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Cong_nghe_CNC

Cong_nghe_CNC

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11/12/2010

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os. TS.

ruN VAN D~CH

CONGNGHE

GS. TS Trim Van Dich

CONG NGHE CNC

.

(Cillo trinh dung clio sinh vien co klii cac truong dai lio: tltuoc cac h~; dao '(10)

In Jan thir nhat

NHA XUAT BAN KHOA HQC vA KY THUAT Ha Nc)i 2004

Chiu tracli nliieni xu/it han: PGS. TS. 1'6 Dang Hai

Bien trip vel 8/la clie. hrin: NguyJn J)i~u Thu.y

Trinh bay vel cht ban: Trdii Van Dich, Tliuy Anh

Vi' liinh: Pham. Van Tuac

Vi' bia: Huang Lan

In 800 cuon kho 16 x 24 em, tai Xi nghiep in Thuong mai.

Giay phep xuat ban so 6-400 do Cue xuat ban cap ngay 5/10/2004. In xong va n9P luu chieu thang 12/2004.

IV!II! !rullg 1I1111'IIg tlutnh !It'li (/"11/1 II'()/l~ /111111 Cl;a li(';1 ho /)IU(I It,I( ~\C 1IIIIllI 1(1 tu dllllg lio« ,\11111'1/(11, Pllllimg 1III(c ((/(J ('1;(/ tu d(lll,t.; ,1(/11 wul iii .11111 _rl/(il linh hoat (Ihi\' (ftll"I;'1I 1111;'mi, Trang dct» CIlIl\,I,'1I ,III/I \'//(il linh hoat tlii nut» dilill l.hicn sli- CNC (CoIIIIJIIler Nnmcru:al Control, dl)II,t.; mot vai 1/'1) nI'l 1/1111/1 trong. SI;' dung nutv ('ollg C/_I ifilill kliicn so Ie \'C! din IJ//(;p gilllll k!lIii' !J(O'lIg gii/ ('Illig chi Iii';, /lilllg cao do chinh \(i( via lUllg 1'(1 lticn «(1111 kinh 11< dlillg Iluli (/tllg nit /lglln dttoc chu h ,1(/11\/((11, Cliinh \'i l'i/\' hicn IIUY nlucu nui« 11'('11 111/ gil)-i dii 1'1/ d(/lIg /(/It.; £fllllg roug n7i cac nuiv clicu kllil'" .10- vao 111111 \'I/C (,(I kill ('he'I<IO,

f)/ Iii' dllllg n/(' nuiv ilicu kllil'" sir m~11 ((Ieli ('(I liicu 111111 1I11l1 cons; IIgl/{' kllIJllg ctuphdi hil'i l(i/J I/Ii\' trinh ((Jllg IIgll~; viri 1((lIg loat chi IiI' I I/Ii/ «III ph: ii Clj klu! II(III,~ I(/f> triuh 111101111 ellllllg 1'(/ chinhsuc,

l lieu nav rae nur: dicu kllil;,1 ,IIi' dOllg dll~/e sli' dl_lllg r(llIg r.ii (i 1I1(I}'C 1£1 d/ cll/ tao ('(Ie chi lie! co' klii. dcu: bict t« elle>" tao ca« /":/IlUJII 1//(/'11 clunh vu«, ('lie chi tie] pluu: I'l.l ('(Ing Ilglli<'p I/lilli pltong,

NgI!(Ii ra ciu: mav Cllllg CI_l ifi/II khi(',7 .1'1) CNC con duc« dllllg trong ngliicn ctrn klioa 1I~)e I'll dao tao da! hoc . sou dai h(JC d ((ic 1!'I(li'lIl!, .lai I/{)(, 1\': 117I1<lf, B('II e(lII11 dll ('(Ie nut» £1il;1I kllil'" s// con duo: dun» d/ £1(/0 I~/() II gil I" uluim Cllllg ('(II) IIglllill nluui lac clio .1'1111 xuat troni; 111'<iIlg lui.

NIIi/m llilp Il'ng 111111 ('(I'" 1'1; d(IO lao I'll .II/II ,\'/Il/I cluing toi bien soan gil/o frill II "t. 'Ijllg IIg/t(' CNC",

CIf(III sach na» trinh bav nliiing ki("1 tlutc co ban l't' dieu kliie), .1(/, d~k hit'! hi plurong plllllJ l<ip trFIIII £1/ gia Cling chi tie: 1/'('11 mot .1'1) loai /I Ii I" ('(III,~ I'U eli/II khie» sli'IIII/(: nuiv ticn, mav f..:110(/1I, nuiv cloa. filii" plia» I'll ca: truug Ii/III giil ('(11I,t;,

Ng(l(Ii ra Clu''/II such UYII gic'/i thieu ca: loai Ih,lI1g cu, ccu. 1IIIIIg hi (,(}lIg IIgh~' lhlng rU'1I mav dil;u khicn SlY' CNC, phuong plll/IJ IIghiell (/(11 d(1 cliinh .rlll' gia Cling I rt'l I ca« nut» do, (king thoi cuon siuh ding gioi Ihi~'/I each tinh liic« qui! kiuh 1/ khi s/i' dlJlIg nuiv di()" khie'l s(i C NC.

Sacl, duct: llilllg him Iili li~;" thani kluio clio can h() gi(/II,l!, day, sinh 1'/('11 dai 11~)e, 17()(' vicn cao he!', nghi('11 ClI'/I sin 11 )'(1 nllll'lIg IIluI (ling IIgl/(, troug hoc I~'p. ngllil'lI Cl/'II I'll lam c(jng uu: cong ngli« tren ca« nuiv £1il;1I kllil',1 SII' CNC.

Do bien S()~II/ ldn ddu nen chde chdn con fhicll sot, cluing toi niong nluin duoc 1'(t xin earn (/11 cell' _\' ki(',/ phi' binh cua h(1I/ doc,

Cdc .v kii',/ dong g(ip xin gli'i \,(i R(J I1l(JI/ C(JI/g ngh(' c!/{" tao II lliy , lrl((}'l/g Dqi lioc Bach khoa lI(t Noi IIO(je Ball bien tap Nlta xl/eli biin KIIO([ hoc I'll K_v tluuit . 70 Trdn Hung D(/O, Ho N(Ji.

Tac gid

I HTO:\G 1. KHAI NI~M co nAN VE DIEU KHIEN s6

1,1. Ban chat ella dieu khien so.

Khi gia cong tren cac may cong cu thl chi tier va cac dung eLI cat

. de hien cac chuyen dong urong doi voi nhau. Nhirng chuyen dong (hay Jich chuyen) wang doi duoc lap lai nhieu Ian khi gia cong moi chi tie't duoc goi la ehu ky gia cong. M6i ehu ky gia cong duoc dac rrung bang mot dai luang va mot thu tu. D~ co mot chu ky gia cong ta phui x.ic dinh mot dai luong vii mot thir nr ella hanh trinh. Ph.in "dai ltrong" diroc goi I~I ph.in kfch thuoc hay phan hinh hoc, con phan "thir nr" diroc goi UI phan dieu khien. That vay, chuong trinh lam viec ella bat ky mot may tv dong nao cung can co thong tin ve hai loai: ve kfeh thuoc (xac dinh hanh trinh ella ehu ky) va v~ st! dieu khien (xac dinh thir nr ella hanh trinh thea thai gian).

Ngiroi ta ehia cac he thong dieu khien may cong cu ra hai loai:

- Dietl khien khong theo s6 (hay con goi la dieu khien truyen thong, dieu khien lien tuc).

- Dieu khien s6.

1.1.1. Dieu khi~n khong theo s6.

H~ thong dieu khien khong thea s6 co cac loai nhtr sau: dieu khien bang cac cam, dieu khicn bang quang duong, dieu khien thea thai gian V~I dieu khien theo ehu kyo

u) fie: th/)'ng die'li khiell tlieo COni (hinh I.la).

Theo he thong nay thi quang duong (hanh trinh) L duoc xac dinh then cong thtrc:

L=So.K o day: So - khoang nang profin ella cam (rnrn);

K - ty s6 truyen trung gian (tren hinh 1.I.a ta co K= 1/11),

(1.1 )

IIi; rhollg dic"11 khi/n tlieo qudng duong (hinh 1.1 b).

6 day, dai luong hanh trinh ella co call chap hanh diroc gioi han D(.j hai Db chuyen hanh trinh KBB va KBH. KBB giai han di chuyen ella

a)

c)

b

l_

b)

Hiult 1.1, Cac 1/(; ,h(j'II,<,; ili('11 khili" "'/(llIg tlico .I()

co cau ehflp hanh v0 ben tr.ii hay vc phfa tnroc: KBH gil)'i han eli chuycn ella co Ci'IU chap hanh v0 ben phai hay YC phia sau. Dai lirong hanh trinh L chroc x.ic dinh nhu sau:

, ,

( 1.2)

6 day: al• a" b., be - LO',I ct() ella de chot V~I de bo chuycn hanh trinh (rnm ).

a - kho.ing each giu'a de chot trcn co' c.tu chap hanh. b - khoang each giira hui bo chuycn hanh trinh.

c) 11\' IM/lIg di£,'/I khi(',1 tlico thoi gian (hinh I. I.e).

Trong h¢ thong dicu khicn n;IY thi co' cau chap hanh ctU'(,1C dicu khicn hang bC) cticu khicn. Be) dieu khicn ('), day Iii 11101 chi licl hinh lang Irclllg l11il trcn no co mot sci duong riinh nhar dinh. Trcn Cal' duong ranh n;IY co ga cac cam. Cac cam n;IY duoc Itlp v()'i cac elf hanh trinh (bo chuycn hanh triuh). Cir hanh trinh dicu khicn I11c)i ehu ky gia cong rhco

cal' lcnh dicu khicn "dich chuyen ve hen Inti" (then cir KElI) hoac dicu khicn "dich chuyen vc hen phai" (theo CLr KBK).

Chicu (Eli hanh triuh duoc x.ic dinh then cong thirc:

I" = ~x}~L 360

( I.))

cj clay: T- rhoi gian quay nH)1 V('lI1g ella bo dicu khicn (ph).

"' II

u- goc ga cam ( ).

v - toe d() trung binh cua co cau chap hanh (m/ph), II) ,,~; fl/(!'ng di/ll khic) tlico chi: /..:5' (hinh 1.I.cI).

H¢ thong dicu khien nil)' Iii toug IH.1P cua hai he Iho'ng dicu khicn thco quiing ctw\ng vii thco thiri gian. o day dai Iw.mg: hanh trinh duck' x.ic dinh bang c.ic cir hanh trinh Irong h¢ th6ng dicu khicn thco quang dU(l'ng hoac Ix')'i bo dicu khicn trong he thong cticu khicn thco thoi gian. Trcn (hinh 1.I.d) ta thay: khi h() dieu khicn tal' dong V~IO role "ticn" thi co ell! chap hanh dich chuyen vc phia InI'6'c, khi bo dieu k hicn tac c1(mg vao role "lui" thl ClY cau chap hanh dich chuycn vc phia sau (ve ben phai). Di nhien, hc) dieu khien chi tal' d(lIlg vao rule "lui" khi crt cau chap hanh cham vao CLr hanh trinh KBB. Khi CO' cau chap hanh dich chuy ell \ C ben phai thi role "lien" khong lam viec. Role "tien" chi hoar d(lIlg khi co C,IU ch,Yp hanh cham V:IO cit hanh trinh KBH vii hie ay chu ky moi lai diroc lap lai.

Ta thfiy c.ic h¢ Ihelllg dicu khien trcn dfly tuy khong gi(11)! nhau IIIHl'ng dai hrong hanh trinh lui diroc dieu khicn gi{)ng nhau (11('11 tuc i. Dieu del co nghia la dicu khicn khong theo chuong trinh so.

1.1.2. f)ieu khien so.

Dicu khien s61il he thong dicu khicn mil moi hanh trinh duoc dicu khien thee so'. Moi thonz tin don vi Crnl! voi mot dich chuven gi,'111 doun

.._ ...__ . -". ,.,...__ .

cua cO' cau chap hanh. Dai ILrqng nil)' co ten goi 1:1 "kha nang giai quyet" cua he thong hay la gii'i tr] xung. Co cau chap hanh co the dich chuycn voi 11 H) I dai luong I1ftt ky nao irng v6'i gia IT, xung. Nhu vay, khi hid gi~1 11'1 xung q V~I dai hrong dich chuycn L cua CO' C<lU chap hanh, ta co thed.: dinh so luoug xung N can thiet tal' d()ng de co ILI'(;l'Ilg dich chuycn L:

L=q.N

( IA)

..., ,

So luong xung N duoc ghi tren kenh thong tin diroc goi I~l mot cluroug trinh xac dinh dai Iuong thong tin kich thuoc , Cac thong tin can thiet duoc ghi trcn hang dye 16 hoac bang tir. So hrong thong tin diroc ghi trong I11(H h¢ thong rna hoa nhar dinh.

1.2. Ma hoa thong tin.

Con ngiroi va may quan h~ voi nhau bang mot ngon ngO' 1113 may co th~ hi~u duoc. M{lY phai doc duoc chuong trinh do con ngLfl1i ghi va thirc hien thco chuong trinh d6. Khi C(1 diu dicu khien s6 hi hong, chirong trinh co sai sot thi di6u khien so sc truycn thong tin vc nguyen nhan gay ngirng hoat dong.

1.2.1. Chir cai.

Chir cai cua rna so I~l t~IP hop de ky hieu diroc dung khi mii hoa.

Cac ph fill nr moi hicn nay cua nr dong hoa chi c6 hai trang thai 6n dinh: cong ttlC kfn hoac c6ng tac 11(1, trong rnang cua bang due 10 co the c6 hoac khong co 16, v.v ... Mot trang thai irng voi ky hieu I (cap dong nang IUO'ng, chang han), con trang thai khac trng voi ky hieu 0 (ngat dong nang lirong chiing IWn). VI vay chir cai cua rna so chi chua hai ky hieu ~ 0, I ~.

1.2.2. Ma thap phan,

CC$ Sl:5 ella h¢ lh~p phan (rna thap phan) la so 10. H¢ thong nay co 10 ky Itt 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Nguoi ta chon he thap phan de' tfnh la xuat phat ttl' lich Slr tinh toan bang 10 ngon tay.

Then he th(lp phan thl s6 3807 A5 duoc viet nhu sau: 3.101 +8.1 O~ + 0.101 +7.1011 +4.101 +5.102, Ta thay, vi trf dfiu tien hen trai dau phay (rng voi so mii 0, eli ve hen trai cua dau phay, cac so mii luy thira tang dfin ( neu hen trai cua dau phay co 4 s6 thi s6 mii luy thira tang nhu sau: 0, I, 2. 3). Di vc hen phai cua dau phay cac s6 rnii luy thira giam chin: -I, -2, - 3, v.v ... Vf du, trong tnrong hop phan tich so 3807,45 thi so mii luy thira giam nhu sau: -I, - 2 ( bang so cac chfi so dirng dang sau dau phay). Ma so thap phan tuy chua duoc nhieu dung luong nhirng lai rfit phirc tap khi tfnh roan.

1.2.3. Ma so dan vi.

Mil so don vi 13 mot I 0<;1 i ma s6 trong do moi so duoc bieu thi bang so luong cac ky hieu chir so I.

Vf du:

2 3 4

II III II I I

5 6 7 8

11111

I I I 1 I I

I I ! III I II III III

9 10

I I I I I I I I I

I I I II I 11 I I

H~ thong rna so don vi co tru diem la don gian, de SLr dung. No diroc SLr dung de ghi so luong cac xung tren bang tir. Tuy nhien, rna so don vi co nhuoc diem la cong kenh (phirc tap), Vi du, de bieu dien so trong h~ thap phan 358610 bang rna so don vi thi phai can toi 3586 ky hieu 111...111...111.

1.2.4. Ma nhi phan.

Co Sl1 cua rna nhi phan Hi so 2. Dira so 2 len cap co so mu nguyen

(0 I ') -', e d d- "211 212" 2' 24 ' ri da "

, ,~, _1. v.v ... ) ta se lfq'C ay so , , ", " ,v.v ... ung V0I ay so

I, 2, 4, 8, 16, v. v ... Bat ky mot so nao trong he nhi phan deu la tong eua nhieu so rna cac so hang cua no la so 2 vci cac dip mil khac nhau. Cac so trong he nhi phan la tel hop cua chfr so 0 va I. De chuyen so tir he tinh thap phan sang he tfnh nhi ph an can phai ehia twin nr so thap phan eho 2 nhir vi du eho so 43 sau day:

43: 2 =21 Ie I
21:2=10 le I
10: 2 = 5 Ie 0
5 : 2 =2 le I
.') : 2 =1 le 0
.:
: 2 = 0 It~ I Vay gia trj so Wong irng trong he nhi phan so 4310 duoc dien la 110 10 II. Ngiroc lai, so trong he nhi phan 1010 112 co the bieu dien sang h~ thap ph an nhir sau:

1010112 = 1.25 + 0.24 +1.2' +0.22 +1.21 +1.20 = 43.

1.2.5. Ma s6 ISO.

Nho viec rna hoa tin hieu so ve vi trf hoac dich chuyen eua bo phan lam viec duoc truyen ttr chuang trinh dieu khien den cac co cau

9

chap hanh. Hien nay da co nhieu cong trinh nghien ciru d~ thong nhat hoa cac ngon ngir I~p trinh. Cong viec nay do Hoi dong Tieu chuan hoa quoc te (ISO) chi dao, Ngon ngir d~ I~p chuang trinh co mot so yeu cau: so ky hieu la nho nhat, so chu so dong nhat, nghien ciru dan gian, so luong tin hieu day dll, v.v ...

X 7 (, :; 4 0 :I 2 1 so duong
Chin 16 8 4 2 I Tron.!!: luong
l2Chft Clute naug cua k)' hi~1I
an ~~n Ky hieu
-so
0 0 • 0 0 + Dan nieu dicu cuuyeu "conj;'
0 0 '. 0 0 - Dan lueu dich chu V~1l "trir'
• NUL Khoanu ll'Ong
0 0 • 0 So 0
0 0 0 • 0 1 SOL
0 0 0 • 0 2 So 2
0 0 • 0 0 3 So 3
0 0 0 • 0 4 S04
0 0 • 0 0 5 So 5
0 0 • 0 0 6 So 6
0 0 0 • 0 0 0 7 SO?
0 0 0 0 • x So x
0 0 0 • 0 9 So9
0 0 0 • 0 i Toa do ban dan cua cuuu Xi'
0 0 0 • 0 i Toa do hall dan ella cuug 1'(1
0 0 • 0 0 K Toa do ban dan u',a cuuu /'i)
0 0 • 0 0 F Luouu chav dao
0 • 0 0 0 G Chniin hi
0 0 0 • 0 L Hieu chinh
0 0 • 0 0 M Corwin" couu uuhe
0 0 • 0 0 N S(i cua khuou hinh (doau)
0 0 • 0 0 S Cornanu coua ugh"
0 0 0 • 0 T Comang cong Ilgh~
0 0 0 0 • X Dich chuven theo loa .to x
0 0 0 • 0 y Dich chl\Y~n theo loa M) v
0 0 0 • 0 Z Dich elm V~H rheo loa do,
0 • 0 LF K<:'t tluic
0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 Dd D6Jlg (khoup auh lllf<iIlg d611 dill true
cua mot khuon hinh I
- Hinh 1.2 Md sly'ISO 7 bit tren bang 8 duong

Ma ISO-7 bit tren bang tam dirong voi chieu rong 25,4 mm, biroc dot 16 la 2,5 mm thoa man diroc yeu du tren. Hinh 1.2 trinh bay mot phan rna so ISO 7 bit. Ma so nay la rna so cap 7, no cho phep rna hoa diroc 27=128 ky hieu. Loai nayluon dam bao so 16 dot la chan (so 16 tren dong) nen no co th~ kiem tra each tinh chuang trinh co dung hay khong (7 bit ella mot ky hieu diroc b6 sung them bit thir 8 la bit kiem tra sao cho moi ky hieu deu dira ra so 16 dot Iii chan). Cac dirong so I, 2, 3, 4 va 5 co

10

'·'ng hrong irng voi rna nhi phan 1,2,4,8, va 16. M6i mot ky hieu cua :-:13. irng voi gia tri thap phan cua s6 16 (vi du : ky hieu "+" irng voi s6 43. k~' hieu "Del" s6 127, v.v ... Dia chi cua cac comang la cac chtr latinh. ngoai ra rna s6 cac chtr con irng voi s6 thu tu trong bang chir cai. Dau hieu cua chtr la sir dot 16 thea cac dirong thu 5 va tlur 6. Duong thir 8 d~ them s6 16 dot trong dong d~ dat s6 chan.

1.2.6. Phan tir mang chuang trinh.

Ghi chuang trinh trong cac co' cau dieu khien so diroc .tlurc hien tren ph an tir rnang chuang trinh (bang chuang trinh). Ngiroi ta phan ra hai each bieu dien tin hieu (thong tin) dieu khien: rna hoa gioi han va rna hoa toan phan. Neu ghi chuang trinh diroc thirc hien trong he rna s6 dan V! thi viec bieu dien tin hieu dieu khien diroc goi la rna hoa gi6i han. Neu ghi chuang trinh diroc thirc hien trong bat ky h¢ rna s6 nao khac thi viec bieu dien tin hieu dieu khien diroc goi la rna hoa to an phan. Tin hieu trong rna hoa gioi han duoc ghi trong bang tir, con trong rna hoa toan phan diroc ghi trong bang dot 16.

1.2.6.1. Bang d(>t 10.

Bang dot 16 la bang tren do co 16 dot, Tuy thea cong dung ngiroi ta chia ra hai loai dot 16 tren bang: van chuyen va rna hoa, Dong la hang rna cac 16 rna hoa nam vuong goc voi phirong van chuyen. Biroc dot 16 (biroc cua dong) la khoang each gilra dirong tam cua cac dong canh nhau.

