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Bach Khoa Thuy San Phan 1 3473

Bach Khoa Thuy San Phan 1 3473

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01/17/2016

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c:;::I-J ~,dch khoa

'?I ? ._

THUY SAN

NH'A XUAT ,BAN NONG NGHI$r

'"" A.

HA ,Ny' r- lUG?

Barl bieJn t"p

TS. NGUVEN vle:r THAN'G

IS" NGUYEN THl H6N:(; MINH IKS. NGUYEN TRQNB B1NHI PG,S.TS. NGUYIEN XUAN L Y PGS.TS. DOl VAN IKHUON(;

'Truang ba:n Ph6 ~nJdng ban U'Y \lien thl1 ky Uy \lien

U'Y v:~er11

No, ii du n ",',

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Ph a'nth (j nlh't Ph an ~hl1 Illa1:

Phanthliba:

Phan ~h(Hu:

Phanfhu narn:

Phan th Ii ,s,a,u:

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NGUON LOil THUY SAN

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KHAI THAC THOV SAN

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NUO:I TRON:G IHUY SAN

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BAO (JUAN VA, CH!E B~EN THUY SAN

K~NHI l'E 'AA HO'I N'OH,E; cA

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CACTA.C, GIA

Phan thll' "hat .. Men TR'U;ONG cae uk gii: (x~p thea 'van a, b, c)

ThiiBaH6 (Ch,uy'en vifn cao eiLp~! Tn1n LUll Khanb (Thae sn~ N. u . ·en Va.n N,guye:,[l rI'b,c sIlo Nguye:n Ducrng, ]b,@;OI (T~i!n 81). U Thaeh Tung (CU nb~n)~ - . uen 'Van Vier ,CIi' rib,li].).,

Ngual doc va. g6pl y kiln: Olio :SU~, Ti~n 81kh08 hoc D,~ug Ngqc Thanh.

Ngtrbi hi~u dlnb: Tien 51 Chu Ti,tIII V"mb

Ph~n 'thl1 hat N,GUON Len T'H'OV sAN

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a'G tie gia: (x~p~heo va:n a, btc:)

Lee ,DOWl OOng (Ky su), Plsan H6n..a DimgCTh~csn, -DiM Thanh ()~,t (ICY sir),

Pham '!hl.lne,o Hoa (Ol flhln.),~ 'I'hiiBa 86 (Chuyen "len cao JCi(p)~ Nguyen Quang, Hung (Th~c 81), N:jO. Trong Lu (Ky 5,0'). NguY:~l1 H.oIii Nam (01 nhtn)" Nguy~n Ea, ThOng (Th~:c .s1)"

D~ng Van Thi (Thae s1)" Da'o Duy Thu (Ou'uhan). £)~ng Minh Thu (ICU nhan),

Pb~m Thugc (Ph6 giao SU~, Ti'!ns,j khoahoc), Chu Ti~n\,":"Lnh (Tie:n si),

Ngl1CJi doc va g6py kien: Giao su, Tiim. sI khoa hoc D,~:tlg NSQ,c Thanh.

Ngooi. hi¢u dfnh: Tien si Chu Tian, V-mb

P'han thlt ba, :K,HAI' THAc THIUY SIAN acme gia: (xEp ~beo vin I~ b, c)

Nguy~n Treng Blnb (Ky su)~U Vi1nBOn '{Ky su), vel, DuyenHai (Th,~C' si)t

Thai Ea. Ho (Chuy!nvi!n. cao caJp), D~ng HlluKi;!n (K.y Sd),~ Nguy!n Vin Khang (Th~iC'Si), TrauNgQcKh.anh (Ky .stl1)! TIAn V,all La! (Ky' su), P11311 Oang Liem (K9 sir),

Nguy6n Dlnh ·Nhan (Ky su), DoaD Van. Ph\l (Ky SlJ'), Nguyl~n Phi Toan (K,), sU),

L@1i Buy Toan (Ky :ill), BiH V:an Tung (KY sir), 'Ph~ Van Tuy..sli (Ky S,Ilr).

N guai dQc va g6pyki,~"rI~: TieiJl 81 Nguytn Duy Chinh .. Ky: .suN,g,uyfn QUlang Dang~

- Tien sl N,guy,~~ Long.

Nguai hi~u dfnh:: Tie;n $t Hli 'Th.Q

IPhantha:r'bt~, NUO'~II T,RONG THUV SAN Cie tat g:hi: (x.ep rheevan ,8.,. b, c)

A~M<d s6 vfn de chung

Pham ~. Eli A\.t (e(rMan)~Nguyen Trong :Ruth (l{y su)" Nguyen C6fl,g, D.ln (TieD si)J

LI! D\l' I(Ci't nhan), Nguy,~n KimDQ (Pho ,giao SLTj Titn 8i)~ ThaiBii H6 (Chll,Ylen vien cal) c~ph 'TrAn Van Lai (ICy 511)" N~6· Treng Lu (Ky',8U); Ph"m Thl19'C (Pho' giio su, TieD 51 kboa hoc),

,B." Nuoi: lronglifl,(til, sli ,(llii tuqng Chtiy sa,n <eo gira ,ii", klnh Ie I.N uei thtl'Ysa.n I111O:C, nget

N,guy~n Thi An {Ky sir), Phan Hdng Doo--8: (Thae si), Nguy!nKimD9 (Ph6giao SU~ 'Tie-n sTJ. ThiiiBaH& (Chuyen vibn cao t;:~pJ,. N go TrQng L!!J (Ky ~::ll'J. Dao Duy Th!J. (Clllin,an).

,II. Nuoi trOng m~t s;61o~H bai sin

Ng'~y6n Chlnh (PhD giao 3d', Tie:n's,O. N,gllliye.n DbID Quang Duy (Ky' sir),

Tr;a:n Van Dan (T.ien s1), Nguyeu Kim.DQ (Pb6 gjjo su, Th!n si)! Nguy~nDmh Hong ('Th,~C si}. Mai eOiQg Khu~ (Ky sn),NgO Tr~m,g LlI! (Ky SIl), Nguyen Xuan Lj (Ph6gia'o .sll, Ti6n $1)"

DO Van Mhlb (Kj su), HIIJ.yoo Quang'Nan,g (CO rih&nJ!. B~i Due Q'uy (KY illU),

Nguye;n, V~an, Quye:n (Tien sI)t NguyeIl~ Thach (Thac sr)~ m.Dfilc nang, (Ky SlJ).~,

Nguyen '[hi XuJin TIIU (Tita si).!;Ng.l,l,y~n Tlti"Bfcb !'huy' (Titn sn. i.e Xin (Tiln sl).

C"Binb elm, d,o.O v,t thuy san _ Iii K9 I(Tien s,D

Ng'lrcrl" d,Qc va gop' y ~dEn::

MycA:

M\lc BI:

Muc B.D:

"

NgUOl, '1h3.(W gia bien [$15;

NglIDi bi~ll dfnh:

Ky su Ng:uyecn 'Van Sir

Ghio Sill',. Tie'n siMai Dinh Yen

PhQ abi,o~U',tie:n ~lNsuy'!nXuan Ly Chu,yan vien cao ca:p Luang Dmh Trnng Titn 8:1 Nguy';n Van 'I'banh

P'b',n th'anam~,BAO ,QU,ANVA CH't',BIIEN! TH,UV SA,N cae t4c gil! (x6p thee v,iu a, b, e)

Nui§n T)1o- 13lnh (Ky su)~ Tran, Olnh Dklh (Th;c :sn~ Dio DuyIDIn,g (Ky ,su)~

i-"U ',- Van I ~. (Tiin g,i), Trtn Th~Luye:Jl (Pbo giao S,11, Tifn :snl' D6 Vill Nam (Ti!!n, si), Tr4n TW Ngl (Ky :str}"H:oan,g 1b~ PhuQIla (KY ,81.1)" Ng1!lyenXulft Thi (Xy s.u),

N g:uyen Vin Thuc (ICy ,sul~U Hoon,gThuy '(K,ysu).

