Sei sulla pagina 1di 57

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual D D E E P P A A R R T T
Control Systems Laboratory Manual D D E E P P A A R R T T

DDEEPPAARRTTEEMMEENNTT OOFF EELLEECCTTRRIICCAALL AANNDD EELLEECCTTRROONNIICCSS EENNGGIINNEEEERRIINNGG

EE2257 CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY MMAANNUUAALL

VV

BBAALLAAJJII,,

MM

TTeecchh,,

PPRREEPPAARREEDD BBYY

((PPhh

DD)),,

MM

II

SS

TT

EE,,

MM

II

AA

EENNGG,,

MM

II

OO

JJ

EE

AASSSSIITTAANNTT PPRROOFFEESSSSOORR//EEEEEE DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTT DDHHAANNAALLAAKKSSHHMMII CCOOLLLLEEGGEE OOFF EENNGGIINNEEEERRIINNGG CCHHEENNNNAAII

G G I I N N E E E E R R I I N N
G G I I N N E E E E R R I I N N

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 1

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

LLIISSTT OOFF EEXXPPEERRIIMMEENNTTSS

1. Determination of transfer function of DC Servomotor

2. Determination of transfer function of AC Servomotor.

3. Analog simulation of Type - 0 and Type – 1 systems

4. Determination of transfer function of DC Generator

5. Determination of transfer function of DC Motor

6. Stability analysis of linear systems

7. DC and AC position control systems

8. Stepper motor control system

9. Digital simulation of first systems

10. Digital simulation of second systems

of first systems 10. Digital simulation of second systems PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
of first systems 10. Digital simulation of second systems PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 2

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF DDCC SSEERRVVOO MMOOTTOORR

EEXXPPTT

NNOO

::

DDAATTEE

::

AAIIMM::

To determine the transfer function of the DC servomotor

AAPPPPAARRAATTUUSS RREEQQUUIIRREEDD::

S.No Name of the Equipment Range Type Quantity
S.No
Name of the Equipment
Range
Type
Quantity
R E E D D : : S.No Name of the Equipment Range Type Quantity PREPARED
R E E D D : : S.No Name of the Equipment Range Type Quantity PREPARED

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 3

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T H H E E O O R R Y Y

TTHHEEOORRYY::

Speed can be controlled by varying (i) flux per pole (ii) resistance of armature circuit and (iii) applied voltage.

It is known that N µ

E b.

If applied voltage is kept, E b = V – I a R a will

Remain constant. Then, N µ

By decreasing the flux speed can be increased and vice versa. Hence this method is called field control method. The flux of the DC shunt motor can be changed by changing field current, I sh with the help of shunt field rheostat. Since the I sh relatively small, the shunt filed rheostat has to carry only a small current, which means I sh 2 R loss is small. This method is very efficient. In non-interpolar machines, speed can be increased by this methods up to the ratio 2: 1. In interpolar machine, a ratio of maximum to minimum speed of 6:1 which is fairly common. FFOORRMMUULLAA::

AArrmmaattuurree CCoonnttrrooll DD SSeerrvvoo mmoottoorr::

1

CC

It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor. The field excited by a constant DC supply. If the field current is constant then speed is directly proportional to armature voltage and torque is directly proportional to armature current.

Transfer Function =

K m

S (1 + T m S)

K m =

1 / Avg K b

= JR a /

=

K b K t

T / I a

T m

K t E b

= V-I a R a

Constant Values

J

=

0.039 Kg 2 m

B

=

0.030 N / rpm

Values J = 0.039 Kg 2 m B = 0.030 N / rpm PREPARED BY V.BALAJI
Values J = 0.039 Kg 2 m B = 0.030 N / rpm PREPARED BY V.BALAJI

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 4

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

FFiieelldd CCoonnttrrooll DD

CC

SSeerrvvoo mmoottoorr::

It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor. In this motor the armature is supplied with constant current or voltage. Torque is directly proportional to field flux controlling the field current controls the torque of

Sl.No

S 1

S 2

I f

I a

N

V

T

E

b

K b = E b /

the motor.