1.2.6.2. Bang tiro

Bang tir la loai bang t6 hop 2 lap: mot lap tren nen chat deo va mot 16p bot sat tir, Nguyen tac ghi tren bang dira vao tinh chat cua sat tir giii duoc trang thai nhiern tir. Viec ghi cac xung dien (rna so) tren bang tir diroc thuc hien bang each nhiem tir do dau tir cung cap. Khi sir dung bang tir, cac tin hieu tren bang sau khi di qua co' cau dich rna se lam cho cac bo phan lam viec cua may co chuyen dong can thiet d~ gia cong chi tiel. Chuang trinh ghi tren bang tir co th~ sir dung lai nhieu Ian,

1.2.7. May dQt 10.

May dot 16 la Co' cau ghi tin hieu (thong tin) tren phan nr rnang chuang trinh. M6i may dot 16 co hai bo phan chinh: b¢ phan keo bang va bo phan dot 16. B¢ phan keo bang dung d~ di chuyen bang thea chu ky va dirng bang (dinh V! bang) 6 V! trf dot 16. B¢ phan dot 16 dung d~ dot 16 tren bang

II

1.2.8. Co cau tinh,

Co diu tfnh dung M tfnh chuang trinh tren bang dot 16 hoac bang tv. Cau tao cua co diu tfnh nay dira tren nguyen Iy cua te bao quang dien va cac dau tv.

l.2.9. B<) nci suy.

B¢ noi suy dung d~ chuyen cac thong tin ban dau thanh cac xung dieu khien dong co biroc, nghia la chuyen thong tin thanh cac rna so dan vi. B¢ noi suy tfnh toan toa do cua cac diem tren dirong dich chuyen theo bien dang can gia cong (doan bien dang giira diem dau va diem cuoi rna toa d¢ cua chung da diroc dira vao chuang trinh). Cac toa do x, y, z la cac gia tri can v~ vi trf, cap vao mach dieu chinh vi trf tren nhirng true chuyen dong khac nhau cua he dieu khien, Cac dai IUQ11g dan se tac dong vao mach dieu chinh vi trf, nho do cac true may chuyen dong theo nhtrng gia tri can va t<;1O nen bien dang can gia congo

1.2.10. Ban dieu khien he ngoai vi.

Ban dieu khien may theo chuang trlnh so duoc cau tao diroi dang cac ban dieu khien rieng biet. Chung diroc che tao a cac nha may chuyen dung tv cac bo phan tieu chuan: co diu do tfn hieu tv bang d¢t 16 hoac bang tv, bloc thirc hien comang cong nghe, V.V ... Cung mot ban dieu khien co th~ dung d~ dieu khien cac may khac nhau (may phay, may tien, v.v ... ). Ban dieu khien duoc chia ra hai nhorn: khong co b¢ n¢i suy va co bo noi suy. Trong tnrong hop khong co bo noi suy chuang trinh dieu khien diroc viet diroi dang rna hoa roan phan tren bang dot 16, can twang hop co bo noi suy, chuang trinh dieu khien diroc viet diroi dang rna hoa gioi han tren bang tv.

1.2.11. Cac he dieu khien so.

1.2.11.1. He dieu khien NC (Numerical Control).

Ngay nay, cac may trang bi he dieu khien NC van can thong dung. Day la he dieu khien dan gian voi so lirong han che cac kenh thong tin. Trong he dieu khien NC cac thong so hlnh hoc cua chi tiet gia cong va cac Ienh dieu khien diroc cho duoi dang day cac con so. H~ dieu khien NC lam viec theo nguyen tac.sau day: sau khi mo may, cac lenh thir nhat va tlur hai diroc doc. Chi sau khi qua trinh doc ket thuc, may moi bat dau thirc hien lenh tlur nhat. Trong thai gian nay thong tin cua lenh thir hai nam trong bo nho cua he thong dieu khien. Sau khi hoan thanh lenh thtr

12

nhat m{IY bat driu thuc hien lcnh thir hai Ifiy tv bo nho ra. Trong khi thirc hicn lenh thu' hai, h¢ di~u khien d9C lenh thu ba va dua vao cho cua bo nho m~l lenh thti' hai vira diroc gi,ii phong ra.

Nhuoc diem cua h¢ dieu khicn NC la khi gia cong chi tict ticp thco trong loat h¢ dieu khien ph.ii doc lai tat dt cac lenh nr dau V~I nhir vay se khong tranh khoi nhi1'ng sai sot ella bo tfnh roan trong he dieu khicn. Do do chi tier gia cong co the b] phc pham. Mot nhiroc diem khac nira I~I do efin nil nhieu lenh chira trong bang dye It'> hoac bang tir ncn kha nang 11l~1 chuong trinh b! dirng lai (khong chay) thurrng xuyen co the Xci) ra. Ngoai ra voi chc do lam vice nhir vay bang dye Ic) V~I bang nr se nhanh chong bi bflll va mon, gay 16i eho chuong trinh.

1.2.11.2. H~ dieu khien eN c.

Dac diem chinh cua he dieu khien CNC la st! tham gia cua may vi tfnh. Cac nha che tao may CNC cni d~lt vao may tfnh mot chirong trinh dieu khien eho tirng loai may. H¢ dieu khien CNC cho phep thay doi V~I hieu chinh cac chuong trinh gia cong chi tiet va d chuang trinh hoat dc)ng ella ban than no. Trong h¢ di~u khien CNC cac chuong trinh gia cong co the diroc ghi nho lai. Trong he dicu khien CNC chuong trinh CC) the duoc n'.lp V~IO be) nho roan bo mot hie hoac tirng lenh btmg ray tv ban dieu khien, Cac lenh dicu khien khong chi duoc viet eho rirng chuyen dong rieng Ie mil con cho nhieu chuyen dong cung hie. Dieu nay cho phep giam s6 cau lenh ella clurong trinh va nhir v~y co the' nang cao de) tin c[IY lam vice ella may. H¢ dicu khien CNC co kfeh tluroc nho hem va gi'l thanh thap han so voi h¢ dieu khien NC nhung lai co nhirug dac tinh moi 11l~1 cac h¢ dieu khien tnr6c do khong co. Vf du, nhieu h¢ dieu khicn loai n;IY co kha nang hieu chinh nhirng sal so co dinh cua may - nhirng nguyen nhan gfty ra sai s6 gia cong.

1.2.11.3. He dicu khien DNe (Direct Numerical Control) Dac diem ella h¢ dieu khien DNC nhu sau (hinh 1.3):

- '\ihicu may e6ng cy CNC duoc n6i voi mot may tinh trung t[lI11 Lilla dlll'll,:! dan duo lieu. M6i may cong ey co h~ c1ieu khien CNC m~1 bo tinh h',Hl,'lla no co nhiern V~I chon loc va phan phoi de thong tin (theo chien I, hinh 1.3), Hay noi each khac thi b¢ unh roan lit crill noi gifra c.ic may cong Cll \il may tinh uung Will.

- May tinh trung Him c6 th~ nhan nhtrng thong tin tir cac b0 di~u khien CNC (theo chieu 2, hinh 1.3) d~ hieu chinh chuong trinh hoac c6 th~ d9C nhirng dfr lieu tir may cong cu.

- Trong mot s6 tnrong h9'P may tinh dong vai tro chi dao trong vice lira chon nhimg chi tiet gia coug thea thtr W LfU tien d~ phan chi a di cac may khac nhau.

r ...

--, J

i I

~

l .. 1--

-l_j---

-, Maycong

-----1

J cu eNC

J

Hinh 1.3, Ngll.w;nl\' hoot d(/flg cu« IIC di(;11 UliLll DAC

- He ONC co ngan hang dir lieu [rung tarn eho biet cac thong tin cua chuoug trinh gia cong chi tiel trcn [at eel cac may cong cu.

- C6 kha n[1I10" truyen dir lieu nhanh va co kha nanz noi ghep vao

b. b L

he theing gia cong linh hoar FMS.

1.2.11.4. Dieu khien thich nghi.

Suo dung he dieu khien thich nghi la mot trong nhfrng plurong phap hoan rhien may cong cu CNC. Cac may CNC thuong co chu ky gia cong e6 dinh (chu ky cling) da duoc xac dinh 6 phan ttl' mang chuong trinh V~I nhir vay cu- moi 1;1n gia cong chi tiet khac chu ky lai duoc lap lai nhu cil. kh(mg co s~r thay deli nao. Clurong trinh dieu khien nhu vay khong duoc hieu chinh khi co cac yeu to cong nghe thay deli. Vi ely, khi gia cong chi tiet luong dLT co th~ thay deli dan den bien dang dan hoi ella h¢ thong cong nghe. Khi do neu h¢ thong dicu khicn khong hieu chinh lai luc cat thi kfch rluroc gia cong co th6 vuot ra ngoai pham vi dung sai (nghia I~I.

14

sinh ra phe pharn). Trang truong hop nay de tranh phe pham phai giam luong chay dao hoac them buoc gia cong, nghia la oa giam nang suat gia cong.

He thong

di~u khien thich nghi lil h~ thong dieu khien co tinh den tic dong hen ngoai cua he thong cong nghe de hieu chinh chu ky gia cong (qua trinh gia cong) nham loai bo anh lurong cua cac yeu t6 06 tai o¢ chinh xac gia congo

Hinh 1.4

L- __ --j 4

lIinh 1.4. Sodo di(;'11 khicll thich nghi

I: chi tier: 2: dao: 3: datric: 4: bo bien doi:

lil mot vi du v~ 5,6.7: co cflu chay dao.

so' do dieu khien thfch nghi. Dao (2) gia cong chi tiet (I). Cac yeu t6 cong ngh¢ khong 6n dinh co the gay ra SV thay d6i lire cat P, (hrc huong k inh). Lire P, duoc datric (3) ghi lai. Tin hieu ella datric di qua bo bien doi (4) tac dong den co cau chay dao (5-:-7) va lam 6n dinh lire cat Pr. Neu hrc cat P, tang thi luong chay dao se giam xuong va nhir vay lire 1\ se gram xu6ng. Ngiroc lai, neu luc cat P, giam xuong thi IV<;1ng chay dao se tang

len. On dinh luc dt khi do co nghia til giam diroc dao dong ella kich thu'oc gia cong (tang d<) chinh xac va nang sunt gia cong).

Cling wong nr nhir vay h¢ thong dieu khien thich nghi co the 6n dinh OV<;1c cong suat cat, momen cat hay nhiet do dt, V.V ... Tuy nhicn. he thong dieu khicn thich nghi hay diroc dung de 6n dinh kich thuoc gia

congo 6 day CO cau kiem tra tfch cue (kiem tra chu dong) luon IU()(1 xac dinh duoc kich thiroc gia cong va l-JC dong den CC1 cau dieu khien de on c1inh kich tluroc ella chi tier.

CHU'ONG 2. MAy C()NG Cl) CNC

Nhu cluing ta etJ bier, tnroc the' he may CNC da co hai the he may cong cu voi trinh d<) hicn dai thap hem: may cong cu thong thuong va may cong cu NC.

2.1. May cong cu thong thuong.

Khi thuc hicn gia cong chi tier tren cac may cong cu thong thuong cong nhan thurrng dung tay d6 dicu khi0n may (dtrong nhicn cac chuyen dong cat va chuycn dong chay dao dcu do may tlurc hicn). Cong nhan ci'1I1 err van phieu nguyen cong M cat got chi tier nham dam 1)(10 cac yell diu ky thuat ct~t ra. Trong truong hop nhu v~ly nang suat va chat luong san pham phu thuoc nit nhieu van tay nghe cua cong nhan. Mac du can nhicu h,,111 che so voi may NC va may CNC nhirng cac may cong cu thong tlurong hien nay van can diroc si:r dung rflt rong riii voi Iy do la gia thanh thap viI thuan tien cho cong vice sira chira V~l cho nen s,in xuat hien can dang ()' trinh d() thap. Dac bi~t c.ic may cong cu trlnh d<) thap van con y nghia 16'n doi vc'l'i cac tnroug day nghc co khi va cac cong viec thuc t(lp cua sinh vi en cao dang, dai hoc 6 cac tnrong ky thuar.

2.2. May cong cu NC.

D6i veri de may cCJI1g cu NC thi vice dicu khien cac chtrc nang ella may c1LrcJc quyet dinh btlllg. Cal' chuong trinh dJ lap siln, Oil' may cong cu NC rat thich hop voi dang san xu.u h.mg 100,lt nho va trung hlnh.

H¢ thong dieu khien ella may NC la mach dien tv, Thong tin vao 'C\1\'i'£\ \'i~n h~n:g ttl hO~L han.g 61,IC \0, tmrc uien cnuc nang thea tung khO'I, khi khoi tnroc ket rhuc, may doc tiep cac khoi lenh tiep then d2 thuc hien c.ic dich chuycn can thiet. Cac may NC chi thirc hien cac chirc nang nhu: noi suy dirong thang, noi suy eung tron, clurc nang doc thea bang, Cac m{IY NC khong co chuc nang hru trir chuong trinh.

2.3. May cong cu CNC.

May cong cl;l CNC lit biroc ph.it rrien cao tir cal' may NC. Cac may CNC co mot may tfnh d6 thiet 1~IP phan rnern dung d6 dicu khicn c.ic chirc nang dich chuyen ella may, Cal' chuong trinh gia cong duoc doc cung m()t hie va duoc luu trO' V~1O b<) nho. Khi gia cong. may tiuh dua ra cac lenh dieu khien may, May cong cu CNC co kha nang rhuc hien cac chirc nang nlur: noi suy dUC1D~,tM1J.~nQiro~4Y~\Jtlg tron, mat xoan, mat parabol ~_ ... ;~r'~~~·.~·I<::; _.:,;:. ;i~'a'~I~' :

'-_"" ...... ..,." .....

lCl

"

:i . __ .... ,' ... '+_

,- .,.,.:!", ...

, ..... ~,' .

va h;Yl ky m~t h(IC ba nao, May CNC cling co kha nang btl chieu dai \:1 chrc\ng kinh dung cu. Tat C,\ cal' clnrc nang tren deu duoc thirc hien nho mot ph.in mCI11 cua may tfnh. Cac chirong trinh lap ra c6 the duoc IU'LI trir ircn dia cung hoac dia mem.

!..t. H¢ true toa dQ ella may cong cu CNC.

may CNC cho phcp x.ic

dinh chieu chuycn c1<)ng cua cac co cau may va dung cu dt (hinh 2.1). Cal' true toa d() d6 Ja X, v. Z. Chicu duong cua true X, Y, Z duoc xac dinh thco quy ttle ban ray phai (hinh 2.2). Theo quy ttlC nay thi ngon tay cai chi chicu dtrong ella true X, ngon tay giu'a chi chieu duong ella tT,!C Z, cC)[1 ngon tay tro chi chieu duong cua true Y. Cac truc quay nrong Lrng

voi true X, Y, Z duoc ky hicu hang Cal' chir A, R C. Chieu quay duong la chieu quay thea chieu cua kim dong h6 neu then chieu dirong ella cac true X, Y. Z.

0) True Z.

fZ

fC

+Y

-x

fA

fX

-z

Hinlz 2.1. H~ 11'1.1(' loa d(J CII<I nuiv CN('

nhin

Nhin. chung 6 Cal' may truc Z luon song song voi true chinh cua

may.

- May tien: true Z song song voi true chinh ella rn.iy va co chieu dirong chay tir mam cap toi dung cu (chay xa khoi chi tiet gia C()I1g dircrc C~IP tren marn c4P). Hay n6i each khac thi chieu duong cua truc Z chay tir trai sang phai.

- May khoan dung, may phay dung, may khoan can: true Z song song voi cac true chfnh va co chieu duong huong tv ban may len phia true chinh.

17

- May bao, may xung dicn: true Z vuong goc voi ban may va co chieu duong huong tir ban may len phia tren.

- Cac may phay co nhieu true chfnh: true Z song song voi dirong tam ella true chinh vuong goc voi ban may (chon true chinh co dirong tam vuong goc voi ban may lam true Z). Chieu duong cua true Z trong truong hop nay hurrng tir ban may toi true chinh.

h) Tr~/(" X.

True X la true nam trcn mat ban may va thong thirong no c1Lf<;1C xac dinh then plurong nam ngang. Chieu cua true X diroc xac dinh theo guy tac ban tay phai ( ngon cai chi chieu duong ella true X).

- May phay dung, may khoan dirng: neu dung ngoai nhin van true chinh thi chieu duong cua true X huong v~ ben phai.

- M,lY khoan din: neu dung 6 vi trf dieu khien may ta co chieu duong cua true X'huong van tru may.

- May phay ngang : neu dung ngoai nhin thing van true chinh thi ta co chieu duung ella X huong ve ben trai, can neu dung 6 phia true chinh d~ nhin van

chi tier thi ta co

chieu duong cua X

hLfang ve ben

phai.

- May tien: true X vuong goc voi true may va co chieu duong huong vt phia ban kep dao (huong ve phia dung cu cat), Nhu vay neu ban kep dao 6 phla truce true chinh thi chieu duong cua X huong van

+'1

a)

+Z

b)

Hinh 2.2: Quy td: him ray phdi

ngLfoi tho, can neu

ban kep dao 6 phia sau true chinh thi chieu duong di ra khoi ngiroi tho .

18

. .

- May baa: true X narn song song v6'i mat dinh vi chi tier tren ban may va chieu dirong huong tir ban may t6'i than may.

c) TnJc Y.

True Y diroc xac dinh sau khi cac true X, Z da diroc xac dinh theo quy de ban tay phai. Ngon tay tro chi chieu dirong cua true Y.

d) ('{IC true phu .

Tren cac

rna y CN C ngoai cac true X, Y ,Z con co cac true

khae song song voi cluing (cac bo phan may dich ehuy6n song song voi cac true X, Y, Z ). Cae true nay diroc ky hieu la U,V,W, trong do U//X, V//Y, va W//Z. Neu co cac true khac nira song

R I IW , + z

1'rc /+Y

i //i:8~Q

!/

/~/r------- __ ~_~..:x

i

I +c'

y

~ - z'

/

u

~ . /

y_-ts'

~y

---p

Hinlt 2.3. H~ /(I~I de) Clio may CNC khi chi ric;' cliuven

song voi toa c1Q

chinh X, Y, Z thi cac true n~IY duoc kf hieu la P,Q,R trong d6 PI/X, Q//Y, R//Z. Cac true U,V,W duoc goi la cac true thtr hai, con cac true P, Q, R duoc goi la cac true tlur ba (hinh 2.3),

Khi chi tier gia cong cung ban may tham gia chuycn dong tha) eho dung cu cat thi cac chuyen dong fly (chuyen dong tinh tien thea ba true Y~I chuyen dQng quay quanh ba true) duoc kf hieu bang c.ic chir X', Y', Z' vii A', B', C' (hinh 2.J). Cac chieu chuyen dong nay nguoc voi chieu chuyen dong cua dung ell.

2.5. Cac diem chuan.

Cac diem chuan c.in duoc x.ic dinh trang vung lam vice cua may. 2.5.1. Di~m chuan ella may M (diem goc 0 ella may).

Diem goc 0 cua may (diem chuan M cua may) la diem goc cua h~ toa dQ ella may. Diem M diroc cac nha che' tao quy dinh thco kc't C~\lI

Il)

ella tirng loai may. Diem M Iii diem gioi han ella vung lam vice ella may. Dicu d6 co nghia I~l trong pham vi vung lam viec ella may cac dich chuycn ella eric eo diu may co the thuc hicn thea chieu duong cua cac toa

de). d cac may phay di~I11 M thuong nam 6 diem gioi han dich chuyen ella ban may. Diem chuan M (di~111 0 ella may) ella may khoan can va ella may phay dCrng duoc the hien iren hinh 2.4.

Diem M ella may tien duoc mo ta trcn hinh 2.Sa,b. 2.5.2. Diem 0 cua chi tiet (diem W).

Di~m W ella chi tier I~l goc tO~1 d() ella chi tiet. Vi trf diem W phu thuoc vao sy·ly·a chon ella ngiroi I~p rrinh .

D6i voi cac chi tiet tien thi diem W ella chi tiet nam tren duong tam cua chi tiet hoac (j mat driu ben Inti hoac mat dau ben phai, Hinh 2.5 C cho rhay diem W narn 6 mat dati ben trai cua chi tiel.

D6i voi cac chi tier phay chon dicm W tai diem g6c ngoai duong vien chi tiet (hinh 2.6a).

Khi gia cong cac be mat chi tiet co the chon nhieu toa de) khac nhau voi cac diem g6c WI va cac he toa d() phu Wz ,WI 'W4 va W, (hinh 2.6b).

20

a)

..

c +Z

+x

b)

Zu

Hinn 2.5. lif toa d(_) va cdc die'm chudn

w

0)

I

h)

Hinh 2.6. Mot diem W (a) va nhieu diem W (b)

21

2.5.3. Di~m chuan cua dao (P).

Ole dao tien, dao khoan co diem chuan la dinh dao (hinh 2.7a,b).

Cac dao khoet, dao doa hoac dao phay thi diem P Hi Him ella mat dau ella dao (hinh 2.7e, d, d). Diem P duoc dung khi tinh cac quy dao chuyen dong ella dao.

p

0)

b)

p d)

d)

Hinh 2.7. Diem chudn eLla dao 2.5.4. Diem chuan cua ghi dao T va di~m ga dao N.

Diem T diroc dung M xac dinh he true toa do ella dao. Diem T phi} thuoc vao viec ga dao tren may. Thong thuong khi ga dao tren may thl di~m T trung voi di~m 'ga dao N (hinh 2.8).

p

Hinh 2.8. Diem cua gia dao T va diem ga dao N 2.5.5. Di~m dh~u chinh dao E.

Khi gia cong ta phai sir dung nhieu dao, nhir vay cac kich thuoc ella cluing phai duoc xac dinh bang CO cau dieu chinh dao.

Muc dich ella viec dieu chinh dao la M co thong tin chlnh xac eho h~ thong dieu khi~n v~ kich thuoc dao (hinh 2.9).

Khi dao duoc Hip vao gia dao thi di~m E va di~m N trung nhau. 2.5.6. Diem ga d~t (hay di~m ty) A.