Ngucn. dec ya'8,~p yki~n:

lito slTmn ThiIJtlng,TIe'n '81 Nguyen Thi Hdna: Minh, fbdgilapsU'~ Ti£{n sIT~ Th! LlIy!'n~ Tiln si Le: DUe Trung

Nguai tharngia bi~n,t.p,: Ti:i!n 511 Tr~ Thi Dung

NtrYmlhi,eu dfu..h,:: Ti€n s1 frirt Thi Dunp,

o '. I. ~

Cic~c ,gli: (xep thee yin a, b, e)

NgUY~fi 'TrQfig B,lnh (Ky S1J'), Nglly,!n Quang Ding (ICy suJ~Nguyen HIrng fUen (OJ nbln)" N'guy~n 'Van Mao (Ti~n .8I)~DBi Van KhurODg (Pho giio' su, TieIo sij~ U ThanhLQu (Ti6n, 81)"

Ns ·uvz. Xuan 'L' ,11' ,(T:t1..'O~' "g'" ...:; .... , i:!"UI 'T.·,~- ~'I)' 'N·.I'ctlll'lv~n V';~t'.' ·M' ... ' .. - .... lr'l.'Jw, -1I,..:e. ... ).. Ho ~:ntJ u.,. 'N' .•.. Al', fU'v '~lrj1), '

g J e,f), !u4Jl.l Jeu ,_ lid,!.}., ~,I!;;;J[1,o:Jl, r ",1;1 ,,l!l:\ " . :.tt:1fIUl !;, L-ll lU!llaU ~ (g1L,b ,Jl W - Y ',.&~'J '"' u,

Tran Van QuYnh (Ky su), Ha Xuan Th,O:ng (Pbi) giao su, Titn sij,PhijID 'ThUlqc (Fha ,giao su, Titn. s! khoa hoe), Bui Van 11nYOng (CU' mh~n): TrtmD.1ic TIl ecu nhan)" Pham Treng Yen (Th@c 81),

NguCri dQC va gop y ,ki!n: Ky StI Ng,uyt:n 'TrQng Binh

Nglfrn hi~u (I(nn: Tien ,si Dinh XuanThao

*** ,Nh..ifn~g ngulri drpetra ,gopy kiln Ian ,cudi: cae, thanh, vil!n,Bm1, Bitnt4PV3 cacvj Ti'n .si Tru,11U,lDung.!, Ti~n sl NguyenD.)n,g~, PhD Ghlio 8U- 'Tia:n sIkhoah9c "[ran Mai 'Thi:!n, Tilefrt &i (.bu Til!"nV'mh.

( ","" I" h ~ b )

X' .' ... , .•••. 'i '.'.

,~_ep '" . eo van 8, ." C .. ,., .•.••.

1,. COng ty C6ph£nHa Quang

2. tong ty Cd phan sin xuil v'a UnnEg m'~i V~ X~uy~n

3. Cong ty Duyen hili Bac Lieu,

4. Ceng ty Khaithac va d,~ch ViJ:1 hii s,an Bi~u D:O~g.

:5., Cons: ty Sin xuit didt V1;1, khoa hoc coag rJgh~ thu!{' sin. 6. COng ty TNHH thuong m~~i Van 'Minh AB.

7,. D~ in LU~l 'Thuy s,an.

8... T6ng C{)IU_g t:y' bai sanB.i~n Dong, 9., TOng c6~g ~Y' cbiy san H~ Long.

[0. Trung tam COn,g ngb~ sinh hoc thuy sin. 1 L Trun!g tAm Khuye:n ngtl' Qu6c' gia

12. Tl'ung lam kilfm tra chIt 1ugngv,a VI~ sinh thu.y san (nayla Cl:Ic QUatl 1)' Ichat 111Q1lg"an toan v¢ sinh va

tho 'Y thoy san). .

13,. Trung tam Nsbien ctru nUloi tnSng lhiiy sanIll (nay U. Vi~D Nghien ctru nuOinr6n~ thuy san nn 14. Trung tim N,gbien coo, san xuat 't6m. Viing Tau

1.5 .. Trung tam Nghien c'Uu, dlUY SaIl d6ng b~ng sOr:1:,8 CiJ!u Long 16. Trung tarn Tin hoc

17" Tnretng Trung hoc ky thu~t thuy san I

18. Tnl0ng TIung h9C Uuly s,an IV (nay :[1 TruOng Ow d~ng, Thuy s,an) 1'9 .. Tnrang Trun_g h9C ky thu,{: 'Va nght~p W. Jthu,y sa.n 20.Vi¢n.Nghi~n CUll Hili san,

21.. Vi~n Nghien cau DuOi trl6ng ThliIy sin. n 22. Vi{!n, N ghien cffi],nuOj Klang Thuy san, II.

,;,~, __ _ ,~"_" __1 _

NGUONCUNGCAPANHPHUBAN

ii

1. eye Khai tluicva Bao v~ ng1ll0n lQi thO}, san 2,. Phbng anb ThOU,! tinxa V:i~t Nsm

3. Ph.ong Thong .un - Vi~n Nghidn coo, Hai san.

4. Ta:~chr Thu"' .••.. · $01[1.

~,.It" L,l

5. Tap chlThu't:tn,g m~j 'I'huy sin

6.. Trung ·tim. Khuyen :n,gu' Qu6cgia

7. Trung tam Tin hoc

8. cae. Ong::Nguyfn. Trong Blnb, N,guye:n C.ong D~!

5

BACHKflOAT1J(lY SAN do nnie'u fflha khoa JUJc lrong va ngoli'i ngiiJl!JJ Ilhilu nhii qudn ly'va ,clntJlln gia ldumim ,rro-rlguganh tnuy sdn bien 8,O~IZ.

Sach'duf;1C' bien s09n~he(j nl'ng van dl. rJuu)c f19i d~(f1!g cua: cac ltnh v~tc Uen: quan den hOt;Ildfjng cit-a nganh .tnu,y saN,: MOl truCmg"Ng~u'n' lqi, Khai rhac",ph:uJirrdng, B'at) q,udn:1 c,llt bien va nhle~u van di v,eKinh It xii h(Ji nglzi l:a., Bd('r.~c £uch rhu(in ti¢n' C};lQ vi~c tra C.lt'tt.

Such dap ,~mg dU{fc phdl'lndo ~,hu cau tham. Id1ao trtJ.ngvi~c nghien cl,n~" gidng .dq:YI 'Iu;c r6p, ttl chne san xu4i. qudn IJ n:h~ ntt6'ic'VJi tltr.i.;y SaN cua don£: ddo .b~n: !d9iC v,a eua nltatlS' ng""i q,uart tam den s,~tp/~dt triin ngdnJt t:hlly san Vi~t Nom,

'!!i

Nlguy'en Cong Tan Ngu:yen p,U) Tilt; ttlung Chinn phu

7

FOREWORD

The' ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FISHERIES presents fields and activities related 10 the fisheries sector: [isne:riesenrirollme,nt1 fisheries res()urc.e:s.~,fishlrlg"aquacultuF,(!" preservation and processing (,lItd socio-economic issues relative to fisheries. It is edited and arranged by each field, this ,is (!{lSy to reference.

The ENCYCLO,p~,DIA ,OF FISHERIES should meet to the d,emandfor references i:11 fisheries research" retrchlng and study'~ jisneriesproduc,fioll and managem(!r!1 of readers and tlrO$!f who eareabout the developmen; of Yietnam oj s !i,~h eri (!,S sector.

Welcome to the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FISHERIES!

Ng:uyen Cona: Tam Former D:epury Prime .Mlnlsrer

8

.~ ". ~

LOI NOI BAU

~ . .. .. . .' . ... ~

!a Viti N am, nghi cd co #C~h ,sa pilat t.riln, Ian d'ilf trell ph{l:m vi c.an:u'tlc. Tfl chi)

t1lphtit trong qua trlllh ktlnl3!onghdng ng&:y /nO cuaJ beft'i?cJ! thea .fihip d(J pn:iit trien iinh ti'xa h(ii~ ngne !d6ng l:h:uyln Ttl am, tal bui lpl,. Idl cheo thnye'nlil C(1 Si(J gdn viii nghl chdi l.llif~,. nglli1iVi"l cd d'r;li ,dq ,limg hunt ti'~ dan tft~un8 nuac tron,g n~l dja dt

:t.".., k·L' ra ulan .'l1J1l.

T'uy v<iy cho d,en nhilng nam 50 ella the" Jry: 20, ",ghl iea Vl~t Nam vdn con a .Irinn d9 ,rh,rj so I,(lch~u~ c/nla era Ihanh Rujl n:ganh sdn xuiit co. t'l ttf Utcmg xitng vin- dJeu:

Idfn&{l nhl~en vd dtip'J(n;gdstrlc do~~h&i pial triln .cUQ xii,h~i.

s~u ndm 1954,vi~c_ kJ~oi plq~c kinh teA!' va p.ha:, trllJl san xud't lrd than.h .mt)l trong

h '¥ ~. " . h-·!f. "'" ;; . .A. Do ~ V . A N' ";I.. i· . J.. ., . • ". ",. ."/

n,.-1ln8 n..~.tv;m v~ C'uyeu' eua m'~en .u:arc_l~t , .. ('un' v~la{d(~C g'(1J pu.(JngJvl;~C' Sdtl.xuat

.",glzl' c.a trti thdnhm.!(Jt ltit y'" kltdiCh quon 'Va mpt doi Itdi hOt suc cap thie·'.

