Control Systems Laboratory Manual
DDEEPPAARRTTEEMMEENNTT OOFF EELLEECCTTRRIICCAALL AANNDD EELLEECCTTRROONNIICCSS EENNGGIINNEEEERRIINNGG
EE2257 CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY MMAANNUUAALL
VV
BBAALLAAJJII,,
MM
TTeecchh,,
PPRREEPPAARREEDD BBYY
((PPhh
DD)),,
MM
II
SS
TT
EE,,
MM
II
AA
EENNGG,,
MM
II
OO
JJ
EE
AASSSSIITTAANNTT PPRROOFFEESSSSOORR//EEEEEE DDEEPPAARRTTMMEENNTT DDHHAANNAALLAAKKSSHHMMII CCOOLLLLEEGGEE OOFF EENNGGIINNEEEERRIINNGG CCHHEENNNNAAII
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 1
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
LLIISSTT OOFF EEXXPPEERRIIMMEENNTTSS
1. Determination of transfer function of DC Servomotor
2. Determination of transfer function of AC Servomotor.
3. Analog simulation of Type  0 and Type – 1 systems
4. Determination of transfer function of DC Generator
5. Determination of transfer function of DC Motor
6. Stability analysis of linear systems
7. DC and AC position control systems
8. Stepper motor control system
9. Digital simulation of first systems
10. Digital simulation of second systems
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 2
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF DDCC SSEERRVVOO MMOOTTOORR
EEXXPPTT 
NNOO 
:: 
DDAATTEE 
:: 
AAIIMM::
To determine the transfer function of the DC servomotor
AAPPPPAARRAATTUUSS RREEQQUUIIRREEDD::
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 3
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
TTHHEEOORRYY::
Speed can be controlled by varying (i) flux per pole (ii) resistance of armature circuit and (iii) applied voltage.
It is known that N µ
E _{b}_{.}
If applied voltage is kept, E _{b} = V – I _{a} R _{a} will
Remain constant. Then, N µ
By decreasing the flux speed can be increased and vice versa. Hence this method is called field control method. The flux of the DC shunt motor can be changed by changing field current, I _{s}_{h} with the help of shunt field rheostat. Since the I _{s}_{h} relatively small, the shunt filed rheostat has to carry only a small current, which means I _{s}_{h} ^{2} R loss is small. This method is very efficient. In noninterpolar machines, speed can be increased by this methods up to the ratio 2: 1. In interpolar machine, a ratio of maximum to minimum speed of 6:1 which is fairly common. FFOORRMMUULLAA::
AArrmmaattuurree CCoonnttrrooll DD SSeerrvvoo mmoottoorr::
1
CC
It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor. The field excited by a constant DC supply. If the field current is constant then speed is directly proportional to armature voltage and torque is directly proportional to armature current.
Transfer Function =
K m
S (1 + T _{m} S)

K _{m} = 1 / Avg K _{b} = JR _{a} / = K _{b} K _{t} T / I _{a}


T _{m} 

K _{t} E _{b} = VI _{a} R _{a} 
Constant Values
J 
= 
0.039 Kg ^{2} m 
B 
= 
0.030 N / rpm 
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 4
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
FFiieelldd CCoonnttrrooll DD
CC
SSeerrvvoo mmoottoorr::
It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor. In this motor the armature is supplied with constant current or voltage. Torque is directly proportional to field flux controlling the field current controls the torque of
Sl.No
S 1
S 2
I f
I a
N
V
T
E
b
K _{b} = E _{b} /
the motor.
Transfer Function =
K
Js ^{2} (1 + s)

K = K _{t} / R _{f} = L _{f} / R _{f} = V 


Z _{f} ^{2} – R _{f} ^{2} / 2 f / R _{f} 





= 2 N / 60 T = r ( S _{1} – S _{2} ) * 9.81 Nm and r = .075m 
OBSERVATION TABLE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION ARMATURE
CONTROL DC SERVO MOTOR:
TTaabbllee NNoo 11 FFiinnddiinngg tthhee vvaalluuee ooff KK _{b}_{b}
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 5
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
TTaabbllee NNoo 22 TToo ffiinndd RR _{a}_{a}
Avg K _{b}
PPRREECCAAUUTTIIOONNSS::
Avg R _{a} =
At starting, 