Di~m A la diem ty cua be mat chi tier len d6 dinh vi ella d6 gao Di~m A co th~ trimg voi di~m W ella chi tiet (hinh 2.1 0) hoac co th~ I ira chon tuy y tren mat dinh vi ella chi tiet gia cong,

22

2.5.7. Diem 0 cua chuang trinh,

Diem 0 ella chuang trinh (ehfnh xac han la diem Pella dung cu cat) la diem tnroc khi gia cong dung cu cat nam a d6. Diem 0 cua chuang trinh phai xac dinh sao eho khi thay dao khong bi anh huang cua chi tiet hoac ella d6 ga (hinh 2.5e).

E

Hinh 2.9. Die'm dieu chinh dao E

Hinh 2.10, Diim ga ddt A

2.5.8. Cac di~m chuan khac F;K.

Khi nghien ctru cac he true toa d(> ngiroi ta con dung cac diem chuan khac nhir diem F, diem K d~ xac dinh cac kfeh thiroc lien quan (hinh 2,5 va hlnh 2.11).

2.6. Quan he gifra cac he true toa d(l.

Khi gia cong tren cac may CNC ngiroi ta e6 the chi a cac he true toa d(> thanh 3 loai: he true toa d(> ella may, h¢ true toa do ella chi tier va he true toa d(> ella dao.

- H~ true toa do cua may XMZ e6 diem goc tai diem goc ella may M (hinh 2.5b). Trong M toa d(> nay e6 th~ xac dinh vi trf cua cac diem chuan khac ella cac co cau may. 'Cae gia tri bang so cua cac ditim d6 (vf du diem F)

duoc ghi van bang chi dan ella may.

- H¢ true toa d(> ella chi tiet X, WZc (hinh 2.5e).

- H¢ true toa do ella dao Xu T Z; (hinh 2.5d). Diem goc cua dao P

diroc xac dinh tuong doi so voi cac diem F, K, T.

H~ true toa do ella chi tiet xac dinh tat d. kich thtroc va cac diem cua chi tiel. Cac kfeh thtroc va cac toa d(> diem cua chi tiet la nhirng thong

23

so can cho lap trinh gia cong chi tier d6. H~ toa d¢ cua chi tier diroc nguoi lap trinh dira ra tirong irng voi he toa d¢ cua may. H~ toa d¢ nay xac dinh toa d¢ chi tiet trong do ga, each bo trf co cau cua do ga, quy dao chuyen dong cua dao, dong thai cling cho biet diem 0 cua chuang trinh gia congo Tnroc khi gia cong diem P cua dao phai trung voi diem 0 cua chuang trinh, Diem 0 do nguoi l~p trinh chon sao cho thuan loi cho viec tinh toan kfch thiroc, dich chuyen cua dung cu va chi tiet, tranh nhirng biroc dich chuyen thira gan chi tier gia congo

Khi gia cong tren may CNC nhieu dao thl so di~m 0 cling c6 nhieu va bang so dung cu (VI moi dung cu c6 quy dao rieng cua minh).

Vi trf cua diem 0 va cua di~m bat kl nao khac cua quy dao chuyen dong cua dao duoc chuyen van h~ toa d¢ cua may nr M toa d¢ cua chi tier (M toa d¢ chuang trinh) qua diem chuan C cua do ga (0 - w - C - M). Tam dung cu P (diem goc dung cu) tir h~ toa d¢ XuTZu duoc chuyen van M toa d¢ may qua diem chuan K cua ban ga dao voi toa d¢ ella diem F (P- K- F- M),(hlnh 2.5 va hinh 2.11).

Nhir vay, rnoi lien he giifa cac he true toa do: chi tier - may - dung cu cho phep dat d¢ chinh xac cao khi ga dat lai chi tiet va cho phep xac dinh vung dich chuyen cua cac CCi cau chap hanh cua may khi tinh toan quy dao cua dao trong qua trinh chuan bi l~p trinh.

Lap trinh d~ gia cong tren may CNC se dan gian neu diem goe cua may(di~m M) nam CJ goc toa d¢ may, cac diem chuan cua cac co' cau chap hanh diroc liet van cac diem co dinh cua may, con quy dao chuyen dong cua dao diroc tao bai dich chuyen cua diem chuan cua CCi cau chap hanh mang dao cat (chfnh dao cat diroc ga tren co' cau chap hanh d6) narn trong h~ toa d¢ may. Dieu nay c6 th~ dat diroc neu diem chuan C cua do ga diroc xac dinh trong h~ toa d¢ cua chi tiet va cua may.

Khi lap trinh ngiroi ta thirong lay diem goc cua chi tier d~ lam diem goc cua he toa d¢ I~p trinh. Trong twang hop d6, viec xac dinh vi trf cac diem chuan ella do ga cho chi tiet va cho quy dao chuyen dong cua tam dung cu se thuan loi han.

Khi gia cong tren may tien thong thirong diem goc cua he toa d¢ lap trinh diroc chon la diem goc cua chi tier W CJ mat dau. Khi ga chi tiet tren do ga diem W trung voi diem C tren be mat cua do ga (hinh 2.11).

24

Tren may tien diem goc cua may M nam a dau true chinh. no xac dinh \'j trf cua cac true toa do may Z va X (hinh 2.11). Khi may lam viec [hi diem F luon thay d6i va d9 dich chuyen cua F diroc xac dinh urong

,i6i so voi diem M. o day cac gia tri toa do XMF va ZMF duoc ghi o' bang chi dltn cua may. Gia tri ZMC Iuon luon cho tnroc VI no la khoang each ttl diem M den diem chuan cua do ga C (mam cap may tien). Di~m C trung voi diem B' tren chi tie: (khi chi tier tho chua gia cong).

Trang he toa d9 XcWZc (hinh 2.5c va hinh 2.1 1 a) co diem 0 voi toa d9 ZcWO va XcWO va diem WR d~ xac dirnh kfch thuoc CLIa chi tiet. o day kfch tluroc cua chi tiet (phoi) la O[)xl (OD-dueing kinh, l-chieu dai), Can nho rang X, la toa d9 thea true X va Z; la toa do thea true Z ella chi tiel.

Trang he toa d9 lap trinh cung can co Hit ca cac diem chuan M lap truth quy dao chuycn dong cua tam dung cu cat.

lZr

I

WR

z MC..j ._J..._Zc_~B I

ZeWO

zMP (z MO)

zMF

+x

a)

-

f Q.I ~I

~_' l

~

b)

6 phoi cling duoc kf hicu hrong du Z,WB' (diem B') can phai h61 di trong 11Lr6'c gia cong tlui' hai hO~IC la str dich chuyen cua goc toa d<) W urong d6i so voi mat chuan ella chi tiet (gia tri ZcWB').

Trcn may ticn h¢ toa c1<.) ella dao XuTZu co di~m chuan cua diu dao I~I T (hinh 2.Sd). Vi trf ella diem T so voi tam dai dao K I~I: ZuKT va XuKT. Trong mot ban ga dao co th~ co nhieu dai dao (la co diu ele ga mot con dao) va do tinh chat gia cong (ga chi tiet tren rnam cap hay chong tam) cho ncn d~li dao co the eo nhirng vi trf khac nhau tren ban ga dao do. Do d6, tam ella dai dao eo toa et() ZlIFK va XiFK so voi tarn ella ban ga dao F.

Hinh 2.1 I a cho thay chuan cong nghe cua ehi tiet trung voi mat ty cua de) ga (cac di~m B' va C). Dieu nay cho phep ker hop h¢ toa de? I,~p trinh v{1i h¢ toa de) may.

Trong rnrong hop huong cua cac true toa d<) lap trinh V~I may cung chicu ta co : ZMW = ZMC - Z,WB' (e1 day ZMC va ZWB' la toa de) cac diem chuan trong he toa do may va h¢ toa de) lap trinh co tinh den dau, hinh 2.11 a).

Ta thay : ZMW = ZWC - (- Z,WB') = ZMC + Z,WB'.

Neu huong cua cac h¢ toa d<.) 1(IP trinh va may ngiroc chien nhau thi ZMW = ZMC + ZcWB" «('1 day Z,MB" I~I tO~1 de) cua di~m B" ella chi tier gia cong e1 buoc thir hai. Di nhien, trong truong hop n~IY phai gi,i dinh rang diem chuan C cua dc') ga nrong d6i so voi diem M la co dinh, co nghia la bang ZMC nhu khi gia cong chi tiet a btroc thtr nhat).

Khi do diem 0 voi cac toa de) X,WO va ZcWO trong h~ toa etc) lap trinh diroc xac dinh hang ciic toa d<) XMO va ZMO trong he toa do may:

XMO = x" ; ZMO = ZMW # z;

(6 day dau "+" chi lurong cung nhau cua cac h¢ toa do may va lap trinh. con dau "_" chi hu'ang ngiroc nhau cua cac true toa d<) trong he toa do may va lap trinh). Cac toa d<) x., va r; xac dinh vi trf diem 0 trong he toa dC) lap trinh (h¢ toa do chi tier).

Khi phoi hop h¢ toa etc) lap trinh va h¢ toa d<) dung eu tuong deli so voi cac diem chuan ella may M vii F ( ella han ga dao) eo the xac dinh cac toa d<) ZMP va XMP cua tarn dung cu P trong h~ toa d<) cua may XMZ. Trong tnrong hop nay can nho rang phan congxon cua dao XlITP va ZuTP

dU'lfL' x.ic dinh khi dieu chinh dao, con vi trf nrong doi cua diem T (c.ic gi~i tr: AliKT va ZuKT) so voi tarn ella dai get dao K la dac tfnh k~ thuat cua may. Cac gia tri XlIFK va ZuFK ciing diroc eho tnroc (hinh 2.5d) dl: de dinh vi trf nrong d6i ella K so vci diem chuan F. Khi c16 ta co (then hinh 2.5 va 2.11):

XMP = XMF + XuFK + XuKT + XuTP ZMP = ZMF + Z"FK + Z"KT + Z"TP

Khi xac dinh XMP va ZMP can chu y den hurmg ella c.ic giet tri thanh phan. Neu diem chu.in ella ban ga dao F trung v6'i diem chuan cua dai ciao T thi cac toa d9 ella diem P (diem chuan cua dao) chi diroc tinh theo congxon ella dao, nghia la toa d9 cua n6 trong he toa dc) dao sc 1:1:

XMP = XMF(T) + X"TP ZMP = ZMF(T) + Z"TP

01 nhien, tnroc khi gia cong then clurong trinh (hinh 2.11 a) tam dung cu P phai trung voi diem chuan 0 va toa de) ella diem P ILk nay dvcyc unh then cong rluic sau:

ZMP = ZMW + Z,WO = ZMO XMP = X,WO = XMO

6 day: XMO va ZMO la toa d9 cua diem chuan 0 trong toa do

may.

Khi 1~IP trinh can chu y I~l khoang dich chuyen cua cac CO C(lU chap hanh ella may (vung lam vice) diroc girri han bang toa d9 cac diem chuan cua nhtrng CO' cau chap hanh do trong he toa de) may (hinh 2.12). Tren hinh 2.12 ta thay diem F co the nam 0 bilt ctr vi trf nao trong vung 1~1l11 vice (ph .. ln gach cheo) duoc gi6i han bang cac toa do XMFllm V~l XMF,,,,,,:

ZMFIIl:" va ZMF'"il'

Dicu n6i tren day luon Ilion dung eho moi dao khi l~p trinh gia cong trcn may tien, Tnroc khi gia cong tam cua dung cu (diem P) can phai nam ij vi trf diem 0 m~l tLI' do glly d'.IO cua dao duoc 1~IP trinh. Tren hinh 2.12 miii ten net dut chi thir tv chuycn d6i V~1O he toa d9 may cLla gll~ dao 1,1111 duns ClI P (P-T-K-F-M) V~l cua diem 0 (O-W-C-M).

• L· •

NIHr vay. cling co the xac dinh thtr nr chuyen d6i cua qll~ dan tarn dung ell khi gia cong tren may khoan - doa (hinh 2.13).

27

+x

ZMFmin

f.----

ZMFmax

___ ~ . __ ~ __ ---------...... ~ . ............... _~ 4 -----+";~_~--

F

Hinh 2. J 2, Quan h~; gii'i'o ca: h~ fO~1 eI() I~ip trinh-nuiv-ilung cu khi tien h/ing nlti/ll ciao

;===-;>-w'

28

Hin1l2.J3, Quail It~; gil/'o ccu: It~ fO(1 d(J tren may khoan - doa

2.7. Cac dang dieu khien cua may cong cu CNC.

Cac may CNC khac nhau e6 kha nang gia cong dLJ'<;1e cac be mat khac nhau nhu cac 10, mat phang, cac mat dinh hinh, v.v ... Do d6 cac dang dieu khien ella may cung dLJ'<;1c chia ra thanh: dieu khien diem - diem. dieu khien then duong thang va dieu khien then contour (dieu khien theo hi en dang).

2.7.1. Dieu khien diem-diem.

Dieu khien diem-diem (hay dieu khien thea vi tri) dtroc dung de gia cong cac 10 hang cac phuong phap khoan, khoet, doa va cat ren It). o day chi tiet gia cong duoc ga co dinh tren han may, dung cu cat thirc hien chay dao nhanh den cac vi trf da 1~IP trinh. Khi dat toi cac diem dich dao bat dau cat (hinh 2.14). Tuy nhien, cling e6 trirong hop dao khong dieh chuyen rna ban may dich chuyen. Muc dich chinh can dat III cac kfeh thtroc a, b, c, d, d, e phai ehfnh xac, con qUI dao chuyen dong ella dao hay ella han may deu khong co y nghia lam.

Vi trf cua cac 10 co th~ diroc dieu khien dong thai theo hai true (hinh 2.15£1) hoac dieu khien ke tiep nhau (hinh 2.15b). Trong truong hop chay dao dong thai theo hai true X. Y thi qU) dao chuyen dong tao thanh mot g6c a so voi mot true nao do (VI du. tren hinh 2.15 goc hop thanh gura quy dao chuyen dong cua dao va true X

rf

- 1

-l

('1::\ \J_)1

.J_ ~L

t.l

Trong tnrong h<;1p eh<;ty dao dc)e lap thi tnroc her

dao chay song song voi true Y toi diem I' Otic nay toa etc) cua X khong thay doi), sau do dao chay theo true X et~ toi diem dich 2. NhLJ' vay cac chuyen dong cua dao theo cac true hoan toan doc lap voi nhau.

la a),

b

- I

Hinh 2.14, Dic'lI kltiC'11 di/117 - dicll1

29

-----

x

" I---~--o 2

+

L

y

y

----~---

X

l

_j

a' J

b)

Hinh 2.15. Ciu: d(Jng c1WI' dao trong iii/II "hie'l die',n - dil',l1

a) dieu khicn dong thai then hai true:

b) dieu khien ke tier,

2.7.2. Dieu khien throng thang.

Dicu khien dirong thang la dang dieu khien rna khi gia cong dung cu cat thuc hicn luong Ch~IY dao theo mot dtrong thang nao do. Tren may tien dung cu cat chuyen dong song song hO~IC vuong goc voi true cua chi tiet (true Z trcn hlnh 2.16a). Tren may phay dung cu cat chuyen dong song song voi true Y hoac song song voi true X (qui (h,IO duoc xac dinh theo chicu miii ten). Ta thay trong dl hai truong hop trcn dung cu cat chuyen dong doc lap theo tung true mot (khong co quan he rang bU(K vci true khac). Dang dieu khien nay diroc dung cho cac may phay va may tien dan gian.

y

z ------- -----------1

._____CJ __ 1

x

b)

Hillh 2.16, Di/II "hi(',1 d/(c'fflg rhc7ng 2.7.3. Dieu khien bien dang ( dieu khien contour).

Dieu khien theo bien dang (theo contour) cho phep thuc hien chay dao tren nhieu true cung hie. Vf du tren hinh 2.17 cho thay dieu khien theo contour tren may tien (hinh 2.17a) va tren may phay ( hinh 2.17b).

Trong ca hai truong hop tren dung cu cat chuyen dong dong thai then ca hai true ct~ tao ra mot bien dang vira co phan thang, vira co phan

30

congo 6 day cac chuyen dong then cac true co quan he ham so rang hU(K voi nhau. O<.lI1g dicu khien nay diroc ung dung tren cac may tien, may phay vii trcn cac trung tarn gia cong.

Tuy then sci true duoc dieu khicn dong thai khi gia cong. ngLfhi ta

phan bict: dieu khicn contour 20, dieu khien contour 2'!_ 0 V~I dicu khien

. 2

contour 3D (0 la dimension hay kich thtroc),

2.7.3.1. Dieu khien contour 2D.

Dieu khien contour 20 cho phep thirc hien chay dao thco 2 true d6ng thai trong I11C}t mar phang gia cong. VI du: trong 111(11 phang XZ hoac XY trcn hinh 2.17. True thtr 3 diroc dicu khien hoan tO~1I1 doc Iftp voi hai true kia. Co the hicu r6 hon khi tren may CNC co 3 true: hai true diroc sir dung de phay contour (hinh 2.17h) con true rhu 3 (true Z) thirc hien ,-111 dao theo chieu stili cat va diroc dieu khien khong phu thuoc V~IO hai true kia.

y

z

x

b)

Hi"h 2./7. Dliu khi£;;1 theo contuor a) trcn may tien: b) tren may phay.

2.7.3.2. Dieu khien contour 2'!_ D. 2

Dicu khien contour 2 ~ D cho phep an dao dong thai theo hai true nao do de gia cong be mat trong mot mat phang nhat dinh. Tren may C'-JC co 3 true X,Y,Z se dieu khien duoc dong thai x va Y, X V~I Z hoac Y \~I Z (hinh 2.18). Tren cac may phay, dieu nay co nghia la chieu sau cal

.' the duoc thuc hien bat ky mot true nao do trong 3 true, con 2 true kia

31

d~ phay eontour. Tren hinh 2.18 cac dV0ng 1,2,3 la cac quy dao chuyen dong cua cac tam dao phay. Nhir vay. thong qua cac clurc nang G cua chuong trinh gia cong eo the chuyen tv be mat gia cong nay sang be mat gia cong khac.

t-

x/

(

/' /

I L_

Hinh 2.18. Die'll khiciil contour 2 _!_ D 2

_~-r-- Confour du'de gia eong .

Kich thu'c1C:a<b

x

a

Hinh 2.19. Dhhl khie'n contounr 3D

~.7.3.3. Dieu khien contour 3D.

Dieu khi~n contour 3D cho phep dong thai chay dao theo ca 3 true X. Y,Z (ca 3 true chuyen dong hoa hop vci nhau hay co quan he rang buoc ham so, hinh 2.19). Ta thay contour diroc gia cong do ca 3 hrong chay dao theo ca 3 true X,Y,Z tao thanh, Dieu khien contour 3D duoc LIng dung d~ gia cong cac khuon mau, gia cong cac chi tiet co be mat gia cong khong gian phirc tap,

2.8. Cac chi tieu gia cong cua may CNC. 2.8.1. Thong so hinh hoc.

Thong so hmh h9C cua may CNC hay cua vung gia cong Hi thong so cua khong gian rna trong do dung CI,I cat va chi tier gia cong co th~ tac dong qua lai a bat ki vi trf nao, Nhir vay, tren cac may gia cong chi tiet tron xoay vung gia cong la mot khoi lang tru duoc xac dinh bang ban kinh va chieu dai dich chuyen cua cac toa d9 (hmh 2.20a).

Tren cac may gia cong chi tier hinh h9P chir nhat vung gia cong la mot khoi hinh h9P (doi khi hlnh lang tru) duoc xac dinh ':>:mg cac chieu '.!.11 dich chuyen ~ c •• 1 cac toa do I h1:i11 ~ .20b). Cac

0)

b)

Hinh 2.20 Vung gia cong ella may CNC

33

diem gioi han ella vung lam viec diroc danh sO' nrong nr nhu kf hieu sO' cua rna tran. D~ thuan tien va d~ nho ngtroi ta danh tlur ur cac sO' theo quy tile sau: sO' thir nhat ella cac chir sO' kf hieu cac di~m thea true thang dung, so thir hai ella cac chir sO' ky hieu cac diem thea true doc (true Z) con sO' tlur ba ella cac sO' ky hieu cac di~m thea true narn ngang (true X, hinh 2.20).

2.8.2. Thong so gia congo

Thong sO' gia cong ella may CNC la toe d¢ chuyen dong ella cac co cau chap hanh va cong suat dong ca. Nguoi ta dua vao cac thong sO' hmh hoc (vimg gia cong) nhir kich thuoc ban may phay hay chieu eao ella tam may rien d~ chon cong suat dong co, toe d¢ quay ella true chinh va hrong chay dao. Vf ely, dO'i voi cac may nhieu dao d~ gia cong cac chi tiet hinh hop chir nhat ngiroi ta chon cac thong sO' gia cong nhir sau:

- Be rong cua ban may (mm) 400 -630 630 - 1000
- Cong suat dong co (kW) 5 -II 9 - 15
- TO'e d¢ quay true chinh (vg/ph) 3150 - 4000 3150 - 4000
- TO'e d¢ chay dao (m/ph) I - to 2,4 - 8
- TO'e d¢ chay dao nhanh (m/ph) 6 - to 5 - to
- Thai gian thay dao tt! dong (s) 3 - 7 3 - to
2.8.3. Nang suat gia congo Nang suat gia cong la sO' hrong chi tier diroc gia cong trong mot dan vi thai gian. Cong thtrc tfnh nang suat gia cong diroc viet diroi dang:

[ ]-1

I m i-I k

Q = - = (-)tebkl + tel + Ito + It'd + Itkl

T,c n I I

(2.1)

dday:

T'; - thai gian tung chiec trung binh (pluit);

m - sO' loat chi tier diroc san suat trong mot nam; n - so lirong chi tiet duoc san suat trong mot nam;

i - so luong nguyen cong can thiet d~ gia cong mot chi tiet; k - so lircng cac nguyen cong kiern tra;

34

tel - thai gian thay dcii chi tier gia cong; tlu - thai gian thay dao;

to - thai gian co ban;

tkl - thai gian kiern tra;

tehkl - thai gian chuan bi - ket thiic.