Nhifugngay Ctto1lJl:o'.flg 3 !a6u .thang 4 na.m. 1959'~ tuy b~nnhilu oong v-i~c eua {Jians· V,cl( Nhll 'JuCtc,Chu rll3z .flo Chi M!inh Iii or" E!Jiim la~g cavd' ngU' dan lreJl: Cdlt dda Ttt4n Chdu,! Cdl B,a. , .. r'hur?c tll1h Quang ,Ninll va l'}!zd:nh pJu1Hdi .Phong ngay nay .. Tr;Ji ddy~ Ngu'iti da d(in: ~rB:iln b~c cua ta do nhdn dan ta lam enu ~JJ Nguflicim cd:n difin t:al1 bi) v'e' vi:?c til rkuc .sdn;x~at va cham; lo dill .sling c.lla n/zan dan vung hiln.

Sau do, s¥ ra dill t:r.taTdng c1,lc Tn.t~y san valt niJ'tn 1960 ,iii m.(Jt m:6c qua,n: tr.png tro;n.g .qua trinh. phat' triltl r:zgitnht:hdy sdn, 1~/ldt lil nhflng Min dalol tlujp ,nien 6,0 eua the k:j ,trut/c, tff d6dii Idnh .thd/Jh .m(Jt Hgiin}! kinh ti!' tj thu~.t cl~,a futOr: Viti Nam Dan ch-u .C9:ng noll.

ClIng trong thai gian 1954- .1975~ nghl cd & mienNam ddn dan a:llqc n)'lil.ng !loa 11e tum sqi va (:l"(Jng co hoa vl sa-eddy cha thuyin.aanll ca oiin ,. Nha N gl1 nghigp dur;tc thank ,l~p dl qudnly ngne ca.

Sau ng;cly mien Nam dllf!C hodn loan ;gidi phOl1g~. dat nltir:c tJuJ~g nhtli" nganh thf~Y san cd na6'c butte lIao t11ai Ky. kluJi plt.tJc v,a pilat triln mm ..

V " .. ·.···,·.·~-h-l ,,-- B······· .. H·jI .. -...A· ... m 1'·'9'76 va au d 0 IdB' .. .e r·,·h. u ·ar·"'-:·'" ~ _ msr; t,UJn:._ _ C!p Qc. tll san. )JuG na _ '- _ ... _.' s - . -' - . ':(1 . .. y S_'_l vo.o na.m

1981 rngrlnh tbuy san ngay cang co V(1t t.riJ' quan trqmg trongsdn xual va .dot song. cung cilp ngudnd~m .llll·,huy Juii san: ,(;1,;0 nllu cdu dinh du{tng ella nlu1n dan, n8l~yen Jl~l'- cka C"fJ~ nghi~p cht biAn va- m.9t sll nglmh c(jng,.tghi~p khdcr lIu~c an choclri:in nuoi gia ,sUt:,gia cam,~ cho nutJl tndy .hai san va sdn phdm cho xUaJ' kJufu~ tiing ·'hem vigc .l,am, cho ngu'(Jl: lao d~ng~gop ph:dJ1: ~Y(Ja ,dol gl,am .rl;g.hio., liell 1m lam, gi'du C1 nOI1.g lh6n.~ .miln bilnj $6p·phan belt} v¢ ,an ninh: qu6c·p.hong trsn D'i.fn.

-'1' ng~ 2· O' 0-5-) ,;-/.... . . e: iI' )l'" i'.' ." 1. .~ ~'. .~." . '" .•

'Trang' 2fJ ndm 1(.' :iou ._ . ' .... .» ' .. uti]' fU/(J'C aor mat, ngann 1,,1,11,)' san 'CO &t! .tanglntan~

lien llJC qutll.flng ndm, troHi8 !kJ ke~ho~ch 5 n,am:.fJer'l flam 2006 :t6ngsd,:J bJ<tng t~'iUY san d(lt 3..695 .927 rt1'n~ trongdo san IL~r;mgnu,ai frong tht{)"sclll dlfll 1.694.276 ·tan~ gid. tli k~;m n,g9chxudtkhiiu t.lniy hal san dr;rt 3..31{J.032 tri¢u USDt lluJ ,hut lao d'9n;g k:hoong 4 'rl~u ngliCli v6"i Sl!'lnay dl1l ro nft vI: co edu' lao d(mg, N ganh tUlly San dfJ In] lhanh: mt)l ngdnl1 k.i.nh ti cling .. lzdn:g n:gJzi~p ICO toe d~ phdtt.riln eao, .quy tn6' I1gay cling lttn, gop phdnon 4tnh V'Q; p.hd.ttriln ,ddt nu6:c,.

9

fJi dap itng p.hdn nao nhu CtlU (ham thao trong\?ijc n.ghleYl c,mjl .gian" Id~YJ' h9C J{lp,.to clute sdn .:uuil ya' qudn lYuh.&: nUde vlthu.y san, c.lla: dlJng ddo b(2n: ,dQc~BAcH .KHO:A rmsr SAN ra diJ:ivul sutham ,'p,ia bien: soan cua .nhilu nail khoa 1:0(: tron~' va'

a o·!, iii ~I

ngm'ii ffganJl~ cua nhi'u nita quan lyva ch:uyen.: gia lau nam Irong Ilganh.

Nilan ,d~'p nay. Ban. bien l~p xin chat'! thli.n:h cam an sl/ Cr).H,g tdc bie'n sO':~n tua cdc t,QC gi.a, vi~c doc vd gop y.kitn ian cudi' cua cae n.kd khoa h¥;Jc vd' qudn Ij cho ban thdo~ cdc co quan dun vi a(J cung cap anh: va Sl! tat. tnl cua cac ca quan~. dan vj cho

~. ,. AN

vi,~c bien s{)(ln va an hrin:h .. B'ACHKHO'A TH'UY S ' i,

Un ddu ra m.at b~n ,a9'c:.chac chan kluJ>n.g rranh: klt/n' (',0 .r/l.i,lu s,6:,', ,Kink .m.on.g dllrfC" iSt{ gop j tt#n anh cr:1a qily lli d'9c gfa dl sti,ch hodl1' thitn: tum troJtg Ian x:uat ban sau.

T·····~· '.' .o e. :~ /

'.' ran trong cam an.

TROONG B.AN BIEN 'T~.

TS~N=llyen Vi~tThing

10

'PREF.A.'CE

Thefi~h,erie;,1i of Vletnam: have a IOhg~slanding llis~tory of .de.v,elapmen.t'~ from the' sponl'uneity in. earl!illgtl living such as collectlngcrabs and s.hellfl,s.h.i Olsen logether wU.h, tn,€! socioeconomic deveiopm'(!ut, boat building appea.t,reti"; swimming and rowfN~' skUb were' the basis ,o/fishin,g. Thee ancien; Yiemamese moved step by step from' island ware.'·s lathe sea.

However, up to ,The 1950.$ the fisherie« ,q/ 'V.ie.tnam had s#1I' been backward and non-mechenical r not become a production .industry cOl:reJ;pol'uiing to the' nationat natura.l condition and 11'1)1 met the demand cfsoeto! de~el(}pme~.t.

After 1954~ economic y,eclJvery and protiucticm development became a key task of .tneN:rJrthVie·tnam w.he'H it JUJU just btt,en, UberiJtt!d~ the production of fisne.ries was .objectively ind'i,sp·ensable and extremely urgent.

Desp.itenavin.:8' to dea.E withma·l1.Y affairs oj'.l:he Party and Governmt!nl~ at .the end of M:arc/z ,CJJld' ,early Apr-iIo! 1959~ Presiden: Ho Chi ,Millh'patd a visi« to fish vllla:ges andft$he~iftJlk at Tuan Clu;nt island (Q.ua,ng NtnhJ and CatBaisland (Hai P'}uxug)j where the President saidu» the people: "th« f'isilve:ry sea j~ oj V.i,etnu,m was owned (.l'nd mastered by rheVieuuJm,es;e pe~pleM.Th,e President also recommended maruJg:er.ia:l o_fflce..rs J() improve production and the pe.Dpl.e 's living conditions'.

The foundation of the Ge.luf:ral Department oj.Fishe;ries in }96.o was an important /andfn(Jrk in the dI?velop'mel!,l process of .tn:e jisJze'ries seaor, especiaUy !f!(Jf;IJl 1960s, thenceforth an. eC(j11:omic-r:echnica.l indust'ryoj the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was e:stablished.

111 the period 011954-, 1.975 in- SQurh Vletn,am) netting was gradu.aUy n)'lcm~:zed and ji'shing boats were motorized. and the Fisherie« BUrea.u was JOlutded for nta-n:agement of fi·sh:eries ..

After the complete liberation ofSo.l1th Vielnam~ the countr» was reunified, the fisheries sector ofViet.na;nz, started (J new period efrexo ve'?' and· ae,VeIOpI11ent.

