'CH M0J10- 'Ice fllf'l'H'lHLIX, .lJ;aeT, q,m:H3lKO, 6oJ!,ee .D:peBHlHH cpaRTlIqeCKMH MaT,epRHJI. Ho 3TO J;teHHbe CO.l(ep.maEtlle !I10KPhITO n03,tlFlle:i%wMMH aaenoeaa~IMI1, aa-sa xero :HCKa3J.fJIOCh nepBorrpe~aHae H ero q13:6YJIa.,H rerreps !IOCb'MaTpY,!J;HO BhlHRHTb Aa~e OTHOCHTe)JIbHylO MCTOPHqHOC'tb srorc nnona. 8THMOJIOrH3;aU;H.iI 'l'ePMllHa * KaBRB3,) HUKeM erne He rrpose,l{0nfl 2.,.

HOJJar-aTbeR JKe YBepeHHO aa rpysIiIHCKYIOJIereHAY HeB03M,omu:o, n:OCI"OJIf:,Ky OHa He 06Jla.zx;aeT ,!iIOCTaTO't{Hoii: zrccrcaepaocraro; OH.a He IIIlCTOJIbKO HCTop.u<!na, 'lITOIJb] CpaBB!1liBIlTb ee ,Il;a:IKe C Ilpep;8HH;.1IMH 0. '['ap:raMoce.

Ho, He B3Mpa.1iHa STO, sceaeeacenezosarenxx Heo6xO;D;HMo. 0.6- pnTH.T,b nercoropoe BHllMRHHe aa oKpymaID·lltlle 5TY·JIereHAY (0. Tep· Ml<llie ~KaBKa3» p;peBHerpY3HllJ::Rlle YK8aaH.HJI ofimeeraaanoro I1! no-

JIHt11~~.eCKoro xapaxrepa, '

C aTOM qeJIhlO npRBO)'JjH'l'Ca BhlJ:l;epmEa H3: «I'eorpaqnra» Baxvm'I'I!,I, rAe all D;HTRpyeT ;J;PYIi'Hec»e,o;eHlf$[ riPyauHcRoH lfCTOPHH.

TIpe*,l:le -qeM H3JIO}lUl!Th co.06pajKeHR.fI OTROCHTeJIhHI) HCCJJe,1:l:o· BaHIlE MaTelmanoB, CBa3aHHblX e yuoMHHaHlfeM. TepMuHa «KaBK8:3», COC'1'aBHTeJ!leM 03Hfi'lJ:e'HEOl"O nepesona M. I', )J;J-KaaamSHJl:lif rrpaso,lI.MTCJ! KpaTRlfH rrepe-qeHh ~peB.HHX aarcpoa, y KOI1X OR IBCTpe'tIaeTCE.

1. FECHO}J, - 7'(~O r. ,.!l:Oxp. 5.; OK aaan 0. KaB:Kfl3e, KO TepMHH He ynoMMHaJI.¥ Hero CQ06r.u;aeTC.H rrpenaaae 0 Ilposreree, ROTOPbdi npHKOBaH K «CK8.JIe B crsnax CKIll(pHM»; nOCKOJIbKyKaBKa3 eoceaCTBOBaJI co CKHqmeH; TO., O'tI€BH,lI;Ho., IJO,rr: «cKaJIoih CJIe.n;yeT rrojtpaayMeBaT!b MMeHHD ero 17 .

. 2. rEKATEH -OK. 550 r. noxp. 9.; OB COOOw;aJI 0 aapoztax, }Kli'BllUiX y KaBltaa8 16.

38

2.1. 0 'KH3HH RABKACOCA

'(CorAa me Kasl-tacoc npHfihIJ[ B nocraanryzoca eMY B YAElJI crpany II: nOCeJIMJTC:il Ii <:JT'WX aex.aax. TO. OM Hera ChIH013hH 11 ChlHOBbfi CbIH.Q-

39

BeH ero OBJlia,u;eJ!lH HMM, R OHM pa3MHom.8JIHCb R HIlXO,!J;KJIHCl> B non'UIHeHHH Y MnxeTCKoro MaMftCaXJlHCa, a KHOI'.ll.a OTIIap;l:l!JI!1i 11 CTaHOBHJlHCib aparasra (MIJ,XeTCKOro MaMaCaX.ITHca), KaJ< MbI nMCaJ1lM,- ,QO TIOXO,ll3! xaaapcxoro napa» (C. 150, 151).

113 npMBep;eHBOI'O .MOmBO C,ll;aJI1,3.'M> YCJIOBHOe npennoaozceaae, 'lITO B MHtPR'-leCKHll rrepaozt Kaaxacoca, ChIB.a Tapra, .KTO-TO .n;pyroH HB.J1R:eTca I'JlftBOEr (!{HH3eM 11: T. n.) Hap; HRM H Bcen rpyal1eii (B03- MomHO. H3BHe, C BOCTOKa), lIOCKOJIbKY OTMe'lae'l'CH" 'ITO «OBJIa.ll.8JIH HMH 1'1 OHH !pa3oMHO:IKHJUlCb», CJIep;O:Ba'I'eJJhHO. l'py,3HHCKHH (HJUI ,!:{PYron a60pHI'eHHE.IM) aapon aa Tepp1'1TopI!H ·3a.KaBJ<a3bR y~e cynreCTBOBaJJ TaM.n;o MOM8HTft nOHBJIeHHH KaBKftCOCa 11 ero «UOTOMKOB»repoen. A 3ftTeM B rrOJIHTHqeCKOM OTHomeHHH ;;lTO 06rn;ecTBo, oxeBH.ll.HO, pacnoaarano y*e 3.JI8MeHT3f1im: q1€O,!l;8JIil:l:31',m, nOTOMY 'ITO KaBKacoc 1[3 ManoR .A3RK «npM6blJ[ B .n;OC'FaBmyIOC.a eMY B yzten CTpaHY M nOCeJIH.JJC..R:') Ii B TO me caxoe BpeMH caM (MJIH ero H8CJIep;HMKH) 90CTo.aJI B 3aBHCHMOCT'H OT .mPYForo, 60.m:ee rJI8.BelicTaymlIl:ero JIMI.J;a. nOCKOJll>RY YRa3aHo, 'qTO «Haxop;):iJIM:Ch l3nOp;qHHeHl!H Y MI.J;Xe'l'cxore Ma~aCaXJIHCa~>, T, e. lIO,!l;l{HH$I.m:HCL CTapmeMY 1'13 HHX: C!03,epeay ~ napio I'pY3HH. Ho STO y.m€ :maqHT€JJbHO n03~HeHillee naCJIOeHHe.·noCKOJIbRY B rrepBoit qaC·'irH rOBopMTCH, 'ITO OIJ; Htpn6hIJI&, Ol,leBH)l;HO, H3 .n;PYI'OH CTpaRhI, 3Ha~n!T! 3/V:!Cb crapme Hero .; KaBKacoca - <t3aBOeB3tTeJIH Ii nepBOI:rOCeJIeHU8.» - HHKoro He MOrJIO 6hITb. ilOTOM ern;e o.n;Ha cneo;n{pR'IleCKH q)eo,r.r;aJIbHaH 'lepTa npOCKaJJb3bIsaer B. YK,83aIUHI aa eyrn;eCTBOB8Hilie MejR,!l;y HMMH H rJIa:aoit C'lI'paHhl 60PL6bl: «anaorna OTITa~aJJH H CTaHOBHJIHCh Bpar8MU». CJIe'!:{OB8- TeEhHO, .n;aHHble repoa (ChIHOBb.f.{ B:aB1<aCoca), BaCCaJIbI, HMe,JIH I1pH-· cynryro <!>eo.o;a.JlH3MY Teap;·eHI.J;HIO oCB,060}f{.p;a'fbCj:1 H.JIH aaxsa'rsraa-n, BJIaCTb 01' cnoero CI03epeH8 - MII,x.eTCKoro MaMaCaXJlH'C8. 11 enre l'OBOp:mTC.H, 'ITO Bee 3TO .n;.JlHJIOCb .fll(OOM 110 60Pb6hl c xaaapaxa, nocne 'Iero 6hlJIO npexpameao. A 3TOT MOMeHT UO:HBJJeHllH 3,ZJ;eCL xaaap :sa llc':ropM"tJecKoM ropH30HTe O'l'HrOCH'TCH It VII B. ,1l;oxp. a., qTO He COananaer XpOHO.JlOrH'IeCKI{ C 'l'aKHMH CBe.Zl;e'HH.RMl:l, ,UlOTOMY l,lTO ICaBK8!COe 11: ero nOTOMiKH Mar.FUr T!I0SlBMTE.CH 3;!l;eCh ,3Hat.rRTeJ1E.HO paaee aroro BpeMeHll, ynoMRH8HHe '0 RHX acrpexaerea Y,p;peBHIIX aaropoa C VI B. aoxp. 3.

GJre;n;OBaTeJIbHO, no,n;bITOJKHBaa asnnecxaaaaaoe, MO}KHO 3aKJUO'IMTh, "tJTO ,n;peBHHe JleTOIl:r.lCIJ;hl rpY:3HH, JIHr:fHO nepeacraaamae nePHO,n; ¢eo.n;aJI.bHoH <pop.MaUHH, JlO~ SJIHfLHHeM csoero HJJ;eOJIOrH~!eCxoro H c.y6"b,eK'fliBHO-nC'l·opH'tIeCKOrO MMPOB033peiHMH HCFIOJIb30BaJIM CBOH n03p;HefiIIIHe COO;UaJIbHbIe BSrJl.H,ZJ;hl lIP},I ,Il;eWHCPPosKe aeaasecraoro TepMHH8 «KaBKaa '), aexaaaa lIJIH aaTYIIleBaB ~peBHeMwee coziepacaaae Taro npenanna, xorepoe orpaacano reHie3MC aroro ~eHH H aacrryxcraano ropaaao 60JIblIle BHMMaHHH H HCTOPMsecxoa r:r.eHHOCTlI, 'tfeM MX rr03,ilHeaillHe npOT'HBOpe'lHBbH! MaJIOne. ropaxmee P;OMI.ICJlhl MJIH H8CJJOeHHH. II03TOMY I nOBTOpJ;flO, 3THC13,e.n;eHMH~eHHbl JIUWb OTHOClITeJIJ,HO H P;JI.R BonpOCOB n03,D;H8HWHX ::ITa"

nOB HCTopu-qeCKoro pa3SHTI!.H 3aRaBR83!1:.a. .

CJIe.!!l;y:a .uaJIbHeHillUM M3TeprranaM. OTHOCHW;HMCH K OJllWaHMfO

uroro MHqJK'IeCIWrO Eas1<acoc.a, H3 CBe,n;eRHH BaXYlUTH nOJIyqaeTC.H l:JlC.IJ:YlOilIlja.a KapTlUUl ero HC'!I.'OP11H.

J(aHHhlH KauKacoc He OCTanC.H B 3aK8BKa,n,e, a nepenrez na CenepHbIH KaBRa3 B IIpI'lTepe'lHhli1: (cneaa) paHOH yw;eJlHM na reppzTOpI1H HbIHeIIlHei1r Cenepaoa OceTHH. BOT 'ITO rOBOp11:TCH OTHOCH'l'eJIbHO 3TorO:

«.J];3YP,lI:3YReTHeH (IfHI'ymeTHen. - M. B.) CTam{ Ha3hlBaTl>CH yu~eJU".l'I K BOCTORY OT XeBH (Tepexa. - M. E.); aaarrazrasre OT XeBH (MecTa) - KaBKaaoM. NJIH ,lJ;BaJleTlfeii: (oTo;iK.llecTBJIHeTCH C IT03p;HeHmej;j Oceraea. - M. B.), r,n;e nOCeJIHJU1!Cl> CbIHOBb.f.{ KaBI"ftCOCa Xl no'l'OMl(R ero, .W: see nOBHHiOBUJIHCb ,!1;3YPP;3YJ<OCY Ii nOCJIe Hero ero nO'['OMKaM» (G. 152, 153). OT.n;eJIhHO npKBe.n;eHbI CBep;eHUH no HHryuHl"rIiH: (AaypP;3YKeTHH) ,IllJUI YTOqaeHHH 11: oo.JIer'leHHH reorpailnl'reCKOH opaear apoaxa .B MeCTOnOCeJIeHHl:! (,nOTOMKOn;) sroro .MHl!mLlecRoro Kameacoea.

Kposre TOro, OTCIO)3;a BHP;HO,Q'tO RaR OB caM, TaR Hero npeesma- 1(.1" (<HaCJle,t:(HHKI'!)) 6bIJIM He O'IeHb CHJII:.HhI, ec,Jul IEo,n;nRJIM. nort unacrs M. 3aBlICHMO'CTh cocezraero r.m:aJ3bI )l;aYPA3YKoca,«nOTOMKll» lWToporo caMH 6hIJIH TIo.n;qHHeHbI MIl;xeTOWMY MaMftCaXJIHCY ,lIP In B .. rroxp. S. (C. 151, 152).

IIo:.n;o6Hoe n:OJIRTHtI.eCKoe nOJIOmeHHe KaBK8.COCa uo.n;TB.ep)1(.n;aeTC.H "l'aKYK'9 JIeTODHCHblMH MaTepliMaMR «KapTJIHC U;xOBpe6ai>: (C. 2.2), I(OMMeHTapHHMH M. r . .li;maHallIBI!JlH: <.rIo JIeTO!!IHCHOii rpyi3Hl:IClWH JIereH,D;e, BaA IIJIeMeH&MH KaBKacoca, 6p8!TU ICapTJIOCa" rocnon. "I'nOBaJI ,AYP3YH C!J;,3YP.ll.3YK). CE.IH 'THpeTH.H HJIll THHBHa,) (C. 230).

3Aecb ROHKpe"FHO yxasaao 0 ,n;OMHHHpOEaHHH A3YPJJ;3YRft «Rn,!J, IIJleMeHaMH Kaarcacocas , XOTH .u;aHHhIMH BbI)lep~KaMH H aafieraso neCIWJIhRO BJJIepep; (O'I'HOCHTeJIbHO .D:3yp.n;3YKoca); HO cp;ena:1'h <)TO HHa"'Ie 'I' XlIH'IeCKH HeJlb3H, H60 Tor,r{.a rrOJI~HTCR aenonaas KapT11Ha.

11 H8KOHeo;. Y'I3lCTb STHX zreren .. .n;apHE.IX «n.rreMeH>}, RJJ>f «nOTOM!COIl» KaBKacoca, pemaaa no..fIBMBWHeCR oceraaea, Hat -a'ro YKa3'bIBa(,''l'CJI e CJle,1J;yIO~11:X CJIOBaX BaxYIIITH: «Ilocne I1pH6:bITHH Taerepnalin 11 B3-H1'MR. KOHCT8tHTHHOUOJI,l'I (TypKaMxr) C'l'8JIlI TeCHI1iTb OBCOH (oceran .. ~ M. B.) c T'OH cropom.r xpsrercxae X8HbI, a C 3'1'OM (co C'l'OPOHhI rpY3:HH) - TaTapCKH€ Ko"reBHHKH-MarOMe'il'aHe, H OElK (oscsr) 11C'I'YUHJIll B ICaBK8a i=t nOKOpHJlH DJIeMeHa R8BKa3n:es, Kon CYTh ;,~(laJJh~hI; K C 'Fex IIOP OBCe1'R.H CT5.JIaHat:n'IB8TbC.ff 'LfepKecHeM, liJII1i :ICa6ap,z(H, nOTOMY 'ITO ona H3BpaTHJIaCb H paanpotiaaacr, na MHG:lKeC'f'BO MTasapCT'S» (C. 15,2. Jl.53:).

IIpOaHRJIH3Hpo.san XpOHOJlOrHt.recKH aTO cooomenae Baxvnrra, uo.nararo, 'ITO, B ,ll,aIlHOM cJ!:yqa.e .m:eTOn11:CMO rrpoaaseneao HeKOTopoe I:MeUleHI1e XPOHOJlOl'HH H H8:rpOM'O>K).l;eHHe ropaaao n03AHeHIIIHX ('06bITXlii na ;ll;peBHfIe IllCTopn':[oI2CKRe rrepaonsi, OT!HOCXJW;HeCJl! K MOMeI:J;TaM JlHKBH.n;aIJi.Hll H pacraopeuaa nJIeMeH «.lI.BaJIbn;eB'> - «110- 'T'OMJ<,OB KaBKacoca.) - B cpe.lle STHH"leCKH C0Il.Ha.llibHO-BOBO:rO IWiil1'HHf"eHTa 8JIal:IOB (oeeraa),

"Upl1bhln:re Taaepnana» aft KaBltaa OTFIOCH'!!"CH R 1395 r-,; saa'I 'He ROHCTaRTH.HOIIOJ1H (,l'YPKaMH) - R 1453 r., a nOH.BJIeHHe anecs

41

40

3. TIUIHH (THH.EH)

8. «Flo JIeTOnHCHoa rpy:nLHcRoii: nereane, Ha,ll; TIJIeMeHaMH !CaBIUlcoca, 6paTa KapTJIOCa,. rOCnOJlCTBOBaJl .uyp~3YR (.IlaYP,JJ;sYK), ChlE '1'l>Ipe'l'HJI H.JIH THHeHa (KapTmICU;XOBpe6a. C. 22~ Baxynrra, C. 32). ( " 230) .. ,lJ;aHHaa Bhl,!l;epmKa H3 KOMMeHTapalf M. :r. ,1J(maHamBlllJIM (.UP"M .. 610) B3HTa, sepOHTHO, U3 nepBOHCTO"IHHKa, KOTOPbIM IIO.JIb30- [.!flJICJl Baxynrrn,

KaK BH,!I;HO H3 H3JIO~eRHOro, ace TpH napHaHTa rpY3HHCKHX CBe;1 'I-udt C.Bo,n:aTCH R O,ll;HOMy: 'lTO OTllOM )];3YP,ll;3YKoca 6hlJI THReH.

OCTaSJIRH DORa OTKPblThlM BOUpOC 06 aTOM Mmlm"'!ecKoM OTIl)e )(ayp,n;3Ylwca, oopaTH¥-BHHM3s:H:e nil aayrpeanee conepacaaae caM oro csoacera. Ho tin« ~TOii: D;eJHi H'eOOXO,1l;HMO npezraaprrrexsno cneJIll'I'I:. nercoropoe orerynneaae. Baxynrra, OIIHC.f,][Baa ropon I'opa, OTMO'I'¥I.JI (aa OCHOBaHHH ,n;pe!BHHX CBe,1l;eIlHii), QTO «on nOJlyql:lJI Ha3Ba~ 111M') OT ropsr, KOTopa,H 83,1l;hIMaeTca TaM, Ha pepery pexa BOJIh:IIIOH JI'Wf.lXBhI» (C. 85) .. ITo CBH,Q:eTeJ'IhCTBY <lKapTJIHC Ilxospeea», Ha3Ba- 111~e 6bIJIO 6Y,ll;TO .n;aRO anepasre BH3aHTHHCRHM HiMIIepa:TopOM HpaKJIJlteM, ocasenaanrax B 626 r-, T6HJIHCH H TOI',1l;a me nepeaxeaosas- 11IHM r .. I'opa B TOHTHO. ABTOP nepeaona «T'eorpadraa e BaxYIIITH. M. r. )l;)IUi.li8UIBHJIH, !KOMMeHTHpya naanoe cootimeaae, Bhlpa3HJI 1!(IMHeHHe .8 npaBHJIhHOC'l'H Il!O~06HOro npOHCXOJK,n;eHH:I'! "'TO:rO TepMMI:-I:a, YKa.3hIBaH, 'ITO Q HeM HeT HHtJero B rpexecxax JleKCY!:I·WBax. DB n.OJIaraJI (H $I B 3'rOM C HHM nnonae coi-aaurarocs), "ITO Ha3BaHHe ropona B p;eikrBHT8JIibBOCTR npOH30IDJIO OT rpY3HHCROl'O CJIOBa. (,THH'1'0» -l'Opa, eaana (TBep)laa, OTBecHaR), 3 TaKiKeYKa3bIBaeT; 'qTO lIMeHHO 'l'aM me, O:ROJIO r .. :rOPH. eCT& TaKm.e l{ lVIOCT, BaaBaHHhIH «THHKCXH.1-1,1>1'», T. e. <l'Ji'ltHHibIll.& - l'OP:HCTbIH., CIKaJIHCThlll:, H.rIH «THH,D;.apn» - 1I0)106a:bIU YTeCHCTO:M: CRMe (U3 [(PHM. 314, 360 H 610 M. r. ,Uma-

ItnlllDHJlH). -

CJleaOBaT8JIbHO, MOatHO ~OIIyCTl!1'b, "ITO M. r. ,!1;:iK8.HUIIIBIUIH ztoIIQ,llbHO sepao npe)1!UOJIaf'aJI STHMOJIOrHIO aroro TepMHHa (r. I'opn lIfl.p.), CTIUT·a.a: ero iI1pOllCXO~~m;HM OT.rpY3!!fHCKOrO CJlOBa, 06o::maunroutero ropy, CK3i.JIY - «THl1'l'a», «TuaHH». «'I1"HH» H T. A-

ITpHqeM M. T .. .J];m.aRalDBll'lJIH, KOMM:eHTHPYx MaTe-pHaJI B 1Ij)l>lM. 610, BCJIe,ll; aa yKaaaHl1eM OTHOCHTe.J.ihHO TepMlIHa <lTHH,!I;apilI:» (xperncaa CKaJIa) ynol'.:'UIS'aeT nsnnenpaaeneaaoe (3} cootirneIlI'Ie I) JiIpOHCXOmp;elunr .D;3yp,n;3YKoca OT THHena., T. e., Q'leB~,!UiOt STY "I I Hj)OPM3!D;HIO OR IIPHBO,lilHJ[ K3K npnMep, llOp;'FBepiK;rVHO~IIM npoacXO}f{,1l8HM8 TepMHHa ~THll!eH» (orrra )l;aYP,1l;3YRa) , H€COMHefllHO, 0'1' t'pyaHHCKoro CJIOBa 4 TUHTa,> - CRMa, ropa.

Ha OCBOBaHHH npaaeneanoro, ITOJIa.ralO, He 6Y.l!(eT OUlu60"l:HbIM 1!'.111TaT& (BC.llie.n; sa M. r. ,lI,maaaIIIBHJIH), T.J:TO pa30npaeMhIH anecs JJl'!'I'On:HCHhIH TepMHlli «Tl-fHeH>;> 06pa30SaJlCJ1 or rpY3HHCKo,ro. CJIOEa ~CI{aJ13. ropa», T. e. 'tJTO aTO He cODcTBe'HHoe M"MJI «OTI1;a». «upe,!J;Ra» IIJlH KYJlbTOBOI'Q oo~ecTBa, a ,Il;eiiCTBHTeJ1bHO TOJIhI{O CJJOBO «CI<aJIa&" t: l\oHM, OqeBH,1l;HO. CO'leTaeTCSI ~peBHee CO,!l;ep:lKaHRe .nereazrsr.

Torna MO:lKHO HHTepnpe'Tllpo.BaTh 3TO'l: l:lCTOpnqeCKHH eroma'! 06- illMfllfH THHeH TaR: <,,l1.aYP,L\·s.yROC ObIJJ ChIHOM CI-t.aJIbI (ropsr, RaMI!!I) >} JIlJ[H «:rrpOH30IlleJI aa C:Ka.ilbl» ..

TaTap-RpbIMu,eB - K XV B .• , T. e. see »TII C06blTH:II OTHocaTCR Ii: XIVXV BB., TOI',l\a KaR BpeMR DO$lBJl!eHHH arraa (rrpaOC€TMH) B ,!l;aHHOM npH'repeqHOM ropaoer KaSRa3e (!tIMTa,eTca co IT-I B:B. )J,OXp. s. CJ1eJJ:OBaTeJIhHO, 9TH cseAeHHH HMeFOT neronncmre Do.rpel1IHOCTH, OTHOCHTeJIl>HO npnBe,Li.eUHoH ~lITaThI MomBO Ct{llT&Tb, 'tITO rroc.netXHUe OCTantH D.JIeMeHH «.D;BaJIbD;eB», C'lHT3!BIII.HXCa «nOTOMKaMH» Mll:<pHqeCKOrO Kanxacoca, .« KOR CyT1> ,!I;BaJIbD;bI», 6bIJIH «rroreopeasr» B patioHe Ylll;e.JIHH, rrpaneraroruax K JI8Bo.MY 6epery peaa Teperca c sanana, npaoce'raaaraa, O'tIeBHp;HO, .aJI3aCKHMII rllJ1eMe:aa.MH, nO.f{BHB-· ffiHMRca TYT co II B. ,D;,OXp. S, 11 aCCHMHJlHpOBaBlIlliMliCH 3aTeM STHH'leCKll C 3B:SOenaHHhIMH HMH «nOTOMRaMl;I» IlJIeMeH )lpeBHero, BOCTOKa, «npaOTII.OB» KaIllCacoca n 'I'aprasroca, - pop;CTBeHHhrMH rpy- 3HHO-BeHHaxaMH - .,I.l;BaJIbD;aMH.

CRJIOHea: nOJIar8Tl>, qTO HaJIHT.J:HeM B oceTHHCKOM CPOJIbHJIOP€' aaprcrcoro anoea, axeronrero Ii 3:a:aQ.H.:l'eJII.HOH ,I:l;OJIe lBOCTOQHhIe aneMeaThl, OHH OOH3aHhI 3THM HMe'HHO BaxymToBcKHM rrpaafiopareHaM «<.L\BaJIh:u,aM»), paCTBopeHHbIM B HMHemHe!i Ocernn.

qTo me xacaerea XPOH0J10JrHlleCKoro CJJ:B:nra, TO. aro OO'bJtCHSll¥rc . a m:m:XOJIOrHQeCKHM BJIHRHHeM II03,ll;HeJiirIIHx BaJKHhlX HCTOpHtI'eCKHX Co6blTH~. IiEOA BJ1HHHHeM KOHX.y rr03.D;,HeiiffiHX nepeUHC'lHKOB Jl!eTODlICeH: crapaaasre CBe,1l;eHIUI 'repsnoT C.801O HCTOPlIqHOCTl. ~. 6oJ1ee .n;peBHH8 qlaKT'bI nOKphIBaIOTca ilO.n;OOHbIMH n03AH8iiuHIMFr COI1IBtrHBbIMH HaCJIOeHHSlMH HOB&IX T0J1KO:B8HHK.

B .n,SHRo.M cJIyllIae oTcTynJI~HHe npaoceran B ropst c cesepa (II .rl,penBocTIi) neperrnereao C n03)1:Heti:llHMH IIoKOpeHI.f:l'lM'H HX TaTapaM!I1: 1-1 Ka6ap.n:HRcJ.(HMM ¢eOAaJIaMYI B XV B.

B aaKJIIO'tIeHHe sroro nYHKTa a CKJIOHeH C'tIHTaTb, 'tITO MHcpWleCKHH Kanxacoc - JIII"I:HOCTh HCTopHlleClt8JI (YCJIOBHO) I{aI~ O,ll;HH H3 npenaonarenea roro ApeBBe!BOCTOtIHOrO aapona, KOTOPbIH rrpOBHK aa KaBK8a.

. Ilposoaa nOCJ1e.n,OB3TeJIhHO (oe3 HCKJ1rotIeHHti:) aHaJUl:3 J18reH,1liapHhIX M<lTepHaJIOB, O'iI"HOCKIIJ;HXC:H. XOThB KaKOH-TO creneaa K Ape'BHeM HCTOPHH llHrymeTIm:, Sl o5Ha.pymHJI B MaTepIiaJIRX Baxynrra CBe,1l;€HH.H 0 eure aexoropsrx nOJlYMH¢HqeCKHX riepcoaax, KOTOPbIX MomHO npHo6W;HTb K ,1l;aHHOM q,aCTH pafiorsr,

CBe.n;eHH.H 3TH RacalOTCR TPHjK . .rn;bI yrrQMHHaeMoro «Q'l'D;a') ,ll3YP,lJ;3YKoca:

1. (,,n;3yp,,lilaYIWC me, eblS THBeHa, rrpeBOCXO,D;HeHIIIHH U3 DOTOMROB KaBKaCOCa,) (C. li36). 8'1"0 CBe,1l;8H¥I$I Baxynrrn , ,lJ;aBaeMbIe· 06 HHrymax B COT.J:eTaHHll corracaaaex OceTHR.

2'. If,A ,Il;3YP,lI;3YKOC, THReHOB CbIH, npesocxonaenrnaa H3 scex CI:.IHa.SEli1 EaSKaCOCa» (C. 152). 3)1!eCh OR C006rn;aeT CBe,1l;eHH.lIH3 JleTOIJHCen «<JKH3Hlil:»). HO xacaacs 60.JIee KOHKpeTH!O TOJIbKO HHrYllle:id:.

. 42

43

,I1;aHHhlrH:nereH)J;apHbl.H MOTHS, 6e:J:YCJlOBHO" JIBJl:HeTCfl B:eChMa zrpeaHHM: reHe3HC ero YXO,ll;I1T B r:.rrYOb aexoa, K Rpa:aCKHM KYJIh'I'OBhIM. MMcpaM. l<.oo:meCTBY COJIHIJ;a MHcppe (MH'l'pe), I1,Jllf:fffUI€ xoero mno 113 ,lI;p,eBH,eil: nepCHlf na Ka,BKaa. a fpY3lUO.

,UaHHbIH ClomeT «pmK,JJ;erHtff OT examr» M3 npMI80p;MMMX HlIme KtlBKa3C,KHX BapnaHTOB HM8eT O"LJ:enH,1l,H.ble napaanena CO Cl'le,n;eHlulMH ,n;:peBlHlix aBTopOB 06 HpaHCJ(OM MHTpe,. Ho npeJK,1l;e ucero Ha.D;O yrrOMiIHyn, rrceB;D;o·l1JIYTapxa (I-II BB.) c ero Mwl)QM 0 Mln'ppace (MMTpe) l1 ero cl>me,D;nopq)e, ROTOPhlH, HecoMHeHHo, nOCJIY)fUIJI napBQI1C'I'OqHrrK~M ,n;.n:a: C03.D:aIHHI JtaBKa3C'KHX BapHaHTOB (e1'O). BOT'l'rO y Hero rOBOpHTC5I: « ... MH(}>pa (MHTpa.- Moo B.) XOTeJI MMe'Fb ChIHa, HO TaR K8K 01':1 HelHlBH,1I;e§! JReHCKHM nOJI, '1'0 nYCTMJI CBOe CeMJl R,a exany, xcropaa CTaJIa oepeMeBHQU II rrocne onpeneneuaoro apereeHU pO.DlIIna eMY csnra no HMeH.H ,I]I)wprt)a ... & 25., 8TO O,!l;HH' If3 ApeBHllx ,1l;OI'Ma.TOB (,:a:8UOp0'l{IWrO aa-qaTM,fU (oomeCTsa a€!MJIM .n;uopq:,a).

OTrO,Jr.oCJ~H HJUl! sapaairaa .3TOrO )1\:e CaMOI'O .ApeSHerrepCH,I.:ICIWro KYJlhT'OBOrO MHq;,a I1M8;}O'FC:H: 1'1 Y HHryweli C oceTHHaMM B HX HapTC1<OM srroce l1 PO,n;OBh[X -rr>pa,ll;I,m;lUlx. )J;JUI conOCTaBJl8HH,fi' npHtW,til,HTCS!! TpH: xaparcrepxsrx npHMepa 113 MaTepn,a.IIOBKaBlta30Be.n;qeCKOH:

JIJ:{TepaTypI:.I2~ ••

1.. «Q.n;H.amAhI P;8BYUIlca ,Il;.OHJIR I<'OPOB. SnUB TOPO MeCTa •. r.D:8: oaa ,l(OI1Jla KOPOB, 6bIJI CMHMM KaMes!.. OAUB MORO,[l.OH qenOBeK, JHo6HBnm:it aTY ,u;eSYllIKY, ceJI H8 STOT KaMeHh H, r)lH.D:S!: rra uee, OB rrparuen B B030Y:.KAeHHe, OTYIero C .Hl1M npOH30JllJlO 'llTO-TO. OT aTOI'O B KaMEe 06pa30BaJICfI aapoasnu COCKa~COJica.. 06 <ITOM Y3HaJEaCB..f.ITaJl jKe.H~ nmaa Ce.IIHeCaT8., OHa naruna. paat'hl:JIa I{aMeHb M B.3JIJla oTTy:,m:a CocRa-GOJICa ...

H8CTOs!:~I1H BapMsHT HlIryrnCKOl'Q CKa33HM$l 0 PO$,li;€HHH BoraThIll'S!: - Rap'Fa COCRa-COHea 38IIHcaH B. ,[lam'aToM B 1892 r. B ['0- pax MHiryrneTMH co enos CTOJleTEl:e!rO crapaxa - rmryrua rl:1.36HRB. Taaneanxa Xaoue.B8-BypmaeBa.

2. «13 o.n;aoM MeCTe OM]! pa3,!:1lBoeHFlhlH Ra.MeH!>. O)J;llH MOJlO),:{OM 'tJieJ![OB.eK J!!er na 3TOT RaMeHb H aaeayn; B aTO BpeM,ff MHMO Hero nponrna JIIOOlfMIlR aM A€:BYW:.R,a; OR ee Y13H,ll;e'.lI H l1M8JJ c E~elO CIiOlIIeHMe: ceMS'( ero rronano B 'Fpern;HHY KaME:H:. Kor,ll;1l OR RCTan, TO KaMeHb COMKaYJICR H aasepxy 0i5pa30Ba.JIaCh IlIMWRa. OH crrpocn» saaronmx .JIIo)J;eli, liTO 3TO 3BaLIHT. 1EMY CRaaaJIH. QTOObI 08 scerzta C.I!€P;HJI 38 RaMHe'M. illHllma ace pOeJIA M Btl p;eBJI'Fhrft MeC.HIJ, pacrpecseaaaci., Ii OT'l'Y,n:a BhlIllJIO )!lWT.f.I. OT aero npOH30LUJIll ra3.D:HeB1>U tIleneam B. C. 35, 36).

,1l;aHl<IlbIH BapnaHT HEU'ymCI{Qro ponoaor-o npe,l(aHH.l'l! 38nHCaH

B. ,lJ;aJJraTOM 1'O'1',1l;a ~Ke co eJlOB 60-JleTHerO mpeu.a l'ashf)Ra AOHe. BW!a K,eJm:roB,,:IAIJaJIx.aHoBa.

3. «.meRa XaMnu;a (oa me OTerJ, VI Hap'FBJ BaTpa38. - M. E.) OA.

Ha)R.l'I.hi n:O)IOCKRJt.a lJeJlhe aa perce. Ha APyrOM €Jepery rrac oapal'lOJ3 OAMH naCTYX M. yBJ1,l1;R "KeHy Xaxana, BJII06HJ1"CH B nee. OH npHCJIOEMJICJI R IUIMHlO, Ii BHy'irPlf Kft.MH.Il 3apO,1l,I1JICR pe6eHOX. meRa Xa-

44

MIII.W BWpe3ClJfa pe6eHRft OT'I'YJla, BCK,OpMHJl'.'l ero 11 aaaaana era Co- 1,~,lmr-lOM» (M1MJlep Be. OCe'rHHCRMe Sl'l'lO.D:E>l. T. L C. 147),

Hep130e 1M TpeTbe rrpeaanaa COO'l·.ae'l'C'fBeH.RO HHI'yme,H 1'1 OCe'l'HH' 1)lll>lCbmalo'r pmKp;BHHe nonynapasrx B S'f'OM artoce 60raTblpeit Cocrcn-Conca (HHrymen) Ii Cocnaaa (ocerna), &BTOpOe - poaouoe rene/I.lIOI'Ji!qeCl<oe npenarrae 0 pO}[{,1l;elU1H1 O~HOH H3 ApeBHlix q>aMMJIHH :")I'lH<.a.lla ~ npapoztaasr raJlI'aeBCKMX HHrywefi.

B npHIHvme conepacaaae 0']'01:'0 apaaeieorc CIOR<eTa ,'IUPOl'lCXNK,non I·UI H3 aIlM.HJI ~), COCTaB.Jl:IJf.!'r OARO H3 lli3B€CTFiblX MCTOPUH zrpeaIIHX BepOBaIU[M a «nenoposmoe 33.Q3THe .. " RaK, narrpmeep, y ermrTllH Mml) 06 H3M,Il;€ [f ee MJIa1l:€Hlll;e rope" y M8J10a3HlI1:CIUrXXeTT0l3 - l) Itx16eJIe [f (c V 8.) B xpHCTlfaHCTBe - 0 Mapaa H Xpncre.

)'J;JUI OOUT8T6JIeH pop COlfeTaHHe CKl,:/K.e'l!'aJ C KaMH€M MJIH CI<.aJIOM IICer.n;R (nCtll{OJIOraQeCKH) 6JIM*e Ji[OHllMaJlOCh, aoerrpmsrrraanocs , a UO'!'OMY H COXpaURJlOCb B IIepelliMTKax, ~1'l'O O·£Mel.raeTCR II npaseneaII MX (i)O.llMC.lIOPHhI'X II PO.n;OBb:lX np.e.naHIUl!X.

B 3aI-tJIIO'GellHe corrocraams ABM}tteJHHe H :'lSOJIEOIJ,H:FO paanavnsrx 1111[H1RHTOB nepexorrxos ,l{O'I'MIllTM'IeckOl'O fl'urq)8 "pOj~.uaeMOCTl1 .~1:J 1:!HliJI H KaMH€M:>) 60rOB, repoes M npe.D;K0.B:

1. B ,lI,peBReif ITepcl'H1 60)K€CTBO COJIHII,a MHTpa (M'H(l)pa)~H€no~ 1)1)<1110» npOM3BO,ll,Wf C1'>IH'a JI;HOpqla. Hi:) CI<nJIM» ,

2. )lpeBHel'pY3MHcKHe npeaanaa l1JIJI_loc'rp:apyIO'l' (B JIeTOHI1CSX. .~ lCap1'JlMc 1~xoBpe6a&" npHBO.D;HMbIX y BaxywTH'1'I nO.ll:TBep"I'C,lI,aeMb!X M. I', ,lJ;maHalUBKJU;r), '4'1'0 Bom,o;J:., UJTlI rnaaa, HHrYll1'en ,lJ;ayp.ll:JY"WC - (mEmOpo~Hblti CLlH CRanbl» {TM:aea.a) (Coo. !I1pMM. 610 .Ii(mannnrsana),

3. B HHrymcRoM H oce'['HHCROM HapTCROM srroce, OOl1'aTblpb COJr' ell (COCJIRH - Y oce nca) «HenopOqIIO» pO:lf(.,lI,ae'Il'C'l H3 .K3.MH:H:. OfipaTUM BHMMftHHe, 'ITO rrpospeccop Be. MHJI.rrep, TOqHO rare )1(e aHaIDI· :1111pYR .n;KropcKlIH aapaaa'r 0 pOm)l;eHHH napra COClIRIHa. conocranlIH9'r aro'r CfOJKe't C MI1:CPOM 0 MHTpe (Mml)pace) (eM.: Be, Mt:rJIJlep.

T. 3. c .. 129).

4. B ulIirYllicKoM I'I)o.i'IbKJlope npeaaaae 06 OP;,HOH 111'3 crapsmnax l'UJ!raeSCRHX _(paMM.JIHW noaecrsyer a. ee <!H€nOpO'lHoM» no..f.lnneHHH '1'()'IHO TaR ;K€ lIG ~.KaMH.,ff».

Otfe8M,IleH IlYTh ABH*eEl.liUl S'll'oro MO'FHIIa~ CI!aQaJI8 OH 3apQ,IJ;UJICH B MaJIOH Aaaa (nepCM.lI:CKMe MH¢pa H .Ibwp<i). 1l0TOM norian B :hll<.tlBl~a3be (l'PY3IIHCKHH .J:(aypp;3YiKOC) H. HRKOHeIJ;. aa CesepHhlH IClllma:3 - furrYIIICRlt!B U oceTHHClU'IH Conca H COCJl8.H H B npezra- 111111 ° npOUCXO;KA€HHff pona r8.3AffeBhIX,

B cnozo O't:fepe.n;b, 9BOJI:FOIJ;H.lI co.n.ep*ruuliSJ (OO'heKTbI, T8MR.THKa) !lJl:1JIH4a,e'l'CH no COU;lf.aJIbHOMY COCTaBY repoea: Y ,I.lJJeBH!ltX rtepcos - ('lor" y rpY3JIH - trapi, ("JIB I'JIaBapl:.). Y HHI'ymeii: e .QCeTllEflMH - uornThrph H Y ranr'aeacxoro nneM,eHlI ~ po.n;OHaqanhfUlK. CJIC.D:Ona'i'(~J!bIiO, no Mepe YAaneHHJI (xpoacncraxecaa H 'FepPliTopHa.n:bHO) enuacanoes Co.II;HaJIhH08' 3HRl.eHH.e !Ii COKpaw;aJU:lCf, paMKI1 M;!iieOJIO· !'H'leCKoro BJIHJIHH:H: eroro 06'heKTa:B MaJIOfl Aana - nepCF1p;CRMW tl{w 11 rocynapcmo, B rpyarm: - BeHHa.xCKHH: naps, r-naaa aapojta, B

45

MHrymeTMH H OCeTHH - HapO~Rbr~i 60ra'l'hlp1. II Y Hurymen.raJIraeBI:(eB .\.. PO,!J;OBOiir npenox, TaR YMeHE>UlaJIHCb crenerrs H rpaHHlr,hl BJIIUIHHJI RJilae:coBoH H,aeOJIO[,HEL

OTCIO,!l;a BHAlIO, RaJ( 'cpe,n;M paaJIJ'P1HhIX HapO»;OB fi: II pa3Jl!HGlHOe BpeM.H COXpaH.HJ1IaCb KJIaCCOBa8 H,!J;e0J10I'H.fl: roCIIO.ll:CTByIO~lle couaaJlbHbIe C:JIOH CTapaJIHCh BhIBO,l1;HTh, cDOH reaesac OT KYJIbTOBO-UOQHTaeMoro, aaropa-reruoro BmRi!I;H (B,8nHE1XH yno.ll;OoJrSIJUi .D;3yp.naYKoca ChIHY 6o:ra MH<PPl>! H ,I(HOPtPy, HapO,lJ;HbIH repoa GocKa=CQJIca TaEOKe pb,lllHJICJI H3 I<.aMHfI, T. e. BoIBO.ll\HJIIl1 cBoK reHe3T1C JlEOO 0'1' 6omeCTBeHHOI'O, JIJ1:00 repon-recaoro - COJIca).

BOT B aToM, noaararo, KJIaCCOB3H CY~HOCTb ::;)BOJIIOIlHH Y MHrymeli H rpy,3i1H 3'1'01'0 BeChMa )l:,peBHero aparrcxoro MH¢a, npomea:wero - no Mepe YMeHbWeHHJI ero 3H3"l{eHH,f{ - 01' TIepcHM K r-am-aeBu;aM, OT MH<PPbI e ,IJ;nopq:,oM R)J;3YP.Il.3YIKOCY, Coaee R ra3,lJ;HeBI:.IM, 0'1' KYJlibTOBo-<lleo.n;aJ1h!HOFO K naTpffapXaJIhHO-P0)l;OBOMY.

CJIe,n:OSa'l'eJIhHO, HCXO,ufI ¥IS BCeI'O npnaeneaaoro, MOJKHQ KOHCTaTHPOB81'h HCTOPHQHOC1'., TepMHHa ~THHeH') (no-rpY31HHCRH: ercana, ropa, KaMeIih), yR83:w:a.alOm;ero aa RBHylO aaanormo LL3YP,D;3YKoca

(~ChIH CKaJ1bl~) c .n:pes:s:eupaHCltHM .I!.HOPCPOM. . - .

3HatIH:'F; B MOMeHT CKJIa,IJ,b:lBaHHK rpvsaacaoro npeaamra QI ,Il(3YP,1pyKe, TaM 6l>v:m: neChMa p8CnpOC'Fp8H€HhI lIepCH.Il\,CRHe BepOBaHHlI. Ho IIOCKOJIbRY ,)l;OIIYCTUMO (eM. Hll:>Ee B COOTBe'FCTByIO~eM aHaJIl:I(8) OTHOCHTb HCTOpH~HOCTh ,I(3YP,IJ;3YKoca K V 13. _uoxp. a., TO It '1'0- MY :IKe, npH6JIH3HTeJIbEO, rrepaony CJ1e.n;ye1' OTIIOCHTb H 31'0 )l:peBHSnepcancxoe .K'YJlIbTOBOf) rrpenaaae - MHQl OTBOCMTeJIbHO MmpPhI, KOTOPhIE: B ,n;eil::cTBHTeJIbHOCT.H, no cse,!J;eHI1JIM I1CTOPI1!H, OTHOCH.lIC:lI K VII-V BB. ;n;oxp. a. 3Ha'J!Il!T S'l'o"r MOMell!T llBJUIeTCSI aprYMeHTOMB nOJIb3Y BhICKIl3B.aaOrO nOJIOmeHllSI OT.HOCHTeJIhHO BpeMeIUI H MeCTa nOHBJIeHHa npe.zn;aHHH 0 )l;aYP,lJ;3YKe, «ChIHe THHeHa» - CKaJIbI.

B arore ,n;aHHoro HCTOpH'leCKOrO anamraa cBeJJ;elIHH Baxynrra, nonararo, MOiKno 3;aKJIlO'!M'rb, 'ITO rrIIlIeH t'py3RlICfOfX .l1ereH,q - He c06CTBeHHoe HMR JIIPUI!OCT11!, «orna» .I!aYPll\3YKoca. a rpY3HHCKoe eJIOBO «cscanas (cBH)J;e'fGJIbC'l"BYIOm;ee 06 YIIo)l;06JIeHHMpo.lK,n:eHH:lI ,D;aYP,l1;3YKoca pO)K,n;eHHIO ,z::t;HopqJaB KYJIhTOBo-,n;OI'MaTHqeCKOM MHcpe o ~ aerropovaors 3a'la''fHH», B ,qaHHOM CJl~Eae - H3 CKaJIw).

KpoMe Toro, anonae corcracyerca H XPOHOJIOl'HR 3THX Co6hlTlim: ~peB8ienepCH.Il.CI~Oe KYJlbTOBOe BJII1S!HHe B .IJ;peBHei1: rpY3HU II 803- HMKHoseHHe rrpe.ll.aIltHH rpY3UH 0 .D:syp.n;3YRoce ourymen.

TalCHM otipaacrs, Mo)KHO 0TMeTHTh rpoesparaoeaapsapoeaaae ,n;aHHoro ,n;peBHenepclI,l1;CROI'O ClOjfCeTa is HCTOPHH B S!,!O.lIIOD;HH Y.Hrymexax pO)l;OBhIX reHeaJIOI'Hl£eCKHX Tpa)lJu:(HH:

1) B npellaHHH 0 «]po,n:oHaqaJIhHHKe» HHl'ymeH (I\.3K .n;3YPJJ;3Y" KOB)H,1l;mepaXOB.J~eB RaE· ,lJ;syp.n;3YROBCKHX «rIOTOMKOB~>;

2) B npenaana 0 pOJR,L(8nHH 601'a'Fhlpa - aapra COJIca;

3) B npenaana 0 rrOS!BJleHHH pozra raa.u;neBblx, OTero,!J;R CTIlHOBHTCS! O'1eBH,lJ,HbIM (paET 3Ha'1H'I'eJIE>HOH rrO,QBepJReHHOCTH lIHI'YILIeif: ('J!epe3 f!pY3I110) rpy:;)}lHCROMY KYJIbTOBOMY BJIFUllHHlO, IIoT'oMY, .n;ftH-

46

11 hlii :;>KCKYpC 0 <,TRHeHe» JIBJIJIeTCSI OAHRM Ita aprYMeHTOB B rrozn-ay 'I'.fUcoro B.bIBO.ll.8.

4. ,lI;3YP,lJ;3YKOC

OnIOCHTeJIbIIO .D:3yp,LtaYKoca Baxynrra ,n;aHo MHOI'O cosepmeaao HCllbIX CBe,n;eHHH, nOToMY o'rpHlI,aTh liJIIH COMHeBaThCH B HCTOPR't{HO- 1!'1'[1 .n;aHBoH JIeI'€H,n;apaoH JIHt.{HOCT.H cosepnrenao He' rrpnXO,lU1TCfI•

IIPMBo.lliHMhIe Baxvnma ,!!;pesHefimKe rpY3HHcKRe c:se,lJ,eHH8 03 ,ntH3HH» a ;r::J;3yp.n;3YKoce rOBOp$lT CJle,ll;ylO~ee:: ~A .!l3yp,n;SYROC, 'rIUWlfOB CoIH, npeBocxo,n;HeiimHH HS scex CbIHOBeH KaBKacoca, BOrue,n OB, )l;3YP,,l{3YKOC, B (ropy) .Eaa,RaSH, H8lUeJI MeCTO BeChMa xpenrcoe M BbICTPOHJI ropon, H aaaaan ero CROHM nMeHeM - ,UaYP}J;3YKH, 11 c'ran TIna.THTI> ,o;ftHb xaaapax. II nocne 3TorO ,IJ;aYIP.ll;aYR8TH:eH CTaJI Ii HftS!bIBaTbCa yru;eJIha K II.!OCTOKY OT Xesx 2~. a aanaaaee 0'1' XeBl1 (M(~CTa) - KasRa30M, RolIH ,,n;BaJIeTlreii 27, rae IIOCelIHJIHCb CbIHOB:E:..fI .~luJKacOca H nOTOMKH er-o, H ace nOBUHOB8JIHCb ,n;ayp,naYKOCY H 1I0CJIe Hero ero UOTOMRaM, a 3TH I10ClIe,!J;HHe M~xeTCKOMY MaxaeaxJlllcy ~nJ.tOTh)l;O nepnoro uapa.Ilapaasaaa 26» (C. 152, 153),

CJ[ep.YKlIru;all D;I1lTaTa casroro BaX:YlllTH aHaJWE'H't{Ha 8TIIM eseneInULM H3 C'FapHRBoti: JleTOTIHCH «.'HC1I3HH»: «)l;aYP;D;3YKOC me. csra rhmeRa, rrpeBocxo.n;HeHUlllH HS nOTOMKOB Kall:I<.acoca,. y6e;>KaJI B 1\:aB:1(t!:1CKHe 1'0PhI, nOCTpOHJI ropozt n Ha3BaJl e1'O CBOHM HMeHeM, 11 'lap "a 3'1'0 BOC'rO"l{HaH OT Apar-sar 29 qaCTh 110 rpammsr JIeKeTHH 30 eraJill aaasraa'rsca ):J;3YP;D;,aYKeTM, a aanazraas OT Aparasr, T. e. pexn ,nOMaRR, a asme Tep['y. 3;[. IWTOPa.fI H3 XeBH 22 yC'I'peMlIHeTca BHYTPh J~.m3I<a33!, erana aaasrsaraca ,n:BMeTMeii ... » (C. 136, .137).

Ilpeaeae 't{eM IlPHC'FYUBTb K 8HaJIHay KoMMeHTapH.H, npHBep;eM 01\110 YTBep)K,n:eHlIe anropa rrepesoaa M. r. ,I:(maHamBHJI.H Ha «ICapT,i!~C Llxospeba» 0 ,ll;syp,n;aYKoce: «no 'neToIIHcHOfi rPYSHHCKOR ner"011 .. ne, Ha,ll; IIJleMeHaMH RaBKaeot::a, Gpa'FB! KapTJiIOca, rocno.,ttCTBOlBaJI )~yp.n;aYK ()l;aYP.ll:3YR). CbIH TapeTH.!I lIJIH TMHeHa ... ) (KapTJ1HC U;XOBpefia. c. 28; Baxynrrn. C.32) (Baxymr a. reorpaqnu£j Il'ep ,

M. r. )J;muH<:uIIBHJIH. c .. 23.0.).

M3 IlpHBe.n;eHHhIX rpex Bl>l,!wpmeK, KOUX Ha't{8JIO paatiapanoes IBbIWfl, BlI}J;HO, 'ITO B rpyaancxax ,n;peBHHX MaTepnaJla.x STHM repsrn- 110M (,Il;,aYP.ll;3YKOC) IfMeHOBaJIftCb He'FOJII.KO HapO,ll;HOCTh, o6Jlac'Fl> HJI.H 1:'I'PIHI8 paaoaa FOPHOH: MHI'yme'FHH, 0 '1eM rOBOpHJIOCb B nepBOH: '1IIC'l'H, HO non 3THM ,UMeHeM B ,n;peBHOCTR CYUWCTBOBaJIa .nerennapIInH JrH'1HOC'fb, r-ocnoncraosaamas' B ,n;aHBOH 06JilaCTH Kamcaaa.

Marepaansr YKa3hilBaIOT, qTO ,rJ;ayp.ll;3YKOC (ChllH CRaJ[hI) y6e:maJI I'la rpY3HH B I'OPhI. namen aa Ceaepaox KaBK83e «MeCTO BeCE>Ma tcperncoe s , nOC'FpOl:liJI TaM ropon, H3t3B8J1 ero CBOMM M.MeHeM l1! «1"0(::- 1I0,ue'!'BO:S3JI')' C nOTOMKaMH Ha,n; coce~,BHMH IlJIeMeHaMH Cesepaoro KUBK,Baa; '!TO nOCJIe Hero «ero IIOTOMKH» IIO\l:('1HHHJIHCb. Mn;xeTCKOMY MaMaCaXJIHCY. Ii aTO S!R06bI 6lhIJIO BnJIOTh AO sonapeaaa is I'pyrum Hapaasaaa, T. e .. AO IV B. 1I0Xp. 8.

XpOHQ,JIOI'R.H C06blTHH TOJlIbKO B OilHOM CJIyqae acrynaer B IIpO-'

47'

*

\,u(p..ll1,e no OOI{aM pe"G:KH APMXa::, B:nap;aJOw;err B Tepex. Yrn;eJIhe Ila:nHlHO .ux<epaXOBCKHM no HMeHH pO~()HaqaJIbHJU{a. ,l(:lJ<epaXMaT, 'I'IIICXW KSL{ H lCHCT, 6bIJI BhlXO~I1IeM,. ItO He H3 CHPHH. a 113 fIepCHH. Bo npeMJI ero rrepeceneaaa ,ll;.mepaXQBCKOe ymense 6hIJlO COBepIII'~HHO neo6HTaeMO. ,IJ;:mepaXMaT nM€Jl·OKOJlO cefia 100 "'l!e.rrOBeK P;PY)IUfJibI, rraxop;HBlllenca: B ero IIO,,o;qHHeHHH H HClilOJlHHBllIeH Bee ero II p H1<:a3aHH:JI. CrrYCTH HeKO'f.opoe BpeMH rrocne aroro rtepecenemrrt, B )()l{epaXO)3CKOe Yn:J;eJIhe Ha'tIaJllI npl1XOp;HTb llOCTopOIIRHe JKHTeJIH H IIIICC.JI1fJlH CBo6o,n;H.hIe MeCTaC ,n:03BOJIeHH:H ,IJ;)I(epaXMaTU. IToCJlie,AHJi[H :1:1 unnuan co CBoew ,lJ;pymHHoH HOBbIX nepeceneanea 1'1 aa STO 1l0JlbSOIIflJICR BeCLMa 3.Ha1.J:HTeJILHbIMM npasasra Ha;,!!; OCTaJIhHhIM aapononae')'JleH.0:8M, TaR, aanpaxep, OH HMeJI rrpaso .n;epmaTh xoxonoa if 6paTh 11()){aTb C mn'!'eJIeH AmepaXOBCIi.o:rO yrnern-a. ,1];jKepaXMaT *11JI .n;O I'JrYOOl\:OH C1'apOCTH a B TeqeHHe caoea mH3RR IlOJIL30BaJIC·H Me>IC,l1iy I:UOHMI1 HOBblMH ccorexecraeaaxsasra 60JIhWHM YBa)KeHaeM. Csr- 11()IlI;o.R ,IJ;JKepaXM3'l'a, JIOpCHl:I n BeR, nOJIb30B8JIHCh Me:m;a:y ;a:'I<cpaKOBCI<HMH: JiUITeJIHMH TOqHO TaK )'Ke 60JIblllHM YBa]t(.8HH8M. IIop;06- 110 KHC1'HHCKHM rrpep;nO,ll;HTeJ1lIM, OHIo!: Heop;HOKpaTHO 6bIJIH ITpHHHMlleM'bI rpY3lfHCKHMKI ~aplIMH K CBoeMY ,n;BOPY H nOllIyqaJIn 01' HKX UIlH caoex B03Bpam;eBMM 60raThI8 rronapxa ..• ),3,1

He Bp;aB8HCb B I'JIy6IlHY rrOJIHOrO naemaero H anyrpemrero HCropu=recxoro aHaJ1.HSU ,n;aHIJOH Bblp;;epJKKH HS HHrymcKOrG npenaIII'I.H, a Jm:rnl~ rrpoaozra cxeMa''Flp·!HO patiouyro napannens Mem.v;y STOM. II a PO.n;HOH lrer8Hp;oH MHryme'l'HII II BhllIIenpl1IBep;eHHI>IMH TpeM.fl! I~WI'aTaMH R3 ~peBHHx rpY3HHcKliX MCTOqHMROB Baxynrr.a Ii M, r. .D;JKaHaUIBlIJIH, BIil.u;HM anecs ,IlOBOJlhHO TeCHYIO CSHah. To. aa 'ITO yKa3blBaIOT p;peBHerpY3HHCKHe J1eTOnHCll, B UH:rYW8THH aaxo)~!1'I' ce6e rrozrrnepaeneaae B aapornrsrx HHI'ymCl{HX IIpe~aHH.HX, npn'IeM B aHaJIorH1.J:HOM CIOlKeTe q:.a6ym:J H Ha TOM me caMOM reorpa(llH~IeCKOM MeCTe ..

E,L(HHCTB8HHoe pa3JIHtme C;OCTOHT TOJIhI>':O B HMeH.H: TaM ,lI.sYp,n;IIYIWC,a 3)J1eCb ,lJ;:mepaxMa'l', Jlo.car-aro, qTO ::ITO. HMR «lI}KepaxMaT')' (,O{;'1'Ol1'1' :H3 nel!3BeCTHOll'O KOpH.H «,lI;)Kep') Ii MDlrOM€TaHCKOFO MMeIIH«AxMeT». xorcpoe OR onpenenaer HJIH xaparcrepaayer, nanpaMel?: <,AXMe1' H3 ,I{JitepaxB!». CJIe,,n:osaTeJIhIIO, npll! conocraaneaaa '1"(~l)MHHOB MOJKHO nponee'm cpaaaemre Me.7I{,uy nepBhIM CJIOrOM ll,aYPA3Ylwca - (,,llayp,) H ,u:lKepaXM8T8 - «,umap». B STOM: OTHGIllei-UHr ,n;OJImHbI JHIHrBHCThl ;a:at"b caoe ROHI<:peTHOe saxnso-rerrae.

COCTaBliTeJIJ> nepeaozta MaTepHa.JlOB Baxynrra M .. I'. ,ll;.:lKanaIIIBH.II III, ncrpevaa aecssca 'tJ!8C1'O 06a 'l'epMH'Ha B TeKcTe, nsrrancs ,n;ame pnerum})pOnaTh ~TO'l' reopens «,D;:>K8P» C TO"lKE apeHHH rpy:mJH:CKOH :!'I'11MOJJorMH: «;:t;.mapH.»- rro-rpys. «B08CI\'o,>, CJ![e.n;OBaTBJlbHO, no coI(O[)ItaHHIO aTO )J;Om'!(HO 03UR1.13.Th <, BOHcKoBoe MeCTQ~ J;.

)J;YMae'l'C.H, IIoAo6Hoe aaI{JIlOQeH'He aaenyacnsaer 60JIee rJly60ItOl'O IlfI11M3HIl.ll, nOTOMY <ITO YM:1JIHTI:.. q)aETllqeCKYlO BOHHC'l'BeHHOCTh a60- pll !'eHOB STOM MeCTHOCTH MCTop:Oi:Ject<.n HeB03MOj1<:l3:0 (yqMThma.R cnel~a1(lniqecKne qep'l'hI BOe'HHOrO OTXOlJ\HHQeCTBa. orpaaeasonreroca 1) 'hl'!'ylO~:HX :apasax Bell:Ha:XCKHX rOpIJ;8B). KOHeLrHO, 9THMOJIorH3H·

'!'HBOpe'lnm C l1·CTOpHT.£eCKRMU t}H.I.K1'aMH, 'KOI')'(a B MftTepHaJIbI, OTHOC.H-· JJJ;}ICC.H K rrepnozry JJ;OXp. 3 •• BDJleTaJIHCh C!Be)l;eHUlI 0. xaaapax, 6blBmax n JO:>KHOH qaCTH Cesepaoro Kanxaaa R Baxaaxaase ne paaee VII B. noxp. 3.

fIOJ1yY:ae'l'C;H aerrenocre: KaK M.or caM ,l1;3YPP;3Y1<OC IIJHI.TH'fh HM ,n;aHb, ecna ero no-rOMKH no,uQHHJUlICb M~xe~CKOMY MaMaCaXJUliCY, ROTOPbIH: 6hlJI lI.,O Hapaasaaa, napcraoaaamero B fpY3H:H B IV-III 8S .. ;1l;oxp.3 .. 1!

ReHo, aztecs lEI M.ftTepH9!.Il!aX llpeBHIIIX miTOJrl!HCe:i1 fpY3HR I1iM€IO'I'ca <.IJlelMeli"FM coaeprrremro HeYMeCTlfblX aarryrutaaromax HCR:.~.m.eHHH, noananumxca, BI'IJl.l1MO" BnOCJIe.u;CTllHH. KpoMe '1'01'0, CKJlQHeH nOJ![araTh ReBepaOCTl> CBe;1l;eHM~ 0 xaaapax eure M BCJle,[lCTBH:8 1'0["0, "ITO AaHRblii l'epMHH «<,,l'J;3YPA3YKOCI> H 0.'1' Hero. 113yp.v;3YKeTMR) BCTpe'tIaeTC.H .B ,n;PYl"MX MeCTax rpY3HHCKHX JIe'1'onHceM. npH"IeM He TOJIbKO B Ma:repHftJlaX Bax.yWTH, HO iii B OCTaJlhHbIX, 6Jl!aro.v;ap.a qeMY MO'.:lK.HO ysepeBHO KOHCTaTHpOB8Th MC'l'OPMtlHOCTb aroro T·epMmIa B nponoaacenae aenoro p.Ri,l1ia STanOE pa3BHTl:lH rpY3HH Ha"lHHaa c VIV BB. AOXP. a. 33.

B oTHOmeHH'M reorpaqia-recrcore cOo"r.BeTc·rBH.lI ,lJ.aHHOrO Ha3BaEHR «JJ;3YP.D:3YKeTHS') lIhmemHeH l'OPEIOH IIBI'yme'l'UM COMH8li.HW Be MOlKeT 6b!1'b; DOCHOJIhKY 211'0 n.ITOJIHe J'lCHO 13H,n;HO B CJIe,ll;yIOLQI1X CJIOBax: « •.. BOCTOtIHaH or Aparssr (Tepexa. - M. B.) T.JlaCT!b AO rpamrU;ht JIerc8THn CLJ;areCT8IHa. - M. B;) erana Ha3hlBaThCH ,1l.3yp,n;3YReTHeih.

Baxyurra aTO yxaaamre ~anaJI CXeMlJ.TU~Hm; ne paanenrra )1;ayp,n;,3YRe'rTIIQ aa o6~eCT'Ba. 3TO e,n;Hl!CTBeHHoe .H3 u;eHHeHllIHX caeneHHi{ B MaTepna.rrax MCTOPHH rpY3HH 06 aar-ynrax, rne rop:a:yro MHryweTIIIO TOM: SlfWXM HM8HYJOT A3YPJJ:aYKMeii:. Ho B ,n;PYT'HX Miee'rax .n;aiHhl 60JIee xoaxperasre CBep;eHH.H. r,n;e IIO,lil A3YP1l;3YKaMI1 cnenonaJIO n:01FUlMaTh TOJThKO ,UmepaxoBcRoe 06rn;ecTBo roplIOH MRrYlllenHr. 006 aTOM I1MeeTClI :M8TepMaJI 13 l-K 't.J:aCTi1: ,!:!;aHHOH pa60tbI.

B R3qeCTB€! apryxeara ,!l;,lI.fl npoaeneana HapaJIJIeJIeH Me:lKAY ApeBRerpY3HHcKHM aereuaapnsra JJ:SYPA3YROCOM. npHo6~aeMbIM ncTOpl{'l{eCRMMH MaTepH8JIaMH Ii.. ,n;mepaxoBcKHM MHrYWaM, ~ 1'( '(I)oJ!J;,J\,JWpHhlMH j(·nu'ymcRuMu cB·e,u;eIU'IlIMH MOJKe1' CllylliHTh oznro U3 nonyJ1RpHLrX aarvincaax IIpe/ilaHHIi, O'rHOCSII.I.(HXCS'I K '1~OMy 06m;ecTBY ropHoR HnrymeTHH., H8..3naHHoMY ,U.jK'epaXOBCKHM.

Ho npem)]e '4:eM npOaHaJIM3HpOBaTb IIpep;aHHH H CBO~ 0 nax .3aKJIIoq:eHllH, OI'OBOPlOCb, 'llTO IIPHBo;a:HMhle HH"Ke coo6pa.li'teHHjI nsrABiHraIOTC.H II KaqeCTB8' ARCKYCcMoHHoro Ma''lI'epHDlJ.1a KaK DpeJJ;BapHTeJIbHa.K pa60'Ia.H I'MHOTe33_

Kpaese~.oM-a'rHorpaq)OM IlH:rYiliOM 11. AxpHeBhIM aanacaaa cae.n;yrow;aa aereaaa 06 «ocaoaarsne» ,lJ;mepaXOBCl{OI"O H:E!l"YlllCRoro otinrecraa: «Po.n;oHll'raJlhHHKOM )J;JKep8XOBcKOFO 06rn;eCTBB! c"Y.}f'I'ae'I'C.lI H€!K'l!'O lljKepaXM8.l',. C aeearraxarasrx BpeMen nOCeJumUIHH:CSI 11

48

.1 :.In IH1~ N, 552

49

poaa'rs HerrOH.RI'1'Hhlii TCPOOHH RR OCaOBe pO,!l;HOrO .H3hIK3I, B A&HHOM cJl1yqae rpY3HHCKoro, a He HUirymcIwro. RRK, aTO ,lJ;eJIae'l' aBTOp nepenona, -3'1'0 CJUIIllROM OTseTCTB8HBO 11: MaJIOy6e~HTeJl&HO.

O,u,HaKO, cooepaavacs c BbIweCKa3aHHhlM. 3aKJ![IQ'tleHReM OTHOCHTeJIhHO OTO}K.lieCTBjIeH~.H KopHeH «,l1;:lKap~ 1'[ «)l;3yp» , nee me M:omHO AonycTHTbo~ "ITO .n;aHHhIH xopeas BhICTYua.eT B TOM 3Ha-qe!EIJ'l:11, KOTOpoe 11 BhICK83aHO nepeBO,Il;'lu1KOM. OqeSHAHO, ero 3Ha'tI8HHe c.nymH'f X.ap8K'Ji'epHhIM OTJIU'qH'l'eJIbHbIM npH3HaKOM a60pHireROB AaRgOrO MeCT3! (,l];mepaXM8Ta). T. e. HX BORHcneHHOCTH (0'1' rpys. «,I'lpKepH» - BOHCKO).

3'1'0 BllOJIHe MOrJIO HMeTh llCTopH-qeCI~yIO I101.fBY nozt cOGOR: IIOCKonI.KY AmepaxoBCKue 'anryura aBJUIIOTCSI HaOOOJliee 6JlH3KHMH (reppHTOpMaJIhHo) K rpy::mllj, TO, rrOnOJlHR:H BOMll!CTBetUI.hle Kap;pbI mapAei1cKoH oxpaaxr rpy3HHCKJ.IX rpeoztanoa, OHrr p;aJIM OCHOnatOHe ~Jl.H TaKoro MHeHHH 0 cefie cpena .neronxcnea.

nOTOMY B npe.u.CTfiBJIeHMll ORRX y I'iPY3MH-IiCTOPiHI<OB, - no acCHMH.lIJUJ;fHl! HX npe,llC'f8BJIeHHH 06 MHif'yrnax C ;!I;OMl1!Hl1pylOIIJ;RM MHeHHeM 0 HHX. KaK 0 HaeMHhIX aoauax-upoqieccaoaanax B Tpyaaa, - C03,n;anOCh BneqaTJIeHl'H~, !J03~e crasmee 06m;enpElH.HThIM, 'ITO TaM H:Me:HRO oxar AJl:l! noeaasrx K8,lJ;POB - MOCTO BoMc.Ka - «,UmapH».

"t:ITo me xacaerca arrryurcxoro CJIOB8 «)J::IRepax», (Zajraxe), TO OHO He nepeaonrrrca HapO,Il;OM, KpOMe KaK npOM3BO,I;lHOe OT MyCyJJbMiUJCKorO MMeHH A*epaXMe'I'. ITO q, Axpneay. 3TO rrpennoxoseeHHe, lC KO'1'OPOMY npaoemeaa JI€reHAa,oG"h.fICHJHOlLJ,a.a: He113BeCT:HbIH TepMHH c npRBJIe"IeHiIH,!M noaJVJeM:illMX Mar01vreTaRCKHX 3Jl€MeHT0l3, norraraio, HBJI.HeTCSI H.aUMeHee lHCTOPHtrHMM no HeCOQTBe'l'C-fnHlO apeMeHH caoero ITOHlBneHiHR JIeTOnHCHbl!M C!Be,n;eSlintM, H60 .D;aHHhIH repMRH MCTopM't!ecKH H3BeCTeH 3HaI.J:MTeJ1hffO paaxme MOMeHTa Maceosoro pacrrpocrpaaeana HCJIaMa y HHryruei'i:B HaqaJI8 XIX B.,

B 06w;eM, npHXO.ll!HTC.H ncnararaca He TOJlhKO aa OARO JIHLIIh zraanoe co06pameH1I8, HO HCKan" KOpH'H: Ii B ,l!I;pyrHx JICTOPH'C!:8CKHX aprYMeHTax, cnocotiasrx m:o.u;TBepp;HTh TO.)1(,n;eCTBO 060HX TepMllHOB.

C STon ueJII.IQ npusoaarca .u,OllIOJIHHTeJ1hl:ll>Ill aHaJIH3 cBe.u,eHHM 06 3TH X TepMHHax.

jE'CJlH H3 I'pyaaa AaYP)I!:3YKOC (.y6emaJu HJIH «BblmeJV>. TO B llarymeTHIO OH «n:pHOE>IJI ~; ,lllUJlee rOJEI,OpHTCJl, trTO «.Ll3YP,D;3YKOC noCTPOHJiI ropoa H naaaan ero CHORM HMeHeM~. Hpo apvroro 4Ke rosoPH'fCH 11 l;1Hrymcfl:Hx rrpenasuotx , ttTO «MMeH8M ,Il(mepaxMa'ra naaaaao nee yw;enbe», rna:BHhdi ayJI CD;mepax) H .nam,e ecrs O,lJ;Il!HM3 po,n;;OB (~3epaxoBI,1), HOCSUI~IDi ero HMH.