Transfer Function =

K

Js 2 (1 + s)

K = K t / R f = L f / R f = V

 

Z f 2 – R f 2 / 2 f / R f

 

Z f 2 – R f 2 / 2 f / R f     =
 

= 2 N / 60 T = r ( S 1 – S 2 ) * 9.81 N-m and r = .075m

OBSERVATION TABLE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION ARMATURE

CONTROL DC SERVO MOTOR:

TTaabbllee NNoo 11 FFiinnddiinngg tthhee vvaalluuee ooff KK bb

i i n n g g t t h h e e v v a a
i i n n g g t t h h e e v v a a

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 5

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N

TTaabbllee NNoo 22 TToo ffiinndd RR aa

Avg K b

Sl.No Volt V a Current I a R a = V a / I a
Sl.No
Volt V a
Current I a
R a = V a / I a

PPRREECCAAUUTTIIOONNSS::

Avg R a =

At starting,

The field rheostat should be kept in minimum resistance position

PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE FFOORR TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF AARRMMAATTUURREE CCOONNTTRROOLL DDCC SSEERRVVOOMMOOTTOORR::

R R O O L L D D C C S S E E R R
R R O O L L D D C C S S E E R R

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 6

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

FFiinnddiinngg KK bb

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.

4. Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal A and AA respectively, and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF respectively.

5. Switch ON the power switch, S 1 , S 2 .

6. Set the field voltage 50% of the rated value.

7. Set the field current 50% of the rated value.

8. Tight the belt an take down the necessary readings for the table – 1 to find the value of K b .

9. Plot the graph Torque as Armature current to find K t .

FFiinnddiinngg RR aa

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.

4. Connect module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal A to AA respectively.

5. Switch ON the power switch and S 1 .

6. Now armature voltage and armature current are taken by varying the armature POT with in the rated armature current value.

7. The average resistance value in the table -2 gives the armature resistance.

PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE FFOORR TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF FFIIEELLDD CCOONNTTRROOLL DD CC SSEERRVVOOMMOOTTOORR::

FFiinnddiinngg RR ff

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Keep armature field voltage POT in minimum potential position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.

4. Connect module filed output F and FF to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively.

output F and FF to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech,
output F and FF to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech,

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 7

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

5. Switch ON the power, S1 and S2.

6. Now filed voltage and filed current are taken by varying the armature POT with in the rated armature current value.

7. Tabulate the value in the table no – 3 average resistance values give the fied resistance.

FFiinnddiinngg ZZ ff

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Keep armature and field voltage POT in minimum position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.

4. Connect module varaic output P and N to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively.

5. Switch on the power note down reading for the various AC supply by adjusting varaic for the table no – 4.

ll

FFiinnddiinngg KK tt

1. Keep all switches OFF position.

2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.

4. Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal and AA respectively, and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF respectively.

5. Switch ON the power switch, S 1 and S 2 .

6. Set the filed voltage at rated value (48V).

7. Adjust the armature voltage using POT on the armature side till it reaches the 1100 rpm.

8. Tight the belt and take down the necessary reading for the table – 5 K t

9. Plot the graph Torque as Field current to find K t

l

l

OOBBSSEERRVVAATTIIOONN TTAABBLLEE FFOORR TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF AARRMMAATTUURREE CCOONNTTRROOLL DDCC SSEERRVVOO MMOOTTOORR::

TTaabbllee NNoo::33 TToo ffiinndd RR ff

Sl.No I f (amp) V f (Volt) R f (ohm)
Sl.No
I f (amp)
V f (Volt)
R f (ohm)

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 8

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N

TTaabbllee NNoo::44 TToo ffiinndd ZZ ff

Avg R f =

Sl.No I f (amp) mA V f (Volt) Z f = V f / I
Sl.No
I f (amp)
mA
V f (Volt)
Z f = V f / I f
AAvvgg ZZ ff == l TTaabbllee NNoo:: 55 TToo ffiinndd KK tt Sl.No I I
AAvvgg ZZ ff ==
l
TTaabbllee NNoo:: 55 TToo ffiinndd KK tt
Sl.No
I
I
S
S
T( N – m)
N (rpm)
f
a
1
2

T

MMOODDEELL GGRRAAPPHH:: K t l = T / If T T Kt = T /
MMOODDEELL GGRRAAPPHH::
K t l = T / If
T
T
Kt = T /
T
I a
PREPARED BY I V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
f
Page 9

Field Current

Armature Current

I a

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What are the main parts of a DC servo motor?