It was marked' bytJle' estabUshmen.t .oj Ministry aIM arineFisherie's ,'/Z 1976., and reorganized and named MllZfstry .of Fi~fjh.eri"e$ in. J981. The .fis.heries sector pl.ays llM .l.n.c-reasin_gly inlprortant role ion the fishery production and 1ife~ such as providing protein sources from seafood for the peopie; supplyi.ng raw materials for the processing l'ndustry and some -other industries, fodde« for cattle, poultry and r:uluacullure" and products..!'O,r export; creating jobs, tor iebourers, contributing to h~:Hge,.. e'/imil:ll1tio./J and povertY' reduction; economic developmetu in rural and coastalareas; and helpin.' to protect dejens,e, and nationa! security as sea.

Durlng; .the past 2'0 years (1.9'86 - 2005) of tile renovation process, IPU~ f{sJu~ries seetor showed a continuous ansual growth, in 5-year-pfans. 11-1 20061 th« total /isneri,f!s production was 3'lj95,927 metric t;()1Z8 (MT)Ji of which llj94~276MT came fr()maquacultllre~~ t.he fis.heri,es 'ex,.porl vtlluegalneil "lore than US$ 3 billion, and about 4 .million labourers were il;l;vi()Jv.ed in the fisher.ies sector" The sector has

1 I

become an agri-industrial' ,econO'm:yw:it.h:high rate of growtn~. increasing ,licale"rh,us contribtuing 10 ·stabU.lzatkJlJ: and tleve.lopmel1t of th« counlry.

In: order to mee: somewko» tile demand/o'!' references In research, t::eaching and st~ujYfl jislu.!ries production lJndman'(.Jgemen," til reuaers I' the ENCYCWPED1A ,OF' P1SHERJES wu;s written and complied by man]1 inlerna/aM eXlernalscj:entlslSI .~al~agers {lOO seniorexperts.

On thisoccasion, the Editorlal.B'o.ardwou:ld' like to express sincere thanks: to the. authors, s.clellrisl'l,:mana,ger:;; and reviewers t ,am thank to' theorgal'rizatio'U'S

ptovidi1:zg photO'S' ana spon:sorsh.f'p' fO't publicatton of the ENCYCLOPEDIA.

As this is the editiot«; the .ENCYCLOPEDIA may not' be complete'ly p.erfect., Thisl, we appreciate reader 's commel!tisafld je,el back for the futU'reeditiQns·.

Thank you !

EDITOR IN CHIEF Dr .N;guy,~;nViet Tbang

_ '" .... 'l!

HlIC:J:NG DAN SU DUNG

-, "" ''t''

SACH B:A,CH IKH'O,A THUY SAN

1,. C,a,cb bien soan

BAcH KHOA, TRUY :sAN dUQ'c bieD 'SOt_lD thee nQi dung ,Goa 'tltn,g liab V\lc co H~llquaJn dell ho~t dQng cu,a:n'gimm thuy ·san:moitruang, ngg,Eln lQit khai nh1ic,1' nllo.1 Jtr6ng~ bin quiD, va che biell, ldrib tl xal bt)i nghe. ~a.

2 .. N(J,i dUD,g,

Bih" kb '. .th ", ,'~ " ... " ' ~" :L;.l..( ... - c,. oa. uy g,an ,gpm U ,I'h.,1{.iu:

:Phlim th.1I ,mh't:MOm TRVONG"gdmmoi tru(mgngb~.·ca bi~n~m.oi tnrbng ugbec.a thuy V\l't

n(li cti~"va mo:itruan,g 'vOis\t phat Iden b~n viIng sim.xu(t. U:liy ,san. - -

Ph'l1lhii hai::NGUON LOI TH£iy SANg6m n,guon lqi (buy san vat.ng1l6n I,Ql dui,y s.an oQ'1 dia", Phfin ngnon lqi tbuy sin gioi thieu v~ danh gia ngu6n IQi hiisan, ve: d,c tnmg sinh v;),t bQc c,a bi~n Vi~tNam~,v~ bio t6nbi~n, Vie ngUo,D l'll ca bj:6n vm [02 LolH ca bi,~.n klnh te~ 810ai ran bi,~nt ve CU\3. bi~n va 12 loai tom bi~n, v~ d¢ng v,t than mf~m bien Vi~tNam vOil 28 foaL ve nguon ,~Qi. rUQl khoang VOl 4Io:ai, ve nguanlqi rum bien" 'v~, ·nguonlc;ri d¢n,g vt.t quy'.hi~m v.oi 5loairua lJi~n Viet N31m"v~ floudn Ioi c:obi&n vm is Ioai cobi~nViet Namtve llo:u6n 1m 'rona bii~n v,m. {on'l

. 0.. .' u I~ t. ,t:' D

c,~u va rang' s~n.T(ion.g· phan ngu6n lQi thu,y 8,in [lQi d18 g!hJi thi~u Y'& ngu6n bfi tbuy santren song

h6~ bao v~va -phaU lofn nguOn Igi 'tnii'y silh:i DQi dia. - .

. Pba.n thO: ba: KHAI rHAic THW SAN co cac noi dung,kbai thac lhllt1:ng ma.iva d3:rih cal giai bi, khaithae bSn vU'ngt ngu6n lqi hai san va ngu iruoog'kbaithac ,0 'wn!: bi'~nVi~:t Nam, ,n;ghti danb cabit!n~, thanh phan ca:n~o ngu cu, ngucukhai thae v6.il LlIoai ngl1,el}truy;~n th.6ug, ,Ky' thuat khal th.ac hii s,an bang Tum keo, bal1g hIm vay~. bing lu6ire, bing n,gh~ cau, bang ludi rung~ bAng lum. da:ng~ bAng hiy" bing: s1J\ketnQ'p' ann sing, khai thac ca cr fu6 cbua bing pbu01lg phip lien hop, 10 lo~ n:gu c~ vii phuc1ngphap khai thac hi elm sir dung, tau !huyen khai rbao Ihuy :san, an 'toantrong khai thae thuy s1an~ (ham do, [lin ki~m. clln ca, rna', do sa.u~ do ca~ may dl,' nil, vi, moIst) thie't hi cokhi diluQi trona khai tMc t'huy:' sm ..

'!' ,.LI" !Ii ;t; C ~ .'

Ph'n tbu 'I'll: NUC)"I 'IR.ONG 'THUY sAN gam, cae nOli dung,~m9ts6 van d~ chung; nuoi itf6ng 'mQt s6 dol. nrqng thoy san <co. gia. tr~ kinh Ie va~ 22 d~ol·tu~,g nUOittofig nuuc ngot va 23 doi 'tuc;mgnai sin; b~nh cu.a, d¢ng v~.t dUly Sian vui 4 nh6m. Ute nhin ,gay b~nh d5 g:,p 10 Vi~t Nam.: ky sinh tru,ng, virus va vikhuln,. nam, dinh duong va :mOi uuang; vmnhitng b~nh IJ Gt)ng var .lhUy san. di,g~pi fJVi~tNa.m, g6m 20 b~nb ky sinbtrilng', [2 b~nh do virus'!;] 2: benh do v.ikhu!n! :3 b~nh do nim va ,. b¢nh do dinh dltOng v:a m6i nuimg;phuOl1g pb·appho;ng benh cho dgog v~t

'thuy san"

Pb.an thli ,l1anuB,Ao QUAN v): CHE BIEN THt)"y SANg6m 2pb1in: bao quan, cb€ bien mily san.

Trong pbful ban quAD neu, leu 3 n,guyeJJtac va 2 pbm:m"g' phap: thiJ ICQO;g wyen tbdng vi. hl~~.

Trang pbWlchebi~n, neu len:: nguyenIy va :phuang pMpcht bi!€n;'co€ bi~n. thuy·.sAnkho" nu(1c ~mam~ sin pbim len m.eu,tO'mchual,~snamuai. pileD., san pbi;mllunkh,oi,do h~pl thily sin va 'chI eli raoj ca phi, le, surimi va san PRam mO phOiD,g,siDph~ du nh~p (sashlmi, muo nang

13

sashirni), b¢t ca. cac cae ph~m llt ph€ li~u thiy silo (kitin ,-kito.zan" dd~tticb a!uuxanthin~che ph~menzi.m til' nt)i tang ca., che bienvlly 'Cat dau OR yhcc), c,te san .phim. tlf rona; kho (quytrinb sah xuar, agar-agar, carrageenan, alginat"manit,()I, !chi phIim Left 'lit rong bh!.ll, bt}tmng bi~n~ chit! bmen th~cb agar hI rong dO), tbuy sin dIang nhanh, dOng bioo, dong ,rm (kythu~t lam l~ ,o.ong tbuy san~ ,cae san pb,am dong l,"b nhanh), tlluy san 'tu!Ot song (V.I)n-chuyan ca bing duimg ihuY'1! bin,g dtfemg bQ~. v~n chuyen ca, tum), tieu chum chat lw;mg va an loan vc; sinh tht.fC phim tluiy san (HACCP~ OMP~ SSOp)~ li~u (,hudn vr! dji~uki~n all. toanv~ sinhen ,sO: Ghe bienthOy &an",m~ay va thiet bi trong che' biten thuy san, danhmuc tbie)"t bi co bantrong XI n,g;bi~p ebe" bien tbity san" pb¥ luc (c.a!ch sU: dung ea.c san phim thuy s,m~. d9C 16 c,a. nOle).