Dti tang nang suat phai giam thai gian tehkl. Muon giarn thai gian t,nk, phai dung do ga - ve tinh va giarn so lirong cac 10<;1t chi tier gia cong tren may (tren mot may CNC khong nen gia cong qua 30 -7- 50 10<;1i chi tier trong mot nam),

D~ tang nang suat phai giam tiU' Phuong phap giam t,u la dung he thong thay dao ur dong. Tren cac may thay dao bang tay nen sir dung co cau kep nhanh.

D~ tang nang suat con phai giam thai gian thay dcii cac chi tier gia cong. Viec nay co th~ dat duoc nho cac co cau nhieu vi trf (d~ thay chi tiet tu dong) va do ga - ve tinh. Dong thai dti tang nang suat phai giam thai gian to' Co nhieu each M giam to: tang toe do cat (can phai tang cong suat dong co), sir dung dao co kha nang cat voi toe d¢ cao. gia cong voi che d¢ cat toi uu va gia cong dong thai bang nhieu dao.

Mot phuong phap nira d~ nang cao nang suat gia cong la giam thai gian phu, Thai gian phu duoc giarn bang each tang toe d¢ chay nhanh cua cac co cau chap hanh hoac cua dao (co gang tang toe d¢ chay dao nhanh tai 10 -7- 15 m/ph).

2.8.4. DQ chinh xac cua may CNC.

Sai so gia cong tong cong tren cac may CNC xuat hien tren cac he thong truyen dong cua may, trong cac he thong dieu khien va kiem tra va trong ban than chi tier gia cong (hinh 2.21 va hinh 2.22).

Cac sai so gia cong duoc ky hieu va giai thich nhu sau:

8, ,82,83,84 - cac sai so I~p trinh, noi suy, hieu chinh noi suy va sai so cua "Ienh tro ve ditim 0";

85,86- sai so cua buoc ben trong va sai so rich luy cua datric: 87 - sai so cua cac co cau chuyen dcii tin hieu;

35

8x- sai s6 cua dreipha d~c tinh truyen dong (sai s6 thai gian phat xung);

89,8'0,8,,- cac sai s6 truyen dong (lire, momen, toe do); 8'2- sai s6 true vit - bi;

8'1- sai s6 hlnh h9C cua may;

8'4,8'5 - bien dang dan hoi cua may va d6 ga; 8'6- sai s6 kich thiroc ga d~t dao;

817- sai s6 do mon dao;

8,x- bien dang dan hoi cua dao; 8'9- sai s6 ga d~t chi tiet gia cong;

820- bien dang dan hdi cua chi tiet gia cong; 82,- bien dang nhiet cua chi tiet gia congo

Ket qua nghien CUll 1y thuyet va thl!c nghiern sai s6 gia cong tong cong ~~ cho thay ty 1¢ cac thanh phan cua sai s6 noi tren (hinh 2.23).

,-.--------,

I Hf ai§u khieh I

I I

I I

I Truy~n lOi I .13

I I

I I

I I

I I

I I

I Ki€m Ira 1.12

I va do IIJ'ffng I

I I

I I

I I

I ' . I ,1,

I f} ieu khien I

I I

L _j

r-----;----,

I May

I

I

.14 I Kef cou

, I I ,

I

.15 I

I I

I

I

Ll6 I

I

I I I

L ..J

Dljng C,!

Chi filf

Hinh 2.21. Sai so' gia cong tling cong tren may CNC

36

Sai so gia cong tong cong diroc xac dinh thea cong thirc sau day:

~l:= ~I+ ~2+~' + ~4+ ~:I+ ~6 (2.2)

Cac thanh phan cua cong thtrc (2.2) duoc xac dinh nhir sau:

(2.3 )

(2.4 ) (2.5)

(2.6) (2.7 ) (2.8)

Cac sai so thanh phan 8; trong cong thirc (2.3) -;- (2,8) dii duoc giai thfch b tren.

2.8.5. DQ tin e~y ella may CNC.

Cac may cong cu CNC co gia thanh nit cao, cho nen chung chi mang lai hieu qua kinh te khi cluing diroc su dung lien tuc (ca hai ca va co khi ca ba ca) va khong co hong hoc nao trong khi lam viec. Ngoai ra. trong qua trlnh lam viec cac may phai dam bao diroc d¢ chfnh xac gia cong va neu co bi hong hoc thi may phai co kha nang SUa chua hoac thay the mot each de dang, thuan tien.

Vay, d¢ tin cay cua may CNC la tinh chat thuc hien chirc nang gia cong, giu diroc cac chi tieu cong nghe cling nhtr sua chua thea mot thai gian quy dinh. D9 tin cay cua may duoc d~c tnrng boi ba tinh chat sau day:

a) Tinh him viec khong hi 11l( hong.

Tfnh chat nay diroc dac tnrng bang sir lam viec lien tuc cua may trong mot thai gian nhat dinh (thai gian chay ra va lam viec cua may).

h) Tud'i Ih9 cua may.

Tinh chat nay la Sl! 6n dinh lam viec cho t6i luc sua chua (mot phan tuoi tho) va sau do lai tiep tuc hoat dong,

37

38

Nhir vay, hai tinh chat tren deu dac tnrng cho kha nang lam viec cua may. Tuy nhien, tinh chat thtr nhat (tinh lam viec khong bi hong) ton tai trong mot khoang thai gian nhat dinh, con tinh chat thir hai (tuoi tho) ton tai trong

suet qua trinh

may diroc sir dung, k~ ca thai gian may dirng d~ sua chua. D6i voi tfnh chat thir nhat (tfnh lam viec kh6ng bi hong) con co khai niern v~ xac suat P cua tfnh chat nay. Vi du, xac suat cua tfnh lam viec khong bi hong P=0,97 trong thai gian 1000 gio' co nghia la 97% thai gian cua 1000 gia may se lam viec 6n dinh.

c) Khd ruing sua chiia.

Tinh chat

60

80

70

40

50

30

20

10

O~-L-L~~~~J_~~-L-L~~~~-L~_

'---v---''---v--'''---v---''-...,.---J'---'--v---'

rs; - "" <fs-cf7 ~-O'2 ~3-6i5 cf,G-018 0,9·62,

a)

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

to

O~~-LJ_~~~-LJ_~~_L-L~~~-LJ__

~'--".--'~

cf,-o;. ~-J7 ~-o;2 0,30,5 0,6-0,8 6,9-0;/

b)

Hinh 2.23. Ty l¢ cua sai .w'f gia cong tren nUIY C NC a) dieu khien diem va dieu khien thea dtrong thang:

b) ditu khien thea contour.

nay co nghia la ngtroitaco kha nang sua chua nhlrng khuyet tat va hong hoc do.

39

Doi voi cac may CNC thi hai tfnh chat (tinh chat thir nhat va tfnh chat thir ba) la quan trong nhat boi VI cac may CNC co cau true rat phirc tap va co rat nhieu CO cau co tac dong qua lai Ian nhau.

2.8.6. Tinh van nang cua may CNC

Tfnh van nang cua may CNC duoc xac dinh bang chi phi can thiet d~ chuyen cong nghe gia cong nhom chi tiet nay sang cong nghe gia cong nhom chi tiet khac. M6i loai may hoac moi may co tinh van nang rieng, nghia la co dieu kien toi uu M Slr dung may. Hinh 2.24 bieu dien quan he giffa chi phi gia cong va so chi rier dtroc gia cong sau khi phai dieu chinh may. Cac duong tren hinh duoc giai thich nhtr sau:

Duong I: Chi phi khau hao M gia cong cac loat chi tier.

Duong 2;4: Chi phi cho viec dieu chinh may d~ thay dcii cong nghe gia cong cac loat chi tiet (cac loat chi tiet co chi phi thea duong cong 2 nho hon cac loat chi tiet co chi phi thea dirong cong 4).

Duong cong 3;5: Cac chi phi tong cong (dirong 3 la tong chi phi cua dirong I va dirong 2, con dirong 5 la tong chi phi cua dirong I va 4). Nhir vay N(l! va NU2 la so chi tiet trong loat toi iru khi gia cong tren may CNC.

c

5

Nhung tfnh van nang va nang suat cua may lai co y nghia trai ngiroc nhau: tfnh van nang cua may giam (giarn so loat chi tiet diroc

(Chi phi)

-,

2

gia cong tren

Hinh 2.24. S6' chi rief t67 uu trong loat khi gia cong tren may

may) thi nang CNC

suat cua may

lai co th~ tang

len (vi phai It dieu chinh lai may).

Khi sir dung may CNC ngiroi ta co the xac dinh duoc so hrong chi tiet trong loat la bao nhieu thi viec gia cong tren may CNC moi co hieu qua kinh teo

40

S6 hrong chi tier A trong loat diroc xac dinh thea cong thirc sau

day:

A = _C-,o;___

E, -E2

6 day: Co - chi phi cho lap trinh d~ gia cong mot Ioai chi tiet nao do (chi phi nay cho viec lap trinh gia cong mot chi tiet co do phirc tap trung binh Hi 40 -0-70 USD);

(2.9)

E, - tier kiem chi phi tien luang cho gia cong mot chi tier;

E2 - chi phi b6 sung cho viec sir dung may CNC va cac trang bi cong nghe d6i voi mot chi tiet (khoang 0,5 -0- 1,5 USD).

Tier kiem tien luang do viec sir dung may CNC cho gia cong mot chi tier diroc xac dinh nhu sau:

(2.10)

6 day: C,- chi phi cho gia cong mot chi tiet tren may van nang thong thirong;

K - he s6 giam kh6i hrong gia cong khi chi tiet diroc gia cong tren may CNC.

Cong thuc (2.9) cho phep xac dinh diroc s6 hrcng chi tiet A rna khi gia cong cluing ta co the bu lai diroc chi phi cho viec lap trinh Co va chi phi b6 sung E2•

Vi du:

CAn xac dinh s6 chi tiet A trong loat khi gia cong tren may CNC co hieu qua kinh te, neu ta biet: chi phi cho lap trlnh gia cong Co=50 USD, chi phi cho gia cong mot chi tiet tren may van nang C,=3USD, he s6 giam kh6i hrong gia cong K=O,4 va ty trong chi phi b6 sung cho viec sir dung may CNC va cac trang bi cong nghe d6i voi mot chi tiet E3 =0,58 USD/gia.

Tnroc hE-'l phai xac dinh chi phi b6 sung cho mot chi tiel:

E2 = E3.to

6 .lay:

C

to - thai gian gia cong chi tiet, to = i:" .

2

C2- gia thanh mot gia gia cong tren may CNC, C2 = 0,5 USD.

41

2_.0,4= 2,4gia 0,5

E2 = 0,58.2,4 = 1,39 USD

Thay cac gia tri Co; EI va E2 van cong thirc (2.9) ta diroc:

A -_ Co 5°122 hi .,

---"-- = = C 1 tiet

EI - E2 3.(1- 0,4) -1,39

Nhir vay, so chi tier trong loat phai Jan han 122 thi viec sir dung may CNC moi co hieu qua kinh teo

42

CHUONG 3. DO GA TREN MAy CONG Cl) CNC

3.1. Dac dit~m ella do ga tren may cong cu eNe.

MQt trong nhirng dac diem chinh cua may CNC la do chinh xac cua no rat cao. D6 ga tren cac may d6 anh huong rat 16n t6i do chinh xac gia cong bai VI sai s6 chuan khi dinh vi chi tier tren do ga la mot trong nhfrng thanh phan cua sai s6 t6ng cong. Do ga tren may CNC phai dam bao do chinh xac ga d~t cao hem cac do ga tren may van nang thong thuong. D~ darn bao dQ chfnh xac ga d~t thi phai chon chuan sao cho sai s6 chuan hang 0, sai s6 kep chat phai c6 gia tri nho nhat, diem dat cua lire kep phai tranh gay bien dang cho chi tier gia congo

Cac may CNC c6 dQ cirng virng rat cao, do d6 do ga tren cac may do khong diroc lam giam do cirng virng cua he thong cong nghe khi sir dung may v6i cong suat t6i da. Dieu d6 c6 nghia la d6 ga tren may CNC phai c6 do cirng virng cao han cac do ga thong tlurong khac. Vi vay, d6 ga tren may CNC phai diroc che tao tu thep hop kim v6i phuong phap toi be mat,

Khi gia cong tren may CNC, cac dich chuyen cua may va dao diroc bat dau tir goc toa do, do do trong nhieu truong hop do ga phai dam bao str dinh hirong hoan toan cua chi tiet gia cong, c6 nghia la phai han che tat ca cac bac nr do. Dieu do cling c6 nghia la phai han che' tat ca cac bac nr do khi dinh vi do ga tren may (phai dinh huong do ga thea ca hai plurong ngang va dQC cua ban may).

Tren cac may CNC ngiroi ta co gang gia cong diroc nhieu be mat chi tiet voi lTIQt Ian ga dat, do d6 cac co cau dinh vi va kep chat cua do ga khong duoc anh huang den dung cu cat khi chuyen be mat dung cu gia congo Phuong phap kep chat c6 hieu qua nhat la kep chat a be mat doi dien voi b~ mat dinh vi.

3.2. Yell Call doi vOi chi tiet gia cong tren may eNe.

Chi tier gia cong tren may CNC c6 anh hirong den ket cau cua do ga, do do n6 phai dam bao diroc nhirng yeu cau sau day:

+ Chi tiet gia cong phai co nhirng b~ mat chuan tot dam bao do chinh xac va dQ 6n dinh ga dat, dong thai chi tiet phai c6 be mat thuan tien cho viec kep chat, khong gay bien dang chi tiet.

43

+ De khong phai dung d6 ga phu thi chi tiet khong nen c6 nhfrng b~ mat nghieng va g6c nghieng,

+ De dam bao do chinh xac ga dat cao, chi tiet can phai diroc dinh vi thea 3 ~ mat, Trong tnrong hop nay c6 the dung cac be mat dll qua gia cong tren cac may van nang de dinh vi.

+ Neu chi tiet gia cong khong cho phep dinh vi thea 3 be mat thi dinh vi thea mot b~ mat va hai 16, khoang each cac 16 phai xa nhau va c6 d¢ b6ng cap 7.

3.3. Ph an loai do ga tren may CNC.

D6 ga tren may CNC dtroc phan thanh cac dang sau day: - D6 ga van nang khong dieu chinh.

- D6 ga van nang dieu chinh,

- D6 ga chuyen dung dieu chinh.

- D6 ga van nang Hlp ghep,

- D6 ga Hlp ghep dieu chinh.

- D6 ga chuyen dung.

3.3.1. Do ga van nang khong dieu chinh,

Loai d6 ga nay c6 cac chi tiet dll diroc dieu chinh c6 dinh de ga nhieu loai chi tiet gia cong khac nhau trong san xuat don chiec va loat nho. D6 la cac loai mam cap diroc dung de truyen momen xoan cho chi tiet gia congo C6 3 loai mam cap thtrong diroc dung tren cac may tien CNC (ngoai mam cap 3 va 4 chau thong dung).

a) Mdm c(lp ly.tdm (mdm cdp qudn tinh).

Loai mam cap nay c6 hai hoac ba chau kep. Cac chau kep la nhirng chi tiet lech tam doc l~p voi nhau, khi quay diroi tac dung cua hrc ly tam chung kep chat chi tier va nho lire can nr ham rna chi tiet gia cong khong bi xe dich du bi tac dung cua hrc cat.

b) Mdm c(lp co chan mat ddu cung (hinli 3.1).

Mam cap c6 chan mat dau cimg xac dinh chinh xac mat dau cua tdt ca cac chi tiet gia cong thea true Z. Lire kep chi tiet sinh gia nho mui tam sau. Neu mat dau cua chi tiet khong vuong g6c voi tam cua no thi cac mat

44

dan an van chi tiet gia cong khong deu nhau, dieu do lam giam momen xoan duoc truyen tit true chinh cua may.

A-A

Hinh 3.1. Mam cdp co chan mdt ddu cung

1- than; 2 - 10 xo; 3 - mili tam; 4 - chi tiet ty mat dau;

5 - chan mat dAu bang hop kim cirng: 6 - chi tiet gia congo

e) Mdm cap co chan mdt ddu tuy dong (hinh 3.2)

Cac

.

chan mat etilu

co hinh dang tron xoay va diroc lap van 16 co chua chat deo, Khi chi tiet gia cong diroc kep chat ·tit mui tarn sau, mat dau ben

trai cua chi tiet etiiy cac chan mat dau ve ben trai va lam cho ap hrc chat cua deo tang len. Nhtr vay, tat ca

3

5

Hinh 3.2 Mam cdp mdt ddu co chan tu,v dong 1- 10 xo: 2- than; 3- chat deo:

4- chan mat dAu; 5- mui tam

45

cac chan mat dftu deu tiep xiic voi mat dau cua chi tiet gia cong valirc kep tac dong len cac chan hau nhir bang nhau. Mam cap mat :dau co chan tuy dong tao ra rnomen xoan Ian han so vci mam cap co chan mat dftu cirng. Loai mam cap nay co th~ dung d~ kep chi tiet khi gia cong tho. So chan mat dau co th~ la 8,10,12, V.v ...

3.3.2. Do ga van nang dieu chinh.

Ket cau d6 ga van nang dieu chinh gorn phan d6 ga co sa va ph an chi tiet thay d6i dieu chinh. Cac chi tiet thay d6i dieu chinh co ket cau dan gian va gia thanh che tao khong cao. D6 ga van nang dieu chinh duoc sir dung trong san xuat hang loat nho, dac biet la khi thirc hien gia cong nhom. Tren cac may tien CNC d6 ga van nang dieu chinh la cac mam cap 3 chau thay d6i dieu chinh (thay d6i cac chau kep),

3.3.3. Do ga chuyen dung dieu chinh.

D6 ga chuyen dung dieu 'chinh cho phep ga dat mot so loai chi tiet di~n hinh co

kfch thiroc khac nhau. Ket cau cua do ga gorn hai phan chfnh: ph an d6 ga ca sa va phan chi tiet thay doi. D6 ga loai nay cho phep thay d6i chi tier gia cong ngoai vung lam viec cua may. Pham vi irng dung co hieu qua cua d6 ga la trong san xuat hang loat.

D6 ga tren hinh 3.3 duoc dung d~ gra cong cac chi tiet dang cang, dang chau kep, v. v ...

46

0)

7

Hinb 3.3. Do ~a chuyen dung dieu chlnh

a) cac dang chi tiet gia cong: 1- kfch thuoc dieu chinh:

b) so do ga dat: 1- than de co sa; 2,4- true ga; 3,5- chi tiet dinh vi; 6- ranh dinh huang; 7- chat.

Do ga (hinh 3.3b) gem than de co sa 1. cac chi tiet thay d6i: true gil 2. true ga 4, cac chi tiet dinh vi 3 va 5. D6 ga diroc dinh vi tren ban may bang mot dAu cua true ga 2 va chot 7. Chi tiet gia cong diroc dinh vi bang mat phang tren cac chi tiet dinh vi 3 va 5 voi cac mat 16 tren hai true ga 2 va 4. Chi tiet diroc kep chat bang hai mil Sc. Cac chi tiet thay d6i 4 va 5 diroc hip dat va dieu chinh thea ranh dinh huang 6 cua d6 gao Kich thtroc dieu chinh la I (khoang each gifra cac tam 16 cua chi tiet gia cong). Neu dung d6 ga d~ ga d~t chi tiet dang chau kep thea mot 16 va ranh then thi dung true ga 2 va chot then.

3.3.4 Do ga van nang - lap ghep.

Thanh ph An cua d6 ga van nang - lap ghep la nhirng chi tiet chuan diroc che tao voi do chfnh xac cao. Cac chi tiet. nay co cac ranh then de" Hip ghep, Sau khi gia cong mot loai chi tiet nao do nguoi ta thao do ga ra va lap ghep lai d~ ga d<)t chi tiet khac. Do d¢ chinh xac cua cac chi tier rat cao cho nen sau khi.lap ghep khong phai gia cong b6 sung. Thai gian M lap ghep mot d6 ga moi khoang 3+4 gic,

Hinh 3.4 la d6 ga van nang - Hlp ghep, D~ tao thanh d6 ga ngiroi

ta dern cac chi tiet (hinh 3.4c) lip lai voi nhau va lay de lam chi ner co sa.

Tren cac may phay, may khoan CNC ngiroi ta sir dung d6 ga van nang - lap ghep co khf v6i cac co cau kep thuy lire.

D6 ga van nang - lap ghep duoc dung tren cac may CNC trong dieu kien san xuat dan chiec va hang loat nho,

33.5 Do ga tap ghep dieu chinh,

Loai d6 ga nay diroc dung tren cac may phay CNC hoac cac may khoan CNC. Tren chi tiet co sa (de d6 ga) nguai ta gia cong cache 16 M lap ghep cac chi tiet dinh vi va kep chat khi muon tao thanh d6 ga moi (tren de d6 ga van nang- lap ghep co cac ranh d~ Hip ghep).

H~ 16 tren de d6 ga Hip ghep dieu chinh dam bao d¢ chinh xac, d¢ cirng virng va d¢ 6n dinh cao han he ranh tren d6 ga van nang - hip ghep. Hinh 3.5 la cac de d6 ga Hip ghep dieu chinh.

47

2

,~2~ l,i3t,

c)

Hinh 3.4. D6 ga v~n nang -ldp ghep a) ket c3U; b) sC1 do; c) cac chi tiet:

1- eC1 c3U ty voi chot dinh vi; 2- eC1 cau dinh vi; 3- rna kep; 4- dai 6e kep; 5- phien ty mat ben; 6- phien ty rna: day; 7- phien ty mat dau,

a)

b)

c)

d)

Hinh 3.5. De'd6!;G flip ghep dieu chinh.

3.3.6 Do ga chuyen dung.

Thong thuong loai d6 ga nay diroc sir dung trong san xuat hang 10':1t 16'0 va hang khoi, Ket cau cua d6 ga chi duoc dung d~ gia cong mot loai chi tier nhat dinh. Tren cac may CNC loai d6 ga nay chi duoc dung trong nhimg tnrong hop khong th~ dung diroc cac loai d6 ga dieu chinh. Ker cau cua d6 ga nlnr vay phai that dan gian M nang cao hieu qua kinh te khi sir dung.