,.llaJIee, no rpY3HHC1<HM ne'rODHCHM (Baxynrra), ,IJ;3yp~3YKOC - JIM'lJIHOCTI> rocnoacmvmmero cnoa: OR <J rocnoncraoaan >} HaA BceMU DJlieMeHaMI1 Ceaepaoro KaBKaaa, I1!6o (iBCe IIQB¥lHOBaJIHCh }:(3YP.lIlayKOCY». A no Bhlmerrpl1B8.11;,eHHbl.M HHrymcKuM CBe,n;eHHHM (q. Axpaes), )J;mepaxMaT «lIMeJI ORono ce6s:r 100 "IeJIOR .n;pymHHhI. .. HMe.JII npa:so .rr;ep;maTb XOJIOnOB ••• 6paTb nO,l'l;aTM C mM'F8JIeiL •• aaUl,H1lI8JI ..• HOBhlX nepeeeneunea H rrOJIb,;30BBI.lICH aeChMa 3Ha"IHT'eJIbHhIMH npaBaMFI». IIoCKOJIbKY iB nanry aa.n;a\Iy He nxop;HT aHaJIH3 COn;HaJIhHO-

50

:ncoHOMH"IeCIWH COCT8BJlmOrn;ei1 rrpHBO,,l.\:HMhIX rrpaseepoa, orpana'11'l13aSCb JIl'lllll! YK8aaHHeM: na Kp;eHTwulioCTI. Me:>It.rlY )l;aYPASYIWcOM rpY3,HH 11 ,[(mepaXMaTOM HHI'ymeTll!H 36" MI.l MO)KeM ,ll;orryc~ I,HTh, srro ,3'1'0 MH.q.m"I,eCI<oe JIHU,O Ha«60.lIee l1!CTOPH'IHO B TOM acnex'I'(~" B K.OTOPOM 3aTparHBaeTC.RI ITOJIMTMq:eCRHH MOMeHT ero rrOiIBJI9Hya_ 1.1 Ii'IHrymeTiUl (<<y6emaJI.» H <JrrpHiSbIJI>}).

KpOMe '1'01'0. HeoGxOJ,l;HMO 'raK*e o.opaTHTb BHHM8HEie xa cnenyroII tee: xorrra Baxynrrn U;HTHpyeT Jl:penHH€ JIeTOllHCM H TOMY nOJ.llo6- IlhlP. ,!:l;OKyMeHThI; TO OU coxpaaaer ,I.l;JIH 0603UaI:JieHH.H IIHrYIll€'l'1:Hr JlpOSHKHO T8PMHHOJIOr"HIO. Haa:c.IBax ee <I:,II.ayp,n:3YKeTMeih, MBor,n;a ;UlJllh C no.n;pa3,n;eJl,8Ull8M na {(rJIHI'BH!) [r-anr-aeama), «l{'.Hc'rM» (KHC,'!'l1HhI) H '«;1l;3YP.rl3YKH» (,lI;mepaXOBII.hI)_ Ho reorna BaXYIllTR ,o;aeT (;06CTSelfRbl8 ));aHRhle ero 3I11:0Xn (XVII-XVIII ]8iB.) rIO cOBpeMeHHoH CMY reorpaq:m:~ecKoH l:IaTHH'IeC:KOR TepMHHOJWrHH, TO OR aaasrsaer (MeCTHOCTb C; ee HaCeJIeHHeM) 3THX me Ca.MhIX, ITO JI8TOllHCHM, (',D;3YPJt3YKOB ~mepHeXaMH»" T. e.- no HMHeillHeMY Ha3BaHHIQ - .rr;mepax.aMH. HJIH :iKe' 06'he,n;HHHe'l!' HX BMeCT8 C KHCTHHaMII, aarrpaxep, Ea.3hIHill'! pe1;[KY APMXH KHCTO-}:(3YPP;3YKCKOM:: peKoR (no APe-BHell: repMJ.1HOJrorHH). a -Mem'HocTb, ITO KOTOPOH OHa nporexaer - ,n;*epaxH {lIoB8iimHM n.MeaeM). iB01'SlTO eMemeHHe craporo MaTepuana C HOOblMH cnep;euHHMH. BCTpeqaIO~eeC.H ]B TeKCTe y Baxynrrn, He JJ;onm- 110 CMym;a'1'h HCCJle~OBaTeJIH-HCTOpnKa, eCJIII oa Mo~{'.eT pa300paThCJli u aotrpoce OTomAeCTBJleHH.H o6o(1:x TepMKHoB,.

TaKHM o6pa30M, 3aRaH"IH.Ba.fI aOaITFl3 HCTopH'lreCKl1X cBe.n;eHHH )PUI OTOJ-R.,L(eCTBJleHRSI ,n;aHHbIX TepM.HHOB (npeanerpvaaacxax neroIII1Geft - «A3YP (nayxoce)» 11 ,ZI;peBH9HarymCKl?lX npe,n;aIl1Hii - «,lJ;mep (axrvreTa»»), npnXOp;HTC.H BepHY'FbC.H K YCTafIOlBJIeHmO YCJIOBHOH xporr0J10I'1,HI nOHBJleHHH 8TIiIX "Mel'! ,DlJIS MIU!)H~eCRHX npe,n;SO,lllI1:TeJIe'H:, O'J'HOCH~HXCH K .n;peBHeH MCTopaH HllrymeTtfU,

Y Baxynrra CKa3aHO, 'lITO rrOTOM:KH )J;3YP,Il;aYKoca UOBHHOBanHCh M1J,xeTCKOMY MaMUCaXJIHCY nTIJIOTh AO napa Ifapaasasa, rrocrreaonaperUf.H KOTOPO['O OHDi!Ha~Ia .. JUr ll.llaTHTb .n;aHb rpy3HHC.KHM :u;a:P.HM. A XpOHOJIOrH~eCKl![e cnezterraa Baxynrra ;ll;aTHpYIDT nOHBJIeHH:e nepnoro rpyaaacrcoro napa Ilapnaaasa 302-237 rr. ,o;Oxp •. e., T. e. IlO)lYlIaeTCH, "1TO caM ,l1;3YP)l;3'YKOC .n;on*8If 6hIJI cy:w;eCTBOBaTb ropaano pnaee IlapHBBa3R (XOTb HU TP:U nOKOJIeHll:l'I paasnre CBOHX ~nOTOM'(OR», yC~10HHO rOBOp.H).

H1'iI 3TOM 0630P CBe;u,eUHH H BhliCKR3aHHhlX no HHM pafioxax co-

()(lpa.iKeHHH OTHOCUTeJIE>HO )1;ayp.D;3Y'Koca 3aKUH't[MBam. '

Ha n:pHBe.n;eHHI>IX MRTepHaJlQB MQmBO 6Y,lwr IliMeTh cxeMaTI-PI!IO npencrasaeaae 0 rJl!y60l;(:o ~peBH€'R, rrOJIYMI:l'qm"Ie(:}roH nepao'~1"-3a[~mr C06MTHH; o-raocarmrxca K paHHeH H'CTOPHM FIHrymeTHH.

B )J:onOJIHeHMe K H3JIOmeHBoMy MOJKHO eIlilje C006II1;3Th. 'qTO ,D;ayp)pYH3fl (I1nryrueTMH), 6e3YCJIOBHO, cymecreoaana noa .u,aHHhIM repM 1·1 fIOM. 06 3TOM rODOpH'F PH)); YUOMHaaHI!H 0 Hell B MaTepUaJIax

lil

JTe'I'OflMCeM: I'pyaan, Harrpmaep, lfMerOTCSl: CBe~eHI1!H, ~1~C'O TpeUi}r uapb rpY3HH Mnpnaa 1(162-112 I'T. )J.O:Xp. ,s.};)' DOC.Jle 110XO)lla 11 omYCTO- 1119HliliJi .II;3yp)l,3YKHIt COOpy.u;IlJI npor'as HHX ,D;apblIJIbCKlIe sopora. 3a'l'CM; roaopwrca y Baxynrrn, 'I:TO 6Y,wro npa BTOpOM nape rpY3J1M Caypscare (237-162 I'I' • .uoxp. ::1.)39 'HICTh lHaCeJH:!l!Iirfl ):J;SYP)J.3Yl<El'fM" 6hma nepeeaneaa B Cml'He1'HIO (Baxynrnr. C. 286). ]II HaROHeo;, BaXYllT"l"H erne npl1BOART MaTepM8JI, B K,OTOPOM rODopHTCH, lITO napSbIH naps rpY3HH Tlapnaaaa (302-237 rr-. Jl.oxp. ,a.)40 38KJII04.r-rn nOJ:l:k'lTH'tI.eCKH:H fipax B lI,eJl1JX Y'['Bepm)l,el:lna BJIaCTH HSA. )1;3yp.n;3YK8'l'Hea" '1'. e. HUFyme'rHeil, npIUeS.H oTTy,na ceGe meRY - ('pO.llC')-'BeaUHUY .n;3YP~3YKoca» (BaXYlII'fH. C. 152, 153).

C,ll1e/J:OB8Teru.RO, 3TH 'rp~ HCToplFleCKlfX q>aKTa YKa3bIBaIOT, 'lTO '1'epMKH «,ll,3yp,u,ay.fC& ()])I8 0603Ha'l€HHJJ H:Hryw:eii) cymecrayer 113- .ll:peBJle, BMeCTe :If HapH~Y C neplH:liimHMli Cne,ll;eHMHMH rpY31,'IHCIWH J]eTOl1HC.M: 0 CBOI-IX uapsx c IV B • noxp. 3. 31taQHT, MO,;KHO ,L{OUYC'I'H'fh no.noaceaue, corrraouo ROTOPOMY reHe3HC )J;,3YP)(3Ylwca YXO,.1l;HT B 60- zree OT,ll;aJIeI'IHYIO nopy, npl16JnJaWrem~HoK V[-ViIlE. ,n:oxp. a., xorna 3aKOH"UlJlCH rrpouecc 3'rRHl,leCKOH KO:HCO,JlH,lI,a:IJ,HH 11Hf'ymei1: 11 rpy- 3HI{ (H3 M8JIOa3RHCKHX ;)Ml1rp8HTOB 11 tqJeBHI<1X a6opnreHoB Raercaaa),

B 11'rOI'e MO)KHO I{OHCT8THpOliaTh. 'ITO ,[l;3YP,.1l;3YI<OC, «esnt CKaJIM», -1'epMliH HCTOpH'leCKH11 H nOHBJIH·eTCH c VI-V B. zroxp, 3.

5.IJIIJTBII

)\oUIll'UIMH 0 fJIlue, anyice ,D,3YP,lJ;3YKoca, npHBO,1t;HTCJI O/J:.HO H3 casssrx 1:"I'I!])HHHhIX ncrrynapnsrx jif Tpa..,1l;U:IJ,HOHHbIX HRrymcKHx npeAaHHI1. uri HX rrpanpemce I'anra, ,QOMHHHpOB3BllTeM ~IKo6hl Ra.a; BeeMH IIJIeM(!IIClMJ.:! H .n.aBmeM Ha3BaHHe BCen HHI'YWCKOR HaUHo}IaJIbHOCTll. : h'O npeztaaae 0 lIOJIlmeRl-UI Tanr-aeacxoro ropaoro 06m;eCTBa a8TIrB:cnuo "L AxpHelH,lM B CJIe,JJ:YIOrn;eM BM;Il;e: «Caasrana raJIraeBII;hl nepr.ceJlHJJHCb HS Fama Bepaer (Tanra-ymeasa). np'e,lJ;Ka HX aaazra fa, Il y Hero 'ChIH 6LIJI rUJlraH ••• faJJI'aM asnnex 1'13 y_rn;eJIh:H faMillI1 (A P [,YRCKOI'O oecpyra), JIOCeJIHJICR B Terrepem.H8M I'anraeseaoer yrqe)1 he 11 OCHOB8JC I'anraescxoe oo~eCTBO i) 42 .

113 aroro aarymcrcoro npeztaxaa Moamo nOCCTaHOBHT.b (YCJIOB' lin) fle.n;OC'I'arow;ee HM:f! Toro (He Hla3BaRHOrO Baxvurea) ChIHa J];3YPI\:JYIW, 01' xoero 6blJl Cne;ll.yIOrn;HI1 ChIH rJIur. IlFrrymcI<:lIii {I?OJ!l.bKJIOp D pa3JU1<IHhJX aapxamrax ,n;aeT caenemta, 113 KOTOP.blX czrenyer , 1i'11'0 ,J'rOrO HeH3BeCTHoro ChIHa 3BaJlM fa, aero ChIH 6blJI I'anra (ppy. :11,1 HCKHR rJIl1I').

ECJUI rrpocnemrrr, 381 YCJIOBHOii: XpOHOJIO]"Ren 3T1IX rIOJIYMw]mQeClI01X JIH"IROcTeit, 3,aq1HRCHpOBatHHb1X rpY3HHCKOIl H HHTym:CROH J\Pf!BHOCTbID, TO rrOJIyqllTCJI, Raft Yj.I\,e I'OBOPHJlOCib panee, 'tITO ,u3YPA' uyrcoc (HAeH'FH"<:feH ,u*epaXMeTY) ,lJ;OJIJ'KeH 61>I.,Il cymecTBonan, naMllOl'O paaee IV B./J:OXp .. s. - npH6JIH3HTe'1lbHO B V-VI B. noxp, a. A i:3llxynl'rrr YI<a,3MBBJI, 'ITO rJIHrSH (UHZ. I'anra) J':!BJlRJlCR ero BHYKOM, l\JIH.n.oaBTeJIl'>HO OH MOl' OTHOCHTbCfI It nepaozty HI B. JJ;OXp. 3. 'fa!". JLH n'I'o ua C8MOM JJ;eJIe, TPY~BO 'Tenepb cicaaa'rs. TOJ!hKO m11Uh sa OCHOIlfiHHH IlO,ll;o6HbIX OrpaI:H1'-IeHHbIX CB€,ll;€lIHii H 13 rcaxecrae pa6o'!J!en l'IITIOT€l3hI npHxo~nTcSI BNJJ:Bnr'aTb JJ:JIa coxpanerraa nOCHet\OB~l'reJI:E,. II ()e'l'~ 13 XpOHOJIOrI1H ;:rry rrpeztaaparezrsnyto .n;8TY.

C .ll:PYI'OH CTOPOHbI, eCJIH ofipa'THT.b BHHM8ilIlie aa COCTas zrpeane- 1'J>Y:3HHCKOrO narrreoaa, TO B HeM 06BapY4'KUBa:EOTCH HMeHa,TO)K,l(el!'I'a€HHbIe, lB03MO:>KIW, ,!i;ame lUtrymcKOMY neil'eH.u;apHOMY -nparrpeztlr.y ra~ lWTOPhlH Be.n;e·f' caoe npO!HCXO}K,II;eHHe 0'1' KYJJ.bTO~blX..raUM ff I'a (ro.n;).

,UJl${ roro "ITo6h1 H.MeTib rrpeaeraaneaae 06 3TOM sorrpoce, npaso'lH~'CR Bf>l.o;ep4'KKa H3 C006rn;eHHH Baxyurra: (L .. OB (A30H. - M. B.)1:l 11()3)~BHI' HJJ:O.l!OB I'ana H raHM Bi aacraan.n acex rpysan I~JIaIU!T.bCi{ I'IIM! H HftY'lHJI I1X npanare li OOhlt.faHM CBOHM, Ho A:lOH 6hIJC y6lJ[T l lupnaaaacx H II BOn;apHJlCH IIapHaB83" On MeJK,IJ;Y I'aua 1'1 raHMOM 111()3A!u~r H.llIlellH esoero HAona Apsraaa ~5, H8 rope H B YIIJ;eJIhe, Ha MOi'l1JIe, KapTJIOCa, - MeJJ:Horo, OOJJ1>IIlOrO, oneroro B 30JI01'YIO 6POHiO, c IIG'I'aSJle'HHbIMH I'Jla3aMH 113 CHHIOUJ;HX .n;par0:IJ,eHHl>IX KaMR,eM H C IWpOUOIO aa 1'0)10Be To.me C CH.fIiIOI.r(HM11 l{aMHHMH. H on 38CTaBHJI l'pyaMH KJI8iHJlThCSl: eMY :Ii YCTaHOBlHJI ,ll;JI,fJ Hero ,Il;eHh rnpa3,ll;HMKa ••• »

(C. 4).

,1l;aJIee rrpanonsrrca ern;e o,ztHa BbIAepmKa: « ••• CBJl'T'8R I-fl-IH8 coItPYWI-IJls,16 ApMa38, BemflilaMrnero 60I'a rpY31'lIH, H Tana, li fauMa; H: 1,~IlPI>, MHpHaH 17 Qepe3 CBS'TYlO HHHY cne.nanca XPI1C'l'H8HHHOM, a I'IC(! I'py3HEhI npH3HaJIH •.• (xpHCTHaHCKoe yxeaae. - M. E.) ,111. 3a-

53

nOCJIIe,D;m~e nerormoaoe CKB38RH9 B MaTepJ1aJIax BaXYlll'I'H ,o;aeT CSe)l,eHH.H 0 «pO/J:OHa-qaJIhHHKe& l1Hl'ymeTfm: - rJJH:I'13e. TaItHM 06- pa30M, r-pyaaacxae llCTO'lHHKH ,QOBO,lVIT Jle:reR,IJ;apHY:EO reaeanormo HHrymeH BllJIOTb AO UMeH HX nepaonpsnaoa, ll3BeCTHf:,IX H3 nnr-ynrCKHX H!a.POAHbIX rrpe,!l;AHHH. GBO,!l;l'ITC.JI (:'I(a3aHHe K TOMY, Q'l'O 6y,ll;'I'o 6b1 :)'1'01' rpY3HHCXJ1H rJIHF (H,!l;eHTB'CIH!brii KH:rYWCXONIY Tanra) fi.bIJI «BHYKOM'> BloIweHa3Baa:HOJ'O )J;3yp,n;aYKoca - JIHt.fHOCTH nOJIYMHCl)H- 1LleCItOH, XOT.R: MMSl :JTOH:CTOpKliecKoe.

BOT ~nTO HMeeTC.Sl 06 STOM Y Baxvmra: «A K BOCTOKY OT ceM EHCTO-,l!I;,3YP,IlI3YXUH (T. e . .n;,mepaxo-Men;XaJIhCKOrO ropHoTo otimecrsa, 3i::ma,ll;HOH seraa HHrYlllcKlix IIJIeMeH. - M. E.) RaX:O,D;HTC:R: rJJHrBH, Ha3B.aHHa.ll 1'aK fJIHI'OM. BHY.KOl'l'I ;U3YPJJ;3YKoCa,) (C. 150).

BaxYWTH He YKa3hlBaeT, 113 R8.KHX HCTO'<l!HMKOB OH aaxmoxaer, "ITO rJIl1Ir' tuns. I'anra) SIBJUIeTCH HMeHHO «BHYKO:M!l> .D;3YP,lI;aYKOc.a", Ho IlOCKOJIhKY ,ll;aHHoe nonoaceaae nonraepxcnaerca ,JJ:8m.e YKa3aaHeM PQ,!J,c'rs,eHHOH CTeneHPI. MOJ.l-.HO ,!lIOI!YCTH'fb, q,],o BaXYilITH, OtreBH,ll.. HO, pacnonaran JIeTOnJ!ICRbIMH Ma'FeplJaJI8.MH, cBu,neTeJI:bCTBYIOIUHMH 06 aTOM ODCTOSITeJI.b'cTBe HCTOpH'I:eCKH.

Ho I<eM, KOI',n.a H xa KaKOM HaWKE! :;lTOT TepMMH (KaR Y rpY3HH, TaK 11 Y Iollurywefii:) B .n;peBH0 C'FH. DWJI 13Be~eH - noxa OC1'aeT(;,,H aepaapemeansna BonpOCOM 'II.

l1.JlR COHOCTaB.JJeHH.fl <C 3THMII .nereH,ll;apHhIMH rpy3HHCKHMH CBe-

52

'reM nape Ml1pHaH COKPYfilUJl scex H,l1;OJIOS·i9 eaoero naperaa H B3a· MeR 11K B03 . .!'I.B~r ~KMBO'FBOPJn .. EJ;He KpeCThl .... !> (C. 11, 12).

113 np:I1IBe)JjeRHoro BH,l1;HO,qTO .B IV B. )J;OXp. a. fiomeCTBa I'aua II fa(HM) HMeJItl B rpY3HR fiOJIh-lliOe 3HaQe:Rl1le. xoropoe 6bIJlO B Ha'!8Jle III B .. HeCKOJIbRO nozropaaae .I1.peBHenepCR,!J;CKHM BJIH.l'IHHeM Ol!'HeHnoro KyJilh'Fa ApM83Q H aQTeM,. B IV B. R.o., sees $I3lbI1tJ€CKHH rranTeOH .n;peBHe1l: I'pysaa 6iblJI Bbl!TeCReH pa3BHBllIMMCJl! 'taM XPHCTHaHCTBOM.

ECJIH p;onyC'l'M''fb (He CJlyttaHHoe) e,lilHHC'll'90 KopHeii: 66oHXTepMHHOB (I'a), TO MOJRHO C,I:(8JlaTl. conocraaneane rpyalHliCKHX naaaaHHH 601'0B c IHI('ymc!l:MM «npanp e,D;K OM ll' • 'tlTO zraaasre KYJIhToao· rrarpaepxamsasre OCHOBibI scex TepMHHOB MOrJl!H l'rM€l'TI> OOI..lli.HH reHe3HC. ,ll;OKa3MBae'T CJIe.!lYIO~€le;

1. He nCEl.uo't[eH8 B03MO)KHOCTh nOHBJIeHDl8 ero y OOOMX :i:lTMX IIap0,lljOB no MeCTY 3apO~;a;eFlJur ,o;aHHoM H,iJ;€OJIiOl':MM (l'I:,Y'JILTOBOtl:) - co c:6oeii n:papO,1J;HHibI B MaJ:lo~ A,nin 50.

2.. flo eCJlH .n;a,me, aro ,npl!Iyw;em.re OT6pOCl:tTo, TO ylite HJiI B KOeM:

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3. TIepB8.f1!-:i.&CTlb Ta neex TepMHHOB (Pauu, I'ausc, Fa) p;OJImH8 6uJIa 0603H8QaTb HMH (KYJIbTOBoe) aroro 6mKeC'l'Ba, a OCTaJIhHb1e (-qu, -U.M), aeposrrao, c.n:ymnJIH B Its!.t.IeCTBe nO.HCaeHH.H K ero aaaxeHHIO,T. e. 3TO nOI~a3aTeJJiH npoaaaoncraeaasrx c}:IYln~n;l:d::j:. MeCTonpH· 6h!Ba:au51 lIJfH npenaasaaveana Taro II P;Pyrol'o,,-

"ti'FO TaRoe ,P;OUYCTl£MO, 1l0JIaraIO, BI',JTeR·a.eT 11:3 cJIe,ll;y!OIlJ;ero: faUlt COCTOl1iT li3 {<?a;;, (li"MJI tJora) :a ('l{U) (seoeca - no·tpY3., nml H:CE<:pa - no-uti? .. ). CJIe,l1;OSaTeJIhHO, STOT PaU;H, Ot.IeBlI,!l;HO, MOl' oena"laTh BepXOBl'IOro 60ra Heoa H.llff MOJlHln:I, orzra, CBeTan T .. ,11;. B OTHOrneHHlI,ll;pyroro (ra(!HM)) 3aTPY,!l;Hl:ITeJlhHO CROa8T'I> 't[TO-JIH60 KOHKe pernoe 0' ero ORO.I'l'IaHHM (-UM.), H-e paCUOJI.ara51,!l;OCTa.TOQUMMH ,311aHH:iIMH rpyamscrcoro aasnca; lIO CY.D;.H no TOM.y, q'TO Y M. r. ,I[./KaHaWiBHJIU B o«TIpJ.{Jlo*eHJUIK STHorpatp:H'lJIeCKOMY OT,!:IeJIY reorpa'CPHI1 BaX-Y'iIlT:0:l> 3TOT'repMlfH yrroMHHaeTCJ'i He B rIOJ1[HOH {l)QpMe (sro 'ClKOH't[aHHe - HM aaKJlIOtteHO B CKo61Uf 52, CJJe,QoB3TeJlhHO, OHO He B'C€l'p;a lfJIH BOBce Hie oOH3aTell.bHO tUITaeTCR), HM€eTNJ OCHOBaUHe ,I1;o.nYCK3.TI:. ero orryercanae (6e3 IIOn!bITKH .newnq)pOBaTb) •.

4. KpoMe roro, B HH['ymcKoM :ff3!bIKe eCTb rronotiaoe KOCiBeHHoe <COqeTaHHe M3 aaaaoro . rcopaeaoro era» C np0:H3BO,1J;CTBeUiElhlM TepMH.HOM,. ,!l!alO~ee IiiOBbIH:"repMMH HHoro 3HaqeH:H.H.

Harrpmaep: UM.R rrpanpenxa H3HHrymcKI.fX lIpe,rs;aH:HH, T .. 8 .. narpoaa, reoero OHM MOE'JIll BOCllIpRH.HTb lila csoero (HJIH rpYSUHCKoro) :n:aB!'reOHa, nxasrecrae :npe,l1;l'JO,!I.HTeJIJI, I"JIaRb[ ,!I.OMlufI;rpyro:rn;nx PO,!l;OB nprr nepexoae OT POp;OBO['O 06~eC'l'Ba K a8.qa"FOlIHOMY KJlaCCOBOMY, rOOj-K€CTBeHHoro «Fa 1>,. IIOCJIymHJlO ocaosoa ,n;JI:R aaaaar .. UI.f.I ero no-

'l'OMKoB-flHryureit ra..rrl'a:ilMH. JJ;aHHoe eJIOBO, nOJI8TaIO, COOT OR,}' liS IJOK.uaa'JI'€JUl 'CO~HaJIbHO-npoH3Bo,n;CTBeHHOH rrp.HH3,lJ;JIemHOCTH [lOTOMIcon aroro KYJIbTOBo .. .narpaapxansacro rrpaorua HHr.YllleT'IUi. (T .. (3. 11':3 «ran e - 6aWHH (une.) H «rae ), HMeHU 6omeCTBeHllOFO repoanpeA!<a .. TaKUM 06pa30M, nOJIyqaeM TepMHH «!l'aftr'a!> (HtrrYl:l1M). 6YKlIi;"IJ1bHO - «6arnetrHLIH Ta» .. CJle,l1;OB8.T€!..IIhHO, 21TOT TepMHH nOKa3bIBa· (~T,. t{TO 1l0TOMRH I'a :liBJIJrIO'l'C..a: BOHHCTBeHHbIMH 06lITuTeJrHMlI HX YI{peUJIeHHH (DarneH). )J;JIJI nOJJ;TBepm.m:eHH.ff aTOM MblCJIH MomMO IlpHBeC'J'l1 ananormo :11:3 COBceM He,[l8BHerO HCTOpHQeCKOI'O npomno['0, xoraa BOeHi!i!OnOC€'JI€'BIWB ~ !PYCC:KHX o6MTa'I"e.JIelii YKpenn€I'Ll{M 1\,H3aROB - :a Harytn8THH Fla:311.a:rr.tl! na C13QeM H:3WKe 'Ifepr.fi'UWM «ranrnctca», KOTOPiblM COCTOHT 1'13 er'an» (6aUIHJl) H e racxa 1> (Raa8K), ucicaaeenaoe liHryIIiaMH pycexoe «l\,a38K!>. A nee BMeCTe 6YKBR..Ilib- 110 oaaauaer «6ameHHbIH PYCCKHih, 'ITO BnOJlHe COOTseTcTlByeT nap .. n01cW"<'IaJlIhROMY nOJWmeHHlO R8aaROB aa KaB1<aae (B HBIrymeTHH)..

CJIep;OBa.TeJII>HO, CJlOBO HiHit"yW I> MorRO B .liIpeSHOCTH CJlOJKH'FbCJi 11O,I:I_QOHhIM me o6pa30M 113 HaJH (6aIIIHB) 11 e I'ae (UM.l! 60ra, repoa, 11 pe,rv"a H'T. rr.), Tor,n;a I![pOJICH3e'l'CJI CBJI3b I'PYSUHClt,;·oro KYJIbTOBO['0 1'epMMHa I'a C Hl'IrymcKliM. EC..ITH npn:21H:a'!'h oi5m;:aOCT!. :ax rene:mca. 'It'O no BLIlllenpHB8AeHHbIM c:aeA·elU'IJIM H3 ApeBHerpy3HHcJ<.HX MfiTepH8.JIOB. IIpe,lJ;CT8a.n:eHHblx Y Baxyrrrra Hera pezrax-ropa M. r .. )J;maH8.mBHJfH, MomHO Ha.M8THTb HCXO,l1;HyIO HCTOpl1QeCKYIO /VJ'l'Y ,n;Jis: HHryrncKO[,O TepMHlHl. «Ta» rv B • .n;OXp.S.5~, HO He nos)J.!ll:!<e .• Aero «noToMoK< HJUi «ChIH 1>. raJl[,aJH (8 HHI'YIllCKOM cl)OJH.K. nope) p;OJl(JReH OblJ1 nOJl!BMTlbC.H B HC'['OpHH HeCKOJIibiK·O n03.,1ljHee STott lV..I'rbl. T. e. B IU-II B. ,Qoxp •. 3. CJIe,lllbI aroro npOl"J1Sl,!'lblB3iiOT Ii Ma'teIHH1.lIaX ,n;peBHlIX TIMCaTeJI8ii, onpe,o;eJlJ1BInUX nOJIHTlI'leCKH H reorpmj;lH'tfeCKH' 3TY MeC'THOCTb ,n:8IHHbIMTepMH:HOM.

13.0 BC.fI!KQM! CJ1[y'tI.a.e, l1CTOplUl: TepMHH QraJlraH~ (<<Ghalgai») M3 ..

BeC're.H K;;Ut naaaaaae HarYWCKoro aapoaa, IIpM"IeM B ~OBOJIbHO ('lJn13l"(~W K 'fOMY MOMeH'i'Y nepnon, HattItlla.flC I B. ,I1;ox:p .. S.54. TlprrliI(;!M, HeCMOTp$.I HaTO 'ITO PHMJI:lIH€ Y'3HaJ'IH a ranrasx 55 Il ,lJ;ap:hflJrbGI"OM YHJ;eJIE:ie, aa pexe Teperce, B6JIH3l'f 'tfel'O< paClilIOJIOmeHO KpaHHe .. ;mn:a,n;lHoe HiHrymcKoe )l;'Kep<lXOBCKOe y~eJJ:be (HJ1H )l;3Y!P.lJ:3YKenl:.H IIO-tlpe'BHeJf'PYll.), OHM see me J:[X MMeHOiB8.JIH raJIra.HMH, a He ,lI,3YP)l;IYKaMH (HJlH A*epaxOSn;aMH),. KaiK CJIe~OB8JlO 6bl B ,lleHCTBH.'FeJIbHOt:"'1it O)lm:;n;~Th. Y'lfFlTI>[,BaJI MeCTO 6UTU.hI H pai1ioH HX HaCTYUJl€HHS:I (M3 rpy:nnr, f',iile H3BeC'f'eI!l 'f'OJlhR':OTepMltUi «,o;3YP)J;3YKFH) ..

3iHaI1HT," rarrran (KaR S'THMqeCKaH BeTBl. HHrymeM .B 'I'y rIOpy - I B • .lll0Xp. a.) 6bIJIH Y)l(e seCbMa 3iHaQlITeJIbHO .1I3B8CTH:h1 til anropa'1"(!'fHbI II CBoeH OKpeCTHOCTH, )J;OMil'IHHpyn Ha,n; OCTaJIhHhIMIl'I -cocenaNIH - 3arr3)1;,EI!O-HHI'ymcKHMH flJleNIeHaMH. A <lTO M·orJIO GbITh TOJIbKO IItI OCUOBan:0:rr l1X 31KOHOM lltJ:eClWH, COLJ;HaJIhHOM H nOJIlITJI"'I8CKOH MUUJ;H, CJle,a;OBaTeJJhFlO. OHM,. BH,lI;HMO" T-or,n;a nepeJKMBaJIH ,3apmK.[I,9- IHie HOBon (IJopMau;uH, IIO,l1;aBJU'flOllI;€ll erapyto, T .. e. y H:HX Ohl..f.lH aa'IUTICH nepexona OT_ POP;OBOR (I)OpM.a:O;lnJ K c})eop;an:H3M:Y.

YTBep.mp;eHM:R: Baxyurra OTHOCIITeJlbHO rJlHFBH (une. I'anra), 'tJ!TO 011 «BHYK» ,l1,aYP,Il;sYKa. OTp,aeT C'I'3!potft Tpa,llHlII;Heii uacnencraeaaoa

54

55

,I1;HHaCTI:f"tJeCKOH reaearror-aa: paa O~HH 3aHHMalI rocnoncrayronree nOJlOmeHHEl B O):{HOM paitoae (II ,il;8iHHOM CJIYT.Jiae 113YiPJ1I3YK B ,1:(lKepaxe), TO APYI'OH (I'anra B I'anrase) .n;OJI.meE OblT'b B np5lMOM pop;,:erne C HHM, .n;a6E>I COXpaH:RTh npmmarr ep;l1HCTB8 I'OCTIo}J;CTBYKHJJ;eH COD;H8JIbHOH npOCJIOHKH:. JJ,OBO,lljSli 3TO PO.n;OCJIOBlwe .n:peBO .u:o CaMOI'O MHqnrqeoCl(OrO rrpaorna Tapraeroca.

TaK aTO HJIH HeT 00060ro HHTepeca He npencrasnaer, n60 He 1'I:Mee'F rrpHE~HnH8JIbHOrO HCTopHorpaqJM:qeCROrO naa-renas. TI03TOMY B 3aKJIlOT.JieHHe pa360pa coe.n;eH:I!M: 0 r JUn'Be MOIKao CtUiTa.Tb ero HCXO,lljHbIM OT HHryuICROl'O I'anra, KOTOPhIH, B CB010 oxepem., 6JIH30K, no caoexy «npao'rny», 6omeCTBeHHoMY I'a, rPYSHncKoMY Fa-rra H Pa-llMY, a aoe BMeC're O,HH Be,nYT CBOG reHe3HC ~6 II3 onaoro KOPHJI B MaJloR ASHH. l1pHqeM opHeHTHpOBOQHO o HI a .. }J;OXp. 3.

C.me)JlOBaTeJ[JoR,o, If3 nepexpecrnoro 8.HaJ:lH3a MHrymcKHx rrpenaIHil1 H rpy3HHcKHX neTO'llM'Ce"tt y Baxynrra, a TaKJK·e cBe.ueHMH ztpeaHHX KJlaCCMKOB IlOC'FeneHHO OTKpbIBaIOTcSl p;e'raJIH HCTOPHH HH.I'YWCKHX HapO,l{OB, 13 ,naHHOM CJIyqae - TIJIeMeHR raJIrae13 (rJIIfI'BOl3 - IIOTOMKOB I'a).

TIl D • .u;oxp. s.: aaaaoe 8'THWleCKoe Ha3BaHHe HHrymeM yace cymeCTDOBaJIO!

l.JTO me R8-CaBTC:fl lilaRT.a «][![epeCeJl[eRMll!> ~aCTH ,uSyp.o;3yK>OB B Csanerero, TO, nOKY,1l;a 3TO He npcsepeao M HaytIHO He rrom-sepac,WHO. rrpaaaasars, raxoe HCTopn'tJ!eCKoe CBe,n;eHHe ,!J;OCTosepHbIM noxa IIpe)K,ll;€BpeMeHHO. AeJIo HayKK BbUlIiHITb MCTHHY u ,naTE> JlOI'H"(lHoe ){OnOJIHH'FeJIbHOe 3aKJI.IOQeHHe 06 9TOB: .nereaae.

BLIBO.l1.hI

6. ,l1;3YP,lJ;3YKH H CBAIJ!ETHH

IIocJIe scero nepe"IHCJIeHHOrO lB aTOM roraae MomBO COC'TaBWfb L!l,CJlYIO cxeMY PO,n;OC.lIOBHOI'Q npesa aarymexax nOJlYMlul~a'lec,KHX J~JifHaCTHH (TOlIHee. rpy,3HHo-HHrywcKBx CT8plllHH HJrH repoes), CBR:mJi:fHhIX B pa3J1I1'IHOH CTeneHH ]pO,lJ;CTSeHHbIMlI y3aMH, SepOlITRO, ne'l'oDHco;eM.

I1pHxOAItTCsr rronropsrrs, tI'fO 3TH MaTepnaJIJ'lI rpY3HHCRHX .IIel'eH.n; 11 JIeTOllHCeR - rrpa BceM MoeM YCJI.JUIH rcarc MO~lIO JIOI'H'f.le(:I(,H TO'<IHee OCBe'!l'JITb HX HCTopH.-qeCRYro OCHOBY ,_ ace ]!Ce, 6e3YCJlOB)10, orpazraror Hero'tf80CTHMH. B HMX Mor.1Il1 nepen.necr-acr, <PaKTbllI yt:TaHOBKH pa3JII-JQHhlX KJlaCCOliMX It HCTOpW'ieCKHX rrepnonoa, CJIyIIHTC.ll UYTB;HHu,a HMeH, enox H T. }J;. ITOJIYMmpH"llHOCTb :3'll'HX cnene"",:ii ofiaaarra TOMY. ~TO 0 CaMOM ¢aKTH'IeCKOM co.uep;li~aHRl1l UX HeT .v6e,n;MTeJIbHhlX .n:aHHhlX, Morym;nx CJIY:iKHTb Kpl'rTepH€M HCTOpH'Ie<mOM peaJJhHOCTM. HaJIeT pa3JIMt.JiHhIX [I0CJIe~ylO~Hx conaansao-no.III4Tl1"1eCKHX 11 H,neOJ[OI'H'IeCKHX H8C.IlIOem,rii 38MeTeH aa scex MaTepuanax 0 'l'OM ,n;peBHeM rrepnozte HCTOpllH.

Ho npa BceM aTOM 'CKJIOHfm C"'IWra1'h, 1:11'0 npaaeneamae MaTepHaJIhI, H8CMOl'PJI aa liX nOJIYM!IHPHQHOCTib, 06JIa.u.alOT, OA~.aKO. B pas,1114 4HOH: CTeneHH ,n;OJIeMHCTO!pH'qeCIWH ,ll;OCTOBepHOCTM, KOTopaSI MOrJI3 IltlMOOJIee YCToihm:BO eoxpaaarsca B MX RMenax. IIoTOMY 'z(onYCTIiIMO CQMTan, -qTO HIM8Ha repoea, B OCHOBHOlv.!, OTH.OCH'FeJIhHO TO'lHbI. tCone-qHo, 'C yqeTOM xapaicrepa co,nepJKaHllJ'C JI€reH,ll;bL

.D:aJIee, B xaxec'rae scnOMOra"PeJIbHOrO MaTepH8JIa p;Jur ,aBaJI'H3a JlpelBHero rrepnona HCTOPUIl Mo.meT CJIYJKHTb yCJIOBHa.II XPOHOJIOI'Hsr, IW'I'OPYIO sr nOl1bI'raJIC.I1 C06pa'I'b B YCJIOBHylO reaeanoravecxyro cxeMy nCTopH~ecKllX 1:IM8n.

B nocnezroaa-rensaora H3JIOJK8IiHH ona llhlI'nR)J:HT TarC

1. HHMBPOA - «asrxoneu» H3 BaBRJIOH8; aepoaraee, 60mecTBo unpoaon KaBKas,a. rJIaBHbIM 06paaoM rpyaarro-nar-yurcxax: MOMeH'F IIO}TBJIeHRsr (<<BbICeJIeHH.H») Y rparrnu 3MI:aBK33hsr (YCJIOBHO) - II 'l'bIC.I1-qeJIeTlie ztoxp. 3,

2. Tapraxoc - II TbICJPH;!J.t8T:He p;oxp. a.

3. «IIO'TOMCTBO 'I'aprasroca H3XOJJ,MJIOCb 'I'aM xce , B IOjKHOM 11 pezncaarcaase, 600 JI8'f (YC.nOBHO OT II zro I TbICJ1<Ie,neTHH zroxp, 9.). 41. Kamcaccc - ChIH Tapraxoca, nO.HBJIeHFle (<<npM6hIJIl» aa KaBICH:JG (,],OQHee, B Baxasxaase IT aa CeBepHOM KaBKa3e, no ym;eJIbRM

57

IIocJIe aH8JU138 JIeTOIIHCHbIX IlOJl¥MHij)H"tJeCKUX MaTepH8JIOB H3 «reorpaclmH rpY3HH» BaXYIllT11, O'l'HOCHI1l(HXCR K Hen3BeCl'RhIM eIIJ;e aonpocars accopacrpaqiaa HHry:weTHH, npHlBe,lJ;eM ,e:w;e OAHHi CI~JI<eT rpYSHHCKOro npenaana, O'l'HOCRrn;erOCJI K 'il'epMHHy )l;3yp,n;3YK '''. >0 «nepeCeJIaHMH» qaCTH HaCeJIeHHsr ,Il;peSHea HHT'ymeTHH B paiioa CBaHeTHH, B Sarcaaaaase, 11 0 TOM, -qTO CBaHbI 6Y.D;TO. KaI" ;;lTIm:'t{eCKaSl 06m;HOCTb, HBJIHIOTC:fI «nOTOM!KaMl:f B!.lXo.o;u;eB» 1:13 )l;3YP,lJ;3YKeTHli. .06 9TOM Y BaxymTH TaR CH.a3aHO: « ••• xoraa ,ILaYP,11I.3YKH,.R OOJIee He BMeIIl.aJIa B ceosr H8CeJIem:Ul!, BTOPOH u;apb CaYPMar .S Bb:rceJIHJI HX O'l'Ty.n;a H ,n;aJI HM anecs caaaae - npIUOT H IIOCeJIHJI MHO)KeCTBQ ttym. OTCIO.n;a ee Ha3B8HlIe CaBaHeTR ... o.HM JlIO,ll;H TeJIOCJlOJKHhl,e, xpafipste, TPY;UOSbtHOCJIHBble •.. )f(HBYT C8MOCTOHTeJIblfQI R He nOBHaylO'IlC.H HHIWMy ••• » (C. 236, 237).

B KOMMeHTapH.HX M. r. A»taHalliBHJIH ztae'rea - H8 OCHOBaHHH MaTepHaJIOS Crparioaa (ran. C. 66) - ax ,lJ;OnOJU!H'l'eJl.;bHaR xapaicrePHCTH:Ka, COI'JIaCHO ROTOPOH CBaHhI «lID xpa6pOCTH, 130efl'HO:H CHJI.e p;06JIeCT'Hee rrOQTH BCeX aootirne HapO,Il;OB .•.• Y HRX ecrs rtapt, H COser H3 300 T.JiJIeHOB, II rOBopHT, lITO OHH MorYT BbWTaBHTb BOHCKO B 2000 'leJIOBeK •.• » (Baxynrea, C. 236, 231).

YTBepJK,IJ;aTb qTQ-JillOO no OOBO,ny 3TOro C06hITH:R: (rrepecenenns .n;3YP,ll;aYKoB B CsaHeTHlO H o6paaonaHH:lI H3 anx csaaos) B03,l(epmHnasocs H3-3a OTCY'IlCTBHH CMe)l{·HbIX y6e,n;HTe.nhHhlx opH3HaKoB ~ KaK B HHrYIIICRHX, TaR H B .n;pyrHx MaTepuamlX - 06 ¥IX )J;peBHOCTH.

M"O,JKHO ,JUllUlh emie pas 1I0,iJjTBep,nffTb llCTOPH"lHOCTh TepMllHa (')J;ayp.n;aYiIi»: B rrpanneaae BTOPOX'O traps I'pyamr Caypssare, 1'. e. B

56

:rop aanamroro Gepera Tepexa, rAe «noToMcTBo»,1];naJlBTH.fI) OTHOCHTCJi (YCJIOBHO) K KOHn;y I ThlCR't.J:8JI8THH ,n;oxp. a.

5 .THH~H - llO'l'OMOK I.caBRacoca, oTeu;A3YPtl3YRoca - MHqurqeOxoe JlMll;O, HMJ'I KOTOpOro rrpOl1CXOAffT 0'1' rpY311HCRoro «THETa» (oreana, ropa, KaMeHb). B ero HMeHH 3aMe'l'eaOTrOJII)COl{ iii!pe13~aefiepCl1.ncpw- 1'0 ltYJIhTOBOro BJIHEHH.fI sra H,n;eOJlOrH-qeCRoe paaarrrne KaBKa3CK,HX HapO,!l(OB: pom,n;ElHHe ,D',MOp(pa J1!3 CKanO'I. IIoJ'lBJl!eRHe ero MomRO OTKeeTH K rrepaony 0'1' VI no IV B. p;ox.p. <.I.

6 .. .n;3YP . .1'I.3Y:~OC - ~,CblH TUH·eE£a»- (cxansr) - <.IMHrpHpOBaJI Er3 I'pY3HH na cenep, B ropst HHrymeTHH (n ,IT,mepax). BbIJI He3aSHCHM oT I'pyaan, «lIJla.ne.l'Ij) rOpB!hlM palioHoM Ce:aepHOI'O KalBRa3!l, «1"00-. n:O~CTByjI» Ha,n J(BaJIeTH8fi. RaK ::lTIUI'lJeCKMH TepMHH 0603aaQaJI soro HHrymcKylo TeppHTopHlO OT 'I'epexa ).1;0 ,D;areCTaHa., a noaace - TOJlbKQ KpaHHe aarra.n;Hylo llJIeMeHHYIO BeTBb (D ,lJ;mepaxe)HH!'yrnen. HCTopH'-leH no JleTOITnMM ,l.J;peBHe:ii rpY3MM C VI-V BB • noxp, a.

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RbI. C ;J;PYI'OH c'f'OPOHbI, B YC.JlOBHJiX ,P;OMHHHpOBaHIU! pO;n;OBOH CPOPMaI:J;MH TOPM03HJIOCb H see KYJIbTYPl'l!O-DOJlHTH'q€CROe pa3B~He w. JIG-sa TaKOI'O CTe~eIlH.H 06CTO$l'feJIbCTB nepen HHry,maMH nopoa BCTaBaJIa Heo6xOAFlM.OCTb .npH6eraTb R nO,L:I,COOHOMY rrpOMhICJIY, RaKOBDIM MOI'JIH 6bITb QXOTa, y~acTHe B a:aeMHOM BOHeRe H T. n, qaCTH ofimeCTBa (rrpa rrepeaaeanenna, I'OJIO,D;8, Mope 11 T. ,n;.)H. rJIaBHLIM o6pa- 30M, MY$"l:l'liH apenoro aospacra 12, IiJlH BblC8Jl.HThCX C I'Op HS: IlJlOCKOCTL (caavana H8 ior' -«6au6B.;), «rBllJIeT~hp>. a 3a'feM aa cesep - «aarynrraam,t, H p;p,,)13.'

:UpHqeM H8"OQXO,n;H:MO yqHThIBaTl:>,. "liTO -B STOM ,lXBHJoK.,€HHlf crop cpeaa rrepsonocenearres 'AOJImHia 6l>IJIa rrpeo6JIa.na'Fb aaafiorree CTO\0- xaa, 6oeC[[OCOOHa.H qac.Th HaCeJIeH1'J:ll. Ma.JIO'lMCJIeHHaH HarymeTH1i, orropcaceaaeaco scex CTOPOH ropaxa, OKpYlKeHHasr 60nee CHJIbHbIME: HapO,D;aMI'J II HaxoA.am;aHCX B cqlepe HX BpaJoK.,1.I(,eOHhlX p:eiIcTBHH, BLla:ym;1il€Ela 6blJIa B Op:,H.HOqIiCy O"I:CTaHBaTb CBOIO HenpI'IKOCHOlB+HOCTb. Bee S'II0', B YCJl0811JIX PO~OBOi5: opraaaaanaa, 06'beA:HH.HJIO Blip;e xpenxe (KpOBHO), CKOBbrB8JlO POP;OBOH rropYRoH, a. CTOMKHEl 1I HeYCTpaW.HMbIe (06peqeHHble aaruamars ponasre OTJ:arH). JIOBKHe 11 CMeo

M

l,aJtl1CTbIe (oTMeH.HO BJra,lleBlUH€! opYlKHeM, BeJilHKOJIenaO opHeHTHIIY IOIll,MeC.H -8 rOpHOM: MeCTHOCTU) C03,D:aBaJIH POP;OBble noeamae ,rr;py)1(Hllbl.

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'l'aKHe meK8.'I·eCTBa Tpe60BaJIHCbH B KOJIOH113a:U;HoHHoM ,D;BHme:mll-l_ crap B npezrropsa, I'opnasc He06xo,llHMO OhlJliO C erne 60JIbmen ()'l'Oi-tI<OCTblO, "<leM B ropax, y,n;epmHB8Th a8nIiMaeMl>Ie panOHbI.

8"fl1M O'FCTYII.n:eH.Hi€!M 0'1' OCHOBHOH KaHB.bI $I aaneioes npenorllpn'J'H'fb nocnenmccrs cXeMaTH'IeCI<HX eym,l(eHllH ][10 BBieIIIH8 He(~JlO)ImblM. HO BBYTpeHHe co,n;ep.>K8Te.llbHhIM MOMeliT8M acropavenrcoro pa3BHTl1.H llaryrneTH!l! .B ApeBHocTH.

liIHrYW.eTH.fl HHjKeOJ!lHCbIBaeMoro rrepaona, no CB.H,l1;eTeJIbCTBaM tlllll('l"K'tleCK.HX MaTepH21.JIOB caxoro Baxynrra, 'f .. e. C KOHIl,a XVII ,11;0 H!'PllOH- nOJIOlUIHbI XVIII B •• 6bl.Jla DO'ITH n:OJliHOCThIO pacnorroaeeaa B tll'lHI1MaeMLIX eto c HeSanaM.R:THbIX apesrea ropax KaBKa38. I-t TO My UIJCMI?HH OTHOC.HTC:H nOCJIe,D;HHe 3Tanld ~(lIJIOHH3a~MH .KaR panee aa rol[" (oarr,OH), TaR H noaace aa cesep (AHPYlllIT). nplI'tJ:E!M. IIOCJIe,ll;Hee ltlll1)KeHlle REi, cesep CT8JIO S8.TeM ycnemno pacnrapansea H HZ! nJIOCIWCTb, npO)J;BHraSllChB pa~oabI, OCBoi50.iK,Il;a8MhleKa6ap,ll101I H (o-teIIN.l\HO, nozt BJIl1ll!HlleM OCJIilI.6JI8HHJI SJ!eMe·HTOB. xariapnarrcxoro <iJeolltlJIl1:3M8 nOCJIe nOI'JIO.ru;eBHH ero RperrOCTHH1LleCKO·kam-J:TileJlHCT:nQeIJltO"W Poccneis) ..

Haaano STOPO 3T'8na BblCeJleHHJ:r C I'OP Hill. cesep la, cor-nacao )J;aHUI.>IM Baxyrrrnr, CJIeAyeT CQH'I'l:l'Tb C KOHUS: XVI B. HJIH B .. nepBoH UOJJOBHHe XVII B.I6.

Taxoaa, B O(:HOBHOM, cllTyall,HH C nnrymasra B nepaoa, npeanre(:'fT:100anillHll XVII B.

2. MECTHOC'I'J), :}THUQE.cKOE IIO,l{PA,3,IJ;EJIEHiBiE, .HabIK, BHEIDHOCT!b" O~EJK.a.A

B uocJile,n;HeM pa:3,1leJE€ 06 OceTHH Baxynrra ,n;ae'r CIBe,lJ,eHHJl 0 f':MeneHOHC HeM aa BOCTORe HHryme'll'HlI. OTHOCHTeJlIbHO Hel(QTOPbI~ (an m.l,UHbIX)'-I8c:re:i1: B ee TeppHTOpliUllJIhHOM ,1l;eJleH1UI Yd YKaa8HHoH uunre (B '{IaCTH I) TeppHToprm IiM8IOTC.fl CJI.e,lllYlODJ;HeCBe~t;m!_I'!.

o Kl1C'feTHH. 'I'eneps me BaIJ;HeM C 130CTOqHbIX OT XeBH t KaBKa3- IWIJ, H60 Mhl yme 38BepWMJIH O!lHCaHH€! 3aIIIl,1l.HOH EX qaCTH. A B uoune XeB.H, rAe pexa Aparaa, HJIH JIoMeKl1l1~, BbITeRaeT aa paBHH· lIy (pawm1: asraenmerc csn . .l(JmHH8H l-!:OJIHHa. - M. B.), B :3'I'Y Aparsv uousurre een. Xerajtae 19 snanaer peQKa KnCTCRa.sH AaYP,1l.3YRCRa.s,.

~.. 67

nparexaromaa C BOCTORa» (C. 150~152). 3TO~ MeC'ro COOTBeTcTByeT nanany A:lKepaXOaCKOI'O y~e,JIbH - aanaznroa "l!BCTH ~lU'ymeTIiIH, rpaHHlJ,eii IWTOPOH aa aanane ,f.I:BJIHeTClI Tepex, B _KOTOPF.UI TaM! HMeHH.O H srraaaer ApMXll. (Baxyrnroscaas «pe'LJK8 KUCTCKan IiI ~3YP,n,aYKCRaH»). qTO 9TO HMeHHO T,aK - nO)J,TBepm,n;aeTCH ,iJ;aJIb~elUI1HM T€KCTOM casror'o Baxyrrrra, r,!!!;€ OR KOBlKpeTH;O naasreae-r aTO MeCTO

)VKepaXOM. , .

BOT ero CJIOBa: «rAe :>Ke CJIUBaroTC.R 06e 3TH pexn (ApMXH C TepeKOM. - M. B.). TaM, NW"R,o;y HHMH. Hux,O.u.H'i['CH ,!J;maplIeXH" OI'~OMElall CKaJIa, oropaacaaatonraa 60JIl>,wyro ,!!;OlIHHY, YTeCl'ICTas: Ii qepea 3TO ona oqeHb rcpernea. TYT CTOI1T 60JIbWa.R 6aWHJI, 06Be,ll;eHHaH_! no,ll;OfiHO xpenocra, CTeHOIO. II HB :3Ton pe-nce, B yr.qeJlI>e, ssune ,n;m8- pnexa, H,axop;H:TCSI KHCTe1'HSI, e ce.rreHFlJIMH. CTpOeHUHMl'l!l> (C. 150- 152). Cne,!lOB8TeJIbHO, H3 MaTeplIaJIOB, ;n:unaeMhIX CaMHM BaxYJUITH, MO.iKHO aaKJIIO"lHTb. 'liTO STO MeCTO ,ll;.iKep8X (<<orpOMHfi.II oxana») coOTBeTCTByeT rope M:ffT-JI08M (OrOJIOBOl1: :r~pe), rcoropaa ,D;eH~TB~eJIhHO rocnoneraver (40rOpa:l:ItHB,)eT») Hap; .Been COJIHe'I.HOH ,.a;,OJIHHon APMXM (60JlbnIOH AOJIMHOii); 5'I'a ropa, rax ace RaK H YKa3.aHO Baxynrrn , aa CBOHX IO.iKHhlX CKJIOHaX CKaJIHCTa H 1'yOTO nacansaa (<<YTeCJICra» II '<iO"tIeHh xpemea»), B OTHollIeHHH YKpenJIeHHOCTH DceH;;lTO~ ,1l;OJIHHl'>J: .n;,)Kepaxa B anoxy, npep;llIeCTBOBflIB!lUYlOBaxYWTH. GEnAeTeJIbCTlBYlOT naMJtTHHRH M8TepMlMbHOM KynbTyphI: 6ameHHble ayJJbl ,n;:>KepaXOBcKHX ropuea-aaryrrrea C OOHJmeM PO.o.,oBbIX MOrHJIhHHKOB H )J;lPeBHeRY.JIbTO!B'blX CBlITlliJUn.o;. liIo'foMY y HaXYWTH BJIOJIFIe npaBHJIbHO 3a<lmKcnpOBaHO. qTO 1:I:a STon pexxe (ApMXIiI), «ssnrre ,I1;:>KapHeXH)}, pacrroncaeeaa «ICHcTeTH,a:» (TOpSM UHl'ymeTH.II), BeCbMa rye'ro 3aCeJI8HHaH B XVII B., H600HB. «C CeJIeHMHMli" CTpOeHI1HMH~,. A OTHOCllTeJIbHO' YRpenJIeHHOC'l'll paiioBa" r,n;e eCTh «60JIbIDat.H 6amlUI, ,o6Be.n;eHHaJ'll, nO,ll;OOHO KpeaOC'FH, crerroso», all 38MeTIUI sepao: pononsre 6aII1HH HHryll1CKH'X aYJIOiB ,n,e:iicTBHTeJIbHO npeztcraanana TPY.D;lJO,ll;OcTynHhIe :KperrOCTH. lllOCll:OJIbKY OHH C'l'pOH.rUICb OObIQHO HIl KOMaH,ll;HhIX asrcorax, KPY'E'b.lX, He.u.OCTYUHibIX, CiK8JIHC'fI>IX yrecax, CMhlR8JICh oameHHhIMH CTpceHIUIMFI, IlOCpe)l;C'l'BOM KBlMeHHblX crea, B aaMKOSYiO CHC'IleMY .. 8TH fianraa-npenocrn HHryW'CKHX ropnes 6hIJIH BIIOJliHe HBl,n;e.mHbilMiH P~.n:OB,LIMU y6emHIJJ;aMu aa cJIyqail: IIOHBlIeHH . .R BHeillHUX nparos.

Btta'tliUT Baxvnrra aacran paHoH KficTeTHH ()J;.mepaxoBcKoe YII{eJibe) K XVII[ B. B TOM ero COC'TOJI.HM.F1, 0 KoeM II nOHbIH€ em;e CB,H.n;~Te.llibCTEYex q)OJIhKJIOP, IIO,ll;TSep:lR,1l;aeMhIH M8T'epHaJIbltOH KYJIhTypOH,

,UaJIhme CJIe,n;yIOT cseneaas, OTHOCJJm;HeC.H K TOMY me P8lWHY HHrywe't'11H, TOJIbKO yme no,,ll; HHhIM Ha3BaHFleM,~ BOT 0 -qeM noseCTByeT BaxYlU'FII:«Q 113YPJIIHYKHR. A K wry 0'1' cero, nsnrre }CueTe'I'HH, HaXO,D;UTCH A3YP,l1;aYKHn co CTpoeHH.RMM, ce.rreHHJIMH, 6ameH. mae me 06e [crpansi) .... ,. (C. 15>0-152). BAaBaThC.fI B ,lte'l'aJl1hH.Oe 01lMCaHHe acex rpaaan, T. e. !lOBTOPSiTh YJRe cxaaaaaoe B 06ru;HX rnasax, rronaraaa, 3,a:,eCb He Tpe6yeTCJI. OTClO,lI;a CJI,e,lllyeT, 'liTO ,n,3YP.rr;a.YKHa 6bIJI3l «romHee» H <l:Bblwe~ KHGTeTHU. TaKIiM MeCTOM: B JJ;O· JlHHe APMXH l'I.lOryT GMTb JlU.Wh OTPOI'n: CeBepRQt'O (JIeCHC'IlOI"O) CRJIOH8

1'01 T~] )l)KepaX-"ie-q-RopT, r,u;e ,p;eHCTBHTeJIbHO HaxO,lJ;HJlC.fI rro,n; 'l'ar<FIM )IW HMeHeM! ayn Am,eiil:pax, Ec.iti1 BcnOJ!4HHTb MOM pa6o'Qne 0006pa'1\, 'HBn 130 II qaC'FH OTHOCM.TeJIhHO H.n;eHTHtIUOCTli HHI'ymcKHx ROP" u ii )J(JKap(axMeT) H )J;mep(axMeT) H rpyanacrcoro 4,1J;JRapIH (BOMCIW) C .o;pesHerpy3HHcKHM ,!II;SYP(,!I(3Y:«)" TO BeChMa sepcarao, 'li''l'O IHI,:maHHe :~farYJl1GKOH ropsr, ayrra H nerenaapaoro nparrpemca BeJ~y'J' cBoM reneaao 0'.1.' ,n;peBuerpY3MHCKoro <.,lJ;ayp (,l1;3YK)~, T. e. OT IIIM'I~H> KO'FOpOe 6I>l.n:o rpysHHcKHMH cpeO,!!;,aJIaMII R'C'COUHBPOB8HO C 110 IlH:OFl: Ilpoq)eCcHeiii: nmepaXOBCKH:X a60pUI'8HOB (no-rpya. «,rt;.maIHH - BOllCIW).

3Ha<'IHT, MO~HO C1.IFlTaTh, q'l;'O Baxynrrn B CBOHX MaTeplIanax roIlClpl1:T T8KJKe 11 06 HHrYill.ax-,!J;:lKepaXOBIJ;ax.

Cnezryroinee OHHcaHHe rcacaerca raJilJ'aeBn;eB - easrorc n;eHTpaJIbHIWQ HHrYWCKo:rO IIlIeMeHH; «0 r.lliHrBH. A K BOCTORY OT ceM KHC'I' 1-,n:3YP,IJ;aYKHll HaXO,ll\HTCH rJIHrBH!) (C. 150-152). To ecrs, BOC'TO"tI· :IW, )lJltepaXOBClto·]CHCTHHcKoro paaoaa rrpOCTHpa.eTC.R' I'azrr-aesc:IUUI )l.OJIHHa - I'anraxe (I'naraa y Baxvmra),

3a :";TUM panoHoM crrenyer ,n;pyroll. He H3EeCTHbIH Baxynrrn, 11'00 .B T'e'ICC'Te IIOMetIeH:O MllOrOTO'tJiH8M: «A R BOCTOKY or cero rmu'. ,II L1 naxozrarca ... ymense ... H aro YIIJ;BJIE;8' co CTpOeHl1HM.fi!, CeJIeH!!l:iIMlh (C. 150-152). RaK Ol>IJIO BbI.a:CHeHO B TIpe)l!bl.n;yru;nx rJIaBaX, o rJIaCHO OTIHCaHHiEO pex H 'T",D;. ~TO lMeCTO COOTlleTcTByeT YlI\e-JIhID pmm. A3hI-Qeq, rAe 06l11'aJIH TIpe,u;KH asmeuraux noprrmrea. }J;aH:IIfUI MeCTElOC'E':b, no onacaaaro Baxynrnr, 6hUlia Tor,n;a ryero 06HTaeMa, 1'10' BCHROM cnyxae He MeHe,e OCTaJIbHiblX paaoaon, nO'l'OMY 1l!TO oaa .CO C'.l'pOeHHHMH, CeJIeU1HlMli'>.

Ho Baxynrra, O"l!eBH,lJ;HO. He 3HaJl HX. HMeHM, HO npa $,[,ClIM BKJnOIi IVI .Dca~a:bIe, CB8 . .EleHKJ':£ B p:a3)J;eJI 0 r.rrHf'BH.

)J\aJIee H1',[eeTCH Ma'FepHa.JIOTHOCH'TeJ:t:bHO nepBOM ceaepaofi KOJIOII1~H Harymerna nO:J.DcH€ro Cpe,1l;ReBeKOBb.H - Aarynrr: «., .. Aaryc- 1'111., ceneHIII.e 60JIhWOe, fI vmease aro co cTpoeHHHMH 'IiI celIeHtI5IMH ... A )I(J1'reJlU AHrycTI1 TIOXOmH aa qepK·ecoB ... )), (C.150-152).

Baxyurea OnllC1>IB8JI An:rYCTH He KaR caMOCTOHTeJII>HYlO 3THH'IOCJ<ylO "l8!CTb,. III Ka:K T,epPHTOpFl8JIbHYIO e.n:nHHUY B COCT8!Be ranrasa (r'JlHlrBlf) aa8JliOrU"IHO TOMY ,RaE rOBOpHJIOCbBblwe OTHOCMTe.n.hHO rtopnauea.

O,n;HaIW nOCKOJl1>KY BaXYLUTH yrrOMltaan 06 aarynrrosnax, He 1'0" uopn 0 npyrax aYJiI8X FIll cnona, MomHO npenrroaoscars, T,JTO OH CKJIOIIJJJJcn K MHeHHlO 0 HaJlFl1l£HB 3)J;eCb ozmoro H3 'caMOCl'O$I'li'eJI~HbIX '1'f)ppHTOpHaJIbHhIX oopaaOB8HllH narvmcsoro napona.

Paenonaraa cBe,u;eHHJIMH llBSH3HOHBoro KsapTHpMe:PicTepa m'Fe· nepa (6bIBmero B RHryrneTmi B 1781 r. :H OTMeT'HBlli,erOB paaoae 'rnpCIWH ,Il;OJIHHhl. (AHf'YII1T) Cell. BenIIHH; T. e. no U;Me11H O,n;HOllll3 IIJICM'eHHhlX MHrymC.KHX B'8TDen ):{:mepaXOBlleB - (peIlnHHIl,eB), MbI 'MO}[CeM IIOH:fl:Tb. nO'!.IeMY y BaXYLUTH He cnyq:anHO rrpOCKa.JIb31>IB8EOT IlIm,l..J,uOJIOmeB.R.al 06 ()C060M &THHQeCKO:M COCTaBe B rroceaeaaa AH-

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68

BaXYWTH TaM. s Aar-ynrre, yme 6hIJIR llHrymCR!rIe BLlce.JIe'HUbll C rop ~ $enm·mU;bl,. 0 KOHX DrioCJ[e,lJ;CTB,UH. B KOHIJ;e XVIII D., rOBopHTCH y Ilfrenepa, nOTOM YI<838HO; "{ITO aTO He MaJ[BRhlUIH I'OPHhIH ayn, a «CE!J[€SHe 60Jl!bmoe»;. CJIe,lJlOBa.TeJIibHOj B TOT nepaon 'taM yme 6un 3HR"'iHTeJThHLIH yposens 'COIJ,HaJII::.HO-:3ROHOMU'leCRHX OTHome:IIHH (Be B npareep 6e)J;H:HK8M ~ ropn;aM-ra.nraeBlJ,EllM,- 0 KOHX (0 I'JIHl'Bax) Baxynrrn .n;ajKe CTPOlI.Jl CBOR ,ll;ora,ll!,KR, ru.nRliCb l,'lTHMO.llOl'1l3HpOa8Tb C rpY311HCROI'O HX HMjIi, rosopa, 'ltTO OHH TaR «1H.a3BaH,hl aa HarOTY HRceJIeHW.s» (C. 150-152). STO. Bli.n;HM.O. Cp;;eJlaHO H8 oeaosaaaa 011'I"OJIOCROB 06 1IX SKOl'lOM.H'tI.eCKOM COCTOJnrHH.

A nOTOM erne O,lJ;BO 06CTO.sITe.J1l:.oCTBO rOBopHT aa TO, l.!TO STan RO-.

JIOHHSaUHH lI"OPHbIMH HHrymaMH npe.n;ropHH It cesepy, O.l!l'l'rCLI1BaaMLIH yBaXYWTH B ,n;aHHOM CJIyqae, O"l'HOCHTC.H HMeHHO K nepeacaBaeMoii JIM CaM.'H:M anoxe, T. e. R ROH~y XVII HJUf l'mqaJIY XVIII B. (eCJIH yq:eCTb. "ITO aTOMY. aeCOMlIeHHOj npe.n;meC'FBOB3JIa 60Pb6a c xepKI9CaMH, TO GOJIee BepHoii ;m;,aTOH CJ.fe)'tyeT ClIHTaTh Cepe,lI;HHY xvn B.). CJIe;m;OBRTeJIPHO, no MaTepH8113M Baxynrra Y'I'OQHH9TCH aTOT acropalIeCKHH q>3RT. O'FO,l'l;BHrM aaaan, HS nenoe CTOJIeTH9, cyw;eCTBYlOlIJ;YlO B KaBKa3CROH: acropaorpaqraa )'taTy (XVIII B, DO illTfrp;epy) HaqaJIa HHrymcRoH KOJIOHH3aUI!iH UJlOCKOC'TH K cesepy. llpH'qeM pe"<!b Hp;eT He 06 O,D;aOM·JI~mb AHryIIITe. a, TaK )K9 EaR y illTe,D;epa (een. IIIOJJXII, AXKH-K>PT n ;zr;p. xYTopa). 060 .BceM aTOM pai*:oH€, TaR RaiK BaXyITITH C006rn;aeT, l.!TO ace «y~eJ1be 3TO co CTP09HHHMU H ceneuaaMH». 3:aaQHT, nOBTopHlO, npa HeM IIepB:hd-i STan ROJlioHHSRD;H:M: JI9- CHCTOM:qaCTH rrpep;ropHR no Te'qeHHlO pel-tR raJIMH (KaM6uJIeeBKM) 6nlJI yme !BllOJIHe aaaepmea 3 OTHOCKTCH a'TD It KOtL~y XVII H aaxany XVIII B.

TaKRM o6pa30M. H3 aeero CKa3t1HHorO a .n;aHHOM paaaene BH,ttHO, "t{TO Baxvnrra 3HaJI 0 czrezryronrax 06m;eC'FBax HHrymC:KOro napoaa:

KHC'll'HHaX, .n;jKepaX(l:atT;ax (.!'{3yp~3YKax), ranraeenax (roraraax), nop~Ho;ax, c'jJelIlIHHn;ax If KOJIOHUCT.a:x AHI'YIIETa.

Ho npa aTOM! OR .n;aJI rrOHCH€RMe, "tJ:'FO,D;O aero. T. e. )11;0, XVII B., no ApeBHerpy,3UH.CEHM CBe~eHH.HM. Bee 3TH MeCTa 6hlJrn H3BeCTHI:.I non O.n;HHM, P;OMHHHpYWIqHMHap; rrpHBeAeHHbIMH OCTaJlbHhlMII, TepMHHOM. Baxynrra roaopar, "lTD «Bee ace 9TH Ylll.€Jib.H, onacaaasre HaMH, npem.n;e Ha3LIB8JllfCh 06W;HM HMeHeM - ).J;aYPp;3YK.e'JI'H,eH, a Tenepb nonpaaneaeasr 1'8i}-t (KaK 03HaQeHO)>> (C. 150-152). Bl'>IHCHU'Th xpoHo.JIOI'n'IeCKll TO':lHO 3TO'F MOMeHT no. O,lJ;HHM JIMITIb C~e):leHHHM caMoroBaxYITITH TPY,D;HO. XOTJi: OTHOCHT€JIhHO npaBHJIbH3Ji nonsrraa MHOIO c»;eJliaH8 B IIpe.n;bI.n;y~eH lI"JIaB,e.

K HaROHen, no nOBO,lJ;Y acex 9THX nOCeJIeHHH RHryrneH. oooemaeTCH, qTO OHM B Ma,llo;il;ocTynHoH MeC'THOCTH: «A y~eJrl>$l 9TH BeChMa. RpenRH H He,!l;OCTYllHbI ~JIH sparos no np:a"t:{UHe rop, CKa.lI, TeCHHH, perc, a zrecoa ... (C. 150-152).

'To ecrs HMeHHO 1''0, qT'O MHOlO rOBOpl''I'.Il0Cb 0 JIa:a,ll;maq>Te 3TPH repparopaa B aaxane .a;aHHOB: qaCTH, 1';o;e oocyjK~aJlOCh npOHCXO~.!i;,eBiUe· RM:fHlH I1JfCepaX.M.am DT r'P'Y3,MHCKaI'O iJ:HCUpU ~ BOUCfCO.

B. OUHcaHHH T'YllleTHH BaxymTH ynoMHHaeT 0 IO:>ltHbIX HHrYIII-

mnlx nbIceneH:u;ax - oau,6HJlX. Y Her'OCKa3aHo, 'ITO e aacyrrpornn or r ImIl{MC:H, aa .KaBKa30M, Haxop;HTCSI D;o!Ba, HRme il;OBbl - roueo,apu. a 1l!1::?I<e cere - 'tJrurMe ... » (C. 131~133l. 3TH uoaa-rynrmn« H ecrs 111;11'1 uraae 6a~6n - WmIl!Oe DJIeM.R: HHiI'ymeH (£)).enrrHHll,eB) •. 00 MOI\I'JI)JI're BbICeJIelUUI HX B MaTepnaJIax BaXYWTH H.H.'It€I'O ne CKaa.aH'O, 1IIO'I'OMY YTBep:>K,n:aTb "ITO-JUrao no ::lTOMY. nosony 110Ka 3aTpY,D;HH.-

'.i'IUlhFlO. .