Phdn thu~.au:: KINH TE.xA HOINGH£ CA,

Ph,an nay d~ ,~p d~ cae not dung sau: SCJ lucc ltc.h su phit tri~1l nganh t.huy san 'Vli~lt Nam, ao ca Bile Hdt ~,ihQi trong ngb~c-a" Cong do an va H,Qi n.ghe nghi~pnghe en, Truag tam Kbuyen ngu Quae gia, Trung t~m Tift hec, Vi~n Kinh. te'v.a Quy hoach !bu.y sin~ Vi~:H Nghien c"llU Hai, san! caeVien Nghien c:tiuN'I.lIQi, trong nuy san, I, IT va III, bio hic!:mb~'n bUQc~6i vin ttuly.en vie:n, tau dinh. ca xa boo mQ,t so khai niem dll:Dg trong qu.in l.y ngbe: c'a,? quy heaeh tdng tb~ nglnhlhuy sin de"n. nam 2010"dao t,~o boi dlloog nguon nhan l~c-thu,y san, heat dl}ng khoahoc con,g ,ngb~ trongng anhthil.y 8an,Lu~t Thuy sin va qu.atrinh .xiy d\ftl.g l,u~.t,LW3,1 TIIUY s,in't vinh dg' va. ph~n tbuang nha HUGe cao quy, dieu ucrc qu6c te,tRC,Jp' laC qu6c lIe,. :m'Q'1 &.6" vfn d~ nghe ,c,a the gidi.,. .ngb$ cat is qu.6:c gia, hang diiu. 'th~ glOi. d[n n.Mn 2000"n.;ghe~. c:a daoDa.l Loan, ngh.e ci1 :MOBSO'S, "Sbe' ea. the'·gi.ai narn 2004.

3 C· ····"""c-h· tra ~'''~I~

, I~ _. - 1:1, ",'" 1 ••• iIII, '!L.:UU,

1)9C tnroc mtrc luc,

can. cl!1' vao .n¢i dung: da neu (j mue 2, .. khi c~n tra 'ClfU v.an d~ c6 lien quan ,aphtn nao tEd tim phan do am'~c: 19c va ira cUu Hep d~ tim v.an d6 co lien quan c,an tlm ..

Du:mddy 131 mQt s6vl dllJ;

Vi dl;l I .,.' Muon tim :nQi dung ~'Aptbip' nhi~t dCrlt 'va baoUthl. tim Phanthu nbat ~~Moi truang" I' m\JC' A £'M'Oi twang . _ .e ca, bi~n"? ,mt,lc 1 ~'Ap thap nhi~t (1:00, v~ bid".

Vi dl;~: 2: 'MuOio tim mO,i dung t'D,c mmg 'ye sinh v~t hoc ca. hien 'Vi~t Narn" fhi. Urn ,Pb.t&t ·tblr had "Nguon lqi fhuy si\n:n~ muc ,A ~·"Nguo.n It;li hili siu:f~, m1:\c 5 <;'~D~c tnmg, v~ sinh V,~l hoc en hi~'IlVi~~t Nam";

Vi d~l, 3.' Muon tim nQi dung v~ ~'~ gin'; (eel bien) till tlmP.hln thtt hal '~Ngu~n lQitbuy san", mue .A "M.Oi. trubng ngbe ca bi~nn'l: mue 7 "Nguon. lQ'l ca bi~nt1l,x€p' [neO v'n A 'B C'! .'. '. 737 ~~ca" ~",

".,.' ..... , n_'u_ myc ~ ,,: ~. ·.·'glO •

Vi d~.l 4:.' Muon t1m ngi dung "Ngu l,nIong va 'bii cakhai t,hic"" thl tim PbAn. toU' ba "'Kh;8;ith~c Huly san" ,m~c 3..2 'i'Qc ng.U"truan_g va b~H ca ldlai mac CJ viln,g bien. Vl~tNam,".

Vi du 5' : Mu6'11 tim n¢i dung "Cac ngtr cl_1 v.a. pnlfdn,g phap bi, cam ,gU dnng" th'l tim Phm tha ba "Khai thac tbuy s,all~', mnc 17 "Cac ngtr C\1, va phuong phap khat thae hi cfm su dung" .

'Vi d~;l 10: 'Mu6n tim nQi dung uNuOi, tbuy s,an '0 b~t;J{' tbllIm PhAnthu ur 'IlN'u.oi trf)ngt'buy san~,~r", m~eA '~MQ,t so v:a:n ,de· chang" muc 20 ('~N'uOithuy sin 0 b~~n vi ll.u6ithu\y san bi'~n khci",

1.4

V.i d~ 7 .. Muon tim :D.Qi dung uNu(J,i 'bat ba" 'fhi tlmPhan thu tu "Nuei tr6ng ,thuy san'\m~c D ~'Nuoi treJng mt)tsio d'oi'tuQUE; tl'uiy sAn co, ghi tr] kinh te:"":, ml}c 1 "i:Nuoilhuy san Duoe ngot", xep theo van A.B.C .. "mU'c I "Ba ba" .

. , - -- ' .

VOl d,1I 8:Muontllll n~i dun:g uNnOi torn SU'" thl tim. Ph:ft.n tbu' tv ""'Nufii tro:ng U-Ul,Y san'"",IDIJC B '~~'Nu6i tr6ng m~t 56 d6i luang thDY gan c6 gia tn kinh te~~ muc II "'Nuoi tt6ngm¢t

s610aihiU si][]'~~, x~p theo v~.~·A,.BI.C'.'.~ ffi\lc'20'''T6ro g(i"'.. ,

Vi,d~ 9;'MlU)n tlm H9i dung '~Naac mam:!' th] tim Phan thanam, "Bao quan va chef bien thuy sann,m~c. B ~'!;Cbf'bi~n thuy san", m'Jc:1 ~'Cb.tbien mroc inam~'.

'Vi d~ 10.: MUD'" tlm n¢i dung "Lei ht}itrm.g ngbe can {hi tim Phin thO" sau, "Kinb te xii h¢i trong .nlghe c,a", muc 3 '~L~ hQi trong nglt~ ca",

vr d~t .J.1 ,~ Mu,G''Il tim R9i dung: ~'Lu~t Th,u.y san~' "thl tlm Pb~n 111.11 ,sa.u~"Kinh~lexa hgi ngheca" t m~c 19 ~~LU'l Thuy san" ..

Vi d~~ 12;' Mu6n 11m 'lin de, uQ:t quan bQ'p tacphat td~n Nauy (NORAD:r'! [hi timPh:ln, thu san ".Kinh.ll~ X3 h()i ngb~ ca,j,t Ull.lc22 I.~HQp lac qu6c t€~,ml:lc 22 . .3 "Co quan hop

E,a.cphat tti~nNa!u:y (NORADt'., .

15

HOWTOUIS:E

TH'E EN'CYC,LOP,EDIA OF FISHERIES

L Organizattonatstructure of encyd.op,edbl

The Bncyciopedia of Fi sne'rieshas been set out aeeording to each field relatedto fisheries: fisheries environment" fisheries resources, fisheries exploisation, ,a,quacultllre.fisberies preservation and proces sing, and fisheries SOCiOOCi(lDOmics.

,2~, Contents

The Encyclopedia qf.F.isher~·es comprises (5 sections:

Section I: Fis be:ries environment mentions them,arin,e fisheries and .:in1.an.o fisheries environmem, and environment with the sustainable development of flsheriesprodueticn,

Sectlon IT: Fisheries resources CODSlS,t ef marine andinland flsheriesresourees. 'Ihemarine fisheries resources section :mtroducesreaders to the 'marine fisheries resourees assessment, specific biolngieal characteristics of marine fish in Vietnam, marine conservaticn, marine fish with 102 commercial fishspecles, S sea snake specie:;s~m.a.rine crabs and 12m,arine shrimp species .. ~ 28 mollusk species, 8. cephalopodspecies, 4 coelenterate species, ragworms, :5 sea turtle, species, 15 seagrass species, and seaweed (Gracilaria and Kappaphycus). The inland fisheries resources pari: mentions the fisheries resources of river and lake basin and theproteetion and development of inland fisheries resources ..