∑ 
The field rheostat should be kept in minimum resistance position 
PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE FFOORR TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF AARRMMAATTUURREE CCOONNTTRROOLL DDCC SSEERRVVOOMMOOTTOORR::
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 6
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
FFiinnddiinngg KK _{b}_{b}
1. Keep all switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal A and AA respectively, and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF respectively.
5. Switch ON the power switch, S _{1} , S _{2} .
6. Set the field voltage 50% of the rated value.
7. Set the field current 50% of the rated value.
8. Tight the belt an take down the necessary readings for the table – 1 to find the value of K _{b} .
9. Plot the graph Torque as Armature current to find K _{t} .
FFiinnddiinngg RR _{a}_{a}
1. Keep all switches in OFF position.
2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.
4. Connect module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal A to AA respectively.
5. Switch ON the power switch and S _{1} .
6. Now armature voltage and armature current are taken by varying the armature POT with in the rated armature current value.
7. The average resistance value in the table 2 gives the armature resistance.
PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE FFOORR TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF FFIIEELLDD CCOONNTTRROOLL DD CC SSEERRVVOOMMOOTTOORR::
FFiinnddiinngg RR _{f}_{f}
1. Keep all switches in OFF position.
2. Keep armature field voltage POT in minimum potential position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.
4. Connect module filed output F and FF to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively.
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 7
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
5. Switch ON the power, S1 and S2.
6. Now filed voltage and filed current are taken by varying the armature POT with in the rated armature current value.
7. Tabulate the value in the table no – 3 average resistance values give the fied resistance.
FFiinnddiinngg ZZ _{f}_{f}
1. Keep all switches in OFF position.
2. Keep armature and field voltage POT in minimum position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect module varaic output P and N to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively.
5. Switch on the power note down reading for the various AC supply by adjusting varaic for the table no – 4.
ll
FFiinnddiinngg KK _{t}_{t}
1. Keep all switches OFF position.
2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.
3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.
4. Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal and AA respectively, and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF respectively.
5. Switch ON the power switch, S _{1} and S _{2} .
6. Set the filed voltage at rated value (48V).
7. Adjust the armature voltage using POT on the armature side till it reaches the 1100 rpm.
8. Tight the belt and take down the necessary reading for the table – 5 K _{t}
9. Plot the graph Torque as Field current to find K _{t}
l
l
OOBBSSEERRVVAATTIIOONN TTAABBLLEE FFOORR TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF AARRMMAATTUURREE CCOONNTTRROOLL DDCC SSEERRVVOO MMOOTTOORR::
TTaabbllee NNoo::33 TToo ffiinndd RR _{f}_{f}
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 8
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
TTaabbllee NNoo::44 TToo ffiinndd ZZ _{f}_{f}
Avg R _{f} =
T
Field Current
Armature Current
I _{a}
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What are the main parts of a DC servo motor?
2. What are the two types of servo motor?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a DC servo motor?
4. Give the applications of DC servomotor?
5. What do you mean by servo mechanism?
6. What do you mean by field controlled DC servo motor?
MMOODDEELL CCAALLCCUULLAATTIIOONN::
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 10
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
Result:
TTRRAANNSSFFEERR FFUUNNCCTTIIOONN OOFF AACC SSEERRVVOO MMOOTTOORR
EEXXPPTT 
NNOO 
:: 
DDAATTEE 
:: 