,n:al1ee rOB,(;,pJiTCH OTIJ[OCHTE!JlbHO 3THX(. reaxeTHHCRHX HHI'ymen.>, '1'1'0 HeKO'FOpa.H '1aCT1> HMeeT qrO-TO ol5rqee C HHrymaM!Y.r: <, Koropsre mC' 1-13 lIUX HaX'Op;JITC.fI 13 qaCTax KHcrreTlIH M r'.rm:rSH. rOBOpJl'T OOJIh= ureio 'tHl.CTbro H8 H3l>IKa.:x 3THX {Hap0,ll,OB}* (C. 132, 133). He pacrroJ.IIH'I'IJI 13 ,z:taHHOM aaanaas ;zr;PYI'HM~ .CBe~oemIHMH; 'FPY~HO cI<a3ftT.b I(OHItpe'rHO - STBH"IemCaX lfJIM cou,ua.llI:.HftH .aTO 06~HOCTI:. 20 ..

?·I'OjK~eCTBJIH.sBO MHOll"OM, KftR 3TO 6y,n;e'F yxaaano lUr~e, :nHry!wi", C OCeTliHaMH, Baxynrrn rOBopHT OTHOCHTeJIbHO HX (HHlry:weit) uuurca, 'tilTO OHM «:i13I:>lK:m:e HMeroT CBOll co6CTBeHHbEii:» (C. 150.,152). DClJJee ::ITCI'O ,n;pyI'HX nO.HCHeHHH B era M3:re.pUaJIax He ~aeTCH.

O'fH.OCHTeJII.HO BHeWHOoCTH H o.n;em,il;hI HHI"yweji y BaXYIllTU HMeW'r'c·.R: CJI€.u;YlOllVfe CBE!,1l;eHHH. BO-rrepBI.IX. Baxynrr-an CBoeM ODHcaII J.I.H OceTHH CCl.l.llaJIC,ll Ba UHI'Y'IIlefi:H OTo,m.n;eCTBJIJ'IJI .ux c ee aaceJI l[I"eM, roaopa, 'ITO lUl!I'YWH HeCKOJlbKO OT.,IJ:~lJ:aI()lTC,1l: or OC€"irlIH TeM, 'I!'I'O <"lflWHIrqHHbI me O;o;e'l'bl aaaxe» (C. 152). 06ux BHemHOC1'lI MO)KHO

YJJ.lilTir> no y:Ka3aHHIO 6o.rree paaaero, -qeM Baxyurra, HCTOqRHRa, npnUO/( 11: Moro nepeBO,p;qHRo,M M. r. )J;jRaHamBHJIH.. 3TO CB'ep;eHl1iJl H3

l..HIHeHHSI «Ap'IHJIHaHH'>. nanacaanoro B 1681 r. H B l(OeM ona(IJIIJRe'['CH npH6_hITHe B rpeMH H3 ITepcHH (B 1605 r . .) napa TaHMYplwa 1. ,llaHlu.J.H· naps :meHHJIC$li, TIHPOBftJI 11 O:XOTHJICJI B' ropax 6JIH3 11~1.I.I, 'yweTHIll •. FOjpIJ,hI ,!l;eJIaJ'm eJ.IIIY noO~li·OllieHH.f[ H BhlXO,n;IIJ; . .JEH !BC'Fpe. III In. TBlR BOT, B onucaxaa .BT:OI'O CJIyqaH BCTpel.!aeTCH MaJIeH:bKOe Y~\03aHl1e aa BHelliHOCTh I1Hrymmt, HO H TO CKft3aHO oooorqeHH'O 06'0

II,a x J~eHm;HHax ropcrcax naponoa (,lIiH,n:OHlJ;hI; TylUHHPI, nrnassr, xesflYPbJ. KMCTRHhI" I'JilHrB:bl: 11: .l(3YPJl3Y~I·r) aaecs: L ... BbIXO,n;l't:rrH JIaIH:'I'PEl'IY If 3.!!leillHHemeHIn;HH1>I, HM,eIO~ae TOHKHe TaJIM"H!, 6eJlhie Jurl~1'l 11' xepnsre BOJIOCbIl> (C., 124). 81''0 nee, l.!TO MomHO BhI6paTh It~)CfleHHO 06 aarvnrax HS MaTepHaJIOB Baxvnrrn Hero rrepeaonxaxa M. r. ,n;maHamBIlJIH.

I ~Io nocRoJIbKY Baxyrrrra CCbIJIaeTCH rra CXO,l{CTBO o,n;em,n;bI UHI'YIlldl C OceTHH.aMH H H3 aTO H8!MeK81OT 'lI'aKme p;Ba He3Ha'tm:TeJIbHl>IX JiOICll3fJ.'l'8JIhCTBa O'THOCMTeJI:bHO Bl:.ImenpHBe,n;eHHI:.IX qepKeCmc H 6yIJOlt., lWEI HMeIO'Fc:a: H Y OCe'FHH, ODMCa:EiHI:.l!X Baxvmra, TO, nonararo, He Jill ~!jeHHIbIM HHTepeca 6y.n;eT BKJIIOtteHHe 's .n;aHHbIM: paane,n cnezre- 11111 06 ozreacne caranx oeeraa, na OCHOBaHllH tIero MO:/i-\:HO 6y,n;e'F IIM!>.1'b nercoropos npep;cTEt:BJI8HH€ H '06 o.n;em . zre HErrymeH, Boo6m;e O'I'{i)IC.£IeC'rBJJ:HeMbIX y BaxYllI'FH BO MHOI'OM C OCE!THH:&MH 21.

BOT LITO. aarrparaep, rOBOpHTCJI 0 HHX: «O~e'l!'.bI OHl! B py6arnKR I,m Ue6eJIeHOrO XOJlCTaCBl:.IpeSHlbIM, KaK y MOnaXQB, BOPOTHHKOM If B 'WJHu,OBue me' K,aJIhCOHhl, csepx Toro HOCJ!T qoxy KOPO'F:KYIQ, 11:; KOJll~lIj 11 C,YKOHH:hle' HO:rOBHD;I:>I, "IOXH 6hlBaIOT GO caop.aMH H 6e3 nerezrs.

70

71

Csepxy 1:{O'Xl'I H8RH,IJ,DIB8IOT 6ypxy. Ha BOraX. li:OCHT Kom8E1YIO 06YBh, nO,lJ,OIIIIIa iEWTopon nepennereaa Hape3B:HHbIMH peMHJ'I,MH, 8 BHYTPH BblCT.lJaHa OCOTOM, H 06YB8IOTCH Tax, .Il;aOhI He CKOJIb3H1I8 Elora no JlLp;aM,CRUraJM H TpaBe. BbICI11He HOCST 'l!yCT'hl,. 11 I'OJIOBHbIM. [10- Kphllla.nOM CJlymaT manKff H H.pyl"'JHUI KOCMaT8J'1 MaCYKlfa ace. .. IIOA06l!:lbI_M ~e 06paaOM oaeaarorca If .meBUre:S{.I, RO XiX UHa'!'!>€! 60- nee nnanaoe, H OBll aa I'OJIOBY Ha,neBB!IOT memca, BOCHr -qYCTbl. noroBMU;hl. HO Be KaJIhCOHbI. H MYJKqMHhI H mea,lll;KlEIhr onoacsrsarorea KymaKaMlI (TaKHMIIi)" KaRHe Moryr npaotipecra ... BoraTCTBO BZ. coC-Ta:SJIJlIOT pymbe, m,aWK8, nanII;Hjph, KOJIhqyra ... llbrThe H>!: JrC€Hlll;MH OT.rrn1:faeTCJl QiHCTOTOlQ M )l;06]pOTOlO. B crpaae HX ReT JlIbH8. KOHOlIJI'H, X)10IlKa H rn€11IKa. ~a6bI H3: HHX npl1I'OTOBHTb ce6e O~€'K)I;y; H rrOTOMy 60JlI.bIDifHCTBO 06Xo'.!:IHTCfI OBe'tlbHMB' IlIRypaMH •.•. !) (C. 140~ 143).

!CaR BM,EI;,HO .H3 npaseneaaoro, O,lJ;eJK,lJ;R OCeT'liH onacsraaereoro Baxyurm nepaozra aeMllOI'HM OTJlH't{aeTC:13: 0'][' roro, '(ITO xpaaar B ce6e l1H:rylUCEIH~ pO~O)3bIe .MOrH.lJhH~KM ;l'oro lIMeaao BpeM€Hl:I H 'qITO E, OCHOBHOM HOCJIT erne M ,Il;OHbl:He roprrsr-aarynn«. OTRPbITbIM OCT3JeTCH aorrpoo 0 BHemaOCTH JrC€HlliIJJ;HH-InlirymeK. 0 KOHX Baxynrra BbIp.a3I:lJlCR, '4:'J)'O OHH O)'leThl «HHa"l:!e)). Ho TO, 't{TO Y aero ercaaaao OTHOCHTeJIbHO OC,eTHHOK, ocofieaao pearce He OTJIl'nlaeTca 0'][' Toro, 'l!!TO MomHO C'Ka38!Tb 0 npemHHX H HblHem!!UU HHI'YIllK&X. CJ're)'toI'laTeJIbHO, CllJll>HOii: pa,mHD;I>I He Mor lIO 6hfTh II Tor ,!I;,a.

,[(JIH ,l1;OnOJilHeHHR KapT.HHl>I oBHelUHOCT.H MYlK'tJ:HH~HHrymefl y BaXYWTH HeJlb3H no~epIIHyTb 60JH,We Hl1!~e:ro. CRa3REO, e,!l!HHCTBelEBO. 06 oceraaax cJIe,l1;YIlOllI,ee:(J.A MY)K\{liIHbI IiI meHllI,IiIE!bI KpaCHBhI. MU.JIOBM)I;H.hI. e "l:I€PHlbIMH I'1.IaSaMH M 6POB:SlMH, C 4epHhlMl:l BOJl(OCaMH, 6eJllOBRTo-PYMJJ:llI.I, P00J1hl, ,0 TORRaMM:TiUlii;fIMlf. ao m€HllI,HHbl 6on€le scero CTPORl:I10-TOHKM; OHn nrycrpar, npoaopms» (C. 140).

BeaYCJIOiBHO, conOCTaBJUITb uHrymell1: C amMH CH'e.n;eHHHMfl:.. OTHOCaW;il'fMMCfi R aTHH'IeCRO-,aH.TpOnOJIOE'cw·lecKoH xapaserepacraxe oceTHH, He,n;onycTHMO, IiEOTiOMY Ql'O S'TO 6hI.IlO 6h.I rpy6eiiIlleii OIllH6KOH. no Bee me OTMeTHTb TaRoR (paK'r, noaaram, H€lJIIfWHe.

'I'axosa, B OCHOBHOM, 6:nma KapTI1H8! HHrymeTl1:l1 I1I MHI'yweM B TOT HCTOpn"IeCRHH: nepHO,o;.

3. ;:;HtOHOMHKA (UPOH3BO,lWTBEHHAH ,liI;EJITEJIhHOCTL. m'HBOTHOBO.n;CTBO, 'FOBAPOOlBMEH,

rOPHhIE 'FOPfOHbIE, llYTH HKY JlbTYPHLllE CBH3H)

IIIIOl'13BO,l:lIVI ero liS: Ral.J!eCTBe:HH'OI'O npHJIara.TeJILHOrO; Ctnt:TajJ TepM~H «rJHII'Bl1& o6pa30:saBlUliIMcSIi OT rpYSIH-lCtWrO :3KBHBa.rreH'I'a 0110, nn ,~naroTal), "l:ITO, oeaYCJlOBHO, J!orn':lec.KH FIeCOC·TQH'l'eJl1hHO. BQ, C .o:pyI'oii eroponsr, €CJU!: OM OJ1IHOanCH, lIiIO,n;XO.ll;sr ClBo€o6pa3HO It aTlil:MOJIO~ l'I.;13aUHll 'l'epMHHa -qymoro .F.I3h1K3 (If!:t8. I'am-a) C F{CRameHHoH l'py:mHcRoH TpaHCKpl1nn;Me:i% «r'Jla:rBH»? T. e. npi0:MeHlI11: ,l1;JI.l'I aTOM I~~JJH rpY3IUlCltFLl& H3bIK, TO B03H'llKaeT MbICJU., 'ITO OIl 9'1'0 t(e.iE3JI, .1!OaMOmHO, .r(eliiCTE.WTeJIbHO saaa 'lTO·JIUOO 0 Tor.n;amHeM ::!IKOlIoMl1- 'l:eCIWM QOCTO:R:HHH ropnea, 6lbIBIIUliX, no ,epaBIleHluo C rpY3HHaMH. ('! 3YC)10BHO, 60JIee ,oe~HLIMM. Orcrona, nonararo, TOJIMW H Mor11a rrotliH1'rlbCH y Baxynmr MbICJIb 0 nO,ll;06HOH ,I1;eIllH(PPOBKe 'TepMMHa rmrrtlU - raJII'R.

TeM 60nee 't!:TO, ,Il;lisaH 06llljeSKoHOMH'llecKYro xap3KTBpHCTHRY, OH nIW .. HIJI np.F.IMO 0 6e,!J;HocTIi Ha:rymeTMH, CC:bJJIaHCb fJ8 aaanoraro c Ocenlieit; p'JlJiI aroro npHBO,llJf:TCJI H Te H ,o;pYI'He CBep;eHUH. Bo-rrepustx, O'l'U:OCMTeJIbHO llHrymeTHM Y Hero CRaaaHO: « ... CRY,l1;fJhI H aeI'P0I13BOP;HTB11bHbI (roPhI HHrymeTlU1J. - M. B.,), 6e,llHbI CKOTOM TaR, IHHt Mbi rracana 060ceTHM ••• » (C. 152) .. CJIe;ll;OBaTeJIhHO, ropnoeaexrJH1t~eJIMe HHrymeM 6b.IJIO He):l;OcT8.TO'C.JH!O (,(iCKyp;ao\» ~ KpaHH"e c.n:a6o PU:!BET()I., H60 rop!>I <lHenpOH3BO)J;HTeJIbHbI 1>., a CROTOBO,l1;CT.BO !fIeCi>Ma ~Oe~Bol.>. B o6~eM me'nOJIOJKelHHe 8naJIOrHLIHO OCeTMHC:oKOMY. A 0 lIeM BaxYllI'l'H cOQ6w;aJI CJIe,llyror.n;ee: (L .• DJIO.n;OPO,l1;BOCTb STOff crpaI~ hf (OeeTUM. - M. B.) neal'Hlql'l.T€Jlbaa, 11.60 HMRa;KHe ,1l;pyrlfe aepxa :II PO,1l;STCa., K]poMe DWSHHli;hl, SI'C.JMeHH H oaea, no npH'tlnHe xo.nena, llo:31~Hepo JIeTa If p.aHHeM GOBHM. HO H:;)T'O Be aacesaerca H300H.llbEO 1:10 M8.noae¥eJIMO H CKaJIMCTOH MeCTHOC'l'Ii .... .D;OM8IllHH8 }KMBOTHbI€ CY'l'h: O.B~bI 6e3 Ryp,n;IDRa. C XBOCT8Mn II M3:JIOpOClIl>Ie, KOPOBbI, JIornaIV1!, K03hI" CBF):Hbll .H H,eMHOro iHX, HO 6oJIee, qeM B ,I1;pyrMX M8CT8lX, !H'YClfbl. 11 TaR KaR HM€IOT MaJIO nac'T6m,.n;, nOKOCOB, IIOTOMY OBeD, He I~ 'P:iI(UT 60JIee 20-40~lOOO, TaKme II JIOm<l.t(eH H ItoPOB no 10~20- ,j,O., HO !!:Ie 6oJIee .... 1> (0, 13.9). O'I'CIO . na BH,,QHO, qTO B ropHoif OceTHH l~O XVII B. omymanocs ocrpoe MB:JI03eMeJIhe, TOPM03HBIll€e ... ropaoe [It M.Ile.ueJI~e II CROTOBO.n;CTiBO: C o)J;Hoa C't'OpOHhI, He,!!;OC'ra'rOK paapaOO'j'nUH:blx. noon n811IHIf CRaJIHC''FlbIX MeCT, ac APyron- OTCYTCTBH'e J~()C'J'a'rOqHblX nacrfiam H !IOROCDB • .B pe.3YJtb'lraT€ '- 06U:(MH ne,D;.ocTa'I'()I~, x.)fe6a M Ma}fOnpo.n;YK'l'HBHOe CEW'FOBO,m;CTBO. He 06eCl!I€'C:IMe8lEOIQH8 II.y)I~!{y Hace.1leHHn B llpO):!'YKTax DH'I'aH:HR.

A nOCKO'.JIbKy B 3TOM sorrpoce BaxYll1TH CChlJIaeTCl'I B'a aaanoI'WrHOCTb nOJilOmeHl'UJ MHI'yrneii: C oCeTRHaMM, TO MO.iKHO ceGe npezt(j'I'U WWl'lb BCIO 6e30Tpa~HOC'Fl> 6hlTa roprrea- HHrymeH 22.

I{ LIl\lCJIY ,lI;Ol:taaaTeJi[bCTB 6e.llHOCTlf ropues-oceeaa, xa ROM::>!: (no IltlllpOCY o6l1;:HIrywax) CClblJIaeTC$I BB!xYIIT'rn. MOJl-l:HO O'I'HeCTE! ew;e If "mIme yka.aaHHe, liTO B O,lJ!eJ:RAe «60Ji[bmHrrCTEO 06XO,t(JI1l'C.R: oee'<J:l>HMH 111lt)1paMIf& (C. 142" 143). 3Ha'tIJ1T OC:TaJIbi!'llOe He no):!, CH.JlY OOJlbWHHI"J'Hy. liJrH eme npHMep C OnnC8HHeM o'rpUn;aTeJlbHOro, aa B3:r'.JlRtJ; jUITOpa; KaQeCTB8 oceTHHCRoro rrapona: «B CB,OeH' crpaae OHH xynramr M(IJi.Q, :0:60 ,z:(OBOJlbCTRYIOTCJ'T TO.lll'hRO BO,1:(OIO, XJISOOM:a CblBOPOT'l\.DlO, II() I) '!y-li<HX MecTax n H8 DH})meCTB&X OHM Hea8CblTHbU (C. 140,

9KOHOM;H''tfeCKOe !IlOJlO:IKeHHe ropu;eB~HHrYlUefi (:l'O'Y:H€!e. TOJl!bKO ranr-aesueu) XVII B •• !IO CBe,n;eHHJlM BaXYlUTH, 6h1iJIO BeChMa T.fIme· JIblM. 8'1'0 npOCK8JIb3hISaeT B ero ROCBeHHblX a3.M€-q,8HMHX 0 ElJlX.

fl!epsoe. QTO 6pocaeTcJ[ B l'JI8!aaB O,1:(HOM MeCTe (npa .D;emHc;ppoB,Ke'li'epMHHa «rJIHl'BH»)" STO. KaK y~e rOsopl:[Jl:OCl> ssnae, YKa38HHe sa «FlIarOTY» r8JIraeBOKHx. ropn;eB. Baxyrm-a, 3'l!"I!MOJIOrH3ltpyJl. aro CJ![(),SO .. rJIiIrBH» (U/iZ. I'anra) B CBOHX JI1iIH[,B.HCTH:qec~Hx .D;(!iM&Ic.n:ax,

72

73

14lLJ. CnpaWMBRe'l'CR, nOqeMY OHM (!RYWRroT MaJIO» H HSiCR,O,JlbRO ,I1p6POBO.Jl'E.HO OEilli .«P;0BOJlbCTBYIOTCH TOJI!!"KO BO,ll;O!lO, XJle60M H ChlBO.POTROi\» ,en1l1H aa napax Ht'lBO)l.bHO CTRHOnHTC.f.I «He,HRCbITHbIMH I> • CJle,lJ;OSIlTeJlbHO. H3S'l'QrO :R:C}11) B1{,P;HO" 't{TO Macea OC~T:jd:H H HHryweir TOE: :mOXH, 6Y,DiYQH CTec.HeEl'EJ H orpeaamr B ropax Kafiapp;olO OT ElJJ!O,!l;OPO,ll;HOH paSHHHbI, B8CbM:a l'OJIO,l:l,aJUl H HHm:eHCTBOBaJIBl. nOTO" My BITOJ'lHeeCTeCTBeHHO, T:fTO see HX KY.TIhTOBO-pO,JJ;OBbIe rrUfpbI, C rpa)J;WD;ROHH~M l'OPCKUM rOCTeupHMMCTBOM, ,lI;OJI:1KHibI 6hlJlH spesseaaMil paapJlmaT'b perYJ![.a:pHoe6e)'lCTBOBaHH€ .lKH.T€J1eii T8.1WH CTpaHbI, CMarqaa B HsseCTHOR creneaa TSlmeCTh HenpeKpa~aBW.HXCH JliHmeHHH.

8TO He npecsnnenace 06mopCTBO a\:a.1t!l!hlX, a ,tI:Oltasa.TeJIbCTBO ,n;OJj[I'OI'O ro.nona IIpnCHJIhBOM TPY,lI;€. Teneps HaYii}fO YC'FaROB.llIeHO, 't.J:TO ChIThdi: CPH3UOJIOrnQeCK3 mncorna He B COCTOHHl1.H Cp;eJIaTbCH naCT'OJlbKO «lfelfaChlTlfhI.M:». eCJ1M OHP;O TOl['OP;O.n;r'O He J.'I3HhIB8,.JI no ,lJiOCTaTOtIHofi: rrmne, T.unre 3aiouo~eraH,g casroro BaXYI11TH - rrpejtCTaBnTeJ!5t rOC!mOIlCTBYlO!l!LTI;ero K.iIlJaCCa rpY3UH - ,lIjJ!H Hac He y6e,ilHTeJIhHU CBO€.IO O,lJ;HOCTOponfIeii: T€Hp;elHIVI03HOCThlO,. MOO M€lKAy CTPOK BH,ll;HO, _liTO ,n;eJIO xacaerca He 3THH1.JieCKEX ClWIi:CTB, a BeCbM8 cnafioro :3KOHOMHQeCROro COCTOSlHU,H roporenx ce:sepO!KalBKaSCRHX Mace, B 1'!IlCJIe KOHX iii 3alliBlTble B TeCHHHax ropHHrymH.

B STOM OTHOllleHlUI Bbl!pa3HTeJlIbHYIO l\:apTHHY ,1l;alOT He,lJ,aBHHe HCCJlep;OBaHllH 6bITa Ii HCTOPU'1l HHrymeTMH. C ·aToM u,eJ1hJO IIpHBO· ,o;$lTCS!,[I,B~ Bihrp;epmKH. rrOCKOJlhKy nei5e3l>Ul!TepeCHa xaparerepacraxa OTrOJlOCKO.B TOM: .IK-€!,CTOIW:i1 Hy:mP;hi, 0 KOTOPOH yztanocs, Y3HaTh !fa MaTepHaJIHB Baxynrra.

Ilepaaa ll:(1l'aTa xacaercs HeTpe6onaTeJlf:.HOCTM B name aarvme:i1: « , •. FUtiJ'y1ll0 OyeHb yMepeHHhl B DHrn;e H ,D;OBOJH,C'I'BYIOTCH TeM, OT 'lera PYCCKHM: K.peCTE>HHMH ~aBHO 61>1 YMep c rOJiiO,D;Y: KYCO'qeiK csipy H l.J:aWKa KHCJIOro M,O.JIORa aHMOIO, ap6y3 II rOJ![OBKaJIYlRa J!lf). TOM C KYCOYKOM ,aQMeHHO:W HJUI KYKYPY3HOM nenenraa BTIOJlHe Y)J;O:BJl€TB,OP.l'l roT BCRKorOTY3eMn;a CeBeprroro KaBRfl38» 23 •.

. K:aK: BH,lI;BO OTCIlO;Il;8!, 3Ta BhIHym,a;eHHa.H CE:POMHOCTbB name HHryrue~ 11 SIllOXY IWJlOHJ{saMHH KasKa.aa :u;apH3MoM (XIX B.),. He Ha· MHOPO OTJUlqaeTCR OT roro, 'ilTO nacan B XVIII a, BaXYillTH 06 oceTHHax, e IWHMlI OH OTO~,[I'eCTB.JIHe'l' ~8I'yw:eR. KOHeqHO~ KaK 11 BaxymTH •. asTopy 8TOiir ~RTaTbI Bep-retroay HeBO.3MOXUIO rrOHRTh Cyru;HOCTh -r9;KltX «R9,QeCTB» Ty3eMD;eS,<ley,!{oBJ1eTBopHIOJru;Hxns!> T9M, OT xero npet\c-rtl:aMTeJll1: (liBbICnr€H pacst» ,l1;OJI:iI{HbI fihI 6'b'lJll1l (lYMM:,paTb C ronony». Bonpoc COCTOHT B TOM, KaKOR !leHOH npHXO.1lH:JIOCb lCbJ10HH3yeMh1M a60pHreHaM rop (I.1l0BOJIbCTBOBaTbC:R:'!)- [][O;n;OQHhIM cymecraoaaaaess, 06'b:l'ICmIeM!bIM 11l0BHHMCTH'llieCKH.MM MCCJle,[lO!Ba'FeJllHMH aHTpOlIOJ'lOrH'q€CKHM M.JlI1 ()?H3HO.!lOrH'~!eCE\!PlM neeonepmeaeTBOM (!'Ty3eM~eB CeBepHOI'O KaBHa3a».

__ }~py~a~ ... ?-Il:raTaBCR,pbl,:ae'f COD;MaJlibHo-a.,lw.,HOMllQHCKHe rr.p. e)Jl. ;nSIiCbIJIKH TPY,lJ;HblX YC.lIOBHH *H3:HI1i llHiI'ymcKHx ropnea, OTJIO:lKH!s:m.H:X 8 HX xapaserepe H,3BeCTHble, rrpaeynrae liM _'qepThl PO)J;OBOH 'cpopMal!l;HH: «IIocJIe e,D;h! rOCTH O~l1BM'JIlfCb, 1!!3'E.Jl:tH paSBJIS<'!!Jl!HCb If

74

IIUtll1HaeTCa Hen:p:e:Hy~eHFn:,j[H paarosop aa 06bI'({HhIe Cpe,tD;H uHryIIW~l TeMbI. KOHeQllO. nOYeTHOe .MeCTO Cpe,D;H RH:X aalulMaroT }W35I:H., ,"1'1)9HHbIe aonpocsr ~ BonpOChl MaTeplIaJI'E.HOR BPlI'O,D;hI HJIIl1, RaK ,ORK l'0I30P$lT; qneH,nu. CYPoBoe rrpomnoe, Olli8C'I'O"leHH8iH 6opb6a aa :>KH3Hl> II.I1Hy~mJIH MiHl'ywa c 60JlIMIlllM YBameHHeM OTH.OCHTbCfl E ::lTHM IJOnpocaM»2~. Hporpeccop H . .HKOB.lIeB nnomre RepRo IIO,n;M€TlIJI :siTU IWP1'hl Y,ll;HBH'I'eJIb,HOH: npaRTH'qHOCTII. xepea npll3MY IW'1'OP 0 0:: MHrymill pa30MpalOTCE B CBOHX 6hITOBhlX sorrpocax. 2JTo' xapaKTep:ab1:H: 1I0P€11UITOR, YHa.cn€,Il.OBaHHOH OT nepeaecenasrx npe.u;KaMM 06e3AOJICHHbIX ropnes BeROB:&IX TpY,IiI;HOC'iI"eH.

CJIe,n;OJ;laTeJI.bHO, B08Bpam;.MCh K MaTepHaJIaM BaxYWTH, rrO,!l;'l'BepmJUIOMbiM SileMHHTaMH HB,IlaBHUX aepe:lRHTKOB. MomBO COCT8BHTb HeJWTopOe npep;CTaBJIeHH€ 0 TOM, t{'I'O AO XVII B. 3KOHOMHqeCKOeCOeronnae llHrymeR-ropn;eB 6hIJIO BeChMa 'F1HKeJlhl!M. H:a:ncH::H ypoIJOIH, rrpOH3BOp;HTeJIhHblX OTHomeHHG: B rrepnon P0,!ljOBO:rO Oi,'lIlIJieCTBa Mol' KOMrr€HCHpOlBaTbCH JIHm:b nepnO,D:n'tl:eCE;HMU OTCBJleH.HHMH H nOt!l!HhIM aa,eMHH'lleCTBOM.

ilYTlI C006m;eHMl'I; no KOHM 8 HHry.we'l'HH coaepuranca o6Mea: (Hfl'l'ypaJIhHblB:) l{ CIIOrneHI{$I: c.coce,!J;Hu:MM HapO,D;a.Ml'I, Y BaxYWTR n~I"Me"reHbl HMeHlHO TaM~ r:tPlIl,I,eM nOTeM me caMhlM aarrpaaneaaax, I'./.le " rtoasrae rrponeraxrr HX OC.HOBHh'1e rrepeBalJlbHbIe TpOITbI. 06 !'I'OM Baxvnrra coo6DJ;ae'l' C.TIe,l];YIOm;ee:

1. Omresraaa XeBcYPe'lI'HlO., rrepeaO,lJ;'tJ:HK M. r. ,l];maHamBHJ11{ nol.tll<.laJ1, 'qTO na AII,D;RlKCKOM nepenane cyurecrsoaana aopora B MHryUlO'!'FHO: «AP):l;O'l'!tfC-U.KaJ1H Haq~Hae'li'CJ'l! He,n;aJI~:KO 0'1' neprIn!Hhl Bapnnnu (Baptiaao - repyrnoe, HaR 1<.0,)18CO), ll1a TaR Ea3bIsaeMOM AH,IlaKIll~f)M nepeaaze, 't{epea KO'l'OPhIH C006Il!l;a:(OTC:ffM8.)KJ1!;Y C060H m'lpHKaTeJl!bCltue' xeBCYPbT H RHe'l'lirH!.l C :Ilma13aMK& (C. 108, 109),

2. )J;pyroe yrcaaaaae caraoro BaXYIlI'FH, no.naraso, Q'l'HOCH"NHIK 'I'oili )I{8 C8MOH rrepeaansaoa (n Xeaeyperaro) rpone, a Ta.KiRe K 00- '('(lJIhl'lbIM. ~J:I nepexozsar ,[IOpOl'H H3 I~McTo-,lj(,3YP,lJ;3YKHH. xepea l<a8" IUi3 B XeBH, Iltrraso-Xesoypermo, fJliHrBHIO 11 K 'q,epKecaM>) [C, 150; 11'i2).

)J;pyrMMH CJiOB3MH, nO.TIY'laeTCH, "ITO 11:3 )];.mepaxa (<<I{HCTo-.u3YPJlIJYltHl1~) H}1;Yl' ny'l'H H3l aanazt B .D;ap'E.S1IJI. R Tepexy (<<XeBn»). Bel ror II XencypeTl:li!O, aa BOC'l'O~ B raJlraqe «lfJIHE':Bl:!») H aa ceBepHYIO lfJIOCROCT'bB Kaoap,l1;y (ilK 'llepl<,eC8M» ) ..

3. H eme, 0 nepeBaJIhHOM coe.n;l:lH€HHH f'BHJI81'!t'I;eS-iHBrYllle:i1:: C ;~JlltcpaXOBCKHMH Baxynrra coofima.n, qTO «e aTOM pe=ncn (KHCTUH. 1m. - M. B.) nepexomnr (~!3 ;rJ;ap.h.flJIa asepx. - M.B.} TpYJJ:HaJI M OIW~_Fla.H ,li;opora B A3YPP;sYfano H KHC'lt'fHO ... ) (C. 77).

Tal{;HM oopa30M, BHAllO. lITO BaXYWTH B.IlO.lIHe npaBllJ1hHOOTMe'nUl rrO~I'l'U ace IIYTl'I MeC~Hhl:X C006rn;eHl'IiH TOI')l;amHeH ropIJoif HHI"Y!!i ·rH:M. MOO see ~TH Tporr:r:.r ,n;OHbHI'€ CJ'lym.aT OJl1Hm8!:HttIMMH nYTjiM Iii (:o06w;eHHH. C coCe,,!lJIMM 'HuryweTflH_

OTHOCHTeJIbHO UpO,!l;yIf.II;HM crW'rOBOp;l:IeCKOrO X03..f1HCTBa MHryIIIP'I'HI1, Baxynrra He ,n;aeT HCqeprrbIBalOll.\HX CBe}J;eBIfH. Canoe mrnMIl'I"(!J[hHOe era JjJjpO'tITe!l'!H'e lUI! ,g&eT MaTepHaJIa AJIR 33rKJ[IQr.reFIllM,

75

nO'l'OMY a aTOM aorrpoce IIJUIIDJIOeb .o6p8THThC.R: K· ero :me cseaeaaliM 06 OC€"l'HK.

Bo-rrepssrx, no.nararo, He B.irn01liHe BepHhlM a8.KJEIOT:.J:eHHeM. I1iPO'I'HBope-qRllljHM )J;pyrOMY l[CT04HlllRY rpY311H (<<Apt:U:UIHRHH&.). HBJIHeT· CR TO, qTO lBaxYWT:H C"Il'ITaJI HHrywei'E sceueJIo 3aBMCHl'IIl>nIoUI OT 06- MeHa e 'tfep:K€ca.MH. DEll rOBopHT; ""lTO mUYIIlH )J;JIJI aroro ;n;WKe IIJIa· TMJIH;!I;aHh rrocaenmrx, «;o;aol>I naJIyqa.'l'l. OT aax mlt3tIeHlih!e npo.u,yKThl, o,n;em,,QY H COJI:!:.' (C. 152). He MomeT 6hITb, '1:[To6bI ):IpeB· Hel1wHe CKOTOBO,!!;bl - rOpIthl-MIlrYIIlH He YMeJlU caMM rrpOH:3BO)XMTh np:UMtlTMBHbFe rrpO~yKTbl M3 OTXO,lJ;OB mHBOTHOBO;n;CTBa (OSn;eBO,ll;CTBa M T. n.),

oro nOJIOmeHRe nO,1l;TBeiP*AaeTC,fl: APyrHMH YltaaaHH:BMM. '(ITO B Ha>:J:aJIe XVII B. HHrymCKFI€ ropnsr ,n:a:me EIOAH.oCMJIM 1'!pY3HHCR.oMY uapro TaMMYPa3Y I npeznaersr coferaerraoro HarOTOBJI€fUUI. BOT liTO 06 :nQM paccaaastaaer nepeBO,ll"'1HK M. T. ,n;.rnaHaWBHJlR: «Bcrpe'<.J!.ami aaev., KHCTUHbl. rJ!lHr:Blill M. ,D;,3YPA3'YKH H npHfWCMJUI B nonapOI<,f.{OX.H .• OYPRPI. qepHhlX 6apaHOB .•.. » (C. 124). A pas 3TlIMJi npenM€T8.MM AeJIaJIH.cb noaaprca, TO O,;{€:lm!,IJ;HhlM CTRH.oBliTCR, liTO OH11 3,l1;eCb npOH3BO,!l;HJIHCb B COBepmeHCTBe, IlI0TOMY C13.MO C060H CTaH.o· .SIfTea HCHblM, qTO ace aHaJlOlrllYHoe(CYRfUll Wi T. n), ,a:eJI8!JIOCb B 06h1Q· HOM nopanxe. AJlJI TOI'O "q:To6bI npOMJIJIIOCTpMpoBaTib :3TO, MomHO 06p8TlfTbca K YKEtSbIBaeMoii Baxyurra aHa.JlOI'MM C OCeTMe~[. TaM TIoJromeHlHe OhIJIO TaROBO: «Me,!l.H M 30JliOTa. M cepe6pa y IUIX MaJIO. ~eHer He BRalO'!', HO .llleHbI'H 3aMeHJnOTCHBORJIOKaMM. 'tJOXOM, He6eJIeHhlM XOJIC''FOM, CYKHOM, onnarca, ROPOBOM: H mIeHHHK8MH, H MemAY C0603 ToprylOT RMfL He al!:alOT apnnraa, no JIOJ<:O'rb ... 1>

M erne: «3HaIOTl'lIC'KYCCTBO BbI,n;eJIE>IB'8HH:fl 1{(jI~JI,TKaHblI eyxoa, B·aJ]HHl1:JI nx, npnrOTOiBJxeHH.H! xoponnix 6ypOK. 3HaIOT KOBBTb, cnecapaoe peMeCJIO, BlbJ,IleJIbUlaTb ,Ilepe'BEHH:ble BeIiJ;H., CTPOMTh )J;OM.8. ••. ORM ,tJ;o6bIBaroT 0:3 aeMJJl'( CBlIHeTJ;, cemrrpy, cepy. .•. Bap.HT HeMH.olI'O TInBa, HO Y HHX ReT XMell.R, H 9TO 110JJY'liUOT H3, KapT3JlHl!UIU, PatH'! Ii "4:epKeCMJI. KpOMe TOrO, rOHJ'I't: H npMPOTOB.JIjUOT iBO,u;KY, OY3y H3 nnremmer M H"IMeHJ1i ••• » (C. 142, 1143).

113 npHBe,ll!enHOI'O BH,a:HO, \ITO X.oBJlG:CTB.o 6E>lJIO HaTY'paJIbHOe'" 06· MeR aeJIc.!!, rJla:S,Hh'lM 06pa30M, BHy'lrPH CTpaHbI, .oCH.oBHYIO rrpo.n;ylKn;HlO COCTBBJUUM npe~MeTbI nepepa60TKM WepCTl1: BOM:Jl.oK. 6YPrCR, CYKHO, ""lepKeCKH, l<OmH !Ii caM CKOT ~ OBIJ;bI, ROPOBbI,JIOlll8.,!J;H.

KpOMe Toro, cYlIl,eCTBOBaJIO UP'HMHTl1BHOe KY3He'"G:Hoe O]pOH3BO,lJ;CTB.o. MeH.oBOH CTOHMOCT.bID IB Ocer an Dbua npo,n;YKJJ;MJI CKOTOBO,tJ;CTBa" CJIe,u:oBaTeJII>H.o" B ODHCE>IBaeMbIH JBaxymTH nepaon OCBOBOH :nWHOM]ilKM: HIHrymeTlui (no YKa38HHoH MM aHaJJOrUl'I C OCe'li'H€l1) {lI.lJIO C:KO'I'OBO;nCTBO C ero rrpO)l;yKD;Heli. lITo CRO'F Y MHl"'yweH m:'paJI PO)Jh ,!l.E'!Her, ,!l.(lIK3SBIBaeT AOE(l>IHe C.o.xpaHHBWaSW.H TP&,lU1Jl):l:H onpe,n;€JI.flTI>, CTOHMOCTb yrqep6a HJU[ noroaopa B pa3JIJI"lHhIX BOITpOCax, . peir¥JIHpyeMLlx OfibI"IHbIM npaaosr HIlryweii, RO;llH"lI€CTBOM f"o.rrqn KpynHoro II Me.JIKOro CR.oTa.

npHBe,n;eHHl>Je cBe,n;eHlIH 06 ::n-c.OHOMHK€ ropHoH UHrymeTluI na-

)(OJ(.H'J· eefie ,D;OKYMeHTa..llhHb:re nO)JlTBepJKp,@lIllH B MX clloJlibKJlope, poJ~onMX nepeaearxax, MaTepHaJIbHOM KYJIbType Ii T. ,!li.

4. MA:TEPIIAJ!(hHAH R.Y Jllb'FYPA (CAM.OBLlTlllbIE "qE!PTLI APXHITEKTYPbI. :}JIEMEHTlbI 4lEO,lJ;AJIH3MA)

76

B apxrrrercrvpe HHrymu ,ll;OCTllrJIUOCOOhIX BhI;COT. "YITO ,!l.aHHhIH IIMj~ .ne.R:TeJlbHOCTH rOpo.eB-HHrymeli 3aCJIymHBaJI HHTepeca., .o;ORaIn,lliHlreT KpaCHOpeqHB,hIH IIp.I13HBlK - HeO,lJ;HOKpaTHoe ynoMRHBHM:e 0 110M Baxyrrrra.

HpHB.omy BbUIBJI8HHhle y Baxyrrrrn c:ee,ll;eH:H:f[ 0 3HaqeB:HH 6a· .IIICIHwro CTpOflITeJIbCTB8 B llHrymeTHu:

1. OTMeqafl nepsoe nOJIlBJIeHHe JIl.eI'eH;D;SpHoro ,I1;aYP,lli3YIWca. BaKYW'l'H rOBopHT, 'iTO TOT, YltPibfB.IIIHCE. B KaBK83CKUX ropax, B )J)1<8-

pilxe <i!llOCTPOM1li I'.oPQ,l{ ••• l> (C. 13,6).. __

2 .. Onacsrsaa Ka:cTeTHIO, BaxYIllTH cooeman, "lllTO B ,D,atepaxe «CTOur 60JIbIIlaJI 6amBR, o6Be~eHHaa,' nO,!!l;06HO KpenOCTH,CTeHOlO~ ( . 150" I5!},

3. O'['HocRTeJI!bHO AHrymToBcKoa KonOHMK rOBOpHJlOCb, tITO «Ag· I'YC'fIt - CeJIeHFle rOOJlbWOe, H ymense aTO co CTP.oemUIMM H CeJI€HHJl·MH .• ,.il (C. 150, 151).

IL To me C3!MOe 0 U,OPI1IHC.KliX nOCeJIeHlJI.RX aa petce A3bI'I€'lI,.

5,. VI EIaKOHeo,. oD06m;aroro;ee ace Ope,!!l;hl,!l.yrr:r;rre, 3aRJUO'lHTeJIbHOe eootinreaae, COrJIlaCHO IWT.oPOMY HHryulH «YMewT CTpOMTb H3 KilMun na H3:BeCTH H H3 HRX B03,1J;BHT3IOT ,n;oMa. l'5alliHH 1{ yxpen.netII'lB •.. s.> (C.. 152).

J(aHIU:ilH BII,!]; KYJIbTypbI (apxHTeK'l'ypa),.HBJI.fI.HCh 1I3p;peB,JIe C3MO!'l-hITIHiIM TBop"tJ:ecTBoM B aanMHOH )J;aYP,Il;3YKeTBH' (UOPH. XaMx.H, l'nnr-axe, )](mepax 0:'1:'. p;·.h aJIeMeHTbl KOTOPOI'.o IIPOHHK.lUli ~ cocenIIIIM H8PO)J;HOCTHM, 33CJIymuBaeT HHTepeca 6MTh D.onee ,!:(eTSJIblW pn:J.o6paHHbtM 3p;eCb 25.

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17

I{}TJI&TYPOH rcarc CO()e,n;H:F.tX 06JlfiCTefi, TaR n 06JIaCTefi O'l',ltaJteHHplx (lOra POCCHM M BOCTOKa). Tpe6yeT lIJIHTe,JIhHOrO, nnaaoraepaorc H yr .iIy6JIeSHOrO u3Y'ieHHJ:I J) ZB.

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78

Axprreaa if Xa36H QYPOBa, 06a HHf'ymH ••• MecTHbIemHTeJIH 1(1:(!Jl. ¢lYPToyr. - 1\1. B.) I'OBQPHJIl'lI. '!iTO OB tIl. Axpas», - M. B.) 1113mieTCa CTPO:HTBJI8M GameR Ma.:MCYPOBblX B, .liI:apr8Bce (Ocern.a:),n nepeaasana HeKO'I'OpE:.I,e nO,lijp06HOCTH nocTpoihur. Ta me C8M,m 11 '['OPM.H, 'il"OJIbR,O nO.l];p06Ha.fl, 6b1JIa HaM nepeaaaa erne B 1924 r .. B 1(;I~JI. .II:apf'aBC uRo6aHli MeC'F.BhlMB cTapOmifJlaMH-OCeTHHaMH •. OcMO'l'peB H H3YtlMB nOp51)JlOqHOe KOJIH'ieCTBO narymcxrrx H OC€THHCHHX 6awe'H, Momao CK8saT:b, qTO Masrcypoacxaa (OCE¥rl1HCKax. - M. E.) 6am182 nocrpoeaa rro TMlly U;OPHHCKOid: (m.rymcKoi1..- M. B.) II -rro H9nOCpe,IJ.CTBeHHhIM:H PYKOBO)l.MTeJI51MH 13 nOCTpOHKl3iX HeKO'l'OPh[X ,uapraacn:HX GameR 6bI.nH HHrymH ... HSY'ilUI nOCTpOHKM MHryureena, BH,D;BM 60JIbmOe CXO)l.CTBO BO MHorHX .n.eTaJI5:IX C oceraa'(:IOTMH Ii ,l:\;pyrHMH 6JIllmaHIDHMH coceAXMH» 33.

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79

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80

crpemsnoro Opy:mH.fl (n:opox AJIB RoeI'O MOr fIOJlBHTLCSi H8 KaBKa3e o-r 'l'flTap HHK-aK He paaee nepSOH ~eTBepTM XIII .B.:W

ItpoMe 1'01'0" pa3BHTHe MeCTHoro reore .. erpaxecxoro opaasreara ua cxrrerrax, 6ameHHlirx coopyacennax .,n;OCTHrJlO cnoero npe,n;eJla B ("J.'HJJ[}I.3agHu xpHc'rHa:HCKMX aM6JleM 40. 3HaT.JHT, STOT ,nan eaaaaa C XPKCU18HCTBOM Y ropnen MHrymeTMM. Ho .H3BeCTHO, 'ITO HaMBhlCeuero paetmera l'Pya:HHO-XpHCTuaHCKoe BJlH;fiHHe B UHrym,eTHH ,Il.O(:'l'Hl'JIO B. XII :8., 1Il0CJIe ~Ie1'O OTMeT.JeaO ero naaenae. Cnenoaarensao, 111.f1 OCHOBaHHH ;;ITHX apr'yMeHToB MO:iKHO::UU{JHQlt{li:'l'h, tJ:TO nOJIHor'O c [10erO CcpopMHBaHHH apx arex'rypa (6ameHII8:IJ) HHI'ymeT'HH AOC'fI.J rna yme lit XIl~ B., aaresr ee pa3BHTMe OCT8ROBHJJOCh, ,Il.OCTI1:rHYB cnoero nmca R. KOHUY XV B. BOT B 3Ty HMeHHO nopy (XIII-XIV BD_) no U'cTopH"ecRoH apeae Cesepaoro KaBKa3a ITO.flBMJIHCh TaT3ipJ;,.I. 0 'TeneHIl HX BJlIH:l.RH:.fl H8 I'OPCKHX VIHPymeK rOBOpH'F CBe,n;eHHfl H3 ICOMMeHTapneB K MaTepHaJIaM Baxynrrn ere pe,,lJ;aKTOpa M. r . .n;:maliIHWBMJIH, QTMeTHBmero B npHMeqaHHH co CChIJIKOH aa ,ll;pyroM rpy~lIHCJQrft HCTOT.J:HHK. t·no Tfll'il'apCKHH xaa T'IiIMYP (1336-1405) CHJIOID UOpaTllJl I1X (HHrYlllen .• - M_ R} B MarOMeT8HCTBO H npatcaaan HM lie .... HTaTb GORee KHMI' rpY3HHCKHX; He yqHTbCH rpY3HH;CKOH rpassorc H He J'OBOPHTh aa rpY3HHCKOM H3.hIRe .•• !> (C. 133, 134). Ha 3TorQ MfmtHO npe.n;ml.llOmHTh, 'ITO C IIOSIBJIeHHeM THMypoaCKHX'l'anp (1386, 139€) If n03JKe) rpy31lHCROe BJIH$lHHe B MHrymeTHH aarzroxno.

)J.a.rree, eCJlH yqeCTb HCTOpHQeCKiU H3se'CTHoe rrOJIO;)K8HHe, 'JTO'l'aTUPbl B IIOKOPSI8'MhlX HMH MeC,1'lJ{'lC1'HX otinarana c,n;.aBIIIHXC.H aeopaI', HOB CBOHM«JICaKOM'} 41, TO MOmlI.O C,l!(e.n;3Tlb BbIBO,ll;, T.JTO Y I'OPCKHX I.Hll'ym8a roro nepaozra (XIV B.) 3THM BTOp>KeHUeM BHemHeti: CH.lIbl OhIJla CH.lllbHO IIOKOJIe6JIeH8i BeR lil,KOHOMnT.JeCKaB. ocnoaa 06lAEWTBa, "', e .. ,n;aJIhHelimee pa3.BHTHe npOH3Bo.uHTeJlbHI;.IX eHJI H npOH3BOP;'TBeHH:bIX O'I'HOrneHElH npHOCTaHOBHJIOCb; a OTClOp;a H nee IIOCJlek "['SHa corrpaaeennoro C 3'1I"KM ITOJIOmeHHSI. B pe3YJIlbTaTe xero, HE!eOMH9HHO, npHGCT,8nOBliJ!C.lI COIJ,RaJIbHO-:3''KOHOMHQ.eCKHH pOC']' - nepexon or POP:OBOI'O CTPOH K aaqaTK·aM cl)eo.n;aJIH3Ma. no.n; BJ'IilrHHHeM ofiutero yua,lllKa npOl'I3QUIJIa ,IiIerpa,!.l,agH.H rrponecca <pOpMHpOSaHHJI IWlI.CCOBOro o6~e·CTBa. BOT 31'0 TO, nOJIaraIO, TaTapCKoe BTopmeHIIe 1I:0CJIymHJIO IIPH~MHOID B03BpaTI:1I. R r:rpHHlLli.HUaM PO,l!(OBOM q,OPM3gRH 1"1: OC'I'8iHOBRH nepexona R CTa,n;HH ctJeO,ll(aJIH3Ma, nOTOMY "[TO see BHYTI' HHHe COI1;M8iJIhHO-.3KOHOMK"I:eCIUfe npe.n;IIOC.hIJ!IKH K STOMY nepexoAY 6blJIH qUI:nltIeCKH H nOJlHl'HT:I.eCRM: nonopsaasr H3BRe BeROBbIM III J)e6blBaHHe~ B TaTapCrWH 3aBHCHMOCTH c (XIII no XIV s).

OTl'lOCHTeJIhHO reaeaaca BCleH 6ameHHoH K¥Jlf>TYPhI noxa eure (PleHh MaJIO M3BeCTHO, nOTOMY KpaHH8 1'py.m,HO KOHcTaTHpoBaTb T.J"I'OJllIOO onpe,!J;e.rreHHoe. il~nmcTHo, -qTO ,Il.peiBHeiimMe H3 MeCTHblX Iil!Hrymcxsrx CRJIerrOB co.n;ep)f{aT y'fBaph V B. H. :3. Ho aTO He JIHmae'li' HnC rrpasa ,li;YMaTl:, 0 :ma'tIHTeJIbHO 60:11e8' paRHeM 3apOJK,Il.8HHH BeeM ;)'1'0" I(yJI:bTyphI (is oco6eHHOCTM batuea Pi xpoaem.).

CaMo6bITHa.H MaTepHaJIbHaB KyJIbTypa MHI'yweTH.H npenc'raarra(I'I' C060lO BeCbMa lJ,eHHbIH: MCTOpH"l,eCKHR MaT€pMaJl ,lI;JlH H3YQeHH.H JII }l1POCOB coguaJl1>HO-3KOHOMIPleCRoro, nOJIHTlf'tI8Cl<OrO H l{,yJIbTYP-

81

5 .. HPABh.I, XAPAKTEP. IICHXQJIO:rHJI

l.iTO p;aHHoe Cpa.B1IeElH€ BaxYIIlTH M8.JIOOCHOB3ITeJl:bHO" ,lJ;OiFCaS.&i[B,B.lOT ccscesr He,n;aBHHe OT3hEBM y-retl!hlX. 06 HHrym;cKHx apasax. BOT, nanpnxrep, <!'ira rOBOpHJI EEpol'lleccop H .. CPo Ht{(JIsJteB: ~CJIOBOM,. ae(!MOTp;a: aa aero K8myw;yI6cH rrpnMljjT~m:HocTr, HHrymcKOro6I:.I1'8;, B.b[ :W.Me'tIaeTe BeGbM8 CJIOmHhlI1: ra paapa6OTaH!!-U>1R ,!l;O TOHI\OCTH CBD,IJ; II paBlIJJ B8J'KJIIiBOCTH H ITpltlUi'lHlI. O.lllHO:H: 'R3 OCHOS reoroporo HBJIHeT. en ysa:meHlIie K CTajpJII8MY no B03pacT'Y H K rOCTlO sooeme. BM C 118.1{OTOPhlM YJI;HBJIeHUeM Ha<IHHae'F'8 "I:YBCTBOBaT!b, 't(TO cpezra, B :><'0- 'l'OPYro 8M nonana, COBceM He Talll:. ym: HeKYJIbTYPH!l!. BhIT HHf'yIJ1a Ilo,ullHHeH BCJ1KHM IEpalBHJI8M TO;fUWQ: 06xQAHTeJ1bHOCTll B 60.lIbilleM":

G'I'eneH.H, "tJeM 6wl' 60JII>IIIl1H·CTB8. aaCeJIeHUJI rranrax I'OPOp;OB Ii) 60 m:JutQM CJlyqae, He MeHee, qeM JEH3Hb 'raR Ha3bIBaeMOJ'O asrcmero 06n~8CTBa B KYJlhTypHbIX erpaaax .. 3TMM M 06'L$llCHJ1'eTtCJf ra BMllopm.R8!, TO YMeHU8 Hen!pMHyJK'Ae~HO ,f(epJRfiTb ce6a: aa JUO,1VIX, KOTOPblMH C nepBOI'O ace Brll'JIHi'1l1l TaR BbIrO,l.l;HO OTJIMqaWTCHtnn'YllIH IIHPH,l.lY c aeEOTopbIMH ,n;pyrMMl{ KaBKB.aCKI1MIH HapO):(ElOCTHMH!> .13.

,lJ;aHEoe cy)K,l:IeHM8 rro.;O;TBepJK).I;aeTC:H CJl!OBaMiH casroro BaXYIII'fM. i\Ol'OPhl~~ HeCM01'pl'I na o6w;.ee O"l.·OjK.1teCTBJIeHrre :,uu'Yillei;j: C OTpI1:u;a'i'I'iJ.lhHO npe,1l;CT(lJ6.JleRHhlMH OC€lTHHaMM, see .lKe B BeKO'IrOphlX 'trep'lI'ax 11K xapaterepa apOlleJI O,!l;HO paerpaaaseaae, OTMeTHB 06 oeernaax, 'l'j'O «Oint ,nepmaT ce6f( a enpaeroaao, He.aeIKJIMBO, B eaoeM: crpaae CMeJtbJ H rop.l1;b1. ~tI.y~iliX crpaaax IHl!3KOrrOKJIOHHbl .•• » (C. 140), a 06 IrtfIPymax,. Hftnpo't'HB.,tlTO .... ORR. MYJKqMH.hl II meHIIJ;HHhl,C'FbI,D;JIHB,ee

onCO'B (ocernn, - M .. B,}p(C. 152). .

OqeSH)l:HO, "1:1'03'1'0 pas.':up,Hle· MO:I'KeT OblTb .o6'l>HCHeHO HaJIHqHeM (;H':!,H.E':I~ n.epemHTROB po,qO.Boii '¢OPM8IJ,llH Y .rmrYllIei:f. A 0 IIPHCYn~eH 3TOli: CTa,n;IlIH pa3BUTM.a BblCOKOB MOpaJ1Hl R spaBCTBeHHOC'1'H Ji(,opomo rOBopHTcsr y .3ij:re.Jlbca oj 'I ,

IIPRXO,!lHTC.l'1 nOBTopaTb Jrrrmb, 'qTO Baxynma IH,lCKa3bIBa.m noftOO1:Iible npnc'rpacnu>!:e cymA8IUur 06 OceTwH, orpaaeaa TO'lKY3peIJHJl I'oCrrOAC'FByrorn;eii1 $eo,n:a.rrbHOMI Bf!pxymK!I1 rpY3HH,a .. ne OCHO-

IlbJBaHCh aa OO'be:KTMBHOM nO,lilxo.n;e K ,!:laHHoMY sonpocy. ..

Eloro xaparerepa. HccJ[e,l~9BaHl'[e O,1l;HHX "Ji.'OJIbKO 6aweH H CKJleIlOB RaK na)KHbIX npaanaxoa CO.lJ;H8JIhHO-SIWHOMnQeCKOI'O p8!3cBH.T1Ui MO· meT ,IJlaTb KOJIOCcaJIlbHhlH . .n:onOJIHHTHJIl>.HbIH HCTO'1iHlIK cee'.n:eHHil:,Il;JlSl npOJICEeHHSlI H YTO'tIHeHHR: nepUQ)l;H3au,;liHi HCTOplI'tIeCRHX. qJOpM·a. u~rK B pa3JUfTp.HI HHrymcKoro HatPO,l);8, nOTo.MY 'tITO B .8JIeMeH.TaX H:X cTmiJI H 'TeXllrl11Ui cOAe!p>KaTC~ M81'ejpHaJI!bUbl.e;rn;aHHhle 0 nYT1.(X K yponae pa3BHTH.:fI! [loo6lll;e' BoeR MeCT:Ho.H RY,1lbTYPbI ~ OT paanepono'BOM ,lI;oq:.eO,l:la..irbHOH.

IIoBTojp,fHO, o6cytK,lI;aeMi:.Ie aonpocsr H8CTO.Hm;erOpal3;p;eJIa, .8BJl11·1 HCb BeCbM8. 8.KTyaJIhHbIMH I1i ~JI.f1 HaO;llOHa.llbHOn HCTopHorpatjpnirn;., Tpe6ywT 60JIee OCHOBa'teJtl>HOrO H:8CeCTOPQl:ra:ero ·a·I'j:<3!Jl:J.l:3a. Ho ~TO ue 8X()I,!1;If'!l' B aa;1ilaQyp,aHHOI'OTPY,qa., noa-rOMY ~blHymJJ;eH Otpaa:~) tU\lTib U3JIO.iKBHIRN3 aTOI'O sorrpoca paMKaMll OCHOII:HOH: Te.MRTMKH 42 ..

q TO me KaCaeTC$I M8TepHaJIQ'B, BaXYlUTH, TO', aeCMO'il'p~ n8 HJij;. orpaHM'tJreHHOCTTo •. BCe ace yp;aJl:OC::b B ,na.uHO:lV( sonpoce BbUIBMT.b M: 3mpHKC6ponaTb HeMBJIO HHTepeCHoro M n;eHHoro.

B OTHorneHHll xapexrepa a,!l;aTOB (~6blqHOrO npana) BaXYWTI'f OTOJK,l);eCTBJUVl HHryruet1: nO'tITU nOJJ.HOCTblO C oc·eT':HHUMH. Bbl:l':ll}JTeHH,e Ii 3H3:'JIH3 MaTepHallOB, no OObIQROMY ;apl'lsy 3Hryme:i1: nOMomeT' paao6paTbCJl B aTOM sonpoce.

Y Baxyurra rOBOpM.Tca: e , •• npaBUMH, rroerymcaa a, OOhIqastMi! (llHF'yrneit. - M. E.) pa3YMeH TaKlIMH, KaIWBbI OBC1>l (oceransi. - M. B.) ... » (G, 152). A OTlaOCHTeJIbRO ocerna Y Hero CKaaaHO Clle,ll;y~ touiee: «B l5uTBax Hie OTBamH&l, H6o' BeChMa 60HTCfl perynapaoro BOHCKa" HOB ROqHOe speMfl xpa6pbl H YMelOT BRp'a,n;bmaTbC:H 13 (CT8~ spambero) sOMeRa li YCltOJJIb3BTb 06paTHO. DHIII p;epmaT ce6R aenpHCTOHHO, HeBemJI:HBhI; II caoeH crpane CMeJIhl fi rop.n;1>I, B qymHx erpa-, aax HIII3KOrrOKJIOHHbI; rOBOp$lT paccYAl1TeJllI>H0; OHM BOPbI, JII06IRT KpaCTI>, OOMaElil1l1lliIKH, map;RbI, C'Ffla>:a'l'eJHr, KPOBOMCTHTe.mH, npeJII06op;eH. Il1JIeHHOrrpO,!l:aBUhl (ao CBOHX He npoaaror)» (C. 140).

M erne: «3HaIOT B03,1J;3B8Th IlOtIeT -qymecTpaHHhlM I'OCT:HM If HeBpe)l\HMO oxpaarrrs HX~ u:6o HHK'rO He CMB€T nplPUIHHTb lBpe.n;":u,eMY~ Ju!60 rOCTIO. HOO sa Hero UOJIOJRHT rOJIOBY sea (j;laMHJJHH; HO caMl;I nOJIy<l:<llOT 01' rOCT.8~ CIWJlILRO OM. MO~.eT .u,aTl::o, H <.1'['0 .a83hIBaIOT no,n:ap; KaMM, H caMH Tome' IIO,lilHOCa.T eMY, l!TO MOI'YT» (C. 142).

B 3THX onHCRHHJ'lX oceTMHCKHX 'spaaos Baxvnrm ,cm·1illlW:M npoTHBOpeq]'{B M Tea:.u;ea-UHoaeH .. xapaxrepaaya HX O'rpHD;a'll'e'JIbHO C 1'0'1- Kll apeaaa cBoen clleo,n;aJIbHou MOPOJIH 11 :-;lTHKll .. 'Pascoe OTHomeiHHe. K nO;,!:(SJI8CTHOii rpy:mn npoBMHUHaJIbHOH OOJI8CTH 06~J1CHHMO, noTOMY 1l:I:TQ B 8TOM X8paK'repMC'I'HKe CKBOSHT pa3,n;pamelIMe, OqeBH.IlflOi B.a xaxoe-co con:pOTHBJIefUleH nenoxopaoer-s BaCCaJEbHOH aapoan ;", C'l'H. Ho :s:aJ'I! aeo6xolm:Mo BI>mCHI1'1'bj II :KRKiOH CTeIleHH HHI'ymH, MOll'yT 6bETb OTOiK . .zxeCTBJIeHbl C oceTMH8M.H B KOH'reKCTe BbIUIBCRa.a8HHOI'O.

6. BPAQHhIiB OTHOlITEHHH, 3THRA

Bpal:lHbIHBonpoc,.8'l'In.;:a HpaSC'i"S8HHOCTH' H: T. 11., OTMetIeHHhle B MU'repl1aJlaX Baxynrrn 06 mrrvntax H ocermrax, norpeeoeana rJIyooHOI'O HccJ!e~oBaHu8 C rrpH:JlJIeqeBMeM MapKCI1CTCKOH JlHTepaTYPhl Jt.1111 OOOCllOB8ffHH flbIiBO.D;OB.

BOi' l!:TO Baxynrrn rOBopMT 00 .HHrymax: « ••• HO 3HaKlTp;BOeJReHt:'1'I'to, 'I'pOCJEeHCTBO. a JKeHiL!tli,HHI>I npeJfilO6o,!l;~:HJm:,e B 3aMy~ecTBe. HO )10 ;JUMY»CieCTBa HHKorr,n:a. RaK H oceTHIfum: .... » (C. 1S2). A 06 OceTU. unx cxasaao, '-1'1'0 OHM «npeJIl!o6o,n:en ••.• HX JK"eHID;HHI:.r COXpaHJ'lIOT neJinMy;n;pFlle· AO BbIxo.m;a aRMYjK, a aaTeM Cqn'FaeTCH Y BHX caasoso. {'IWJlbKO Ohl JIKlOOBH1UWB He. HMen,: n60 npM3HaeTCJ'£ CThI,Il;OM. eCJIB' MYJit nOBM)~JI,e-TCH ,I1JIeM co caoero $eHOIO H .rteThM11 ... Borar-sreerceUIITCl'l aa lJIByX: 11 rpex }K.eHax. a IJ:;POC'FOJlIO,ll;HHbI sa O.D:ll!OM. A ROI".!I;a

82

83

YMIlpaeT O,AHH 6paT, ]J;pyroif 6paT meHll1'C${ rra meRe csoero 6paTa.,,» (C. 140). C To.'Ht~ spenaa kJ1flCC:OB'OH :)THI,cH, apaaoa Ii MOIUt· JIll, BaXjlllliTH no-caoesry (RaK npe.u.cT3BMT8Ju.q;,eo.n;aJl:bHoti :sepx.yIlIRH) 6:OIJJ: npaa, YKa3hIsaJt Rl'l1 «6e3H:paBcTSeHHo.CTb» HHI'ymelt c oceTH.RK3!MH. Ho Il[)R ,1lleTaJLbHOM pa360pe ero o6.sMHeHHSI. IU1,llHO, -q.TO 1UI"<Iero. «rrpeorvrmoro» B BhICKa3bIB.funU1: BaxyttlTH HST, »60. nee JIOrH.'l!eCl>:J1 OO'I>aC:HHMO ..

Bo-nepmrx, ero YKa3aHMe aa HllenOpOqHOC'Fh» .jlleBY·IlleK-HHryWeR M oceTHHOH 06'haCHHe'l"C51 y 8HI'eJIbCa TaiI'C <J tIel';[ 60Jlblllepa3~ BHBaJIH~I> ::lKOHOMHl:J:eCKne oraoruenaa, T. e. paanaranes nepaofisrrHWI1l J\.OMMYHH3M Ii yaeJIHqHSaJIaCh DJIOTHo.CTh aacsneaaa, "19M 60JIb· me B CBH3H C ,STHM YHaC.Jle.o;oBRRHhle '113,rr:peBJIe ornonremor Me~K,D;y nOJIaMH yTpa"4HBaJlH CBOit nepBo6hlTHO-HaHBHbIH xaparcrep, TeM 60,lIl>me~omKHhI OHR Ka3aTbca ~eHru;HHaM YJUI3MTeJIbHblM:VI M T.arOCTHl.IMM.; TeM HaCTOii'll'1see ,ll;OJlJttHH 61bIJIH ,l:I:06ltBaTbCJ'I, I<aK r,m6aBJIeHlta, rrpasa aa ~eJIO.MYl(:pHe, H8 !BpeM€HHhlH an» ,D;JIUTeJIh¥.LbIH 6p.al(. JI:mft.b C O,!l;HlfM Mym-quHon, OT My;1K'iHH ·STOT war arrepea He MOl' HCX:O,!l;HTb yme ITOTOMY, 'ITO HiM Boo6ru;e HIt Kor.n;a; .!!lame BfiJIOT:b .0:0' nacrosmero BpeMel:JJI. He npIIXO . .1l;HJlO B ro.noay OTKaStlThC,IJi OT y,u;o6. CTBa cpaKTH4eCKOI'O rpynrroaoro 6paI~a. TOJlbKO nOCJIe Torn, RaJ\. meRllJ;HBaMH 6blJI ocymecranea TIepeXO,lJ; 1< napHOMY opaKY. Mym'lJ:UHhl CMOl'JIH BReCTH CTporYIO MOHoraMHIO ••• pffaYMeeTC$I. TOJIbKo. .llJU! meH .. · ~llH~45,

CJIe,lJ;OB8'1l'e,TIhHO, ueJlOMy~p.Ke p;eIBymeR .HBJlJIeTC$I CJH~,r:t;.CTBH,eM 60Pb6bI meHUl,MHhI aa CBQW aenpuaocnoaesraocrs B nepnon pa3J10- jK.eHI{51 nepaoesrraoro rpvnnosoro 6paKa. A "ITO p;aHHbnif rpynrroBOM 6paK 3HaJIH liiltrymH C OCe'l'HHaM~. ~OKa3hIl3aeT YKa3aiEUIe 1'10['0 me BaxyruTM H COXpaHJIBma:fl:C$I no CMe BpeMH Q.z:IHa M3 ere nepexcaTOt:l!HbIX <POPM - neaapa'r (opal< aa meRe F1iOKOMHoro 6paTa).

BO'BTOpblX,. yrrpeKH Baxyurm 0 o«npsmo60,n;eHHMll B 3aMymecTBe~ a:8XO,rJ;J'iT "Fa:KJKe OO'b:HCHeHMe y <fl. SHI'9J1hCa B CJle,I~:yIOU\e:M: <!:ilO:Me· llJ;eBl1e ,iJiJIX meHID;IUJ: HaXOp;HJIOCh B 060co6JH~E:HOH qaCTH PPM8! B BepXHE!M "Tame MJIH so q)Juu'ene, Ky;:s;a Mym>:UIHbl, B QC06eHiEiOC'il'Hi nOCTDpDHHH€, HeJI.erKO npOHlfKa.JIH II KY,1lj3! meHm;MHbI y,qaJI.HJIHCh IIpH nOC'e~eBlIM ,D;OMa My*'CJHH.a:MH .... Ho sorrpexn BceMY :3TOMY SflTBopHHqeCT:ay H Ha,a,:mpy; rpeqaSlm: ,,ll;OCTaTo.'1HO qac'FO HaXO,lJ;HJlH cnY"4aii 06MaHbIB8Th CBOHX MY:1Keil. IIoc.rrep;HHe, CTbJ,ll;MsmlI€C.H BLicxaesiaa'rs XQ'il"$ 6.hl TeRh JIJ06BH K C·.BOMM >KeHaM; pa3BJIeRaJlHCb Bcg'tleCRll JIl060BHE:.IMM IlOxOm,l(eHlfHMH'C rerepaxa ... »45

C.m:e.n:OBaTeJIlbHO. «e,n;UHoOpa'lJ:H:€!» npH I'OCIID,IJ;CTBe MY*R, iB CEJIaR C HaQSBmUMcfi pa3Jlo.*eHH€M porta, nO${BJl1€HHeM co6CTBeHHOCTH, ItDnYT:Hoti: HaCJJe,!l;CTBeHHo.CTH H YKperrJIeHMeMo:rraro,n;ap.R: aTOMY TaR Ha3ihlsa.eMoroMymcKoro ,!J;OCTOHHC'll'Sa, HM€JIO CBoeR 060POTHoi1: CTO'· Po.HQi'i: BhIHy.m,D;e1iHYro H806XO,D;HMOC'N:o .m.eH RaXO,ll;HTh ce6esHe npe;::I€JIOlBBnaCTHOH )::(ecnOl'RH Mymen BCTeCTBeHHYIo. H.C~peHlUOlO JUQ.t 60Bb «na CTOPOH€», KaK rOBopUT 9HreJIbC 0 e,1l;HR06pa'CJHH, «oao atBIOAb He 6hl!no n.i1lo.n;oiM Mn,t(n:BMt(YElJ'lbHOH rrOJIOBOH JIIOOBIH 47. H €Wle RQHKpeTHee l1o,nTBepmJl:aeT ::lTO B CJIe.u.YEOm;MX CJlO.Bax.: <lBMeCTe e

84.

VII.-JlI;tlBH,lI;yaJIhHhlM opaKoM nOHBJIJ'HOTC.fl AlBa. H8M3MeHHhlx, paaee IIHI,n3BeCTHl.IX xapaxrepnstx ooru;eCTB€lHHliIX ,[,Hrra: n:OC'I'OJ'rHH.hlIU )If:060BllUK meR!>I II Mym-poroHoceU .... Pa.o:o:M C HH,!l)'1.BHAyaJlbHhIM flpaJWM H reTepu3MoM HeycTpalurMhIM o6rqecTseHHbIM yl£pe:IK,n;e· 1l11eM c,lJ;eJI8JIOCb II rrpeJlI06o,ll;eRHHei)48. T.all:HM. o.6pa30M, ll3 rrpoira'1.'HpOs8HH.OrO BH)lRO, QTO pa3BH:THe MYJKB-OTJJ;OJ;l.CIWrO rrpasa B napIIOi'I caMba IilpPIBeJlO K HeM30e::-KHOM cYiITpymecKo!i1: aesepxoc'ra co C'I'o.P<YHt>l »W1tl1l;IiH. "FJl1'OTHH:lDUXCa Ka6an:oil HeBOJ[I>HOrO 6paKa I1! xcIU1BUHIX 1l0~J'IPIHHOH JllOfiBH, XO'l'H Ii 3arrpeTHoH,. HO C PICKpeHHHMlJ r:m)l1Ml'll .n;pyi3bJ'IMH, BHe 6paI\:a.