Seetion ill!, Fishe:ries exploitaJUon involves commercia] flodrecreational fishing'; sustainable fishing; marinefisheriesreseurees and fishing ground.s, in. Vietnam seawaterstfishing gear and methods; structures of fishing gear; 11 types of traditional fishlng gear ~fis:hing techniques: trawl nets, surrounding nets, gill nets, books and lines, seine nets" set nets, traps, light fishing,fish.mg in reservoirs .... ; IO prohibited fishingg,ear and methods, fishing boats and vessels, .fishing safety, fish finding" sonar .pesltiener' and somemechanical equipment In fishing ..

Section IV:' Aquaculture includes, some common 18'5UeS in aquaculture such as culture of eommercial species (22 freshwater species and 2.3 marine species); diseases of aquatic animals with 4 groups of pathogens In Viemam (para sites , viruses and bacteria, fungi), nutritioIl- and environment-caused diseases (ineluding j 1 parasitic diseases, 12 viral diseases), 12, bacterial diseases, 3 fungal diseas.e.s) and :3 nu.trition~an.d environment-related diseases; and preventive measures for aquatic animal diseases ..

Section V : Fisberyp.reserva.t.iQn and pr~oce'ssing comprises 2 parts; Preservation and Processing,

The' first. mentions. three 'principles and two methods Q;f proeessing: traditions] and modern,

Th. ,C" •. "- d .. ihows nri ,}ll ..•• ",~ A method _,,', ~-_ .. ~~~.- .. ,.:::;:. '1)..., '.' .•.•... -,~-,., ""d~' " ... dorod .

e secoa sr OWS pnncipies ane metnons tn proc.essmg;,llsuery prODes:sm_g", . nee products,

fisb sauce, fermented products, SOu.r shrimp, alum salted jelly-fish, :smolced products, canned food and grilled chopped fish, :fiUet, snrimi and imitation products, imported products (sashiml, sashimi cuttlefish), fish meal" by-products made from fishery waste (]d,tin ..kitosmJl" e.xtra-clnon

16

and purification of Asmxaathin, ,enzyme byproduetsmade from fish viscera, fin, fish processing, fish oil products), dry seaweed-based products (production procedure, agar-agar, carra:gieenS:n, alginate,manitol" iodine from seaweed, seaweed meal, agar-agar from red seaweed): QF (qu,yck free:;zirtg),BF (block freezing) and IQF (individual quyck freezing) (teehniques, and 1types of products); live. 'aquatic species (fish transportatioe by sea, byread, and live; fish transportation); seafood safety and quality (H~ACCP~ GMP'" SSQ,P" standards of seafood safety for fishery processing unitsuprccessingmachines arid eqaipment; Iist of basic equipment in processing enterprises and appendices (how touse flshenes prnducts and puffer-fish toxins),

Section VI: Fisheries seeioeeenemics

This section presents a. brief history .of fisheries inVietnamt Uncle Hofish pond, fisheries festivals; Fisheries Labor Union, Society and Associadon; National Fisheries Extensien Center; Fisheries Informatics Center; Institute of Fisheries Economles .and Planning,;,R:esearch Institute for Marine fisheries; Research Instirutefor Aquaculture No, It II, and ill; compulsory insnrance for crew Qif offshore fishing ves sels; some concepts in fi sheries management; cveral] piau for development of fisheries sector towards 2010~ ,fisbing ports:; training andenhancement of human reSO~.fce,s in. fisheries sector; scientific ,and. technological activities in the fisheries sector; fisheries law and law roiling process; fisheries la,w;: incentive for fisheries. sector; international treaty; intemational co-operation; some. issues in world fisheries: 1)· countries of 'leading fisheries in the world by the year 2000; Taiwao fisheriestMauritius fisheries and the. worldfisheries in 2J104· ..

3. 'Direction of Use

See the table of contents.

Based on the. contents :menboned above, readers, ean refer what they want in the page o~ section as referred i.n the table of content.

Followings are some examples:

Example 1:' To look for "Tropical low pressure and stof~11S~~'~plea;sle see the section ] "Fisheries envhcament", pm ,A "Marine fisheries environment", 3 "Tropical towpressure and. storms",

Exarnple 2': To Jook. for "the specific biol!Ogica~c,baracterhnics of n~,arin_~ fis~ in Vietn<lm:~\ see section H "Fisheries resourcesn~move. to A. "Marine fisheries resources", then 5 "specific biological characteristics of marine fish in Vietnam",

Example 3:' To seek content: of Cobia (marine fish)" see section IT "Fisheries resources", part A "Marine flsheriesresources", 7 "Marine fish', all entries are alphabetically arranged, then move to 7 .. 37.. Cobia.

Exampl~ 4:' To, findconte,nt "Fishing gmunds", please see section In "Fisheries expl.oitation"\3.':2 "Fishing grounds, in Vietnam sea wate rs",

Example 5: To seek "prohibited fishing gear and methods", see, section m "Fisheries ,cxploitation'\ 17;~Prohi1bited fishing gear and methods" .

. Example 6~: To find "marine culture", gee section IV "Aquaculture", ,A "Some common issues in aquaculture" and move, to 20 "Marine c'Ul~,U1e7\

17

Example 7.~ 1''0 find infcrmetion of "culture of 'Trionyxsinensis'\soo sectio,nl, IV "Aquaculture" ~Bi "Culture of some commercial aquatic species". .. I "F.resh water aquaculture", followingto alphabetical order ofentries tomove to 1 '7rionyx

•• I I II· ~.,

smensl:!,' ,

ExampleB: To seek "Cul ture .0;( tiger shrimp", see ~H~.C tion [V "Aqu aeulture", .B~~Cul,tu.re of some, commercia] aquatic species", .n "Culture of some marine species", then move to 20 "Tiger shrimp",

Example 9: To find information of "fish s au{)e'\see. section V "Pisheriespreservationand processing", B "Fisheries processing", then move: to 3 "Processing of fish

- ~,.

·sauce· ..

Example 1'0: To seek content of "fisheries festivals", see socioeconomics ~ ~.~ 3. "Fisheries festivals",

section

. '" .. " ,

VI "Fisheries

Example' J 2: T:O look: for "Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. (NQ'RA..Df'·, see seeti on VI "FIsheries socieeconomics", 22 "International ce-operation'tmove to 22.3 "Norwegian Ag.ency for Development Ceoperation (N·ORADY~.

..... IF ... 1 ' •• 1 iii I.! iii • ill Iii.; ' •• l II! ... Ii! • III! ... ,!II 1!l1 I llil Jilt Ii ' •• II '.,: II i!l' '. '" .111 '. ~ 1.1 Ii '.J Jlil • I •. !II' I. !"J-. !II • '_ 1.1 I. '.' Iii !Ii .' '!II., ill 1,,1 ... !III "I .!lJ III! 'il '!II! ill! II!!!i Ii! ill • Ii!! •

. .

;PJI',IN .H,O NHAT MOIT:QUONG

~. __ "~' ' ,_:.i!i., '. ... ' '.' ~_ .. ,~i .' ~

A. MO~ IIR'UON!G NGH,I: C,A B~IE:NI

1 .. S6n,g bien 01"") G·t'~·

e: ",_ .. :~Q

3. Ap thlap nh~$t doi va bOio

4. NhrhtT d'Q nuoc Ibi~n 5.11huY trh~u

6. Thuy trueu 00

7. Dong ahoy b,jen

8. Do mu6i ruroc bh~n

. .'

9. 6 nhl~,m m6~ truang ngh~, co va toe hlQ!j cuo SI,) 0 nlh'~em , Q, Cae IOQ,j hinh ,0, nhliie'm

.'

'1 '1. liheo dOli moi tlrUang! nghs' co l:2.Xu ~9 nlJbc ,dulng cho lilghl~ co:

13.E)onh, ghtl: ch'ot IUQngm.oi truong ngh'6 co

14. H~ th.ori,g quan trae: va canh '00'0 Im,O~ truong

~ . '''!i.. _ . . .. .J, '" . ·t . . . . ,..;.

B. MO:I TRUONG NGHIE CA, THUV vue NO'IDI~

-,~-""-'- --- .., '~~ .

C. M'OI QUAN HIE GIIOA MO'I TR'!U(JN!G VCH PHAl rRn~NI BEN VaNG SAN XU.AT

- _ _ I~

, !i!

THUY SA,N'

11 G' '-. '. . ....... ". T' -.' •..... ." .....•. '." k···h .. ,' thoc .. t- h .• ' ... ' '. k. -

, •• ,',' ', ••..... " ' •...... , .. "', •.•... I .sun

",~Jua mo~ I ruong vo~. '. I ell _ ac. _ lJy._.

2, Gluo moi truang vo~ nuoi trong thuy san 3., GiQ:o m6i trrl10ng vol cha' b~'en '~huy san

4. C,ac chinh sceh co, Wan oucn den 'qu.an 19 ,mo.! rruong trong s6n XUOl thu,Y' san.

19

~, _... ,.j .. -., -- '.