2. What are the two types of servo motor?

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a DC servo motor?

4. Give the applications of DC servomotor?

5. What do you mean by servo mechanism?

6. What do you mean by field controlled DC servo motor?

MMOODDEELL CCAALLCCUULLAATTIIOONN::

O O D D E E L L C C A A L L C C
O O D D E E L L C C A A L L C C

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 10

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Result:

TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF AACC SSEERRVVOO MMOOTTOORR

EEXXPPTT

NNOO

::

DDAATTEE

::

AAIIMM::

N N O O : : D D A A T T E E : :
N N O O : : D D A A T T E E : :

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 11

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

To determine the transfer function of the given AC servomotor

AAPPPPAARRAATTUUSS RREEQQUUIIRREEDD::

S.No

Name of the Equipment

Range

Type

Quantity

NNAAMMEE PPLLAATTEE DDEETTAAIILLSS::

OUTPUT

:

VOLTAGE

:

CURRENT

:

SPEED

:

FFUUSSEE RRAATTIINNGGSS::

Blocked rotor test: 125% of rated current.

TTHHEEOORRYY::

An servo motor is basically a two – phase induction type except for certain special design features. A two – phase servomotor differ in the following two ways from a normal induction motor. The rotor of the servomotor is built with high resistance. So that its X / R (Inductive reactance / resistance) ratio is small which result in liner speed – torque characteristics. The excitation voltage applied to two – stator winding should have a phase difference of 90 o

WWOORRKKIINNGG PPRRIINNCCIIPPLLEE OOFF AACC SSEERRVVOOMMOOTTOORR

Voltages of equal rms magnitude and 90 o phase difference excite the stator winding. These results in exciting current i 1 and i 2 that are phase displaced by 90 o and have equal rms value. These current are rise to a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude. The direction of rotation depends on the phase relationship of the two current (or voltage).

on the phase relationship of the two current (or voltage). PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,
on the phase relationship of the two current (or voltage). PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 12

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

The rotating magnetic field sweeps over the rotor conductor. The rotor conductors experience a change in flux and so voltage are induced in rotor conductors. This voltage circulates current in the short circuited rotor conductors and the current creates rotor flux. Due to the interaction of stator and rotor flux, a mechanical force (or torque) is developed on the rotor and the rotor starts moving in the same direction as that of rotating magnetic field.

FFOORRMMUULLAA::

Laplace Transform of output

Transfer Function =

Laplace Transform of input

(s) / E s (s) = K 1 / sJ + K 2 + B = K m / 1 + s

------ (1)

K m = K 1 / (K 2 + B) ------------------------------- motor gain constant (2)

m = J / (K 2 + B) ---------------------------------- motor time constant (3)

Torque (T) = 9.81 * r * s Nm

S = applied load in Kg

R = radius of shaft in m = 0.068 m

CCoonnssttaanntt VVaalluueess::

J = 52 gmcm 2 = 0.05kg cm 2 , B = 0.01875

TTaabbllee NNoo:: 11

OOBBSSEERRVVAATTIIOONN TTAABBLLEE FFOORR DDEETTEERRMMIINNIIGG MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK 11 ::

S.No

Load

Control Voltage (V c )

Torque

(kg)

(Nm)

Load Control Voltage (V c ) Torque (kg) (Nm) PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Load Control Voltage (V c ) Torque (kg) (Nm) PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 13

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N
Control Systems Laboratory Manual T T a a b b l l e e N N