49

CHUONG 4. Dl)NG cl) CAT TREN MAy CONG Cl) CNC

Nang suat va do chinh xac gia cong tren may CNC phu thuoc nit nhieu VaG dung cu cat. Do do dung cu cat tren may CNC phai dap trng diroc nhirng yeu cau sau day:

- Cc'J tinh cat got 6n dinh,

- Co kha nang tao phoi va thoat phoi tot.

- Co tinh van nang cao de co the gia cong diroc nhirng be mat dien

hinh cua nhieu chi tiet khac nhau tren cac may khac nhau.

- Co kha nang thay d6i nhanh khi can ga dao khac de gia cong chi tier khac loai hoac khi dao bi rnon.

- Co kha nang dieu chinh kfch thiroc 6 ngoai vung gia cong khi sir dung nhirng dung cu phu,

Nhir vay, trong nhieu tnrong hop khong the dung nhtrng dung cu thong thirong M gia cong tren cac may dieu khien so CNC. Hien nay de gia cong tren may CNC ngiroi ta thiet ke nhirng loai dao dac bier va mot so loai dao tieu chuan.

4.1. Dung Cl;J cat tren may tien CNC.

Tat ca cac dao tien tren may CNC deu co phan cat la nhirng manh hop kim cirng lap ghep, Ngoai ra, cac dao tien nay phai dap irng diroc nhirng yeu cau sau day:

- Phai dam bao viec sir dung voi thai gian lau nhat cac manh hop kim khong mai lai de dam bao cho cac thong so hinh hoc cua dao co dinh trong qua trinh sir dung.

- Hinh dang cua cac rnanh hop kim phai hop ly d~ nang cao tfnh van nang, co nghia la cho phep mot dao co the gia cong nhieu be mat khac nhau.

- Cac dao voi goc cat khac nhau phai co cung mot toa d¢ de t<;1O

dieu kien cho lap trinh gia congo

- Co kha nang lam viec binh thirong khi ga 6 cac vi trf khac nhau.

- Dam bao d¢ chinh xac cao.

- Co kha nang t<;1O phoi tot va thoat phoi tot (dira phoi ra khoi vung

~ia cong thuan tien).

Ket cau cua cac dao tien dung eho cac loai may CNC rat da dang va phu thuoc chu yeu van M mat gia cong. Hlnh 4.1 mo ta mot so loai dao tien co ban dung eho cac may tien CNC.

Hinh 4.1. Sa do gia cong mot Sf)' b(f mdt die'n hinh hang cdc dao tien gdn manh hop kim cling (1 +13)

Cac dao tien tren hinh 4.1 la:

Dao tien so' 1: dao tien ngoai voi goc <p = 45" dung M gia cong cac mat ngoai, mt;lt dau va vat mep.

DaD tien s~f 2: dao tien ngoai voi goc <p = 93° -i- 95° dung d~ gia cong mat try, mat con hoac mat con ngiroc voi goc con 30°, gia cong cac be mat voi ban kinh liron va gia cong mat dau hoac tien ranh thoat da maio

Dao tien so' 3: dao tien ngoai voi g6e <p = 63" eho phep gia cong nira mat cau hoac mat con voi g6e con 57°.

Dao tien so' 4: dao tien ren ngoai eho phep gia cong ren voi biroc ren tit 2 den 6mm.

51

Dao tien scy' 5: dao tien ren trong cho phep gia cong ren voi btroc ren :s; 2 mm. Duong kinh 16 nho nhat rna dao co the cat ren la 35mm.

Dao tien sot»: dao tien trong co goc rp = 9SO dung de tien 16 hoac cat ranh trong.

Dao tien so 7: dao tien trong co goc rp = 920 cho phep gia cong cac 16 co dirong kinh Ian han 22mm.

Dao tien scy' 8: dao tien ngoai co goc rp = 45° (dao trai) dung de gia cong mat ngoai, mat dau va vat mep.

Dao tien sc/9: dao tien ranh ngoai, cho phep tien ranh co be rong tir 1 den 6 mm.

Dao tien sol O: dao tienngoai co goc rp = 93° cho phep gia cong mat tru, mat dinh hlnh.

Dao tien siI 11: dao tien ngoai co goc rp =630 dung de gia cong mat con ngoai,

Dao tien sd 12: dao tien ren ngoai cho phep gia cong ren ngoai voi biroc ren :s; 2mm.

Dao tien sc/ 13: dao tien ren ngoai voi goc rp = 92-:-95° cho phep gia cong mat bac, mat dau va vat mep,

4.2. Dung Cl;J cat tren may phay CNC. 4.2.1 Dao phay ngon,

Dao phay thong dung tren may phay CNC la dao phay ngon. Vat lieu ph an cat la cac loai thep gio nhu P6M5, P6M5K5, P5XI0, PI8 va cac 10<;1i hop kim cirng BK, TK. Cac dao phay ngon co dirong kinh :s; 12mm diroc che tao tir thep gio nguyen chat, con cac dao phay co dirong kinh > 12mm thl phan cat la thep gio con ph an than la thep cacbon.

Hinh 4.2 la loai dao phay ngon co chuoi con.

Dao phay ngon dung tren may phay CNC co hai loai: loai tieu chuan va 10<;1i chuyen dung.

Mot so ket cau dac biet cua dao phay ngon diroc trinh bay tren hinh 4.3Ia:

I

60·

Of. = 6·

B - B xoay

c-c

Hinh 4.2. Dao phay ngon chuoi con

Dao phay so' 1: dao co s6 rang it va co goc nghieng cua dirong xoan 100 nen dao cho phep thoat phoi mot each de dang khi gia cong cac 16 hoac cac ranh khong thong su6t.

Dao phay s6' 2: dao thay d6i chieu cua thanh ph an lire cat hirong true cho nen chi tiet diroc an xu6ng ban may, co nghia la giam diroc lire kep (dieu nay dat diroc nho sa dung dao cat phai vGi dirong xoan trai va dao cat trai voi dirong xoan phai),

Dao phay so' 3: dao nay co th~ giarn diroc rung dong khi cat nho VaG sir phan b6 khong d6i xirng cua cac rang dao phay.

Dao phay so' 4: dao phay co hai luai cat mat dfiu cho nen no eo kha nang thirc hien an dao thang dirng.

53

1 )

5)

4)

Hinh 4.3. M(it .wf kef cdu ddc biet cua ciao phay ngon

8)

2)

3)

Dao phay so' 5: d¢ cirng virng cua dao phay loai nay cao han cac loai dao phay khac nho vao d¢ day khac nhau cua ranh rang (nho vao 10 con).

6)

7)

Dao phay so' 6: dao co do dai 16n nhirng van dam bao d¢ cirng virng nho co phan than phu sau phan cat.

Dao phay so' 7 va so' 8: dao phay con M gia cong nhtrng b~ mat cong phirc tap.

4.2.2 Dao phay mat dau.

Dao phay mat dau cling diroc sir dung tren cac may phay CNC va phan Ian cluing duoc tieu chuan hoa. Cac dao phay mat dau Iii nhirng dao co rang chap bang hop kim cirng.

4.3. Dung ClJ cat tren may khoan CN C. 4.3.1. Dao khoan.

Tren cac may khoan CNC ngiroi ta sir dung nhieu loai dao khoan khac nhau tuy thea kfch tluroc gia cong, hinh dang va d¢ chfnh xac 10 diroc gia cong (hinh 4.4).

4.3.1.1. MUi khoan ruet ga duol tru,

Miii khoan ruot ga duoi tru diroc dung M khoan moi cac 16.

Duong kinh duoi tru cua mui khoan trong khoang 10+20 mrn, goc a dinh 2<p = l80°. Goc 2<p = 1800 co tac dung tao ra vet 16m 16 tam (hinh 4.4a va hinh 4.4b). Vet 16m 16 tam co tac dung tranh sir tiep xuc cua rniii khoan khac khi khoan voi kim loai. Dieu nay cho phep tang do chinh xac dinh tam so voi miii khoan thong thirong khac.

4.3.1.2. MUi khoan bac duo] con.

Loai mfii khoan bac duoi con (hinh 4.4c) diroc dung M gia cong cac 16 bac cho tnrong hop lap bulong kep chat, Miii khoan nay gom hai bac, bac 100 co 4 hrci, do do no co thti nang cao do chinh xac gia congo

4.3.1.3. MUi khoan ghep manh thep gin.

Miii khoan ghep manh thep gio (hinh 4.4d) diroc dung de khoan cac 16 co dirong kinh tir 25+80 mm. Miii khoan loai nay co nhirng iru ditim sau:

- Che tao dao co dirong kinh 100 dan gian han va do chinh xac gia cong cling tang.

- D¢ cirng vimg va d¢ ben cua dao tang.

- Gia thanh ha so voi cac loai miii khoan khac co cung tudi ben.

4.3.1.4. MUi khoan bac Hlp ghep,

Miii khoan bac Hip ghep (hlnh4.4e) cho phep dieu chinh phan bac nho trong pham vi 100 va co ket cau dan gian, de che tao, Miii khoan co ket cau gom: phan tieu chuan 1 va phan chuyen dung 3 diroc Hip ghep voi phan tieu chuan bang vit 2. Nhir vay cung mot phan cat tieu chuan 1 co th~ thay d6i phan chuyen dung 3 M gia cong cac dirong kinh 16 khac nhau.

4.3.1.5. MUi khoan gom nhieu manh hop kim thay d6i.

Mtii khoan loai nay (hinh 4.4g) cho phep gia cong cac 16 ngan co dirong kinh tir 18+80 mm. So voi miii khoan bang thep gio thi mili khoan gorn nhieu manh hop kim thay d6i cho phep tang t6c do cat len 5+ 10 Ian (300m/ph) khi giam hrong chay dao xu6ng 3 Ian va ket qua la giarn diroc lire chay dao xu6ng 60%. Mfii khoan loai nay giii' diroc chieu dai c6 dinh cho nen nIt thuan loi cho viec gia cong tren may CNC.

55

L

aJ

b)

c)

d)

e)

Hinh 4.4. Cdc loai miii khoan :

a) miiikhoan tam; b) sa d6 vet 16m 16 tam; c) mui khoan bac chuoi con voi goc <p = 1800 CI ph an bac thir hai; d) mui khoan ghep manh thep gio ; e) miii khoan bac Hlp ghep (1- ph an chusn; 2- vit; 3- phan chuyen dung ); g) mili khoan ghep tir nhieu manh,

4.3.2. Dao khoet, dao doa va taro. 4.3.2.1. Dao khoet.

Dao khoet duoc sir dung tren cac may CNC thong thuong co duong kfnh til 10+40 mm. Ngoai ra, tren cac may CNC con dung cac dao khoet chuyen dung d~ gia cong cac 16 tam, gia cong cac M mat d~ Hip bulong va vat mep cac 16 chfnh xac.

56

.... 3.2.2. Dao doa.

Tren cac may CNC de dao doa diroc Slr dung co duong kfnh nr )750 mm. Vat lieu dao doa co th~ la thep gio hoac hop kim cirng. Chuoi dao doa co th~ Ht hinh tru hoac hlnh can .

.... 3.2.3. Dao taro.

Dao taro dung tren cac may CNC co nhiing dac diem sau day: - Dao taro co dirong kfnh ~ 16 mm diroc che tao lien mot khoi.

- Dao taro d~ dt ren tir v~t lieu thep co phan chuyen tiep giira luO'i

dt va than, do do tranh diroc hien urong vO' luO'i cat.

- Dao taro can co dQ chinh xac cao.

57

CHUONG 5. Dl)NG Cl) PHl) TREN MAy CONG en CNC

Ket cau cua dung cy phu dung tren may CNC diroc xac dinh bang hinh dang va kich thtroc d~ ga dung cu cat trcn no va d~ ga no tren may. D~l11g cy phu tren may CNC phai dap irng diroc cac yeu cau sau day:

- Phai dam ban ga dao voi d¢ chinh xac cao.

- Phai du d¢ cirng virng va co kha nang chong rung dong.

- Cho phep dieu chinh vi trf cua Ivai cat.

- Co ker cau dan gian va sir dung thuan tien,

5.1. Dung cu phu tren may tien CNC .

Dan tien tren may CNC diroc dinh-vi va kep chat 6 cac dai ga dao, 6 dau rovonve hoac thong qua co cau trung gian (cung diroc goi El dung cu

phu), Wz

p P _~z __ .. \ZKNI-.:I

i ! i

'''' ~'< '~
~
, "
~
~
'<
0
aJ ~
Lt.
'<
h)
w
x c)

w

z

d)

Hinh 5.1. So do gu dao :

a) dan vci cac chi tier hieu chinh; b) SO' do ga dan trong dai dao; e. d) vi tri diem P cua dao so voi diem chuan F ,

58

Khi ga dao tren may CNC, dao co th~ diroc hieu chinh vai mot kich thiroc xac dinh tnroc neu str dung co cau dieu chinh. Vf du, co cau dieu chinh la cac vit a mat dilu va mat ben cua dao k~ ca mat dau cua dao

. . , .

khoan.

Hinh 5. I la vf du hieu chinh kfch thuoc cua dao. Dao diroc hieu chinh voi cac kich thuoc Wx' va W,' (hoac la Wx' + xKN va W,' + zKN) xac dinh vi trf dinh P ella no nrong doi so voi diem chuan cua may F. hay noi each khac la no xac dinh chieu nho ra cua dao W, va W,. Cac gia tri W, va w, se duoc tfnh denkhi lap trinh. Duong nhien vi trf cac be mat chuan Ax va A, (hinh 5. I b) wang doi so voi diem chuan cua may F diroc xac dinh tnroc va co dinh cho tirng loa! may (nghia la cac kich thtroc bier tnroc xFN va zFN).

5.2. D1:Ing C1:l phu tren may phay CNC, may khoan CNC va may doa CNC.

5.2.1. H¢ thong thay dao bang tay.

Co sa cua h¢ thong thay dao bang tay la mang ranh trung gian thay d6i nhanh. Mang ranh trung gian cho phep thay d6i cac dao bi rnon hoac cac dao khac loai khi thay d6i be mat gia congo Mang ranh trung gian thay d6i nhanh co chuoi con vira voi 16 con cua true chfnh may. Tren cac may khoan CNC co true chfnh vci 16 con Mooc nen ngiroi ta dung mang ranh thay d6i nhanh va co cau kep bang bi (hinh 5.2). Voi mang ranh thay d6i nhanh nhtr vay co th~ ga cac mang ranh 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. va 9 co cung mot chuoi can. Cac mang ranh 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 va 9 ga cac loai khac nhau. Khi can thay d6i chieu dai ella dao co th~ them mang ranh phu so 8.

Ket cau cua mang ranh thay d6i nhanh doi voi cac may khac nhau co th~ khac nhau. Vi du, a may doa CNC mang ranh trung gian thay doi nhanh co 16 con Mooc voi dQ can 7:24. Voi do can nhir vay, mang ranh cho phep kep nhieu loai mang ranh va true ga khac nhau, k~ ca kep dao phay.

5.2.2. D1:Ing C1:l phu dung cho thay dao tu dong.

Cac dung cu tren may co thay dao ur dong cling giong nhir cac dung cu tren may thay dao bang lay, nhung co cau ga dao cua cluing lai khac nhau. True ga dao tren may CNC (hinh 5.3) co nhfrng b~ mat sau day:

- B~ mat 2 dung M dinh vi true ga dao trong true chfnh cua may.

59

- Be mat 4 dung d~ ga va kep chat dung CI,I cat.

- Be mat 3 dung d~ thay dao tu dong.

- Be mat I dung d~ ga true ga trong magazin (6 chua) dung CI,I.

Hinh 5.2. Mang ranh trung gian thay d/fi nhanh tren may khoan CNC:

1- true chinh cua may; 2 - mang ranh trung gian thay d6i nhanh; 3 - mang ranh dao khoan; 4 - mang ranh dan hoi: 5 - mang ranh 16 con Mooe; 6 - mang ranh tuy dong dung eho dao doa; 7 - mang ranh 16 tru co ranh then; 8 - ong tru dieu chinh: 9 - mang ranh dung cho taro: 10 - 6ng kep thay d6i nhanh .

Duong kfnh D2 (hinh 5.3) xac dinh khoang khong gian d~ tay may kep true gao Mat can (he mat 2) cua true ga co d¢ can Hi 7:24, ranh can d~ tay may kep true ga (he mat 3) phai nhiet luyen dat d¢ cirng HRC 52756.

60

Hinh 5.4 iil sa do thay dao tv dong,

Hinh 5.3. Trw.' ga dao tren may CNC

Hinh 5.4. Sa do' thay dao tu dong

61

CHUONG 6 . NHUNG KHAI NI~M CO BAN VE L!P TRINH GIA CONG TREN MAy CNC

Tren cac may CNC qua trinh gia cong diroc thirc hien mot each nr dong. H~ thong dieu khien so cua may se dieu khien qua trinh gia cong thea mot chuang trinh da lap san. Chuang trinh NC dong vai tro rat quan trong trong qua trinh gia cong, no Iii mot mat xfch cua qua trinh chuan bi san xuat. Vi trf cua chuang trinh NC diroc the hien trong sa d6 tren hinh 6.0

Thiet ke 1---+l~1 Chuill1 bi c(mg ngh¢

Hinh 6.0 Vi tri cua chuang trinh NC

Qua trlnh hinh thanh chuang trinh NC diroc hieu nhir sau: tir ban ve thier ke, ngiroi lap trinh co cac thong tin hinh h9C de tfnh toan, sap xep cac lenh dieu khien thea trinh W nhat dinh, dong thai ngiroi lap trinh phai cung cap cac thong tin cong nghe (che do cong nghe, dung cu, cac chtrc nang phu) d~ hinh thanh chuang trinh NC. Nhir vay, chuang trlnh NC chua roan bo cac thong tin hinh h9C va thong tin cong nghe cua qua trinh gia cong.

Tren co sa ph an tich v~ qua trinh hlnh thanh chuang trlnh NC ta co dinh nghia sau: " Qua trtnh thiet lap cac 14nh cho dung cu edt tren co sci bdn ve chi tiet va cdc thong tin cong ngh¢ roi chuyen cdc thong tin nay sang h(J phan mang dii lieu duac md hod va sdp xip thea dang ma may hiti'u duot: goi fa llJ-p trinb ".

Tuy nhien, d~ co the lap trinh gia cong tren may CNC cluing ta phai nam diroc nhtrng khai niern co ban sau day:

6.1. Quy dao gia congo

Khi gia cong dao va chi tiet chuyen dong nrong doi voi nhau. Tuy nhien, khi lap trinh ngiroi ta quy tree rang dung cu chuyen dong nrong doi so voi he thong toa do (chuyen dong cua tam dao P) con chi tiet dirng

62

~ en. Hinh 6.1 la sa do quy dao cua tam dao. D6i voi dao tien (hinh 6.1 a) diem P Iii tam cua ban kfnh miii dao.

Cac dao phay mat dau, dao phay ngon, dao khoan, dao khoet va dao doa eo diem P la tam mat dau, eon dao phay ngon eo mat dau hinh cham cau thi diem P la tam cua chorn cau do. Theo hinh 6.1 ta co hai mrong hop:

- Ban kinh cua dao eo dinh trong qua trinh gia cong thi quy dao chuyen dong cua tam dao (diem P) luon luon each deu eontour cua chi tier (mot doan bang ban kinh cua dao). Twang hop nay diroc the hien tren cac hinh ttr 6.1 a den 6.1 e.

cf)

1.1

, _...

'- .' " ,

"'\.,', .• :R

2

a)

e)

--

b) c) d)
,~ '~
/2
\ I" /
'-.'
-:-

9) h) i ) 2

k)

l)

Hinh 6.1. So do quy dao tam dao .

I - duong vien (contour) cua chi tiet; 2 - guy dao chuyen dong cua tam dao.

- Tuy ban kfnh cua dao eo dinh nlurng quy dao chuyen dong cua tam dao P lai khong luon luon each deu eontour cua chi tier mot doan bang ban kinh dao (cac hinh 6.lg, h, i, k, l) va ta thay neu quy dao chuyen

63

dong cua diem P (tam dao) cua dao luon luon each deu contour cua chi tiet mot doan bang ban kfnh dao thi se gay sai so gia congo

Vi vay, dtrong each deu diroc hieu Iii quy dao chuyen dong cua tam dao rna thea do co th~ gia cong mat contour xac dinh. Chuyen dong thea dirong each deu chi co y nghia doi v6i chuyen dong cat, con chuyen dong phu (dich chuyen nhanh chang han) chi co y nghia khi lap trinh.

Nhu vay, d~ gia cong chi tiet thea chuang trinh, tnroc het phai xac dinh diroc guy dao chuyen dong cat va quy dao chuyen dong phu cua tam dao (diem P). Quy dao chuyen dong cua tam dao co thf khac nhau: co th~ trung voi contour cua chi tie], co the thea dirong each deu contour hoac co the thay.doi v] trf thea mot quy luat xac dinh so v6i contour cua chi tier. D~ gia cong toan b¢ cac bf mat cua chi tiet thi quy dao chuyen dong cua tam dao phai lien tuc, Tuy nhien, viec xac dinh quy dao ay rat kho khan vi quy dao cua chuang trlnh rat plnrc tap va no xac dinh quy dao cua tam dao trong khong gian. Vi vay, trong thuc te' khi lap trinh quy dao chuyen dong cua tam dao diroc xac dinh thea tung phan contour rieng bier hoac thea tung phan cua duong each deu.

6.2. each ghi kich thuoc chi tiet.

D~ lap trinh gia cong tren may CNC thi kfch thuoc cua chi tiel tren ban ve phai diroc ghi thea toa d¢ M cac. Co hai each ghi kfch thuoc tren ban ve: ghi kich thiroc tuyet d6i va ghi kich thu6c nrong doi (ghi kfch thiroc theo gia so).

6.2.1. Ghi kich thuoc tuyen doL

Theo each ghi kfch thu6c nay thi tat eel cac kich thiroc deu xuat ph at tir diem goc cua chi tiet W (hlnh 6.2a).