'rOJlhKO 8TlJM MomHO OO'l;>lICHl'llTh BITOJlIHe B031Vl10:IKHOe «rrpemofio)\.e.I'Ilirrel> HHrymeK l:t ocermrox B opaRe B 3TIOXY Baxynrrn: a'1'O TeM ,(jnJJee 01.l€BH,D;RO. qTO OHM, CY,lJ;.R: no HaJliH"l!HID CBe"i'IWCOXpaHHBlllMXCJ1i Iwpem:UTKOB rpynnosoro H OOaTpll3ipXa.JlJhHOrO 6paJ;~a. HMeJlH Bee .,!.I;aHusre ,l(J\li HeeOJII>Ho}:i: 60PbOhl npOTHB pa3B~IBaBmeHCH CTPOI'OR MOHO· l'tlMl'I:Hl, n.OTOMY 'q'ro I'lX 06rn;eCTBO ·O'TXO,n;HJIO OT TIpaB pozra R 3at.JiaTI( 11M C06CTB€HHOCTH., Hacn€-,IJ;CTBeHHOCTH, narpaapxa ra, [![PMCyn:J;PIX I(JlaCCOBOM q>opMaD;HH. A 'ITO anryma MOrJlU 'lr0[',IlI8 6ibIT1,· enreaeesMIl 6JIM3KHMM l\. MIl'l'pI{apga-ry, rosopsn' yu;eJIellWne ITO. ceu .JJ:etlb 'l'jICHe era !l1[epe~(FlTRI1,. KaR, aanplfMep. rro-ra-raaae DJJeM.f[RlliIU<'OM Il'lpn1'bes Ma1'epH lJ HX peam.aaa nOMOm;b .,1leT51M CBoe:H: cecrpsr. )laHIHUI uepra ~ nOKpOBltTeJIbCTBO MaT€plfHCKI1X 6pa'I'h9n HJUr .LIlR,!l;ei1 <t:1I011M TIJIeMJIHHHKaM - rrI:Hl3H8H8 BHre.iIl,.COM OP;HHM ![.'f3 Ba1RHbIX ~hlll{·.rOpOB poztosoro MfiTplmpxaTa. BOTtfTO OH OTM€TMJ.I H8C'tf,eT 8To.I"0,. 0POUHTlipOBaB CJI,(ma 0 repMaHCKOM pa,D;a H3 M8TepH8JIOB Tamrra 49: o Peurasnnee 3Ha':!:eHHe Mooee'!' O,llHO MeCTO y TaUHTa,. rae rOBOpMTCJ'I, 11'1.'0. 6paT M3TepH CMOTPHT Ha csoero IIJ[J1,eMllHR.HKa, RaK Ha ChIHa.:

I te ROTopble ,n;aJKe C'CJUTRIOT lI':Po.BHbl€ Y3hl, CB.R3DIsaIOIIJ;He ,n;J'i,lJ;1O C M8- l' 'p.~mCKo.:li'I CTOpOHbl. H nneMJIHHlma, 60Ji[ee·CB.a:W;eHHDIMH H TeCHbl~ MH. 'lieN: C13$13I> Mem,ll;Y OTlJ;OM ~ CblHQM, TaR -rro npa Tpe6oBal!!IU1 ij/UIO)KHHKOB (pHMJI:fl:HB OT rSpMElH:u;eB. - M .. E,) ChIH ceC'j['p~1 npHlUIDI.CTca 60JlbmeH rapa!HT.Hei1:. '-!eM COOCTBeHHbIM ChIH TOJi'O. xoro xo'I'm" caSI3aTh nopyt.Il:ITeJIbC:TBOM. 3.ueCb Mb[ I1MeeM .iRHBOM rrepesca'1'0l~, OPl'aBH30BaHHblM aa ocaoae MaTepMHCKOl'o. rrpana, CJlieAOBaTeJlb~ 1[0,. rrepBOH8'tl'aJu:'ROI"<Q po.rr:;a •• , ~ ,';0,. GYMMMPY.lI li.'bliweC.Ka'HUIHOe O'I'1I0CH'iI"eJII:>H.Q «HpaBCTBeHHocTH» rop$lHoK''HHT'yureR anOXH Baxynr'j'n (XVIII B.), M6~HO C,Il;e,}Ia'I'J:. 3aR.lJIIOQemre. qTo. Y BilK COXP8HHJIMCb 'I'or,ua ente O:TE'OJIOCKH Ma'Fpnap:xa'Fa. a OTClO,l1;a If ,naJIhHeHlllHn 06· 111(nj~ Bh!BO,ll; 0 "TOM, QTO ponosaa MOpaJIb (npaso) Y RllX B: TY nopy 1IIIi'IIlJIa HCQe33:Tb.

B·'l'pe'l'bHX. YKa38H1'Ie Baxynrr« sa MHoromeHCTBO HHI"YIlIeii: MO'IW'I' 6:bfTh 06'hECHeaO ,D;ByMJI rrpH1.lHHaMH. IIJIi1 .:3TO Ol:IeHb JJ;peBHMH 11(}pC)fmTOK 6hIJIOrO paOC'FB3: (~pelBHeBOC1'O'qHOl"O, Yll8!CJle,l!;OBaRHOro IIHI Tlepezmeii A3H1f OT CBOHX upeJJ;KOB C pa3BHTOH pa60aJla,ueJIE,Qe('l,o~i (i)OpMaIJ;lleil, ,1leJrpal'UlipOBaBmeii: 3RTeM, B HOB'bIX YCJIOBHSI}C, rop- 1101'0 Kasrcaaa, B ponosyro) 5I'.KaR nO]J~FieT SHFeJIbC &2, !I1JIH &lTO peUYJlb'l'S'l' BJIl;fSIHl'IJ'I HCJIaMa B VIII B. (OT apafioBH. T8Tap). Ho :a ICYJ1Y

85

CJIaooro KJI8CCOB,OrO paCCJIoeHHH MHorome'HCTEO Y HHrymen 6hIJIO ctcopee HCKJIKJ'lemfeM. 'q,eM n:paBHJlOM.

7. PO,n;OBOE IIPABO" HHc'rHTYT KPOBHOi'l :MECTH, COBET CT'APEtlmIlHH AP·

co6eHHOC'fH ropnen. - M. B.) ezrenana ero zro KpaH:rmcTH nonosprrT JIhHbIM. BCObl.Jlb ~uabIM H 06HP;'lIHBbIM>') 53. B Ta,KHX YCJlOBHSlX, 000 '18CTO CTaHOnllJlC5l! JKepT~O:H: CJlyqaJi. BOT' KaR ox 0.J1lHCbIB8eT CJIyqaH II<POBH.OH MeCTlI: «Ha BeCTh 06 y6HHcTDe CIIelJlaT H .u,aJIbHHe pO.u:H~H, 'l'f'o6bl Bhlpa3HTb caoe COqYBCTBHe noreprrearrrars H" B CJly-"Iae nyJK)~hI, OK8sa'T.b HM iBC.Ri'lle,cKYlO no.Mom;h. Cotiapae'rca PO)J;C'I'BeHHhI:H coser, na KOTOPOM penraeroa nonpoc, xoro HaMeTHTb 6JtMa\anWeH: )l(ep1'BOH Mw;eHH.H)}. PernaKJrn;HH rOJIOC B TaKOM COBeTe HMeeT crapuree noxonearre pO,lJ;lI'rfeil: - «CTapl1KH»: oren H ,!1.e,u, ITO oTn;y YOHToQro, pO,D:HbIe JJ;H.lfll no OTII;Y II MaTepH" iiillyq!i'> O1'II;8! ('1'. e. ,ii;~OlOPO)l.H bIB: 6PUT orrra, 'UPOlfCXO,,l'l;.HIEJ;lfH 01' pO,ll;HOH eecrpsr M8TepH OTII(a) , II mWHeu.. )J;BOJOPO,IJ;HlblH ,ue,u; 1[3 c};lRMH.rrHH PO,ll;ROH ceerpsr M8TepH o'rna, T. e. 5paT MaTepH orna. (:3TO xapaKT>ePJIhlH 3JIE!MeHT MaTpHapKOTa. - ]1;1. E.) Craparca 06l>lKROBeHHo TOJll'"KO PYKOBO,zJ:51T MeCTblO ••• Ha eoaere pO,ll;CTBeHHHKOB 06blRHoBeHHo pemaio-r YCTPOHTb nananeIII He aa .u:OM y6KHU,bI 5~ •

H3 npaneneaaoro BH,Il;HO, 'ITO iBhICK838HHoe y Baxynrrn 06 oce'nmax., B PaBHOH crerreaa RaCaeTC.H H HHrymeH.

B 06ru;eM, no MaTepna.n:uM Baxynrra IWCBeHHO BHARO, 'liTO Y HHI'YllieH, ueCOMHeHHo, cyw;ecTBOBaJIR EOJIJIeKTHBH8:f! pO;J.:ODa:f! B3tw:MOOTBe'rCTBeHHOCTb 11 ObIJI B BbiCOKOH CTeneHH IIO'tJiHTaeM COBeTCTapeHIITHH pozta, Ho TOJIbKO OIl 3'):'0 KOHl'CpeTHO He OTMe'fliJl, ,BlI,l(EMO, ue Il.pH,lI;8B 3Ha'tIeHU.H, a Il!OTOMY MO)KHO 3aKJIlO'lH1'h, 'ITO ORR 1l0JIh30· UiunICb pO;lilOBblM rrpasoer, rrp1I3HaKH ieoroporo OIIlIcaHbI y <P. 8Hrensca: «COpO,n;U'IH ,n;OJDKHhl 6MJIH nOMoraTb zrpyr .n;pyry, OKa3:E.IBaTh ~1l:lll(H1'y n, B 'Ia'CTHOCTH, co.u:,e,HCTBOB8Th MeCTH aa OCKop6Jl€HHe 'IY· m.lif~nl. MH.n;HDH,.n;YYM nonaranca ua SalIl"HTY CBoen 6e30llaCOOCTH PO,.lI:OM... Orcrona, II3 KPOBHbIX Y3, CB.HShIBaroUJ,HX pon, B03HH.KJIR oG.fI3aHHOCTh li:pOBBOH MeeTH ... ECJlH KaKOH-HHOY;Illb He 'lIJIeH pona y6I1BaiJ. eOpO,D;HtIa, aecs po.u; y6H'FOFO 06a3hIBaJICS KPOBHOH MeCThIO!)M.

EaK BM,!1.BO OTCI:O,Q:a, npHHI1)HIIbI RPOBooi MeCTH' y nHrymeH n uaJ:lOrMill1Il>I Ol1!~Co:tR:hIM 8H:reJIbCoQM. CJle;m;oQB8JTeJlbHO, aTO YT:tepmp;e. u ae MomeT OhITh ap1'YMeHTOM B nOJIh3Y BaXYWTH 0 PO.llOBOM crpoe y HHrymeH B ero anoxy. 0 norrpoce BHyTpHpOP;OBOI'O ynpaaneaaa Oure.m,c rOBopHT TaR: 4PO,!1. HMee'r COBe1" .n;eMOKpaTnqeCKOe cofipeIIIII e acex BSPOCJIhlX 'lIJleROB poaa •.. » 56.

Cne.n;OBaTeJIhHO, MomRO OTMeTl'lTb, "'ITO BaXYIIITH, xQT,a 11 cnafio, HO nee me B 06I.I.J;MX T.JepTaX, no KOCSeH?hIM .lI:aHHhIM H no aHa::rIOI'HH C U(:eTHHaMif .. B, OCEOllHOM • aaa cxeM8THttHyro KapTHHy 0 PO)JjOBOM npaII' 11HrymeH ero 3IIOX.H (XVIII D.)

Hs MaTepHaJIOB Baxynrra BII,l'l;HoQ, ',pro ap,aTI:.1 (npaso) ropnen UHrymeTHII OCOOBbIB.a.JlHCb Ha npH'IUJ,IUIax pOA:oDoi. OpraHH3aUlui: Ba.~. l>fMOOTBeTCTseHHoeTH t.IJl!eHOB pojra l:l! aepxoBeHcTBa conera erapea-, uraa pO,llia. BOT, nanpaxep, q,[,o y Hero 06 aTOM HMeeTCJI:; ~ ... 08 3H8IOT OHII C,MepToyi5Hl1C,[,B J{ MeCTll 38 KpOEl1i> , H:O ecna C..lIyqHTC.H (yOHHCTBO). TO MHP.HTCJi xepea COBeT CnOHX cTapeftIIIHH.,;,» (C. 152). 113 3THX CJIOO C03)l;aeTC.H Bne'IElTJiI'e'HHe, qTO Y aarvmea 3IIOXH BaXYUITH He ,cym;ecTBOBaJIO RPOBHOl{ MeCTIil (?).Taf\oe C006m;eHHe M?!,' JIO 6hlTb y6eAHTeJIhHO, I1iOTOMY qTO no BceM OCT8JIbHhIM ero ~e ,D;RHHbIM Y HHrymen: 1'01'1(a ,l{OM.HHlIPO!BSn:O p01(OBoe npaso, C KOHM HeOT'heMJIeMO CBJ13a03: H KOJIJl8KTHBHaR OTBe'll'CTBeHHOC'l'h 38 apeC'li'ynHble ;::ceHC1'BH.II osoero COP0;U;:KlCIB, T. e. KpOBH~ MeCTh. eneMeHTDl' 'KOe:FI ,11;0 H.e.n;aBHero speMea,H COXpaRHJlKCh ua ltaBRaae cpezm HHrywCKoro H ,u,pyrnx H8PoQ,!J;OB.

YKaaaFm:e, BaXY'WT'H aa TO, 1.!TO «lVEHP.HT'C.H» C nOMOI1l'bIO CBOHX PO.m;OBhIX cTapei1::IllHH, AOK8!3hIBaeT, ''ITO eCTb, O'lleiBJtf)l;HO, B03,~OlliHOCTb R «He MMPHThC$l1»o. A paa TaR, TO 3TO H COC1'aBJI$l[eT KPOBHYKJ M8CTb sa y6HH:CTflO pO)l;CTBeHHHKa.

KpOMe 'Toro, B CiBe.u:eH1UiX 06 OCe'THY Baxynrrn C006W;11JI, 'ITO UK

rocno.n;CTBYIO:W;He qJaMlI.JIHH COOJIIO.u,aIOT :MeCTL. __ ,

Ho "<liT06bI YTO"t!HHTlb 3'1'OT sonpoc npnaeny U,HT::1'TY 113 BaXYUIT'H OTHOCH'!I'eJlbHO MeC1'H II COBe'I'a y npaaanerapceaaasrx OCe'FHH ~ <o:npeBOCXO,ll;Heii:rnnx poztoa: (C. 141) It re CSe)l;eHH$l[, KOH~H pacnozaraer ceu't[ac nayxa 0 He.n;aBHeM rrepexorrxe y MIU'YIIIeH. B3.'XY!-O·, 'I'M aanacan: « ••• B ponax ::;lTHX (43HaTH:hIX, oceTliOCKHX~. - M. B.) ITpHH.HTO OKa3bJ.BaTh)'JjpyJl'" ,n:pyry nOMOm;I:., cOpaTHU'IaTb .... IIo_?o6JIHTb, EICRaTb KPOBM: H60 eCJIll y6b.8T KTO-JlH60 (tI.ilea:a HHoQH l')_laMHJIHH). 31'a .u:pyraH <})aMHJIH.ff He ycnOKoQHTC2: OT nOKOJIeHHa K O:OKoneHHlOj BOBeK, noaa ORa He YOheT' K01'o·)1H60 (M3 rrepsoH cpaMHJlHH) H (noxa) B MOrHJIY YOHTOI'O eaoero e,lll.HHocpaMlIJIhna He KpnKHeT BhrMeCTHB~ rrndi sa KPOB1>: <",ff y6HJI TBoera y6n:0U;y»; H sepac, 'iTO 'Iepe3 ,aT0 'FOT (y6HTMH) no,nyqaeT cnaceaae. :ECJ1H -,n,a;m.e rrplIMHpmOTca qepea nccpene'rao COlBeTH H iBhIIIJlaTHT CTOHMOCT:b I-CPOBH, TO IIOToQM nee me y6HBalOT H B03Bparn;aIOT u;eHy. nOJtyqeRHYro aarcpeas» (C. 142). H erne OTHOCH'FeJIhH:O coaera cTapefrmHH: « ... OKa3bIBaroT 60JIhlJlOH :110-, "LIeT CBOHM cTapu,aM 10[ CMOTP.HT aa H:HX, KaI< H3 CBOllX narpoaoa. Qepe3 STliX crapnes COBern;alOTCH 11 MH!p1l!TC5I H Bee Cll()~ HYIK~,h! Y,Z(oQBJle'FBopJ'HO'r 'iepes JiHX,) (C. 142).

A Y npoqieccopa H. HH.oB.Jl,eBa 06 aarymax He,L(aBHerO IIPOIllJldI'Q cxaaaao nO"'ITH TO JKe caxroe: {< ... THJKeJIbre YCJIOBH.R: ~Y3HH MOI'JUil TOJlhK<O OJK€CTOi:J:HTh aarynra. Hanpaaeeaaaa Jf<.H3HelUlan 60Pb6a (D

86

8. H,l(EOJWrHH (PEJIHfHH 11 KYJIbThl)

B O'FHOWeaMU pemmaH ~: .apeBHHx RYJIbTOBkIHryrneH H3 M8TepHaJlOB BaxYIIIT'H.MomHo TaKJRe BblaBHTh cBeAeHHH xepea cpaaael'iltle c .2laHHLlMH 06 OC€THH.

o peJIHl'HM HHrymeii Baxynrra KOHKpeTHO He rOBQPU'li', a 01\CM-

87

JI3eT !l< Ocernn; Y Hero caaaano: c PaBHhlM 06pa30M Ii JlIlo.n;eH peJIHI'HeH: I-lI BepOH<CIIOBe,lliaHHeM ••. pa3YMeli:i T8.KHMH, KaKOBbl OBC'bt» (oeeraasr. - M. B.) ... (C, 152). llpem)'.l:e qeM 06pa'T'BITbCn aa cnpasKOH K era MaTepHaJlaM 06 Oc,eTHH, npHBomy erne KOCBeHHoe' yxaaaHHe 0 xapaxrepe H:HryIl1CROH peJIHI'I'IH, rrpocxansasraaromee 11 cseJl,ea:n.JIX a TYllieTHM: « .... TYlllHHhl TIapcMllLHCKo,ro yw;eJlb.lI C aepoio H Jl3bIKOM CMell1aHHl:UMH, KaK KHCT:HHhI. •• ;} (C. 133).. CJleJJ;OnllL'l'eJIbAO, H3 "THX CJlOB BH)'.l:HO, 'fTO BaxYIU'rH MeJIbKOM 3a$HKcnpOBaJI HaJJH· qHe *cMemaffEiOH.> peJIHit'l:ur y KIiCTHH-MHrymeH. T" e., HeCOMHeHHO" 3HaJI 0 HaTlH'lHH II HeH 3JIeMeH.TOB xpHCTMaHC'FB3 npa ,!l.OMMHHpOBaHHH Ape:i3HUx nOJIHTeHCTH'leCKHX (MHoro6oJRlle) KYJlbTOB nponano,1:r;H.TeJIhHI>IX CMn npapom«.

,1l.Jla rrononaeaaa cnetJjeHHH rpY3HHcKHX HCTO"'I'HHKOB 0 peJIH· PHH HHrymeti npHBO,1:r;oSTC.R erne CBe,n;eHH.H H3 npHMe-qaHR.H aaropa nepesona M,. r . .D:)RaHamBMJl:Rf B RoeM ,l{8!eTCH H.RcpOpllitlt.UHJJ, csaneTeJIbCTByroI1J;a.a 0 Ili03H~H:fI:X n rronosrccrraa- XPMCTEaHCTBa B MHI'Ymeraa, ,lJ;aHHoe coofimeaae C,ll;eJIaHO H3 .ll.PyroI'O HCTOtIHHK8. Tpy- 3lilH 57; BOT tITO Il;H'THpyeTC.H TaM: «KIICTHll&.I. I'JIHf'BH H )'(3yp.u;ayI<:H nepaonasansao 6b1JIH XPHCTlt8!HaMH ... TaR 6bUro P;O Tasreprrana, KO· TOPbli1l canoro 06paTHJI HX B; MarOMeTail'WTBO 11 npaxasan OM He QHT8.,Tb DOJIee KFfHI' rpY3HHCRHX. He YQHTbC.R rpY3HHCKOM rpaxro're H He rosopars aa rpY3HHCROM .R3bme •.• »o (C. 133, 134). TYT 33;(!nm· CMPOoB8!H HCTOp!Ff'IeCKH H3BecTHhIH MOMeHT OCJIa6JleHHH rpY3HHcKO['0 BJilHHH,RH na HHryweTHIO B o6nacTM peJIHI'Hli, !K.O'TOphIii OTHOCUTCH K ROHD;Y XIV B." KOI'p;a cpeaaeaaaarcxait 3aBOeB8!TeJIb THMYP &8,' BK,1:r;HMO, npOIHlK: TaKme B paHOH!>I rOpHOM MHl'ymenlH 59.

,1l;mma.s: BepCHH 0 pacnpocrpaaeuaa y HHI'yrueH MarOM"eT8H"CTB.fI B arroxy TaTapCKoro aaaoeaarraa Ceaepaoro KaBI{a~a BO aroporr no. JIOBnHe XVIII B. B acropaorpespaa HHl'ymeTHH nO~leMy-To eIIJ;8 HIm; ~e He cpHKcHpyeTCH. O'leBH,lIlHO, 06 :3TOM ,rp~H<Te HyqerO He H3seCTHo, .J1H60 eMY He npHAaeTCH COOTBeTCTBYlOlli(ero 3HaQe·HlIH. Ho MHe lI.y. MaeTcn, '{TO 06XO,ll;l1Th BHH.M8HHeMI TaKOH 3Ha1.m:T8JIbHO HHTepeCHbn~ MOMeHT, KOTOPhIH K TOMY ~e HM'eeT nonraepseneaae II B, MaTepHaJIax }IapOJl,HO![,O CPOJIbKJI.opa, ae CJJle)lyeT. KOH~'tIHO, ecr's H ,lIlpyroiiii: aonpoc: HI:lCROJlboKO ynpo"'!:HJlOCh TOr,ll;8!rn'Hee BJIHHHHe acaarea cpe,ll;JH, HH!rYIIIeii? B03MO~HO. aBO 6blJIO HeAo,Jtl'HM, O,ll;H8!KO STO Bee me He .u;,aeT OCHOBaH'Hll Hl'HOpHpOBaT:b ITO,1:r;06HbIH HCTopH~eeKHft cpaRT, cno'C06HhIH rrpa Yl'JiIy6.l!ieH!I'!:OM aHaJ.!H3e OTKPbITb ropaazro 60nee illIMPO,KHe rOpH30H'FhI ,D;JI5I nonyqeHHH KOCBeHiHblX CBep;eHH:i;i 0 zrpyrax aonpocax 6G.

38TeM, KaK YJKe ynoMHH8JIOCh nsmre, npHBO,ll.HTCH BHOBh yxaaaHHe BaXYWTH OoTHOC~TeJH)HO pe'JIIU'I:l:H aHrYUJ1'OBeKHX MHrymeH, a ROHX CK313UHO: *A )RH'FeJU~ AHrYCTH ... no nepe O!HH MarOMeT8H8" CyHHlITfiI» (C. 151, 152).. I

RaK H npe.n;bI,llYID;HH sapaaar 0 KpaT!l<.OBpeMeHHOM MarOoMeTa~~ CROM llPOHHKH06eUH:H B MHryweTHlO K KOHn;y XIV B., TaB> H AaI'· lIMll" OTHOC5IW;HHCa K nepxony caraoro Baxyrrrra (XVU-XVUI BB.} 13 HaU;HOHaJIhHoi1: acropaorpaqiaa He earpaxcxponaasr, nOTOM.y"'ITO

88

JI PHH.lITO ollIu60'IHO ctt!WI'a1'I>CaMOH paHHeH ,1:r;aTO~ nO:llBJIeHHJI HCJlIUMEl KOHeu XVIII B. l{ naxarro XIX B. II KpOMe Toro. C'lJ.H.TaeTcn. 'ITO K 11lII'YUUi!M ~TO penaraocaoe y'tlieHHe npOHHRJIO, rJIaBHiblM 06pa30M. to CTOPOHhI Lfe1t:UUl, Ha ,l'J;aI'eCTaHa.

anI csep;eRlIJ:! BaXYIIITU yK3SbllBaIOT B,oOJIHe :RCHO H KOHKpeTHO (i1fl.,TIOoTb AO Y'FO'IHeHHH ,liIflJKe TaKHX ,l1,eT8Jl1e:ti,. KaR npHH3l,ll;JlemHOCTb lHu'ym1'OBll\eB K «CYHHH.TaM&). 'ITO rrpa HeM B eesepavro KOJIOHlllO Anryurr npOHHKJlO MarOMeTaHCTIIO. Ann BceH HHryweTlui 3'1'01' MONIeR']', 6e3YCJIOBHO, CJIHiIllKOM paHH1111. rrOCKOJIbKYH3BeCTHO. 'ITO orne B nasa.ne X[X B. UJIOC·ROCTHhle HHI'ymU, aapazry C 3a'laTl>:RMM! 1!IC!JJaM8, nO\!HTaJIH H csoero ,u;peBHero HIUl,HOH8JlhHOrO H3l>IQeCKOf'O ~ KYMHp8! I'ansepasr »61 ,

CJIe,!':lOB.a.TeJIbHO" AarYUJ"I' :B XVII B. I5hlJI B iHeCKOJlhKO HHl>~X co- 1'\JllaJrhHO-3KOHOMH.tIeC,RMX YCJIQBHSiX, eCJIH TaM Y)Ke' MOrJIO B03HHKElY'rib M'YCYJlhMaHCTBO • .H IlOJI.araIO, qTO 3TO CJIytIHJIOCh ae 6e3 BJIlI,H· ITHH BbITeCH.HeMhIX oTTy)lt,a (M noaaee C IInOCKOCTlI) "Ka6ap.u;HH:u;es; 'l'OJIhKO OT BilIX, R He co CTOPOHbl qe'tfHH MorJIH HHI'YWH TaK paao II plHi.flT!> MycyJIbMR.nCTBO H CT8!Th MarOMeTaaaM11-CYHHwraMH, eCJIH 06 :)TOM 6bIJl!O .u;a:;&e aaqraxcnpoaaao B rpY3HHC.KHX MaTepUaJIax Baxynrra, cofipannsrx HM Me:lK,1:r;y XVII~xvnI BB. (ao He "oa:iKe) .. A (I'l'CIO,lJ;B: 3aRJIIIOqeHHe, 'ITO cymecmyromee B ll1aYiKe MHeHHe 01'HOCH· 'l'OJlhHO rrO,HBJleHHSI 38-qaTKOB MaI'OMeT8HCTBa B H,!lrI'ymeTHH B XIX B. o ill 11 OO"tUIO.

l1pe)i{.u;e ''IeM UO,!l;bIT'OJRHTI> H aaKouqY,lTE:. ,lJ;aHHl>'IH pa3;r(en 0 peJJI!1r}103HbIX BepoB8HltJ{X HHFyweH, npasoztarca erne CBe;:r;eHHH,KacUIOID;HeC.H OceTHH, ua KCYr0PYIO BaxYIIlTH CC&1,.rr8!JICH B OnUCaHHH !)HJIHI'IIlI Hlu'yrueti:. BOoT 'ITO OR UHCaJ\1 [10 ST<)MY sorrpocy 06 Oce'I'IUI: <iE cTapHHY see OHM n.o aepe 6wJU<l :XpUCTH8HB!MH H COC"faUJl${JII1 rraeray HMK03eJIH, I'JI3BH.hl.M )ICe oiSpa30M, ~BaJ'lbn;bI 62, ao B !':rI.!IHlLUHee BpeMH ,n;B3nbl1.W TOJIbKO HM8HyroTC:Il xpHCTHaHaMH, H60 cofhuo,lJ,aJOT· BeJ!lHKF.lrH IIocT, IlO"lH'l'8JOT 'K nOKJIOH.HI()Tc.a ·HKoHaM, l~epRBaM: K CBHmeHJi!)UK3M. BO BeeM ;:r;pyroM He cliH~AymH. He HMe~ 10')' CBHm;eHHKK3H OCT8,lOTCH HeKpew;elthIMH.KpoMe Tex; xoroprae IJOJIy"(alOT xpemeane B KapTa.rr:uHHG: H Paxe. Ho B TaraYPH. KYPTaYJur, B!:IJI3rHpH, IIa.MKoMH, ,ll;MJ'OPJ.!'U H BaCH8!HH rorasapa Ii 3HaTHb.Ie CYTI> MarOMeTaHe, a npOCThl€ KpeCTh:1lEi9- xpncraaae, HO OR» HeCBeI\YW;W B TOR II ,n;pyro'H sepe: pas.rr:HTme MemAY lurMK COCTOHT B TOM, 'l'j'O xvuraromae CBHHH.Hy CqH:'I'aro'l'C.R xpacraanarea, a RymaIOm;He I<OHllBY - MarOMeTa:a:aMU. Bee m.e OB:~ rro't[llTaroT n:o.p;ooHe H,ll;OJIa, 1<O'Ii'OPOr-o Ha3bIS8I<>T Basrana, H60 Dun B "JeCTb UJl'HU 38KaJIblBalO'F rcoana. MiReo e,n:HT CaMH., a Komy HaTHI'HBalOT H8. BhICOKoe iIlpeBKO 11 II('HtJIOH.HI<>TC.II :;ITOH uneype B ,ll;em, (npaaaaaxu) Hmm. ,lI.aObI OR H3- IIIBl1JI HX 0''1' rpa,l(06HTHH H,!l;apOB8JI ypomaiila€MJIH. (C. 141) .. , rolUI'!' 11 n.PIUOTO!l.ITaIOT BO~Ky, 6yay 113 nmeaansr H HqMeRn H UbIOT B

Jlll H CB03X npa,S,ll;BHKOB 11 DHpmeCTB. ,n;JIH enacenaa H flOMMJIOBa- 1111',n zryur CBOllX yeonnrax YM:eIOT YCTpaHB3Th CKa'!.!K:H, QTO Ha3hIBa- 10'1' «,D;OrH»: KOHHMx.rrrop;eH rrycxato-r B3anYCKH 'C ,1!{Byx-TpeX,1:r;HeBHOI') paCCTOSlRH$, H, KOTOPhdi aa HUX parrsure )'.l:OCKaqeT.u;o Ha3Ha'IeH-

89

aoro MeCTa. TOMY If ,lI;aroT IIO,LlapOE.E YCTpaHBaroT yromenae Ii 60JIhmoe necense, KTO KaK MOJKe'I'. H rroaararcr, 'ITO 3TO YTemaeT Ii CIIacaer ,o;yrua MX YCOTInmx» (C. 143),

M3 seex 3THX cBe,1l;eiUdiBIf)llHO, "t!TO B OceTUM OllHCJ:;IBaeMOFO BaXYIIIT'H nepaona 6bI,JIH re me peJIHrH03HbI8 TPMl1[~I1H it KyJIhThI, q''FO H Y HHry:wee:.

BO-OepBl>IX, Baxvnrra npas, J'OBOPK, q"FO '«B crapaay» B OCeTIU! :xpHCTl1anCTBO 6W.JIO B paCI1,B€Te. 8TO OTgOClt~CR K' anoxe HaHBbI'Cmero BJIK5![.HHH rpY3BH. T. e . .n;o XIII B., xorna aa Ceaepaojs KaBRase nOHBHJUICh T8T8pClnre aasoena'renn, BbITeCHHBrnHe rpY3HHCKHX \.UICCHonepOB.

BO-BTOPhEX, BepHO. q'ro XPHCTH3HCTBO o:r:.lJW HerJIy6oKOYKopeHHBUIHMC.H B HapO)J;HblX Maccax. nOToMY "ITO OTCyTCTBOBllIJIH COOTB9TCTBYlOIUHe eMY COD;naJIbHO=:;lKOHOMHtfeCKHe npemroesrnxa P;J!lJ.! BOCnpHaTUH H. M,lJ;€'OJlOrgqeCKO.['O OC03HalH'H.H CO,ll;epm8HHH ero ~O[,MaTJi .. t{eCKJiX IIpHHn;HnOB,.

B-TpeThHX, TO. me Mo»mo CK838Tb H B OTHomeHHR .M8rOMe'faH" CTiBa. I10TOMY Baxvnrra BeCLMS MeTRO 110P;MeTHJI, 'ITO pasnmta Me'lt,ll;Y XpMCTHarr8MH H MyCYJIhMaH8MH 38KJIIOt{aJl8>Cb TOJIbRO BO BHeWHJiX np0.HBJIeHU.lIX xx 06PSP;OB, B qaC'Fl'IOCTH,B name (O,rr;HH ezra CBHHHHY, a ,lI;pynIe KOHHHY). IIpMqeM yRa3aHHH aa «KQHHHy». KaR 1I Ha TO, t{TO TOJIbKO (<3H3'THble» .fIBJIaroTcH MsrOMeTaHaMH, :n:OK83hIBaIOT,. OTKY,lJ;a 'SIHO (Mal'(n,I(i:,eT;;tHG'l'BO) BOCnpFlH.HTO 6E:JJIO OCeTJleH.

<l>eO.lls,JJH3HpOBaBrn-8.:llC.R pop;OBaH aepxymxa OceTHM KJIaCCOBO COJlH,napM.3J1pOBaJI8Cb, no.n:~epjKHBaJIaeb H pa3BHBaJIaCb UO,lJ; noxpoBMT13JIbCTlIOM 60JIee «CT3pw:erOI) <iJeo,n;!llJIH3Ma CMe~Hoii B:a6ap,lJ;hI. B t{HCJIe acex BJIH,'sIHliH nocaenaea 6bIJIO, 6eaYCJIOBHO, H peJH1I'H03HOe, IIOTOMY (·3HaTHbIe» cpaMHJIHH OceTHH cTani!: (paaee OCT3.,rr!bHOn: CBO-'

ell MaCChI) MarOMe'I'RH8.MH. -

qTO 3TO y<:teHHe K HHM npOHHKJIO HMeHHO co C'l'OPOHLI Ka6ap,z(hl, .,!ljOK33hEBaml' erne Ca:MO a8Me'IRH.H,e Baxynrra o.THOGHTeJ'ILHO <1 KOH:H~' RbI>}. EC.}Ull aTO CPaRT, TO TyT HeCOMIH~HHO aaxerea O,ll;I1!H ](I3 xapax'I'epHbIX Ra6ap)l;HHCKHX rrpH3HaKOB, H60 y Ka6apAHH~eB - IIPHPOk HII>IX KOHeBO,1l;OB - !WHMHa ObIJIa JIRKOMbIM 6.IIIO,lljOM. A 3Ta Tpa.,lI;:HlI,lUr, KaK H MarOMeTaHCTBO. aocnptraara 6h1JiIa HMl1I 60J1ee OT- TaT8p (KpbIMu;eB H 30JIOTOH: OP.D;bI)" yrroTpe6JI.HBW:HX B nHm;y KOHHHY,

B-T.J:e'I'SepThIx, BIIOJIHie nrpaBUJIhEIO 'I'O, 'ITO HapJI,lJiY C MOH:OTenCT!1:· 'IeCKHMH BJUUIHJlHMH xpHCTHaHCTlJa H MaroMeTaHCTBB! (rpYSHH H Ka6aptJibl), cy~ecTBOB3.,JIH H3,l1;peBJIe MeCTtlI,re HRIl(HOH8JILHble nOJI'HTeHC'fHqeCKHe KyJIbThI rrpoH3Bo.n;HTeJlbBbIX CH.JI npzponsr, pOAOBhn~ npeaxos, acrpansnsre H T. n. Baxymrn sro O'l'MeTHJI, OIl acas npaaaRosaHlI€' ypoacaa, cO'tJ!eTaeMOrO c 60meCTBOM Ba~HJIa. H IIHpmeCTBO co CKaqRaMH na P01l0BbIX TpH3Hax B "t!eCTL YM'epWHX rrpezncoa H

Copo,rr;H~eR. .

ITpoBecTH napanxeas Mem.r(YSTHMH CBe)l;eHH8MH 06 Oce'fHH R HHrymeTHH. 6eSYCJIOBHO. He COCTaBJIae'l' ;R:HRRKO:rO 'rpy,!J;it. TaR I<.!l.~ "''I'll KY.JlbThI ,rr;o CHX nop COXpaHlJ.JlI'l'CL Y HHrymeit.

Y HHl'ywe:a, HeCMOTp.fI aa HB.JIH'Ule BJIiHSl:HHJI XPHCTH8HCT!I3a (co

90

C'I'OPOHbI rpysil:'IU) H ropaano 60JIbWerO a 'laCToro pacnpocrpanemra :·»)WMeHTOB MY'CYJIbM,aRC'J)'Ba 63. rrapaane.m.ao COXpaH.fIJIHCh )J;peBHHe MeC~I'Hble PO,!1,OBble KYJIb'J'.l'.l - nOJiIHT€lICTHt.J:eCKHe. 8HHMHCTHQeCKOUHTponOMOP¢JllhIe, acrpansasre H ,lI;p.

Tarcoe osoeoripaaae YC'FOHt{HBOCTH II npe06JIa,n;aHJI.H .u;peBHHX ItYJIh'FOB HapaAY C HOBellllIJlMH (MOHOTeHCT"P'I:eCKMMH) 06'baCH:I3:eTCH ypOBHSIMH paSBRTli:H o6:m;eCTBeHHOH llCMXOJIOr:HlI. OTpa)KalOU(enCJ1 B IWHUen.lI,H.fIX H"Ll;,e.OJIOI'HH, co,rr;ep.malD;eH B ceee COOTB€TCTByrom;ne pe,'IHl'H03Hble BepOBaH.HH;: [J:CHXHKa ~e - saJIeai>re npOH3BO;nJ;Hoe, BTO' pl1tHIOe - Ha,ll;C'l'pO:HKa. !10:3TOMY. ecna CO~HaJIbHO-3J<OHOMH:"IeCKHe IIpe,!!;nOChIJIKH 6a311ca He COOTBeTcTHyIO'T nepexojry K HODOR_ cryne- . 111-1 [ee a8.n;,C'FpOHKH), ''FO Hi npot{HOCTH HJII{ YCToi;ilfHBOCTH ee He lVlIOjI( T 6bJTb, B .n;8HHOM cnyxae B KY.lIbTax.

I1O'II'OMY qTO,K3K YKfi3bIBaJI erne ~Hl'eJlbC: «B:a*,rr;aH pe.aarna flUJlJ'I,eTC:R He qeM HHbIM, K8K q.aHT'3CTHqeCKHM OTpameHH'eM B ro,IIOna:x .lI1Op;eii Tex :BHeUIHHX CHJI, xoropsre rocno,rr;CTBYIDT aa,n; H.HMli II I1X llO!8Ce,n;HeBHOH .:1Kll3IHi, O'l'pameliHeM, B !!{O'FOPOM aeMHbIe CHJi[bI IlpHHHMaIOT q,OPMY csepX'beCTeCTBeHIU,Ix»M.B «nOBcep;HeBHOH 'Im3HHl> l1HrymCKMx ropnen (pO)J;oBoii 6eeRJiIaCCOBOH p;peBHOCTH) ne Mor.rm: «rOCIIo.n;CTBo:saTl'.'» \lymHe <lq)aHTaCTHqeCKHe O'l'pa:m:eHH.S1> ~nHelII.HHX C:0JI.>, coztepacamaeca B Bf,lCOIWP8SBHTblX AorMaTax XPHc~r'1'IaHCKoii JI MarOMe'il"aHCKOii peJIHl'HH, - B 3TOM OCHOBHon KOpeR!; I~X HeY?TOihHBOCTH H ]]OCTORHHOH CKJIOHHOCT:0 HiHI'yme:a K pezraD'H03HOH«KOHcepB8THBHOCTHl> B MOMenT YII8,lJ;Ka H KPHSHCOB ~THX I~nyx HOB&IX H,lI;eOJIOI"HQeCKHX Y'IeHHM. HHrymaM, HMeaWtlM erne PO.ll:OBOHC'FPOM C npftcyru;HMlll 8'MY ¥YJIbTaMIT, 6hlJilH trYJK.1I;bI XPHCTHIII1CKoe CMl'rpeHHe cpeo,n;a.ITH3Ma HJIH MarOMeTaHCRHH cpaHaTH3M BO:Toqa:OrO ,n:eCIil!OTH3Ma, IIOTOMY nepemHTKH caoax Tpa,lJ;HlIJ,IWRHO-pO. )~OBbIX KYJIhTOB Y HHX scerna COXPaHHJ][HCh B ,rr;OCTa'FOqHOH CRJIe, II'l'06hl B CJIa6hIe MOMeH'l'hI ROBhlX BepOBaHHH BHOBh .u;OMHHHpOBaTh,

II03BpaIl.\aR H.JJ;eOJIOrn:q.eCIWe paaaarne K CTapOM:Y. ..

BOT ~TY-TO xaparcrepayzo cne-UHqHiKY HHFyweH B c¢epe pa3:BH'r~lJ:! HX HAeO.1l0I"HH H vnaerca BhIHBH:Tb npn 8Ha.JlH3€ D;eHHbIx M<lTePl11:lJIOB ~aXYWTU, XOTH OR Ii He .m;a:aaJI ;ll;OCT3!'J!'Ot{HO HCqepIIhIBalOIIJ;HX eue,/WHHH 06 O)J;Hl1'X HHrymax" OTMellaH 0 HHX KOCBeHHO fiJIH OTChIJUif:l sa cnpaBKoH K TeM ,cTpaHMrr;aM. r)J;e rOEopHTCH 06 oceraaax.

9. !IlO.lIHTH"tJECI(QE COCTOJlHHiE

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91

3H3L1.:HTeJlbHYro nOJIHTHQeCKYlO po.m, B ApeBRei:i H.CTOPllH aapozros Ce'BepHOrO lCaBKa33 11 ,uail"e 3aIK8BKaahJL 8'1'0 MOJI\:HO 33MeTUTib aa cnezryiourax CBe,IJ;eH1Ili:, conepacauraxcs B MaTepH3J1aX Baxym-ra,

B' KOM.MeHTap:amc nepenozrxaxa M. r. )J\:m3uamBHJlH HMee'fCH coOOrn;eHH'E:1 lila ApeBHeRllIero rpY:JHHCKDro HCTO"G:HHRa «Kaprvrac l!;XOBpe6a~ 0 TOM, 'ITO «!W JIeTOnHCHoH rpY3J.1:HCKOR JIe!I'eH,D;e, aaa IIJleMe'· HaMlI KaBKacoca - fipa'ra KapTJIOCa - rocnop;cTBoBaJl.n;Y,tJ;3YK ()I;3YP.o;3YK), ChIH Tl1peTH.l1 HJ![H THReiHH» (C. 230). 3TR :U;f1T3Ta YKa3hrBaeT aa KaEoa-TO «roCIlO,!l;CTBO'> A3YPA3YKOS Hap; MHO'rHMH Hapo.n;3:M.H Ce'· aepaoro Kasxasa. CJIe'.n;YIO:w;ax U;HTaTa npHBO,lJ!HTca M3 eareoro Baxym-ra. BOT ttTO Y aero CKa,aaIW: « ••. a aanazursre OT XeBH 65 MeCT8 Ha3hlSaJIHCh R,aBKa30M RJIH ;rJ:!8aJlleTlfeH 61l. rne nOCeJIHnHCI:. ChIHOBb1l! KaBl(aCOCa 11 :rrO'lrOMRH era" H Bee TIOBHHOBaJlHCb AaYP.ll3YKOCY H nocne Hero ero ITOTOMKaM, a 3TK nOCJIe,D;HHe MD;x,e'TCKOMY MaMacaxJlHCY BTIJIOTb .Zl;O rrepaoro napa napHaB8.38 ••• » (C. 152, 153). Baxym'Tl'li OTMeTt'lJl, trTO aaponsr '_ «nOTOMKH~ KaBJtaaa - e sce IIOBHFfona.lUrCh') J.l:3YP,r(aYKHH Ii LITO STO ,D;OMlnmpOBIl1HHe ApeSHHX HHI'ymeH HS.n; oooezransra n:JleMeHaMH )!;JIHJIOCh.l\O «nepaoro», no JIe'l'onHCH'M, napa rpY3HH Tlapnaaaaa (c 302-1'0 no 2'37 1'. ,!J,oxp. 3. C. 30-32). CJIe,r(oB,aTeJllhHO, U3 OCHOBaHlllAi asmrerrpaaeaeaasrx MaTepHa.l10B Baxynrrn H pezraxropa ero nepeBO,JJ;3 M. r. ,I(:maHaWBUJIu. cocraaneuHbIX no p;peBHerpY3HHcKHM ,JIeTonHCHbIM JI.ereHp;aM., MO;,KHO <]HIKCHpOBa'Tb, 'lTD HU~ylII'Fl! HBJI.RIOTC:H ApeBHeHWHMM a60pHI'eHaMR aaH.HMaer.mro HMH ITO. eet!: ,l{eRD:. ropaoro paHOHaJ. npHQeM, o'!'eBl'f,lliW, HX BoeHHbIH nnana P;3yp.n;3YK, CTOSIB.llIHH 80 J'JI8Ise scex aarvnrcxax «<I)paTpHih. 06'be,n;HlIeHHhIX B «CTpaHYl}, IIOJlHT~"l:'ec.KH ,,l\OMHHl1pOnan Ha.n; napOA8MH ueH'TpaJIbHOH: qaCTH Ceaepaoro KaBK838 BTIJIO'E'b AO ]V B. noxp. 3. 0 lIo.f(06H:hIX npOIl:eCCB.X 3'rHU"IeCKOH KOHCOJlHAS:U;HH URCaJI $.3HreJIhC 6". Ho, npHHUMaa 11.0 BHUMaHHe, 'liTO lIMH ,1J;a:YPP;3YKoca COXpaHUJIOClb lIO JIereHAapHblM npe.n;aHHKM, BepOHTneaneero, KaiK CK338HO 3,1:1eCb :me, non STHM HCTopu'treCRHM MMeHeM nozpaayereaaerca He JIH"lHOCTb, a SeCl> B n,e.u:OM al'RH'tfeCIUIH MaCCHBHHI'ymcKHx ropnea H3BeCTH!blX 1'3 :rPYSMHCKHX JleTOIIHCHhlX MaTepH3JIaX .rIOA ~tMeHeM' ,lJ;SYPp;3yKIAi, B 'leeT!. JIereH,ll;apHorO BomAS J];3yp;n;3YKoca.

3TO cooepaaceaae 0 e rocnoncrse» Ha.ll 'cocep;HMlI nop;;TBep*,ll;aeTCH erne R TeM, 'CITO,o;O vaaaaaaoro y Baxynrrn ItapJI Tlapaasaaa, .n;pesElMe- HHrymu 06~,aJIH'Cb HB. paBHb~X C HapOp;B.MH I'pysaa. )J;O:CT8TO"lHO BHRI<'HyTiE:. B coaepacaaae C006!r.I1;eHHS caxoro Baxynrra 0 To.M, 'tfTO « Ilapaasaa npasea H3 .IJ;aYP,D;3YKeTHH ,.o;eBIif~Y, Po.,lJ;cTBeHHllu;y)l;3Yp· p;3YKDca, H :i'KeHHJICR aa HeR, U l.lTllM erne fio.nee y'rBepp;HJI cnoro BJIat'C'Fb BaA )l;SYP.llSYKeTUeMl) (C_ 152, 1.53). 113 STOM BI.I.n;epmKB. MD~HO Cp;eJIaTh BbIBO,n; oa:eCOMH8HHOM ,I'1,OMHHHpOBaHHIAi ,lJ;3YPA3yKDB H9.A CeBepHhIM KaBKa!30M. E'CJlH 6hI aIm (.n;3YP,I1;3YKH) 6hIJIH CJIa6l>I H HH.'1TOiKHb] B Boe.Hl'l:OM H I'lOJIHTH't!8CKOM OTHom,eHHSlX, TO ['PY3HRCKlille u;apm: He' 3aI~JllO-qaJIM Dbl c :HHMH ,lJ;HnnOMaTl~'I:[eCKHX opaEOB_ 0 TOM, qTO B p;aEHOM BMsop;e ReT' HHKaKOM TeH,lJ;eHlJ,M:03HOCTH,. AGKa3hlBaeT caM TeKCT MiI.'l'epHQ.rra. IIoTOMY QTO neTOTIHCh yxa-

al,m.eeT Ita «jpOP;,CTBO» aesecrsr ITapHaBa38 C «,1iIJI{HaC'l;l1:eii:» ,ll3yp.n;ay(trl, '1', e. aTO 3Ha'!MT, t.J:TO OHa C HHM, rJI8!BOH HarYlJJeH. - pasaaa no rrrerreaa «3HaTHOCTlI.», a aTO ;D;JIJ'I coo.r.uo,aeHHJl: 9THKM. COOTBeTC'l'BYIOflllen YCJIOSHOCTJIM 'ql€O,lJ;8JIbHOH MOPaJIH, GTHloAb He 6eap.a3JIHQHo. T~pOM,e 1'0.1'0, He cnytraiiHO TaKJRe OTMet:l:eHO, 'ITO OH <L*eUKJICHl) aa lIeiTh. :3"HM IIOKa3a!HO, "<{TO 6paK BaK.lllOtl:eE: no BoeM npaBHJIaM MO. IIl.lpXHqeCKOrO prrryana. By)!;!> OHa tronvxpenocraaa nOKo.peHHOI'O BilCCIlJ![bHOro Hapo.~a HJIH n:JIeHRH~a, B3.IITaH B ,Ka'!9CTB€ HQJ!!O$Hnll,h] MJUl paOnIHi'!! rpYSMHCROMY napro, rpYIHiHCKHM. OTet.leCTBeHHhIU: COIlpeMelUIHK-JIeTOTIHCeu. oe3YCJ10BRO, H8MepeHHO He TOJIbKO He YKa:mJI 6bl na nee :lTD. a, aaotiopor nOc.TapaJICH 6101 paS,,lJ;Y'l'b H aapacoaarr, :IIpO'rHBOITOJIOJKHYIO lKaPTHHY se «He OJIaropo,ztBOl'O» IIPOHCXOJi\.Il,e'IHW Ii[ HH3KHX KPo.Beii. no STMM cnOBaMstI,l{HO, 'CITO 6pmc rpyaaa»coro napa Hapsraaaaa aa HH:rYilll,\,e, pO.ll,CTBe.HHUn;e ,113yp,a3YlKoca,

6blJi 3aKJlIO'q,eR B u;eJUIX «Y'l'Bep,iK,lJ;eHH£h H.ap; nOCJ[,e,D;HHMH cBoeil: ,''!lJ18CTH», ::lTO YKa3blBaeT aa .rIOnHTHtl,eCItYIO ilIOTpe6HOCTb cioaepe- 1:1£1 o6ecrretU!'Tb CD cropoasr CBOHX, CJUIWKOM BOJIbH:r:.rX. (I), BaCCaJIOB lWTH 6b] OTHOCHTeJIhHbIli corea, tJ;OC'lr'HrUYB STHM aa O,ll;HOH U3 oxpa- 1'1 n napcrsa TIOROPHOCTK H cnOIWMCTBM.l1 ('pO,lJ;CTBeHHHKOB». Cnezto- 1I1l'L"eJlMIO, )1.0 IV B • noxp. a, ,D;3YP,lJ;SyKH 6hlJIiH AaJIeKO He B'FOpOC1'eIWHHbIM BoeHHhIM H I10JlFl!TH"IeCRHM qlaRTopOM na CenepHOM EaBrcaae, BoH.li\JI JIn:ill.b n03,11;Hee (c IV B. ,1II;Oxp. 3.) B COCTaB rpY3HH ..

MaTepI:IaJI Baxynrrrt B ,IliSiHHOM CJlyqae AaeT npe.ll;CTaBJI€HKe 0 'J'OM, "llTO B Jl.peBHHx.n:eTOIlHCHX fpy:aUH aaqm,KcHpOBaa MCTopHLleC'lU1H: qlaKT, YKEWhIBalOlII,RH aa cy~eCTIlOBaHHe Me mAY lrPY3HHCKOH ~I HHrYlllcKoH SJlHTaMH fIOJIl1!TH'leCKHX 6paKoB, uMesillHx, lBK,!l;I-IMO., OOOID,!J;OBhlI'D,I1;HhlH xaparerep.

ICOC!3eIlIHO <ITO rOBopHT 0 TOB 3Ha'!HTeJII>RGH n:OJIRTHq~CKOH pom~ )lpeBHllX A3yp,m:3YROB B anoxy CPOpMllPo.BaHHSI rpY3HHCROI"0 qleo,qaIn<!3M3! H 06'bep;HReHHH noeaaao BceH rpY3HH Fe IV B. noxp. 3.

H3S8CTHH rpY3HHCKOn: BCTOPHH, COCT8BJI.8KHble Bax5rWTH..B CBO(!M 't'py,n;e, BechMay6ep;HTeJIbHO PHCYIO-r 6JIU3KYIO CBJ'I3l> Huryme:(1 II !'pY3UH B .u.peBHocTH. RaJ< HHme 6y,u;eT noxaaaao, IIO.1ll:lTII'IeCKOe nOJIom.eHH8 IIHrymeTHH BO MIlorOM, I'f xarne acero, aaaaceno OT CMT'yalJ;HHi B rpYSHM: Ofi'be.QHHeHne, ynaAKH, p.aCIJ;a8T .HJlH pacnan HX 'CTpaHbI ~: roeynaperaa aenocpenc-seaao orpaacanca M sa HCTOPHH !'I Hryw8H ,

"tJTO :3TO 6blJlO T8.1oC, .BM;1l;HO M3 cneayroarax CBep;eHFl!R Baxynrnr: 1. Hoene Ilapaaaaaa, oztaoro aa nepmax, HCTOpH"IeCKH 3a(ln::l!KcMpoaaaasrx y BaxYillTH, u;apen: Tpvaaa, OTMe~aeTca ITO~BJIaCTHOCTb J~:1YPA3YKOB rpY3IDf (:~TOT n,epFW,ll, Ha'4:HHaeTC.s C IV B. AOXp. a.). I lepaoe YKa3aHHe sa 3TO BHJl:HO H3 ,[IaRHoR n;HTa'll':hl:: «IIOBOn;apeIi iH.f me Ilapaaaasa, ,llOCT'3JIac}', IlapHaBaaY)J;aYP,lJ;3YKeTlI 1'1 .IJ;B8ne'I·IL.. » (C. 136, 137).. CJIe~OBa'l'eJIbHO, 3TOT MOMeHT O,!'HOCHTca K HaH)~pe:eHeitmeMY srany H rOBOET 0 nepsoer nOJII1'FH'II€CEOM nO;1il'qHH€Ii 1'114 lJ:3YP.ll;3Yl\.OB FpY3HU. XpOHOJlOrM'4:eCKll OR COBIUI.Aae'F c nepIrO)llOM uasana 06'be)JlHHeHlfJ'l r'pyaancrcax u.neMeH If 06paaOBaHHH HX rocynapcraa.

92

93

2. CJIe.QYlOtu;.a.fI u,rrTaTR YKR3l>lBaeT yme na HeCKOJI.E>EO 60.J!lee Iloa.n;HilOIO nopy: (c .•. ITOCJ18 napa Ilapaanaaa, Ka.K BHABO aa (cjfCH3·· lIll» 66, .aO,,!ll:-'I)!J!!urJJ[.I'I:Cb KapTBe:JlhCKHM 69 :u:apHM Ii: IIJl)RTHJ111 H:M .n;aHb ,lll3YP.Dl3YRH, XeBA: 70, ,IJ;BaJIeTllR 71 ••• » (C. 15-2, 153,). TIOCKOJ.lbKY B TeItC'f.e Baxvnrra JJ;O 3TOH Bh!AepmKH pe't£h tuna 0 «HOTOMKax» )l;ayp· Jlj3ytwca. a B ReM caMoH YKB!.3bIBaeTcH ilIa «unary tI,aRHl). TO IlMeeTCR OCHOBRRH€ C'IHTa,!'h AaHRbIe npM:maKH y:H:RSaHHeM aa HeCHOJIhKO 1)0JIee TI03.:r1HlHH (n:OCJI€ ITapHEtBR3a) aran - npn6JIH3HTeJIlbHO cepe,IlMHa HI B. )lioxp. :3 ..

3. IIpH aropoxnape I'pvaaa, Caypxare (237-162 n. IJ;OXp. 3.) o ,tI!;3yp,o:,3YKllX H'M€eTC!{ yrroMluraHHe B OHHcaHl1R CB3HeTlur, 6Y,1l;TO csansr «IlpnW30mJIH!) OT BhICeJlieHHhFX '!y.n;a ,D;3YP)J;3YKOB. MCXO,1VI H3 MeTO~OJIorHqeCRMX C006palE€HHH M orpruU!'leHHOCTH' I10.!l:TSepJR,!l;a.· ro'mero 31\0 $aKTK't!eCKoro MaTeplfaJIa, ~aHHaS'I BepCHH BaXYlIl'FH; fie- 3YCJl!OBHO, BeChMa COMHU'l·e.)JjhHa. Ho nOCKOJJihRY fI BI.UIBJUnO n necne~ylO npOIUJIOe HHrymeTHH., TO naaaxae ax. HMeHH BCO"IeT8HHH C ApeBHHMH CB€AeHHHMII, XOTH 61>l IB nOJIYMHqlH'IlecROM :Bll.z:;;e. Y:iRe AD' CTaTO"<:l180 ,!J;JIIJ Toro, 'tlT06:hl llMeTh ocnoaaaae KQHCTaTHpoBaTh cYlllleCTBOB81E1Be ,lJ;3YP;J;aYif(OB B III~II BB,. )1;Oxp. a. H nOJIaraTE. 0 KRKHX·TO ReCOMHeHHhl:X cB:OwellHJl:X c .IH1Mrl! ,It[peBHeH ppy:nH1. BOT RaE 06 "'TOM coo6maeTCf[ y Baxynrra: «A HaSBaaa ORa (ClBaHeTllJL - M. B,) TaK ao"]' rrOl:leMY: scoruta )J;aYP.1l3YReTlIH oonee He BMeW:.3J1a B cei"ie, H8!CeJIeHH.a, 2-u ~apb CaypMar .BMce . .IlU1I HX oTTY)'l,a H ,ll;an HM ,a.n;eCb eaaaae+- IIpIUOT - H nocemr.n SeJUIIKOe MHOJReC'I'BO ,[Iym. Orcrona ee Ha3BaHH.€l CaBaueTFI» (C., 23,6, .237). Conepaeaaae aTOM. Ir.HTaThl, o~e· Blf,!:l,HO~ npe,,!lI;CTaBJlfi€T 006010 O)l:HH H3 co6cTBeHHblx 3THMOJIOTHQe· eRRX ,n;OMbICJIOB BaxYIllTH (vUfM ll!CIlOJlh30aaH:BOI'O liM HCTOqmm:a -JfeTOl1HOeH), B KoeM .BRAHa nOEIbITka c rpY3HHCKOE'O aTHMOJIOrlf3M,·1 pOBa'1'!. }l€M3.BeCTH:hlH 9THOHHM. Ilnnarato, aTO O~!Ha 113 aTHMO][Orlft lIeCKRX I'lmOTe3, TeM >lSonee qTO nepeBo.a;':IHK M. I", 'u<'KaiIaWBHJIPI KOMMeHTlfpyeT 8TOT me TepMHH coaepmeaao TIO·HHOMY. ~

IIepeHace.JIeHH8 ropHoi1r ,U3YP,IJ,·SYKHH,. B03MOjKHO, MOI'JIQ 6h:ITh 8' <:)IIOXY BTOpOI'O n;apl$l CaYPM3r-a, 0 'tleM 3Ha.,1liHero J1eTOIII1CUJ;,I,COlipe' MeHHlH{II; noaaee ;3TO Co6hlT'ue,n;pyrHe HCTOPHKH npHoelECJ;HJlH ~, :iJ<THMOJlo:rH8aU:RH He 110H.i'll'l'HOrO :liM naallanH:$1 csaaoa, CoCTaBHB Bbl· me.IIpMBe.n;eHHhIR MHrpan;HOHHbIM CIO:lKeT 11CTOpHqeCKIT BeC~Ma HeJleTIUH CBoe.M H€JlOrU<:IROCTl>IO H npO'F~BOpe1{MBOCTE.ro aa cpollie OCTa.JThHbIX CBe~eHH:H 0 )J.Syp.n;SyKliiX '2:, lB aTOM ReT 'COl'<meHfiH. ,n;;o. nYCTIfMO .1JjIflIIh, 'ITO HeKOTopaa. ae3HaQMTeJll.lIaa 'Ul.CTh lfRrYIIIeH. (~ O,l(HH H3 I'OJIO.ll.ou, 9UH):(eMMH unIT BoeHIlbIX noxonoa B COCTaBe BonCR rpy3HHCKll.X KH8seii) Morna OCTa.TbC.a B CnaHeTJ1:H M conepnrenao aCClfMHJlHjpOBaT},C.a TaM, IIO TOJIbltO He 06pa30B3!'Tb C00010 BCIO CsaHeTtJllO.

3. C06.1IIo,QaSI JiCTOPlf'tHOCTh M3JlO:llieSHH p;aHHoro nonpoca 0 110.

JlHTH1.IeCKOM nOJ.lO~eHHH lfHryweii II H'e ~8CTpeTfIB B ll3B,eCnIJlX Baxynrra nOCJIe.1lyIO~Hx (sa CaYP.MaroM) CBe.il!eHHH 0 HMX, npH.wnoc, c,a.eJIa'FL MaJIe'HI.Ky-ro NltlTO,D;.H'tleCKYIO norpemaoc'ra, iBOC[lOJIHIIB 3,l/ieCb STOT np06eJI no )J.pyI'HM rpy:;m:HCRHM HCTO'UIH.KaM 73.

I3 UPHBO):(HMhlX HR.iKe CBe)J;eaIli.1lX npOCEaJIba.blB:aeT coooru;eaHe, '1']'0 ;tJ;3YP;l\3YKM nepE:O,l{8MH ,,!!I€.rraJiH rrorrsrrxa 11368BHThcn OT J.Py, lI.I[J-IGf<i:Ol'O BaCCa.lIbCTB:a H B T8KHe MOMeHTbI eosepnraaa Ha6eI'H aa ~H~peBaJ1, ~apymaSl ]JOROn: CBOHX «B.JIa.lU>liK~ - rpY311HCKHX n ape Fi:. BOT, 0 TaKHX cnvsraax :ll cqeJI HymHblM BKJl!O'tJIHT1> cIO,1J;a CSe,Il;€HHa, II03MO;tKa'O, nponyw;eHHbIe HeQa.1lHl'[O y Baxynrm.

3.1. <I ••• MHpB8iHY rrpHlIUCbIsaeTCH .1leTOllHCblOcoopymeffHe )J;apLJIJJ:bCKHX sopor: «M BCTY:{HIJI MnpB.aH, - qH'I'ael\>! B «lCapTJHfC UXOR. PdiA!),.~ B .D;3YP,li\3YKenuo, onYCTOJlUVf ,I(3yp)J.3y~eTl1 J.f ~apTJIH,c.o;e. :U!Jl eopora liS .KaMIU! na H3BeC'FH M aaasan ,lJ;apy6aJI>}» (KapTJlHC

l.~xoBpe6a. C. 34. M. 24. H .. P. 45, 46,)>> 74. .

3.2. (IBo 11 B.,!lOXp. a. B :uapC'l'B·Os8HH:e Mapaana I ·ASYP.il;3YKH 11'1'Opr,llHc:b xepea yw;eJihH Cpezraero KaBKaaa B rpY3HIO. MHpBaH pn;:!OHJI J:lX M rrpn: Ill!peCJJe,1l;OBaHHU oe3 COllpOTll!BJJelH!l1:lJ. npouren B HX {:'l'jlD.iiY, onYCTOlliHJlee H, B O'l'BpaII(eHlle HenpHHTe.)lhC~MX aatieroa, IrOC'l'jpOHJI B 112 r. ,l1;apbRJ1bCKHe sopora» '" .,

_ H'I'op~Jl I.J;.lfTaTa .1l3 ~<pac})(pa npe.n;CTaBmreT c06010 nepecrcaa npeIll,l/(yrn;eH H3 E. TaKaMIIIBl-IJIIll; np:i1:Bo,n;HMO:H ITO nepBoHcTO":!HH.Ky t lCapT,JJHC Llxoapeoa».

B nnx I111:,IJ,HO,. "ITO (!JJ;3yp.a;3YRM: B'l'OprJU1[Cb-l) II rpY3M:lOCO CTOpO.

Ubi «cpe,l!lHllX y:w;e.n:Hih, T. e. qepea ym;e . nse Tepexa 16.; rpy3t{Hc~HM IUl!)!> MnpBaa: I «p.aa6HJJ: I-IX» , «nponsen B HXCTpaay», eonYCTOWI1JIl) fite H<lll OTBpaI.EJ;eHRe Ha6eI'OBl) «c,.o;€JIaJI sopora» B 112 r • .ll;Oxp. a., Hfl:.maB nx (,,lJ;apy6aJl». '[hOOb] 3TM sopora ~apE.Ma nocTpoeHhl6bnH1' nuepnsre rpy:nnraMl( 'I'OJIbI{O ,1l;.1l!H 3allIl.MThI O,ll.HHX ,lIa.ypJ\aYKOB H BO 11 B. ,D;PXP, 8 .. - aro Ma.noBepOHTHO .. OHR, rrO'BU:;J;HMOMy, caeaaau J'OpU3)J;b paHhllie ,.!I;JlIH 3ar~M"FbI 0'1' 60nee xpynasrx Bpam.n;e6HhIX napenon eesepa .. Ho 'ITO. BO II B. ;J;OXp •. s., zta H paasrna, p;ayp,n;.3YKlill nCCUOIWMJIil rpy3MHC.KHX $eo,n;aJIOBH <:ITO MnpIBaHY IH€.rrE!mo naJJ()C_6 «OIIYCTOm1lTM HX ym;eJlbH,a rrOTOMY" ,n;eHCTJ:lUTeJlbHO, ¢B OT.apau~eIHle) n:OB'l'OP€HR.H, OM B'bIHym,n;eH 6LIJI peCTaBpillpOBan ykpeIIJ:le. uno, rBe;lH~Il1!Th .B HeN rapHH3011, lfT06hI aOBhI'C.HTh CTpa'Ter:a;q:eCRoe. Ul!nqeHH€l )j(apbH:JlbCKOrO npoxoaa, - 3TO sepao. A eCJIH K 3TOMY ;~oGI!UJHTh, ',{'fO O,[(BOEpeMeHH'0T<lM :IKe (na CescpHOM Eamm3e) no. j,11'I ~I.II HCb OBCbl, rrOI'J10THBmHe ,1J;BaJn'lleB H, O'lelm,1l;HO, uapYlIlHBlIlHe 'l'ill,jJ(e,~MOHOJIHTHOCT£' lH:Oa:IH1UflI nJNO!MeH .!l;,3YP.D;3ymoB, TO. CTaReT no. IU~I'I'HOM OCHOBFI~$l nOJ!HTl<fqeCRa:!l npaxaaa peCTanpaU:MI1 H yxpen~I. 1I11R :M:HPBaHOM EO II B. ,n;OXp. <I. aTO.ro rrepeBaJI1'>HOI'O npoxoaan

I py::r~HO.