TTaabbllee NNoo:: 22

OOBBSSEERRVVAATTIIOONN TTAABBLLEE FFOORR DDEETTEERRMMIINNIINNGG MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK 22 ::

S.No

Speed (N)

Load

Torque

(Nm)

rpm

(kg)

PPRREECCAAUUTTIIOONNSS::

i. Initially DPST switch should be in open condition.

ii. Keep the autotransformer in minimum potential position.

iii. In blocked rotor test, block the rotor by tightening the belt around the the brake drum before starting the experiment.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SERVOMOTOR

drum before starting the experiment. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SERVOMOTOR PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
drum before starting the experiment. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SERVOMOTOR PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 14

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual P P R R O O C C E E D D

PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE::

FFoorr ddeetteerrmmiinniinngg mmoottoorr ccoonnssttaanntt KK 11

1. Keep variac in minimum potential position.

2. Connect banana connectors “P out to P in ” and “N out to N in ”.

3. Connect 9pin D connector from the motor feed back to the input of module VPET – 302.

4. Switch ON the 230V AC supply of the motor setup.

5. Switch ON the power switch.

6. Switch ON the S 2 (main winding) and S 1 (control winding) switches.

7. Set the rated voltage (230V) to control phase using VARIAC.

8. Apply load to the motor step by step until it reaching 0 rpm.

9. Take necessary readings for the table -1.

10.To calculate K 1 plot the graph torque vs control winding.

FFoorr ddeetteerrmmiinniinngg mmoottoorr ccoonnssttaanntt KK 22

1. Keep variac in minimum potential position.

2. Connect banana connectors “P out to P in ” and “N out to N in ”.

3. Connect 9pin D connector from the motor feed back to the input of module VPET – 302.

4. Switch ON the 230V AC supply of the motor setup.

5. Switch ON the power switch.

6. Switch ON the S 2 (main winding) and S 1 (control winding) switches.

S 2 (main winding) and S 1 (control winding) switches. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,
S 2 (main winding) and S 1 (control winding) switches. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 15

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

7. Set the rated voltage (230V) to control phase using VARIAC.

8. Apply load to the motor step by step until it reaches 0 rpm.

9. Take necessary readings for the table -2.

10.To calculate K2 plot speed vs torque curve.

MMOODDEELL GGRRAAPPHH

MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK22 K 2 = T / N T N
MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK22
K 2 = T / N
T
N

Speed in rpm

MMOODDEELL CCAALLCCUULLAATTIIOONN::

MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK11 T V K 1 = T / V
MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK11
T
V
K 1 = T / V

Speed in rpm

CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK11 T V K 1 = T / V Speed in rpm PREPARED BY V.BALAJI
CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK11 T V K 1 = T / V Speed in rpm PREPARED BY V.BALAJI

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 16

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. Define transfer function?

2. What is A.C servo motor? What are the main parts?

3. What is servo mechanism?

4. Is this a closed loop or open loop system .Explain?

5. What is back EMF?

Result:

ANALOG SIMULATION OF TYPE – 0 and TYPE – 1 SYSTEM

AIM:

To study the time response of first and second order type –0 and type- 1 systems.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Linear system simulator kit

2. CRO

FORMULAE USED:

REQUIRED: 1. Linear system simulator kit 2. CRO FORMULAE USED: PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,
REQUIRED: 1. Linear system simulator kit 2. CRO FORMULAE USED: PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 17

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

1. Damping ratio, = ÷ (ln M P ) 2 / ( 2 + (ln M P ) 2 ) Where M P is peak percent overshoot obtained from the response graph

2. Undamped natural frequency, n = / t p ÷ (1 - 2 ) Where t p is peak time obtained from the response graph

3. Closed loop transfer function of type-0 second order system is C(s) / R(s) = G(s) / 1+G(s) Where G(s) = K K2 K3 / [(1+sT1) (1 + sT2)]

K is the gain

K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 K3 is the gain of the time constant – 2 block =10 T1 is the time constant time constant – 1 block = 1 ms