AAIIMM:: 
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 11
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
To determine the transfer function of the given AC servomotor
AAPPPPAARRAATTUUSS RREEQQUUIIRREEDD::
S.No 
Name of the Equipment 
Range 
Type 
Quantity 
NNAAMMEE PPLLAATTEE DDEETTAAIILLSS::
OUTPUT 
: 
VOLTAGE 
: 
CURRENT 
: 
SPEED 
: 
FFUUSSEE RRAATTIINNGGSS::
Blocked rotor test: 125% of rated current.
TTHHEEOORRYY::
An servo motor is basically a two – phase induction type except for certain special design features. A two – phase servomotor differ in the following two ways from a normal induction motor. The rotor of the servomotor is built with high resistance. So that its X / R (Inductive reactance / resistance) ratio is small which result in liner speed – torque characteristics. The excitation voltage applied to two – stator winding should have a phase difference of 90 ^{o}
WWOORRKKIINNGG PPRRIINNCCIIPPLLEE OOFF AACC SSEERRVVOOMMOOTTOORR
Voltages of equal rms magnitude and 90 ^{o} phase difference excite the stator winding. These results in exciting current i _{1} and i _{2} that are phase displaced by 90 ^{o} and have equal rms value. These current are rise to a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude. The direction of rotation depends on the phase relationship of the two current (or voltage).
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 12
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
The rotating magnetic field sweeps over the rotor conductor. The rotor conductors experience a change in flux and so voltage are induced in rotor conductors. This voltage circulates current in the short circuited rotor conductors and the current creates rotor flux. Due to the interaction of stator and rotor flux, a mechanical force (or torque) is developed on the rotor and the rotor starts moving in the same direction as that of rotating magnetic field.
FFOORRMMUULLAA::
Laplace Transform of output
Transfer Function =
Laplace Transform of input
(s) / E _{s} (s) = K _{1} / sJ + K _{2} + B = K _{m} / 1 + s
 (1)
K _{m} = K _{1} / (K _{2} + B)  motor gain constant (2)
_{m} = J / (K _{2} + B)  motor time constant (3)
Torque (T) = 9.81 * r * s Nm
∑ S = applied load in Kg
∑ R = radius of shaft in m = 0.068 m
CCoonnssttaanntt VVaalluueess::
J = 52 gmcm ^{2} = 0.05kg cm ^{2} , B = 0.01875
TTaabbllee NNoo:: 11
OOBBSSEERRVVAATTIIOONN TTAABBLLEE FFOORR DDEETTEERRMMIINNIIGG MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK _{1}_{1} ::
S.No 
Load 
Control Voltage (V _{c} ) 
Torque 
(kg) 
(Nm) 
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 13
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
TTaabbllee NNoo:: 22
OOBBSSEERRVVAATTIIOONN TTAABBLLEE FFOORR DDEETTEERRMMIINNIINNGG MMOOTTOORR CCOONNSSTTAANNTT KK _{2}_{2} ::
S.No 
Speed (N) 
Load 
Torque 
(Nm) 
rpm 
(kg) 
PPRREECCAAUUTTIIOONNSS::
i. Initially DPST switch should be in open condition.
ii. Keep the autotransformer in minimum potential position.
iii. In blocked rotor test, block the rotor by tightening the belt around the the brake drum before starting the experiment.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SERVOMOTOR
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 14
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE::
FFoorr ddeetteerrmmiinniinngg mmoottoorr ccoonnssttaanntt KK _{1}_{1}
1. Keep variac in minimum potential position.
2. Connect banana connectors “P _{o}_{u}_{t} to P _{i}_{n} ” and “N _{o}_{u}_{t} to N _{i}_{n} ”.
3. Connect 9pin D connector from the motor feed back to the input of module VPET – 302.
4. Switch ON the 230V AC supply of the motor setup.
5. Switch ON the power switch.
6. Switch ON the S _{2} (main winding) and S _{1} (control winding) switches.
7. Set the rated voltage (230V) to control phase using VARIAC.
8. Apply load to the motor step by step until it reaching 0 rpm.
9. Take necessary readings for the table 1.
10.To calculate K _{1} plot the graph torque vs control winding.
FFoorr ddeetteerrmmiinniinngg mmoottoorr ccoonnssttaanntt KK _{2}_{2}
1. Keep variac in minimum potential position.
2. Connect banana connectors “P _{o}_{u}_{t} to P _{i}_{n} ” and “N _{o}_{u}_{t} to N _{i}_{n} ”.
3. Connect 9pin D connector from the motor feed back to the input of module VPET – 302.
4. Switch ON the 230V AC supply of the motor setup.
5. Switch ON the power switch.
6. Switch ON the S _{2} (main winding) and S _{1} (control winding) switches.
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 15
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
7. Set the rated voltage (230V) to control phase using VARIAC.
8. Apply load to the motor step by step until it reaches 0 rpm.
9. Take necessary readings for the table 2.
10.To calculate K2 plot speed vs torque curve.
MMOODDEELL GGRRAAPPHH
Speed in rpm
MMOODDEELL CCAALLCCUULLAATTIIOONN::
Speed in rpm
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 16
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Define transfer function?
2. What is A.C servo motor? What are the main parts?
3. What is servo mechanism?