,', 'YKU38lHHe aa BJll(HUI'I·e OBCOE, ae TOJIhKO ira J!:l3aJ1hU€B. ao R H3i J~UYP,LI3YKOB, npOI'JIR,[IIbIBaeT MeJlhKOM y BaXYl1lTH B c.JleAyro:w;eM:

CnYCT:!I HeKOTOpblH: nepaon noc.n€ rrO,D;"tJ:J,iHellHH .n;3YP;J;3Yll\HIQ 11 j lnll.lre'r!l1}l rpyaHHCROMY napro Ilapaeaaay, - OqeeH.D;.HO, B HaqaJIe !II n . .n;oxp. & •. - ,D;BaJleTl'IH I10ROpaeTCJI [f 38Cemte'I'CSI OBeaMH a 1I11(;'le'l' )l;aYP)J;3YKl'fM" J'OBOPHTC"I, '1:"1'0 (caaTeM J];.3YP.ll;SYKe'l'HH on~Tb 1'1t:1)\C!JIHJlaCh aa .D:aYP,11;3YK, I1l:w:cTH I'll rJIHl"BH, H HaHMe:aosaHa Tak IIJ,I'I1 CblH~Bb.:1MH,n;3YP)J.~YIHl, HJlH BCTym1BmHMlJ CIO,!J;a OBcaMH mM (C. 137) . IIpe.rtnoJJomeHI~Jl BaxYII1TH, B03B.Q,;J;n:U~,e['o reHeaJIOf''l1IO

94

95

He H3BeCTHhIX eMY nepCOH3m.eit K .u3yp~,3YKOCY, 6ea.YCJIOSHO, He coCTaB.JunOT lICTopHq,eCKOH ueHIIOCTli. Ho 3aTO yl'taa3HHe na ~O. ~lTO .D;3yp.n;3YK.RH paa.rr;eJIHJIaCb rra MenK,OnJIeMeHHhI~. e,l'l;HHIUl,W, a nOTO· MY t CJle.n;OBa'TeJlhHO, oaa rrpanrna, B r.:oMeHT csoea CO~HaJIbHO-SK~~~· MU:'Ie'CiWll, nOJlUTH'!eCKOH R B08aHOH CJlafiOCTH B YliIaAOK IlOA BJlH5I· HHeM AaBJIelUU[ BHemHHX CMJl, BeCJ!>Ma u.eHHO B coo6m;eHHH Baxym'il."H. II' OHO nOATBepjK~aeTCKeI'O nOII]',ITKaMH AeWl1(j?pOBa'I'h 9TH IIJIe,MeHHible 1'epoMHHht xepea npeAnOJIOmeHRe. "ITO IiIX ,1:(aJIH «BCTYIIHBIUH:e ClO,l!la ODeM». B STIiIX CJIOSIltX 0 <'B.CTYTIJIeHHl:l: caeca» B )J;3Yp· A3YKHIO, BHARMO, KJIIOt,I 1< n03HaIHUO IIpHqnII ee «pa3~eJleHIU{'>. C ItOHM corrpaaceaa BhITeKRlOW;3JI OTClOAa npHq~Ha HeKOToporo nponecca pO)KA,eHH.H Y tunc K1I3CCOBhIX OTHomeHHH H erronaaaaa aaaan II. Tpap,-llU110HHO-POAOBl;>IM 06~eCTBeHfi'O-;:JIWHOMH"qeCKMM oraonre-

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CJIe,lWBaTeJIbHO. MCXG,IJ;H H3 np.HUe,1l;eHHhIX 3aKJ1IO'<le'l'IHH, MOJKHO

KOHCTS'll'HpOBaTo. tI'l'O B IWHlJ,e ]I B. 101 HalJ8J1e I B. ,!!l.OXp. 3. :IIHryme, 1'HR IIOABeprallaCb BJIHaHHIO OBCOB. OTnaB, O'<IeSH,1:(Ho, B~eMenHO OT rpY3HH. Ho BMeCTe C TeM, nOJl!araIO, 6YAYQH 06ecmpteHHOH OBcaMH, a norosry OTKaTHBll1HCb II. :peC'1'aBpaJJ.Hll csoero rrpexcaero ponoaore YKJIap;8 n pacnasuracs aa rrnexeaa, OBa ace .me He 6bIJIa ~_~O,H':Ia~ TeJIhHO nonasrreaa, a IIOTOMY. BH,lJ,HMO, Ii He nO,lJ,,lIaBRJilaOb :3THHQeCKOP aCCHMH.llSIUMH H IlOJIHT'HqeClWH HHBe.n:HPOSKe. By.o;y<IH Boo6m;e 60JI& I me H CHJIbHee AB8JIhll,eB (CYAH no TOMY, "ITO OHa ,0;0 ;}TOI'O rocnon .. CTBOBaJIa Ha,l\ SC'8M}! OltpeC'l'HblMH HapOAaMH rop CeBepHoro KaBl~asa), ,,l1.aYPA3yKH8 cOXpaHHJIa CBOIO HenpUKOCHOBeHHOCTb KaK HapOA~ HOCTb xa ,D;aHHOH TeplPHTopHH rep, HO ona pacnanacs HS OT;ll.e.JlhHble

pop;CTBeHHble 06~eCTBa.. . . . .. _ _ .. . . . 18

5. 3a'TeM B np0.LJ;OJIJKeIUle 3H.a1:lHTeJIbHO!l;'O rrepaoaa BpeMeHH

HeT HHKaXHX ynOMHHRHUH 0 )J;aYP,ll;3YKHEI. 0 HeH B0306HOBJI,HeT'CSI BRTh cBe,D;eHH-H: nUIIIb B COq.eTRIUU'I co cae,zte.H:USJMH 0 xasapax. I1PHi· tleM Baxyurra, oqeBR,ll;HO, CJlIe,l\OM aa JIeTOnHC~aMH .D;OuycKaJl FPY· 6yIO norpenmocrs B XPOHOJIOI'H'4:eCKOH nepMO)l;l'I'3aUHH HCTopfm,~T· BeCR xaaap II. BpeMeHaM Ji,ereH.,1I;apHoro ,I(a'YP,l\3YKoca, 6YP;TO OH8 llOHBllJIHCb aa CeBeplIOM KaBltaae panee rpy3HHCKO]('0 Ilapaasasa,

T. e. panee IV B~ ztoxp. S .• , "ITO, 6e3ycnos:rro. onratio-rao. ~

Ho KCXOAJI HS cpaKTa YKa3aHHa nil xaaap, RaK aasoeaarenea Cesepnoro KaBRa3a, KOHM A3y!p,!l;3YKH TaKJKe UJlaTMJIH ,D;aHjb. aiI'll CBe,l\eliHSl aaCJlymHBafOT npaaa 6hlTb npe,lilCT8BJIeHHhIMH, nOTOMY "ITO TaKOH cpaKT nOA'tJ!HHeBlIa ,1l;3yp,UaYKOB xaeapars JIOf'HqeCKH B[10JlH~ ,l\OIIYCTHM 101, HCTopH"leCKH Bameli. Baxynrra 06 aTOM 3a(1)HKcHpo~ san B CBOUX Ma1'epHRJIRX TaiKHe, CBe~eHHH: «KOI',!!I8 :IKe npU6hIJI xa« 3apcKHH napt, B CTpaHY CHID (CeBepHblii KaB:KR3. - M. B.), OT,o;BJl cbmy cBoeMY Yp6aHocy, ••• » (C. 152). If eute: «Auapb xasapos CTPa.SY KaBK8cocH OT,ll;RJI ChIHY OBoe'MY Yp6aHocy ... » (C. 136). H3 STHX UHTaT Bl1,ilHO ,n;OBOJIhHO JICHO, "ITO napO,l\aMH Cesepaoro :KaBlKa3a npaBHJI HeKHH xa3apCRM:i'l: KH:lI3b, «esm napa» <I Yp6aHoc». HaCKOJIbKQ JIHqROCTb H HMB ;STH npaBHJIbHbl, He fiepycs CYAHTb, H60 3'1'0 8, BXO.n;HT B MOro nens , .HO l}JaKT 3aBHCHMoOCTU a60pH~eHOB OT aaBOee!l,.

Te.r(efi lliMeeTCJL .3']['00 erne Oo.Jlbme npOrJJ;.H,1J:bIBaeT :s cxenvromax YICIl33HH.HX: 1) 'ITO )J;3YPA3¥K «CTaJI IIJIaTHTh .n;aHh xoaaapasr ... » (C. 152. 153) H 2} "lorD (,jKI1iBYW;He B ,1J;ayp.Zl;3YKe'l'iH¥.I li JKHByrn:He unyTpu KaBKR3a TIJilaTHJIIJ( J-(lHth Yp6aHOCY ••. » (C. 136, 137), II naace onie YKa3bISae'l'CH 0 IIJI.aTe pa3 B ~sa rona, RO IIOCKOJIbRy no coosH\C1Hle ynoMHHae'l'CK B CBH3R C nOIrblTKOH AeWHcpPOB3lTb TepMHH ~.ulJMenl:lI", B03HHKWHll: . .RROObI OT cnon <I.ABa JIe'll'a» , TO Ta:KOMY, gBllO IIlIAYMaHHoMY, AOMbICJIY caxoro Baxynrrn, 6~3yCJIOBHO. HeT OCHOBaIHliJ npUJJ:aBaT,b KIltKoe·JIHOO ,m;OKYMeHTaJIhHOe (ma"feRHe.

B 06rn:eMJKe, ;;I'l'H HeC1WJlb,RO rcoeaeaasrx CJlOB .o;aIOT IIOQSy ,I1;JI.H Hpe.n;nOJIO:iKeH:HR 0 IIO,!l;BJIaCTHOCTM ~3yp.n;,3yI<:OB xaaapasr, KOHM mIl{ !UI1lTHJUi p;aHb.

B STY rropy (c VII B.) rpyaaacxoe BJIH.HHlle na .ll3YPA3YIWB. oxeIHlr~HO •. oosepmeaao oc.rraOJl!O 19.

6. Y M. r . .llJR8HaWB!IJIH, B KOMMeHTapn:JIX K 'l'eKcTY Baxynma 1'1 Mee'l'C$I IJ;eHHOe YR.a3aHHe .I'1'a l'Io.n;BJIaCTHOCTI'> ,l\3YPA3YB;OB K8xeTMH(,IHIM KH'J3bSIM: DB cooouiaer 0 60ph6e Me)l~.o;y rpY3HHCKHM:H H ItaX(~TI.fHCK[1MH cpeOAa.n:aMH, H B aTOM MaTepnaJIe - npa nepevncneIIIIH nplu[a,,!l;Jlemall1{llx Kaxe,]_'li{.H 06JIacl'eu - ecrt, ynosnraaane 06 JlI-lryurcKHx I1JIeMeHHblX llo,n:pa3.n;eJ1eHHJIX. B naxarre XI ,B., 110CJIe "MCPTU croaepeaa rpY3I1HCItliX KH.HaeH napa Barpara III (10141'.)', oro naccan, uaps Eax,eTMHKBHPUR (BeJIHKuH),IlHOBI> SAIBJIa.m;en paIl!: Y'l'pa'-leHHbIMH Cn.OHMH BJIap;eHU$J!'(IH, B 1{MCJIe KOHX HaXO,[(HJI8Ch II HHryureTlIB. 05 3TOM B TeRCTe CKaSURO 'FaR: «I\BHPHK ODSITh ounanerr I\:axeTHB_MH r'epe'rHei1: H Ha3HI;l'<ll1JI CBORX npaSH'reJIeit (spncruuon) B oxpyrax PYCT8SCKOM •.•• RseTepCKOM (B MeC'l'lWCTH asnne 0'1' Y;,pEWpMbI ~ SPIUO, TH8JHeTH, Ilxoensr, ,l'J;3yp,n:3YiKH" fJIJfrBH) ••• '~ (C. 134, 135). 3Ha"lLMT, H3 aroro C006m;eHH.H M. r. ,n)KaHamBHJIll Mon';:HO C~eJIaTib aaronoseaae, 'ITO .D:ayp,1ll3YKH, rmU'BH 80 BXOAMJIll BO, l r ropon (KBeTepCKHn) oicpyr KaxeTHli IiI HMU ynpaBJIJIJl apHCTaB xaX(;'I'IUICKO;rO napa. :3'1'0 GhlJIO B naxane XI B,; CYAH .FIO .u.aHHhl~,MaTe· PI-tLlJlhHOH RYJIb1'YPbllIurymeTllH. AO SToro MOMeHTa OHa, OqeBH,n,Ho, IWXO,lOf.rraCh lIO)]; 60JIhIDHM SJIU.RiHUe'M rpY3~m:. IIoCKOJIbKY xasapsr I{ IX B. OCJI8.6JlI1, a CO CTOPOHJ:.I rora, B. rpY3HH. B nocJIe,n,yrom;RM lI'epHo,u - (X-XII BB.) HIPUJICH BDIcotmfr nOJHfTHKO.KYJIbTYPHhIH pnCIJ;,BeT, TO B C:SSl3H C BhlllIeH3JIO:IKeHHhIM. MOJKHO 'c'tUlTa'l'b, 'ITO KYJIb· M IHmO;,HOHHbT:i:i :::mUI rp:Y3HHCKoro B.1IHRHHR aa H'HrymeTIlIO COCTO- 11.11(:$[ lI1M8l-1HO B Ty xce C3iMYIO nopy. IloTOMY q'TO HH ,~o l-lil nocne IILII'~e 9TO He 3aqHIKcHpOBaHO, ,n:a rro npoueccy pa3BH'1'HH HCTOPHH 81 LIX B;JalfMOOTHomeHllH ner oCHoBaHHi1nOJIaraTb MHa'Y:e.

7. 1l0cJIe aTOI'O arana BallEW'CrneI'O KYJIbTypHO-llOJIlITI1t.JeCKOro LI.IHIJIHiH.H fpY3MH. cnocoticracaaanrero nO:llBJIeHHIO npezmoosanox jllll:JJIO>KeHH,H PO'[(OBOH CPOPM8.UHH H aapOJKp;eHHJO KJilaC'COBhIX OTHO- 1111~HJ-tH, Y HHrymel1; Hat Harynrer-aio, TaK JKe KaK Ii aa sees KaBKa3. 1.In XJIbIHYJla MO~H8j'IBHeIIlHJl:!l !lOJIHa 38BOeB3TeJIeH-Ta'Tap! nO,ll!RBiJIlB- 11111$1 cofiozo Bee MeCTHoe, B peavasrare xero aapoztsr KaBKa3a 6hI.)UlI ! 'I' lPOlll€Hhl Ha33,o; B COll;I-llaJIhHO-3ltoOHOMM:"<I,BCKOM OTHOWeHHl:l: 82.

no nOB0JJ:Y RMeHHO 3TOI'i rropsr Baxynrra He .llaeT KOHKpeTHhlx

96

97

CBe,ll;eHHH, 1'[X npnXOAHTC.H B.hl.HBJl!SiTh ROCBeHHbIMH nyrJlMM: no ROMMeHTapWHM M. I'. ,l1;maHamBHJ!lH n HS MaTeplIaJllOB Baxvnrra 06 ·OceTl01.

BOT 1!lTO nmner Baxyml'H: «Bo BpeMSf .me rroxonon t{l:[HI'l:[SOBhIX

KaBOB, ocofieaao JR!e BaTI.Ui H Opxaaa, Pa30PHJIHC'b n OIIYCTOrnHJIH~1> ropona H crpoeaaa H:X, n IJ,apCTBO OECOB rrpe13pa:THJIOCl> B MTaBapCTBO-,KHH:JReCTBO, H OBCbI CTaJIR y6el'aTh BRYTPh Kaaxaaa, a 60m,mag 'qaCTh ax !CTpaHbI rrpespa-rn.nace B rrycrsiaro .. KaKOB8! E HhlHe HepxeCRR. IT KpOMe '1'01"0. rrocne npH6bITlI:H 'FaMepJJ!aHa H :'3JiTRH KOB!CTaHTHHOnOJIH (1'ypKaMU) erana TeC1U1Tb OBOOB C TOU C'J'OPQlfhI ~ K]phIMCKHe xaasr, a c aTOll (co C'1'(lPOHbl rpY3HH) - rarapcane K0'1e8-

HHKH-MarOMe'1'aBe ... 1> (C. 152, 153). _

A B npHMe"!aHHH AHtaHamBHJIH ccotimaerca M3 H'3BeCTHH TanMyPa3R CJIe));YIOIItee:: deHCTHHhI, I'JUIrBhI H ));3YP));3YKH nepBOBva'llRnbHO 6hIJIH XpHCTH.aHa:Mll ... TaR 6lblJIO ,lJ;o Taxepaaaa, ,ROTOPhIH CHJIOIO 06paTHJI .llX B MarOMeTaHCTBO H npaxaaan liM Be 'f.IRTaTh 60JIee Rl_'IFlIi' rpy:mHCKnx». CY~ . .iI no seaMY STOMY, MomBO ,r(onYC'J'IHTD~ 'lIT_O B M~Hee ~ocTynHhlx ropax mM3l'th npoxonana OT!BIi)CltTeJlhHO BOJIbI~.ee, HemeJIH sa n.JIOCKOCTH, OTKPbITOH JVI.fl soeaasrx onYCTOll18HHH 1'1 ,n;ocTynHoM OOJIOHteHHlO ,1I;3\HhlO.

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. OCHoBiFJOe JlOJIHTU"1eCKOe conepacaaae BJIHHHHH TaTap aa HHrYW8iH.

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:·"lIfeO.lll>tKUff. H. fl. HCKyccmao H1I.2'!lUlemuu fJ naMJlmHWCaX MamepUalll>IW(£ ICy.nbTn.,YPbl// H3eeCmUH. HH.ZYWCK'OZO nay't1to-uccJZeooBame.n.bcTC'oZO uucmu""lIma IrpaeeeiJef-tUR. 1928. T. 1. C. 280, 281:

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Born 8 anWM-mO afWU U o6oux /CJUl.in8elmbI;X 83'aUMOo6Jl3a"~e.fLfjCm6aX lMleJOnWJl fJ01CYJlt€umaJlbNb/,eoamH,Ie, CBUa'emeAl>elnBywttj:ue Q ne6e:aI;oPimepe'c· lW..!\t- pe./UUUQ3'ffQM l!Q./W;HCeHUU. ijaplUlWeJlt I> HHzywemllu n,a""aJHl XIX 13.

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.!tiula .If Uf.;?yuwil-n.a3paH06.Qea 6 18101l. .

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III. /CJI,§W1Ba UIUYUlCrcUX npedcmaeumeneu e noiJmsep:Jli:iieH.ue 3mozo alfnu~ no80aN.cm.au c(J(}epJJttlAa CCbtJll(fj ua n,a,m.puapxa/tbH.Oe 6(J:M:eCm60 ra.n"rePi!: 3!!Y' euono «s aaICILIQ'lUmeJl!>,fj;bJ,X CJl.O(J "A,flmeI;Jt: {< •.•• npefJ 6Cellt.oey~u"" (JOZOM f,Cno'lUmaeMblM naMU sa C6J1:mOcmr, r~yMupaM faltb·epo - ICJI,JUteJ<W.ft; •• I).

Bnanum, un,~yLUu. XIX 6. YJiCe cmoJUu «npeJ 8CeIttOZYt«uM OO"OMI> M;a~oseemaucmea, IiO napa;r..n,eJf.bHO ,e<qe nO'/:Ui!'J;(t.'HI, ClJoe?O, iJpea.uew r,aJu,·.epi'Ja. (H3 a~moe Ka61W3.r:1iQU apxeoepm[J!$.'tec.lwli "o.:t!uccuu. TU</MI#::. 1870, T', 4 •

G. 899-901). .

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105

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97110 coo(Jpu:JICeH.ue .If, 8bl60JICY !'fa OCH.06IJ.nUU c.neiJYIOUJ,eIJo.7

1. Oono8peMefCno e nOJUfJlenu'€M- na ucmOpU'LeC1COM zopU30nm€ Jl,SypiJ31j'ICQ' ca qJUzypupyem U jJ,6aJLemU,R., 'lComopgl(J Baxpuinu: omO:JICOeCm6JL8em c Ka6lcq..1 30M. 0 ee scecmononoseenuu cxasano: «lbypi}:JYICemlteu cmaJLU na31>l.8ambC8, Yli<leJLbJlU 60Cm01(Y om Xe6U (m: e .. eocmol£!_'ee pex» Tepe,,). a 3anadN.bte 0,' Xeea (Mecma) - Kaexaso»: UJlU }1ea.nemueu, aoe noce.ll·UJluct> CbifW8bJl. Ka6lca coca u nO.mOM.KU ezo ...• ) (C. 152, 153). 3na'tum, 3mu i'JeaJLw (J"Utu coape.'ifeulw., ltaMU .{)3ypi}3YK,08, a 0 nUX useecmno xa« 0 opefmeilu;.ux at50pueeHQX Ce8,epnCJ,ZO Kaenasa (C,IIt. 'tQ.cml> II 0 /l,aypf)3YKoce). C,)l.ei108ameJl.,bHO, ama HeU38eCmH.a,. eLqe amltu'teCIfQ.fl eVUHU14·a (8ea.n.b14bl) «e usiena 6 ,e806M eenesuce HUKax:O!t COR3U C n03aneUI.UU.MU noce~elt""iMtu - npeo"a~u ocemu.u. '

2. Omuoeumenuno MOM6Hma nonesenus. OCemU1i 8 ZOp1W,M pailon€ UX I'U;I,' netuueeo nocexenus; 8 mOM I>UC.IO€ II. Ha 6QCmO'tIiOU oICpaulte y peta» Tepe« (n.a M.ecme (fb16!U.,l(8a.n.emWI.), Baxquunu. eepno UH.tjJ0p.Mupyem, omnocs: smom nepuoa fC Cpa6H.Um,e.lOb.lW neoa8nei't ucmopu<teCicoil "ame, nONWMY 'lrno ox yagl 8bt6aem eeo c rUJ.R8JLeHUeM mamap tea KaeICa3€', ,a.lO.fl o(5ocn06aftUJI. aaIC,llI(Jfl,€Jt ' 06. amOM ·npu808smca 6·"dJep:m:fCu: (,Bo Bpe.M.R :nce noxof)o.8 T{unzuC08bI.X XQhlOO (uM€lOmCR (3 6,UOY eta saeoeeamensnue noxoaw C 1.209,zo no 1225 Z.;· noxo'8 «epes KaiHe,a3 C I(Jza (J fJ'epnoMopcICfU cmenu 8 1213 e. - M. B.), OCa6eHH.0:HCt; BamlJtJi II. Op xaua (Bamblu ~ 6H-Y"" T{ul:teUCXaHa, OClt08ame.JH? 3o.lf.omoll o.pa&t, nOlcopUJL PYCCKUX lC1'I.R3€il 0: 1237-1240 e. _ M. B.), paaOpUJLUCb 4 onycm01w..I/.' ltUC&, eopoda U cmpoenun UX, u uapcmeo oeC06 (ocemun.> M. B.) npeepamu· JlOC'& 6 Mma6apcmeo - lCH'..R:JfCeCme(l, U 08'C!Jt cma.llu 1/6eUllnb (JH.ymp!> R'a81WJ4, a ()OAI>W.a.n "ucmb UX empaus« npeepamunaee 6 nycmblHJO, «axoea u H"l1m6 q epueeus: H KpOMe' mota" noc.l1.e npuribUnlM Ta.ttep.Ilana ((j 1386 u 1395 se. :... M. E.) U 63JimUJI, Boncmaumuuonone (mypKa.ffu) (mypICu aaeoeeaJlU KO/icm(nt mUIt.an:OJH, 8 1453 iI. - M. B..) ema)!;u meCH:Umb 08coa c moil cmopO.!l:i>t. (c "e·66· pO·3anafla. -: M. B.) "potMl;1Cue XaH-bt (6 XV 8. - M. B.). a C 3mou (co cmopOHb' rpJl3UU) mamapCKue ICOl£e6HUI't'U-ftiaeOMemuue, It onu (oaCbt) 8'cmynuJl.u 8.K·a!a. ICa3 U n01WpuJl.u nJl·eJI!€Ha H:!l81CaCije6, KOU cymb 08UJI.-!Jqbt ... >, (0., 15~-153)'.

H3 amux CJLOB cQaflaemcs tme'l·q.m;IeHue. 'l.mo ao H.a-'I,a.na XIII 6. 8 aopa:4 Ocemuu o,t5uma.llu amu o6am.qbt, nQmQMY limo mOJLbICO noc.ne 'I.unaUCXult08· CI((J2'O nox'ofJa (213) u l'l'ambtE6cICoeo (MeJfCiJy 1287'M u 1240' ,/J.) .7fCum€..II'1.I onycmOw.ennbtX na nJlQCfCOCmU nOC€JLen.uu Ocemuu YICPbtJI.UCb (J Yl4eJlbJl.X U topax Ka·B'fCaafL. El4e xy:JICe c03f)(1.110CbnOJw:»ceJtue c nO$!-(3AfH.Cle),t TaM€pJLfLU(l (1386 u 1895 tE.). A nocJl.e naaenU8 K,on.cmanmuHonoJL$l. (145'3) .II. H.a:HtuJlu.,f

106

Ifp"'IMl,{e6 (XV 8'.) «06Cbt 6cm,ynu.n.u e Ka81(a3 u nouopusu: nJleMena tCa6}(ac~.e6.

1(1)!lcymb iJeaAbq!ot.. .. ». .

B 01'5 Ufe.M, no;ny'laemCJI:, 'tlnO saceneuue Ocemua WJU} C eeeepuot: nxocxoem.u (I eOPbt naItti.uaJl. C XIII 00 XV 6. no!} iJael/.-enUeM mamapcuux 3a8oe6ame· /u.'u. H a umoee saeepuusxoe» noxopenuesc ocemuH.a.M.u. emua. f)peBH.UX a6opuze- 1H)(l zap - ~6al/.-blol,e6. IIoCKo.lf.bKY IJ.CmOpCUl pacno.n.azaem JI"a3Q-HuJU£U. 'tina eopbl ,.MIUW.tneu Ocemuu t5w.'tU o6umae'Mbt ee :Nee uacesenues« 3afloAIJO iJo XIII 8., 1IIl) .'lmo ,coo6!qenue Baxsnumu: Ma.lloy(ieQume.n.&H.o. Cxopee a,ceza" .It oonycICa,o. '111m, 803J1fO.7fCHO, npOU30WeJl HeKQm'Opbtji coeua' 1'i.£iCe./feH..UJl. C 3an:aoa na eocmo« (j C.aAWX eopas; m. e .. OCemU1t1l1 ,(jl:ltJLU 8bt:IICam,b~ 1t3 CBaux 3anaO'ftbi.X ZOpHbtX PlIll.OH06. zfJe na ux uecmax menepb o(JumaJOm nomOM~U mamap _. 6a.lf.Kapitbt ..

Ho U8'3U oflnozo mOJl."/J(;o XP0I:f.OiWi>U'l,eC,WiiO necoom.8emcmBU8 ocm:a.-J,h.,1Mlb "('.1 61i-UAtaUU.Jl. mal'CoiJ; eecuxa l,4eH.Jt:blu ucmopusecuua q>aICm, (Je-syc.lf.OB1tO. ne.lf.b3R,. IIIJt.'IWJI,bICY On npoJLuaaem CB.em Ha ucmopsua Ope8H.eeO oaocemuncICQzo «aeene!/UJI Ceoepnoeo Kaetcaea u sanaiiuu» (Jle806epeJICftbLx) Jll4eJlu.u Tepexa - ue!rux a6aJl,bq:e6 (,(lm I(OUX, eeponme», eoxpauune« mepMUH-fJmOeo yuteJl.!>Jl). 3na .. '/11.111. onuCb,eae.Mb~li. Boxuuimu. \pa1(m osaxeame KUBICa3'cl'lux Yl4eJluu OeaJlb' 111'0 oc,emUnCI'lUMU npanpei))(aMU MOJfCIiO ornUel'.'mu " mou nope, .".oz{Ja onu nnepeue n,OR6U,}lUC'b 8 eopax Ka8Kaaa. m. e., eCJlU C'tumamb UMU asax, anw {JIJJAJlCH.O 6ibL.iW' C(lCI:7UJ;R.mbCJl. MeJfCily J1-/ 88, iJoxp. ~.

Iloene smoso emauoeumce soeuseenu. nO/f..Rm1f.IJLM U ucmopuuectcu 6Q;J.1Ito:>K" Ilbl-"l:, '1.111.0 meBpeenu« aOOpUil€Ubt Jlee,o(5epe':HCUblX y~e.!UlU Tepexa; i}(3a.l1.bijbt, ':IIU{eCm80Ba.nu, napniJy c fJ3ypihY'1CaMu, 8 f)onapna6aaOf:JCICYJO 3noxy (panee IV (3. f)oxp. 8_). A npume.{}w.ue neCI(O~b1C'O n03J1Ce (II-I ,8. i1oxp. s.] e ceeepa (Vlanbl «{stebt» - PYCC]t., «a3bt»- apao, U./tu «06CbU> - ,2pyS.) pacmeopu.su UX 6' (·'W(!,III. OZpOMftOM, no cpaB/ieliU1O C nUAlu, am"t.!:t'l.e'CX:OM tconmunsenme. Ho ne "1m.]!} »ce, ll, eepoamuo nocmenenno (no iJ,altH.btM Baxinumu, 8' XIII 6).

Oli amOM aopQ:sQo ;GOH.1Cpemn€e c(l06!qaemc.R y Baxyw..mu, npaeoa., 6e3 ccuao« Jta.xponOIlQaWO, ItO BamO ,(j'ocmamO'lHO RCltO. o.n nucaJl:« .... ylqe'JlbJt me ()1(HI:.!I.emuu na JL€6QM, 3an.aQuoM. 6epezy Tepesca: - M. B.) cmaJLU Ha3b16amfr t'J! Oecemueii, !t.aC€JleHHOU !.It nqJ(opeH.H.o.u ItMU »ee» (C. 137)_ aiJecb 6no.nl1-€ JUNtO CICa3GnO OmH.QCUme,llI:>HO 3aceAeliUJ/. U n'olCope'UJ.$! 06caMU !f6a.l1.emUUi eesu; , ,?IIWMY ,el~,e a06a.eumb, smo 6 mexcme YICa3buiaemcJ/. na .n€pu,oo qapcme06a· II UJI. I1 apuae.a3a, mo cmauem. (J(Mee o'te6uihtbtM.c06naaeHue amoeo nepuoi1a c IlI'r1I.OpUlteCICU U36eCmH.oi'J; iiamot: n0Jl8JleH.US 6 sopax Kaexaea Q . .il.41l" (11-/ 8.

iJn.r:p. 3.). -

O':/.emJ.ihto, fleaJlb!4bt 6btl/.-U ne;}na'l.Ume.llIJHOZO ICOAIl'teCm6a :,unnlPC€CXr(.-M Ilf/ll/nUH.aenmQM.; eCAU oscu nof}nai1a.n,u noo esacme ma,cux »ce, «a« U onu C'aMU, 'J.I~P03!1K.06, ,a n03:JJCe npanpeOICo6 ocemuu·aJlan. 6 COC,ma8€ KOUX OH.U 'C06ep' IU~"UIO aCCU.M.u.Wp08,QJI.,UCb. limo OH.U CaMU 6bJ.n.U noOBJlG.cmHbt fJ3YP{}'3YlCllM, ~Ir I/O c(lothqaemc8 y Baxyw.mu: 9mO y3tCe .neOOH.OtcparnltO Il"UmupOBaHH.Oe scecHI 0 0 mOM. !tma Kn8l{'u3 U A 8aJlem,u (I r:r-OBUH.Q6aJlUCb If 3ypoaynocy U IlOCJle «eeo n'll rUJmOMfCUM!) (0. 152, 153). H e~e, 'tmo {(Itao nJleM(uJ.a.Aw-Kaf31Cacaca ... ,> (Iwmopbte 30'€,Cb omOJICOecmB·.!l.JI.IO'lnCJI. C ,l(f3a.l<emu. - M. B.) eocno{JcmBo8u.n. /f.ilJpa3YIC,} (C. 230 ).Y3 3mux oeyx qumam. ,Ope8H.UX uCmO'Uf.U1C08 rpY3'UU ,JIIj,O.IIoQ, UaCKOJLbfC(J c.II.u6a ribt.JI.U 8 ceoe BpeMSt If BaJiemu (u.nu Jleaen{)apuG.R. cmpww nflnnlO'M}((),B KUBH:aCOCai>). Ha 'lmo olta 6btJta JI-u60 amnU'l.BCKUJIf. Jlu(fo zeozpa· r/III·j(JcICU.M ucmOpUllel'1CUM o(i?ieICmo.M - (J amo.lt H·em ftUICarcuxCO.fUU'H.U,u.

/1,ulUtoe 3Ha'lum.eJlwwe npU.1Ite'l.auue npueooumcJl. fJ.J1.8 o(j'O$!cnenuJl. OutU- 1l'!'/.NQ;lO npei)noltO:JICeuu.Ji, 'lmo amom AtamepUa.ll 0 ,l{tmAemuu "ne 3aCAY:JICusaem IJ/ll/lepeca 6 c6~3U c npomU60pe'LU(JQCmb1O ceeiJenuu.cajluizo BaxYUlffu.i. Ho !Ca.11: tlllilim tLa' CKa3a.nH.O~O" eCJlU npOaUaltU3Up06amb ~mom 6onpoc 6UUMameAbH.Q u

107

2Jly60lf,O, lito. nOOD6Hbl€ 3a",r/.iO'·UWUJt .JlO2yr/L 6bLlltb 001>RCneHbt ea« npeiJy6 euciJenltOC1nb malCllX ucmopuxoe lW Omltowellu/O IC C8eaeItU!l,Af, Bo.xyuunu.

~7 ::h.uJll;Jc tP. Ilpoucxoscdenue CeMb!l, IlaCm1tOU co6cmee,uiQcmu U ZfIC1J' fJapcmaa. 1933. C. 108, 109.

51> (,)J{1l3ItbJ> - cOICpaca,efulO {,JKu3HfJ fpY3un)J> (H8€PUU), UJ1,U ,< Kapmnuc Lixoepetia», «a« y.:}J(:e (3 I 'taCrnll 80eOpUJI.OCb,- OQUtt U3 aemopumemuetuuux OpeBIl€JlemO!iUCliblX ucmonnuscoe TPY3UIt (H . .II. ,j'ylapp C'lUma..ll ee sanucanuou fja:JlC~ panee - Q VIII e.): 1~0 I-I.eu, 6 oCIt()(mOAI, cocmaenn» ceou u;;wecml1J1, BaXYUlmu. (C.l!,~, npusc. M. I'. ,a,:JfCallaUl6UJI.U. C. 2. 29, 8.5 u m., a.).

~v Ie a p In 6 ,e ,11: b C I' It At - tp,!J3.unCICUJlf.

;1) B oalUt(JAl c:n.y'l,ae X e 6 U - yw,€Jlbe peuu. T'epet« (O'leeu{)'no otiunuunesu: lJapbJl-JJ.a u Ka30elca).

7/ ,l( (3 a .J/, emu ,n- naceJtem .. e Jt€606epe:JH;H.btX Yl4e,n,uil pexu Tepete, 1:1.0, oweeuttn», Iff! ocemuncxce eu;!?, a a(Jopu2enfioe. Bpeenetuuee. (Cn, nJ1!t.~t. 61 U 65).

72 C.U. uacnui I,ll.u lia\laJLO i}aftfwil (Ill) OpJYP0.J.yltemuu. tOe UMernUJ1 Boemamoxuo y6eo'UmeJib'H-.btX oannb~x U3 CUMOiU) Baxtnumu: »ce, CO?JtUCfW xoInOpl>tM OIUL cYI4€Cm606(lJlG. ue moJtblW eV Ii II' 00. aoxp. 3., lUJ U. nOCJU! 11 6 . l}oxp. a., ,anoxu CaypJ!w./!a. nOnioJlty 'Imo ~umama .a .nO.llHO.t! ItX «euceuenuu» a Ceauenuuo paClf,pl>tfJUem fteJI,enOCJ';lfJ {JO.l!btCRQtJ; aemopoe maeoeo eapuauma :nnU;'WJlO/JU'l.eCKOU JU!ZenObl.

,73 OM. npuJyl. 73 u 74.

74 Ttuceiuueu.nu E. Tpu XpOIilUW/ / I1CJno'l.H.I..lItu epy.;mf·a;Ii;llx JI.€J'llOnIlC€'u.

TuC/JJ'u.c, 1900. C. 11, 12. '

75 il(/Ju.q; B. B. Mamepuam« {jJl-JI. oper:JfI.ei.t ucmopuu Ocemuu] I Co, cBeoeH,lLu a fCU6lCG.aCJWX eopuax. IV. C. 15.

,U BaoAI> YW,e.n.b';:;' ,~!;,p.eUJ,HeU BoeItMo-rpy3!lHCffOU {J0PMU.

rr Cs«, coomoemCme1/1olque Mecma 8 [ u II 'Lacm,ftx 0 mepstunax «A3ypf}· ''',YfO>, «KuCnM), «rJUtlU]U>1 U op.

7S OllOAO mbtCJ1'.eJi,emUR - om II (1. i}oxp. 3. (U,rMl.H) U ViI 6. (XU3ap).

;0 Ka:JICemcJl Cmpa'/i.I~"JM. omtteio Baxyuwm, ue 8KIMQ'l!UI 8 C6O'O pa60my 'I-nto'J~Uc~(jo 0 oaypoay"ax anoX'u pacueema V 6. (Baxmanea I).

JiU BU'{JUJotD, 3iJecb pe'lb uiJem 00 Hnzyutemuu, m. e. noiJ 03YP3Y1WJlW U MUZ' eaAI,1t no()pa3IjJM:'8alOmcH; UftZYW,U.

St H cmopus: rpY3UU U !./.Cni0PUJi Hfuyw.emu,u.

S)l CM. euuue 8 iJaruw.u ,.<lcmu omuocumenuno pa,HJUTnUJ1 Jltamepua.nbftVU lCyJtbmYPb~ 1J, opesueuosusix 6epOe(jI'I.!l;flX 11 ulieyrn:eil (a max»:e u: fJ np!Ud.e'tanuJl,XII: uus«],

II~ AxP!H!6 X. l11!E.yw.uj I C6. c8eiJenu,il 0 1CtUHca;)'CI{'UX .eop~a.x, 1875. Bun. 8.

C. 20;' a malC:JIC€ Ilanean: B.

8< Oc060 06paU{aemCR ,6H.U.Manue Ita npeiJblf}yw,ue paccy~iJr.m,u-Jj. 0 paseu-: muu· Mamepua.'l.l>tWU ltYJibmypbJ U penueuosscux 6epOellH.UU y uueyweu.

$6 9IU!€Jll;!;' CPo lIPO'UCX():HCae~tue C€JlH,Il, 'wcnuwu coticmeennocma II zocy· {)apcm8a. 1933. C. 193, 194.

66 B 17.69 e. QtJ,1J, np\!cu,lIU. KOMel-l(),(l·IWlCl «penocmu. KU3'JMtp 0 npunsunuu 6 pYCC'lwe .nofJiJaH.crneo, oaJ/.u ,u.),zanam06 u tn. a. (BYIIHW(J, M,amepuaJibl, DJUlli060U ucmopuu Ka,(JICa3a. q. 1. H3ceeiJe'H.uu F.IOJlI>i}eHwmeiJrna. r.;. 480).

~1 M apec K. K upumuxe nOJlIl11lWIU'CIWU 91COItOJlLUU. 1933. C. 43.

.a'oporA 'Jlr0f510P~

J1 KPODt1 nO(f)JlWAI:TCJI 100·t1ETt11O I'liICEt1EnI111 DE fU1 1-1 XO I'D TY PUt110

rDCJ3HbIU 1955

0'[' ABTOPA

B ARHHoa pa6o'l'e HCDOJl!l>30n8H apXl:lBHhIH M8TepHaJI H3 CenepoOCeTHBC~Ol!'O I'l?cy,n;apCTSeHHOrO apXHBa.Paa:pa6o'PKa TeMbl' 6bl.m8 3:8KOlf'leHa MHOH It 1941 r., .BO aaxamnaaca Benarcaa OTe1.J:eCTBeHRaJ{ BoiRa, a T8Kme H APYI'He C06bITH.H, rrpoH30me.rl;nm:e B mH3HH aamero !8:spo.n;a. (CCbI.1[K8 B 1944 'r.) •. :BhIHY,l(HJIH MeHSI Ha,l(OJlI'O O'il'JIO.mIlTb oIIy6nHKoBaHHe 3TOt'O 'TPY,lIja. Ceii-qae pa6.oTa Ql(I!)I,:~eH8.

3Ha1.J:HTeJIhHYIO TeXHHlJecKYro nOM01Il;h oxaaana KHHra npoqieccop a r. A. p;aarYPoBa <'I IIepeCeJIE!HH€ ropnes B TyPO!,HIO •• H3AaHHa.a a 19,25 r. E.rr8rop;apSJi HaJHl;nno TaKoro CfiopHHRa MaTepHaJIOB, H:36a~ BH.BmeI'O 01.' ,ll;JIH'l'eJIhBOii lIIOBTOPHO:a apxHBHoa pa6oTM, RCMar OCBe-

"'HTh P;8HHbIH TPY,n;;.. .

PaGoTa npe.llHa3Ha'leH.fj.. AJUI IDJlpO'KOro tepyra "'IHT8TeJIen. B reaKOH Mepe MB!e YA8JIOCib ~OCTH'tJh sTaH ~eJIH. npeaeeraanaercs ey.llHT:&, o6~ecTBeHHocTII. Bee 38Me~8.HnR npHMY C 6JIarOAapHocTbIO.

M. M. Basoptcuu

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creoro IlpaBHT8JIbCTB8 6I:.IJi'a paaaepayra rpa:H,lI;Jl0311aJI npOBOKan;MOHHMI pa60Ta 1[0 ar:H"l'a~HH (p,aHaTH:~nU>lX Ma.ce sa «,n06POBOJ'I]>HhI11;;' yxo.n;scex ropnea B Typrr,HIO.,

Ht,alt. non yrp0300; 06hIllHbIX TOr,1J;a BoeHHO-K,apa1'8JIbHbIX perrpeCCHH. &KOHOMMQeCROrO KpH3i'ICa (MaJIOaeMeJII>a) 11: rraHHCJIlaMiI'l:CT'CKMX MJIJIlO3'HH~Bo36ymp;aeMhIX 'o;apCKOll areH'FypoM. BeUHaX:H, TO~nee 60JIbWHHCTBO H3 HH!rymeM OPW:TXOHCKoro IJ:.lIeMeHM. Bbuiyxc.n;eUbl 6hl.JUf MCRaTh enaceana B ,n;8JI€J<,OH CYJITaHCROH Typ:u;nH, KY,Ila HX !!lpMHIJlM'aJ!:H no npU;lHaKaM 06m;HOCTH. sepsr.

11a qe~HM H HH:rymeT'I:Ia B 1865 I'. BhIC8JIIIJIl{ Gonee 5 Th.1C. oeMeR ropnea, K pa.n;oC'I'H 3aBOeBaTeJIeH, cBo5o,QoJUOOHBhIe HB!pO,!l(bI caMH yXOJl:MJIH c (lJpoHTa, Ii 6e3 60JL IJ;apn3:M .nUIWBB:n JIerKOC'l'U a,llMHHHGTpaTRBEiO-nOJIHTHQeCROH nOOeDJil a:a,a aKTHBHblM &.rrelVl€HTOM Boc'll'o'nm:ro KaBK83a.

1I3Yl1eHl1IOBOIIpoca asrceneaaa aOOpB:reHOB B ]IO,ll;P06HhIX ,n;eTa.rrax nocsmnena ,n;aHna51 pafiora. B HeM C,IJ;eJ!aHa nOIILI'l'R3: BCICPbITb (aa OCHOBaHlHf p;,oKYMeHTaJIhHOrO MaTCpUaJIa ~ Celtpe'rHoH rrepernICKH napcxoro npmn!Te.nr:.C'E'Ba) HCTH.HlU.le l1!'pI4'lHHbI, BbI3Bj3!Ij" 11lU€ «,D;06PClBOJ!lbHoe» BbIceJJ:elili!e Bei1:uaxoB B 'I'ypmno: pa30oJJ:arUl'F:b MeTdAbl u;apcRorft a.D!MluHICTpaLJ;lIll: 11: nponaacmax CJIOeB I'OPCROH sepxymKH; OCBeTHT"b Ka'I'acTjpocpu't[ecK,Me pe3YJILTaThI TpaIle.n;HH:, nOCTHr~ lUell BblCeJIeHI.l\eB aa py6em.OM. B <l3€;MJI€ oi5eTOBal'!lI:lOH» ~ TYPUM~: li! fW,lllBeCnr nOJIHTHlJ1eCRlJH HTor <'ITOI'O npe,n;npHxTHH B HCTQPHl'I qeqelw- HHrymeTHIi.

UapcKasr aAMHliMCTpa.ll(Ha B 18614~ 186,5 rr', IlPKCT'YlHlJIa K O;ll;HOMY Ha aaaepmaronrax 9TanOB C:l30eH KOJrOHlfaJIh~oii nOJIH'l'I,Uiat ~ y ~aJIeHHIO C KaBKaaa H3!,l16oJIee HerrOKopHOM qaOTH ropnea Lle'QeHoHHI"'ymeTHll!. BeMH.aXCKHe IIJle:MeHU I. [ocotieaao «OPllITXOHCKoe»2 ) OCTO,:eaJIHCb rroraexoji B,I!;eJIle OKOHQaTeJIbHOro y.n;YllleHM:E:ii.60,pHveHOB3a160e'BalIHOIrO u;apH3MOM icpaa.

TpeOO!B8JIOCb. ao-nepasix, OCBOGO,ll;HTbCH OT 3TOti nmaCHOH npocnoitKR H3CeJleHJUI, Moryrn;eM: B JII060M Ml1[' nOp;OpBa'll . "HlhIM BOCCT8HHeM. Bee IJ;apCRHEi aaBoeBaHHSI Bqe"!He l'.I Hmyw,e'1'lnt; BO-BTOPhrX, 'l'eM caM:o.IM OCJIa6H,Th ocraromaxca (j3aMHpeHHbIX» ropuea; B-TP8- ThMX, pa3'l>e,!J;Il'IilPCTh 'Feppl1.TOpHuHoBoi1 ~ 'It'peTb8n ~ «JlIIIHEleih· c'ra, .. HRt!, (no. npearopaax), rrovaie iHa3:blBaeMoMY ES)J;Ol<.-I'JM:OBa ruraay, (aTHM A0m-RUhI 61>JJIM erne 60JIbIIIe ocna6HTb HapO.B;bl ManoE: ~eQHJI, TaR KaR BblCeJI€HneM H3 rop J{ npe,ll;rOpHH: H:a IlJIOCKOCTl> OHH oreaaftJIHCh ObI pactJJI:eHBHHbIMR H !B oKpymeHI$H Ka3aQbYlX C1'8HUU. Pl' uocE!.n:e:fl:l1ii;), !BO OR ocym;ecTBHJICH He IIOJIHOCTLW:; B-q€l'UepThIX, B CB.ff3U c 06paS0'Bai<Hi:eM rrpearopaoa JI.HHHM: npe,!l;C'I'ORJlO :n:OJIHOC'l'hIO o.BJI8)J!eTb enie HO:B.hlMH aeMJl:fIM.H.ii'f" B-nHTbIX, saccer y.aaJ1eH~JI sracTH MeCTHOI'O HaCeJIeHHJI rrpllrJIymuTh arpapusra KpH3HC,. npOH30' me.rtIl1HA BCJle.n;CTBM€ KOJlOCCaJIbHOH srecnponpaanaa 3eMeJl& B nOJCE>3Y K$.a8..iiJ;kO-Ky.n:au,.KMX u rOpCKO-110M€IlJ,HqI>HX. 9JI€M€HTOEL

TaKOSl8! 6bl:J.lH (;JROHOMH"ieCKJle, llOJIlITMtleCKH€ 1'1: CTpa~reFH1.!€CKHe npH1.!HHhI, no6Y~HBWHe napcxoe npalm:;reJIhC'l'BO np:H5erFIYTh K FWBoa Mepe ~ BI>!CeJIeHHIO crop KaBKa3a BeHHaXOB.

. IlepecEJ.JIeHHJI ropnes CeBepHOl'O KaBRaaa HaQaJIHCh C 1859 I'., cpa3y me nOCR€ nneaeaaa lfMaMa IIIaMHJIJI, a aaltOll'f'<HIJ:rHClb B 1865r. HhlceJISJIUCh B pa3JU!~HOH CT8n8HH Boo6:w;e MHOr'Re- 'KaBKaaCKfll8 aoopiffr€n'fbl:: QepKeChJ,Ka6ap,1J;HHIJ;hl:, OaJIKapU;hl. xapavaesnsr, OceTHHi!>IM:YCYJIhMaHe. HHrymH 11 QeqeRt(hJ.. B OCHOBHOM B 1861~1864 rr. nOq:T~ nOJIHOC'fbID B.bl:CeJUilJIH acex "'le,pK,eCOB, a 3aT8M; B 18651'., -'UhCTh B8HHaXOB 'PI He!K,OTOphIX OCTaJI.cHhIX ropnes :8 H'83Ha'llll'l'eJ!hHOM 1(0- JIY"lE!CTBB.

no oqmu;naJII.HhEM ,naHHbIM, acero BhIC€JIeHQ OhVIO .)J;O 1./2 MHJ!I.lHI· OHa "reJl'OBeK, 11:3 lW1POPhlX OROJIQ 450 TblC. nplfXO.1llfJIOCl> :tJa )l;O.JllO xepaecon, 23 '1'b10.- sa BeuHaxoB.

IIpHQHiIOH, FIoi5Y)l;HBmeii I'Opn;eB YX.OAHT,b C Po)V'IH.hl. Obmo cTpeM· JIeH:He peaJIK30BaTl> CHOM HaIJ;JiOH8JIhHhI€ HHTepeChl,. rro,1ll KOTOPb1MiH CKpbI.BaJI¥1Cib 1Il0.lIR'r~lleCRgreH 3ROHOMH1;I!eCK~e YCTjpeMJteH1Ul. HaPO;ll;&l He BiHaJIH, KaK oCBo6o.AI1:ThCH .0'1' HH03€MHo.ro napcxoro rHeTa n Ha,n;eSl:JIHCh rrOJIy~mTh aa rparm:u;eH RaKoe-TO npaao aa aeaaaacaxoe . c-YIIJ,eC'FBOea!HUe. Ho 3H8.a see :3TO, llp8SHTeJIH TepcRoi1:: OOJl8CTJi rrpeBOKaU;HoBHo :MCnOJIh30:saJl!H H pa3BI-IJIH: (l)aHa'l'H1.!H'bIe IIa'J:lHCJI·alln~CTCKH.e HJIJII03HH, T}![€BIl1,He 'l!'or,n;a :e Macca~ rw,,1'\ BJUl:.RHMeM 6:hlBw.8ro MlOpU,1J;1I3Ma 11 raaasara.

Hoztorpeaaerasre C8KpeTHOH U;apmcoH ar€HTypoH II 3aBep6QBaH~ HihIM AyxoBeHcT'BoM JIIO,!l;H nO)l;,!l;aJIHCh aa o6MaH. no 3a)l;8HHlo uap-

I, BeilH.ax(u) - U Ii E. It 't elf. CJlOIJO om - 6eii. - flam u tWX - ltapOa; IlU:UC soeum. ce6:1l CCUt!i flee imHIWt6CKUe eemeu. (nJl(UdeJU1, It p08bt) 'l€'UUlCICUX IJ. 100zymcKu;c liapo{}QfJ. By/ClJa.!l.l>/w a.1H·a.'Ia-em - MI"aUt nupoiJ.J. B oa.nblieUmeJlt At!>1 6.t/8eJit nOJH,30(JambCJl smus« m.epxuftO,l,t, •. Qco(J.eltrw (J {!IIW np:R,MO.llt co6rqmmeJlb" HOM 31ta't('H.UU {J.MI. napO(108 ([e.t1tu u ffftiyuwmuu.

!J OPUW1:XO(U) ~ uaseanue olhwllD U3 6eU1WXCICUXIi)Le,ll[~n., otiumaeuieeo At(!:llCOY M_'a.ll,oiJ lje'tneiJ u MnzYUteULUeu., no Yt4eJ;bJMt pe« 4>qpmafteu. J:\,CCbl (6 fJCPXOBWl.X). !lm een: Apwml# (,Qjnumxou) U WJ.:JH:e, Ita Ii.lWCJ,!;ocmb.

Ha P.IICCJ(;OM. R.;l'bii(C <J1Il() liJU1MJ1 n(l$t>t!J(iI,I;IOC!>, 1n1OP'lfClCIMl' mep.mUt(l,M «eapa- 6y/i.{u(.{U (0111, ICapa ~ 'fep1lbi,a Ii 6Y.iUl." ~POfJHll.I'); qmo CJl060 useecmuo c{Jean PYCCICUX C na'!.a,Jl;a XIX 6. (j804) a.JUl 0603na.tenUJl smoeo UM.eItUO 0PUUilXOCU:IC02'O I'I!JI.€.J4(!lm 60 dee x oljJu~uaJt:1)nb.'X: uc.~mO'l/;l,u"ax u Itapl,nax. O.tC6U(1'H;Q, npoucxoihun. OlW om :1/CU6!.UUX penee (3 mou ,JIC€ .:tlecrnnoc1nU- mKJp,l{;o,60peahC;Cltr n sesu:« "Pb.t.M.I{116 (? ), UJIUl JWYnQPWX Qljt./W' JfteXaH.!l'{.ec"u nepeuecexo nO;JJKe ua naCBJiU6UtU.XCJ! r]1.a,M 8eftnaxoB - opu.unxou4e6.

B iJOJlI)lleUUte.!ll, tlU'PJitUH.Ollt ,I(,apa6YAOIC .JI1.I>. ue 6y{JeJl/. IWJu.308amI>CR, 3Q..JIHi!' HUO eeo lU.n~UUft,aAblibt.JI1" mepMU1W.JIl - optum xoti.

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~apCKHM]!I BOHcKaMH 4l,aKTM't£scKII «6hIJIH yHu~TomeHbI see 3HaQU· TeJlhHl:.le Ce.T!feHH.H H xyropa C OrpOMHh!MH38rracaMH XJle68 ,> <;. II qe'llH.f:I BhIHY*,lJjeHa 6hUIa HCKaTh cnaeeana B paztax MIOPli,n:OB B liMa· MaTe IUaMIIJm. Ha caapensie MeTO,ll;bI, npliMeHHeMble u;apCKllMli aaBoeBaTeJUIMll. qeqeHIJ,bI OTBeTHJIH MaCCOBbIM rrepexoaox B p.s.D;bI yqacramcoa ra3'8Ba'TaillaMliJlfl. CJI:e,Zl;OB.8TeJIbHO, epMOJIOBlIJ,IIa:a R3,n;OJlrO aanepacana rrpHCOe)VIHeHHe "ge'<J!HH H MHl'yrueTHH K POCCMH. o pa3.MepaX aapoaasrx BO.JIHeHHK CBH,IJ;eTeJIbCTBYIOT k[3BeCTH.I'l: caMMX reaepanoa.

no npH3HaHHlO O,n;HO['Q H3 Hcc.n:e,n;OB8Teneli elPMOJIOBII.lIHHbI. 1l'E'!:a:epaJI-MaHOpa A. H. ITYJlJIO (HaqaJlbHHK8 JISBOI'O (pJI8Hra ICaBKa3- CKOH JIliHlUi), B t.IeqHe npoacxonaaa B SO-x H 40-x 1'1'. XIX B. Herrpepstansre BOCCTaHua: «TIO,l!l;06HI,le MHTemH, ern;e B OOJlhilleM 06'1>eMe npOHCXO,ll;llJlII B qe"lHe B 1825, 1830,1831,1834 H 1836 1'1'.»7. IIo1'OMY "ITO aa iKeCTORlIe MepibI napaasra, npHM.eHHeMbI,e npOTHB qe"leHCKO'I'O napona, ORH (1'. e. qeqeHD;hI) OTBe1:JaJIll IIO CBORM pOAO· BhlM aAaTaM - KPOlH:Wll 1'4eCTh1O.

Tlporpeccop C. K. Bynryes C'lIHTaJI., qTO MlOPH,n:H3M nponrert see CTa,lllUl pMBHTH:H: <,9Ta snonea B HCTOPHH 60pr,6hl qS"leRueB aa He3aSHCH.MOc'rh nponrna TpH CTa,m;HH pa3BHTn.a:: .B03HHKHYB B 20·x 1'1' •• OHa ,n;OCTMFJlla SMemero rrOA'heMa B 40-x H KOHl.JH"llaC~ B 1859 1'. B rYH1l6e nJleHeHlJoeM illa:MnJUI!, aoeaaoro «i80m,rVJ MIOPH,AOB») (9HreJIhC) 8.

Ho C caraoro aasana rrpacoenaaeaaa 'l.IeqeHIJ,ea K 1'a3aBaTY (<<CBH~eHHoH BORHe,» .OHM IIO"lYBCTBOBa.JIH. aHTHn3TRIO. K HCJla.MCKRM ,n;OI'MaM mapaara.

RaE H3seCTHO, lliaMHJIb OCHOBhIBaJlCTpYKTYPY raaasara aa (pa. naTIIQeCRHX AOr'MaTax MYCYJIhMaHCKoro nrapaara H n:paBHJI C nOMOIqhIO AeCUOTH't£eCKHX 3altOHOB IICJIaMC,~·Qro '~eo,a:a.JIH3Ma.

113 :3TOrO B:H,!l;HO, "lTO Mem,1l;Y 't£eqeHC'RHMH MlOpH,n:aMH Iii UIaMHJIeM cYLU,eC'FBOBaJJJlf ['IPOTHBope'l:nl:f[: CT8JIKI;I:BaJIHCh paa.iIUqHhle H,a:eOJlOnI'IeCRHe iIIPHHEJ;liiIIhl POP;OBOi'i: H cpeo,n;8JIhHOii (llopMru:.J;HH. UIaMHJlh B MMaMaTe Hacam,n;aJI CBOI!X a,1l;MHi8MCTpaTRBHbIX HCnOJIH'n'FeJlIeK ~ Man60B (aax. oxpyron, HMeB.wnx aeorpaaaxenmae ITOJTHOMO<llla). BOT 8TH .s8H6bI nOCTeneHHQ npesparaaacs a q:,aKTWIeCKllX !l"OPCKHX BJIa,n;eTeJIen (xannrpoa, T. e. q!leoA8JIOB), .He npK3HaB8BrnI1!X H~ C060H HHKOI'O, ax 3JIOYllOTpe6JIeHHSI He HMeJlH rpannn; ,n;8.me C KOPhlCTHOH n;eJIbID, 'lITo6bI aaxsaTHTb "M_YIUeCTBO, OHJI COBepwatJIH {<aaKOHHb'le1> K83H¥I. ,MYCYJIhM8HCRHH urapaar 6M.n; B rrpcraaopelotHll C POAOBhlM aAaTOM Qelf8Hu,eB.

By.n;Y'll1 B:~er,ilj!l x.ne6IlloH mllTHHn;eii )J;areCTaRa. LIe:qHSI'" npHMKBYB K HMaM.aTY lllaMMJIH, npanana aa ce61£ BCIO TH.iKeCTb no 06ec1l8'l1eBHIO IU1TaUHeM H cHa6meHHeM 81'0 apMHM (orpanos MIOPHP;OB B raaaaare). 3a ronsr BCHHh! OHa CT8.JIa 3KOHOMll"CJ:eCKHKpai1iHe HCTOmena, K 'TOMY me 60JIhlliMe norepa B BOHCl<e YTOMHJUI 'GIeqeHueB Ii ,,n:ep*aTLCH B IIMRMaTe TOJIhKO aa O)l;HiHX _nOI'MaTaX cprua:aTH3Ma II llCJI8Ma CTaJIO aessmocaxc AJIa aaponoa CBo6o,n;HOH q,e"llHll. H ee OTXO,u. rrr IIIaMuJIH CTaJl Y:>ft.e 3aMeTeH K cepezraae XIX B.

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(,:U:apCK~.R: POCCH.ff 6bIJIa TIOPhMOH aaponon. BHHOBHHKaMH naIIHOH3JIbHorO THeTa B Poccaa l'IBJI.R:JIHCb 3'KCnJIyaTaTopCKHe ~JIaCC.bl H ~apH3M co BceM CBO~M rocynapcraermsrsr armaparosa. Hepyccxae a:apo,n;bl, KOTOpbIe CO(:TaBJIHJlH 60J1lhlliHHCTBO HaC8J1eHllH. 57 npoIJ,eltTOB, 6hlJIlr coaepmeaao oecIIpa:BHhI, IIop;BepraJl!lI!Cb XHII.J;'FUi"leCKOH 8KCnJIyaTau.:WH, TepI1e.Tr:H 6'eCQUCJleHHhIe Yl:UI*eHHH H oCKop6- .rreHlfH. IJ;apcKHeqUHOBHlI!KH TBOP¥lJIlt H3LA HHMH CYA H pacnpaay. HaD;MORa.JlbHaJi KYJIc.Typa aepyccxnx H8PO,lJ;OB nonsepcanecs csapeUOMY roneamo. MHOI'HM Hapo,n;aM aarrpenranocs H3,lJ;aBaTE> raaersr H KHllrR, yqHTh ,!!I;eTeif aa POAHOM .f(ahIKe. Haceaeaae 1Ia BOCTORe 6],1310 Cn:JIOIllh HerpaMOTHbIM •. TIpaBllT8JIbCTBO H8M.epeHHO pa3jKHF8- JIO Han;HOB8JIMiYro npaseny, oqmURaJIbHO aaesasano HepYCCKHe Haponsr «IutopO.n;n;aMH». crapaaocs n:PHBHTb PYCCKHM npespeaae K HRM, RaR R HH3rneH pace. I.J;apcKHe 13Jl8CTH HaTpaBJIHBaJTlI O,u,RY HalJ,HiO aa APY.ryro" opraHlI30B.hlBaJIH eBpeii:cKHe IHlrpOMbI, pe3HIO Me.m;u;y apM.HH8Mfl H 8.3epOa:H,l!I;maau;aMH» 1 •

KOH!l\OM :lKecTo"<lalimeH KaBK8aCKoM BOHHhl OhlJEO TIJI'eHeHUe HM8.Ma qe"llHll H ,uarecTaHa IIIaMHJIH 2. IIOCJIe aroro n;apcKoH .a,zJ;MHHHcTpa~ell6hI.JIO Q{l)fl~llaJlbHO IlPOB03I'JIIaDIeHO ,n;OJIrOm;U;8HHoe«3aMlfpeHMe» xparr, Ho q,aKTH"leCKI1 8THM aKTOM rroxopenae "tie"Y:JI:H H llHrymenu:l OTHIO,Ah He OKOnQMJiOCh; cBo6o,n;OJIIOOUBhIe HapO.D;hl ,I:I,06POBOJIbHO He C,DiaJIH'CI; IJ,ap'CKHM n06eAHT€JIHM, 8 «CMIIPSITbCSIb HH nepen ReM H He ,u,YMaJIHI 9']['a nepMalleHTHa.naHTllK0310HHaJIhHaH 60ph6a ropnen rrporaa POCCRHCKOro caxoaepxcaana npaofipena JIHUlb ,n;pyI'He KOHTyphl, q,OPMhl H Me'I'o,)l;bI.

qe"lHSl TOr,ll;.a JKHJI8 non yl'p0301O UOCTOHHHblX noenrnax rrarneCTBHH, OCTasmHXCH OT llpOCJIaiBJEeHHOM "'IIoxn«epMOJIOB~HHhl». Ee pa30pHJIH II XIX B .. KOJIOHH8.JILHble YCTpeM31eHHH n;apcKoli POCCHIL BOT, 118.11pMMep, "ITO cootirrran 06 aTOM B caoea MOHo:rpacpHll COB.eTCKWt :HCTOPliK. npodieecop C. K. ByrnyeB:<,PYCCKHH u;aplI3M .ilPH 3.aBOeBaHHll ••• nplHMeHJIJI C8MLle .meCTOKHe., 1l13YBepcKlIe M8TO,n:hI lIO .. paOOIq€HHH ropcxax aaponon : CO}KmeHHe HenOKOp.HIlIX aYJIOi8, Mae·coaoe YHHQTOJR:eHae nooeaoa, YBOA CKOT.a, 3:aXBaT JIy"lUII1X aeMeJlh H 118cCT6mn; B nO.JIb3Y PYCCKIiX ,lIlBOPHH n Ea,aaROB, rro=rrn nOrOJIOBHhlie y6HHC'l'Ba Ii KaaHH ropcxoro MymcKOl'O HaCeJl!eHHH» B -.

CaMbIM peBHOCTHhIM lfCIlOJIHHTeJIeM aTOH «3BepCRoH. BOJI'lbeH» 3aBoeBaTlfmblIO:H 1l0JlMTHKH 6I!IJI EPMOJI013 4 ••• B n;eJIOM, B nOJlHTllKe Ei:pMOJIOBa npe06JI8;:taJUi EI8CHJIbCTSeHHbie MephI OrOJITeJIOrO napcxo- 1'0 KOJIOHH3a'lI'Opa. ij.

·CJIe,J!l.OBaT8JIbIHO. rrporp. C. E. BymyeB CtU1TaJI, '!ITO Ep:MOJIOB 6hlJI «~apCKHM OrOJITeJlLIM KOJlOHll38TOPOM», npOBO,DiHHKOM «31BepCKOM, !BOJI1tIheH)} nOJlHTHKH.

B peaYJIhT8Te C'I'eCHeHHoro nOJIOmeHl'UI HaCeJIeHllH q·eqmf. napCKO-epMOJlOBCI:CHe «3Kcne,n;HD;HH» npRHJlJIH HeBhIHOCIlMblH xapaxTep AJI.s ,n;aJIbHeiimeii )Kll3HH, H MapO,lllepCKllMH llorpOMaMH ayJIo:s

114

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, :7 TaAt »ce. C. 62. HJ OOil./j,aiJnoii ,3,anucX'u teu.·Jltotwpa J1. H. lIYJtJto, 1841.

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14 C,M.UPI'W6 H .. A. MlOpuf}U3M na KaS.ICu3e'. usa" AH; M. 1963 .. C . .180. /5 TaM. »ce, C, 207.

Jil .JImcpo6clCUU.M. H. 3a~oe6anue/:CaBfCa3aj j .lleItUH.U3M . .u liaquol-taJrbnl>lu eonpoe. Gee. Kaexae. 1931., Bssn, 7. C, 224.

123

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.. i2 Pen. Il onuo II. If. Tepcteue IW3(UCLICO cmapOQar.uHt,X epeste« .. Haa. C.·[[6., 1880. C. ,247.

;13 P'arc06tJ.'i ).1. B. npOUtlwe BJI,arhucamw3a. lilJo. 2'e BJl.a(JU.Katll(;a.3CIC(J:JO Kaiiemceoeo Kopnyca, 1911. C. 3.

24 ,/{,enuJ{;un A. H. Bepnun, 1925. T. 4. C. 97.

25 Byw.ye6 C. K. BOPb6a eopue« :Ja neeaeuoussocm» naQ PY1C06oi'Jcm6fJA!.

IIIa~HtJUt. H3iJ. AH CCCP, 1939. C. 104., 21i TaAt »ce. C. 125.

27 lIol{po6clcuit M. If. 8CUlO€6mUW KU(JlCu;;all JIen"H'w·;~Jtl tt H.U1ilWltaJIbUbtit 60n.pOC. Ces€pltlA.i1 Ka,61€a3. l!3fJ. 1. Bbtn.. 7. C. 219.

13 3anuc"u Tepcieoeo 06'4eCm8a JlfO(ium.f/JI,ei1 K.U3a'lIJf!U crnupU#bt .• ¥ 2. 1914. C. 74. (L(u.m .. no M. C.Tom.oea!}. C. 1'51.152).

29 AX6(!pa06 A. R. Onucanue jJ,uaecmana 1804 2. Apxuens:« suunepun.ns» XV[If-XIX Ga. AH CCCP, l~aucmaHCKU"u qJU.lIUa.!1.; M., 1958. C. 221.

:00 Tot11o€a M. C. H36eCmUJI. Ceaepo·OcemuNclwzO HFiPf .. T. 12. C.176, 177. , :)1 Ko.ja'~/Co6CJ(;uU B. Pastiou na KU8IcaJe. 1'912. C. 103.

/lJ CJlmpIU!8 H.A. MWpUfJU3M sea Baexese. [1af);, Ali·CCCP. M.: 1963'. C.¥1'7.

lfype1€, aa cos» ,'KIte cJ/,YJlCum nuuieis, H U .{3 l!,eM ompad»: «uxaxotdCtcaseume, umo B eopax U.M.€IO,

3a ucesuouenue». ZOJlbtX CICUJL? 1.1

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C nepssrx IDarOB OCBOHHH.!I nonoro tcpea D,apI{3M menporo PYKOI1 HaJ.J;eJIaJt ropcxoa 3aBOeBaa:HoH 3eMJIeH CBOHX neprrsrx rrpacnemanROB - Ka3aqbli CT'aHHD;hI ,tia nx BepXH. 3aBoena'TeJlll,BIIOJute ysepeaHO, Ct.U1"1'8JUI ICaBKa3 CBOeB npOB.liIHl1,HeR, a HE'O liCTHHHbIX ChIHOB [afioparenos - ropnen) «paa60B:HHKaMH» He TOM II;u:m·PIHo·npOC'l'oiJ: ocaone, "ITO Kam,l\asr ll.H,!J;b 3eMJIH. He IWTOPYIO TOJIbKO paa CTYilHJl canol' nspcxoro 'COJI.u;,aTB., HBJISieTCJi 11X HCI<OHHOK I'ocy.n;apcTBei-rHoH Co6C'fBeHHOCTbl0 ..

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B TO ace caeroe BpeMa cpe,luurii', AyrneBoH HaAeJI aa l<a;)~)1;Of'O uapcxoro KBt31:lilW COCTaBJU!JI -24,3 ,lJ,HCWFUHbl ·3<8M.lI['[ fiea BC5U<O.L'O ilia· zror .. al Cnenosarecrsao, aa K8:>KAYIO Ka3a.QIoID ceMhlo (13 cpe,n;HeM. H3 rrSITH qeJIOBeK) rrpJIXO,ll;UJlOCb P;O 120 )l;,eCH'l'HH y.rr.06HOM 3eMJlIU, Top,n;a reate y sexeauea H HBrymeM: TOJlIoKO na K8!:fl{,l(blM ,lJ,OM (caMbIO) nasaJtOCl> AO 4-5 )l;18C.HTIil!H .aeMJIH" B TOM qHCJlE! Hi HeYAo6HOH (I). BJlaI'Ozraps TaRoMY rpa6H'l'eJlbCKOMY pacnpeneaeamo B 06JlaCTJI, B TO apeMfI K8K rrpMWJIbJI.H 3Jl[,eMeHT pacrronaran RY.JIaU'~HMH :H3JIH'rnKaMR, ropiua iB:b''[Hym~eHbl 6hIJIH Hym,n;aThca B aeMJle H: RATH B Ka6&.IIhHYro :3aBlfCUMOC'l'!> K Ka3aQeC'rBY; npHl!E!M He TOJIhI\,O OT,lJ,eJilbHbJe nana, ao II nensre aYJThI. }CaK, aanpaxep, anr'ynrcxae aynsr I'anannca, 1'8)(,a· 60pmeBO, .llmlE:a:a.ff ;UOJllllH8, Apnrrsr, ,naTbIX 11 ,1D;p.

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« ••• Orposrasre MaCCb[ ropues 6hlJl,M B:bICeJiI€HbI C Kaaxaea B TypU;H10. Co6CTseHHO l'OBOP.ilI. yqaCTb ropuen 6blJIa penreaa erne aa HeCKOJILK<O .lIe':!' AO npercpaurenaa HMI'l COnp01'BiBJleHMS .• BhlceJ][HHHe HX

12,5.

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H U po(JUH.e ceoeii (J,a6/1,UWf-teU JKUBY n, ~aI<: npiuueneti 4,Y::HCOU,

124

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, HH 1'1 HnrymeTHlli HCIIbITaJIa 60Jlf>mHe nOTpHCeHIUI. Pa3p.H,!J;HTh narrpaseeaaocrs 6e36oJIC3HeHBO Be 6f>IJIO iuu.r:.allwH. B03Mo)KHOCT,H; gapCKaR a.n;MHH:HCTPlU~H.fIl aa Kaaxaae, 01IYTHBllIaHCH nepezr onaCHOCThW 01Iepe,l1(HOf'O B3pbIBa Hapo.n;HOI'O B03Mym;eBHH, CTRJI8 H3I>l!'CKHB,aTb B03- MOmHOCTf> orxpsrn, KaKoi1l-To <~KJIRnaH», CIIO'COOH:f>IH: npenorapa'mrre aapozraoe aeronoaaaae,

Ho npe*,n;e qeM TIpo.n;omKHTb onaoanae 06m;eii: RapTHHbI, KOTOpaa napnna na KaBKa.ae B npe,n;peBOJIlOIli,HOHHblii: nepaoa, aaxaaviie BeJIHKOrO OKT5E6pH. He 6e3blHTepCCBO HSJIOJRHTb MHeB.He I', K. Op;n;jKOHHKl1,n;3e no 8rpapHO-iIlIpaBOBOMY UOJIOJKeHHIO ropnen:

«Ha CesepHOM Kaaieaae MhI HM-eJIH neno 'C S B'hl:CmeH creneaa CJIo»mOH nOJlH'Tn:qeCKOH CltTyau,He~. 3,lllecF> HMe.nOCh. C O,!l;HOH CTOpoma, MHOl!'03eMeJu.H.oe, aaJoKH'ro'qlJoe, II, rrponrnox nOJIbaoBaurueedx BCeMI1 npaBaMH. K8!3,a'tleCTBO, eCJIn: MomHO TaR Bhlpa3HT'b,C.R:, «aaponnOMeIiJ;HK!>. C ;n;pyroH CTOPOHbI. aaorcpoziaee aaeenerrae H ropnsr, 6e:meMeJIbHbIe H 6ecnpaBHlile B npOmJIOM. Bee aesaaasse HaCeJIeEHe Ceaepnoro KaBKa3a B UpOllIJWM H8XO,l1;iHJIOCb B HOJIHOM nOJIH· THLf8CKOM nO,lJ;'IHHeHHH y xaaaxsero, H&TO HecMoTp.fl aa TO, 'lTO rcaaasecreo COCTaBJIHJlO He GOlIee O)];HOH nJiTOM acero HaCeJIBHH.H CeBepHoroKa.sI<asa •••

(! B:aS8.lIeCTBO ofiJIMaBT caMbIMn: JIyclmH:MH 3,eMJIJlMH na Aymy - 0'1' 9,lJ,o 11 ,n;eCJlTHH [aro K 19118 f'.- M. B.), 'I'or.n;a KaR HHoropO,lJ;Hee aaceneane npHHYlR:,l.I"eBO apeaaosars, 3eMJHO Y Ka3aKOB. a ropma ,,1J;aJKe D;eJIbIMH aYJI.a:Mli mHByT aa aperrzrosaaasrx Y KaaaKO.B JeMJIRX" KaR narrpmsep, 60JIbWOR HH'I"ymcKHH ayn I'anamxa ... ) 1

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1:26

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JlblR ayzr nonsepranca aR3eRYU;HH»8. .