T2 is the time constant time constant – 2 block = 1 ms

4. Closed loop transfer function of type-1 second order system is C(s) / R(s) = G(s) / 1+G(s) Where G(s) = K K1 K2 /[s (1 + sT1)]

K is the gain

K1 is the gain of Integrator = 9.6 K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 T1 is the time constant of time constant – 1 block = 1 ms

Theoretical Values of n and can be obtained by comparing the co-efficients of the denominator of the closed loop transfer function of the second order system with the standard format of the second order system where the standard format is

THEORY:

C(s) /R(s) = n 2 / s 2 + 2

n s + n

2

The type number of the system is obtained from the number of poles located at origin in a given system. Type – 0 system means there is no pole at origin. Type – 1 system means there is one pole located at the origin. The order of the system is obtained from the highest power of s in the denominator of closed loop transfer function of the system The first order system is characterized by one pole or a zero. Examples of first order systems are a pure integrator and a single time constant having transfer function of the form K/s and K/ (sT+1). The second order system is characterized by two poles and upto two zeros. The standard form of a second order system is C(s) /R(s) = n 2 / (s 2 + 2 n s + n 2 ) where is damping ratio and n is undamped natural frequency.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

1. To find steady state error of type- 1 system

BLOCK DIAGRAM: 1. To find steady state error of type- 1 system PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech,
BLOCK DIAGRAM: 1. To find steady state error of type- 1 system PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech,

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 18

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual 2. To find steady state error of type- 0 system 3. To

2. To find steady state error of type- 0 system

Manual 2. To find steady state error of type- 0 system 3. To find the closed

3. To find the closed loop response of Type-1 second order system

find the closed loop response of Type-1 second order system 4. To find the closed loop

4. To find the closed loop response of Type-0 second order system

To find the closed loop response of Type-0 second order system PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D),
To find the closed loop response of Type-0 second order system PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D),

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 19

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Control Systems Laboratory Manual PROCEDURE: 1. To find the steady state error of type – 1

PROCEDURE:

1. To find the steady state error of type – 1 first order system

1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.

2. The input triangular wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the X- channel of CRO.

3. The output from the system is connected to the Y- channel of CRO.

4. The experiment should be conducted at the lowest frequency so keep the frequency knob in minimum position to allow enough time for the step response to reach near steady state.

5. The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical displacement between the two curves.

6. The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.

2. To find the steady state error of type – 0 first order system

1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.

2. The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the X- channel of CRO.

3. The output from the system is connected to the Y- channel of CRO.

4. The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical displacement between the two curves.

5. The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.

3. To find the closed loop response of type – 0 and type- 1 second order system

1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.

2. The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the X- channel of CRO.

3. The output from the system is connected to the Y- channel of CRO.

4. The output waveform is obtained in the CRO and it is traced on a graph sheet. From the waveform the peak percent overshoot, settling time, rise time, peak time are measured. Using these values n and are calculated.

are measured. Using these values n and are calculated. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
are measured. Using these values n and are calculated. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 20

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

5. The above procedure is repeated for different values of gain K and the values are compared with the theoretical values.

TABULAR COLUMN:

1. To find the steady state error of type – 1 first order system

S.No.

Gain ,K

Steady state error e ss (V)

2. To find the steady state error of type – 0 first order system

S.No.

Gain ,K

Steady state error e ss (V)

3. To find the closed loop response of type – 0 second order system

S.No.

Ga

Peak

Rise

Peak

Settling

Graphical

Theoretical

in,

percent

time,

time,

time,t s

K

Overshoot,

t

r

t

p

(sec)

Dam

Undamped natural frequency, n (rad/sec)

Dam

Undamped natural frequency, n (rad/sec)

%M P

(sec)

(sec)

ping

ping

ratio

ratio

%M P (sec) (sec) ping ping ratio ratio PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE Page
%M P (sec) (sec) ping ping ratio ratio PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE Page

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 21

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

4. To find the closed loop response of type – 1 second order system

S.No.