4. Is this a closed loop or open loop system .Explain?
5. What is back EMF?
Result:
ANALOG SIMULATION OF TYPE – 0 and TYPE – 1 SYSTEM
AIM:
To study the time response of first and second order type –0 and type 1 systems.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Linear system simulator kit
2. CRO
FORMULAE USED:
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 17
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
1. Damping ratio, = ÷ (ln M _{P} ) ^{2} / ( ^{2} + (ln M _{P} ) ^{2} ) Where M _{P} is peak percent overshoot obtained from the response graph
2. Undamped natural frequency, _{n} = / t _{p} ÷ (1  ^{2} ) Where t _{p} is peak time obtained from the response graph
3. Closed loop transfer function of type0 second order system is C(s) / R(s) = G(s) / 1+G(s) Where G(s) = K K2 K3 / [(1+sT1) (1 + sT2)]
K is the gain
K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 K3 is the gain of the time constant – 2 block =10 T1 is the time constant time constant – 1 block = 1 ms
T2 is the time constant time constant – 2 block = 1 ms
4. Closed loop transfer function of type1 second order system is C(s) / R(s) = G(s) / 1+G(s) Where G(s) = K K1 K2 /[s (1 + sT1)]
K is the gain
K1 is the gain of Integrator = 9.6 K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 T1 is the time constant of time constant – 1 block = 1 ms
Theoretical Values of _{n} and can be obtained by comparing the coefficients of the denominator of the closed loop transfer function of the second order system with the standard format of the second order system where the standard format is
THEORY:
C(s) /R(s) = _{n} ^{2} / s ^{2} + 2
_{n} s + _{n}
2
The type number of the system is obtained from the number of poles located at origin in a given system. Type – 0 system means there is no pole at origin. Type – 1 system means there is one pole located at the origin. The order of the system is obtained from the highest power of s in the denominator of closed loop transfer function of the system The first order system is characterized by one pole or a zero. Examples of first order systems are a pure integrator and a single time constant having transfer function of the form K/s and K/ (sT+1). The second order system is characterized by two poles and upto two zeros. The standard form of a second order system is C(s) /R(s) = _{n} ^{2} / (s ^{2} + 2 _{n} s + _{n} ^{2} ) where is damping ratio and _{n} is undamped natural frequency.
BLOCK DIAGRAM:
1. To find steady state error of type 1 system
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 18
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
2. To find steady state error of type 0 system
3. To find the closed loop response of Type1 second order system
4. To find the closed loop response of Type0 second order system
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 19
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
PROCEDURE:
1. To find the steady state error of type – 1 first order system
1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.
2. The input triangular wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the X channel of CRO.
3. The output from the system is connected to the Y channel of CRO.
4. The experiment should be conducted at the lowest frequency so keep the frequency knob in minimum position to allow enough time for the step response to reach near steady state.
5. The CRO is kept in XY mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical displacement between the two curves.
6. The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.
2. To find the steady state error of type – 0 first order system
1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.
2. The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the X channel of CRO.
3. The output from the system is connected to the Y channel of CRO.
4. The CRO is kept in XY mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical displacement between the two curves.
5. The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.
3. To find the closed loop response of type – 0 and type 1 second order system
1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.
2. The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the X channel of CRO.
3. The output from the system is connected to the Y channel of CRO.
4. The output waveform is obtained in the CRO and it is traced on a graph sheet. From the waveform the peak percent overshoot, settling time, rise time, peak time are measured. Using these values _{n} and are calculated.
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 20
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
5. The above procedure is repeated for different values of gain K and the values are compared with the theoretical values.
TABULAR COLUMN:
1. To find the steady state error of type – 1 first order system
S.No. 
Gain ,K 
Steady state error e _{s}_{s} (V) 
2. To find the steady state error of type – 0 first order system
S.No. 
Gain ,K 
Steady state error e _{s}_{s} (V) 
3. To find the closed loop response of type – 0 second order system
S.No. 
Ga 
Peak 
Rise 
Peak 
Settling 
Graphical 
Theoretical 