PHAN nnl NlHAT: MOI,lR:UaNG

I. S,QNG BI~N

1.1. Khi:i Diem

•• "l'

_. ",860g bi~!1 HI; dan, d9ug efla nl~t mrdc bien, do nhieu n.guyen nhan kha.c nhau ,m.a

~1 1..<" ,:J kh '~ , ~"" ,w - ' ", ' "c, ,-" , ,- ';'

m, - !"l!,I.en ,'.',' - 'ong'cou (,.'lrang tn~.ng t.hal phang;

l~.ng uua khi .iyt,a ,gQ:i Ia :oo.t bien ndt song. Song Hlm9t nang cat yen '[0 bii vain quan t~'Qng c.o, lien quan dentb~'c 'lei da.ng t'a;u t~~yen, ,thielke: cae cilng. trinh ky thuat lren bien, hang hat, d,a.nh ,ca., .. Treng c;ac eong trinh nghi.eu, ciru 'It bi~n nol. c,hung vi nghien cUu hii sin n6i rieng, nghie:n 'cau, song bi~D la, tI1Q'[ trollg, nhrtog; uQi dung tblfCY11g dUQc

qu.alt lim. -

l'''!II 'C'"" ,.f '" .. ' 'h L h ,~ .,

• ...,Q. , ~ac yeo. .;10' C' '101 eoa" son:g:

1.. bum:: ·song

,04 .. ,

M~,c nU'6~ Lrlltl:lgb'iJ:m "-+-~--It-~~___,,:fII.---_',

* Profin sdng:: Ui dU:Ong cong giaogiw,m~l bi.~n nOi so:ng va m,~t phang\-1Uon,g '86.c vdi, no theo bUGng truy,en song.

;I; Ngon ,s6n_g;, la phan. ham. cao hen rmre s6ng trung blah.

* E1IMson.g: la, die.m cao ohit ella nS9El song,

* Bung song: la, ('htu n~,mth~p hon muc

songtrung blnh, -

* Chin song: 1a ,cJi,~m. (hap Mat CUrt song.

*' D¢ eao s-Ollg (h) til khoang each do bang met (m) thee chieu th§ng dung lUi chftn den dlnh song bien profin s.on,g 'V!e theo lnr6ng

truyen. song. -

~ [)Qi dad song (A.) lla khoangc,ach nlm ngang giO"a cac dinhcua hat ngon s6nghoac hai ,,~ha:n s.6u,g ,k~ nhan tren pro:fi:o" song ve th~'o hll6'ngtruy8n chfnh,

* DQ dt5-'c. ,!),ong (iGt)Ia. ti so giua hai Ian d:Q cao song vai bulk song.. Trong th1..lc te:! ,eh?; d6e s6ugtrim mQi di~m 'eila profln song duqc d~c ttlhlg bing dai Ilf~,g 2b!A.

'* Chu ky sdng (t) Ui k_hGuing thoi gian d~ hai dlnh song k~ nhau d:i qua cung 111Q't di~n1

cO dlinh tren mit bi~n. - ,-

,~ !!!! - --

* T6c, d~1 truye,n s6ng (t6c d:~pba C" '= ~ ).

:t

la toe (lQ dich chuy~n elm, dinh horacc,han s6ngtheo huang truy~n song,tmh bing tssls, Khw. niem tete de} songchlap dung dol val

~. .. - !e'~

song t:len.

Cie d~c tnmg eua reil to song cUi dtra fa 6 tren tlIOO,gU'ng: vm song hal. chien d'!u dan d'uQc minh hoa a hlnh ve. Song g.io thuc lren

bi~n.la.,s6ng 'ba chien. . '.

1.,3. Phan,.lo~i sO-neg bien lh:eoillt ta.c dl):ng,

~.D_t;ra vao 1~t: g2iy nen chu:y~n' dqug slo:llg c6 the; p:hill chia song' trong d,~i du,cm,g (b1~n)

:thilnh uhung ,10.,1 S11U: '

21

';f: Song gi6: xuat hien du,m Ul.,C dung cua gi6 Va na.m trong "wrUng: ehiu tae dOng cua tnrong gi6. Loai song de gid gay fa, nhung viJl ton taikhi tnl:Ong gio ngiIng Uk dOug gQi la song lung.

* Song th'u:y trieu: do hrc but tuan hoan cua n1~1 trang v:a m~t trai"

* S6nggi6 a;pt: lien quan voi d~ l¢ch ella mal dai ducmg khai vi trfcan bang dUQi ta,c dung ~u,a,gi,6 va ap suat khf quyen, .

:+; co,;::, dl 'bit' d d'a d"'" "'1'1

,- oong ura C~an:, " 0 Qngat" run ua.

C:(p tt~,g 't~ub, m~n biin.

o - Bi~n 1 ~.g,

] - Bien l~,g hoi Nuoc ggn ,sa1ng ,nirJ tan. co nhDng

gon 8608 .ngQfl nh6.

2 - Hire:n yan

I

I

3 -,Biin hoi dQng

* Song tau: do 'tau thuy en chu,y,,~n do,', ng., '" '.

4 ,~ Bien d¢ll8

giyra.,

1.4., Phan lo;~J song theenmh ,d,ng, song

*' Song d~u (D): dau hieu dien hlnh ,eila song de.u hai cbieu 1a s,l!- xuat hi~,n :ro rang, -cae

d'~ ,'" d'" 11 _. ,,. _:L b'

_,au song, ' • ai, rum song song song nnau, .~.".~

phin each lbbi nhung bung song, Song limg vii song g,i6phait lrien manh ta nhiln,g thl du ve song dfu.

* Song khong d6u (KD): d~u song' kh6n,g dou (ba Chl~U) khong thanh luOi dill nhu a truong hqp song deu ..

1 5 C' ., , t" ' , 'if'h"'· .!;:," b" "jl -

..'. r ,ap . r,ng: I, . ,(U RIo'?!' ',len

La mac d,o xao tron cua mit bi~n dum ULe

• - -., - iio • • .-' ,;" - - - - --

d'Q-ng: reua ,gi6 d:ltgc X3,C dinh theo thang dQ! 9 cap (bang' cap' trang thai mat bi~n).

l .. 16,~ Huang truyen song

"X" ~ ..!r' hi p'l., - 1 'b"[: r :8'l\,.'u~n', .... 1., :'-~'1

r: ac ,uHl!l.u,eo a an "Il~ y _ g ,-,111U".

Huoo.g:~'fuY'~n. s,ong cfing nhtr hirong ,g~6" bao g:ib cUng'dl1qc xac dinh theo huang ttl dau truven trn.

J - - .

'N'" '~-- h .. z blnh ci H'· .' ". "

Neu turcng trung ''U.Ul cua tal ca cac song

c'o cac Id,~c lne:m nrong tl;l' :ohi~u hoac il (chu yeo, ~,a dQr cao vi dti~u da.i c,ac song) khac bi~t nhau 3'Ou ho~c bon so vm, buang: trung b uili cua cac song co dang be ngoai khac nhau (dnl yeu la d"Q cao va chieu dai); trong truong hQP nhir v~y can coi hai nhom song thuec v,e cac h~

" ~.' " . ,-" 'h'! ~.h, (b"l , HI,' ,;/I, " ,

thong. song khae : an nnau I.ang rureng truyen

song theo la ban 8 huQ1,og),.

22

8 - Bien d(in,g r,fi't BQl tf"ang phu h61 cae. suon sOng .d6

manh, song ra:t .xudng 'l:hanhnhung dain;mg. lam. IcnOr

to m~ biHn 't:tO '1banh tr.&J_g x,o;!, dll'. ml?l: $d, noi (iJ ViUng ,ehan sOng) 13. c6 thi nhln.thay :rihU'ng,khoang kbOng :J'hu I ~t

5.-, Bi,lll dQng; boimanh

6 - Bi~n dgn,g manh

- -. -

9' _' Bi!n Id".ng dO: d¢L song r![ ],On

lid• 'd' '.

• "" I ','. - - - :,'

;laC " ureng ..

NhUng ngon s,6.ng Me. bal d'u dO, '~~ori~ c6'bQ'E: 'tr;;ng (nnu thuytinh) ttlu' khang: tdug.,

XU!(: hien nhiillg song vira..m.¢E 86' song co ber d,6 xu6ng taothanh bet u,tng (, m(),t dO,~ chO (s6n.g;b~c ,diu).

S6.og cti, hlnh dang rO' ~It s6ngt.,c

daunh1n may Cikhap noi. ' I

Xn2i hi~n nh,ling nlo,nS;D:ng COO!' cic dinh song: bot -rrang ehesn _"bllng I Iffioan,g rQng. g.i,O bat ,dauthaj tung

b9t nl cac n.S9n s6"g.