I ill a «aee O. tepa«), H 3 "leu3i}annou noaMbt- H ftzyw .. Rn.afJwuJ.81Caa. 1917. ~ ,ll'e.no :M 209 Huuaxenusca Tepcxot; oti.nacmu; 1860-1862 ee. (CeeepoOcemuH,cICuu pecrtl)'(jJl,uJCancf('Uu zocapxu8).

~ lla?Q.!LO(J r. Kpait 6ecnpocBe'mltou It.YJlCi},bt/ I Tepcxue 8eOO.M.ocmu. BnaiiuICa8JCa3. HIO.nb . .M 82. C. 144-14,6.

1 C.m .• pnoe H. A. M1Opu8u3M Ita Kaexase. J(3iJ .. AH CCCP. MoO, 1963. C. 212. • TaJu :HCe. C. 213. Kap14-o8 A!J.elCcoHiip Ilempoeuw, zel't.-aihromanm Ha-usss-

H.UICa r .na61lOZO wma6a Ka6Ka3CI'QU apseuu. .

6 TaM »ce. C. 217.

~ Op(}}f(on,U,/fuiJ3e T, 1(. H3{ipaHH1;4r, cmam1>lt u. pesu. T. 1. arMS .. 1956.

C. 70.

~ TaM »ce. C. 74.

3. KOHl(EHTP Al(IUIIIJlOCKOCTHbIX AYJlOB B HHrYDIETKH

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127

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CKHM 38BoeB8TeJlaM.

. BOT IIOTOMY C opmrxoanes :Ii aaxanocs .a 18591'. 91'0 BORoe ObI-

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Bnaronapsr 3TOMY, nepsosry 3~eCh a,lilMHHHcTpaTHBHoMY Mepo.: npasrrmo II,apCKllX BJIaCTeii, B MaJIO'3'eM:eJ!!I>HbIe ay.rrbJ nJ][ocKocTHO~ I1HrymeTHH H, OT'!aCTM. qe'tlHH. K 60-M 1"1'. BJIHJIaCl> 113 npearopaa 3:Ha''tlHT9JTbHaR xac'rs 06e3SeM9JI9HHbiX l'li. pa~mpeHHbIX, COPO,o)1T;leMj' O.n.HHX TO.ll1bKO opnrrxonnea 6hlJIO 1800 ceMeUCTB.. OHH-TO H aaxona JlRCh B HCK.l1IO'-rHTe:rn:bHO T.H.iKeJIOM M,aTepHaJl!bHOM nOJlomeHH.H. ,D;a}Ke O~eCTOqeHHMI K ropnara Ka3at[b.H a,nMHHHCTpaD;HJ1 TepcKoH ofinac'I'M npaaaasana ~TO, nOTOMY II XOTeJIa H36aBHThCH 0'1' anx II nepsyre ot.[epe,llibl

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113 Upl'IBeJl,eHHbIX ~UTaT Bfr,n:Ho, 'tITO paaee YKa38HI-u.:r0 HaMil «Bbl· xon» 6bU n8KoHen; H3H,lI;€H: sonpoe o BblceneHHH a.e.H8I.Bl'ICTHh[tr 0pWTXOHn;eB, 't:IHqeHn,eB If HBrYlllel'1 6hlJII BIIOJlHe peweHMe:>R,ll;Y BOeHHo·a,.!l;MH:a:UCTpaTlI:BHblMli Ka6uH€TaMH KaSKasa H lle'rep6ypra. OCTaBaJlOCb OKORqa'FeJI1>HO€ COrJIBiCOB8HH€ PI OcpOpM.Jl€HHe ,9Toro BOIlpoca Me*.ny MHlU:ICTe!pCTB3MM HHOCTpaHHbIX II,en POCCHH n 'I'yp:UHH.Ta.K K,aK'TpSOOIBaJIOCh paapememre H COT'JI8CMe ICmrCraIB'TUBO:rrO)IJ'L Ho 33. STUN: ):l!eJ.lO He AO,.1DKHO 6bIJIO eTa'!'!>. nOTOMY 'iTO Typelll,Roe KOM8!H)JjOBaHHe BeChMa OXOTBO npMHIifMaJIO ropues, HcnOJ[b3ya,HXHs.paB,He C KYPJJ;CKOR ROlHIH:o;eH. B; KaBaJl!epHHCRMX "I8CTlIX.

H, HaROHen;, nocJJte,!l;HHH: norrpoc, KOTOPUH Ha,110 OhlJIO ,lJ;O!p860'F8Th B aToM ;ll;e'J.le: no,no6paTh (TO"tJ:Hee1 nO,ll;KynuTb) 8BTOpHTe'FHOro ara-raTopa l(ll3 cpe,n;bJ caMHX ropueB •.

UOCJli8;D;HeMY 06CTo,sTeJI1>CTBY a.rr;MIIHMCTp8II;HH TepcKoti: oo.n:ac1'IJ.

132

npnztasana H€MaJIOBruf<HO€ 3Hmum:n8. B STOT HM'eHHO MOMEH"l!1' B R1.IyOOK npe)l;aTeJIbCKOI'O aaroaopa Ii BnlIeJICH u;apcKHR reuepalIKY:HP;YXOB Myeca s.

(j ••• Be.JIIUi:~ll KH.R!3h MHxlnm HHKOJIaeBH~ nopyqa.rr JreHepaJli-M3JHopy KYH,n:YXOBY B 6bl'rHOCTlo ero JI€TOM 1864 '1". B KOHcTaHTHHOIllOJI8 Boii:Tu B Her'JIaCHOe CI-IOmeHH€ C Typen;KHM npaSKTeJIbCTBOM OTHO' CHTeJIbHO 'Toro, B KaRoH Mepe H Ee!.EHM o6pa30M MorJi[a 6:&1 6hJT'b oCY:l.IJ;eCTB.n;eH8 ME,JCJIb 0 nepeCe.J1[8HH}[ B TYPD;nro lIaCTH qeqeHC:lwro HaC€n8HHSI»~' .

H:3 aroro cootimeaaa BH)VIO. "ITO eIIJ;e c orera 1864 I'. caM aaM€CTBFUt lCa:BKRaR B,e)IlHIUlii" KH.f!3E> MHXi!Uif1.! HHKOJla.eBii"tJ: nOPY"IaJI , CBoeMY r8UepaJIY KYH,OYXOBY «BOll:n:l: B B8f'JIaCHOe caonreaae C TYpeU;KHlM npaBHTElJIbCTBOM». CJle.n;OBaTeJIhHO., 3''1'0 rrepecenenrre Be:ti· BRXOB Oihlno aaparree COf'JI8CO.sI3lHO uapH3MOM c 'Jypn;M€H.

TIOTOru:y CJle,!lyroW;HM B'F'aiiOM CTaJI8 nO)J,rOT'O!8Ka BeHHaXCKoro HaCeJIemtf( It M,iJ;eJiM naH'lI'ropRH3Ma. B STOM .n;eJIe,. KpOME! KYH;!:IYXO= sa, rJIa.BFlI>IMH ,n;eJ1TeJ1J1MI1 ObIJlIH MaJIo·qeqeif:r'clKuH HaR6 Caa.)J; y.n:Jl'aX a K8paoYJIaRCKliU C'l'apW1U1:a Anaryrco li(YI'lOB IO,KOTOpl>Ie npHC:f£I"~ HYJIM Ra KopaHe nocnenosa-n, nplIM€PY KYR,I:IyxoBa. eCJIn TOT nepBhIH no.rr;HHMeTCjI 3a irpaHMn;y II.

06 8TOM MOMeHT€ apXHBHD1!e, ,l!IOKYM8HThl cBu,a;8TeJIbCTBYlOT Tal": «, •. I'enepan I:i:YH,o:YXOB BbICEa3aJI MHe ('I:', e. rex. JJ[opnc·MeJIHROSy. - M. B.) rrpennoaeeaae 0 B03MomUOCTH B0306HOBHTb Me,)f\;.D;Y Ty3eMJ.J;aMM 'l'epcRoH 06.JI.8CTH CTpe'MJleHHe K nepeceneaare .B Typ'UMlO. OR npe)J\.Il0lliHJI BaRTb Hili. ce6H Bb'lnOJIHeHH€! STOr? ,ll;€JIB. H YBe· pea, tfTO npa Tex xepax, KOTOpbl:e OJ{ fl]!:>:HMeT Her.Tl)8CHO. B Te"tJ:€HHe .J'IeTHHX MeCJI:o;eB YMJlIYT 11.0 Tpex ThleH"! C€!Meil:cTB J) 12.

Ho )JiJI:J1 vcnemaoro ocyru;ecTBJIeHHR :3TOFO IIJI8H8KYHi,D;YX.OSY HY)KHM ObIJliU rroco6mlKH U3 C8MOM: cpe,n!!:.1 M€CTHOI'O H&:SJl€RHH. KOTOPhIX :aa.110 OhIJIO (KaK Ii: ero CaMOI'o) noaayrrarr, 30JIOTOM. )]0- pnc·MeJIHKOB coo6w;a.rr ITO HaqaJlibC'FBY renepazry KapIJ;OBY O'TOM, QTO KYH,n;YXOB « .•• ,n:O.1IO.iRHJ.I MHe, "ITO KaROH 6hI HH6bIJI ,n;aJIhHeMillYH HCXO.ll nepecenaaa s ••• rrpH,n;eTC$l!". i5hlTLMO>KeT,,il;Jla nepSOH8:<JIaJIbHOro Boa6ymlleHH.R" uepeCeJIeHHH IlIpH6eI'HYTb R nePJI3CROMY B03l{8.rpam,)'l!eHHfO rpex llJHl ~eTb1:peX ,JlH~HOCl'eH, aaH60JIee nOIIYJIJIpHblX B H8CE!JTennn» 13 (Puc" 2, npMJI. 9).

Rue BH,n;nM, (lHerJI8CI-roe Bosaarpam,l!leHJ1€» arpano H€M8JIOBaJR. ayzo ponsl ,lJ;aJIbIlr'e lBbUJ:.eH.HeTCH. "1TO eTHMH .rnrU3MH oxaaanacs: is Ye"tlHe ~ OCM3HOB Caa.n:YJI3 H: CaaJD; YJlJl8X, B Y.IHryw:eTHM - I.:n;yro!8 AJm::rYKo.

IIPMME1:JAHH . .f.l

i J]tJpuc·M eliWUJ6 M u:cau,~ Tapueli06ul-t (1825-1888)- U3 6oi;'.am!>tx ap.

JitJl.H. ?QPoi}a TUipJlu,ca, ,een"aiJolOmanlTt, na'iaAbftUfC Tepc.lCofl o6JtacTnu U f>O\II$aniJYlOutuil lWUCltaM!l. ynpa8lUl./l,C 1863 e. Tepclwii o(jJl.(J,CTIlI:110 10 nem; ICpynnbdt 60€ttnr;UL iJeJUneA!> uapusua; sa ycneumoe eeoeuue 6Q(mbt C TYPtfueil 1877-

133

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H.(J·H'Hzywemuu 8 T!lp~ulO. '

2 J(01(AaiJuaR ,JanUC](l (i Tepc1COU os.sacmu H.a'laJf.bH.Wf-Y r Jla6H080 tumaoa Kaa"a3clCoit apMUU ,,0 nepecesenuii my3eMI/reB TepCKoil o{).n.acmu 1:1 Typ,I{UIO'> am 14. ,06. J863 13'. (Ceeepo-Oeemuncteuts pecnyo.n.uKan,clCui1 zoeapxue, CB. I, 8. 1 (eetcpemuoe ).

s Kap408 &eKCanvp a empQ6U'l - ?(#f.·a,thl(Jmcmm lta'laJlbH:UlC illma6a RaeKa3C1(or.i apM-UU; OOU/! us t.n.aenlJlX uapcxuo: iJeRmeA€U no nepece.neuUlo eopuee (3 Typl{U1Q (no l(aaZYPOBY r. A. C. 197).

I nUCbMO sex. JIopuc-MeJi'UKQea eeu. lCapl-108'y ua «penocmu BJtafJU1Ga,BKaa (?O nepecexenuu my3e.lU~e6 TepcKou o/5.JlGcmu a TYPl{UlO» 2,6. 07. 1863 (Ce8epo-Ocemueeeuc. pecny(JJlulCancKuu eocapxue, C8. 1.&. 1. t cexpemuoe),

$ J(ol'lJtaiJnaJt 3a.nUCKa KO.M(J.H,OYIOU{eeo BOUCK TepCKOU OOJ!GCInU na'LaJtbH,U"g rJI.-a6HOZO w.ma6a fCa6'H:'a:U:KOu ap.M.U,U (to nepecenensui myse.M"I,e6 TepcFGou o6.ltacmu 6 Typ1.fuJO». M 34. 07.~05.1864. (CeB~po·OcemunclCuu pecny(J.ltuIC,an-

CKUU eocap:rU6, ce. 1; G. 1 (cexpemnoe ). -

It l!oIC,.ltaiJna:Jl. 3an4Clta I) TepciCoil o6.llacmu Ha'laJlbliuKY 'rJla81iOeO tumatia KaBl,a3cICou ap.mJu «0' nepeceseunu mY3e,Ul{eB TepCKO,u, o(JJlacmu 6 Typ~ulO». A6,eycm 18064. (Ce6epo·OcemuncKuu pecny0./iulC(ul.clw.il eoc'apxuB, ell .. 1. G. 1 (.ee xpemnoe},

7 Il UCbMO nQ\l.GJu.nUK(J. TepCK'ofi; o6.1iacmu na't,a.nbft.UKY r JI,QBnOZO wma6a Ka81<.'aaC'KOu. apMuu 5.09.1864 <,0 nepecesenuu mY.1eMu"e8 Tepexoii oO'J/,acmu 11 Typ!{u1Di> (Ceeepo-Oeemueesoa pecny6J1U1cancICuu eocapxue, C8'. I, O. 1, (ce«. pemnoe).

8 ,KynOYX08 Mycca A.nXU306U't - 1leu.·,'IWUop. POiJllJlC.R 8 [820 Z., (j!>~.rt 6 1859 8 • .!/,a!l.a.n;!>I:£UIGOM Ocemuuceoe« ofCpytta; U3 ocemuucsux maeappcuux iJBOPJ'£H (uJliJap J. C17W4 ,u,apcltO-cyJimaRCltUM Q:2€,umOJH no nep€C€Jt€UUIO eopuee-eeunaX08 B Typ~ulQ 8 1865 e. Sa 1(.pynH.~te uapcxue UeH.bZU 6€.n npo8oKaU;uo:nnylO ~eJlmeJlbl-tOcmb cpeou 8btCe'JloJl€M-blX. B 1865 e. t5btJl omnyu~eH, 6 Typu,uro. If.yiJa 011. 3a.meM nepecenuscs. C CeMb€U. Bnocneiicmeuu. nepeiuee H.U CAy:m:ti,y ,6 TypeqKy/o apMUf() na!uo!l u ItO.Man006Q:Jlliil Basucana» mypm.pcoil ICaea..nepuilcK:.oU iJueU$ueu 8 80UH.e npomue POCCUU 8 1877-1878 1l3., 6bC.n. 8 'tune nuea (een» Mauopa). ,a sames« 6: 1882' z, cmaJL r!>ep.uKOM. (z€u.-.1IeumenaH.m).

II Bep:HCe AQ. II. BbtCeMH.Ue .tQPuee e iCa(JJ(4JoJI PYCCf(M, CmaPUIt4. 01Cm.

1882. T. 32. C. 12-13. -

iO MueY1eo .Qg.Z08 - no-uH.zywclf.u A.nUICO ~y.e06. (O'leBuihto,B eta UMeH.U JaMemUQ 'l(a6apfJunclCoe 6J1URHue. - M. E.) IIoPYflulC, lta'la.IIbfWIC lCapa6Y.llaICCfWZ:O y't{:LCmKa; 8' 1862 z.uOGaeUlL npoulenue o ltuoeJl.e 3·eMJI·eu au 35-llemnlOio f-IapcJCYIO cJlYJIC(Jy'·· B eoi} eucexeuue, m. e. B 1865' e .• 011 YJltep na POiJUHe' ..

11 TaM :m:e. C . .15. ' .

12' eM. 6!>w.te. JfOlCJl.aG'H.as, 3anUC1Ca «0 nepecenenuu m.ytl€Mu;efJ TitpCiCou 06- llacmu 6 TypqUH)i) lin 34 om 07.05. 1864. (Ce8epo·OcemUH.CKUU pe,cnyt5.rtu1€an" C'1€UU zocapXU8,C8. 1, f). 1 (cexpemnoe ) ..

I~' OUC'MU)' ten. JIQPUC-MtJlU1(06a seu, ](apu'o,ey «0 nepeeeneuuu mYJem:uc6 Tepc1(.ou ot5.!/.acmu B Typ~UlO» M 127, 23.01. 1865 e .. (Ce6epo-Ocemunc",uu pecny(i.1lU1:CanCKUU eocapxue, C8. 1, O. 1 [cetcpemuoe},

5. MAT;EPHAJI:&HOE OBECDEQEHHE 3ArOBOPA no BbICEJIEHlIlO B TYP~.HIO

IIocJIe COCTaB.lIeHHH . .aaHBOrO aaroaopa npoTHB BeHHlaxoB caenaa 6hl.lI OKOH"IaTeJIhHhID. aanpoc HaMeOTlil:tKY lila KaBRaae, B OTBeT aa ROTOPbI~ il10CJIe,n;HIIK, tfepea HR'tIllTa6a rea. KapU;OBR, CIlHKIUHOBHpOBan Ha'tJ8JIO BhICeneHl:tJl ropnea B TYPU;JIIO. OT Hero oLma nOJIY'i€Ha TeJIerpaMMa, BeCh,MaXapaRTePHOrO CO)itepma.HH.H:

Bonus.

Te.u:erpaq) BO Bnanaxamcaae. n3 nOTH.

TEJIErpAMMA N! 198, 17.05. 1865 r. ilpaSH'FeJIhC'FBeHH8x. BJla~l:maBK83,

KOMaH,D;YIO'w;eMY BOHCl~aMH (JIop,t:i'C-MeJllHKoBY. - M .. E.}

BeJIHKldi :KH:l'I31. (MHXaH.lI HUKOJIaeBH'4, HaMeCTHHK aa RaBRaee. ~ M. E.) eornacea aa npe,ll;JIO.)R,eHUe reaepana K. (KYH~y:xm3a. ~ M. B.). jReJIalO IIOJIHorO yenexa, tIeM nansme, TeM JIyqme (! -

M. B.) KapIJ,OB i.

B .3THX JIaKOHlrllHbIX cnosax O(lmll,uam.HoH TeJIerpaMMbI - «'qeM .n;aJ1E>me. 'flaM JIYlllWe»- CKaaBJIOGb 3.8BeTHoe 'q8.alure acex K8SKa3e CRUX KO!:!OHH3:aTopOB, ROTOphleMeQTaJIH 0 3aXBaT8 TeppHTopHH KaBRasa. HO 6ea caMHX xaSiK83I.J;eB! 3arH8Tl'> UX OT ce6.ai nonaasnre, 'tI'FO- 6hI .Jj(106bU4H MeTO,llaMH us6aSHTb,CH OT 6JIH30CTH He6e30naCHblX: a60- pnI'eHOB Kasxaaa - ara mOBHHHGTH'IeCRaH lI,lJ;eSll B03HHKJI!a c nepssrx

.a:ae.ft <I3aMHpeHHll» xp aa I '

Ho BepHblIH CJIyt'B napcxoro npeCTOJIa reaepan KYH)J;YXOB aft He· npaxpsrroe npe~areJIbCTB() CBOlilX 6paTbeB-ropn;eB 'l'pe6osaJl aesra .. JIYro, no TOMY BpeMeHH, M3,l1iY (s03Harpam.n;eHHe). 06 aTo~. nOCTbIAnOM Topre HMee'TC.f! MBoro cBH;o;eTeJI1bCTB. BOT He}WTOpW,e H3 EIHX:

(lOH (KYH.ll;YXOB. - M. E.) BhICKa3aJI M.ue rrprr 3TOM HaAe.m~y,.

"ITOB CJIyqae, eCJliH yxacrne er-o rrpnaecer nOJIl),3y" TO n:paBH'TeJIlE.CTEO He OTKameT B npHo6peTeHHH (1), 0'1' aero B KBl3HY noxcanoaaaaoa eMY 3eMJIH II BbICTpOeHBOI"O H~ H8 Re:H AOMal>:1 .

IIOA 3THM (.npHo6peTeHHel¥f» CJIeAyeT, reonexno, nOHHMaTI:. 3a.BY~. aJIHpOBaB.HhIH nonxyn: oqmu,HaJIbHaa c}laJIhllb H JlIfueMe:pHe He .tl;onYCKaJIH Toro, qTOOhI BeIIJ;H aaasmanacs CBOHMH HMeHaMH, q)liHa~ KO coaepmavs mo6hle :rnYCHieHlli'He nOCTyoKH, no,ll; MacKoR 6JIaronpUJIH"4:UH H Ao6po,lleTeJIH, .ll;OIIyc~aJIOCb CltOJIbKO yrO,ll;HO! 11 B AaHHOM CJIy'lJ:.ae aTO <~npHo6peTeHHe!) xaaaoro paaee 4[lO)KaJIOBaHBOH 3eM.]JR~ (2800 AecSlTluII TO:iKe, BH,n;IIMO, sa nO,!J:06HbIe JRe «aacnyra ~). ~,aKTHqeCKH • .HBJUI.J10Cb nO.lliKynoM AJl~ enocoscrnoaaaaa Ie H3rH8- HHIO' ol'pa6JJeHHDIx. H 06M8H!bIBaeWblx (naUHCJI8:MIH3MOM) aeHHaxoB. Ea.R naca,n JIopHc-MeJIHROB rea, Kapn;OBY 13 IDTa6 KaBRaacKoH apMHH; K.yU,LlYXOB caM I1ipe.lllJIO)l(,RJI YCJIOBH.lI :;ITOH TeMHoii C,1);eJI'RH H JIopnC-MeJIHKOa XO,lliaTan:CTBOBaJI 0 npHHRTHH HX, nonaepacaaaa CBO-

134

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ll33TO·t.lr rnepeIIHCKH BH,ll;HO, qTO ,I1;eJlhru;bl·reHE~'Pa)lbI aaxoaen ,11;0' ronopanncs B .a:eT8JUIX. Ha nOBepXHOCT1'. MX rp.H3HO{IO npOBORf.ITopCKOI'o .D;eJI8 BCIIJIhlJIa BHyuIH.TeJIbH.aa CYM.MR ,I1;JIR Taro Bpe·MeHH - 45 TbIC. py6.30JlOTOM! 8'1'0'1" aanpoe JIopMc-MemHw:e ,Il;e.n:aJ.l Ii illTa6 HaMeCTlnn~a rrepe,ll;HaqaJIOM CBOMX p;eEicTBHH 111:0 Bhl.ceJIeHIUO ropIJ;eB )JjJ.!a TOIrO. "!'F06h[ 6bIJIO cacnpomence UOBeJleHHe eanoro 6pa'I'a rocynapa ~ fEaM€!CTHAIK;a, rrocne '!fero ,1:IOJDttHa OblJla 3aB€pmUThCSI OROHQaT8JIbHa.H AeHe>.KHaJ1l C)l:~eJIKa c KYHAYXOBbIM If OCTaJIbHOH ero CBOlPOn JII06HTeJIeG: napcuoro eorrcra.

A B ceRpeTHOM ilHCbMe JIopHc-MeJIHKOBa K CRoeMY IlO.D;'lHHeHHOMY, HaqaJIbHHKycpeAHero (-q·eqeHCKoro) q)pOHTa renepany KHX3IO TYM.<lnoBY, OR .n;aJI yI<MaH~e BepOOB3Tb opo.n;a>KliNX areUTOB 1'13 'fY' 3€Mll,eB )1;.11$1 aI'HTan;HH Mace qe"tfHl:! aa BbIceJIeHHe B TyPUfHO. On 06 STOM nHCaJ1T&K: (< .... ecna B llIHCJI€ pa3JIU1I{HhIX Mep. xoropsie Oy,n;YT npmBH'l'hl BaMH AJUi rrepBOHa'll8!JIbHOI'O Boa6y:m;u;eHHH nepecenexax, RbI npm:lHaeT€ HElo6XO,LI,HMhiM C,!l;eJIttTl:. jlHHWTOPhIS flerJI8CHbIep:eHem· able BCiIlOMoru;eCTBOB<lHII1J{ JIJ.I]:~all\l. HaM60nee IIonYJJiRpHblM B HaCeJIeIHiIH:, yXO,!l; KOTOP:bIX MomeT HMeTb BJIHRHl:Iie If nOCJJ1Y»<HT IIpHMepOM It.n:$I! .ltPY)r'HX, TO H 6y.n;y OJKI1.1l;aTb rrpe,n;C'I'3JlJllea:Hfl: Banrero 0 TOM, xaK8!n ITpM6JIM311TeJlibHOCY.MM8. U ~ M. E.) MomeT nOTpeoOSaTbCg aa aTOT npe,ll;M{~T,;u:a6bI npe . .D;BapH'FeJIhHO HcnpOCHTh aCCliI"aOBaHHH ee y Ero HMIIep.aTopCKoroBemf'leCTBa» 4.

CJ1ep;OB'a'I'eJIbiw. II:} 81'01'0 rm:Cl>MEt SUAno, liTO He TOJl:bKO HHlfUHaTOphI 11 B;U:OXHOB:HT,eJIli BbICeneHH.R ~ JIopnc-Me.JTlXUWB.bI, Kap:u,OBbl: M zrp, - 6blJlH 38MBllIaHbi B aTOM nOCTbI)l;aOM .n.ene. HO ;tl;a4Ke (I) H «Hx HMoepaTOpCKH€ BblCO"leCT.Ba». B JIUne HaM8CTHlHRa H3 KaBlRa3e - 6paTa .o;ap.f.l. 6hIJIH yqaCTHHiHaMH :nOH rpaH:AM03Ho.n rrpOBOKa.U;HH. ll;apH3M JIlo6oii:: D;eaOH H JHo6b1MM Cpe]l;CTBBMH H M6To,n;aMH ,n:06HBftJJ.CH eaxaara HOBb!X 3BMeJIlb H ¥.u;aJI·eHfUl orracasrx eMY 3a.~HTHH· ROB cBoe~ PO.!lHHhd

Bssecre C TeM, cnezryer ente llOI'P.repKHY'rI>, 'lTO uapCK8J1 IW.BKaacIta.${ a,rrMHHFfcTpa,D;M», ornycxaa aa rpaxarry BMeCTe C nepeceneanaMH Hi ITOAIKYIlJleHl1l!bIX eID soaeaxoa ~ arHT8TopOB. He Morna BIlOJilHe /:IOBepHTib HM caMHM (I), a nO'FOM.y llIJIH aa TaJ'Cyro Bi!>IHym.n;eRHYro YCTY[l[KY JIHmh neaoro MaKmtM3.JIbHO 6eCKpoBHOro YBo.ZJ:a C KaBK3a3 rreyronaoro liM H8.UHORaJlbHOro I<OH'it'JllHr8HTB.. no <lTOMY sonpocy

]36

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Me R rerrepany ICapIJ,OBY OR llHC·f}JI:- .

~B rp03HOM C,n;HJIaEI:IJ MHO" Heo6xo.o:I1!MMe yreaaaaaa no H'il'OMY npe)!l;MeTy K,HR3iO 'TYMaIlOUY. KO'l'OPb.Ili JlOJlmeH 6Y,ll;eT PYKOBO;ll;HTb, 3TUM . .!I::eJIOM C KPS:HH€H OC'l'opo.1l61_()C'FbIO, =repea IIOCpe,!l;CTBO H€lWTOPbIX TY3€Mu;eB. S:8 KOTOPh1X MomH,O IliO.ilIOJ'KUThC.Rl (I). ,ll;J:tI'I yenexa ,aeJIa Heo5xo,lJ;HMO, llT06DI .I"OplJ,hI He TOJIbKO He 3HaJlM ·0 meJI8H,HH HalleM CQ,llleticTiBoIBaTb llepeCe;JI€HMIO, HO M,ec1';H8.l'1 :BJIaC'lrb· ,1'J!o.lll'KHa, HarrpOTlIB, K8N 6lb! OTKllOHHTl>(I} H:X 01.' aroro HaMepeHHfJ ~ 3. '

OT.CIO,,na B qeqeH:CKOH H"apO~HOH rrecae roro nepaozta HM€JOTCSI CJIOBa~

:r.mT'PI:ISaJIO He ·TOJlbKO paspememre JJ[OKaJIbFWrO aonpoca (3eMe;rrb~O. ro), HO OHO aarparnaano 14 aonpocsr Me,'ll(.,Il:YHaPO,)'I;EI!oro TI?PJl)lK8, TIOJl:MTHqeCKHe nepc.neK'FHB'bI. TaKOBbl: 6hlJIH CJlOlKHOnepenJIeTeHHJ:.It'l 38.lla'liH sroro IHeM8.lIOB8JKHorO npe.n;npHJITHS' B ,lJ;€.ne OIWnq8T€JIbHOro ~3aMHpeHl'I..H» xpaa.

I TeJl.e2paMMU UH. Ka.plioea seu. llopuc-MM_uICoey <)0 nepecenenuu m'!t 3e~ttje13 Tepcn;ou o(j~4cmu 13 TYPItUlO,>M 198, 17.,05. 186.5 .. (Ce6epo·Ocemun·

cmlU pecny6JlUKaH,CK!{;U tUCapxu6. ca. 1., a: J [cexpemuoe}. . '.

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3 CM. 6bUUe: lJUCbMO Z€H,. J!opm:-MeJl.u.1f.osa een. JCapl.j-oory «0 nepece.n.eH,UU

my3I.Mtl{,ee Tepc1:(;oi1 06.n.llcmu (J TYPUUlQ» .M 127, 28 .. 01. 1865. (Ceaepo·Oce·

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]39

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Bee ,aTO eme KOHKpeTHee H y6e,n;HTeJlf>Hee nO.lliTBep~.rr.aeTC.H B CBC,II;eHl'UiX nOJ]KOBHHRa BeJIJl1HKa, nepenasaamaxcn HM aa CT8HHIJ;hl qepsJIeHoii. r,llle OR orracsraaer cBofi pa3I'OBOp C ,!1;BYMH qeq_eHu,aMR, ltoI',n:a OH HX crraaaan e )[(:e.JlbilO BblBep;aTb HymlIhI€ cBe,u;e!!'I}ljf 0 aacrpoeaaa qe'tfeHCKHX Mace. O,1l;UH H3 HHX, rrsrraaex yroP;HTb Ha~ ti8JIbHHEY; H:C;Ra:amJI HCTHHiY, HO p;pyroH, H3p:f.(:,IlHee ITO,!l;BhIIlHB. OKa- 3a.lICH cnafiee Hpaa6oJ!lT3JICSl, OTKpbIB nO,llJIHHHOe aaerpoenae BCeM:

"IJe"IHH:. Bee 9TO. Koa:e'IHO, ycep,lJ;HblH I1I0JIKOBHHR He 38Me,u;JrlMJI H8- nacare H P;OH€C'il'H C3MOMY HaqaJIbHHRY 06JIaCT.H reaepany JIOPHCMe.lIMKosy. BOlJ'l.ITO EeJIJII1K OnMCRJl: « •.• ,;:lpyroH qeqe:ae,u.. rrocne MHorHX CT'fliKaHOB noprepa, 6hIJI oonee orxposeaea, qeM nepBbIM:; OR npasro crcaaan: «He' 110I;:.neM MbI ~ TYP:IJ;lHO 1'[ He nYCTHM Tex, KTO cotiapaerca TY.lla; B TYPIJ,MH m,n;eT Hac CMepTl.~ .iK)leT OIIa H 3J{eCE:. Hac, no 3,1.1;eCb ORa rrpHJrI'Hen, nOTOMY tITO 3)l;eCb H8!UIa poauaa Jl.f 3,lleCbJIemaT HaWH (1'I'~l>I, n06H'l'bIe PYCCKMMHo> •

KOI'.n;a 51 C1'aJY .n;OK,a3hIBaTlb 0 ae06XO,lJ;HMOCTU qe'tfeHu.eB noxopar-sCJI BeeM TeM ycnOBH.HM, RaKHe H906xo.n;HMbI ~JIH cnOKOflCTBl'IH xpas, TOr.Di!Jl OHli oxaaann: ,«aTa YC,JIOBHH ecra.aama CMep'I'b,. H60 H nepe'CeJIeEfHe B TYPU;,IUO, 11 06e30PYjKeHH:e Hac eC:'Jl'b ,IlJIX Hac O,D;RO liTO me ... » H ,n;OJII'O C HHMH rOBOpHJl K 113 Mp81l{RorO H8CTpoem1H 11X Mblcn9H Jl E~qerO APyroro He 3:aMeTHJJ, RaK ,1ll3HYIO liX ro"rOBHOCT'b aa nOoBTopeHH9 C06hITl1H 40-1'00 r.,~g.,

ITo,n;o6Hoe me cooom;eaJle p;eJIaJI HatraJIhHI1K Aprvaexoro oxpyra, nOJIKOBHHK MnnOJIil'fOB 10. RH.H3IO TyuaHOBY OR llHCaJI O,ll9HCTBHTeJIb:HOM nOJIOmeHRH 'tJe"laH, He npnfier-aa K cnaHlBaHHIO: {!, •• o )it,OOPOBOJIhHOM nepecenexaa B Typu;mo aapon ae ,n;yM.aST: npa ,o6.w;eM cfiope OHM (T. e .. "l!eHTu'8BCKoe H Ilfaroeacxoe aaM6cTI'I,a. - M. E.) 06'bHBH.J![]ff MRe. 'tITO «nO:H.n;YT TO.lIhKO TOI')J;a, I<.DI',D;a BeH 'lIe'iHH noroJIOBHO YM,u,e'I', HJIH :iKe Tor.o;a. xorna np~nt.aiKY'T liM H.D:TH». 8TO 6bIJIJI He O,ltHH TOJIboKO CJIOBa. HO aapon, ,&eil:cTB.HTeJIbHO. He )KeJIa8T rrepecen8RJJH. nOHHMa;a xoponro, 'ITO ,lJ;.J![JI3TOI'O OHM CJIHmlCOM 6e)J;B:l>I. ••• »11

Ha m:pHS8.n;e,EJ:HhlX ,n;ORYMea'rOu BHP;HO, "ITO Hll 0 KaRaM B111'UIHllH MIDpH.u;H3Ma H «naHTropKH3Ma» C «HC.1'IaMH3MOMo> na MaCChI LIe'lHH H MlirymeTHH rorna He 6!bI.vJ.O H pemr, Hapon BnOJIH.e peansao OT',D;aB,aJI ce6e OT'leT 0 rOTOBRlD;HXCJ'! ,1J;JI.H Hero '6e,n;CTBUHX co cropoasr pyccxoro 1J;apa U Type:U;KOI'O CY.J![TaH8. JIIO,.!l;H npemtoxrrrana YMepert, B 6oPb6e HB. PO)J;}lH8, H8meJIH CKHTaTl>CX aa ~yjKOHHe B IIOHCxax M:R<lrBI'tl:eCEwro<'MycY,JIbMaHCROI'O paa» •. (eM.: npan. 3).

OTCID,!J;a'l.HI,l'(HO, tITO napcaaa aI'I1TalLl.HH B aapone aa BbICeJIeHHe HenaBaJIa CKO.JrbKO-HI10YP;h nOJIO:IKH'll'eJIbHbIX pe3YJlbT8.TOB. BetIHaXH. B iSOJIhllIl'IHCTBe CBoeM, .n;OCTaTO~HO xoponro paaOHpaJIHCloB 06CTaHOBKe H ace 6bl.IIR snoaae rOTOBEJ~O !'ICaMY TIJIOXOMY co. cropoasr areHTOB napaaae, arnrapoaaaurax aa «,n;o6pOBonbHoe» Bb[CeJIeHHe C PO,o:MHbl.

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141

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IJ;apCKHEl reH:epaJIbI. csoe «BeJljRKOe~ .u,e,.lIo COllepUH'!JIH, o6cTaBHB ace ('I'JIy6oq_a:HweJi Taii,IIOI1:1>. onapaacs HIl C.BOHX MeCTHbIX JIaRee'lB, npe,n;aT8neft PO,!J;,HOI'O napoaa, Tax Ii T8KHX. aa KOTOP:W:X «MO:>KHO noJIO.iRllTbC,tI i> •

Ho I'OPCK8H Macca He 6bl.lla O;JiHOPO,lJ;Hoii" B aeR OhIJIH JlIO,lllM, He nonnaiomaeca 06MB.ay, 0 KOTOPb!X reaepansr rOBOpHJIH,. '1,[,0 ORK co {<CBO:RCTSeH.HOH ':leqeHu;aM. He,n;oBep'tfHBOCTI>,I01>. [103TOMY c casroro H81;;18Ji1.a aarosopa HaqaJIOC'b roryxoe 6pOjKeH~e. Hapozt, O1I8BU)J,HO, 38- nonoapnn He,!J;06pQe. B ,n;OKYM8HTanhH&IX M8TepHaJIaX coxpamrameaCJ'! nepenacxa Taro nepnona 3TO IIpormI,lJ;hIBaeT, HanpHMep, B TOM, =rro Jlopac-Menaaoa 11I1C8JI renepany KapIlOBY; «OKOH'tfaTeJlhHhIM H npO'lHblH ycrrex Haw HBi CeBepHOM1Ca:BItase (npennrecrsoaaanree B 1861-1864 I'I'. BblceJ]eHHe lIepEeCOB. - M . .8 .. ) He M.or He Bh13BaTb TpeBO:iKHblX OJKH,q8HRH B HaCeJI8HHR '1e't{HH. !CaK 6b1 aH CTapaJIHCb Ml.l M8CR:apOBaTb HaMepeBIfSi aama, MaCCbl HaCeJIeHR:fI, BCJIeAC''l'B.He J1il eCTeCTBeHHblX OTHOmeHl1n R HaM, HJIH .iRe no 06~eMY y6e>K;D;eHI1IO. cyll.Il;,ecTBYlo~eMY RaK B cpezte MecTHblxllOUCK, "['aJ{ If lIIH], npaesacax, npeABH,ll;uT. q'TO B B8CbMa 6.n:H3Ro.M 6YAYID;,eM npaaaT~JllbC'FBO 3aXOQeT C1'8:Tb B xpae 6o.n:ee TBepA?ll HOFOR.. IIo3ToMY lB IIOCJIe,ll;Hee BpeMJ'I ycm[lJ,JIHCh 3Aeoh paaasre romca H npenrronoxceHiHH, BOCrnpenS!!TCTBOBaTb KOTOPbIM MeC'I'HOM BJ:l!aC'rHseChMa TpYP;1l0 ~ e,ZJ;Ba JIH H03MOJKIIO»6.

ll;a:pClKaH a.n;MRH'IilCTP8I\H.H onacanaes BOCCT8HU.H Ii K8.T'erOpU'4:eCROI'O orxaaa qeqeHu.eB BhICeJlis.l:Ti>C.H .n;OOPOBOJIhHO B TYPIJ,I1IO. Ha a-rO:H: nOQBe BhlCKa3&IBftJIOCb MaOjKeCTBO npep;ITOJIo:meHMH. II .n;eiiCTBHTeJIbHO. 60JIhIIUIHCTBO BeHHaXCRlIX Macc He Tal\. JIer)KO WJIO B paCCTaI:l.JI:fIeMhJe 11M JIOBYlliKH.

4TO B:bllHeCJIH BeH:HaXHB TY ymaCHYIO nopy nepecerrenax, II10Ka· 3hlBaIDT CJleP;YIOID;ae apxaanste AOKYMeHTbI. B ,D;OKJIa,n;HOH aarracxe Ha'tul,JlbBlHlKa TepCROH 06JHiCTH reaepana JI,opHc-Me.J'lHKOBa H2I. HMH HaqaJIbIlIlIKa rjj&BHOrO IllTa6a RaBKaSCRon apMl'fU (npa ero npoeazre xepea Bnazmxasxaa B IIeTep6ypr) rOBOpHTCJl 00 C03tJ;aBweMCH B asrY'CTe 1864 r'. B xpae nonoaeeaaa C.lIeAYIO:w;e'e: « •.. BeCJ,l,'d8 Tpy.n;HO paCCQH'l'bLBa.Th. Q"I;06bI ~e'4:eHII;bI, OT.lIM'4:aIOIIJ;HeC.H oco6eHHoH rrpasrr- 38HHOCTblO K pozraae (Ha rJIaa8X IIpHM!epbI ]860-]'0 H 1861. IT,,), OXOTHO IIO,11,,n;aJ1lHCh ObI npep;JlO.iReHHHM'13 aTOM ,~yxe. no, BO BCRROM czrysae, .H npHRJ'nJI YJKe MephI R npOBe,ll;e:lU'IIO B cpezte HaC8JIeHI1:51 aTOM H,,ll!ell» 7. II ,qanee, B ,11,pyroM nnCbMe JIopHc~MeJIHKOB f'O:aOPHT 06 aTOM: :ate re'HepaJlIY KapU;OBY 'F8K,: «OXOTiUIKOBM€R<,Ily 'lH~'tfeHIJ;.aMH .K nepeCeJIeHHIO, RaJ< J'l[ nOJIara.1'I H rrpeacae, noxa oueas MaJID ••. '>i-

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51 eI<JIOHeH 3aRJIIOqHTb. 'liTO OHM, llteCOMHeHHO, 6bI.nH (o6Ma~ HblBaeMLl) npoaonapvexsr :u;apCKo-cY,JITanCROH areHTypoa, no caMH OHH OTHlO,llh He BITOJ.[HC BepMJlH !B re «OJIaF'a». KOTopbIe liM Cy.IIMJIH KYH.n;YXOB H Jlopac-Manaxoa, a mJIH TOJIbKO n CHJIY nOJIReiimeH: 6e3bICxO,ll;HOC'FH H CJlOmlfBmHXCH npOT'HB HBX FlCTopHtJ:ecKHx 06CTOHTE!JIbCTB [arpapno-npanoaoro KpH3Hca. ,.1llervmpaJIH30BaHH,hle nzeaeHHeM lliaMHJIS:l H paarpoxox 'LJepReCOB B 1861-18641'1'.), I}:lHSU"ll:eCKH YTOMJIeHHble 6eclIpepbIBHOl1: nepasaoa na.pTKI3a:a:cKOH: BOKHOff, l'OJIO,atuom;He, 16eC[[OMO~Hblle II T. )[I" Honan B C'Te'l!CHIiH! TaiU'I:X HeY,Q06HhIX OOCTOHTeJIbCTB., CTOH nepen yrpoaoti HOBhIX ~apaTeJH',HhIX perrpeccak H napexoro TePPQ:pa" JilIOAH, 06pe'qeHHO :nOKOPRJIUCL 110Ji[HOMY l1POH3BOJIY, IIOp;BlfI'aB.meMY KBhICeJI9HHIO ax B TYPIJ;lfro.

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«,PemHBWHC!b nepeOeJIHTbCSI, HeKoTophU;l caenana STO nop; BJIH:ll'aHeM TOJIKOB nOACTpeKa'l'eJIeH ... t.IeqeHeu; o:ntH,!I;aJI, 'ITO OM HBHTCH B TYPlU,HIO, KaK B H'e.)KHl>IH oTtu,di: ,Il;OM, J.iBRTCH Myxa,o;mnpOM 12 co aeeMH npeHMym;ecTBaMll aroro CBHIQ,eHHoro COCJIOBH$l ••.• KO paBHOJ!(YIIl!H.13' H 6eCn;epeMOHlHOCTh C STHMM:: <!MyxB.n;mHpaM!H!> TypOK, Ra3:'!BaBmHX HX llIaKaJIaMH (1 - M. B..). H aoofime ne-ransnaa ,1'(ei1cTBH'FeJIhHOCTb CKOPO OXJIa,B;H.iUI HX & l3.

'ECJIH BeHHaXCRHe BibICeJIe'HD,hI H MOI'JIH CTPOHTl;. ce6'e lfa pO,QHHe :KUtUe-TO naHMCJli8MHCTCKHe MJIJII03HU- II0Ji; BJIH.1'HrneM JI~I1I.BOj:i nponaraH,Qhl n;apCKOH areHTYPibl, TO ace ::'ITO JIODnYJIO. RaK MbIJlbHbIR ny:mrpb~ J[,HWb 'FOJIbRO rrepsste TIepece.meHll,!b1 rrepecexna PYCCKOTypeU;KyIO rpaanrryl

Ho HecMoTpSI na a8BepeHHH «Bep6oB:rJll,MKOBl). 'l!TO ace H,l!Ioe'T KaK no Ha.Me11esHoMY IIJlaHY. napcxae BJIaC'fU AO easroro rrocneznrero MOMeH'Fa. COMHeBaJIHCbB COOKORHOM' (oeCKpOB:HOM), OKOHlIaHHll aa'TeSlHHoHMMH np0B,ORalU,HH. HepB03HOCTb CKB03MJIB! B Ka.m)I.OM CJIOBe HX rrepenacrca. 'Y KHH3:a TYM8HOBa B nacssce R JIopHc-MeJIHKOBY IBCTpe'Ia.IO'l'C.H:, Hanpa.Mep, TaKHe Tpe:somH!ible llJpaSbI:

«Bee .n;oHhIHe nOJIyqaeMbleMHOH CBe;aefHt,)"I oOHa,zteJRHB.8IOT MeaSI, 1:11'0 nepecaneaae l:J:8CTH qeq,eHCKOro aaceneana COBepIII,MTcJ! C ycneXOM, HO TeM He MeHee, HeJII>3lil reneps 06 aTOM C;!I,eJIaTb nOJIo)JUl'Te·JIMIOlI"O aaRJIlO"ie:EfHH ... CJIYXH, co acex CTOPOH MHOH B nacroamee BpeMJ! nonyxaexsre, H ;aeaCTBHH .MOHX areHTOB ,lIiUOT M}{e CMeJliOCTE.

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142:

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BH~nMO., He HB mYT.Ky reaepanoa 38HHMaJIa 3a60'1'a «0 SIIeQaTJIHTeJILBhlX H B36aJIMOIIIHliIX xexennax», H nOCKOJIhRyu;apC:KHe Meponparrraa ynHparoTC.!'[ B<lUOl). xoropoe Bcmp;y MeUIaJIO nO.KOp$lTh B,e'HHaXOB. TO rrpa ncaa HX BeJIlUWH CHJIe H rocYA·apCTBeHHQM MOm,H y u;apCRHX reaepanos ace me TPHCJIHCh KOJIeBH, RQI";lI;a OHH 00)1.0- lJlJIH: B)[IJIO'rHYro K BbIUOJIHeHIfIO CBOel'O aarosopa.

143

11, HaKOHen;, IIO<CJIe,n;Hee: aTO YKa.S8.1Uile aa TO, "lTO .o;eJIO BhICeJIe'naa 6bIJIO He MaJiIo3Ha'tIam;ltM BOUPOCOM, a 5!BJIHJIOCb {<He.o;OKOaqeHHL.IM BonpOCOM 3aIilOeBaHH.lI ~, ROTOPI>IH CaMo,n;ep:maBue ,n;OJDKHO 6:bIJIO 38Bep1ll9TI> BhICeJIeHHeM (mo6oH u,eHoil).

BO'r nOTOMY·TO a,n;MHHHCTpa:U;HH TepcKoH OOJlaCTlt ITpIUlJiJla. ace 3a~nC$H.uHe OT see Mepw: OT rrozncyna area-roa-rrpoaoxaropoa H aUJIOTb AO IIO,z:t;I"OTOBKH H cOCpe,1l;OTOQeS:l{JI BOHCKOBblX ooe.n;HHeHHnB 60JIbWUe OTPH.n:bI!

KorAa Bee nO,1l;I'OTOBHTeJ!1>HbIe Meponp:n:aTH:I'1 6hlJIH aaaepnrensr, TO reneparrsr apHCTYIIUm:f K ocym;eCTBJleHIJIO csoero ITJIaHa.

Itl IlIlCbJJlO eenepasa IOU!3/1, TYAtalW6a U'H.epa.n.,Y Jiopuc-Mesuxoeu. 24.05. 1865. t mas« »ce U ommyoa »ce ),

16 C .. u. ,flbtute: Omnotueuue IUJ.il'LanoYlOl4ezo Tepcsot; o6.n.acmu na'laJl,bH.ILKY r naenaso iumatia «0 nepeeexenuu. myS€.M.qea Tepexot: o6J/acmu 6 TYPlfUJO'~ M 78, 23. 11. 1865. (Ce8epo·OcemuncfCuu peCnfl6J~UKa11,(':Kuu eocapxue, C8. 1, ii.l (celCpemIH)e)..

7~ llYT:b BJidCEJIEHiUjEB tAo rp.il.H:HI~h])

nPllMEt.fAHMJI

BhlC8'JIeHll8 lIeHHaXOB C KaBH:a3a B TYPU,HIO Ha't[aJIQCb 23 Mas 186,5 r.l. 3Ta nara rrascerna BOIDna B acroparo noxopenaa Beihl!axCIUIX aapozos POCCHHClKMM n;apH3MOM. RaR Tpare.u;H.lI H KPQBaBf.\.a 3IIOneJ[.

BblCeJIeHD;bI ,.IlOJUKHbI 6bIJIH CJIe.,nOBaT'b ry:meBblM TpaHcnopTOM no BoeHHO-rpY3HHCKOH .n;opore B 3aKaBKa3b8', a O'FTy.n;a ~ K rpaanne 'F'ypn;HH (PH.c. 3, n:pHJI. 9).

IToce.ueHJire IlplIObtBalOtQi-rX npezmo.caranocs rrpoassona'rs B rnyGuns 'TypeII;KoH crpama, nonansure OT rpaHIUJ;bI C Poecaea. B IIHChMe reaepana JIopHc-M.8JIliKOBa reHepaJI-M'1'!:.HOpy KYH.n;YXOBY 06 aTOM rOlBOpHJIOCb TaR: 6., •.• [10 CBe;:J;eHl1.HM; .u;OCTa!BJIeHHbIM IJ[OCJI8HHHROM H~mHM B lCOHCT8HTHHOnOJIe, 'I'ypenxoe npaBH'F8JIbCTBQ 113'l>J1BHJIO C01('naCHe KaR H8 C.lJ:e.llOB8HHe n:HTH ThICHq qeqeHCKMX nepeceneanen cvxonyrserc xepea Kanreaacao-Typemeyro rpaaarty, TalK M Hat BOABopeHlle HX B npeztenax MalIoH ASHH, sa 9paepYMCKIIM namaJll'>IROM, B OKpeCTHOCT.ilX ,lJ;Hap6el(1;lpa If Anerrnos? .

Mapnrpyr BbICeJIeH'IeCKHX napTHH rrpoxozmn xepea ropona I'opn, BOP.iKOM, Axa.JIKaJIaKH; osepo X03,aIIHH, Anexcaanponom, H Kapc 3. rpYllnh~ 06030B BbIc€:.rr8Hu;eB Cne,!IOBa.lUl 'co. acex KOKUOB qeqHH H HHryweTHH BO BJIap;HRaSK83. :r.n;et"i'bIJI n;eHTpaJIbHhIl1: nepecenerrqeCKH:Hr vrareps, H oTKy,n:a ax pa36I'IB8:JIH H3 napTHH no 100-.;20.0 ceMeHcTB, noene 'qero H8I.IlpaBJI.l'IJI3 18 nyTh B COTIlpOBOm;o;eHHM IIPaCTasJleRRI.IXK HllM o(lmu;epoB l1! KOHJ30H rro Boe:HHO·rpYS.HHCROB ,nopore H }J!aJIee.

IIOJIOmeHHe BblCeJI5.IeMhIX ropnea 6bIJIO HCl<JIIO'IMTenbHO T:fI>Kenoe, Ona YXOJlIIJlH C PO,,ZI;H:D!X MeeT, 6poca& P0,1l;HhIX, JJ;pY3e:ti, JKI1JlMm;a" 6e3 aanacoa xne6a (xporae RaR B ,!I,opory), 6e3 CKOTa H T. ,,ZI;., mrnr, 06pe'fleHHhIe Ha IlOJIHJ:.Ill npOH3S0JI, 6epH B ,n;anbHHH rrY'I'b JlHIllb TOT HR"ITO>KHbIM .npFIMHTHBHbIR 6e,n;H.5Iil,l,KHU cKap6 Ii npOBH8HT. KOTOPbI:H: MOl' YMeC'r!1Thca na HX y60!'HX KaIH{a3CKHX ap;HoKoHHhIX aptiax (HJIH aptiax, SanpHJfWHHbIX napoil 6YH'BOJIOB JI 6brKOB, HO a'FO peace), Y' l\UWI'aX >KeH 'l'8KOi1! «pOCKomM» lie 6bIJIO!. Brraronaps 3TOMY, napCKM€' opraaaearopsr BhlceJIeHH~ B:blHY.IRp;eHbI 6h1JIll OKa3hIlBaTb Hercrrropoe nop;o6ue «IWMO.w;til> l'()JlOH 6e.n;HOTe Eo 063aBe,!l.eHI1rHTpaHCIIOiPTOM. B CKYIilbIX Ka3eHHhlx crporcax coxpamssraaxcn apxMBRhIX ,I.\OI\Yl'IleHTOB, EaR, aanpmaep, B nliCbMe JIopHc-MeJIHKOna R reaepa.rry Rapn;oBY"~H'raeM 385.IIIJleHHe KYH;:J;yxOaf.\ 0 paCX0tt:0BaHlfI1 cpe.n;C'I'B 118 BbJCfl.T1ji8MhIX ropnes: « ... reHep,Ul.MtulOp KYHP;YXOB 3a.HBHJI MBe,

r ilUCbMO U'H .. Jlopuc-Mesuueoea Zeit. lCapqo6y «0 nepecenenuu. my3€.Atqe6 Tepcxois o6Jlacmu (J TYPl.{,uf()1> 01.07. 1.864 .. (Ce6epo·Ocernullcrwi1 pecnutinu}(anCKUU eocapxue, CJ3. 1. fJ. 1 {cetepemuoe ),

2 CM. 6bLULe:' IIuc,b.M.O JIopu~·MeJl.u}(,o(Ja KapijQ6Y. M 127,23.01. 18652.

a OmnOUl€HUe KoManaYIOIU;€20 ,80flc1C11.MU Tepcxoti o(JJWocmu H.a<J,(}I.J/.bltUKY P:rr.a(3nMO usmasie: Ka(J1W3CKOU apMUu ,,0 nepeeesenuu myseMl{efJ Tepctcoii 06· sacmu (3 T'yPU,UlO» M· 73, 21.02'. 1865. (Cef3'epa·Ocemu1I.c'fCuu pec'ny6.ltulcait. .. CICUU 8QCapXU8, C8. 1,0. 1 (cetcpemnae}.

4 C60pftUK c6e8'€HUU ° TepcICoii o6.ltacmu. Bun. 1. B.aal)wca(JfCas, 1878.

C. 274, (8 cmam&€ «f[e'l€nqbJ 81/.e tfe'li'tu»).

, nUCMW zen. ICH,.a:JH. TY.M.aIt06a tum •• ffopuc·MeJw.1(()6Y (,0 nepecenenuu myaeM4e6 Tepcxot; o6.n.acmu 6 'TYP4Uf()~> .M I, 19.11. 1865. (CN3epo·Qcemu,/i· CICU,{l pecny6/1.u~a~c'1~uU ?QCapXUB, C8. 1. O. 1 (ceupemnoe}.

6 Cs«, 8·btULe: Ilucuu» J!Opuc·ll{ellwco6a Kapq08Y (,0 nepeceneuuu my:1eM' u,ee Tepcxot; o6Jlacmu 6 Typll,UIO')' .18.12. 1864. (Ceeepo-Ocemuncxuts pecny.(j· Jl.UXanCfCuu, gOCapXU6, cs. 1 j a .. 1 (cexpemuoe ),

7 CM. 6bl-Ute: j:{Ok:.a,aana.R. sanuctca ~a'l,a.JI"nwca r.JlO,81WIIO w.m.a6a «0 nepece.nexuu mYS€M.4e6 TepcICoii. OO.Jlacmu 13; Typu,uroJ> Aeeycm 1864. (Ceeepo-Ocemunc.I€ui'i: pecny6J1UfC(J.nc}(!.ti), eocapxue, C8. ,1, 0. 1 (ceicpemnoe],

8 C.M.. euuie: IT.UC!JM.O Jlopuc-Mesuucoea. lfapu,oey:. 5.1'1, 1864 e. Omm.yiJa »ce .u. ma,At see.

9 IIUCMto nOnK08H.UKU Ee.!MItKa Ha'l(J.JI,bH.UrGfI o6·Jla.cmu een; JIoPUC·M€JU1· /tOBY 25.0'8. 1865. {<0' nepecesenuu. mY3e.MijeQ Tepc}(oii o6.ltacmu 6 TYPlfUlQ>}

C8. 2. {j, 1 {cexpemnoe}, .

10 Ceeiteuus: Hnno,,JI;U,nOBa eacsupeueatom. ocotioeo iioeepusc, nQcH;O,l~I>KY on 61>J.lt oonU.JffU;J ol5pa306a/'{,~£bLx II, aemopumemuux PYCCKUX oqnuiepoe e Tj e'llte It, }(pO.M,e mozo. Ql>t~~~ »cenam. na 'te'l:eH.Ke.

/1 OmI10LU€IiUe fta'ul.ll.b1tUl,a ApZYffc/t'oeo olCpyea, nO.Jl'.}(O(J.H.UKa HnnOJl,UnW6a 8e1t.·KIt.R31O TYlitaH.OBY ,,0 nepecesenuu mYJ'eM!.(,e6 Tepc/(Qil oi5.w,cmll B Typ· ~UlO» M 104'8. 21 .. IV~ 1865. (Ce8epo·Dcemltltc/(uu, peeny6.n.urwHc1Cuil eocapXlUJ, Ce. 1. O. 1).

It M y x a {j 111: U. p- no·apa6c,Ku «useuannu« C po8u,/ii:JP), JI.Ul.{O cesuueuseoe

no Kop,any. .

JJ Cl5'opm,L/c c8eatmuu 0 Tepc1Cou (){Ltacrnu . .B,JI;a{JulCamw.3, ;t878. Bsin; 1.

C. 274,275.

_ N flUCb.JIW fCtlRJR. TY,lWH.08a Jlopr.u:-]I.;[e.rLulwsy «0 nepecenenuu. my3c,,,u~e6 Tepcxot; o6.n..acmu ,6 TypqlHO» Jowfi 1,19.02 .. 1865. {Ceeepo-Ocemunceuts pecny6· JUlICaHC1€UU eocapxue, C6. 1, G. 1 {ceupemuoe].

144

145

't£TO lK.paU:llSls.I 6eAHOCTb nepeeerreaues a, AJIH HeXOTOplbIX, COBepm8Haaa H8BO:]MOatHOCTb OTupaBHThC.H B nyTb 6e3 nonyseaas cym.eCTBeHnoro ,.Il;eHe:H<:HOrO nocotiaa, no KpaHHeH Mepe R3 rrOKyIIKY O:blKOB ,l(~.fI ynpSlmlI, saCTaBHJIH ero B BbIAaqe nepeeeneanars noco6HH rrpeasrCRTb paarsep aCCHI"HOB3HHH na ;}TH CYMMbl ».j •

HeT cOMHeHHH :a 'rOM, q'j!'O !B IIPHBO.!lRl'I1blxICyaP;YXOBhIM onpas.n:~tHH:f!X no nosoztv P3CXQ,ll;OB. IIpeBhlCHBlllRX HROObil rrpezmaanasreaasre H3 rrocofiaa CYMMbl, eOTb H3]lS:l:,IJ;Hl:la JIlOJUi n.peYBeJlH"EeHHfl ()1jJIH «aarpeaae 11 CBOHX pyx). 1-10 C APy:roi1 C'FOpOHbl, BeCbMB! B03MO.)KHO, 'ITO 'T'aM' HM'eeTCJl H HeMaJ[aR ,l1;OJl[R HCTMHbI; :::lTO ,1'(OKa3bIBae'l' .!tiPYl'Ioii AOKYiMeaT (aaqam.KHKa Haapaaoacxoro, T. e. Bcei:i:: HHryureTIUt, oxpvra), cBH,ll,eTeJIhC'l'aY'lOI.J.J;HH 00 OqeHh CTeCHeHHOM IIOJ1l0at€HHH opnrexoanea. OH coo6ll\aJI Jlopac-Meznrxoay:

{jKapa6YJIaKH~OpllITXOH:O;ibI B8CbMa nnoxo IIpn:rOTOBHJUiCb It ssrcryrmeamo: npH'ifIHa 'Fa, "ITO HeT c6hITa HMYIQeCTBa Hi Tpy.n;HO npu· ofipe-raerca Heofixo)J;MMoe ,1J;JIR ,1l)m;:meHH.H. MHOI'O 6eAHoro Hapo~a, KOTOPOMY HIiKTO He noraorae'r. ,rt;Jl5I H€KOTOpOro 06JIer't.(eHJI($ qT~g aaTPY)lHeHHH H npoc:tfJI nOJlKOBHIIKa Ifexxa y"Ipep;,H''II'b B CTaH. AQ .. CHHCKOH 6a3apbI ,lJ;JIR MeHOBOM: TOPIi'OBJUi. Baaapsr ani aR3H.VleHW ,lB;SR paaa B HeAeJIlO: 13 llHTHiIUJ,Y H. aocxpecease, Haneroca, "ITO ain Mapa 3Ha:'Y:H'!!'e..ll1bHO 1I0MomeT liM coopaTibcH. Eo npn BeeM aTOM, 6~a OCOGOH MiRTepIIaJ[bHOH nOMO~iI':t. IHl.l:tb3SI n:OpYI:JM'II'bCH33! ilIOJ!HhlU yenex )J;,eJI8i B npe,11;IlOJIOm€HHbIX paaxepax» 5 •

,rt;aH.Ha.H BlbI.o;epmKa xapaierepaayer o6I.IJ;ee nOJIOmeH.Re 11: rOBOpHT' 0 TOM, naCKOJll.KO BeJUIKO 6blJIO 06HHw;aHRe BE!HHaXCKHX M8.Cfh nO'l'OMY 'tlTO He TOJIbKO C3MH OT'l>e3.iRaIOIl.J;He 6ep;CTBOBaJIH, HO II OC'1'8- IOliVieCH He HMeJIH cpeACTB nOMOqh HM XOT.H 6hI CKYnIWR .HymHhIK B .o;opOl'e Be~eH. Hainera 6bIJIa Bceo6m;a$.,

't.JepKeCbI. ('YXOP;:fI, OCTaBJUIJIH CBOff jfUIJIHIlW. yn;eJl.eBrinfi:i: CKorr, aanacsi xnefia, a HUOrAft 11: Hey6paUH!bfe HlIBl.I. Bee 3TO 6eCnJlaTHO ,nOCTRBaJIOCb u:oce,JI:HJ3U11HMCR iHa. oI:JHIilI,eHHhlx OT ropnes MeCTftX KOa3:KaM»e.

B npOTHBOnOJllo)KHOCTL QepXeC8.M, oprurxonrrsr B'e';UI cetia He TaR.

K8K OHM:, npn ~eeM TOM 6e,ll;CTBHH, xoropoe OITIICblBaJlOCb BhIme, tIYBCTBO npeaocxoztema nepezt 3aBOeBaTCJlHMH ,lI;O 1I0cJIe,lil,lIeii MHHY'F.hI npeOhlBaHII.fI BeHHaXOB HS pO~HHe He nOKH.ZI;aJIO 3THX repoenHFIUUIX. Ol{H YXO,l:tHJIH C pq,lJ;HHhI C BhICOKO nO,ll;HHTOH rOJloBoi1Il:.J'l'O ::;lTO OMJIO uMeRHO TaK, ,1J;OKa3bIBaeT JIloHeOtmHC roco m.e Ha'tlaJIbHHthl Ha.SPSHO'BCKOl'O oxpyra nOJIKOBHHKa HYPH,Ila UaqaJ.IbiUIKY OOJJ8CTH renepany JIopMc,MeJIHKOBY; B KOTOPOM oa mrcan B .n;HH BbICeJIeRHSI

0PWTXOMEJ,eBc.rreJ1!yrom;ee: . l

«Ilepecenemee Kapa6y.n:aROB H,ti(eT xoponro - caMH 3~'l.jKHralOT caOH aYJIhI, 'llTo6I:.I He OCTaBHTb K8!3a:RaM!}7.

Ho ecmr .B HHI'ymeTHH, BO,3MOm.H:O, DOJIee' MOPaJIhHO n CPH3HlIe~ eKR nO,llUJleHBo}i:: nOCTOHHHOH 6JIH3'OCTblO 60JIbWHX BOHCKOBbIX CKOr,J. JI8HHH (UOA BJIa,J.J;,HKaBRa30MI K HaapaHLIO) BhlCeJIe'HHe IIPOXO)l;H~() 6e'3 OC06bIX rrpcacnrecraafi, HCRJilO'l3H OPIllTxOMll,eB, OrpaHH1'UU:iWHX. C$I J!lHIIIb naCCHBH:bIM n:p01'eCTOM (YHlltITOmeHUeM CBOHX OCTaBJISI -

MblX o-raroa), ')'0 !B MHTe»tHOH qe~He He 060mJIOCl. 6e3 Oqepe)jl;HOH IlCllM,llIKH!

llPHMEllAHMfl

I Konux Q1nrtowenuR, K'Q.M(Ju·oyro14e?O 60ucICaMu Tepc1Coil otinacmu It eeueIHllla Jtopuo-Menunoea ",o.Man8YIOU{eMY' 80UCK(M~U !laZ{;CmaltC,KQU 06Julcnut ~O napece.n.e,lwu. my:W.Mije6 TepclC:ou o6.aacmu <6 TYP4UlQ') M 27, 30.05. 186.5. (C(.~epo.O<.~emu!'lcl(;uu pecnyoJtILK'anCK,Uu. eocapxue, CB. 1 [cenpemnoe ),

• JIUCb..M.O renepasa Jlopuc·MeJw"of.lu ee.nepaJLY KynfiyxoBY lIO nepe.ce.f1;e· IHIU rnY.:Ie.Ul.teB Tepescoi: 06.R:aClnU 5 Typ~u/O» Nt 74. 24. II, 18(J5. (Ceeepo ()cpmuJtclluU. pecny(JJlCl1~a"t:"uu eocapxue, CB. 1, a. 1 (cexpemnoe ),

" Omuoiueuue na'lQ.f1;bRUfCa TJLaeU080 wma6a .Ka6Ka3ci:wu apsuu: eenepana linpuoea na'lQJl.bItUKY TepcKOft o(fJl,acmu }ok 704. 22.04.. 1865., c,/wnueu auauIIlla/~l>nI7CX n.uceAJ tc 8paepy".tCKOAty unepaJl.·2y6epH.arnopy, 3 .. 04 .. 18<65 e. U 112.1"" ,IU'ilpa.Af.Atb/, napmuonscu»; ()ljJuu"epoB nQ.uOBnu.fCY Si!JI.ayM 12,03:06. 1865( omIIIIIiJ.a JlCfJ u mau »ee ).

" nUCbMO eeuepana J!opuc-MeJl.lu{;O(Ja unepaJI.y ,K,apu,oey «0 nepeceneuuu. my.le.m;,ee Tepcxoi: o6./1.acmu 6 TyP!{'UIO» M 53, 07.07.1865. (Ceeepo-Ocemunt'lW,U pecny6.f.1.u"anf."KUU eocapsue, C(J. 1. lJ. 1 (ceICpemN,(M_).

_, n fluar.MO nu<:tu..ll:b1tLUCa FI~3pa~tOfJc.KQZO Ol(py'ilU zen,epaJlY Jlopuc:Me,JLUKoay, ~O lJ.epp.ceJlenuu myaeMI.je8' TepC1Coil 06Aacmu e Typu,uro* 20.05. 1865. (ammy· ,)/1 )f('(! .u maM »ce}.

II Lianutcoe A. Ka81(,Q3 U HO(Joir,:XCb6. M., 1913. C. 15.

'I Il epenuctca nO,ll.JW6HUKa HypuiJa c tfNtepaJi,OMJIopu(;·MeAu.l,06I>I,M (.0 ne/H!'cr.JUWUU myaeMII,€8 Tepcxoti o(}.I/,Qcmu f3 TYPl4ulO» 02.04. 18'65. (Ceeepo-Oce-

muncxui; PecT1.!I(}./i.UICal-lcKul1 eocapxue, CB. 1, O. 1 (ceKpemnoe).· .

8 .. nOD'bITKAB03Mym;EH1UI B,:n'IR,EPHH MIOPH,l1;A TA.3Y 3KMHP3AEBA

. B rrepasre me .ZI;HH OTObITU;RI napTHH BeH:HaxcEn:x. BbIc.e.rreRlI€'B - 24. Mag 1.865 1'. - B Mq,iKepIU:1 npOH30mJIa. IIOiIlibITK8. ,K B03My~,emno, opraHI:138.TOPOM xoroporo 6bIJ[ rraeryx Jii3 cerr. Xapal.fOH Taay 3K~ MJ!IpaaeB I,.

KOI'Jla B Mae MleCHue TepCKRe BJ][aCTH n:PRCTYITHJIH K KOHKpeT· IIOMY OCYl'.IJ;8CTBJleHRIO BbICeJIeHU.H qe't£eH:o;eB .B TYPIJ;I'HO, Ta3Y, y'3H8!B o npeMellu BhIe3Jla nepasrx lIapTHit BhICeJl!eHQ'eCKHX 06030B. o6pa'.I'lifnC$ I( HaC~,lIeHHIO 6m[~ail:W:liX K Xapaxoso aYJWB 6WBmero Bel~eHCKOI'O oxpyra (,lI.apro. SpceHoH. A['UllluaTOH, 3JIH'CT8.HmH II AP.) C npn3biBOM K raaaBaTY" Os, npH3.hllB8:R HapO,ll; aa BOHHY, CTaSI1Jl ne)11>10 H3rHaHH€ XOJIOH1l3aTopOB H OCBOOOmJleEiJ-l:e PO,!;U'IHbI 0'1' napaf)o~eHH.H. B erOB033BaH:M:.fIX H3i3HaQaJlOCI." BpeMJ'l: (24.05.); MeCTa C60pOB iH IUl.M9'tJaJI8:Ch r JlaBH3x n;eHb.

B 'l'8'K!C:Te Boa:3BaHI:1H 'Ta3Y SKMHp3aeB3., J'OBOpHJIOCih~

1. « ••• EYAhTe rOTOBI>lT It raaRB,8.TY, K BbInOJIUeHHlO yro.n;Horo Bory II npopotcy MaraMe'I'Y, BOHHe C HeBepHiblMH' M npal'aMH npasoaepIlbTX. I1M8HeM Bora H rrpopoxa ero npaaemaro nac scex KOHHbIX 11:

]46

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147

nenrnx lIB ropy XHTHW-Kop'I'. CoonpaHTBCE. BC€' Ty.n;a 33BTpa YTpOM •.• »

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JIo .n;pylF'HM l'I3BeCTHllM (60JIee nOa,1J;HHM. OI'l'HOCs:rn;HMCSI K 24 HiOJll1 186S r. H Hcxo,n;.1rn~UM OT Toro )Ke nOJIROBHHKa Hypnna}, HG ncero Kapa6YJI8KCKOro yqaCTH:a Tor.n;a 'OCTi9IJiIOCh B. O,n;BOM TO)1hRO aY..1le Ax-Bopaoe (Carornna) 75 Kapa6YJlaRcKHx ceMeii 5.