in, 
percent 
time, 
time, 
time,t _{s} 

K 
Overshoot, 
t 
r 
t 
p 
(sec) 
Dam 
Undamped natural frequency, _{} _{}_{}_{} _{n} (rad/sec) 
Dam 
Undamped natural frequency, _{} _{}_{}_{} _{n} (rad/sec) 

%M _{P} 
(sec) 
(sec) 
ping 
ping 

ratio 
ratio 



PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 21
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
4. To find the closed loop response of type – 1 second order system
S.No. 
Gain, 
Peak 
Rise 
Peak 
Settling 
Graphical 
Theoretical 

K 
percent 
time, 
time, 
time,t _{s} 
Dam 
Undamped 
Damping 
Undamped natural frequency, _{} _{}_{}_{} _{n} (rad/sec) 

Overshoot, 
t 
r 
t 
p 
(sec) 
ping 
natural 
ratio 

%M _{P} 
(sec) 
(sec) 
ratio _{}_{}_{}_{} 
frequency, 



_{n} 

(rad/sec) 
MODEL GRAPH:
MODEL CALCULATION:
RESULT
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 22
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
SSTTAABBIILLIITTYY AANNAALLYYSSIISS OOFF LLIINNEEAARR SSYYSSTTEEMM
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 23
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
EEXXPPTT 
NNOO 
:: 

DDAATTEE 
:: 

AAIIMM:: 

(i) 
To obtain the bode plot, Nyquist plot and root locus of the given 

transfer function. 