Nhu vay ta co kich thiroc x,y cua tung diem tren chi tiet nhir sau:

Di~mW: x=o ; y = 0 Diem d : x = 70 , y=o
Diem I x = 20; y = 0 Diem 5: x = 120 ; y=O
Diem 2 x = 20; y = 15 ; Diem o : x = 120 ; Y =45
Di~m3 x = 70; y = 15 ; Diem 7 x = 70 y = 85
Diem S x=o ; y = 85
64 a)~~=====7=0====~

b)

70

50

-. 0
~
r----c
Lo
~
~t
20 50 50 y

as ~8;__ ~7

6

45~----~----~

J

2

3

5

70

120 X

y

3

6

8

2

w

4

5

x

Hinh 6.2. Sa d6 ghi kich thuac cdc chi tilt

a) ghi kich thU<1C tuyet d6i ; b) ghi kich thuoc urong d6i .

6.2.2. Ghi kich thiroc ttrong doi (theo gia so).

Theo each ghi kich thiroc tuC1I1g d6i (theo gia so) thi cac kich thiroc sau xuat phat tit diem ke't thiic cua kich thiroc tnroc no (hinh 6.b). Nhu vay ta co cac gia s6 ~x , ~y nhu sau:

Diem W: Ax = 0 ; ~y = 0

Diem 1 Diem 2 Diem 3 Diem 4

~x =+20 ; ~y = 0

~x = 0 ; ~ y = + 15 ; ~x= +50 ; ~y = 0

~x = 0 ; ~ y = -15.

Diem 5 : ~x = +50 ; ~y =0
Diem 6 : ~x=O ; ~y = +45
Diem 7: ~x = -50 ; ~y = +40
Diem 8: ~x = -70 ; 'b.y = 0 Trong thirc te ngiroi ta it dung each ghi kfch thiroc thee gia s6 vi no anh huang nhieu den ket qua gia congo

6.3. Cac chirc nang G.

G Hl ky hieu chirc nang dich chuyen cua dung cu cM va diroc viet tat cua hai tit tieng Anh: Geometric Function. Ngoai chirc nang dich chuyen,

65

G con xac dinh che do lam viec cua may cong cu CNC. Cac chirc nang G diroc rna hoa tir GOO den G99. Diroi day phan tfch mot s6 clurc nang G thong dung nhat,

* GOO: chay dao nhanh toi toa d¢ da lap trinh (dich chuyen voi toe do chay dao 100 nhat, hinh 6.3). Nhir vay, phia sau GOO co them toa do cua x, y, z. Vi du, tren hlnh 6.3a cho ky hieu sau day: G90 GOO X20 Z 150. Ky hieu nay diroc giai thfch nhtr sau: G90 chi lap trinh theo kich thtroc tuyet d6i, GOO la ky hieu chirc nang dich chuyen dao nhanh tir diem o den diem co toa do X = 20 (bang dirong kinh bac nho nhat cua chi tiet) va Z = 150 la khoang each tir diem g6c cua chi tiet W den diem lap trinh.

Tren hinh 6.3d co ky hieu GOO X60 Y80 Z120. Ta hieu ky hieu do nhir sau: dao phay ngon dich chuyen nhanh tir diem 0 den diem 1 tren chi tiet va diem I cua chi tiet co toa do X =60 ; Y =80 ; Z = 120.

Cung theo each ky hieu wang tir, tren hinh 6.3e ta co : G90 GOO X90 Y75 ZIOO. 0 day dao dich chuyen nhanh tir V! trf 0 tai vj trf 1, tai vi trf I dao co toa d¢ : X =90; Y =75 ; Z =100.

* GO I : noi suy dirong thang. Sau lenh GO I la cac toa d¢ va cac thong s6 cua che do cat.

Vi du, tren hinh 6.3b co ky hieu GOI X-30 F45. Ky hieu nay diroc giai thfch nhir sau: GOlla noi suy dirong thang (dao dich chuyen thing) ; X-30 Ia an dao toi vi trf 2 co toa d¢ X = -30, con F = 45 mm/phut, Can nho rang trong qua trinh dich chuyen cua dao tir di~m I den di~m 2 thi toa d¢ Z khong thay d6i vi vay khong din ghi vao ky hieu toa d¢ Z.

Tren hinh 6.3c co ky hieu GOI ZIOO F60. Ky hieu nay cho ta biet: dao dich chuyen ttr diem 1 den diem 2, tai diem 2 dao co toa do Z = 100 (each diem W mot khoang co chieu dai la 100 mm) voi hrong chay dao F = 60mm/phut. Trong qua trlnh dich chuyen tir diem 1 den diem 2 toa d¢ X khong thay d6i. Tir diem 2 dao chuyen dich den diem 3 va twang hop nay cling la noi suy dirong thang cho n~n khong din nhac lai GOI nira rna viet ngay ky hieu X80 Z60 F35 (X = 80, Z = 60, F = 35 mm/phut). Tai diem 4 co th~ viet: ZO F35. Theo clurc nang GOI co th~ ky hieu day du han, vi du: N03 GOI X40 Y20 Z-3 F80 S200 M03. Dong lenh nay co s6 thir tu trong chuang trinh la 3, dt theo dirong thang tir vi trf hien tai toi diem co toa d¢ X = 40, Y = 20, Z = -3 voi hrong chay dao F = 80 mm/phut, t6c d¢ true chlnh S =200 vg/phut va quay theo chieu kim dong ho.

66

aJ

x

C) !JG
<'i
So !¥'
jill. I I
V 150 Z w

100 65
60 c:::. b)
w -:t
Z120~
c:::. Z Z X60.~Q__- 0
co G9.Q.G_QD_-
e-

X ~4 120
~
GOT YO

30 ZO
W
X
d)
Z

100 x

e)

Hinh 6.3. Cae chuc nang GOO va GOl

Can nho rang chirc nang G diroc gift nguyen cho toi khi thay d6i bang chirc nang G khac, Dieu nay diroc thay r6 tren cac hlnh 6.3d va hl~h 6.3e. Tren hinh 6.3d ta thay khi dao di chuyen til vi tri 1 den vi tri 2, toa d¢ cua X va Y khong thay ddi, chi co Z thay d6i va Z = 30 tai V! trf 2. Trong qua trinh di chuyen til 1 den 2 dao khong cat nen khong co GO 1 va cling khong can ghi lai lenh G90 GOO. Til vi tri 2 den vi trf 3 dao cat nen ta co GO 1 va tai vi trf 3 ta co toa do Y ::; 0 (X vc1n gift nguyen la 60 va Z

67

van ghr nguyen la 30). Tit vj tri 3 den vi trf 4 dao cat nen ta co GOI nhirng cling khong can ghi lai nita rna ta ghi ngay ZO (co nghia la tai 4 ta co Z = o va x van giu nguyen la 60).

Tren hinh 6.3e ta co: tit 0 den I la di chuyen nhanh GOO, tit I den 2 la di chuyen thea kich thiroc nrong d6i va ta co X giam di 40, nhir vay ta co dong lenh tai diem 2 la G91 x -40. Tit diem 2 den di~m 3 ta co lenh noi suy dirong thang G01 va tai diem 3 ta ghi dong lenh G01 Y-30 (Y giam di 30 cling theo kich thtroc tirong doi). Tit 3 den 4 la lap trinh thea kich thiroc tuyet doi va co lenh cat GO 1. Tai 4 ta co Y = 0 va Z = 0, con X = 50 hoac khong can ghi vi tai cac diem 2 va 3 gia tri cua X van bang 50 (khong thay doi).

c)

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Hinh 6.4. Sa dd gidi thich cac chuc nang G02 ,G03 Vil GI7 ,GI8 , GI9

68

* G02; G03: noi suy eung tron thea chieu kim dong h6 (G02) va ngiroc chien kim dong h6 (G03) khi xet chung a cac mat phang XY v6i G 17 (clurc nang chon mat phang giacong XY). mat phang XZ v6i G 18 va mat phang YZ voi G 19. G 18 va G 19 la cac chirc nang chon mat phang gia cong XZ va YZ. Cac ky hieu i, j. k la toa d¢ tam eung tron thea cac true nrong irng X. Y. Z. Can nho rang G02 la n¢i suy eung tron thea chien kim dong ho va G03 la noi suy cung tron ngiroc chieu kim dong ho neu quan sat tir huang dirong cua cac true toa d¢ (hlnh 6.4). Khi thay d6i huang cua cac true toa d¢ thi cac gia tri cua G02 va G03 thay d6i ngiroc

lai (hlnh 6.4b). Hinh 6.7. Sa d6 tinh quy dao cung tron

Nhin chung, trong mijt phdng ZOY

cung tron tren mat phang cua he true toa d¢ diroc xac dinh bang nhirng thong s6 sau day: tam C v6i cac toa d¢ x, va Yc' ban klnh R. diem xuat phat Po vai cac toa d¢ x., Yo. di~m dfch PI voi cac toa d¢ XI' YI' goc tam

602

y GI7 ~P,
P. / 1
0
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w
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Xc
X, Hinh 6.5. Sa d6 tinh quy dao cung trontrong mat phdngXOY

G02

Z G18 ~~
/ P,
_/ I 1
Po 1/ ~
--- I
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w
Xo I X
,
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502

y G19 ~'1
/K
Pal t')~
--- I
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w
... Zo Z
Zc
Zt 69

cua eung tron 8 va goc gifra tiep tuyen tai diem xuat ph at va true toa do (trong tnrong hop nay la true X) la a (hinh 6.4d).

Trong he toa d¢ eire (hinh 6.4e) tam eung tron C voi ban kinh R co diem xuat phat Po diroc xac dinh bang cac gia tri I, J (trong mat phang XY). Cac gia tri I, J mang cac dau (-) hoac dau (+) tuy thuoc vao huang chay dao. I la toa d¢ cua tam eung tron thea huang true X (khoang each gifra tam C va diem xuat phat Po thea hirong X), con J la toa d¢ cua tam eung tron theo huang true Y (khoang each giira tam C va diem xuat ph at Po thea huang Y). Cac toa d¢ I, J, K co gia tri am khi chieu tir diem xuat phat Po tai diem C thea huang am cua cac true toa d¢, con I, J, K co gia tri dirong khi chieu tir diem xua] phat Po tai diem C thea huang dirong cua cac true toa do (K la toa d¢ cua tam eung tron thea huang true Z).

Cac gia tri X, Y, Z, I, J, K diroc xac dinh thea cac sa d6 tren hinh 6.5,6.6 va 6.7.

Theo hinh 6.5 ta co:

Toa do Kfch thiroc
Tuyet d6i Tuong d6i
X XI XI-XO
Y YI YI-Yo
I Xc-Xo Xc-Xo
J Yc-Yo Yc-Yo Theo hinh 6.6 ta co :

.,
T9ad¢ Kfch thtroc
Tuyet d6i Tuong d6i
X XI XI-XO
Z ZI ZI-ZO
I x-x, x.-x,
K Zc-Zo zc-zo Theo hinh 6.7 ta co:

T9ad¢ Kfch thiroc
Tuyet d6i Tirong d6i
Z ZI ZI-ZO
Y YI YI-YO
K Zc-Zo Zc-Zo
J Yc-Yo Yc-Yo 70

Dong lenh G02 thea hlnh 6.S diroc viet nhu sau:

G02XSY4I3J-4. Ta giai thich dong lenh nay thea thir nr la: G02 chi noi suy cung tron thea chieu kim dong ho, X = 8 va Y = 4 la toa d¢ di~m dich PI' con 1=3 va ] = -4 la toa d¢ tam cung tron thea true X va Y (J = -4 la huang tir Po den C la huang thea chieu am cua Y, con 1=3 la huang tir Po den C la hmrng thea chieu dirong cua X).

y Go<,
5 :WP,
4
-1 __ c I
, I
0
4 B X Hinh 6.8. Vi du mo fa lenh CO2

* 004: (Dwell) - thai gian cho gifra lenh dang thirc hien va lenh tiep thea. Vi du, GO 1 la noi suy dirong thang, khi het noi suy GO 1 chuyen sang n¢i suy cung tron G02 thi phai co mot thai gian chao Thai gian cho khoang vai giay (phai co thai gian cho VI khong th~ cat lien tuc tir be mat nay sang M mat khac diroc). Thoi gian cho cling co nghia la thai gian can thiet d~ dao cat them mot vai giay (chang han khi phay mat dau hoac khoet) nham nang cao chat hrong M mat. Vi du, G04Xl,0 - co nghia la dung CI,I cat dirng lai mot giay.

* G06 - noi suy parabol (chuang trinh gia cong cung parabol).

* G08 - tang toe d¢ (nr dong tang) tir thai diem bat dau chuyen dong toi gia tri lap trlnh,

* G09 - giam toe do (nr dong giam) dich chuyen khi gan dat toi

diem lap trinh.

* G 17 - chon M mat toa d¢ (M mat gia cong) XY. * G 18 - chon M mat toa d¢ (M mat gia cong) XZ. * G 19 - chon M mat toa d¢ (M mat gia cong) YZ. * G33 - cat ren co biroc khong thay deli.

* G34 - cat ren co biroc tang dan.

* G35 - d.t ren co biroc giarn dan.

* G40 - huy be hieu chinh kfch thtroc dao (hinh 6.9). Ta thay tam dao dich chuyen thea profil cua chi tiel.

71

* 041 - hieu chinh dao ij ben trai profil chi tiet - neu ta quan sat tir diem xuat phat (hlnh 6.9).

* 042 - hieu chinh dao ij ben phai profil chi tiet - neu ta quan sat tir diem xuat phat (hlnh 6.9).

* 043 - hieu chinh kich thiroc dao dirong (gia tri hieu chinh de co vi trf cua dao phai diroc cong them toa d¢ lap trinh).

Hinh 6.9. Cdc len): G40 . G41 . G42

* 044 - hieu chinh kich thuoc dao am (gia tri hieu chinh de co vi trf cua dao phai diroc trir di toa d¢ l~p trlnh).

* 053 - huy bo xe dich diem chuan da chon .

* 054 den 059 - xe dich diem chuan cua chi tiet so voi diem chudn cua may (hlnh 6.10).

Vi du: NOI : 054092 XO YO N02: 054000 XI00 Y100 hoac 055 XO YO

* 063 - sir dung 100% ltrong chay dao.

* 064 den 069 - thay d6i s6 vong quay va Itrong chay dao.

* 080 - huy bo (thay d6i) chu trinh da chon.

* 060 - dinh vi vi trf chfnh xac cap 1. (tinh).

* 061 - dinh vi vi tri chinh xac cap 2. (ban tinh).

* 062 - dinh vi vi tri nhanh (tho).

72

+y

+ y t I

65S (0,0)

---

100

1"X

654(0.0)

100

+X

Hinh 6.10. Xi dicn dilm chudn

* G8l den G89 - cac chu trinh khoan, khoet hay can goi lit cac chu trinh c6 dinh boi vi trong cac may CNC hien dai cac chirong trinh con d~ thuc hien cac clurc nang tren diroc IU'U gill' c6 dinh trong bo nho cua may va luon cho cac chirc nang yeu cau vrri cac thong s6 can thiet M thirc hien tirng nguyen cong cu the. Nhieu chtrong trinh c6 dinh co hai thong s6 can lU'U gill' do la R va Z. Thong s6 R la toa do rna tir do luong chay dao bit dau trong qua trmh thuc hien chu trlnh c6 dinh nay. Gia tri R diroc IU'u gill' cho den khi xuat hien gia tri R maio Thong s6 Z trong chu trinh co dinh la toa d9 rna dung cu cat dich chuyen vdi mot lirong an dao.

* G90 - lap trtnh thea kich tluroc tuyet d6i.

* G9l - lap trinh thea kfch tlnroc wong doi (theo gia so), * G92 - d~t bo nho,

* G93 - lirong chay dao F thea thai gian (bang gia tri nghich dao

cua thai gian thea phut can thiet de gia cong, vi du l/7phut).

* G94 - IU'Q'ng chay dao F thea mm/phut (hoac inch/phut). * G95 - luong chay dao F thea mm/vong.

* G96 - toe d9 cat S thea m/phut.

* G97 - so yang quay thea phiit (vg/phhut). 6.4. Cac clnrc nang phu M.

Cac chirc nang phu diroc ky hieu bang chir cai M voi hai chir s6 tir 00 den 99 diroc dung d~ van hanh may trong qua trinh gia cong. M9t s6 chirc nang phu M tlnrong dung diroc ky hieu nhtr sau:

* MOO - dirng chirong trmh (sau khi thirc hien gia cong thea lenh nao do tht true chinh dirng quay, Itrong chay dao dirng lai, dung dich tron nguoi bi ngat, nhtr vay muon gia cong tiep phai an nut dieu khien),

* MOl - dirng thea lira chon (chirc nang wong nr nhtr MOO nhirng chi diroc thirc hien khi co lira chon tnroc tir ban dieu khien).

* M02 - ket thiic chirong trinh (sau khi thuc hien gia cong thea tat ca cac lenh cua chuong trtnh),

* M03 - true chinh quay thea chieu kim dong ho. Quy U'O'c nay diroc hieu nhu sau: true chfnh quay thea chieu rna theo do co mot vit vci chieu xoan phai diroc ga tren true chfnh hirong vao chi tiet gia cong. Vi du, tren may khoan dirng, may phay dirng, may phay ngang neu quan sat

73

tir chuoi dao thi c6 chieu quay thea chieu kim dong h6, d6 Hi ky hieu cua M03, can tren may tien neu nhin tir mam cap toi u dong thl c6 chieu quay cua true chinh thea chieu kim dong hd, d6 la ky hieu cua M03.

* M04 - true chfnh quay ngiroc chieu kim dong ho, Quy iroc nay diroc hieu nhir sau: true chhinh quay thea chieu rna thea do co mot vit vci chieu xoan phai diroc ga tren true chinh di ra khoi chi tiet gia congo Cac vi du cling wang nr nhir M03 nhirng chieu quay ngiroc lai.

* MOS - dung true chinh cong taco

* M06 - thay doi dung cu cat (lenh thay dao bang tay hoac nr

dong).

* M07 va M08 - rna dung dich tron nguoi. * M09 - dong dung dich tron nguoi.

* MI0 - Dong kep tren tat ca cac true cua may. * MIl - rna kep tren tat ca cac true cua may

* M 19 - dirng quay true chfnh a vi trf xac dinh (true chinh dirng quay khi dat diroc vi trf g6c xac dinh).

* M30 - ket thiic chuang trmh (true chinh ngirng quay, ngirng chay dao va ngat dung dich tron nguoi sau khi thirc hien tat ca cac lenh cua chuang trinh gia cong),

* MS9 - t6c d¢ quay cua true chfnh c6 dinh (gift s6 vong quay cua true chinh c6 dinh khong phu thuoc vao sir dich chuyen cua co cau chap hanh cua may).

6.5. M(ll so ky hieu dia chi khac, * % - bat dau chuang trinh,

* N - s6 thir nr cau lenh.

* F - hrong chay dao.

* S - t6c d¢ cat.

* I - toa d¢ tam cung tron trong toa d¢ eire tren true X. * J - toa d¢ tam cung tron trong toa d¢ eire tren true Y. * K - toa d¢ tam cung tron trong toa d¢ eire tren true Z. * T - dung cl;! cat.

74

* LF - ket thuc cau lenh (can chuyen sang cau lenh tiep thea). * D - so hieu chinh dao,

* H, L, 0 - khong xac dinh (co the sir dung nr do). 6.6. Chuong trinh N C.

Chuang trlnh NC la mot file chua cac lenh dieu khien may, moi lenh dieu khien mot thao tac nao do cua may. Cac lenh diroc viet bang cac rna quy dinh va slip xep thea mot tlnr nr de may co the hieu diroc khi no lam viec. Trang may co bo dieu khien, no d9C cac lenh thea thir nr d~ thuc hien qua trlnh gia congo Hien nay co n1t nhieu kieu dieu khien CNC, cluing phu thuoc vao cac nha che tao may CNC. Tuy nhien, rna quoc te

ISO diroc sir dung rong rai nhat. o Lien Xo (cil) ngoai rna ISO nguai ta con dung rna thea roCT 20999 - 83, a cac mroc tay Au ngiroi ta quen dung he DIN 66025. Cac he nay khac nhau khong nhieu, cho nen khi chuyen tir M nay sang he khac ngiroi ta co the irng dung mot each de dang.

M9t cau ienh thea cac he noi tren dU<;1C viet nhu sau: N ... G ... X ... Y ... Z .. .I ... J ... K ... F ... S ... T ... M ... LF

Trang do:

N - so thir nr cua cau lenh; G - rna dieu khien;

X,Y,Z - toa d9 thea cac true;

I, J, K - toa d9 tam cung tron thea cac true X, Y, Z; F - hrong chay dao;

S - toe d9 cat;

T - so thir nr dao; M - chirc nang phu;

LF - ket thiic mot cau lenh (co the khong ghi ky hieu nay cung diroc).

VI du l:

N02 XIO Y22 Z-1O F300 S1200 M03: co thir ur trong chuang trinh la 2, cat thea dirong thang tir vi trf hien tai den diem co toa d9 X = 10,

75

Y =22, Z = -10, luong chay dao F = 300 mm/phut, s6 vong quay cua true chinh S = 1200 vong/phut, dao quay theo chieu kim dong h6.

Vi du 2:

N04 G03 X22 Y30 Z-l F 120 S3150 1-6 11 0, co thrr nr trong chuang trlnh la 4, cat theo vong tron ngiroc chieu kim dong h6 ur "'! trf hien tai den V! tri co toa dQ X =22, Y = 30, Z = -1, hrong chay dao F = 120 mrn/phut, s6 vong quay true chfnh S =3150 vong/phut, toa dQ tam cung tron la I =-6 va J = 10.

6.7. Cac phuong phap lap trmh,

Can cir vao mac dQ tir dong hoa cac cong viec lap trinh ngiroi ta ph an biet hai phuong phap lap trinh: lap trinh bang tay va lap trinh bang may (lap trinh co su tro giup cua may tinh).