Boofiure n:PHXO;rJ;HTCH O'FMeTHTb, 'ITO 'KPOM€ TO'lHOrO IWJI~eCTBa BbICeJIeHHiblX Rapa6YJIaKOB (1366 ceMeiir), yCTaHoBMTb B OTllleJJ:blWC'I'11 .KOJIH~IeCTBO Bb'lCe.vreHHblX CeMe:M:'tIet.I13Hll"eB H Fmryrneii He npenCTaBJUleTCH B03MO:IKHhlM. TIOTOMY IIPHXO.o;HT~ YCJlOBHO c'tJ:HTaTb, tfTO Ha ,lI(QJIIQ lIeqeHCKHX II anryurcxax ceMeR rrpnxomrrca paaaocrr., OCTalO~,aaCR rroeae BbI"-Ie'ta Kapa6YJnlK.OB: 3623 (4989 -1366=3628) ce.Meit qeqeHD;eB H HHI'ymeH.

TaRHM o6pa30M, JIO cooemeamo li!3 MHrymeTHH Hti'lia.nhHHRa orcpyra nOJ:lROBHHRa HYPI1,!l;,a BH}l,HO, 'ITO HaM60JIee onaeaoe ,Il;JlJI ItOJlOHH3a'l'0pOB opnrrxoacxoe n.ITeM$li HHrymeii 6blJIO rrowrn nOJIlIOCTblO BbICeJleHO C Cenepncro KaBKa3a; OCTaJIOCb .Ji!:UmL ne3HaqETeJIbaaH 6e~HalD;RaJl qaCTb (re, ROMY He aa qTO Ow.JIO nO.D;HKMaT&CH B AaJIbHU:~ nYT:bt) - B 11HrryrneTl1H OKO]][O 75 ceMeitcTB; a B T.Je1.J:H€ OKOJIO 101) ceMeHcTB. 8TO no .QalIElI;IM rrpoqieccopa JlR:ar)H~CTa, H. CPo HKOBJIeBa aa ]927 r-, OB 0 BIIX rracan:

<,EcTI:., npasaa, vxaaaaae, "tJ!TO B ceJ][eHHH Aqxo:A-MapTaa coxpaHUJIOCh OROJIO 100 ,n;OMOB Kapa6YJIaKOB, AO CRX nop I'OBOpHIIJ;HX aa CBoe,M OC060M a:ape'lJiIH»6.

CBep;emuli ° KOJIHqeCTBe BLICeJIeHl'libIX qeqeH:u;eB B OT,IJ;eJIhHOC1'H OTCYTCTBYIO'F (O"-IeBH.n;Ho, llX 6M.liIO ropaaao 60JIee fIOJIOBHHbr). Bcero aa JleTO 1865 I'. 6hlJIO ssrcexeao BeilHaXOB 23057 senoaes. IlonP06HOCTH 06 aTOM nplIBo.n;HM H3 panopra 3aBe,,n;YlO~eI'0 rrepeceneaHeM reaepany .:rIopm,C-MeJlHKOlaY, r,1'l;El OB cootiman:

« ... C 18 MaSli :no 17 ceHTH6ps (186'5.,- M.8.) B COCTaBe 28 nap'!I'H.H nepecenanoes 4989 CeM'eHCTB B qHCJIe: 11 833 .n;yrInf MymcIW· 1'0 H 11 224 ,Zi(ylliH meHcKoro nOJIa, npa HRk COC'l'OSlJlO 6919 apti,

4497 .nouranea H 11 681 mTYKa pOraTOI'O CKOTa ••• 1> 1 I

liTaK, CaM()~epmaaHe HsoaBH.JJOCb B no6em.,IJ;eIIHOMRaBKa3e \OT' 10 Tb][,C. Mym"tfHH (H3 23 057 Q8JIOBeK) Haa60JIee BOHHCTBeHiHOH rrpoCJIOii:I{H '~3.aIYUl:p.ReMhlXl> BeftHaxOB. (eM.: PHC 5. IIpR.lI. 9')..

156

Hcropaaecrcaa o6cTaHoBR8. CTe"IeHlIe fle6JIaronpUJITHhIX o6c::oaTeJIhCTB, C03P;8BIIIHxca K KOHrlY ocyw;eCTBJIeHHS!! BbICeJIeH~JI HeMRaXOB s Typn;UIO.c.nO:>EHJIHCb 'FaK, qTO TPYCJIHS8fl napcrcaa a)lMHHI1CT- , paUlHJI" CKPOM!W' CT8BJiIBWaR BHatf;-UIEl BbIC8JIe'HFUI 38.n:8"IY y.a;a.JI8RHS XOTH 6!bl Kopa6YJIaKOB, 3aTeM .!to '1'0['0 pacxpaJ5p~,I]aCh, "-liTO H8qaJI8 npe,n;'bHBJIJITJ;> Tpe6osaHFl!51 06 y,n;aJIeHHH no CBoeMY Bb!l6opy ncex He' yrO~Hhlx eli: JlJm;,. I'eaepan JIopnC-MeJlHKOB 06 a'rOM .u;a:me ITHCaJI B THqJJJHC renepany Kapn;OBY: « •.• .n;aJlbHOCTb nepexozta • .!iI'O'XOA~nnUHe C!O.ll.R cseAeH:H.R 0 H:EH{,OTOPbIX sreasrroztax M.eCTHOCTll HM rrpemraaHaqeHHO.H 38CTaBHJlM 60JIhUlYIO 'I8!C1'1b ltace.JIeIUIJi KOJIe6a'I'l>c'$1 is OROHqaTeJII'.HOM penrexmr; nOJlb3YS!!Ch 3TllM, Mb[ Mo.rJIH ,lJ;eHCTBOB3Th no npOH3BOJIY H y,n;3JIHTb H3 Rpaa Tex, 1WI'0 JIteJlaJIH caMH; T. e.J11PIHOCTeH RaH60Jlee6eCIIOlwHHhIX H Bpe~HhIX .u;eJIY, npezmpausrrorsy 3,!l,eCb npalB.HTeJI:bCTBOM» 8.

- 1-1:3 npHBe)J;eHHO![,O BHJI(HO, HaeKOJILl<O IVl.,pCKHe reaepanse OCM(lnana, JIHWb TOJI!bKO HM y.n;aJIOCh B HeKO'FopOH CTeneHH ycnenrno pe3JIH30BaTL CBOPI nnaasr, ITo. 06bll<HOlH!RlllO, ORn CTaJIFr D,HHH'IHO TBOpHTb Ha,n; JllO,Il;bMH np01l3BOJI.

IIoMHMO 31'01'0. npHBo,uHMl>Ie CTpOKH CBH.n;eTe.lIbCTBYIOT 0 TOM j "I'.I'o.

BnROTb AO nOCJleJI;HerO MOMeH'X'a ne0:H3Xn YXOAMJUl C PO,!:(BHhl seesMa KO.lle6Jul!Cb OT'HOCHTeJIhHO npaBHJIbBOCTH 'raRoro mara, cpaRTH'-IeCKH, IVIOpaJIhHO IlOAaBJIeHHble. a He «,lIi06po.Bo.'JIl!HO» ~ He «ClJ!pOBOnxpoaanaare naHHCJlaMHCTCKHMH HJIJII03HHMH », Kale ::lTD <popMaJIbHO YTBepm:,zJ;a!lOT Hel'.JIy6oKO H8yqHBw__~e sorrpocl (eM.: npHJI. 3).

ITo nOBO,lJ;y -Fl!'I'OI'OB BbICeJIeHIUI MOJ!{IJO. CY)J;I1Tb aa ocaoae noH.yMeHTOB nspenaexa, CO:r.:r:U1CHO ItOTOPbIM C KaBKBi3a B.hICeJIeHO 6bIJJ:O 60JIee 23 Th!lC. qenOBeK BeHRaxoB. Cne,n;oB8ITeJIbHo. YXO,1l OKOJW S ThlC. CeM€.HcTB B TYPII.MIO ,lJ;lIH scea 06.lI8CTM COCTaB.JI.1rJI .ll,OBOJIbHO 60JIb-' mOH nponeirr.

QTo6hI B nOJlHOH Mepe eOCTaBUTh npaaansaoe rrpencrannexae 0 !BOe'HHO-nO.lIHTH'l!BC:KOM 3Ha~eHHlJ Ta:Roro E.oJIH'!.J!eCTBa BblcJi:aRHhJX, HaAO BcnOMHH,]'h CI<pOMHbIe (HO ,lJ;JI5I KOJIOHH.3aTopoB· 3H8!'<lMTe.tr:bHble) nepsonanansnsre MeiqTbI JIoplIc-MeJIHRolBa. Brne B 1863 I'". n:PII 00- .ll,YMblBaHliH rrepaoro npoexra 0 BhICeJIeHHH Bei1:uaxoB crop Ira IIJJiOCROCT}',. aaxaasnare TepCIWR OOJlaCTU, Boaoym)l;aH STOT BOIIPOC nepen lUl!l'deC'rHliKOM aa ICaS:K8ae, nacan:

«Bo BCHROM c.JJIY1.[·ae, ObiJIO 6hI O'leHb nO.JI€3IIO" eCjlj();l! 6bl Terreph xee fill qeqem::r;eB 6hIJI HaopaH nome 11 ornpaarrea ,n;JUI BoeHHbIX .o;eH-· CTBUH B IIOJILwy. ° '18M a UM.eJI C~IaCThe JIHlIHO ,n;OKJla,!lJ;l>IBaTb Ero RMnepaTopCKOMY BbWO"-IeCTBY (B8nHKOMY ItH1l3IO MHXaJ:lJIY HUKOJIaeBll'iY. rJIaBHOKOM.aH,1WIOrn;eMY KaBKa3'CKOH apM~ei{. - M, B.). OTa Mepa ,n:elicTBHTeJlbHO Ob] fIs6aBHJIa Hac OT HaII60JIee 6ecnoKolhwH: 'lac'n!!: :a:aCeJIElRI{$U9 •

01'ClO.C(a BblHCH.1reTCH, q'ro erne aa .usa C JIHWH.HM rona )liO oCYII\eCT.BJIeHHH BbICeJIeHIIJI BeHHaXOB rrepen 1l"apCKHM KOMaH~OBaHHeM l"paJ'I crcana HeOTJlOiKHflSl aaztana: H30aBIIThca ObI (I) OT o,n;Horo nonRBI 'leqeHGIU1X 60HIJPB - {<Hall6oJ1ee 6ecnOKoihIOH "-laCTH aace.neHHJ1!) ,. Ho 13; ,!l;e:!tCTB:Wl'eJIiba'OCTa, C Bb:[CE!.l1eHI18M iDe-.aH8XOB B Typn;,Hlo

]57

nonY'1H.llOCfi TO, '11'0 C KaBK,l:\a8. yme.iI He O)l;JIH rrozne Qe'1elIll!;eB, a I'Opa3JJ;O 60JIhWe, H60 H3 U. 838. QeJ:i'O'B·e'K MY~(:~OJ'o nona BhlCElJIElHHbIX aa .n;OJI1O 6oecrroco6HOI'O KOHTHHreHTa nceraa H'a6epeTcH XOTSI 6hI Tpe'li'bJ'lI 'lJl8CTb (oxcno 4 TMC., 'lTO 60JlblIii,e TOI'jlamae['o O)llBOr'O Ktl:BnOJIK.a!). TaKO:B 6hIJI BoeHHO~CTpaTeI'HqeCKHH pesy.m.T8.T ShleeJIeUH.R.

IIo3TOMY y~HBJUITibC.R He npHXO,ZU1Tca.QJ{T8.a ,n;OBOJlbHO lIarJllbI€ 'CJIOBa B,n,;OXHOBH'lI'eJlJt 3TOro "lle'pHOl'O IIpe,JJ;npH.!!THH .J]opMc~MeJIHKOaa, KOTOPhIH nFfCaJI reaepany KapU;osy, OTKpOBeRHO oneaaaaa MTorH Bl>meJIeHlIJi BeihmxOB: « ••• B HaCTOJ'IIqee BpeMH (asrycr 1865 r. - M. B.) He nO,!l;.lIe~U[T ym8 HHK8KOMY COMHleHFflO, ~ITO J![o.n;xoA:l'Ir.ru;ee K KOH.p;y nepecexemre HbIHemHero rO,lllB! BhI.llOJIHeHO T8KHM y,n;oBJIeTBopHTe.llLHblM o6paaoM ~ naer TaKl>fe pe3YJIbTaTbl; lITO rpceranasre 'Tpy,u;bl H 3Ra'C{Ff'l'eJIbHible ~eHeJK:a:ble pacxozur, HR aTO rrorpaxeaasre, BhIKynaIOTcH AMeRO BUerqa,TJIeHIieM, npOl'I3Be,u;eHH1>IM nepecenean'eM H~ ace qeqeHCIWe aaceaeeae, rOTOBoe yme n Teneph nplHt.li'J'l> 6eaponOTHO e,n;Ba JIll He ace HaunI Tpe6oBaHI:UL H He rOBOplO y:tKe 0 BhII'O,l(ax, npHoopeTeHHHhIX OT!KphITHeM OCTaBillnXCH SeMeJl!b,KOTOpsre TaR Heo6'xo,zUIMbI H ,lI;JIH HaCeJIeHHH. H ,n:JIH Ka3aQeCTB.a!), to.

Ha seero ::lTOI'O MomBO aaKJIIO'U1Tb lUICKOJIbRO rny60Iw 6hIJIa rropaaeeaa 060pOHIiTeJIbHBlSl MQ.r:.JbI;ib aapoaasix Macc qe'lHH Ff llnry. meT~, eCJUI 3TH HRH60JI,ee iII0JlbHhIe roPU,H ICaBKa3Bl C,IJ;eJIaJIHCb C'FOJII> 110KOPHbI, ~ITO I'OTOBl>I 6brJIM «UpUHHTb 6eapOIIOTIliO» npOH3BO.lIbHhIe Tpe60saHHH :U;,apCKMX reaepanoa- KOJ]oHH3a'll'opoBI

A rrepea BblCeiIeHH<eM HX BbICKa3bmaJIBCb HeYBepeHHble aaneae-. ,,lI;,hl Ha YCl1ex peazraaarma TIJI8Ha: {< ... eC.JIH Mepa ::lTa (nsrcenesrae. ~ M. B.) OIta:>KeTCJ'I ,rr;enCTBH'TeJIbHOR, TO. nOCJle,ll;CTBUH ee npHHeCYT ~BOJ'IRYIO llI!)JlE>3Y: oCJlathn nacezenae, ocraronteeoa noxa sonncreeaHbIM 11 spa:l'K,1l;e6m:JJ1iIi HaM, Ii npe,ll,cT8nMTC$l 'B03M04RHOCTb OCTalBmHXCH aa CBOHX MeCTax t,Ie'Q:eHu;eB Ha,!l;eJlHTh B )J,OCTaTO'lnOM paaxe-

pe :aeMJIeii:» 11 • .

8TUM rrpe,1J;UpHSIT,IieM napcicaa a~MnHHCTpaD;UH., 6eaYCJlOBHO, H3!,IIiOJ1T'O u cepseeao OC.JIaOHJlia conpOTHBJ1eHH€ qe"'IHH a MHi'~rUeTHH.

; Ileno :M 32. Panopm 3(16'. nepecesenue.e Ho,>ta,JtbMull:y Tep,cleoa ot5,l1qcmu.

M 198, 28,,11. 1865. Bpe"fen./ibLu KOAwccap nO' nepec,eJleH-u/O mY3eMI.4€8 Tepc· "Qil o6J!.l],cmu 6 Typ!{Ulo .. (Ce8epo,-OcemUlfCICUU pecny6JT.U1CUnCKufl eocapxue).

8 Omllow.el~ue ntL'l.aRb/H.t.I,!,J Tepcxotc o6Jlacmu zenepaJty Kapt~06Y. M 61. 01'.08. 1865 I'D nepecenenuu. my3e'Mqe8 TepcfCoil. o6Jtacmu i3 TYPU;11JO» (Ce(JepoOcemuncJ:Cut't pecny6JtuH:anc./wu eocapxue, C,B. 1. a, 1 (cexpemnoe ) ..

R CM. a'btLUe."~OH:Jl,a:{)HaJI- 3anUCICa 0 TepcI(,oil otinacmu. na't(l.JLbltU;"Y TRatnU)' to' mmaIJa KaeICa3Cf(;oil apMuU. 1,4. 06. 1863. (o1.nm,y{ja :IKe, ma",! JfCe-).

10 CM. 6b.tUle: Omltollte'uueltu'ta.ll,blUHCa Tepclcou Q.(}.IUIICfflU zenepaJiy lCap4oey. M 61, 08. 1865. (.ommyfJa JfCl'. u maM »ce }.

u, Colt. euuie: IIli.cb.ilw eenepasa. ICH,H3J1. T!J~t(Ut08a e.eHepa.n.y J!opuc·MeRu;co,· .ay . .M 1. 19. 02. 1865. (ommyiJa »ce u maM. )ICe).

1'0. CT'PEMlJJEHIIE KOJIOIIH3ATOPOB HCTPEBHT:b BbICBJIEHHbIX BEHHA~OB B TYPU;HH

ITPHMElIAHH'51

Pemeaaex O;a,HOii: .lIHWl> 3a)J,a'tliJi BhlCeJIelHH.fI C KaBKa3a HeyrO,l];- 001"0 cefie aJIeMeHTa KOJIQHHaa').'op&1 He' OrpaHHQHBaJIMCb. Ilpa aTOM OHR rrpeenenosanaenre H .n;PYfH8 caoz u.eJllH.

Onna na HHX COCTOHJI.a B TOM, t,I-rOOh't Ha HOBbIX MeCTax nocezreAHJI ropnea OTO.n;BHHYT:b lJXKaK MOlKHO .n;aJU"we OT pyccao-rypeu!tOM rpaaansr, 3TO GbJlJIO HymHo .,n;JIH roro, t{To6hl Ha~e:mHee 06e3- OllaCHTb caoro KOP)J,OHRYIO JI:HiIHl!1O OT H,eMI-rHy,eMhIx llaoeroB seA'HaxCRUX aepexca, a aa cJly'tJaii BoalHhl C TYPD;HeM 11 HRcTyn.rreHHJI uapCKJiIX 1I0il1CI( 110 TypeU;Koi'i repparopaa - ae HMe'l'l. nepen co6oR Bpa.iK,Ile6HO-MC-THTeJlhHOe ropcrcoe aace.neaae, a: TOJIb:JW MeC'l'R()€ noJIyapMgHCKoe.

)J(PYE'ofi: n;e.nblO D:blJiO He,Zl;ODym;eHI-lie YCUJIeOlfSl TypeJ1(KOH apMlIill'l aa CqeT pexpyros lIS tlHCJIa BeHHaXOB. Llapcreoe npaBUTeJIbCTBO KOTeno ,l'{OOH'I'bC.fJ: HanOOJI:bllIerO (jJH3R'l.IeCKOrO YHI1q'I'O)KeHl'IH !BlbICeJi[eHHhlX BeHH8XOB, aSTOr€) MomBo 6bIJIO )J,06HThCSI pa3MeJ.I:J;eHHeM ax B caMOH He rrparoaaoa ;il;JUI: .)Kll.)lbJl MeCTHOCT.FI1. Ha mre TYPU;&iM raKHMM MeCT8MH C TJiDK€JIbIM R,IlMMaTOM II aenparonasnra npnpozrHbIMH YCJIOBH:HMH 6hlJlH nvcrsraa: BOT HX-TO R XOTeJIH aaCeJISlTib B,e:RHaxaMH. KOJIOHM38TOPO:B He y;:r;OBJICTBOPRJIO 'TOJ1bKO OARD asrceJIeBHe, HX HHTepeCOBaJlU erne ero nepcnexmresr 11 110CJIep;CTBHH.

9TH cooopameIIU.H BbICR83hIBaJIHCh JIopm:-MeJIIIKOBbIM BH8'llaJl!€ paapafiorrca rrpoerera Bl>ICeJ1eHll'I BeHHaxOB B Typnxso. B ,n;OKJIa,1J;HOH aarracxe, no.u;aHHoMB Hoa6pe 1864 I'. aa HMa rJIaBHOKOMaH,ZI;YIOr:u;ero IC,aBK8aCKOH apMHeM, OR 060CHOBan: 3'1'0 CJIe.zxy·lQIlllHMM: ,lI,OBo.u;aMI1r:

« ••• B JliH1.JiHbIX MORX p;OK.JIa,n;ax Banrejay HM,nepaTopCKOMY BhlCO"leCTBY HB npeJJ;CT8BJIeHHbIX MOOH: aarraexax .H nOCTOili8HO asrpaacan y6e~Kkl.eHHe, 'tliTO y~aJl!eHHe aa MBl.lI03eMeJIb!HOH, rvcronacenenaojt qe~Hl:[ KaRaM ON HH 6bIJlQ. qa'CTU 6ecnOKOHHoro H BOCIIl1T8HHOrOB nOkYBeXQBOM oOPbi5e C HaMH nnesseaa 6hl'JlO 6bI OrpOMH:bIM nrarox aa nyTH II: paaperneamo 'q,e'tl8HCKOro aorrpoca, a CJIe,n;OBaTeJIhHO, n:PHMOMY YMMpOTBopeHHIO 'I'epcxoro xpaa Ii aonscpeaaro B i8eM rpam,lJ;aHCTBemmCTH. Ho BM8CT,e e TeM npenaoaceaae Typeujcor-o

159

I CM,. 8btw:e: ,[[UC't>MQ HQ'taJl&nUJ.a HaapuH;o.fJC1CO'ZO oICpyza .zeli.epaJlY JIQPUCM e'lLU1W6y. 20.05. 1865. (ommyiJa :JICe u maM sce).

,1 CM. evuue: IIucbMO na'lG-Jlb1£UlCa Ha3:pan06CT(.020 o"'pyz,,a, 2en,epaRY Ilopuc.MeJl.u/co6Y· 20.05. 1865. (ommyoa :lICe u mUM ;)ICe).

.1 IIucbMO nonscoenusca Hupuila ultepa.JT.Y JI oPUC·M:MUICOBY. 19.04. 1865. (ommylja see IL maM 1ICe).

/. T

eJl.eepaMA1Q JIopuc·MeJlUIC06a HaAlecmnulCY Ita Kaesase B,eJI,u/COMY KHJl.

3/0 MuxauJlJ/ HUFCo/·w,e6u'j:Y. 07~06. 1865. (ornmyfJa :nee u rna",! »ee ), -

.1 /{3uzyp,(j6 A.. Il epecenenue eopuee 6 'TyP"uJO .. HaGanue Cee KU6 xnusa

1925. C. 122. .... . . ~,

e H1C06.1le6 H. 4J. BonpOcbt U3Y1f€ItU.Jl 1fe'tenqeB U uH.eyweiJ.. H3f)aHue f{('1;t«opospasa, rp03I'tWU, 1927. C. 10.

158

npaBHTeJIhCTBa 0 IIOCeJl!eHHU TyaeMIJ;el3, B COITpe.ll,eJIhHhIX HaOJHM BJIa.n;eHMilIM 06JIacT.nx )]laeT :3'l!'OMY aorrpocy coaepmemro kIRON Bl.f).1;; no6Yil{,n:arounra MeH~ BOHTl1' B paCCMlOTpeHFIe :aE.!'BbII'Op;aOH C'F'OPOHhI o.3HaQeHHOrO ,lI;e.ua •• ,. H 6epy CMeJlOCTh npeAcTaBHTh B8m€MY BhlCO-qeCTBY, K8K OCHOB8HHe A.lUI oocy.m,ll;eIUUI 03H8't!eHHOI'O sonpoca, MHeHMe csoe 0 TOM. K8KO€ 3HaqeHMe B MMpHoe n noeaaoe BpelMl5I I1l\ieJIO ObI .ll:JIX Hac nOCeJIeHHe 5 ThIC. 'ryaeMHblx ceMellCTB na MeCTax, YK8- 38HH:blX reaepany RYHAYXOBY Typeu,KuM npaBH'TeJIhCTBOM. ' .. » .

B 8T'OH )J,OKJIa)J;HOM JIopMc-Me11'HROH ):teT8JIhHO OTIHChIBaeT nOJHl!TBqeCKOe pacnOJIO)K€HHe B rrOJIl'>3Y PYCCKOH apMHH apM5IHCKOrO M KYPp;llHCKoro HaCeJil€HI1n rrpMrpaHUQHOH noaocsr, 6JIaro,n;ap.a. "tJ:eMY yenexn PYCCKHX BOHCK B nOCJIe,ZJ;HH:e R8Ml1amUi OhIJIn: B 3Ha'tU!TeJlbHOH Mapa 06.T!!ertI8HbI M o.oeCneqeHhl. 06 3TOM on IIJ-rcaJI TaM JKe B ,!IIOKJIa,ZJ;ROH:

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« .•. B GCOOeHHOCTH; CIUIOHHo.e ICC I'paOemaM; IiI I'Jly60KO Bpam,n:e6· Hoe 1l1'l.M -qeqeHCl<Oe nJIeM5I npezrcranano 6bI TYPKflM HeOI.I,eHHMoe nOCOOHe .ll;Jil5I 60Pb6b! c Poccaeii. Bonee CJiI.OC06HhIe K MaJIOH BOHH,e, qe:MBC.fIK!H:if: .n;pyrofr xapon, TyaeMlJ,bI Tepcxoa 06JIaCTH. pasfianrnucs aa rnaHKH ,,[I.ll5I MeJlRHX naferoa, IIOCTOJIHHO yrpozsaa RallIHM cooe~,eHl'I'5IM, 3·aCTaBUJIH 6bI Hac pa3,npo6H'T'h CHOR CHJIhI aa MHO$eCTBO HeOOJIbWHX orpanos Ii T8KHM o6pa30M COBepmeHHO nap8Jm30B8JII-I ObI aaum p;efrc1'BI1JL KpOMe '1'01'0, K8!B:Ka3CKHe I1epeCeJIeHAhi[ JlerlW I1iPHB.lIeKJIH ObI K ,z:tei1cTBHHM rrpoms Hac 11 Kyp,n;UHCKoe R8CeJIeRHe l'iJIH. no. KpaHHeii: Mepe, cnenana 61>1 H€no.3MOJKHl>IM 06paw;eHlie na CTOPOHY POCCHH lKYPAH.HCKHX Bom,n:eM, KaK 6bIJlO c,!I;,8'JIaHG B nocneaSlO1O Bot'my. He MeHee npenao OblJW 61>1 ,n;.nJll Hac COCe.llCTBO Bblce,JIeHHhIX TyaeMlJ,eB H B MHpaoe BpeM.ff: oRn aaCTaBJI.fIJIH ObI Hac y~BOIITl>, eCJIM He YTPOHTb. CHJIY Ham ero xopnoaa, M rrpx BceM TOM (I -lv!. B.) rpaanna nanra 6blJIa 61.1 oxpaaeaa aecpaanenao xY.iKe, "tel\[ ·B aacrostnee BpeM5I.

TaxuM o.6pa30M, KaK HH 6JI8JrOp,aTe~l>HO .lJ;Jt51 'I'epcxoti 06JlaCTH OhIJIO 6:01 BbICe.JIeHM8 H3 qe'lRH ,5 'FMC. ceMeHCTB. HO BblrO,lJ;hI aroro ,n;.ena, no MHeHIUO MoeillIY) 6JIe.n;HeIOT' (I) nepen MQCCOif: rex 30Jl, KOT'Opsre nOBJreKJIa ObI Hat ce6H POCCH.fI tIepea nonaopeaae 03H!f'L€HHO[,O I1.JIeMeHH B conpe,lWJI1>HhIX HaM 06JIaCT5IX A:n'IaTCKOH TYPJJ.HH ... ,)

160

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Ma rrpanenenaoro BH,D;I!O, K8KO'e OI'pOMHOe311!a"l.leHUe npH'.n;aBaJlO napcxoe KOM:aHAO'B8!IUle aa K8.BKaae B03MmEHo.CTH OnaCHOI'O coeenCTBa BbIC9JIeHHbiX BeHH8XOB; 3TG rrOJIOlK,eHUe a:3HHM3JIO BCIO ~aJlliHeHmyro rreperracxy n;apCKOH POCC~lt c TypUHeii.

B CBOro O'~Iepe,lJ;b, CYIITaHCKan TYPJ.JJ;HJl TaKJKe IIibITaJl3Ch coomocTH co6CTBeHH:ble HHTepeChI B sonpoce 0 pa'CC€JIeHHH npUHHMaeMbIX ropnes KaBlta33. ,1l;Jl$J nee B.eChMa lKeJI.3TeJIbHO 6l.lJIO BOCIIOJlb30naTl>CH YCJ1:yr8MII BO.HHCTBeRHblX BeHHaXOB. HCTIOJIb30B3'll'b HX B oOPb6e llPOTHB uapCKoH POCCl:lR 11 aa BaJIKaHax. 06 aTo.M roaopaz JIOPHCMeJlHKOB B TOM jKe ,ll0K-JI8,n;ROH TaK:

<I)J;o CHX ITOP, C H3'tIaJIOM K8,JK,IJ;OH KaM1l8HHlt, TYPRH crapanncs UpHBJle<lb It yqaCTlllO B Oop1>oe H aacenenae cTpaHbI, JWTOpaH CT8ROBUJIaCh TeaTpoM BOeHII:E.IX ,n;eiiC'FBHH:» 2 •

!ITOTOMY, .n:eitcTBH'reJIhHQ, B HHTepecax TYPIJ;I1H OblJIO meJIaHHe pasMecTIITb, no rpanane C Poccaea 3TO HMeRHO BhICeJleHHOe, 03.11015- JIeriHoe. flOMlIC'FBeRROe seHaaXCiKoe HaC€JleHRe, xoropoe B cnysrae ' BOHHhl He nOTpe6oB8,JIOCb ObI arsrrapoaa-n, H y"tJHTb BORHe C napcxnMli Bo.HCK8MH - OHO Ol'>IJIO ,l1,OC'l"aTOl.{HO 3aKaJIeHO Y>Ke Y ceoa aa

pO,l1,HRe. ..

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TYPKH npeCJIe,n:OB8JUi CBOIO :n;eJIh H CCbIJIaJlHCh xa paanaxasre OTBJIe"tJ:eRHhle IljplP:I!HHbI, HO HX IICT0:HHOe H8MepeHHe CBO)J;HJIOC}' K TOMY. t:ITo6bI He yrrYCTHTh STOT ROHTHHI'eHT aonoro H8CeJileHU.R..

Ho, IIO cootimenmo PYCCKOi'i MHCCHII B KOHCTaHTHHOnOJIe, Bee .me, B EOa:ne KOHD;OB. EIPHHD;l'IUH8JIbHOe COI'JIameHHe 6hIJIO ,!I.OCT11rRyTO B lIHTepecax POCCHRCKoro MltHHCTepC'l1'B8! MHOCTpaHELhlX ,lleJl. TaK,. n;apCKlIH nOCOlJ renepan H[,HRTbeB M3 KOHCT3HTHHOUOJIH coofilJJI8JI aa K3BK83 renepany KapU;OHY: « ... H BXG,lllH.lI B neperoaopsa C

161

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OTK3a .0'1' BbICeJleHH.H ropnea C KaBKa3a, Typell,KHe AHD.!IOMaTbl" He JKeJlaH see me COBceM TepaTh TaltOl[ KOHTHHreHT aaponoa, BblHYJK~,eHbI 6blJlH ,!:I;aTb naxoaen nOJIHOe cor-nacae Ha'Il'pe6YCMblie yCJlOBHJI. KaK coofimanoci- )J;aJIee B 'FOM me HHCbMe, « .•. 3'1'0. aaaaneaae (0 nCB:hlnYCKe "1.e-qeHu;elB It. Typ:u,nIO. - M. E.) DpOH3BeJIO 0)Kn;n;ae~oe ,n;eHcTEHe. Typen;RHH MHHHeTp nan Mllle 3H8Tb, naxoaeu 'llTO n?pTa cornauraerca nOC,eJlHTb B!bJrueynoMJ.HIYTble 5 TbiC. 'll.eqeHCKHX ceo MeacTB Bp;aJIH OT npenerros aanmx, a HMeHH:O B oKpeCTHOC'il'$i!X AJIeTI~ no, H nponycTM'Fb HX CYX'HM nY-TeM, ITO ;n;opore q.epea AXaJlD;.hIX ••• »

TaKHM o6paaOM, na IIpHBe,o;eHHhIx ,Il;aHHbIX o-qeBl'I,lI;HO~ 'ITO Typemeoe npaBH'l'EiJIhCTBO ,D;aJIO csoe COI'JIaCHe aa IIpHe~ BeIi:Ha:'oO,B H pacceneaae HX. RaR Tpe60BaJIH uapCRH8 p;HllJJ[OMaTbl POCCl'nr, sa 8~-' 3epYMCKHM n81rnaJIbI~(iM. B oxpeCTHOCT$;\X ,r::(nap6eRHpa H A.JJ:eI1~no •

O,n;HaK,Q. !taR .aH,!!IIiIO H3 APyrHx ,n;oxYMeHTOB l'I nOCJIe,u;YIOIll,eH nepenacan ,!l;.HUJlOMaTQB H reaepanos, TypKl'I, IIO:Jle ~blXOAa K HHM ~epe3 rpaHWIl.Y rrepnsrx lBhICeJIeH"leCKHX naprna :aeHHaXOB, nblT,a~ JIHCb CXHTPlfTb: Hapyum:B esoe reppnropaansnoe corJlaWenHe_ (l), OHH aaxana OTBO,ll;HTb K8!'8KaaCKHM BhlCeJIeHn,aM MeCTa :lKHTe,llbCTlBa B paaoaax PYCClCo-TypeD;KoH rpaaansr. PYCC:EUl!H KOMllccap B 1'YPll;lll'l! no ,!l;e.rraM BbICeJIeHH$ KaBKa3CKHX ropuen KaIIHT3H 8eJIe~ R&Iii 06 STOM cootiman:

« ... .H yanan (24. 07. 1865 r. - M. B.), '({TO qaCTb -qe""IeHn,eB'1 a

MOJKeT 6MTb, ,n:aJKe nee oea HCKJIro'GieHHR., 6YJJ;Y'li' noceneasr B BaaCR,OM! IIamaJIhlKR, OlKono Myrna, BHTJIMCa H D rHH,D;:tKe. T. e. B A,o;1ume BOCTO't:lHorO EBcppaT'3 HJIH MypaA-qa,sI»6 •

3TO nOJIOm,eHHe 6YJIO DnpOTeCTOBaHo; aenacs ~JIHHHa$l H nonraa nepemtcxa. TYPKH iBbICTaD.!l$iJIH p33JIH~Hble npH'lYHbI (rYM3HHiTapHOli'O xapaierepa) a aenenecootipaaaoc'ra nOCeJIeH1Ul '<IetJleH[J,eB H HHrymei'l: Bf"ltYOl'tae, CBoeH C1'paHbI. Hapozt }Ke - SfiIC9JIeH[J,bI - nepeaocan o.6bIq:H!bIe B T3KHX ,CJIy-qa.HX HecTepIIHMbIe MY'leHHSI. MHOro CTOHJlH JIlO,IJ,SlM O;ll;HH :IIy-TeB!Me MbITapCTBa JKlf3HH H3 apriax, 6e3 xpoaa, IIO,n: P.om,o;eM, B :MeCBEe rpasa, E'!l H3'be3lKeHHhlX 6hlKaMH rrpoCeJIo-qHl>lX npHMHTHBHbIX rypenxax .n;OPQI'3X, K TOMY :IKe H 6e3 M.e· ,u;H~lI-mCKOH 110MOiIl!H, :s YCJlOB,M$!:.X roacaa, MaJI:l'IJ,:nn'I H THqla.

Ho, B KOHIf;9 KOH:nx_OB. napcaaa ,!.l;HDJIOMaTHa HaCTO.fl,JIa rra CBoeM H STO lBeChMa naaxeaao OTpa3HJlOCb HS. BceM ,n:aJIhHe.Hmeil rophKOH y'mCTl{ BbICeJIeHII;eB-Bei'l:Ha:XOB (Cx.: rrpa,n, 6).

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1 ,l(o'KJwiJHali. 3arlUC1Ca "O'.1'UlH:aylOu~ezoeollc/Ca:MU Tepcscou. os.sacmu I'nae- 1tol(o'lta1tayro~eJity Ka6n:aJcKoa ap.M.ueii.15 .. 1I.1864. (ommyiJa.:ltC€ u ma~~ :J/Ce). 2. eM.. 6I>HU¢. 11 n.pe(,,~~aytqe;.1t npUM,e'taH.-U{~ (ommyiJa see u maAt sce ),

Ii OmitoUt,efl,ue UMnepamopc.ICOU M.ttL"CU.u eKoncma.nmunonOAe na'taJl,MtUI{;Y !um,a.oa r .na6n01CoManaym~eZio HueKaaCI(OU apMUU ze,lI.epaAY Kap408Y. M 840, J9. 12 .. 1864 e. (ommyoa see u mas« J/Ce).

f CM.. 8btWe npeObtfJyulee npusseuanue (ommy{ja »ce u masc JK€).

6 CAL. exasaxe IlucbMo Jlopuc-Mesuicoea KynOyx08Y. M 74. 24.02, 1865. (om.myiJa :JiC€ u mUM »ce}.

6 Eonu» panopma I'e1tepa,ll-I;J/i(JzQ uuna6a tcanumana. 3e.ne1l.mw eeuepan- 1C.6apmupMeucmepy lfaenrCi3clwli. apMuu nOA1CIOI3H.-U1CY BoaycJJ.{JeclWM.Y. M 8, 25.12. 1865 .. (ommy8a ~e u maM see).

11. Y'tJACTb BE:A:HAXOB B TYFn;IIlJi

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llepaoe BbIC€,J[eHH£l (H.e3Haq~TeJlbHoe no I<OJIH"IeC'FBY) OblJIO ocy~,eCTBJIeHO B DepBbIH me rOA <i3aMHpeHY:liJ> xpaa - B 1859 r. OHO .nporuno B IJ,eHTpaJIbHO~ Kasxase (Ka6app;et OceTHH, -qe1tme Ii AP.). B OceTI1:liI ObIJIH B:T.HHyT'bI TOJIbKQ nepxa (anarnsre MYCYJlbMaHCKHe <l>aMHJIHli). B03I'JH'lBJIH!Jl or-seaacaamae c,eMbH (OKOJIO 50 ceMeH) OCeTMH AOMCaJIOB, IIpHqeMBMeCTe C ::l'il'HMH 3HaTHhLM__H JIMD;aMH yeX8JIH H HX no,o;qHHeHHble XOJIo.III.hl H T. n.

Bropoe BbIICeJIeHUe, TaKjKe H3 I.:(eHTpaJIbHOrO 1CaBKa3a, nponmo B 1860 r'. 113 OCe'FHH nO,D;HHnOCb oaono 350 ceMeii, Tome H3 cpeztsr sepxyme-rasrx cnoes oc,eTPlH-MYCYJ!lbMaE:.· Ho llOCJIe rryreasrx MbITapC'1'J3 ORO,JIO 50 ceMeiic,[,B C .n;Y)J;apoM KaHYKoB:blM BO I"JIaBe »epHYJlOCh 1 paaOQapOB8HHbIMH aa POD;HlJ:y.

3aTeM, rpe rse BbICeJIeHue Cf;)CT05IJlOCb sa 3ana~.HOM KaBK83e II 1861-1864 rI' .• , I<or.o;a BblCeJISlJICR IIOlJTH sees qepKeCCKHH aapoa. iHAero BhIcc.n:eHH.H TaM IDHPORO anymana TYpeIU~He arearsr, HaBO;J;~ HHBUIM'e B.CEl ITpH-.;:,epHOMopl>e. 1I iCorp;arr;apCRoe ROMaH)J;OBaHHe I10- CT3B·H,JIO rrepen qepKeCaMH YJIbTKM8tTYM 4C,lU1SaThCR 11Jlli YXO;i(II'Fbl) ,

162

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'I'O 06MaHYTblM TyjpltaMH aapon rrpezlncxea nocrremree. 3a 'ITO D110- CJ!leACTBHHH IIOCTpaA3J1 )lteC'fOKO. 06 STOM 6Y,,!]leT CRaa8HO oc060 (eM.: npHJI. 6) ..

H. aaaoaen, 'tleTBepToe, nocnenaee, BbICeJI'eHHe 6bltJlO nponeneao Tome H3 IJ;eHTp3J1bIlOrO Ii t:IaCTHqHO BOCTO~HOIlO KaBKaS8 B 1865 r., xorzta BhICeJl.HJlHCh BeRHaxH, a T3KJKe OKO,IIO 45 ceMeHcTB ocernaCKHX MYCY.i:i'hMaH 2.,

GTO BhICeJIlmHe., RaR nOoK3aaJIH 8pXH.BHbIe· ,lJ;Ol<YMeH'il'bJ. 6bIJ]O neJUnWM cexperae orrpoaorrapoaaao, -roj£:eqepea rel3:epaJI3 KYH,!!;YXOaa H. ero MeC'Il'HhIX arerrroa; CBtMOH KO,iIOaM.a.JIhHOH 3)J;MHHHCTp8[v~eH: reHepM8MR JIopHc-MeII.HIWBhIM, Kapn.oHbIM HAP., BnJIOTb ):1;0 flaMeCTIu.f1(:8 Hat KaBR33e, BeJ!HKoro KRJI3H- 6paTa napa (eM.: IIPHJ1[. 3).

l{TOObI ,m:.aTl> XOT.H 6h1 O'I'HOCHT€JIhHOe npencranneaae 0 6e.lliCTBHHX, nOCTHl'WHX BhlCeJIeUueB, HaAO nanOMHHTb 0 BhI'CeJIoeHHH xepxecexoro HapO,l'Ia, H60 0 HeM HeCKOJIbKO IIOJIHee nallHC8HO B JIHTepaType.

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BbICJIaHHbIX BeMHRXOB (eM.: rrpan, 6),

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.B 1867 r. _. 7 napTJri.:i:, B COC'FaBe 16.2 p;ymj B-1868 r.- 22 naprna, B COCTaBe 663 ,!l;ym;. B 1869 r .. - 20 napraa, B COC'TaBe 36'9 .n;ym;

H B 18701'. - 25 napTuH, B COCTaBe 126.3 ,u;y:w My:atltfHH, meHII.JtHH H ,ZJ;eTen;

B -1871 1'. - 6 napraa, B COCTaBe 341 ,u;YWH» (AA. Bepace. C. 23, 24).

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165

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B03BpatI(aTLCJl B TYPD;HIO., .. ,l> 7 ,

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BJIacT!. I<;OJIOHHaaTopOB He aaxepesaxacs ,n;eJIaTh illOCJIaOJleHHH rrepecenennare, a TpeOOBaJIa co BceM CTpOrOCTL!IO iBbmO!IHeHHH rrymc'll'OB aaxoaa H )J;orOBopOB. Y;maa, 'l{TO FIX ,lI,BF:I:raIOT Era, WI', tle-.:reRD;1;.l (lOTKaaaJIHCh OCTaBI:Ub Mym .... l> 9 H nOJlIOmeBHe O'tIIeHib 060CTPHJIOCh:

(,B ,IlOBepmeHHe ncero OHH ,IlI,BalK,l'{hI rrblTaJIBGL aTRKOBaTb caMlhIH Mym, H TOJIIbKO 6JIarO,1J;apH paCllopH.p;HTeJlhHOCTH MeCTI'IOI'O naxansRHEa BOR,CE, npe,n;Y'llpe.)K,lJieH OiblJI OTKPbITlblii 60n HaCeJIeHH.a Myura C 'lelJeHn;aMHl>10.

B )i(aJIbHe:H:IlIeM, na no-rae .m.eJIaHHJ'I BhICeJIHeMblX BepHYTbC.H 00- paTHO II POCCH.IO, Y r!paHUlI;bI CT3JIH npOYCXQ,!l;HTl:> KpOBOnpOJlIHTU.fI'. II HaMeCTH:UK ~ame BhIpamaJI 06 aTOM cnoe «KPOKO,l'{H.Jl!OBO coxeaneHue>):

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Hec~ac.THiblX 'tfe-rraHIJ,ea B aanra npenemr» II. -

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,D;o 'tlero OI.IJIli rronaaneasr B€:th~axH: npHelYlIOM Type:U;KHX X03Hea, tlTO OHM COf'JIamaJInCh IlpHHHTb JI106.ble YCJIOBl{~ (illl.rroTl>)1:0 nepexe-

HM penaraal], JIHmb ObI HM paspenrana BepHYTbCSI sa PO,n;lIHY. 8TO BH,1J;HO H3 CJLe,lJ;YlOID;UX zraaasrx: «MejK.o;y TeM. 17 ol(T$6pR 1865 r. npnOhIJ1!H aaaanry rpaamty K Aparrsaro, OJIR3 ArreRC8H,1I;pOIIOJllH, 200 Aym 1.J:e'QeHCKHX rrepeceneanea c npOCI.OOIO 0 rrporrycxe HX 06- paTHQ B nama npe.z:r;eJIbl H;t KaKHX 61>1 TO HM 6hJ!JIO yCJrOBJiUIX, npa'I.!.eMi )II;ame H3"bJJIBJIJ'lJIH rOTOiJHOc'Tb npl'IH.RTh npaBOCJl8BH!e" a BCJile,n; 3aTeM 'tIliICJIO lIIpH61.:mmHX K ApaII~aIO rrepeceneanea BOSPOCJIO ,11;0 2600 't£eJIOBeK » 12.

O.n:HaKO see ,9TH np~ocb6l:J 6bIJlH 6e3ycuemHbI. Korp;a 3p3epYMCKHH BaJIH: illOCJl8JI Myccy KYH,1I(YXOB8 C KOIHHHUBH: )J;JIJ'I OTKJIOHeHJ.Ul BblCeJIeHlJ,eB OT rpaaansr, TO KYH,1l;YXOB npHKa3aJI YCHJIHTb norpaHHqRibIH HM30P Ii rrpnTHHYTL K Apanxaro BO~CKa c apTHJIJIepueii. B ,,o:aJILHefimeM OHM OTOI'HaJIH OT rpamrtrsr BCHX 'l!eqeH~eB apTHJIJ!€PMHCKOH KaHoHa,n;oH. H IIO,Dl KOHBoeM TypeIl;KE:X BOHCK ace JllIO,lJ;,H 6&IJ!IH aanpasaeasr or rpaaansr BI'JIyOb CTp8HhI.

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166

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«JIa 'qe'l!eIHl"ea, no pacrropasseaaro Typen;KoFO npaBH'IieJi!hCTSa, 6hlJI Cq,OPMHPOB8H B ,I1;HapoeKHpe K,OHHhIH nOJIiK H3 1000 qeJl<oseK. TlonKOSbIM RQMaH~lIpOM 6l>IJI aaanaxen IDaMxa.rr6eK QyroB, 'l!eJ'lo:aeK JIeT 40, Il.]IeMHHHK AnHKO IJ,yroBa, 6hl!BillerO Kapa6y.rraKcKoro crapnIMH!.! (YMepmero nepen BhIChIJutOH c Ranxasa. - M.B.). ICam,llhIH Bca)tHHK noaaa IIO.ll[Y'llaJI B MeCHO; 7 py6. KpoMe Toro, npOBHaHT ,ll;ml ceea H IIPOP;OBOJIhCTBll:e ,lJ;.JI:fIl JWIDaJ,ll8i1: ypH,lJ;Hll:KH )K.e, o(IJH~ephl OT 10 pyfi. no 30 py6. B MeCHII.. IIPH IIO,!l;IlB.1!I:eHH1ll Bcn:b1xHyBIlIeI'O B TO IBpeMH B Apaaaa B03Myw;emU{ yt.IaCTBOBaJ[ M ,nnap6eKHpCrmn xeqeHCKMH IIOJIK. ,. » I.j TOT me aBTO'p O[[HC'Dl!B8I.eT ,ll;pyrne MOMeH'l'hI e cJIy.ifi.6e lBeHHaxoB y TypoK B apMiI1!1'1: «JCpO'Me '1'0 I'D, H.eKOTophle "'le'l,umIJ;bIi rCOCT08T aa CJIym6e II neXOTHhlX Boi.:icKax, pacnOJIOmeHHbIX B Rapee,) Hi.

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l{ ztanee, OII snoane HeRO npaaaananea, 't{TO ero .n;aJI:E:.HeH1lI8e npeAaT8JlhCTBO CTaHOBHJIOCb H€'COCTOH.T€JILHbIM, rrOCKOJIhRY caMUM BbICeJIeHuaM CTaHOBHJIOCJ) ace acaee Ii .ffCHe,e QmJJ,lIaIOm;aH HX Y'tIaC'Fh:

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capa KRI!iHTaH.a 3eJIeHOI'O!" -

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KOMHccap no Bblcemmmro OT PO'CCHH KaUHTaH 3eJI,eHlbIH, npa BceHCBoeM spam)te6Ho'cTU R ropn.8M - «aaaaran», BbIHym..z;r.eH 6:bIJI C006~,3il'h;

«Co cnoea CTOPOHbl, no co6paHHibIM aa MeeTe CBe.Z{eHHHM, .a Mory AOHecTIiI, 'lITO CS€.lI;8Hua 0 rn:6e.1IbHOM ,L(JIH ropnea .KJIHMaTe ;IJ;Hap6eKlIpa COBepmeHHO cnp8Be,!J;JIHBbI H qTO Ty,n:a OHM He nOH,D;YT,a rypER BPH,!l JIH pemarcs ,u;BIiIHyTh HX Ty;rr;a BOHCKaMH» 19.

BOT KaRaM: oxaaaaecs nepcneecrasa, OmU,I1;aBmaSl BethtaxoB Hill ax

HOBon <'pO)lHHe»1 -

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A KOlr',lI;a, B xoane KOH,1l0B, HX ,rrpHrHaJIH rra oTlu~AeHHble MeeTa, OHlI YBlf,ll;eJIH", liTO OqYTHJlHCb aa I'OJIhIX KaMH:fIX H necxax 6eSBO~HO:U nYCT:bIHM B ,nHROH ropHoit MeCTHOCT.H, HHKeM He Hace.JUJreMO:U, r,ll;e ,llame KJIHM8lT OLl.III He npIU'O,!ll,eH ,lI;JIH jR1I31Ud

IIOKHHyB: csoeo UBeTymylO pO,u:ll:Hy paaopeaasrrca, HCTpaTHB B nyTIiI IIOCJlle,ll;H:He cpeneraa, OHM. no n:pH6bITHH aa MeCTo, CT8.JIH TaM cpaay lUUllHMliI. Haxanacs M!aCCOBaH m6e.JIb OT C'O.rrO,l'l;a., l1i3HypeHMR H 60JIeSHeiMr:; JIlO,,ll;M YMUPMH COTH.RiMH. IIoco6He .iKe. BhI)lI8HHOe na nopory :u;apcKHM np8IBHTeJIE.CTBoM. OliIJIO HH"lTOmHO: BCJIe.o;CTBFIe 06h1't1Ho"ro rorna Ka(3:uO!tpa,l1;CTBR. JIhBUH8R ~OJIH acoarnosarraa «rrpnrrmrana» ,K aJI'lIH:blM JIalla:M oe3p;ywHbIX rraprxoansrx oqmu;epoB-IIPOBOP;HHKOB :II paansrx 60JIhWHX II MaJIblX«KYR)J;yXOBhIX» ,ll!a<lJIOpHC-Me,lllUWBblX», :;)T:HX MeC'l'llI.lX :KOJlOHMIlJJIhH:E:.IX IIHH.BOK carsoztep)KaBHH.

168

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B peayrrs'rare, C BeMHaX3MH nOBTppHJIOC:b nOqTlf TO me. 'l'TO H C QepKeCaMl1; KOJIOH.lfsaTOpl'I YMhlUliJIe;HHO AOBOAl'):JUl! JIIO,D;eH ,'!!;O nonHorolf3HeMOme!8HE! H B:bIMUpaluud ,IJ;OPOI'H, nO'ROTOPbiM CJle,z:r;OB8JIH 0'003LI BeHH8XCKHXBhIce.rreHI,,J;,eB B noaexax «»CJlaMCROT'O paae, npeBpal.Il!8JIlrob iB 6paTckHe KJI8.n:Q,m:n;a aapoaa.

. It 9'FOMY CJle)l;yeT erne ,lJ;06aBHTb. QTO Bhlce.n:eHD;;DI He MOI'JlH 6paTl> IB ;m;opory M.H.OrO xJIe6a (r, K. i3P8!JfOCl>TOJIbKO'FO,qTO nOMeIIJ;8JIOCr" IBMeCTe co cKapooM !H8 b,n;HO:H apfie).

Ba lIlepao,tl, C Ma~ no CElHT;a6pb M:S :;lTHX 3;a.naCOB HH'IerO He OCTaJIOCb. KpOMe TOIrO, Hapo~ OCTaJlC.a 6e3 HOBOT'O ypoaeaa (1865). HOO nee neTO npOBeJil B nYTM. C.lIe,[(OB8.TeJ1I,HO" paaOpHBPl»Ch aa pO,D;HHe M. rDJlO,ll;all B nyT'H, BeRH&XH, npH6hlBB HenJIO,!JjOPOl!;:BhlM Kpan.!O.lI-'KHbI 6blJlH oeerrrt., He ffMe.H 6Y:KBaJ1E>HO HH~eI'O e'1>eC;'I'HOrO; Eo TaROM COCTOH:HHn npe,llCTO.ffJIO n:pO~RTp n;eJ1hI'H rOJl:. - ,!liO uo:aoI'O ypoma:!I ] 866 I'., KOTOPhdi OHM He ce.HJnd

Ilpaena, npe,l'l;BH,n;H H€MHHyeMYIO I'H6e.llb aapoaa OT ronozra n 1103- MOJoKHOC'1':t. B03H!l:u<'HOBeHH.f[ BOJIHeHHR. oceHblO 1865 J'.'FypKH BI>I)J;a~ Jill OCTaTR8M Be~HaXOB aeaHa'lHTeJIbHyro ccy.tXy ceMeHHoro aepaa. O'~HaKo :ro.no.n;alOIIlIHfl JlIO.m;H cpasy JKe lICnOJI!b30BaJIH :3TO aepno B nmny. TaKfl!M oopaaoM, H 31'0 'CKYJl:Hoe IIOCOOH€ He CIUICJIO nOJIOJKe· HH,R.~ a noene Hero. B nepCFIeKTHBe, YJKe He OCT3eaJlOCb lu'[qeI'o. IIepe~ iBhICeJIeHTI;aMH CTO.HJI npH3paKHeMllHyeMoH t'H6eJlH ... , IIpHBo,n;IIM OT3blB o.,,I'l;,Horo H3 8rBTOPOB 0. nOJl!OmeHlfM .BeMHaXOB:

¢ ••.• IIoBTopHJEacb T8. JK€ MC'TopHa. 'lTO n c "!epKecaMH - He 6PlJlO Hpi:U'OTOBJIeHO HHqerO ,lI;JIJI npaeiea nepecenennea. OHn 60J1eJIM, E"OJIO~a:rrll H yMMpaJUI' M8CCa.MM.8eMJIH,. OTlBe,rr;eHHble MM, OKa38J1llCh HHEY,lJ;ft He rO,llHbIM neCKOM H K8.MHeM. HCUhlT:hlB8.Jt cTpa;ruHbl€ 6e,z:t;CTBHa, qe'lJ:eH~blI nOBepHYJlIlI 06paTHO It PYCCIWH ]'paHHU;~ ... OHR M:a,'h$!!BJIaJIH IWJ1HYIO UOK,OPHOCTE>, C;Orn8maJl!II'Cb HeCTH !BOMHCKYlO IIOBHHHOCTi>; HeKOTopEile npeztnarana ,n;ame IlpHHSiTb rrpa;e:OCJI8!BHe. .:rm:mL 6bl no:mOJIHJlJI HM BepHYTbCJI K pO,lX'llhIM nenenmnaje. Ho lie~eHD;eB rrpornana 0'1' rpaaansr BhlCTpeJIaMH. Mano Taro, nOT!pe60. BaHHID pyccxoro IIpaBMTeJIbCTS8., TypER OTIIpaBlIJlIH rrpOTIIB qe'lJ:eH· u;eB lBoiiCR8;, l(,O'l'Ophle py~eHHiblM H apTHJl.IIepUMCKIfM orReM 00- rlllaJorHX lIB. OTEe)JjeHHMe MeCTa .:ttM'F€JlbCT.Ba. ITOJI'OmeHlle ~J:e'{eHuea HR HOBlbIX MeC'I'8X 6bIJIO TaKoBo, \lTO OHR BhlMMpaJl!H MaCC8.MHi MHo,rue :IKe' 'E'aHKOM nepexo,ll;I:I:.iIHI pyCCKyIO lrp,aH1il!D;Y 1I npo6.MpaJ1RClb oiSpaTHo HR jp0AHHY. 3a 8'TRMM 6erJ1en;aMM OblJI3. ycrpeeaa HIlCTOJIm;aSI OXOTa; HX nepeXBaTblBaJIH aa nYT0I :a C'tJ.HTartH ,lJ;OJlrOM ornpaBMTb 11 TYP:O;MIO;HeMHO!f'kle Y,1l0CTauea.lllWb MH.1IOC.TH OCTaTbC.R: na KaBEa3e. :0:3 22000 e JIHW~OM 1;J!~qeHI:r;eB.nepeCeJIeH:u;eB qepea xaRHX-iH.H6y,n:b 5-6 )leT OCTaJIOCb T().lIhROThICHt.I ,n;ecaTb, oc-ra.JlbHlJ:E€ rrepeMepJIH1> $lQ "

«TaKliM 05paaOM, Ha rrepeCeJIHBIllMXCSi B 1865 r .. B TYPll;HIO C JIHWKOM .22 TbI(:., ,Il;yw, iB ]871 I'_ OC':I'Il:lJIOCb JIHllil> lO'FE.Ic., MHorne YMepJUf OT 3JIOBpe,n:lwro RJJ!H·M8!TS ceBB:pHoHH cpep;Heii Meconora-

MHH»21., .

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CKHX BhIC€lI!eHn;eB lB TYPU;HH. Hapozr BOQqHJO y6e.DlHJIC.fl! B rHOeJIbHo. CTM MYCYJlI:.MBlHCKIlX HJIJII03MH • .lImH KYlJP;YXOBcKoilr npOBOIW.UHOHHaft arHT&UH.".TypeUKO-CYJITaiH.OKHe name: Ii MyJIJIhI aa ,D;eJIe He YCTYIIilJIHUaPCKHM IWJ10HH3aTOpaM: <lejpMOJIOBhEM». <leB,lJ;OKHMOBblM>; ,n;a {< JIOpHC-MeJlHIWBibIM >; (e Xpea pe)J;ibKH He <CJIa~e >; n.

o 6e3'pa;llOCTHOM illOJIoOJi<€HHH BeHHaXCKMX R&ICeJIeHD;eB B 'I'yp:O;11:H cnYCT.H ~moI'O J1aT IlIOCJIe aTOI'O .n;eJ18! COBPe.!lIIeHHHI-<:H C006i!l:r;SJIH:

, «TIepeCeJIMBilln:Ch BTypI.(llIO, o:reqeHULl ,!llQ CMX nap (K 1878 1'. - M. B.)e~e He yC.TpOllJIlI.C.b '!laM OKOHt.[aTeJIE>HO II 60J1brneIO qa:CThKl KOqYIDT no nanransaeaa (no 06J1aCTJIM .. - M. B.}, He HM'e.f.l ~yx.a. BO,!!;!BOPH:TbC:II n:PO'llHO n ClMYTHOo aa,lle.fl!Ch Kor.n;a·Hu6YAb BHOBI:. YEH· ,!iI;eTL eaoa pOAHhle ropsr , CB0l1 pO,D;HbIe ~HHapbl, CHOM pamU'l:,lJ;nCTble ce.JI3. C 06IIJ;HHaMH, B KOTOPiblX K,a.:mAaJ'l JIJ,Jt:{:a:OC'l'b aa BH,n;Y. ..... 22

lI3 I!IpHBe;rn;~eEliHQrO B~D;HO; qTO HeC:M.O'll'p:a Ua,!l;BBHa,!l!riaTHJleTHHM ltIepno,ll; IIOCJle O'lr'I>ea,n;a C KaBRaaaj BeihIaXHBCe erne npQ,Il;OJI)RR.lU! Ha.n;e.a:'ThCJl aa B03:apam;eHHe H He YCTjp;lHIlaJIUCh OK,OH'Gi8TeJlbHO HYI" ~e. {<KO"'!yS no namaJIl>IKaM». Bee aTO y6e,n;HTeJILHQ rOBOpH'I'. "IJ!TO mH3HE>B€:HHaXOB B TYPD;H:H 6bllJJ3 O":leH1, T:f[~e.rI:OH 2a.

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.0 rophlwH y~aC:'I'H, nocrarmea B TYPiU;llIi acex BblCJlaHHhlX seHaaXOB. aa KUKaa, B l:.J,ettHIO M iHHI'ymeTMlO ,I'l;,OXO,lJ;H.J1H IIJ1a'l:{eBI!Ible 'CJlYXH. rrOCJI'e qero paaaaaaesrsre M9CTHbIM.H rrposoxaropaxa-aresTaMH KJIJI103Hlt naHHCJlI.aM1I3~a CTM.H paeeeaaacsca. Be,MJ:llRxM. seer.o;a KOJIe6a.BIDweCfi B aonpoce yxop;a e PO~MRbI" Tenepb IIIpe,n;rrO'qkI'lra.lIM CMeprreJ1.bByIO OOPhOY c lWJlOH1'.ISa'a"opaMH B03.lle' CBOHX ,Iljep;OBCKUX O'I.laroB H P0.D;RbiX MOr'H.Il B ropax RaBKa3a. 06aT01'>1 CBH,!l;eTBJlh'C'l'BOBRHOCh caMllM HaqaJIhHMROM TepCKoii OfiJIaCTH reHepaJIOM J!OjpHCMeJlHIWBi>IM: «)J;aJIhHOCTb rrepexoaa, P;OXO;:J;MBIIlHe csoaa cBe.z:r.eHHH 0 aeROT?pLl!X:seB,:!;.r:f'O;m;RX Mecrnoc'FH, HiM: npep;Ha3RaQeHHm':J. "3a.CTaB~ JUIJ1MOOJlbmyro qaCT:E., HilCBJIeHHR KOJJre6aTbC.)1 B OKOH'l8.TeJ.!hHOM peme-

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2 :3mu iJan.nwlu npel}btayu~U€ (lttlcrn.u'(/:I.o) O(J~'Ce.JIeH1t!JtX ue Oeemuu: npueoitnmc« us «Hemopuu. Ceeepo·Ocem!J.ItCKtJij; ACCPI). Macxea, 1959. C. 175 uap. s ,aJ'aeyp06 1'. A. lIepecMeuu€ zopqe8 t5 'I'YPW,uo, JjK.a3anntlut ,e60pffU,/f. (e», euiue),

.. 4 Home zenepa.ll.a H..M:nepuu . TYPlituu KQMuccap~ H,ycpema " l{.oJlluccapy Pocci;uU Kanuman,y 3eJl.tuto.MY. 25, 07. 1865. (ommyiJa :lfCe, U maJtt see).

OK . l!ep~e Ao. IT,. BbtCellel:tue <l:Opqe6 C Ka8Ka3a,/ / PYCCfCtyl Cmapun,a. 1882~ ... m. T. 36. C. 23. 24.

~ TaM. »ee. C. 23,. 24. 1 TaM. :!ICe. C. 24, 25.

170

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6 TOJl! :nce. C. 26" 9 TaM see. C. 2'0. j(j TaM »ce .. C. 19.

II TaM »ce, C. 19.20. 12: TaM isce. C. 19, ZO. 18 TaM :m:e. C. 19.21. 11 Ta.h~ ;m:e. C. 28. 29. 15 TaM. see, C. 28. 29.

16 Panopm JCQ·numalto 3e.lleHOZO unepan.·lc8apmUpJlteucmepy Ka61Caac,/Cou ap.AWU nO.!UC08HU"y BOZYCJl.08CKOJlW M 1 0, 26.0'7 . .1865. (orrwlylJa :m:e u maAt see )'.

17'CM. eusue: KonUJI. panopma J;Canumaua Beneuoeo 1l0.!UC08HUICY BOZYCJL08-

_ CK;O""y. M8, 25.0'7.1865. (ommyoa see It maM »ee ), 18 TaM :JfC€.

19 TCMt :»ee.

.20 1(aJl.u1to6 A. KaeIC03 U II060.!lJH:M. M., 1913. C. 21,

21 Bepoee AB. Il . Bueenenue eopqet.l c .Ka(JKIJ:;a// PYCCK(JJl cmapuna: 1892.

OKm. T. ,36. C. 30 ..

22 TOll.Q8UUCJCu!t II. g e'Leftl.j,!;~ 6U!; T{ e'{uu.// ca. 66e{}enuu 0 TepcK.ouo(fllac-

m.u. Bun; 1; B.Ilaf)uICa6lUX3, 1878. C. 274. .

til CM. 8blLUe: Omnowenue na'l.O.llbH.UKa TepcfCou o6.aac:mu zenepaJLY Kapz;o· ey. ,M 61, 10. 08. 18,(j5. (ommylJa see ;u, mtUt JfC€). ,

12. UPEKPAIIl;EHlfE BLICEJIEHHH H iPE3MHrpAll~UI

scseope fHl.pO,n: nOTJlHY,JICK M8CCaMH: 06paTHO K PYCCKo-TypeUKo,H rpaHIHI;e H BceMlf npliB.ll;BMlf II HEm:pan.n;aMR" B O,lU1:a:O'l.lxy, MeJIKHMH rpynflaMH CTaJl npOC8,1l,m:BaTbC.B na PO.n;HHY.

Hecsnrrpa HR J![OJHIY'ID cMupeHHOCTh aepaysrrraxca, BIIJlO'rh .n,o upexpameaaa 60P1>OhI: C CaJyl:O~~pm8BHeM sa He:aaBHeMMOC'Fb, HX HeMRJIOCep.1liHO J'Ha.JlH OTOBCIO.u;y. TeRRe MephI, Koa:ettao, BnOJlHe pacRPlhlB3Jl!H rJ1a38 OCTBlBIUUMC-H tra pO',!!;1HH.e, ;n;a H npH6hIBaBmne yate HMeJH:l CBOH CY>K.zteHHH aasce, Ita MHorlIe llY'CTJ.Ie HJl.1U03HH, KOTOpsre Tenepb YJKe He MOI'JIH B03PO.u;HThCS:I:! (eM,.; n:pU.Jl. 6).

Ho K8KaJi G'bl CHJIa lUI nsrcrytrana npOTR!B pe<)MHrpaHTOB-BeHHa· XOB, OHa 6blJIa cJ136ee CTpeMJleHHH Macc B'epHYTbC:ll na PO;n;HHY- feaepan JIopMc-MeJlMKOB :B OT'lIeT'e' sa «nepeCeJIeH'I.leCKMMt) rJiepHOp; (c 01.01.1863 r. no 01.01.1H69 r.) KOHCTaTHpOBaJI:

«Ifepcceneansr 3TH (eeHH8XM. - M. B.) B TetreHHe rO,lJ;:HtrHoro csoero TaM npeOblBallU!H y6e~HJ.[1'I:Ch aa caMOM ,l!;(!JIe B Hey.n;o6cTB8.X JKlI3HliB TypIJ;HH Ii B Tome BpeM.R, I10J:lhSYSICh CJI:a6hliM Ha,a:30pOM IlOrpaHI-I~Roi% CTpa.>K1iI, H8-q8.lIR CTpeMHThCH Ran O"r,ll;eJIhHhlMH !IHq.HOCTSI!MR, Ta.K IJ u;eJILIMH ceMeaCTBaMH K 06P8'FHOMY B03Bpaw;eHIiID na pO)l;HHY. II T'aKHM 06P~M B03SpaTIJ..llOCh 06paTHO liS TYPUHH B 1866. 1867 H 1868 rr-, OKOJIO 2100 AYlll ofioero nona»~.

51 nonararo, qT'O MHorHe H3 .BepHYBmHXC.a: He OhIJIH yt,lTeHbl cpe,Il;H 8THX .n;ByX ThICSlq H OCT3n8JIHCb npomHB3Tb B I'JlYXHX ropasrx xyropax II ayJIax aa HeJIferaJIhHOM nOJIO:l:Kel-IHH, BEaK, ,{'FO UiX. H.eMt1'HyeMo OTnpaBHT 06paTHO.

Oth,J'lIHO nO'llTFf HliRTO H3 no.n,06HhlX pe3MHI'paHTOB He YP;OCTaKBaJlCH MHJIQCTH. ObIT!:. OCTaBJIeHHhlM. IlOTOMY tJTO see OHB! npaaaanem3JIH x (:meM,eHTaM, He Yl'O;z:t;HhI'M IJ;apcKoi KOJIOHH33TOPCKOM ap;MiHHIiCTpac;,HM, meJI;fiBIlIen O~RO['O: « ••• H36aSHTibCJI OT .Jl1I~, lllMeSllIlfX lB81-1l60.rreHBpam,ll;e6HOe E HeR uacrpceaae» 4.

OC'l'aSaThCH y.u;aBaJlOCb ;UIWh TeM, KTO 6JIarOnOJIY'lHO .n;OOHpaJICSI ,n:,o pO~HhIX MieCT H TaM, B epeae CBORX" AOSo'JI!&HO .u;.!1l1'l'E!JIbB-hlH CpOK CKphl!BBlJICa OT' npo,ll;ama:oi ay.nbCKoH c;,apCKOH arerrrypsr, BrrocnenCl'l'lHH TaKH€ OerJIhle .H81;UIHaJIH XO,ll;aTaHCTBOBaTh H o.n;apHBaTb «newRerna:MRI.> (BSHTK8'MH) MeCTH!>IX UJIaCTh HMYW;HX 06 OCT'3.BJIeHHlI !ElX HJIR 0 HI:>I30B€ ceMbR lIS, TYPD;H.H.

TaR, aanpaxep, OT lIMeHH 25 'leq,eHn;E!B, BepHy!BmHXCH H3 TypLl;HM B 18671'., 'OhIJIO nO,,ZlaHO npomeUHe lHa"i8!JIhHHRY Tepoxors o6iIaC1'1-I, BF.I.n;ep:1KKH H3 xoroporo xapaxrepaayror .z;teHcTBH'Fe.JlhHOe ax non om.eHFI!e':·

-s ... MhI nepecexanacs B TyP~HIO e TeMII nepecenennarsn, KOTOpsre OTIIpaBMJIHCb c KYH.n;YXOBhIM Ii Caif:,LtYJIJIoH: OCMaHoBbIM B llOJIHOH Ha,Dle.i!{,!l;e Ha HMX: Mem,ll;Y TaM, KOF:.n,a MhI IIpa:61h1JIM B Typu.i-no H YTBepJitHJIHCh TaM. TO yBHp;e.Jm JllOlKh 91J'HX ,lI;!Byx JIHU Ii TO, LiTO MhI He B COCTO$llHHM TaM CbICKaTh cefie nocrarosasre cpencraa R :1KU3HM, a I1!OTOMYM&I ymJIH Hi3 TYPl!I;HK,OCT8BHB TaM! CBOH C'eMeeCTBa B aa~e.m~e; QTO H8QaJIbCTBO oy.n;eT K Ha!l'f MHJIOCTJIHBO Ii ,ll103B()JIHT HatllII1!M ceMeiic'l'BaM B-aaBpaTHTl>CHK HaM .. ,

Teneps yme npOIJl.JlO ,D;OJIPoe BpeMJI C 'Fex nop, KaK Mhl pa3J1Y,{I-Il-

173

Haacex MaTe'pI1aJIOB BH):{HO, ,{'FO BbICeJIeHHe 1865 r., aa-aa npoHMKllIiHX Ha KBl!BKaa, CJiYXOB 0 6e,l(C"FBH.RX; nOCTHrWHX BeHHaxnB B. TYPU:VIK, aaX.JleoHYJIoQh. IIoToMY B CJle,n;YIOrn;eM ro.u;y ono ne :ao306- HOBJ[$I.JlOCh, npHtlreM He TOJIbEO B T.IeqHe, HO Ii HB. !BeeM RaBK33e.