(ii) 
To analysis the stability of given linear system using MATLAB. 
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
System with MATLAB
TTHHEEOORRYY::
FFrreeqquueennccyy RReessppoonnssee::
The frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the system is a sinusoidal signal.
either
analytically or graphically. The various graphical techniques available for
frequency response analysis are
Frequency
response
analysis
of
control
system
can
be
carried
1. Bode Plot
2. Polar plot (Nyquist plot)
3. Nichols plot
4. M and N circles
5. Nichols chart
BBooddee pplloott::
The bode plot is a frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. A bode plot consists of two graphs. One is plot of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function versus log . The other is plot of the phase angle of a
sinusoidal transfer function versus log . The main advantage of the bode plot is that multiplication of magnitude can be converted into addition. Also a simple method for sketching an approximate log magnitude curve is available.
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 24
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
PPoollaarr pplloott::
The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G (j ) on polar coordinates is varied from zero to infinity. Thus the polar plot is the locus of vectors
is varied from zero to infinity. The polar plot is also called
NNyyqquuiisstt SSttaabbiilliittyy CCrriitteerriioonn::
If G(s)H(s) contour in the G(s)H(s) plane corresponding to Nyquist contour in splane encircles the point – 1+j0 in the anti – clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half splain of G(s)H(s). Then the closed loop system is stable.
RRoooott LLooccuuss::
The root locus technique is a powerful tool for adjusting the location of closed loop poles to achieve the desired system performance by varying one or more system parameters. The path taken by the roots of the characteristics equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to • are called root loci (or the path taken by a root of characteristic equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to • is called root locus.)
FFrreeqquueennccyy DDoommaaiinn SSppeecciiffiiccaattiioonnss::
The performance and characteristics of a system in frequency domain are measured in term of frequency domain specifications. The requirements of a system to be designed are usually specified in terms of these specifications. The frequency domain specifications are
_{1}_{.} Resonant peak, M _{r}
2. Resonant Frequency, _{r}_{.}
3. Bandwidth.
4. Cut – off rate
5. Gain margin
6. Phase margin
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 25
[G (j ) ] Nyquist plot.
as
G (j ) as
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
RReessoonnaanntt PPeeaakk,, MM _{r}_{r}
The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called the resonant peak, M _{r} . A large resonant peak corresponds to a large over shoot in transient response.
RReessoonnaanntt FFrreeqquueennccyy,, _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{r}_{r}
The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more than 3db. The frequency at which the gain is 3db is called cut off frequency. Bandwidth is usually defined for closed loop system and it transmits the signals whose frequencies are less than cutoff frequency. The bandwidth is a measured of the ability of a feedback system to produce the input signal, noise rejection characteristics and rise time. A large bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time or fast response.
CCuuttOOffff RRaattee::
The slope of the logmagnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called cutoff rate. The cutoff rate indicates the ability of the system to distinguish the signal from noise.
GGaaiinn MMaarrggiinn,, KK _{g}_{g} The gain margin, K _{g} is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function at phase cross over frequency. The frequency at witch the phase of open loop transfer function is 180 is called the phase cross over frequency, _{p}_{c} .
PPhhaassee MMaarrggiinn,, _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} The phase margin , is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability, the gain cross over frequency _{g}_{c} is the frequency at which the magnitude of open loop transfer function is unity (or it is the frequency at which the db magnitude is zero).
PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE::
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 26
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
Draw the Nyquist plot for G(s) =
MMAATTLLAABB PPrrooggrraamm
num = 
[0 
0 
0] 
den = 
[1 
1 
0] 
nyquist (num,den) v = [2,2,5,5] axis (v) grid title (‘Nyquist Plot’)
PPrroobblleemm 22 Obtain the root focus plot of the given open loop T.F is
K
G(s) H (s) =
0
0
10.3
+ 
0 .6 
s + 
0 
1] 

5 
0] 
MMAATTLLAABB PPrrooggrraamm
num = [0 den = [11.1
rlocus (num,den) grid title [‘Root Locus Plot’]
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 28
s
( s +
0 .5 )(
s
2
10 )
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
Result:
CCLLOOSSEEDD LLOOOOPP SSPPEEEEDD CCOONNTTRROOLL SSYYSSTTEEMM
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 29
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
EEXXPPTT 
NNOO 
:: 
DDAATTEE 
:: 

AAIIMM:: 
To study the behavior of closed loop speed control system using
PID controller
AAPPPPAARRAATTUUSS RREEQQUUIIRREEDD::
(i) 
PID controller with motor 
(ii) 
CRO 
TTHHEEOORRYY::
Closed loop system Control system which the output has an effect upon the input quantity in such a manner as to maintain the desired output value is called closed loop systems. The open loop system can be modified as closed loop system by providing a feedback. The provision of feedback automatically corrects the change in output due disturbances. Hence the closed loop system is also called closed loop system. The general block diagram of an automatic control system is given below. In consists of an error detector, a controller, plant (open loop system) and feedback path element. The reference signal (or input signal) corresponds to desired output. The feedback path elements sample the output and convert it to a signal of same type as that of reference detector. The error signal generated by the error detector is the difference between reference signal and feedback signal. The controller modifies and amplifies the error signal to produce better control action. The modified error signal is fed to the plant to correct its output.
PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE::
PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE
Page 30
Control Systems Laboratory Manual
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the speed of the motor using set position.
3. Vary the gain values of P,I, and D controller until to get the set speed to current speed.
4. Repeat the above procedure for different values of set speed.
Result:
S
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.