6.7.1. Lap trinh bang tay.

Khi lap trinh bang tay, ngiroi lap trinh can ctr vao ban ve cua chi tiet d~ nhap cac dfr lieu theo cac lenh ttt ban phim cua may vao bo nho. Nhu vay viec lap trinh bang tay t6n nhieu thai gian, de nham l~n dac biet la d6i voi cac chi tier plurc tap. Do nhirng nhiroc di~m do rna phirong phap l<\lp trinh bang tay diroc dung cho cac chi tier co quy trinh cong nghe dan gian hoac d~ hieu chinh nhtrng chuang trinh san co. Phuong tien ho tro cho ngiroi lap trinh bang tay la cac bang tra s6 lieu, catalo may va may tinh ca nhan hay may tfnh bo tui. Cac may tinh ca nhan hay may tinh bo tui chi giup cho ngiroi lap trinh tfnh toan hinh hQC (cac di~m tren bien dang chi tiet) va tinh toan cong nghe.

Lap trinh bang tay doi hoi ngiroi lap trinh ngoai viec lam chu phirong phap lap trinh can phai co kien thirc toan hQC va kien thtrc ve cong nghe che tao may.

6.7.2. Lap trrnh bang may.

Khi lap trinh bang may (lap trinh co su tro giup cua may tinh) nguoi I~p trinh mo ta hinh dang hinh hoc cua chi tiet gia cong, cac quy dao cua dung cu cat va cac chirc nang cua may theo mot ngon ngfr rna may co th~ hi~u diroc, Lap trinh bang may co iru diem Ia khong can thirc hien cac phep tinh bang tay, chi can truy nhap mot it dfr lieu nhirng co th~ san sinh ra mot IUQ'l1g Ian cac dfr lieu cho nhtrng tinh toan can thiet, dong thai han che diroc cac loi lap trinh.

76

Khi lap trinh bang may thi may tinh phai co hai chuang trinh tfnh

toan dac biet sau:

- Chuonh trinh xu ly ( Processor) .

- Chuang trinh hau xir ly ( Postprocessor ).

Processor Ia chuang trinh phan mem thuc hien cac tfnh toan hinh h9C va cong nghe. Nguoi ta goi cac dfr lieu cua bo chuang trinh xir ly (Processor) la CLD (Cutter Location Data), cac dfr lieu nay dira ra mot giai phap chung v~ gia cong rna khong phu thuoc vao may cong CI:I CNC nao, CLD co nghia la cac dfr lieu xac dinh vi trf dung CI:I cat. CLD chua cac lenh ngan gon nhat va cac rna trong do khong hop v6i he CNC nao.

Muon dung CLD cho mot he CNC cu th~ phai dung mot chuang trinh dac biet goi la Post - processor (bo hau xu ly hay chuang trinh hau xir IY). Nhtr vay Post - processor co nhiem VI:I dich chuang trinh NC duoi dang CLD thanh cac rna d~ cho he CNC co th~ hieu va thuc hien qua trinh dieu khien may gia congo

Can nho rang khi l~p trlnh bang may trong phan hlnh h9C ngiroi lap trinh mo til hinh hoc cua chi tiet nhir: diem, dirong thang, cung tron, v.v .. can trong phan cong nghe ngiroi lap trinh mo tit qua trinh gia cong chi tiet nhir: khoan, phay, che do cat, dung CI:I cat, dung dich tron nguoi, v.v .. Ca hai viec mo ta tren day tao ra mot chuang trinh ngu6n. Tir chuang trinh ngu6n nay may tinh tao ra mot chuang trinh gia cong phu hop voi may CNC nho bo hau xu ly (Postprocessor).

6.8. Cac hinh thtrc t6 chirc lap trinh.

D~ thuc hien viec l~p trinh gia cong, nha may co hai hlnh thirc t6 chirc lap trinh sau day:

- Lap trinh tai phan xuong.

- Lap trmh trang chuan bi san xuat,

6.8.1. Lap trmh tai phan xmmg.

Lap trinh tai phan xircng diroc tlnrc hien true tiep tren may thong qua bang dieu khien. Man hinh cua he dieu khien giup cho ngtroi lap trinh quan sat diroc cac dfr lieu dira vao va tranh diroc cac loi cua chuang trinh, Sau khi lap trinh xong ngiroi ta co th~ cho chay chuang trinh mo phong bang de> hoa tren man hinh (tfft ca nhirng chuyen dong can thiet khi gia cong d~u diroc mo phong tren man hinh). Nhu vay qua man hinh nguoi ta co th~ phat hien xem dung CI:I cat co va cham vao chi tiet hoac

77

chuyen dong co sai quy dao hay khong. Neu xay ra nhirng tnrong hop do, co nghia la chuang trtnh co 16i va ngiroi lap trinh phai sua lai chuang trinh.

D6i vci hinh thirc lap trlnh tai phan xirong ngiroi van hanh may (dong thai cung la ngiroi lap trinh) phai co trinh d¢ tay nghe cao.

6.8.2. Lap trmh trong chuan bi san xuat,

Khi mot nha may co quy rna san xuat Ion, nrc la co sir dung nhieu may CNC khac nhau, gia cong nhieu loai chi tiet khac nhau va so hrong chi tiet trong tirng loai cung Ian thl cAn phai lap trinh tap trung trong chuan bi san xuat. Cong viec lap trinh nay diroc thirc hien tai phong cong nghe hoac tai trung tam lap trinh cua nha may. Nhir vay, nha may can co doi ngu lap trinh vi en diroc dao tao chuyen man hoa va irng dung thanh thao cac phirong phap lap trinh.

Uu diem .cua hinh thirc lap trinh tap trung (lap trlnh trong chuan bi san xuat) la nang suat lap trinh cao va ngiroi lap trinh tuy chua van hanh may thanh thao van co th~ lap trinh gia cong cho nhieu loai chi tier khac nhau. Chuang trtnh diroc lap tai trung tam diroc chuyen tai cac may CNC diroi hai hinh thirc sau:

- Neu cac may CNC duoc noi mang tnrc tiep voi trung tam lap trinh thi cac may CNC nhan chuang trlnh tnrc tiep qua mang.

- Neu cac may CNC chua duoc noi mang voi trung tam lap trinh thi chuang trinh phai diroc ghi vao rna mem hoac viet bang bang due 16 r6i chuyen toi cac may CNC d~ gia cong.

Tuy nhien, hlnh thirc l~p trinh t~p trung co nhuoc diem la cac 16i chuang trmh chi diroc phat hien khi chay rna phong hoac gia cong thu ciing giong nhir lap trinh tnrc tiep tai ph an xirong (true tiep tren may) nhirng qua trinh xay ra cham han.

6.9. Clurong trmh chfnh va chuang trinh con.

Mot chi tiet co th~ co nhieu be mat khac nhau hoac nhieu ph an khac nhau can phai gia cong. Chuang trinh d~ gia cong toan bo chi tiet do diroc goi la chuang trinh chinh, con chuang trinh gia .cong tirng be mat hoac tirng phan cua chi tiet diroc goi la chuang trinh con. Nhu vay, chuang trinh con th~ hien cac qua trinh gia cong diroc lap lai nhieu lan, co th~ diroc truy nhap va lUU trii' trong bo nho cua chuang trinh (a dang chuang

78

trinh con) va co tM diroc goi ra tai cac V! tri cua chuang trinh chinh (chuang trinh gia cong chi tiet),

Khi gia cong chi tiet tren hinh 6.1 1 ta co mot chuang trinh gia cong (chuang trinh chfnh). Chuang trinh chfnh nay gorn 3 chuang trinh con d~ gia cong 3 16 1; 2; 3. Thong thirong ngiroi ta sir dung chir L va cac chir so '

tuy Y d~ bat dau chuang trinh con (vi du, LSO). Trong

Hinh 6.11. Vi du gidi thich chuang trinh chuang trinh con, cac cau lenh

chinh va chuang trinh con '

ciing co cau true nhu cac cau

lenh cua chuang trinh chinh. Khi ket thuc mot chuang trinh con (vi du, khi ket thiic chuang trinh con d~ gia cong 16 1 tren hinh 6.11) se lai tro lai chuang trinh chinh. Liic nay d~ gia cong 16 2 ta goi chuang trinh con (L50) thir hai tir chuang trinh chinh. Sau do ta lai goi chuang trinh con de gia cong 16 tlnr 3. Tuy theo he dieu khien nguai ta chon chirc nang M 17, G99 hay ky hieu LF d~ ket thuc mot chuang trinh con.

6.10. Cac vi du ve lap trmh.

Vi du :

6.10.1. Lap trinh gia cong tren may tien.

Hinh 6.12 la mot chi tiet diroc gia cong tren may tien theo chuang trinh. Chuang trinh gia cong chi tiet tren hinh 6.12 diroc viet lai nhir sau:

NO 1 G50 X250 Z200 (G50 If! chinh dao b V! tri 0 co toa dq X = 250:

Z = 200).

G96 S500 M03 (chon toc dq cat S = 500 vong/phut; M03 la chi tiet quay theo chieu kim dong hd).

N02 GOO X50 Z80 (dao chay nhanh tai diem co toa dq X = 50 va Z = 80).

N03 G01 XO FO,2 (noi suy dirong thang tai dirong tam chi tiet co toa dq X = 0; Z van gill' nguyen gia tri cho nen khong can ghi lai;:

Iirong chay dao F = 0,2 mm/vong ).

79

~04 WI (van noi suy dirong thang d~ dao lui ra each mat dau chi tiet m¢t khoang W = I mm).

N05 GOO X50 (dao chay nhanh v~ V! tri co toa d¢ X = 50).

N06 GO I Z55 (noi suy dirong thang, dao tien doan bac nho co dirong kinh <p = 50 mm va dao dich chuyen den diem co toa d¢ Z =55).·

N07 G02 X 100 Z30

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Hinh 6.12. Gia cong tren may tien theo chuang trinh

N08 GO I ZO (noi suy duong thang, dao cat phan can lai clla chi tiet va dich chuyen den tan true X co toa d¢ Z =0).

N09 GOO X250 Z200 (dao lui nhanh v~ diem 0 co toa d¢ X =250; Z =200).

N 10 M30 LF (ket tluic chuang trinh, tuy nhien co th~ khong can N 10).

Tren day la mot vi du dan gian, chiing ta se nghien ciru sau plurong phap tien b chuang 8 va 9 trong tai lieu nay.

6.10.2. Lap trtnh gia cong tren may phay.

Hinh 6.13 la mot chi tiet diroc gia cong thea chuang trlnh tren may phay dimg. Trong tnrong hop nay ta chon mat gia cong XY (GI7), dung dao phay ngon, quy dao chay dao thea dirong cham cham ttI~cho den~Chuang trinh gia cong chi tiet tren hlnh 6.13 duoc viet nhir sau (co kern giai thfch):

G92 XO YO ZO (d~t dao tai di~rn 0).

80

NO 1 G90 G 17 G41 GOO X250 Y550 (G90 1a lap trinh vci kich thiroc tuyet d6i, G 17 la chon mat phang gia cong XY, G41 la hieu chinh dao a ben trai profil cua chi tiet, GOO la chay dao nhanh den diem PI co toa dQ X = 250, Y = 550).

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Hinh 6.13. Gia cong tren may phay theo chuang trinh

81

N02 GOI Y900 FISO (noi suy dirong thang toi diem P2 co toa d<) Y = 900, hrong chay dao F = ISO mm/phut, toa d<) X v<1n giii nguyen).

N03 X4S0 (tiep tuc noi suy dirong thang toi diem P3 co toa d<) X = 4S0). N04 G03 XSOO Y I 1 SO R6S0 (noi suy cung tron ngiroc chieu kim dong h6 toi diem P4 co toa do X = SOO, Y = I 1 SO, ban kinh cung tron R = 6S0).

NOS G02 X900 R-2S0 (noi suy cung tron thea chieu kim dong h6 toi diem P, co toa d<) X = 900, ban kinh cung co dau trir ( - ) vii R = 250.

N06 G03 X950 Y900 R650 (noi suy cung tron ngiroc chieu kim dong h6 t6'i diem P, co toa d<) X = 950, Y = 900, ban kinh cung tron R = 650).

N07 GOI XI150 (noi suy dirong thang toi diem P7 co toa d<) X = IISO).

N08 Y550 (noi suy duong thang toi diem PH co toa do Y = 550).

N09 X700 Y650 (noi suy dirong thang toi diem P, co toa do X = 700, Y = 650).

N 10 X250 YSSO (noi suy dirong thang tci di~m PIO co X = 250, Y = 550).

N II GOO G40 XO YO ZO (G40 Iii

huy bo lenh hieu chinh dao va chay nhanh ve diem 0 thea lenh GOO).

Hinh 6.14 Iii chi tier diroc khoan 4 16 <l> 10, chieu sau la 10 mm. ChUC1I1g trmh gia cong thea

thtr tir tit 16 tlur 1 den 16 thir 4 Hinh 6.14. Gia cong tren may khoan

Phuong phap phay se diroc nghien ciru sau a chUC1I1g 8 va chUC1I1g 10.

6.10.3. Lap trmh khoan. S?

diroc viet nhir sau: 82

y

2

w

x

20

20

N80 TI M06 (ten chuang trinh, thay dao hien co bang dao TI).

NO I G81 R2 Z-IO F200 S2500 M03 (G81 la chu ky khoan, R2 la khoang each tir miii khoan toi be mat gia cong, Z = -10 la chieu sau khoan, F = 200 mm/phut, S = 2500 vong/phut, M03 la true chinh quay thea chieu kim d6ng ho).

N02 G79 X20 Y 1 0 Z-I 0 (G79 la goi chu ky kkhoan, 16 tlnr nhat co toa

dQ X = 20, Y = 10, Z = -10).

N03 G79 X40 (16 tlur hai co toa do X = 40, Y = 10).

N04 G79 Y30 (16 tlur ba co toa dQ X = 40, Y = 30).

N05 G79 X20 (16 thu nr co toa dQ X = 20, Y = 30).

Phuong phap khoan se diroc nghien crru sau a cac chuang 8 va 10. 6.11. Lap trinh gia cong be mat doi xirng kieu hinh anh qua guong.

Khi lap trinh gia cong cac be mat d6i xirng kieu hinh anh qua girong chi can deli dau cac toa do. Neu ta deli dau toa dQ X se co be mat doi xirng qua true Y, con neu deli dau toa do Y se co be mat d6i xirng qua true X.

Hinh 6.15 la vi du cac diem d6i xirng qua true X, Y.

Ta thay a goc phan ttr thtr nhat di~m PI co toa do X, Y duong. Neu ta deli dau toa dQ X thanh X-I, ta co diem P2 doi xirng qua true Y. re diem P 2 neu ta deli dau toa do Y ta diroc diem P, co toa dQ X. Y am (toa do Y thanh Y-l). Tir diem r, neu ta deli dau toa dQ X ta diroc diem P4 d6i xirng qua Y (diem P4 co toa do X dirong va Yam, hinh 6.15).

y

P,

---I

P2

r- - ---

I

I I

(x- I)

2

-x

I

I

I

L----

3

I I I

-----!

x

4

(y- I)

(X-I) P3 (Y-l)

-y

Hinh 6.15. DOl xung kieu dnh qua guang

83

anh.

Hinh 6.16 la mot VI du ve gia cong be mat doi xirng kieu girong

H~ CNC - 432 cua hang MAHO gioi thieu chuang trinh gia cong be mat nay nhtr sau:

%PM (chuang trinh chi tiet), N900 (ky hieu chuang trinh).

NO 1 G 17 S400 T 1 M06 (be mat gia cong XY, S = 400vong/phut, thay dao hien co being dao so T,).

N02 G54 (xac dinh di~m goc phoi),

N03 G98 X-l30 Y-75 Z-20 1260 1150 K30 (xac dinh cira s6 phoi theo G98; I, J, K la kfch thuoc cira s6:120+10=130; 65+10=75).

N04 G99 X-120 Y -65 Z-20 1240 J 130 K20 (xac dinh bien dang chi tier theo G99).

NOS GOO X55 Y 45 Z2 M03 (chay dao nhanh toi diem co toa d¢ X = 55; Y = 45; Z = 2, dao quay theo chieu kim dong h6 ).

N06 G01 Z-5 F50 (an dao xuong chieu sau Z = -5, F = 50 mm/pluit).

N07 G43 Y55 F100 (hieu chinh dao dirong toi diem co Y = 55; F = 100 mm/phut).

N08 G42 XI 05 (hieu chinh dao ben phai toi diem co X = 105).

Dao phay

a 15 35 55 75

105 120

d « 16 mm

[j J.y ~ }D-
SuuS
t = 20 /~. - ,
rem an voo
./
!t~ -
- ~r; -"'-+X
r ~ I
i
Hinh 6.16. Gia cong he' Wit d6i xung kiiu guang dnh

84

65 55 45

30

10 o

N09 Y lO (tiep tuc G42 tai diem co Y = 10). NlO X75 (tiep tuc G42 tai diem co X = 75). NIl Y30 (tiep tuc G42 tai diem co Y = 30). NI2 X35 (tiep tuc G42 tm diem co X = 35). N13 YlO (tiep tuc G42 tm di~m co Y = lO). NI4 XI5 (tiep tuc G42 toi di~m co X = 15). NI5 Y55 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem co Y = 55). N16 X55 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem co X =55). N17 G40 (huy bo hieu chinh kich thuoc dao).

NI8 G73 X-I (chirc nang gia cong doi xung ki~u guong anh qua Y).

NI9 G14 (11) N1=5 N2=17 (G14 lit chirc nangnhac lai; (1) lit mot Ian nhac lai, N 1 = 5 la bat dau nhac lai tir cau lenh 5 va ket thuc a cau lenh N2 = 17).

N20 G73 X-I Y-1 (doi xirng qua X).

N21 G14 (JI) N1=5 N2=17 (lap lai cau lenh N19). N22 G73 X+ 1 Y-l (doi xirng qua Y).

N23 G 14 0 I) N 1 =5 N2= 17 (lap lai cau lenh N 19).

N24 G72 (cho cac true dong thai da dU<;1C cap lenh doi xirng). N25 GOO Z50 (chay dao nhanh len tren tai diem co Z = 50). N26 M30 (ket thuc chuang trlnh).

6.12. Lap trrnh co tinh den xe dich di~m chuan .

Khi lap trlnh co tinh den xe dich di~m chuan thi cac gia tri can xe dich phai diroc xac dinh cu th~. Viec xe dich diem chuan cho phep ta lap lai chuang trinh gia cong nhieu be mat giong nhau tai cac vi trf bat ky tren chi tiet gia cO.ng. Hinh 6.17 la vi du gia cong 5 hoc hlnh chu U tren chi tiet a cac vi tri khac nhau, trong do co mot eung tron diroc xoay di mot goc 30°.

Chuang trinh gia cong 5 hoc noi tren dU<;1C viet va giai thich nhu sau (theo he dieu khien cua may phay CNC-432 cua hang MAHO - Cong hoa lien bang Dire).

85

%PM (chtrong trinh chi tier). N9008 (ky hieu chuong trinh).

NOI G 17 S400 TI M06 (mat gia cong la XY, S = 400 vong/phut, thay

dao hien tai bang dao so 1).

N02 G54 (xac dinh diem goc phoi).

N03 G98 X-lOY -10 Z-20 1260 J215 K30 (xac dinh cira s6 phoi). N04 G99 XO YO Z-20 1240 1195 K20 (xac dinh bien dang chi tier).

N05 GOO X55 Y45 Z2 M03 (chay dao nhanh toi di~m co toa do X = 55, Y = 45, Z = 2, thea chieu kim dong hd),

N06 GO I Z-5 F50 (an dao xuong chieu situ Z = - 5; F = 55 mm/phiit). N07 G43 Y55 FIOO (hieu chinh dao dirong (ap sat be mat gia c6ng) toi

di~m Y = 55; F = 100 mm/phut).

N08 G42 XI05 (dao cat ben phai toi diem X = 105). N09 YIO (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y = 10).

NIO X75 (tiep tuc G42 toi di~m X=75).

Nil Y30 (tiep tuc G42 tci diem Y=30).

N 12 X35 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem X=35).

NI3 YIO (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=IO).

195 -.---,...------------------"'1

t = 20

120 -i---+--~_'

000 phoy d= 16 mm

65 +--+---...___,

55+--+- -----:*""----;:;--..

45+----+--+-- -+++

30 -+--+--+-- .---+----,

10 (loH"--------+----+ 10 o ""____'fHHi=r ::>-i---+--I---I--I-___",F------~--+-O

86

o 15 35 55 7S 105 120 145

Hinh 6.17. Xi dich diem chudn khi ldp trinh

240

N14 X15 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem X=15). N15 Y55 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=55). N16 X55 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem X=55).

N 17 G40 (huy bo hieu chinh kich thiroc dao).

N18 G92 Y55 (G92 la dich chuyen diem chuan thea kfch thuoc nrong doi doc true Y toi di~m co Y =55).

N19 G14 (12) Nl=5 N2=18 (G14 la nhac lai, (J2 la nhac lai 2 1<1n vi gia cong hai hoc a tren, N 1 =5 la bat d11u tir cau lenh 5 va ket thuc a N2=18).

N20 G93 X120 Y130 (dich chuyen thea kich thuoc tuyet doi voi chirc nang G93 voi di~m co X=120,Y=130).

N21 G 14 (11) N 1 =5 N2= 17 (nhac lai mot 111n tir cau lenh 5 den cau lenh 17 M gia cong hoc phia tren a ben phai).

N22 G93 X145 Y10 B4=30 (G9~ la chirc nang dich chuyen diem chuan thea kfch thiroc tuyet doi toi diem co toa do X=145; Y=10 va co goc xoay B4=300).

N23 G14 (11) N1=5 N2=17 (lap lai cau lenh N21).

N24 GOO Z50 (chay dao nhanh len tren toi di~m co Z=50). N25 M30 (ket thuc chuang trinh),

6.13. Lap trlnh co tinh den phong to, thu nhu,

Hang MAHO cua Cong hoa lien bang Dire gioi thieu phirong phap l~p trinh co tinh den phong to, thu nho khi can gia cong nhiing be mat nrong ur nhung voi kich thiroc Ion, nho khac nhau. Trang tnrong hop nay hang MAHO dung lenh G73A4= ... V oi lenh G73A4= ... kich tluroc cua chi tiet co th~ diroc phong to hoac thu nho. St! thay d6i kfch thiroc co the diroc ghi bang ky hieu (VI du, A4=2) hoac bang %. Neu A4=2, nghia la kich thiroc tang len hai 111n, neu A4=0,5 thi kich thiroc giam di 2 Ian (nrong irng la 200% hay 50%). Hinh 6.18 la mot vi du lap trinh co phong to va thu nho kich thuoc.