Gain,

Peak

Rise

Peak

Settling

Graphical

Theoretical

K

percent

time,

time,

time,t s

Dam

 

Undamped

Damping

Undamped natural frequency, n (rad/sec)

Overshoot,

t

r

t

p

(sec)

ping

natural

ratio

%M P

(sec)

(sec)

ratio

frequency,

n

(rad/sec)

 

MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT

(rad/sec)   MODEL GRAPH: MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE Page 22
(rad/sec)   MODEL GRAPH: MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE Page 22

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 22

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

SSTTAABBIILLIITTYY AANNAALLYYSSIISS OOFF LLIINNEEAARR SSYYSSTTEEMM

I S S O O F F L L I I N N E E A
I S S O O F F L L I I N N E E A

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 23

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

EEXXPPTT

NNOO

::

DDAATTEE

::

AAIIMM::

 

(i)

To obtain the bode plot, Nyquist plot and root locus of the given

 

transfer function.

 

(ii)

To analysis the stability of given linear system using MATLAB.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

System with MATLAB

TTHHEEOORRYY::

FFrreeqquueennccyy RReessppoonnssee::

The frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the system is a sinusoidal signal.

either

analytically or graphically. The various graphical techniques available for

frequency response analysis are

Frequency

response

analysis

of

control

system

can

be

carried

1. Bode Plot

2. Polar plot (Nyquist plot)

3. Nichols plot

4. M and N circles

5. Nichols chart

BBooddee pplloott::

The bode plot is a frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. A bode plot consists of two graphs. One is plot of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function versus log . The other is plot of the phase angle of a

sinusoidal transfer function versus log . The main advantage of the bode plot is that multiplication of magnitude can be converted into addition. Also a simple method for sketching an approximate log magnitude curve is available.

for sketching an approximate log magnitude curve is available. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
for sketching an approximate log magnitude curve is available. PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 24

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

PPoollaarr pplloott::

The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G (j ) on polar coordinates is varied from zero to infinity. Thus the polar plot is the locus of vectors

is varied from zero to infinity. The polar plot is also called

NNyyqquuiisstt SSttaabbiilliittyy CCrriitteerriioonn::

If G(s)H(s) contour in the G(s)H(s) plane corresponding to Nyquist contour in s-plane encircles the point – 1+j0 in the anti – clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half s-plain of G(s)H(s). Then the closed loop system is stable.

RRoooott LLooccuuss::

The root locus technique is a powerful tool for adjusting the location of closed loop poles to achieve the desired system performance by varying one or more system parameters. The path taken by the roots of the characteristics equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to are called root loci (or the path taken by a root of characteristic equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to is called root locus.)

FFrreeqquueennccyy DDoommaaiinn SSppeecciiffiiccaattiioonnss::

The performance and characteristics of a system in frequency domain are measured in term of frequency domain specifications. The requirements of a system to be designed are usually specified in terms of these specifications. The frequency domain specifications are

1. Resonant peak, M r

2. Resonant Frequency, r.

3. Bandwidth.

4. Cut – off rate

5. Gain margin

6. Phase margin

3. Bandwidth. 4. Cut – off rate 5. Gain margin 6. Phase margin PREPARED BY V.BALAJI
3. Bandwidth. 4. Cut – off rate 5. Gain margin 6. Phase margin PREPARED BY V.BALAJI

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 25

[G (j ) ] Nyquist plot.

as

G (j ) as

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

RReessoonnaanntt PPeeaakk,, MM rr

The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called the resonant peak, M r . A large resonant peak corresponds to a large over shoot in transient response.

RReessoonnaanntt FFrreeqquueennccyy,, rr

The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more than -3db. The frequency at which the gain is -3db is called cut off frequency. Bandwidth is usually defined for closed loop system and it transmits the signals whose frequencies are less than cut-off frequency. The bandwidth is a measured of the ability of a feedback system to produce the input signal, noise rejection characteristics and rise time. A large bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time or fast response.