Becresa xapaxrepaa eeHHaxcK8S1 HapO,D;H8K necna, 'CJIOmeHua.a Tor,u;a C8MlIMll BI;ICe!IeH~aMM II '«nepene'feurnajt» qepea rpaHHIl\Y aa poaaay. 8Ta f1ieCH51 Bhl3bIBaJIa OpBlTCRoe COGiYBCTBlle y OCTaBIDHXeg na Kaarcaae BelllBaXOB. IIpnBoP;UMi OCHOBHOH Te'KCT rrepesoza 1-13 nee:

Hmuui« lCpbplambte. nemume 6b' 6 Fexu'!l.y! 1 FeXUi{..UHcltOJ1-ty napof)y nOKJWH cuecume u cxaseume: «B IW1tJtOM. cYMpa,,€ pOOH.bt.x .secoe,

YftbtJr,bLU 1CpU1C rjJulluna3acJtbtutae.

nycmb 6CnO.MHJl.m 0 Hac - de,a nocma u MOJl,um6bl Bpoostu,ux ua tLy:»c6ulle u ne 6UOJt1.4UX ucxoda! BbU3(l.!l.O SOJac xoJtoaHoll HOl£blO eoem,-

Mbt (}YM(lllU: OH C zoJto8y eoem;

Hem, OJ-t om emaiia omopeanex - 80m npuuuna! He 1tQXOOUM nu U M.!1t ua smoeo 80.!l.1Ca, Omopeauscue om potJwu •. t u pOiJJtbLX JIWZUJr,»?~

l'ame.na H 6e30Tpa~Ha 6hIJIa CYPOBa.ff yxacrr, nepecenemtes B ~YPU;HH, oHll.n;encTBHTe.IIl>HO, no~o6H~ oT6nBlrIHMca: OT eraa rOJIo,Q;HhlIM BOJIKaM-o.u;HHO'llKaM, H3HbIBa_JIH B TOCKe no PO,l'l;HHe. IIosToMY

172:

Jnw!. co CBOl1lMH CeMeaCTBaMlI, O'CTaBJIeHH:bJMH HaMH 1'1 KpFlTM.t:JeCKHX OOCTOHTe.JIhCTBax :)KlIaHJ:[, BCJle,l(CTBlle qeI'O crpax II nevans YBeJUI'!HBaJIKCr:. Y Hac; a DQTOMY MhI T'enepb 'DcMe.nHJI:HCb nO"tlTFlTeJIbH'eHrne upe~CTaBHTh Bameray npeBOCXOJ\IlTeJIbCTBY lTOJIo:meHHe Harne H npOCHTh Bac, BeJIHKqAymHbIH (?) H8Q8!JIl>HHK" oreaaaru HaM 1'1 aTOM AeJIe MHJlOCTI>" y.n;arrHTb OT naco nexans B03BpaDJ;eHHeM namax ceMei1:C.TB; ,llj03BOJIlIBIDI-r HaM OTnpaBHThCS aa HHMH HJIH ,me APyrHM Ra.KHM-JlHOQ cnocorioas. ECJIH me, Baure Ilpesocxonareascrao, He ORameTC HaM B aTOM AeJIe cOAelkTBuH H rrpeOhlB8!HlIe TaM rratrrrrx ceMeHCTB upOAJlRTCn aa ,!l;OJu'oe !BpeMa, 'l'O OHR, 09a BC,HKoro CO~UIefIH:I'[, norH6HYT •.. J) 5.

Ho ROJlOHH3a ropcreoe «BeJIIfRO)l;ylliHOe» Ha 'IaJIbCTBO He pacnono~eHO 6IdJWllorrYCKa'l"l> Bo3Bp.aweHHH rex, OT KOI'O YA8JIOCl> Ha6a~ BHTibCSL IIO"t{TH HUKTO He Y~OCTaHBaJ][lcn ({MHJIOCTH» rrOJilY"'IHTib paapenrerrae 1'18 B03BpameH]:ni. 81'0 ocofienao HeHO BH~HO na ~eJJa HHrynrexax BbIC8JleHD;eB.

"LIepes IIHTb JIeT nOCHe BhICeJIeHHH. 3:0 MapTa 1870 1'. > 15 aynoB' Haapanoacaoro o6~ecTBa (1'. e. BCR 'rOl',n:aIIIHB.H nJIOCROCTH3a HBlrymenra) 06paTHJlHCl> K CBoeMY HaqaJfLHHEY OHPYl'a C S8.f.1BJIeHHeM 381 nO)1;n:HC.llIMH: caMbIX rrotreTHhlXJIlID; (napcxax CT8IBJIeHHM:XOB) 0 B03B,palIlieBHH M3 Typo;HM HX CopOt(Hqen (no HMeHHOMY CITHCRY aa 76, ceMeD; eM.: nparr. 7).

. B ::ITOM 38.JlBJtefU'lFi: OTMeqaJICB o6MaH rrepecezreanea H yacacaoe nonoaeenae HX ceMeRcTB. TaR, nanpmaep, TaM OIIHCblBaeTC.H, 'ITO 12 Hos6p.H npe;n;Ll,.n:y~el'o rona OH.H npOC>lJlKI ae.1IHKOrO ICHHS:H I'JIasHOKOMaH,D;yroID;,ero 0 B03BpaIJJ;eHHH HeKOTopbIX rrepeceneanea lI3 'I'ypIJ,HH, «ROTOPbIe :a:eo6,o;YMaHHo MJIll. no aavmeamo 3J!OH3iMepeHHbIX JIIOAeM OCTaBHJIH CBOIO pO,!l;HH:y H B HaCTOH~ee BpeMS nperepnesaior crpanrasre 6eAcTBHsr .... » 6

OAHa:Ko, HecMoTp;a: aa IIopyquTeJI]',cTBO H npoCl.6y IIO'IITH BeeM HHI'YilleTIm:. Ba'I8!JJ[bHHK TepcKon oO.JIaC'I'H B nporne:8iJi:u _ OTl<aCaJI, nOTOMiY 'ITO «BH.rcb~ npaSHTeJIb'CTS8 OTHOC~TeJIbaO nepeceneauea llarYWCKoro OKPY1'8 He M3MeHH.lIHCb H B nacroamee BpeM:H, a 1101'0- My (HaqaJlbHHK 06JIaCTlI. - M. E.) 1I3B.OJIH.JJ B npoch6e H8SB8HROlrO OOm;ecTBa OTKa38Tb~ 1.

KaR BHAHO Fl3 .1'l:PYI'HX ,lI;OKYM.eHTOB aTOM:)Ke rreperracxa, B 1869 r, ocraanrzeca na KaBKa3e Kapa6Y.lll8KH H3 cen. AltJaJIYKlil Tome IIpOCHJIH H8MeCTHHK8 BeJIHKOrO KRa3H aa GBOHX COpO~!FPleH:; BbICeJIeHHbIX B Typn;HIO (0 paspemeaaa liM Bepa:YTbCH aa KaBKa3)., SaTeM, B TOM!:lKe 1869 I'. (1l.11.). HHryIIIH IIPOCMJIH 0 CBOHX BbICeJIeHI~ax,.HO seesr JHOAHM HeH3MeHHO Ha't{8JIbCTBO OTK!l3l>raaJIo. 3'1'0 B.H-AHO H3 panopra H,s'i'i8Jll>fiHlK8 UerymcKoro oeepyra, rAe OTMeqaJIOCl,; 'ITO «B npOAOJI)KeHHe -qeTbIpex JIeT HaapaHOBII.blI ('T. e. HHrYlUH.- M. E.) HeO.z:r.a.OKpa'fHO o6pa~,aJmcL KO MBe c npoch6oH 0 B03BpaIIl;eHHH nx po,n;CTBeHHlIKOB H3 TYPll,lIR, HO HM 6bIJIO orxaaaao, T,aR KaK HCIIOJIHeHlle 3TOH npOCl>Obl ae COr.lI,aCHO C Im.n;aMH npamrreascraas s.

IJ,a.pcKa51 8,ll!;MlIHHcTpa.IJ,lI.!1 na KaBKll3e He ,o;aSaJIR HHROMY corna-

CMS aa B03Bpam;eHHe 06paTHO H3 'I'yprraa BbWe,JIEm:u;e1l; Hao6opOT, BceMH MepaMH CTapaJHlCh nper:UITCTBOBaTb 3TOMY .n;eJIy.

IIPHMEYJAHH.fI

I B Manot: qe'lHe (ay!!, I'exu}.

2 CM. {Jl>u.ue.: C(f.opnUN: C6e{)enuu 0 TepclCou o6.1lucmu. BJ!:aiJul€tJ.B.ItG3, 1878.

Bun. 1, C. 275.

~ Om'l.em 3G 8peMH. C .01.01.1883 no 01.01.1869. ",LfeJl.o ,M ... iUUU,f€JI.!WU.U.

na'laJibHu.lCa TepcfGou o6.l1-acmu». I ombesa, 2 ClIi-Q.lW (Ce8epO-OCemuH.clCuupec·, ny6J1ufGancnu,u ,eQCapxuB).

" J!opuc·MeJl.UIC08 (ma.M. :Nee U ommyfJa "JKe). • . : '.

& Ilpousenue 25 'te~e./t4e6 ItU'l-al!I>1tUlcy Tep.c1Cou OOJlGcmu eenepaJl.Y Jlopuc-

Me.n.uKoBY, {<,O 803Bpa~eltUu my3e..llzqea Ll3 Typquu1} M 1.4.05 .. 1867" 8'€Jlo M49

(Ceeepo- OcemuncKuil pecny6.ii.iLIUiHC/cUU eocapxue ). . .

6 IIpoweliue uneyw;eii 15 ay.n.o8 HaapaH.08CKOIlI} H~,eyw.c1CoZoo1CPY2a noJ1,IwaH-uK!) MOPQ30.6Y .. 80.03.1870. Bexo M157. c npo.cb(5o~ 6~.16palqe.fwu U3 TYPltuu 76 c€Meii poiJcm6el,HtltK08 (1870) (C,efJepo-Ocemunc"uu Pecny(JJ/,urcau·

CKU,U eocapxue). . H-

7 Om.H.OULeHUe Ua'laAbIiUIW TfJpc1lou o(JJiacmu /'I,a'taJl-W"·U1CY 1t,I!YWCK()ZO

ox:pyz~. M 720" 14.07.1870'. (mlMI ;)ICe U ornmyoa »ce ). . . .

8 Panopm H.at,l.Q;Jlb"lil.tlcaHnzY'w,.c/Co.iW oKpyea 1i(j;'La.ltbl'I-UICY TepCKOU o,(jJLaC-

mu. M 1,189. 6.04.1870 (maM. :HCe U ommyiJa 'Me).

ia, JIbroTLI PE:}MBrp AHTAM -:- UAPCKHM O~HD.EP AM

]74

HCKJIlO"leHRe )J;JI.H pe3MJlIrpaD;MM ,!I!OnycKRJIOCb TOJil:>KO AmI ObISnrn:x o$HJ!I,epoB,. STo. KOHeltJHO, ~eJIaJIOCb, C nOJIHTH'IeeKOH II;eJIhlO, ~T06M Be OCTaB.lllSilTb 1'1 qYlK~OM CTaHe BbICeJIeHuelB, 3Ha.IOW;HX I.l(aP.?KylO.apMHID H o6.JIia;rn:.aIODJ;H.X 'BOelJl'lOH CIIe~RaJIbHOcTbro.

B TO BpeMa KaE. I'M6Hym;ylO B TYPUMH oeAHOTY 6e3y"tIaCTffO o6peK,aJU{ He.. nOJIHhlH: npOM3BOJI, OCTRBJI.B.H TaMHJIH CChI..IJ!a:fI B CH6HPb aa C8MOBOJIhHiblD B03BpaT na :P'OADHy> CBOHX 6bIiBllUiX 'CJIyr - oc}m:u;epOB n;apCKOM apMlillf - npHHHMa.iIII 06paTHO, paaperrraa BepnYTbcn xaxc.noM-yl 00 aTOM nOJIo.meHHlI .00 BceK .HCHOCT'blO H3JIOJKeHO B .u;OK.1Ia.a.,;HOR Ha"ItJaJlloHHKa cpennero ("It{le-qeHCKoro) soeaaoro OT)l;eJI8 'I'epcxoir 06JIaCTH. renepa.JI;Maftopa KH.!l3B TYM8HOBa: e Tex HS HHX (qe"lt{eHIJ,eB. - M .. B.), !KOTOpb!e B,epB.YTC.!I H3-38 rpaHH.Ubl,C,CblJIaTb na mHTeJl:bCTIW BO BHYTpeHHMe ryiiepHlIH POCCHH. KaFt .6e'3AoMHhIX npam:e-JIbIJ;eB» 1 '.

:-tha HCRJlIO"'IHTeJIbHa~ (<<CMJII'1:.!arom;ax») yqaCTh OhIJ]!a ,n;JI.fI 6e.)lIHO-

Tbl, a O¢lHuepaM (BhIce.JIeHIJ,RM aa 'tJe"leHu;eB) npenocraanaxacs B(II3- MOJKHOcTb.sepHYT.hCH H npO,ll;O.lDKaTL ,o;ocnY>KHBaTb «BepoR H npan-

,IJ;OH» u;apcKYro CJIymoy: ~. U. ~ . _

«rJIaBBO~oMaH,!I;ylOm;DH Ka.BKa,3CFtOH apMHcFI. HMeH BBH~y, "'ITO B

QHCJle nepeceaeanes 6blJIH lJ mlmIJ,epLI, KOTopbIe, 06MaHYBillHCL B CBOUX Hap;em,o;ax npa nepexoae B nO,lI;AaHC'r'BO llopThI H lfCHbI.T8Bmn

175

T.Ri.iKKHe 6e,n;CTBH.R. IIepeCeJleHHR, B,epaYJIHCl> OII.HTI> aa PO,,D;HHY, 11Cxpernre paCRaHB.RHCb B CBOHX 3a6JIym.,n;eHHSX (!)H rrpenocraanaa cefia l\<IH,T.wcep.n;loUO npaSHTe.llbCTBa (I) ~ IIpHH$IB BO BH]U,;:aHHe .nerKOMb:I:CJIH,S HX H H83HaHHe 3aKOHOIIOJIOmeHIIA:, a TaKme pyKOBo.n;CTByacb HeROTopblMH .n;pyrHMM coo6palKeHf1:IIMH (I)., ae CqeJI errpaaeannasrx rroztaeprare IIX TOM OT'BeTcTBeHHocTH, KO'TOpyIO BJIe'teT aa C060lO acaRoe He,n;03BOJlieIIHOe OCT'aBJI8Im:e OTeqeCTBa. ••• a nOTOMY xo,n;aTaHCTBO~ BaJl, 'i'l'06bl acex oq,Hu,epo,:a H3 Ty3eMu,eBKaBKa3CKoro rcpaa - nepeCeJIeHU€B, Bo::mpaTHBWHx.CH H3 TYPD;HH, a paSHO npOCpOqRBmHX aarpallH"'1!KhIH OTnYCK. He np:Hoe:ra$l K ,!l;aJ]IJ;,aei1:mRM psccnencsaaaax C'EeneHH BHHOBHOCTM MX II He npenanaa J1X CYAY, C'lHTaTlb HCKJUOQSHHhIMll lIS CJliY:JK6hI C TeM, TITO €CJIli OHM BH'OBb nO;>KeJU;1I01' B o:aYKl BC''ryUUTL, TO He HliatIe', KaK Hli~HHM.H llIliHaMH, H. BMeCT6 C TeM JIHilleIlIHbIMH rrpas aa 3aCJliymeHHoe HMM. npeacne 01' I-ta3Hbl conep:maHne, ,P;01'(OJEE! OEl!l BRODh He npRo6peTYT aa oaoe rrpasa aepaoro H ycep;n;HOIO CJIy:m60IO {!) ... Macr-ae H3 Ta:KHX oqmu;epoB 06paw;aIOTC.f[ B aacroamee BpeM;H C npOCh6olO 0 B03Bpa.W;eHHII liM oc}JMIJ;epCI\OI'o 3BaHHH, H R Haxomy cnpaneJl:JIIIBb,IM xop;aTaHCTBOBaTb ••• CJlie,LI.OBaTeJIhHO (OHH.- M. E.) 11 He ,n;OJI:JKHb'l nO)l;BepI'HY'rhC.f!: TOMY B3bICKaluna, xoropoe OI1pe~EmeHO ,i.l;JIH TyaeMu;eB, O'FnpaBHBIllHXCJI B TypUJ;HIO rra nepecertemre» 2 •

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14. PAcqEThI C IIPOBOKATOPClCOB ArEHTYPOB.

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BOTKaK CBH,n;eT·e,JIbC'TBy'eTC·,H 06 aTOM B panOpT€ reaepana JIopHc-MeJIHKOBa B IDTap KaBKa3CKOB apMmr: «PADOPT. IIpHHHMa.H 1). oootipaacenae, <{ToO B aacroamee BpeMSI OOJJee 2500 CelMeHCTB q:eqeHLJ;eB H' Kapa6Y.l1aKoB yme BbIcTynHJIH H3 TepeRoR ODJIaCTH B TypU;HIO, $I aa OCHOB~U,fHH paepemeaaa Batnero IIpeBOCXO,ll;HTeJU,CTlBa. C006IJ::{eHHOrO !lime B nHC'bMe Banresr OT 21 MaR N~ 37. BhI,!l;,aJI renepa:Jl-M~twbPY RYH,!!;YXOBY H3 COCT05.I1U;HX II MoeM paCIIOp:lImeHHH CBO- 60.n;HbIX CyMM: nOJlYMMnep:MaJIaMlI 3 19'47 py6. 60 KOD., Mt'lllKRM cepe6poM 2052 py6. 40 KOIl" Kpe,n;HTHhIMH ihmeTaMH-4.2 Tb1C. py6 .. ~ scero COpOK IIHTb 'FEIC. py6. aa UpHHap;JI,e*am;ue ,eMY Yqa,CTKH H 3E'lMJHO CKY1'-Kox .. " Ha OCHOBil!BHH ynOM.HHYToro paapenseaga B1>l· .n;aHO MHOti TaKme renspany KYH,1J;YXOBY aa scnoxomecraoaaane 6e,lJ;KhIM rrepeceneanare .n;eCHTb 'l'hIe, py6 ... j) 4

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OCTaSJI:lIeMOe KYH)J;YX.OBbIM B OceTHHHMeHHe, aa xoropce on .HKo6M noxvxaa CyMMy, 6hlJIO «:sceMHJIOCTHBeibn:e nOmaJIOBaHO~, OR 38 Hero HY. KoneHKH He fiJIBlTHJiI. OHO 6bIJIO UO,1:lapeHO eMY ~apH3MoM sa aepayzo cJIym6y KOJIOHH:38TopaM .• CJIep;OB8Te,JILHO, roovaapcrso Y aero «noxynano» CiBOIO.me 3€M;.rno!

IIp:tf BceM 9TOM H8AO erne YllreCTh If C8MY CyMMy. 1l0TOMY qTO aa KaBKaa€ B Ty nopy TakHX BhICOKHX uen 38 rroztofiasre yca,n;hOhl He cym;ecTBOB8JW!

A c ,n;py:roii: C'lI'OPOHhl, OCTaJIbHa.!ll lJaCTb aTOM CYMMbI, .n;aHHa.aOY)J;-

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176

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Borvaanpmrep, tt-ro B ::ITOM ~e OTHOllieHHH IIHCRJI )l,aJ!bme JIopac-Mexnxos:

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I A. ,QYZOIB Y"u~p nepeiJ 6b,~ce.(!.eFtue.u. '

2 .Bep::HC!, AV. J1. Bucesenue eopuee C Ka6Kaaa// PyccKaJl. cmapuna. 1882.

OlCmMipb. T. 86. C. 17. .

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4 Pa.nopm "O.Mauoy1Ou~ezo 60aClCa~w eenepasta Jlopuc-Me . .n.uICoea I'saenoicoJ!WltQ'YJOu,eMY R'aeH:U3CX:.OU. apsuu». 0 nepece . .fI'.enuu my3e.m.;ee TepcICou os scemu 6 TYP!J,~UIO. :M 52. 07_.07.1865. (1863-.1867). {Ceeepo-Ocemuncnuii pecny6- JlUFCaloiCICUU tOCapXU6. C,6. 1. a. 1 (eexpemnoe}.

5 C.ft. 8blcue; Ilucb/,W J!()put;;-M.eJT.ulCofJa eeuepaJl-Y KaplJ,061/. 0 nepecesensu» mY3eM!+,ee Tepcxoi1 o6.n-acmU6 TYPtfU1O. 07:.07. 1865. (Ceeepo- OcelttunclCull pecn._y6.n;UllQ.HC1CUU zoeapxue, C6 .• 1, 0.1 {cetcpemuoe ).

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Bout. 1. C .. 274.

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178

11. 79

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llpOtlOJlmaT.b BbI08JIeHHe neaaaxos H B C.u:8,1lYIOlll(eM 18661' .. napCRaR a,IJ.,MMHHC·TpaU;HS Ha lCaBRaae He Morna. Ifaprsrepsr careoztep'RatBHOf'O npaBHT8JIhCTBa POCCHM no lBbICeJIeHHiIO KaBKaaCI,tMX rop-· uen - TYPRH - KaTeropH'IeCKH OTKa3aRHCh npHHHMaTh K ceee qeq,eHIl,eB. BOT RaK 06 STOM cootintaerea H'cCJ!e~OBal'eJI.HMH:

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)j!J!I$i mu'ywei1 CMl>ICJIe. . .

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Bee K33aitrhH CTaHHn;ibI (¢eJIb)JiMaprnaJIhCKaa, BOPOHII:OBo-,I!;amROBC'KaS, Cyaaseacxaa, l'apCR8.H H 'FapcKHe xyropa), rcoropsre paape- 3aJIH nOll0JIaM IIHrymeTH:IO, OT,D;eJIHH ropayro qaCTb or [lJIOC1\.OCTHOfi, 6l>IJlH BROSh 3aHHTcI HHI'ywaMH (c CaHKIl,HH GHE 0 Cepro OP,Il;:lKOHMltH)l!3e. )

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181

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ITPHME~H

i BepJlCe Ai), fl. Bueeseuue ZOPlfe6 C KaBl(;Q3a// Pycc/CaJI. Cmapuna. 1882.

OICmst(Jpb. T. 36. C. 30.

:l Bopl>6a 3a C08(!mcKYfO 8Jl.aClnb 6 Ceeepuou Ocemuu. 1957.// 113 PCllU I1peiJceiJamellfl. Tepexoeo CHIC H. By,al£uihe na I coeaae 6 r'p'03ftO.M. 22.05. 1918. C. 96) .

~ Ha Tepexe, 6 {lezycrne 1918 s, npornu(Jfie.!Lbt;:( t1ana 6U'l.epaxor:1C~eB.

4 Opf);1IC01UJKU03€ r K. CmambU, u penu. f956. C. 79. . _

5 Caymue8. M. T. KO.Ma.niJ.rpoUJ,Ull H naYl1.!CKu • .n l'tapofJnbiM onosnenuex. BoenOJn!.t}i.a.nUR .0 C. Op{Jjltofi.'Uil:uQae u rpa'J'Coanc1Coi1, I'.lOime. 1986. Ap.XU8 tpOl'&008 Tfeii.(!HQ-J!luYW.CKOZO pec,nyt5JtulcancfCo2o M.yae,fl... C. 1,2.,

,6 OpO;NCOH.rUWQ3e I', K. Y'WB. COil •. T. 1. 1956 .. C. 130. 131.

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182

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6A6peK - ropen, JIJ[xoit HaeS.IlHHR (.n;mMI'F.liT). He w;a,o;HLD;n:M rOJIOBb1.- AB. B.»I .. MeTO,ll;hI, I1!pHMeH.fIeMbIe a6peKaMH, Ol>lJIII l1lapTI:I3aHCRRe: H'a6erll MaHeBpe:a:HbIMH rpyrmasra, p;HBepCHU 11 aKThI B03Me3- ,liI,HR. II03.iKe OHM ,lI;eJraJIl1 H8.rreThi Ha KaCCbI H .Ka3HaQeilcTBa, TroPbMbI" roprossie H nOq'FOoB:E.le «OKa3HH». COBepmaJUI meJIe3HO,D;OpOmHhIe asapaa, lK.a'F3CTpOCPbI, rpOMRJIH yCaJJ;bi5U M HMeHHSI ITOMem;HKOB, aa .. XB3T'hIB·aJIU B n.rreH, o:r6UBa.rr1I Ta6YHhl KR:fDKeCKHX KOlleR, aT'IlI<':;Ke yroHSIJl!H orapsr IIOMemHQblrX onen H T. II. Te IKe, KTO 3aHHM!aJIC.a: yrOHoM H3 :laTepeQHhIX C'T8!HH'!HbIX recmornen ep:HHcTBeHilOH JIGmaAR HJIH KOPOBbI H.lIH BbutpHlraJIHa nopore y B,ll;OBbI nOCJIe,llHIOIO -, ero, K'()He'tfHO, 6bIJIH He 1ll6peRH, a 06bI'IlHhIe BOpLI- «KYP.R!THHKHo>. nrxypHH.IUI, HX eDOM: aapozt sceraa H aeaae npeC.1Ie,lljOB8JI H npeaapan.

.IJ!opeBOJIJOn;MOHIH8.f1 tJ:BOp.a:HCKQ-6YPiKys3HaH HCTOp~IOI'paq)JfJ:r H JIl'I'FepaTypa C03,lJjaJIH: y HeTY3eMHoro H8CeJlIeHH:lI JIomaoe npencrasJIeHHe 06- afipexax, Ha HHX B,03BO~HJIH mOBHHHCTlP!eCKIIl1 nameBH.1Ib, nOpO'tfam,M:H: q'eCTb qeqeHn;eB lit HHrymeli1': 6Y;J;TO OHI{ TOJlibKO nporpeccaoaansasre <lpas60HiiUU{H H KO'HOKpa.;a:bl». CJIOBOM, <,6aH,liI"IITbl» H «KPOBOr:IHHI1;,bI:». Bnaronapa 'FaROH KmmeTe, lisen PYCCRHX JIIO,QeH erne eoxpaaaer raxoe IIpe~CTaSJIeHHe 06 afipexax, KaK 06 OT'b:fIBJIeH.HI.IX JBOTbiX y6RHn;ax H npecTYirUU1KaX, IIo3TOMY Me HAAO OTo:mp;eCTSJla'Fb 6bInIDUX rrpa n;apH3Me a6peKOB C yrOJIOBHbIMH 6aiEi,n;HTaMM. scerna (n npexcae, H Tenepb) IIapa3KTi:Ipyro~llMHB cpeae TpY.D:OBOro H8CeJI8Ium. He Ha)w 3a6bIBa'Th~ ({TO napon 3JEr8Jl H JIIOOH . .!I CBOHX 38IIlHTHHKOB-.a6peKQB, ooepel'&.II JI CKPhlB8.JI HX OT BCHRHX rrpeCJIe,llOBaTtlnea (a,lJjMHHH<CTpan;,HY) H npe.l(aTeJIeli (~pOBHHKOB).

·OTpnD;a'F€!.JIbHOe B a6peQecTBe 6hIJIO JIIIlI1b,TO,4TO H3-38 11X. 8K· THBHOCTH B ItaKOH-TO MeCTHOCTH MHOr,!l!a. C'l"PnAaJII UeDHH.lUIH lIapo.n;~, nO,l(Bepra.R!Cl> penpeccaara, KOI',Il;8 a.n;MUH.HCTpaU;llS' eouepmana 3K3el KyD;HHj CTaBHJI3 H3 rrocroa y H3CeJll.eHIIJI BOHCKa II Ka3aKoB, KOTO-

I Bepsce AG. II. Bucesenue eopuee c Ita6ICa3.a!! Py,ccn;QJI. cmapuua, 1882.

OlCl1tJl6pb. T. 36. G. 8. 9(c6paw;ae.M. 6HUM,QUue. 'Lma l-JI. 'tacml> Baunoeo 06oRC' neuUR 61>UW 61>t meHoeii.I-4UQ3HOU).

2. llPOBOKAII,Hf.I

184

HJrJlIOCTpHpyeM O,D;llH :us TbICXQ npaxepoa nomaoa KJ!ea€TbI na qe'lfeHCKHH H: HlHrYIIlClcne aaponsr COO CTOPOHbI a,n;MHHHcTpan;HH

185

KaBK,a3a, pacrrpocrpaaasmejrca C n,eJIbIO HaTpaBJlHB&Hll.R aa HHX pyccxoro E: xaeaxsero nacenemra.

Opeaa 'I'epexoro ofinaeraor'o npaBJIeHHJI H3,n:,aB3JI so B.T:!a.o;HKaiB. tcaae K3aa:qbIO raaerye'I'epcrcae ,B,e,!:{OMOCT!H1} , KOTOpa.H B 1883 r. Oilry6- JIHKOB8JIa O~HY H3 CBOHX C9HC3IJ,HOHEi1>lX cTaTeti.HMBnwyro .HBUO rrpoBoKatI.HoIHu.rB xapaxrep. TIPHBO,n:HM M8TepH3JI nOJIHOCTbIO: «N!! 41. Bnanarcasxaa. 7 OKT.H6pn 1883 r.

IIpHe3.:rKHe Ii,S C1'aHHlJ;l>I I'anameacxoft (HbIHe UepBoMaiicKofi:. -

M. E.) xaaaxa paCCKa3blBaIOT 0 B03MYTJAITeJIl>HOM npOHClI1ec''!'BIHr, 6hlBweM na ,ll;HJIX B 91'<OH C'l!'alUf~e If !Han:OMHHalOUWM 3BepCTBa ,n;HKMX ayJIYCOB HJJiH 6amHtJY3YKOB. HeCKOJlbKO ,llje'l'eii-M8.ll!b'tIHKOB,. H3 KOTOPl>IX crapnresty 6MJIO 13 JIeT, OTnpaBllJIHCb H3 CTamU~bI ryph- 6010 B OJIMjEaHIllHrr nec COOHpaTb opexH.BepHY,JIHCh me OHM ,ll;OMOn neperryraaaeae II acrexaronme RpOBhIO. OKa38J!OCb, ~ITO Y ncex lHUX 6LIJUI orpeaarna H,3h1IKII (1- M. B.), II TOJIhKO 3H.aK.a.MiH M:O[,JIH 'OHH 06'hSl:CHHTb. 'ITO B Jlee}' aa HHX aanana HErYIDH (! - M. B.) z.o'rpeaaJIH liM JI3blKH (11 - M. B.). Cxonsxo 61>IJIO aanaziaromax H KaKHM ofipaaora aa O,ll;HH HS MaJIb"lHKOB (a HX 6hIJlO, I'OBOPJ'lT, 10 l.IeJIOBeK) He vcne,n y6,e~aTh HJIH CKP!bI'I'hC.fI 0'1.' anoneea ,- <lTO noxa OCTaeTCSI: 'Fafi:HO:H" ROTOpyID, BepOHTHO, pa.31.:lWEIMT HaM CJlep;CT:BHel> (C. 577).

,

3. It IBOIIPOCV 0 B,LJ'CEJIEHIIHBEttHAXOB. IIPOTIIBOPEqHH

B xnars 'l<HCTO!PHH CEBEPO-OCETHHCIWH ACCiP".

~eHC.fI Typel¥toH areHTypoih II «pa3JIH"lU1· 1I TYPKoqmnaMH lI3 f'OPCKHX c;peO~aJlOB Ii MYJIJI'} ••• (1)

CqHTaeM, 'ITO T,aKoe H3JIoace:sue aonpoca 0 rrepecerrenmr BeiiHaXOB B 1865 1'. HeB€pHO. 3.!Iecl> HMe€TCH YIIo,ll;o6.ne.HHe 'l!epKeCCKOMY Bl>IC8JIeHHIO B 1861-1864 1'1'., Kor.n;a .n.e:ficTBHTeJIhi8:o npOBO,!lHJI8Cb 3Ha'lH'Te.lIh,Ha.s TypeIli,Ka.R U TYPKQcpH.JIbCKaSI areHTYPHalI artrranaa; 3aTeM *ropCKHX cpeO.ll\aJIOB» B qe'tIBe 11 HHI'ynnnl TOI',ll;a (1865) B CJlOJEMSmeHC.H cpopMe erne He 6hIJIO; H lHtKOHen. roaopa 06 ~< ",!l;eono~ [,IIH MlIOpH,lI,H3M.ai>. BJIH.fI:Bw:ei§: 6YP;TO Btl Bhlce.JIeHUS B 'LJeQHe. aeJl!b,3.R! 060ttTH MOJI1t{aHI18M TO; qTO B ,!:{HH ctiopon H Bble3;!1;a JIIo.n;eii: MIOPll)lbl! 6hIJIH IIPOT:HIB. a o.u;:HII'I 113 MIOPHllOB caM "BOarJIaBnn BOCCTaHHe aa CpbIB BhICeJIeHH..R: BeHHaXQBB TYPIli,HID. (GM. = C. 70-.86).

B TOM-TO II OTJUi"tUr.e BeHHaX:CKoro BbICeJIeHHSI B 1865 r'. OT'tISPKeCCKOI'O, "-ITO OHO npOBO~BJlO.CI;H!e TYperU!:OH areHTypOH (KaK aHepKeCHI1). a MeCTHOH u;apCKOH KaSK8aCRO'H a,n:MIfH!H:CTpan;l1efi::.

2, Te .:iK,e aaropsr 3a.KJIIo'laIOT. 1.1'1.'0 eropina, nepeCe'JIHBWkt8CH B TYPI1;mo., 1.I.aCTb1O ITOI'H6JIH, a qaC'I'hIO O'Fype"l!HSQJIHCb .•• » «<!HC.TOpUJl CeBepO-OC€'rHHC.KOH ACCP». C. 177), ,8. Te, xoropsre OCTaJIHCh H8 KaBK83€, «nonana nop; BJIaC'fh napnaxa, npOBO,1l;HBW8ro nOJIHTHlKY meCTOKOI'O Y[,H8T8HH.H H HaCHJl!bCTB8HlIOR PYCHqJ'HKaUBH, •• » (TaM me. C. 177). Ii BOT fion:yqa,ElTC.fI, q'ro. HeCMOTp:H na see STO, ['OPU;bI «OJ!aro)'J;ap.s c6m-tmeHHIO C pyCCKHM aaponora cOXpaHHJIH ce6sr KB.K caMOCTOHTeJ1bHhle HapO~HOCTFl ••• ~ (TaM JKe. C. 177),

ECJIH 'CJ1e,!I.OBaTh STHM MlJC.,lIlIM, TO narrpaunraaerca ,lIpyro:H asrBOA. ~ITO RynhTYIHl lPYCCKoro aapoza cnanee HJU:I HFlJKe (1!) rypertKOll, IiIOCKOJIl>,KY re I'OPD;h.r, icoropsre OKaaaJIHCb B TYPUHH, (<.OType'l!H:ARCb» paasme, t,t6M OC!raBmMeCJI HapO,1J;H'He {'PYC:lfCPuU;HpOBaJIHcb».

IIoJly~aeTc.fl nporaaopexae. ,I(YMaeTC.H, TyT 1tlTO-TO aaao 'rOqHee H .H.CHee H3JIOmHTb., KOHKpeT.H3F.1ipOBaTb CPOPMYJl1ipOBKY.

3. If 11l0C,ne,lJ;HHHB,hlBon; aenoaareae «E OCeT'H.H I'OCIIO,n;CTBOBana npOpOCCH'HCKa.H opaearanaae . Oaa nO,llTBep:>R,ll;aeTCH TOJ.Ilb:KO TeM, 1:ITO arHTan;I1:Ji KYH,n:yxo:sa He HMe.1la ocoeore ycnexa oceraacxoro aapo)ta, H OB BMeCTO 100 C€MeH YBJleK aa COOOH 45; .R TO M3 cpe)'J;hl,CBORX PO,1J;HhlX Ii BepXOB (aaaapoa).

Harrpamaaaerca BOlITPOC: 33 KaRMe «.!l06pOJlieTeJI0~ I'OCrIO,D; KOJIOH'I1!aaTOpOB OC8TMHC'Ra.s Oe . .tIHQ1a MOJ'J[a HMe'l"b R HHM ocofisre CH.Mnar aa, qTO He nonzranecs YBJlie1t{eHHIO exaTb B'TypIJ;HIO?

He yxasaaa npOpOCCH.MCKa:a opaearanaa, ae CTHMYJIbI H rrofiy.lIlHTeJIhHble MOTHS))!. TYT 'TO.iKe aano RaK-TO .RCHee caaears 0 ,AerrCTBHTenbHbIX nOJIHTHqeCtm:x npeAllOChIJIKaX «npopOCCHHCEorr OpHeIllTaID;HH» B OCe'FHPI.

)lYMae'FCs{, 1tlTO K npHBO.DlJlMhIM '['peM: MOMeHTaM B «Hcropnn CeBepO~OCe'FHHCKOH ACCP.) aaropsr n:O,u;OIDJIH He -qe'TKO, a CxeM:8- TH'lHO;

«NQ 42. BJl3,!:{HKaBKas. 14 OKT.fI6pSl;. B :rrPOIllJIOlM HOMepe (N2 41) HameR r-aaersr na OCHOBaUBH XO.ztjJ~HX B repone CJIYXOB Mbl coofiIJ.J;aJlII 0 TOM, 1!TO 6JIH3 CTaHn~b[ raJIaWeBCKOH HH1'ymH OTpeSaJIH H3blKH Y 10 Mam,t:JHKOiB. 6PO)l!!1:BnJlHX a 6JIHlK8:HmeM rreey. 06STOM nporrcmeersaa TOJIKOBaJll'f fiOJIb,me acero na HailleM 6aaape. B epeae npocrouapons.s H no pacC}~.a3aM 6Y)l;TO 6hI K!'lla8.ROB H 6a6. npnexanmax HS I'anaureacxoa CTaHH~hI. Me:.m.n;y TeM MeCTHa.H a.n;M:lh HHCTpaIJ,HR, He nOJI.Y"lHBW:i'liJ'l HIIKaKHX 'YBe,n;OMJIeHHH 0 npoacmeCTBHH, 18eMe,n;JIeHHO OTnp8BHJI8 ,lI;JI.H cnpanox aa MeC'Fa B CT3UHIJ;Y fa.rraWe!BCKYIO BlapO'tIHOI'O, KOTOPhli1, B03:BpaTRCh ilia .n;pyroit ,u;eHb. CO- 00 rn;HJI" tITO TaM He TOJlhKO He DhI.JIO TaKOI'O npOHClIIeCT!BH.II, HO ,Dlame HHKTO H 'He eJIbIXaJI aaxero nonofiaoro. 13 l.IeM Ii npe,u;.cT8.BHJI nacsMeHHoe Y,,n;OCTOBepeHHe CTll!HHqHOI'O araseaaa» (C. 598).

B 3TOM cnyxae XOPOIIIO XOTb TO". "lTO lJepea He,u;eJ[ID nOCTYUHJIO onpoaepxcenae, A CKOJIhl<O B Te Bp€MeHa. 6hIJ]O BCHKUX HeJI€IUbIX CJlIYXOB, reoropsre rroKpblB8.JIHKOPOll I'KYCHOH: JI)K[l[ H KJIeBeTbl xeqeraCKllH H HHrymcKHH HapO~Ii>I!

B CBH3M, C H3JlOme!ll:HOH 'reM.OR B03HHKa:IOT 'TpH aonpoea K cocra-, BH1'eJI.sIM <sMCTOPHE Ceaepo-Ocerancsoa ACCP'»:

1. B <.MCTOpHH Cesepo-Oceraaoxoa ACCP» (rJI. 4. § .3. C. 175-177) aBTopfiI roaopsrr, ~':lTO B lJeqHe liIi IIH!'yIller:au :S!hICeJIeHMe :B TYPD;I'IIO B 1865 r. WJIO non B.JIH:flHHeM <n:li~eOJIOrHH MIOpHp;H3Ma,>. «aacaacaas-

186

li.87

nPUMECLfAIUIE

HTaI<. aa pO,D;RHeQepK8CClUIH norposs, YC'rpOeHHbIM EB,li;OKHMOShIM, 6hIJli IIOCJIe)l;HH~HO nnepeaa m,D,aJlO erne .. xyzunee 6e,llCTBHe, CTOHBIIlee MHOrlil;X TI;>IC$:I:l.f cq,eJIOB91;1:eCKliX ~!I:'l3He}l"l

B peaYJJbTa'Fe BhWe.neHM:.fli roprrea C Ea:sRaaa 's TyiP:U;~IO nO~rTn see DOJEYMHJlJfHOIU!Oe flaCeJileHHe (470 753 'IeJI.) 2 lJepK8cMM 6blJI.O

(paKTI-rtteCKHIiICTpe6JleHO. ..' . . _

Hapoz; OTIIpaBJI$IJIII MopeM aa Kopa6JUIX H T¥peU;KUX iKOttepM<lX ($eJIlorax). IIoSTOM:Y B TY IIOpy ace BOCTOQHo-1:JepI8'OMOpCKoe nodepeml.e' (nopTbI H rasalH4) 6M3110 IIepenOJIHeHO Ta6opaMl1: R c'raHOBHlIIaMW 13hlCeJlSeMbTX l;{epKeCOB. BCJIep;CTBHe orpOMHO~O CKOIIJ!eHH.1'I Mace, rrpenocraaneaasrx caMHM ce6e, 13 8HTHCaFIl'lTapHHHblX yCJl!OBlJ$I1X. 6e3 !K-pOBa, B HMlllleT·9 .H re.JlO,lJ;e, IIpl1 ElOJIHOM GlTCYTCTBlUI rHTHeBLL H 6ea Me,l1;MUHH:ClKOB nOMOID;H., cpe,l1;K BbICeJI.1'IeMblX C'11'8.1I11: pacnpOC'l'palHtTbcsr 8i!i[Hp;eMMQeCKHe 3a6oJI€B8HHa ~ TIll:}? H oena (a n03- me a 't£YMa). TaR pa3Bllnc:.H mMToKIrii MOp, H CMepTL KMeJIa 06HJIbHYlO maTHY, Ho F'8RepaJThl-KOJlOHHaaTOpI>I H Type:UKHe _;aa U::U'I He rrpHHUMaJI.H HIUl:aiI<IlX Mep K npe,l1;OTBpam;eIUHO MaCCOBOJI rM'oeJJl:I! qepKe:CR,Oro aapona. TaKOBhl «'I.[enOBelJ:HOCTh» H «ryMIl!HHOCTh;} POCCI'IHCROI'O U;a:pM3Mali: MycyJIbMaIlCKoro «paa e TypeUKoro CYJiI'FaHaJ

COBpeMeHHHKH, onacsraaaunre ;3-TY ymaCHY.lO Tpare,lJl~IO ¥rcTpe6- JIae!I'omro qepKeCCKOl'O HaC{!JI'8HIUIi, npHBOAR.JIH JJ[OTpHcalOllJ,Me cueasr. no :sceMY -qepHOMopCKOMY no6epellihro 3ana,lXHOrO KaBKa3a 1'0][;UbI I'OJIO,ill8lOm;e'E'O; B PYOHU1iillX" HUIl\ero Hapo~-a KKWeJIH BO acsx npnCTaHlIX. Ho caasrana 0 «ncrpoxe».

4. 0 BldCEJrE:HHUqAC'rH OCETHH 13 1865 r.

o IIOJIOmeHHH oeermr, BbICeJIeH!HhIX cKaBRa.38 BMeCTe C BeHHaxasra B 1865 r .• HJIir~e He ynOMl-lHaeTCiIl. Ho !B «I1CTOPHJI CeaepoOceTH.HcKOM ACCP1) 06 ~'l'OM HMe8TCa He6oJIbWOe C006meHHe cne,uylOm;eI'O co,n;ep,m,aHHH:

«M3 OceTlnr ssrexana B TYPD;mo. J'JIaBHbIM 06pa30:M., HeAoBOJIbmae IIpe.D\CTO.Hl1IJ;ee: Q'FMeHOH xpenoerncro npaaa anztapsr :Hi oa,lJ;MJr.1'I'Fbi (.~:BOp.HHCK!l-JeCJIOH) ItYH,ll;YXOB.l>I. MaMCYPOBhl, TXOCTOBbl, EceaoBbl. KaHYKOBbl, AJI,!(aTOBhl H' ~iP. B 'rYiPIl:\HH OC€'l'IUlhl noce.m:HJIM.Cb B OCHOBHOM BORpyr Kapca, H8 PYCCKo-Typeu,Roti: l'paHH~e ••• >} B Oce'FR.H arHTaU;HsICYH"lliYXOBa He HMeJIa ycnexa.

TIOCKQJIbRY npOTHB oceTUHCKHX BblCeJIeHliI\eB co CTOPOHhl napCKO:rO KO.MaH,!l;OBaHn.s: KaBXa::39M He 6hl:JlO hPI<!HD;HHH3.,Jlb:El:OTO Tpe6oBaRRIl!, no,uo6Horo 'TOMy.qTO 6:bIJlIO Bibl)l;BHHyTO opmTxoHgaM 0 noce.neHHH B,lI;a:JI!H OT iPYCCKo-TypervwH rpaaarrsr, '1'0 IiX H paSMeCTHJIH «BOKpyr !Capea,>, T. e. nOqTH ua C8MOlf rpanane.

EC1'eC'l'Se8iHo. ,{TO caMO;n;ep)KaBH8 li5hIJIO 60JIee o.nall'OC:KJIOSHO K OCeTHHCR:HM 8Jl):l;apaM; aemeJIH It 6eCITOKOHHhlM seHHaxaM, a ITOCKOJlbKY AJ[H HHX 6blJUl: C03,m,aHhI cpaBHHT€JIbHO Hel1JIOx.Me.6hIToBhleyCJIOBHR, HM'HI ae 6bI.TllQ ElI3!P;OOHOC'l'H pesMHrp:apolB.aTL aa Kasrcaa,

I Hcmopusi Ceeepo-Ocenuincscoli ACCP/I M,; H:;i'h;o Axaa. ffaYK, CCCP. 1959, C. 175, 176,

ESP;OKHMOSCltHK n:orpoM ~e:pKeCOB

5. HB HCTOPHH BbICiEJIEHHH 'lIEPEECOB B 1864 r.

B JIHTepaType HHr;n;e He OHncaHO aTO noaopnoe noeoame, KO B MaTepMaJIax Tom nepaoaa (1862-1863 1'['.) BCT.pe'lae'1'CH .~eo6'!.Jlc~ HHMoe ynOI\Hm3!Hli1€ 0 H,eIKQeM~eB,l:l;OKHMOBCKOM norporee q.epReCOB», Y Hlif'YIDen: H )l;p- ropuea KaBRasa XO_n;IIJHI CRa'saH.H:S: 0 RaKOM-''FO meet'OROM l!a6HeHHM nnenasrx 'tJepKeCOB, COBepweHHOM UO npIHC3a3JHHO renepana EBAOKKMon3.

BC'E'peTl1B nO,li;06Hl.Ili cro.iReT,3anliIc.aHRHH co C)lOB OAl:lo:ro .Il:3aBTOPM'l'€THhIX yqac'r8'HIWB e-roro COObiTHR, ME.l eoo6ru;aeM 3: «8TQ nponaomJlO B patioHe r. 'I'yarrce, Jlocne npH}C3,3a ROMaHAYlO~el!'o apsraeH EB,D;ORlIMOB8 pa30PYjKH'rhC-fl Ii C)J\3TbCH HceM BOjK,IJ;.fIM-HaQaJIbHMRaM nepieeoexoro HBipO.ll;a MHorH€ lI3 HHX JrIpe.n;rrcr'IJHl n030pHOMY D..lIe,HY MYJKeCTBellHY:ro :rHGeJlb H ... _ B IIOJIHOM! Boopy*~HMa i'll B CT,aJIbHbIX ,Ilocrre,xax. R.oa:Hhle, aa BeeM CKaRY GpoCaJIHCb CRpyTO:rO 06PbIsa np.flMO B 6YPHYlO MOpc!CYJO l1yqUHY, r,ll;€ II l'H6.JIH BM€CTe C J!lI06MMhliMHi 60eBhIMIf KOHSlMlt.. Ho TaK rrocrynana aaM'60JIee ropaxne Ii OTBa~KHbIe lla'E'!pHOThl~MYJK·'t[HHbI.

;IJ;pyrHe iKe, .KaHBHO nOBepHB BepOJIO'MHOMY iga.pCKOMY KOM<11:1)"I;O:Bamuo, CaMkI $lBH'JIHCh C,!l;aaa'FbCSl1; H~e1[Ch aa qec'l'l>, TBep,!!;ocTh cnoaa, I1eJnl}to~ywHe !H M0:J10CTL n06e;O;M'lI'eJIeH. Caas ClE8!'t3!Jla CBOHX npexpacasrx BepXOBbIx KOHeM (aprSMaKOB IHI,6apAHHCKOfi nopoztsa) c

189

B HCTOPHH Hap0)l;QB Cesepnoro KaBiKaaa Tp.eTbe BbIceJ!eHHe rapueB·tIepKeCOB B 'Fypumo npaaaro aesepno C't[HTRTh OCHOBHhlM (BH)ltHMO, lIO Macc'OBOCTll)_ EMY E10,!l;Sepr.J!RCh «aaKy6aIEt:Clure» 'lepKeCbE nOCJIe KX OKOH't[aTe.rrbHoro rrexopeaaa.

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188

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IIocJIe 9'1'01'0 paanaaacs HenOHJ'lTHa.fI xepsecax KOMaH,1Jl;,a ocpIfu;epOB II I10CJlhlIlilaJICg mYTKllll rpoxor APo6H MHomeCTB8, BoeHiHbIX 6apatianon. Bee 1;J'eThIpe nepeaaae mSpei8:rH COJI.n;aTBHYTpH sroro ,« xape» ow;eTllHHJlllCb IUThI.KaMH CRJIOHeHHibIX aa PYKY BHRTOBOR. 3Ta nanpeccapcnamraa COJl.n;aTCRUE aoopyxeenaaa M8cca 'ycTpeM:IIJIHCD aa CIIeIIIeIl!HYlO H 6eaopYJEJIYro TOJUlY 6e33a~HTHbIX IIJIeHHbIX ... Qepe3 H8CKO,JIbKOMMHYT KpOBaBOe H36H€HH€ 3aKOHII.HJIOC!b: ronna )I1O,I:lieH Jlema.lI8. pac:n:pocTepTom aa 3eM.Jle HJIH IIepeKOJ.lOTaa IUThIRaMll; HJIH C pa3,lWOOJIeHHhIMH npHRJIa.n;aMH xepenazra! ••

Bee ~e,[,blpe TbICHl:.IH JIyqWHX "lJ;jKRrH'FOB "LIepKecHH, UBeT ee BOeHHhIXlIIpOCJIaBJIeHHbI!x. BO:JKp;eii. [[OneI'JH:I (IT PYE napcicxx IIaJIa'll:eiiI I1x OoOManYJIH H YHH'I'TO~HJIH «,I1;06neCTH!ble,) reaepansr rr;apH3Ma!» Tax 8'TO 6blJIO, ROHe'lJHO, rro npe)J;a.HIU'l!M cTapHKoB-FOpn;eB: ,«ryMaRuoe napexoe rrpe)J;np1{.f.fTHe I) - eB,ll;OKHMOBCKH.M rrcrposr xepKecO'B.

KaR rOBOp1JJIDcb BMIDe. see npHCTaHH Iu!:meJIll, gaR MypaBei§:HHK. TOnnaM}! I'OJIO,LllHbIX no~ .n;omAeM H cHeroM, aa B€Tpy; rpY,iii'&1 HHKHM He y6KpaeMbIX MepTBbIX, cMpaA TJIeHll.H, nOJli381OII1Ille cpena Mep'll'BbIX e:rJJ;€ :JKllBhle; CTOHh! II ope.n; 6eCIJIOMOIIl;HhlX 60JI!bHbIX :a Ty'l' ace oi5pe:qeH1£ble 1£a CMep1'b, erne aaopoasre: MaTepH H cecrpsr, ph1Pia~ IOID;He HB.,ll; CTbIHYIIJ;HMH TpynaMlIi MJrRp;eHIl,el8; rO,]lOA.Hhle Ma.Jlro'n~H. CHpO~bI, [lpOC-H~He I1HIIllY Y MepTBbIX pO,iiiH'TeJIe:tL

T01' yxeac, TOT aocYTRHH npOR3BO,JI, KOTOpO:MY nonaeprca ofipexenHhlm KR aocecToKoe YH.llqTOjReHMe 'tIepK€!CCRH:H .HapO)i!, .np05IBJIReTCJ'lI .n;ame B HeBOJlbHhIX I1pH3HRHH.fIX o;:mo!'o H3 COBpeMeH.H:HIWB, D;RpCKOI'O TeHAeHD;n03HOI'O HCTOPHKB! A. Bepxce, pacrronoaeenrroro ,lI;RJIe~ KO ~e B I10JIh3Y (, AHKapeih, * XH~HbIX» ropnenl 8TOT p;yury JIep;eH.fInI;HH YjRac npOH3BeJI .n;aaoce U aa Hero, RaR OE! caM npH3HaBRJI, «noARBJIJIIO:w;ee nrre1tJ:aTJIeHH€;). BOT QTO OH TOl',!l;8.! 3aq)HRCHpOBa.JI: « ••• Hmcor p;a He aa6y p;y a Taro nonasrrarornero BlIel'.J:aTJIeHHH 4; tcareoe npoasaena na MeRS" ropnsr S HOBOPOCCHMCKOH oYXTe, r.n;e ax cofipanoel> 11a Gepery 170001 qe.n:OBeK. TIoa..n;Hee (HOJIOPh 1863 r. -1\1. B.), HeH8CT'HOe 11 XOJIO.n;HO€ BpaMJI rona, noq'rH ccaepnreaaoe OTCY'FCTBHe cpencrn R cyru;eCTiBOiBaHHIO II CBHpenCTEIOBaBmaH MejJ(~y HUMI:'!: snaPieMHH '!I.'IHIJa Ii ocme ~eJIaJIH rrOJIOmeH:ae u:x OT1LJ!a.HIIlHbIM. 11, .0:811- CTBHTeJli~bHO. qhe cepnue He COAiP0I'HYJIOCb ow npn BH,ll;e, aarrpmsep, MOJIo,,llOH 'qepKemeHKll~ B py61uo;ax JIeJKa~eH aa ChIPOe: nc=me, llO.u; OTEPbIT~rM He6oM!, c .n;BYMS" MB!JIIDTKaMH, M3 KOTOpbIX. O,!!;kiH B npea'OMepTHbIX cy,u;oporax 60pOJIC:fI C mH3HbIO,B TO BpaMJI KaE ltPyro:Q HGKaJI YT'OJIeHH.R! r0J10Aa y rpy.n;n yme oxo-reaeaurero Tpyna MaTepa (1). A no,lt06HbEX cu;en l!C'l'pe~an:OCib HeM3JIO ... ,» 5

190

Ho 3THMH CTpaPiaHHJiMH Jl!!OA,en: Era T.JepHoMopCKOM rrofiepeacse He ncseprrsraanacs sema MyqeHlI:H OOpeqeHHOIf'O fia [':aoeJIb l'tepK,ecCRorO aapona,

,D;JIH nape'BOBKH MopeM B T)rpru;mo 6hIJIH HCnOJIb30B8RhI BCHKHe crapsre ropromae rrapycasre cYJla XI 6ap:nUI,,u;aBH!O asmreztrmae lI3 ~.nOTa aa rrOJIHOH naaonreaacersro. BOT HX-TO npe.n;np.itltM'lHBbIe KOMMeplIecKKe ,iiieJIbIJ"bI, napexae IIOAP:a:,ll;,,:nn~H. aacaopo, xce-xax, 0'1'peMoHTHpoBaB, nonaaana nOA norpyaxy napozta, B TaR01'Y1 COCTO$lIBRR" nocamra JIIOAeH HBI STOT <.qmOT», OTnpaBJlIH,JIH ero B Mope, aaae,l.l;OMO paCCl.iU"lI'hlS.Ui lila ~O. YJ:TO npH I1€PBOM *e He3Hia'tlHTeJIbHOM nrropxe oa 6y~eT nOTOnJI9>H. Cpe.n;H COBpeMeHHHRoB coxpaaanacs XO,lJ;HBmaH B TY I!iOpy y*aCHaa MOJI.Ba, 6Y,lI;"FO STM CYAa 6l>IJIH )8:e TOJIbKO seTxnMH; HO ~1: HM:eJIH aapaaee npOOKTi:.le .D:HflilU.a. BM!3,1.1;JJ C JIro,1J;bMH B OTKpbIToe Mope, OHM scxope TOHYJIH, norpefiaa C co6oi1 BCeX'rrB:CCamH:poB!

HCCJ1ep;OBa.BwuH <)TO'f BOIIPOC as'rop TaR npHBOp;llJl 3TY BepCHIO: <, ••• MeCTHoe npezraaae, coxpanaameeca cpe~H PYCCKOI'O HaCeJI,eHH.H,. nepenaer ymacHible BeJJJ;H .. MHorMe 6apmH. Harpy»teHH!ble rop:u;aMI1. HMieJIH rrpofiypaaneaaoe ,!J;1iO H 6y,n;Y"1H :8:&IBe,iiieHhI B Mope. TOHYJIll BMeCTe C nepecenermaraa, a A,eHbfll,. rrpenaaanaveaasre aa pacxoasr, OO'I'aBB:nHCb B Ka..pMRlH8X 38B:e.n;n!B8!B!J1HX ,1!I;eJIOM JIHliJ;»6 •.

KpOMe 9TOI'O, cymecraoaana erne It )l;pyra.a ym..aCHaJI nereaaa, 6y,u;TO MHOirHe H3 rrpe,lliOCTaBJIHeMhlX non norPYSRY CYAOB ObI.]n.r npenHa3Ha'IeHhI K co~meHUlO KaK aapaano 3aQYMJIeHHbIH (I). (Baaamo, nOTOMY TypKH Bat3Ha~a.JIH 15 ,rtHeBHble xaparrrannsre CPORH ,n;JlH BhIcap;KH H3! r6eper acex xepreecoa.]

Ho 3aTO na 3THX JKeCTOqanlliHX npecrynxeaasx BepXH KO)IOHJi- 3aTopOB aamEiBaJIH OrpOMHI>Je cpeacrsa (cy.rr;oB.JHI.,!l;eJIbII;bI H nepeceJIe!H'liBCKSa a,il;M1fHHCTpalll.1UI:): lIIepBbE€ nOJIy-qa.Juf CTpaXOBh]e ,1!IeHhI'lI sa Hero,a;Hhle cyna, a IlOCJIe,!l;HHe npHRapMiaHMa.aJIH cKy.n;Hhle Ka3EHfH!b18 cpeacrsa, O'TrrYCKaeMble Ira nepeceneavecxae pacxoasr. Hapon

.il1e ThlCH"IaM:H noru6aJI! ..

Te H3 BhlJl<UB8BWHX Ml"IeHHROB, xoropsre ,D;OCTHraJIH TypeIl,KQf'O 6epera, P;Olil:JKHbJ 6l>I,lIH BbIp;epmHBaTb B JISlf'epJIX na nepery (H.JIH' aa cvnax) xapaaraa,

'TaKHM o6paSOM. noxa Hapop; ,n;OCTHraJI «3eM.1IH o6eTosaHHoib, MOp npo,!l;oJImaJI Clm:pencTBOBaTh. a roaon, ocna H '['HIP KOCMJIH ThICS- 1tJ:aMHI

HORa 'TypeU;KoM o.epery HX m.u;aJIa He J1Iy-.:_Ima.H Y'lJaCTb. Bee npacraax BI IOp'FhI. r,u;e OhIJIH JIarepa nepeceneanea, I1pe,m;,CT8BJIHJIH ConOM: CI1JIOmHbIe RJIa,lll6nLqa_

'I'arc, :as nllCl>Ma pyccxoro KOH.CYJIa Mcnraaaa K renepany KapIl\OBY Ha.BeCTHO, 'tITO B O,n;HOM TOJIbKO 'F'pane3YH,u;cROM .narepe, KY,,llIa 6hlJIO asrcaaceao 247 T'blC. qepKeCOB; K MOMeHTY HanHCaHH.JI nHChMa YMepJIO oo;ree 30 'FbIC., a. npH ornpaasce HX oTTy.rr;a B BapHY H KOBCTaH'FHHOnOJIib, CMepTHocTb 11 :n:YTH CJIeAOBaHHH COCTaBJIJtJIa aa KS~AlbIe 4 C nOJIOBHH:OH T:&1C. norpyaceaasix 0''1' 40 )JiO 60 qeJIOBeK B CY'Ii'KU; H3 OCT'aBUIHXCR B aTOM narepe 63290 q:e]pK.eCOB eme,n;HeIl-

191

HaHCMepT'HOCTh COC'F3.BJIHJlIa OT 180 ,ll;O 250 "leJIOBeR. Taxaa me =repaaa CTa'l'HC'l'HK8 CMep'l'HOCTli OT:M€"IaJIaCl> B BaTYMe., CaMcYHe II ,n;p. ceBepO-BOC1'O'lHhIX nop rax TYPll,HH 7.

lJepKeCCKM)e MaCChI B narepax rOJIO.llaJIH. nO:!l'TOMY 60JU,mHHCTBO 3,lJ,OPOBhIX O,lJ,HHOKHX MYlR"IHB cnacanecs, aaIIHCblBaSWI:. B COJl,ll;a'TbJ[ Typell,KOH apMHH:, a meH~HH II ,Il;eTeH l1apT!U1JMR nponasaxa :a pa6- CTBO. BOT. narrpnxep, liTO CRaaaHO 06 aTOM B rrepenaciee Taro me pyccxoro xoncvna C TeM ~e rreHepa.nOM Kap[(,OB1:.EM! «Haceneaae (TYPKH.- .M. B,) acnyraan nepeceneaaere II - aoaaarpazanaer ce6.a noxymsoro HeBOJ!lbIIHI1i (ropaaox=sepxemeaox .. - .M. E.), IJ:.a KOTOPbIX neasr CHJIbHO yn3JH:L Ha ,P;HHX nama KY:rJ!HJI 8 caMblX KpaCHBhlX JilesyweK no 60-80 py6 .. aa K3.iK.llYIO H IIOChlJIaeT HX ,nJI.fl nonapreos B KOHcTaHTUHOnOJl!b. Petienxa 11 -12 ner, o6oero nOJIa, MO.iKRO revnHTiE> aa 30-40 py6 .. meHIIJ;lrH rrpop;aroT II OTilpaBJl!HIOT B ROHeTaa'THHOnOJII> :o;,eJIbIMH napTH.HMH. B Tpane3YH~e lla,a<e 'MO}.(tHO BH.lleTh napTIUI B 40-5.0 JKeHm;HH, npe,ll;Bo,ztHMbIX O,ll;E!HM X03HHHOM'<>s.

RaK BHllHO lIS nO,IIo6HhlX q,aKTo,a, OT paapacosaaaoro (TypeD;KH ..

MH ar:H'ra'FOpaMH-:aep6oBID;HKaMH) «MYCYJIbMIaHCKOrlO paa » B 'I'ypUI'Ii_H aasero He OCTaJlOCb. TaM I'OCno,n;cTBOBaJIH TIliII:HtHtble .D;JUI qJeo,uaJI::l,!FIoJ'o Bocroaa ,D;eCIloTwrecKo-pa6cKHe COJU;l:HlJIbHbI€ ornonreaarr. BNIeCTO olKH,n;aeMhIx paenpocreprsrx OO'1>HTUH 6paTb,es-MycYJIb.MaH H OOhl"lHOrO rOpCKOI'O I'IOCTerrpHHMcTBa HX pacxyrramr, RaJ( CKOT. B pa6CTBO aJl!"IHhle TypeD;KHe TopralllH, nanra [reaepama), KyrrD;hl, MYJIJIM" 1IflIHOBHHKH II llOMe~HKH-q)eO~,aJlbl. xorepsre, RaK BOPOHl>€, xaopoct-un:rCL na ,llemeBblH '(cTOBapl)l XHw;RHKH-6ora~m rrO.JIb30BaJIHCb HapO,lJ"HhIM fie,ll;CTBHeM. nOnOJl!HHH CBOll rapeMbl ropCKHMU HMO~I:nID;aMH~Kpacrumn.aMH H IIO'lTH p;apOBOM: ,lIlOMamaeH npacnyroti, .

TaR, B peayznsra're 6eamaJIOCTBOro BhlCeJIeHMJi c PO,lUIHhI B He:

JIaMCRYro Typg;:mo ,6blJI llO'CJTH rrOJIBOCTbilO aorpetinea repOlPlecKHH qep&eCCKHH napon,

O'FrOJIOCK~ <)TOH rHOeJIH Ky6aH!CE.HX '4Ie]pKecoD na aarrane npoEUilKaJIH fIi HR BOCTOqahIH KasKaa, [lOTOMY BeHH8xH"BbICeneHII(b[ rrO,,lIHHMaJIHCh B nyr s is TYPll,HIO yme )JjaJIeKO He c 6hIJIhIM Cl)aB8Tl'I'lJR!bIM ~HTy3Ha3MiOM,a c 60.11.bmOH Or.lli.H.llKOn H onRCeHH.HMH.

E,lIllHCTBeHHo orpazmaa cY,1I;h6a orcaaanacs y TeXH3 n:OCJIe,!lHHX OCTiliTKOB (4600) xepxecoa, KOTOPbU~ OblJIH OCTaBJIeHbl ,no BeCHbI 1865 r-.; H pa3Mem;eHIbI cpena Ky6aHcKHx Ka3~U~OB. BOT liTO cooe-

marr 0 HHX A. n. Bepxce: .

<l ... 4600 qeJE. OCTRnOBJleHbl)'l;O BeCHhl (1865 r.- M. B.) .I1' pa3I\1eJ.qeHl>I ITO COce,!Ul:HM Ka8a"lbHM IIOCeneHH.HM, r,n;e OHH 6blJIH npHHJ'J:' TbI ? nOJIHblM pa~yrn~reM. Ea38KH: YCIE:J:EiOBJllJi,JJH KlPyrJIDIX CHPOT Ii: .o;eJI3.JIH see, "tIT-OOhl OOJler"'lHT!b CTp8J'l;aHH$lI Hx.c.uY'qaHHhlx I'OCTea, 'FaR q'TO MHO!rlle n3 6e,lD;HibiX OTK83aJUICb 0'[' nepeceneaaa .B TYPD;HlO, a BO,lJ;BOPJ'IlJi[HCb B EPbIMCROH CT8HH.u;e l[ AHarrCKOM nOCeJIKe»9 (Panopr 1I8Ka3HOl'O araxaaa K:y6aHCK.oro BOHeRa Haqa.ubHHKY nrraea OT 10.01. 1865 r. N!! 9).

<flaKT TaKora pa,n:YlIIH$i co C'l'OPOHbI KaaaKOB CBH,1I;e'TeJIbCTByeTC.H ,lJ,OHee,eHHeM HaMeCTHHRY RaBKa3CKoro KOMHccapa. Ha3H8'teHHOro

192

T¥peO;KIfM npaBHTeJIbCTBOM, no nepeCeJ1eHHIO ropuea XatJ;:lKI'i-reH' Ay.JI-XaCaH-Sl<p,e:a:.!l.u . .H (OT 6.03.18135 P .. ), B ROTOPOM OK xpacnopexaso nanaraer 6naro,napr-rOCTh ropnes: «Pa3MemeHHbI:M Y Ka~mI"OB ropD;aM BbIAa:BaJICJI I1pOB11:aHT 11:3 xaaenrrsrx Mara3HHOB, a OOJI:E.Hhle R

, CJIa6ible noxemanacs ,l(.JI.H nOJlb30BalHISI B soeaasrx I'OCIHITaJI.flX. Bee 'He OCTa:JII:.Hwe· roprrst rrepeseaeasr B Typrraro B Mae 1865r. HB TypelJ;KMX napoxonax» (C. 361).

To pazymae, C lWTOPbIM Ky6aHI~'bI OKa3bIBaJIIl! rOCTenpl1HMcTBO caMhlM c.naobIM - 60JIbHI>lM, c:upOTal\'I qepI<:ecoB - ObIJIO O'li'.Me1.IeHO U TypeO;KMMFI IWMPlCca.paMH.

3,n;ech erne paa IlOlJ;TBep.)R,n;aeTC.H, q,[,O no HaType pycctore JIlO,!l;H (K83aKU) He crorrs 3JIo6HbI,e,"lIT06bl MCTH'l'!b C!BOMM spar-arc, oicaaaallIHMC1J B 6e,n;CTBeHlIOM rrOJIOJEeRHH" B KattON[ ObUIHqepKeCCiRRe CMPOTbI H OOJlbHble. l{TOOl>l nOJIHOCTbIO 3!lBeplIIHTb cooerneaae 06 yqacTH "lepKeCCKoro aapoaa, npaxonarea nonomrars era CBe,lleHH.HMl1 0 pacxonax aa see aTO ,n;eJlo.

UapCKHM HCTOPHK COOO~8JI. "CJ!TO «Bee pacxonsr no nocoO·H.HM ... co BpeMeH:H peryJliHpOBaRI-J!.H aTOH onepairaa, coC'raBJIaJU:I 289 678 py6. 17 xorr, r} 10. HeJib3~ CK83aTb,tIT06bI uapcsoe npaBHTeJIhCTBO OblJlO oc060 ru;e,uphIM aa aTO ,ll;€JIO. noo. Y'lIHTblSaH nOJIYMHJIJII-iOHHOe naceJlieHWe E1'>H,,;eJlSleMbIX qepIteCOB; BhJ[XO,ll;H'I', 1:1'1'0 Hat Kam,n;Olf'O QenOSeK8I. KOJllOHM3a'FOpbI Tpa'I'MJIH. OKOJIO nOJITil1HHliK.a; oonee MfI3epHorO II HII'ITOmHOro pacxoza HeJIbaH rrpe,n;CTaBHTb aa 3TO .n;eJIol TaKOBhi! 6:blJlH

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~ [[[(),H,,(l(U;J HfJpuc (ocemun ) - ObU;lUlUU nOJLICOOHU/c l~apc.ltOll ap.null. ByiJy·ut lOf£lCepOM CJl.YJlfUA ,6 eoitctcax, y<t(u:m.60e.a8UUiX npu 311toJlt «nospaue»; 3anuca .. no no coosusemuo nencuonepa T. A Iiiauaeea.

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,. BepJH:€ A 01 •• Il, Buceneuue eopuee C liaM,a3a/ / Pycc""UI. cmapuna. £882'.

CfJe8'. I'»: 4. C. 862, 363 .

o Ll asuueoe A. lC.aBfCaJ It I106oJtJiC.l.>e. M., }I3aa~u.te 1913 J. C. 17.

T Bepsce AD. U. J1U.CbJ\1.G pyCCIW{)O KOHCY'W MowltwJ.a (3 Tpalle3yn.{Je ua· rtGJl.bUUfCy r !!Q$ftQ?O ,w,ma6a ECa8Kll3CIU)U apJJwu eelf,epa;r,y Kapl~O(Jy. 10.07. 1864. M 276 u iJpYlOe om .28.12.1863. i-..J? 563.

S TaM »ce. 11 .. 12. 1863 I./. om 22. 04.1964. C. 187.

9 Bep':JIC8 AB. tt. Bsicenenue zopuee c KU6IW30!! PyCCfCaJ!. cmapuna: 1882.

tPeG. T. 33, C. 361. .

193

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