87

a 30 120
115
+Y
70
55
45

30
fY
10
0
0 15 35 55 75 105 G73 A4 = 1,5

t = 20

295

Hinh 6,18. PII()l1g to I'a thu nhd khi giu cong theo chuang trinh Chuang trinh gia cong diroc viet nhu sau:

%PM (chuang trmh chi tiet).

N90 I 0 (ky hieu chuang trinh).

NO I G54 (xac dinh diem goc phoi),

N02 G 17 S400 TI M06 (b~ mat gia cong Iii XY, S=400 vong/phut, thay

dao dti co TI).

N03 G98 X-IO Y-IO Z-20 1315 Jl35 K30 (xac dinh cira s6 phoi), N04 G99 XO YO Z-20 1295 Jll5 K20 (xac dinh bien dang chi tiet).

N5 GOO X55 Y45 Z2 M03 (chay dao nhanh toi diem co X=55, Y=45,

Z=2 thea chieu kim dong ho).

N06 GOI Z-5 F50 (an dao xu6ng chieu sau Z=-5; F=55 mm/ph), N07 G43 Y55 FIOO (an dao toi diem Y=55; F=IOOmm/ph).

N08 G42 X 105 (cat ben phai toi diem X= I 05).

N09 Y 10 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y= 10).

NIO X75 (tiep tuc G42 toi di~m X=75).

NIl Y30 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=30).

N 12 X35 (tiep tuc G42 toi di~m X=35).

88

N13 YlO (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=lO). N14 X15 (tiep tuc G42 toi di~m X=15). N15 Y55 (tiep tuc G42 tci diem Y=55). N 16 X55 (tiep tuc G42 toi di~m X=55).

N17 G40 (huy bo lenh hieu chinh kich thiroc dao). N 18 GOO Z50 (chay dao len tren toi diem c6 Z=50).

N 19 S250 T2 M06 (S=250 vg/phiit; d6i dao khac, dtrong kfnh dao <1>=24 mm thay dao hien tai bang dao so 2).

N20 G93 X 120 Y20 (theo MAHO G93 la lenh dich chuyen dao thea kich tluroc tuyet doi toi diem c6 X= 120; Y =20).

N21 G73A4= 1.5 (ph6ng to voi ty I~ A4= 1,5 Ian hay 150%).

N22 GI4(J1) N1=5 N2=18 (nhac lai mot Ian tir cau lenh 5 den cau lenh

18 M gia cong hoc ph6ng to ben phai).

N23 G72 (voi G72 ph6ng to hoac thu nho bi huy bo).

N24 S800 T3 M06 (S=800 vg/phut, thay dao. Duong kfnh dao <1>=8 mm). N25 G93 X30 Y70 (dich chuyen dao toi diem X=30, Y=70).

N26 G73 A4=0.5 (thu nho voi A4=0,5 hay 50%).

N27 GI4(J1) N1=5 N2=18 (nhac lai 1 Ian tir cau lenh 5 den cau lenh 18

M gia cong hoc nho phia tren),

N28 G72 (huy bo lenh thu nho).

N29 G93 XO YO (dich chuyen dao tci diem X=O, Y=O). N30 GOO Z50 (dao dich chuyen len toi diem c6 Z=50). N31 M30 (ket thuc chuang trinh).

6.14. Lap trrnh tham so.

Lap trlnh tham s~ la khi lap trinh gia cong (trong cac chuang trinh chfnh va clurong trtnh con) nguoi ta thay cac gia tri so bang cac tham so nrong tnrng, Cac tham so c6 the thay the cho: gia tri toa do, che do cit (toe do cat, hrong chay dao, chien sau cat), cac gia tri cua dung cu cat, cac gia tri g6c, v. v ...

89

Hien nay lap trinh tham s6 chua duoc tieu chuan hoa cho nen no con rat khac nhau gifra cac he dieu khien cua cac hang san xuat may CNC. Vi du, he dieu khien CNC-432 cua hang MAHO (Dire) dung tham s6 E d~ thay the cac gia tri so, he dieu khien TNC360 lap trinh tnrc tiep tren may voi dang ngon ngfr lap trinh HEIDENHAIN (cling co th~ lap trinh thea ISO hoac DIN) dung tham s6 Q M thay the cac gia tri s6, he dieu khien SINUMERIK 8M cua hang SIEMENS dung cac tham s6 tir ROO den R49 d~ thay the cac gia tri s6, con b Nga ngiroi ta lai dung ky hieu -:;t voi ba hoac bon chfr s6 d~ thay the cac gia tri s6, chang han -:;t 6077=280 mm/phut.

Khi lap trinh tham s6 thi cac gia tri cua tham s6 phai duoc xac dinh tnroc va cac gia tri do diroc nam b phan dau cua chuang trinh,

Lap trinh tham s6 diroc ung dung khi gia cong cac chi tier wang tu ve mat hinh hoc. Qua trinh gia cong wang nr nhu vay cho phep th~ hien b dang nhfrng chu ky cirng rna ngiroi ta goi la cac Macro (chuang trinh Macro hay chuang trinh con). Hinh 6.19 la vi du gia cong thea chuang trinh cac chi tiet wang nr ve mat hinh hoc.

Diroi day la vi du lap trinh tham s6 dung he dieu khien CNC 432 cua hang MAHO (Dire) cho chi tier a (hinh 6.19a). Hinh 6.20 la cu th~ hoa cac kfch thtroc cua chi tiet diroc lap trinh.

%PM (chuang trinh chi tiet),

N90 11 (ky hieu chuang trinh).

NO I G 17 S800 T 1 M06 (khoan <1>8) (mat gia cong XY; S=800 vg/phut,

thay dao hien co bang dao TI).

N02 G54 (xac dinh diem g6c phoi),

N03 G98 xio Y-IO Z-20 1220 JI80 K30 (xac dinh etta s6 phoi), N04 G99 XO YO Z-20 1200 J 160 K20 (xac dinh bien dang phoi). N05 EI=2; E2=15; E3=100; E4=80; E5=0; E6=60; E7=20,5

E8=8; E9=316; E 10=50 (cac gia tri cua tham s6 E).

N06 G81 Y =E I Z-=E2 F=E I 0 M03 (khoang each an toan la E 1, chieu sau khoan la 15, F=50 mm/phut, dao phay quay thea chieu kim dong ho).

N07 G77 X=E3 Y =E4 Z=E5 R=E6 I=E7 j=E8 K=E9 (G77 goi la chu ky khoan, X=100,Y=80, Z=O, ban kinh R=60, goc 1=20,5°, dirong kinh 16 j=S, goc K=316°).

90

-.: GOO Z50 (chay dao len tren toi di~m co Z=50). " !~) M30 (ket thiic chirong trinh),

tX

tX

t

'0 I
!+t
Yq J-- ®:¢~~
/,
,_ +x

a) b) c)

sJ dl!ng cung mpf chl.ldng trinh cho cdc chi liel Il.Idng Ii!.

Nguyen fa~ :

{)l.Il1ng kinh 16- £8

a

£3

Bi mpf

chi fief E5

tZ

Cdc fhong sa' E, ' E2 ' V.V ... c6 the'dung nht/ bie"h so:

Chddng trlnh chi'nh :

% PM
N ...
E 1 = 2 E2 = 15 E3 = 70 E4 = 60
NS E5 = 0 ...
N 6 G 81 Y = E 1 Z = E2 1 ... /
N 7 G77 X = E3 y = E4 Z =E5 V
N8 c::::::> Xac dinh thOng so' ~ Xac dtnb cbu kl

c::=;::> Gill cbu ki

Hinh 6.19. Gia cong cdc chi tiet tuang fl! theo chuang trinh

91

DtJling kinh Ii EB E2
160
/' '0 E10
® ~'
(
E4 $
\ /
.Y Q9 __ E9
0 .x
0 E3 ZOO -20 0 Hinh 6.20. Gia cong 16 viii ldp trinh tham sl)'

6.15. Lap trinh tham s6 vOi cac phep tinh toan hoc.

Cac phep tfnh +, -; x; +; .-.; va sin co the diroc thirc hien khi lap trinh tham so. Hlnh 6.21 la chi tiet gia cong v6i irng dung lap trinh tham so co cac phep tfnh toan hoc,

150

~
~-T13 ~y

E14

.~ I
l--' i I !
Y r=r.x E7 E10

E6

E5 o

o E1

E2 E9

E3

E4 2JO

E8 o

-20 E12 0

Hinh 6.21. Chi tiet gia cong hiing chuang trinh tham ~l)' viii cdc phep tinh todn hoc

H~ CNC-432 cua MAHO gi6i thieu chuang trinh gia cong nhir sau: %PM (chuang trinh chi tiet).

N9012 (ky hieu chuang trinh),

92

NO 1 G 17 S400 Tl M06 (mat gia cong XY; S=400 vg/phut: thay dao de co

daoTI).

N02 G54 (xac dinh diem g6e phoi).

N03 G98 X-I0 Y-IO Z-20 1220 J170 K30 (xac dinh cira s6 phoi), N04 G99 XO YO Z-20 1200 Jl50 K20 (xac dinh bien dang chi tiet).

N05 EI=15 E2=80 E3=150 E4=190 E5=10 E6=60 E7=130 E8=15 Ell=2 E12=6 E13=IO E17=50 E18=100 (cac gia tri E).

N06 EI5=ElxO.5 E16=E4xO.5 E14=EI6-E15 E9=EI+EI4 EIO=E7- E13 (cac gia tri cua E).

N07 GOO X=9 Y=EI0 Z=Ell M03 (dao chay nhanh va quay theo chieu kim dong ho).

N08 GOI Z-=E12 F=E17 (chien sau phay la 6; F=50 mm/phiit).

N09 G43 Y=E7 F=E18 (dao cat theo true Y tci diem Y=E7;F= 100

mm/phut),

N 10 G42 X=E4 (hieu chinh dao cat phai tm diem X=E4). NIl Y=E8 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=E8).

N 12 X=E3 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem X=E3).

NI3 Y=E6 (tiep tuc G42 tci diem Y=E6).

N14 X=E2 (tiep tuc G42 tai diem X=E2).

N15 Y=E5 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=E5).

N16 X=EI (tiep tuc G42 toi diem X=El).

N17 Y=E7 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=E7).

N 18 X=E9 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem X=E9).

N 19 G40 (huy bo lenh hieu chinh kich thuoc dao). N20 GOO Z50 (chay daonhanh tai diem Z=50). N21 M30 (ket thuc chuang trinh),

6.16. Chuong trinh Macro.

6.16.1. Khal nlem ve chtrong trmh Macro.

Macro thirc chat 1ft chuang trinh diroc hru giii' trong cac bq nho doc lap, Ngiroi ta eoi cac Macro nhtr cac chuang trinh con diroc Iiru trii' 9J.

trong cac ngan keo cua mot hop 100 (hinh 6.22). Thirc chat chuong trinh con da diroc trlnh bay a muc 6.9. 6 day se giai thich r5 them v~ chirong trinh Macro. Ta thay moi mot ngan keo cua hop chua mot Macro va nhu v~y hop Ian tren hinh 6.22 co 10 Macro (vi N9808 'co th~ nhay vao N9807 cho nen co th~ tinh them mot Macro nita).

%PM

1-----1 Chudng trinh chihh N 9745

N ... G22 N = 9803

N ... G22 N = 9803

N ... G22 N = 9807

% PM - chu'dn9 tr;nh ch/;'h % MM- chlldn,9 frlnh Macro

Hinh 6.22. Cdc chuang trinh macro

6.16.2. Vi du chirong trinh Macro.

Hinh 6.23 la vi du v~ cac nguyen cong nrong nr duoc thirc hien tren cung mot chi tiel.

Diroi day 1(\ cac chirong trinh:

%PM (chuong trinh chinh) va %MM (chirong trinh Macro) thea CNC- 432 cua MAHO.

1. %PM - chuong trinh chinh hay chuang trinh chi tiel. N90 13 (ky hieu clurong trinh).

NO 1 G 17 (be mat gia cong la XY). N02 G54 (xac dinh diem goc phoi).

N03 G98 X-1O Y-1O Z-20 1220 J160 K30 (xac dinh cira sci phoi),

N04 G99 XO YO Z-20 1200 J140 K20 (goc toa d(> co X=O; Y=O; Z=-20; chi tiet co kich thuoc: dai 1= 200; rong J=140 va cao K=20).

94

\05 G22 N9S01 (ky hieu chuang trinh macro phay). \"06 G22 N9S02 (ky hieu chuang trinh macro khoan).

,,07 G93 Y75 (xe dich toa d¢ thea kich thuoc tuyet doi voi Y=75). \"OS G22 N9S0 I (ky hieu chuang trinh macro phay).

\T09 G93 X ISO Y 10 B4=90 (xe dich toa do thea kich thiroc tuyet doi toi

diem co X=ISO;Y=IO va quay goc B4=900).

NIO G22 N9S01(ky hieu chuang trinh macro phay). Nil G22 N9S02 (ky hieu chuang trinh macro khoan). NI2 G93 B4=0 (toa d¢ khong xoay).

N 13 G93 XO YO (tro ve toa d¢ tai diem X=O; Y=O). NI4 GOO XO YO (chay dao nhanh).

N 15 G53 M30 (ket thtic chuang trinh).

2. %MM - chuang trlnh Macro phay. N9S0 1 (ky hieu chuang trmh).

NOI S400 TI M06 (S=400 vg/phut; dao phay TI co <1>=16).

N02 GOO X55 Y45 Z2 M03 (chay dao nhanh tai diem X=55; Y=45; Z=2

thea chieu kim dong ho),

N03 GOI Z-5 F50 (cat xuong do sau Z=5; F=50 mm/phut).

N04 G43 Y55 FIOO (cat thea true Y toi diem co Y=55; F=IOO mm/phut). N05 G42 X 105 (cat ben phai toi diem co X=105).

N06 YIO (tiep tuc G42 toi diem Y=IO).

N07 X75 (tiep tuc G42 tai diem X=75).

NOS Y30 (tiep tuc G42 tai di~m Y =30).

N09 X35 (tiep tuc G42 tci di~m X=35).

NIO YIO (tiep tuc G42 tai dit!m Y=IO).

Nil XI5 (tiep tuc G42 toi diem X=15).

NI2 Y55 (tiep tuc G42 toi di~m Y=55).

NI3 X55 (tiep tuc G42 tci di~m X=55).

9S

N 14 G40 (huy bo lenh hieu chinh kich thiroc dao), N15 GOO Z50 (chay dao nhanh toi diem Z=50).

000 pho» TI d = 16mm DOD khoon T2 d = 6 mm

140 ~-~---------------,

55~~-~----~-----J 45 +----+----_+_

o 15 25 35 55 75 83 97 105

180 200

Hinh 6.23. Cdc nguyen cong tuang tif duac thuc hien tren cung mot chi tiet

3. %MM - chirong trinh Macro khoan N9802 (ky hieu chuang trinh).

NO 1 S800 T2 M66 (5=800 vg/phut; thay dao, dao khoan T2 co <1>6).

N02 G81 Y2 Z-IO F50 M03 (goi chu ky khoan, dao a V! trf co Y =2; Z=-IO; Itrong chay dao F=50 m/phiit va quay thea chieu kim dong ho),

N03 G79 X25 Y209 Z-5 (goi chu ky G79 voi toa d<? X=25; Y=20; Z=-5). N04 G79 Y 45 (tiep tuc G79 toi diem Y=45).

N05 G79 X83 (tiep tuc G79 toi diem X=83).

N06 G79 X79 (tiep tuc G79 toi diem X=97).

N07 G79 Y20 (tiep tuc G79 toi diem Y =20).

N08 G79 X83 (tiep tuc G79 toi di~m X=83).

N09 GOO Z50 (chay dao nhanh toi diem Z=50).

%

CHVONG 7. QUY TRINH CONG NGH~, CHUNG LOA.I v,'\ D!C TiNH CONG NGH~ CVA CHI TIET GIA CONG TREN MAY CNC

7.1. Dac di~m ella quy trinh cong nghe gia cong tren may CNC.

Quy trinh cong nghe gia cong tren cac may CNC khac voi guy trinh cong nghe truyen thong b mire cu the hoa rat eao va b dac diem cua viec eung cap thong tin. V~ mat diu true, quy trinh cong nghe tren may CNC cung duoc ehia ra cac nguyen cong, cac biroc, nhirng cac bUCK 0 day lai phai ehia ra cac lap cat va moi lap cat diroc thuc hien sau moi guy dao dich chuyen cua dung cu cat.

Thanh phan don gian nhat cua quy trinh cong nghe nay la cac dich chuyen don gian va cac dieu khien cong nghe do bo dieu khien cua may eung cap. Cac dich chuyen don gian d6 la cac eung tron, cac doan thing tren mot duong thing. Cac lenh dieu khien cong nghe duoc thuc hien boi cac co cau chap hanh cua may d~ bao dam can thiet cho cac dich chuyen don gian, Nhir vay, cac dich chuyen dan gian va cac lenh dieu khien cong nghe tao thanh cac lenh dieu khien.

Lap guy trlnh cong nghe va chuang trinh dieu khien cho may CNC la mot nhiern vu cua chuan bi cong nghe.

Thier ke quy trinh cong nghe gia cong chi tier tren may CNC bao gorn 3 giai doan sau day:

1. Lap tien trinh cong nghe.

d giai doan nay thl tai lieu ban dau la ban ve chi tiet va ban ve phoi, Nhirng nhiern vu cua giai dean nay la :

- Xac dinh kha nang gia cong chi tiet tren may CNC thea ket cau cong nghe va thea dieu kien san xuat.

- Nghien ciru phoi, tien trlnh cong nghe, lam quen voi dung ey cat, d6 ga va cau true cac nguyen congo

- Nghien ctru tinh cong nghe cua chi tiet va tieu chuan hoa cac thong so nhu chuan kich thuoc hoac ban kinh. Neu can thi phai hieu chinh lai ban ve phoi va ban ve chi tiet.

97

- Xac dinh trang thai cong nghe cua chi tier nhu yeu cau doi voi cac mat chuan, lirong du va cac kich thuoc chinh,

- Lap tien trinh gia cong chi tiet (phan cac be mat thea 10<;1i d~ chon may gia cong).

- Xac dinh phirong phap ga d;)t va chon d6 ga can thiet. '

- Xac dinh dung cu cat va chon cluing thea tung 10<;1i.

2. Thiet ke nguyen congo

Nhiem vu cua giai doan nay bao g6m:

- Xac dinh noi dung nguyen cong, chi a nguyen cong ra cac bircc va cac vi trt, cu th~ hoa phuong phap kep chat chi tiet,

- Chia ra cac lap cat, chon dung cu cat, chuan bi phirong phap dieu chinh may va dieu chinh dao.

3. Lap trinh gia congo

Giai doan nay co cac nhiem vu sau day:

- Tinh toan cac quy d<;10 chuyen dong cua dao ngay sau khi xac dinh toa do cua cac diem.

- Lap trlnh va ghi vao b¢ nho cua bo dieu khien may.

- Kiern tra chuang trlnh, sua 16i chuang trinh, chay thir va gia

cong thir chi tiel.

7.2. Chon chung loai chi tiet gia cong tren may CNC.

Khi nghien ciru ve chung 10<;1i chi tiet ngtroi ta muon de cap den tfnh "khong doi" cua cluing. Cac chi tier may co th~ chia ra cac 10<;1i sau: chi tiet tron xoay, chi tiet hinh lang tru, chi tiet phang va chi tiet dinh hinh phirc tap. Cac chi tiet thuoc cac loai tren chiem khoang 92% tong so cac chi tiet trong san xuat.

M6i chi tiet diroc dac tnrng bai hai nhom yeu to sau:

-Nhom yeu to ky thuat nhir vat lieu va cac kich thtroc hinh hoc.

-Nhom yeu to ve kinh te- t6 chirc nhir san hrong hang nam, so

hrong chi tiet trong 10<;1t, gia thanh che tao,

Cac 10<;1i chi tier gia cong tren may CNC co hieu qua kinh te diroc xac dinh tren co sa nghien ctru nhfrng yeu cau ky thuat va nhirng gioi han phu thuoc vao dieu kien san xuat cu th~ cua chi tiel.

98

Bang 7.1. Nguon go[- va y/u to' kinh fe' gia cong chi tiet tren may C NC

'\ Nguon goc Yeu to' kinh te Chi tieu i
Khong pha! UlY ,
dau, giam cang Giam thai gian tirng Tang nang suat va giam
I viec sua nguoi, kha chiec gia thanh san pham
nang dung nhieu
may
Giam chieu dai quy
2 dao chuy~n d¢ng Giarn thai gian may Tang nang suat va giam
cua dao, toi uu hoa gia thanh san pharn
i che d¢ cat cua dao
!-
,., Giam thai gran Giam thai gian phu Tang nang suat va giarn
_) ki~m tra gia thanh san pharn
Nang cao d¢ chinh Tang nang suat. gram
xac va d¢ bong be Giam khoi lirong Hlp
4 gia thanh va nang cao
mat tren nhirng mat nip chat luong san pham
cong cua chi tiet
Giam chi phi do sira
Giam sO' hrong may chira va su dyng Giam gia thanh
5 may, giam dien tich san
su dung pham
su dung, giarn chi
phi dien ruroc
Giam bac cang Giam chi phi tien Giam gia thanh
san
6 nhfln luang tren mot dan pham
vi san pham Tieu chuan M danh gia SI! hra chon chung loai chi tier gia cong tren may CNC diroc dung nhieu nhat la chi tieu kinh te va cac chi phi che tao chi tiet. Nhir vay, can nho rang tren may CNC nen gia cong nhirng loai co nguon goc va yeu t6 kinh te trong bang 7.1.

Thirc te cho thay nhtrng chi tiet gia cong tren may CNC~e mang lai hieu qua cao nhat la nhirng chi tiet phirc tap co nhieu M mat cong, nhieu dirong thang va nhieu mat phang khong song song voi cac true cua may.

99

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