CCuutt--OOffff RRaattee::

The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called cut-off rate. The cut-off rate indicates the ability of the system to distinguish the signal from noise.

GGaaiinn MMaarrggiinn,, KK gg The gain margin, K g is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function at phase cross over frequency. The frequency at witch the phase of open loop transfer function is 180 is called the phase cross over frequency, pc .

PPhhaassee MMaarrggiinn,, The phase margin , is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability, the gain cross over frequency gc is the frequency at which the magnitude of open loop transfer function is unity (or it is the frequency at which the db magnitude is zero).

PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE::

db magnitude is zero). P P R R O O C C E E D D
db magnitude is zero). P P R R O O C C E E D D

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 26

Control Systems Laboratory Manual 1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB. 2. Create a
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
2. Create a new M – file by selecting File – New – M – File.
3. Type and save the program.
4. Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug – Run.
5. View the results.
6. Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain.
PPrroobblleemm 11
Obtain the bode diagram for the following system
x 
0
1
 x 
1   y 
1
1
1
=
+
 
 1
x
25
4
x
1
y
2 
 0
 
2 
2
y 
0
1
1
1
 =
  x 
y
25
4
x
2
2
MMAATTLLAABB PPrrooggrraamm
a = [0
1
;
-25
-4]
b = [1
1
;
0
1]
c = [1
1
;
1
1]
d = [0
0
;
0
0]
bode (a, b, c, d)
grid
title (‘BODE DIAGRAM’)
PPrroobblleemm 22
1
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
s
(
s
+
1)
Page 27

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Draw the Nyquist plot for G(s) =

MMAATTLLAABB PPrrooggrraamm

num =

[0

0

0]

den =

[1

1

0]

nyquist (num,den) v = [-2,2,-5,5] axis (v) grid title (‘Nyquist Plot’)

PPrroobblleemm 22 Obtain the root focus plot of the given open loop T.F is

K

G(s) H (s) =

0

0

10.3

+

0 .6

s +

0

1]

5

0]

MMAATTLLAABB PPrrooggrraamm

num = [0 den = [11.1

rlocus (num,den) grid title [‘Root Locus Plot’]

den = [11.1 rlocus (num,den) grid title [‘Root Locus Plot’] PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,
den = [11.1 rlocus (num,den) grid title [‘Root Locus Plot’] PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE,

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 28

s

( s +

0 .5 )(

s

2

10 )

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

Result:

CCLLOOSSEEDD LLOOOOPP SSPPEEEEDD CCOONNTTRROOLL SSYYSSTTEEMM

E E E D D C C O O N N T T R R O
E E E D D C C O O N N T T R R O

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 29

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

EEXXPPTT

NNOO

::

DDAATTEE

::

AAIIMM::

To study the behavior of closed loop speed control system using

PID controller

AAPPPPAARRAATTUUSS RREEQQUUIIRREEDD::

(i)

PID controller with motor

(ii)

CRO

TTHHEEOORRYY::

Closed loop system Control system which the output has an effect upon the input quantity in such a manner as to maintain the desired output value is called closed loop systems. The open loop system can be modified as closed loop system by providing a feedback. The provision of feedback automatically corrects the change in output due disturbances. Hence the closed loop system is also called closed loop system. The general block diagram of an automatic control system is given below. In consists of an error detector, a controller, plant (open loop system) and feedback path element. The reference signal (or input signal) corresponds to desired output. The feedback path elements sample the output and convert it to a signal of same type as that of reference detector. The error signal generated by the error detector is the difference between reference signal and feedback signal. The controller modifies and amplifies the error signal to produce better control action. The modified error signal is fed to the plant to correct its output.

PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE::

to correct its output. P P R R O O C C E E D D
to correct its output. P P R R O O C C E E D D

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 30

Control Systems Laboratory Manual

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.

2. Set the speed of the motor using set position.

3. Vary the gain values of P,I, and D controller until to get the set speed to current speed.

4. Repeat the above procedure for different values of set speed.

Result:

S