SOng truyen t6i tu huang

Klni~u rqu5c teO

Ooe urong Wi (d~)

(T' d~' )

tli., .•..•. " .. ,. en, ... ' .. ,.,.. '

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337.5~· 225

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61.,5 ~. 1 l2".5

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.£JOngNam

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Ta.y Nam

202,5- 247,5

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Tav

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247,5 ~ 292.5

292~S- 33" ,,5

1.7. CD:, ,song

Cip song, IduQc dinh gill thea dQ coo s.ong

Jon nhlt, quan trae Iclu~. ~

I{hOng 00

~,6ng I

o

o

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Gio Ie. &11 !chlly!n d~tl,g ng:ang- c,tul. kbong khi dU<;1c d~c tnmg hOi huang viii 'v~n moe '(rung: binh trong kh.oang, thoig,iad do obit dinh,

Gloa l1enbien 13. mQt trang'MUng ySu t!6 khl tllO'llg q_uaD.ron g nhit Gi6 Uie dong n€:n s\6ng.,db~g,Cb~'Y ~~6' ~a' ,cd ~,i-nhbumg n]~~u d~n

giao tbong 'trenbi~n.Khi gi6 Qua,m~ (gi6 baa) lam - cho nhi1eu. tau thuyen. .khong di~u

khi~n nai, ,co khi bl dam., a :nhlblg vung yen be, gi6 ,ga.y nl hi~n brqng nude, dang bay nUatrut

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SOng :nho I 0

O~2;5' 5 2,0
0.75 5 - 15 2 - :;.
1 ,:lS 1.5 - 25 2 .~ 3
2.0rJ 2.5 - 40 I 4 ,~ 5
3.~50 40 ,~ 75 s ~. 7 xr hi~u

Song kh:i 1&1

m

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S6ng: Ian I 1.25

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125 .~. I

170' 9, - 11

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ca,c s,ting gqn oob. COrl.Dg'm. Glo tl16i cang cam thEy gi6 th6,i nlnmg eta rEi rang han" cae ngen budm, thuyen co hID. m~(~ Ii edy

~00g ,;~ dangtro .. g n1111l1g- kbtlng I tb,! ~y dJJq~ 1-2 m.1!g' ~oo.g till'll d6 xueng, nut dich chuy~n.

Gii6 r:a!t Me

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L~g gio~. kb6i len 'Ih&n,g .~

vn

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ngen s6ng ,00 bqt.theo' bdnh 'hii OQQJlpnQn:g, lieu chua d i d~rng

vm

8.50

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khac. I.Lan bon m 1 ~Om thl!fong

.Lm1 hem 210

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12

Gin r& dlJ' 3.2.71'3.

d¢i lanhon.

Cae ~6[1g cao cac daibot rl'~y d~c hU6'ngtbeb dhi~u gig" Cae ng9.n I song b~ do nh8io. ]~( nhso v:a

[ lm, .. "~,}in~tm .:~',a~> bui nude am , ,g.]am tam nhln,

Giy hu h6ngnh~ nha,c,u{\ O*,u cac chlJfI 6ngkh6i va cae ngDi i~ nhM',

'Cae ,s:ongrtit cao kem theo cde ng,Qn :s61~g d1H :oh6 ,fa. cr tren, b'9't [hop thwlh[ung mfu1g](m va bi I gi6ub,6i thanh tUng d.ai tring d~y I d~~ d9'~ lh~o h(I'?n~ ~i6" t8an bQI

m~l ble:n nlnr mau trang, slflpha . vo cna ~6ng twa nen manh va drJ

I d¢l tim nhin Xi! gl.am.

I,eac :s6[~g C';i:liQ k_h~c (huang (cae I Launho vAw-a ded khi bjkhuf(( I sau cae song), bf,en hoan mIDI b~

che ph~, bid (.'·tIC n:ding bQl lr.a.ng

I r~flg, ,t1rund9C' Ipe,o' huang gio, Gae phla elY,a ngQJl .&oug bi tho] thanb: bQl f1 kbap ned •. mm nh In xa

b~ ·giam •

Ra.l hL~m iQ.:um tr&c thl"y (:,!@gi6 n.~Y •

kern" "h ... "", I,"' (~c. n1k:a"

.' ",_Il IU~~ !iJllp_ r.~,~-'

hCJ~,j LOn.

. KhoT:lg khi clayb9t n!J'&'t, va bLl.] ]:1uO'e. Bj,en how. rOmtlr[ang do bu i :nua-c hi tr6~. d.~tl'axn llhll~ xa . b~, gii;m nghi~m tn;Ifl,g~. I

'R" L"'" , ,,;

,- ~t 1.~.I.ce'm.q.]jWl trae

may gi6 cap' Day,. kern thea ;s,ii'(~pha hoai ~6n.

Khi XAC djnh t6c dQgi6 thong thuang phii chn :'1 cac y€:u ~6'o1llr tmb y, Sl\l' sa.o boog Via SIJ" suy giim rae d:u.ng 'eila gi6 tren m~ bi8n do m_U2 to ~a rum huemg eua eac dong .chayrn~t m~t.6i

24

tr.~g, thai rn~t. bi~n ... Dt;m, vao m.¢t so d~c djSm nhu cae Jj co v.a knOt [;Ua 6ng kh.61 t30c'ling: cO the xac 'dinb duqc too d(J va huang ,gin tlU,MC_

N .. y~n"':ill WI,}!

PHAN THO NIHAJ: MOl TRUONG

,].l.D,inh, ,p,gbia vap;h.in [D,i

Theo Atkinson: ""&0 -la :x.oay thuan quy mo syn6p khong ,co frent (dii phan each gina hal tb6:i khi c6 tfnh d6ng nhltt. ve cac mnmg v~t U nhu nhiet d'9,v,a dQ lm .. ,.) phil '([i',en tren mien. bi~n nhiet d'Cii haycan nhiet clui i1 mac

,Il !Ii ~

hilt ky va co 11,,0ao. hru xac dlnh'~.,

B·' .,..,. If''' he . h"'~h" l' ~ da , .. '~

. ·ao.lil ''':' t . ong . ·oan . Uu co .. ~g gao tron

v6i gradient khi ap ngang (s~ thay ddi ap sua! theo phuong ngang) va. locdQ gi6 rlt tan (tOe dQ gk)'c~c dai I(i' trung .,am bang v,a Ian han

. -

17~:t:mls),.

B-a,o dllQ'C d~t ten hay ~,a d:anh, s,6 cho lUng narn, Ten Hy I~p 11 "Typhoon", ten A r.p Ut "Tufaus", ten Trung rQu{Sc uTaifung""g4n

gl,5n.g 'calC tu' Hy l~pl va ,A, ,l1)p;, u Tay Thai BlOh Duong va Bien Dong gQi Ui Typhoons, mien

bi,en Caraip gol Ii Hurricane; mien llc chill 8Qi la, Vilivili,

Theo t6c dQ gi6 rnanh Mat ,(1 gan tnmg tAm~ T6 chl1cKhf tu'gnl~ Th~ gi.6ii quy d~nh pharr loai xoay thu~n n.bi~t d6i tltanh.:

*Ap thilp nhi~t ddi (Tropical depression):

Xoay thuan nh:i~t dl(ij v,(ij boan lou m,t dtft giar han mQt hay mot s,6 ,duoog d.ing 3:P khep kfn va toe dQ gin l,On nh!tl a vilng trung tam tu' 10,&-, I1m/s (G~p 6 den cap 7) ..

* Baa nhiet ,ddi (Tropical storm): &0 v6:i cac duem.g; ding ap kbep kfu Va, tOc cit) gi6 [dn nhat a \lung ,gan trung tam tit 17, 1 ~ 24,4m/s (cap 8 ,d:en ,cap 9).

* Biom~nh (Severe Tropical Storm): Bio vui t6c dQ gio 100 nhal. vimg gaD trung tarn tu 24,,5-32~'6mls (ca(ptO den cap 11),

* :Ba.o ratmanb (Typhoon/Hurricane): .Bao v,ill toe d:9 gi.O Ian nha't vung giD, trung tim, ttr 32t7mJs tra len (tren clp 11)..

.1.2.J. H,oan, luu ,gio ,tri(},n,t bdo

Hoanluu tang: thKp trong hic cilia lam 3 khu 'fJ$C':

Khuvuc ngoai: ttf mien ria ban t6i khu "'Ie co gi6 C]JC d,~i~ gio tin,g khi di V,! phfa 'U\ru,bao.

Khu "1J1; gi6 eye dai baoquanh :m!t bao v(~i eRie-u ((ling khoing lO-20krn. (5-,10 bjli 1:9). Chieu rong khu v\I'cgi,o cue dai lien quan quy dinh do, rOng·.···, tho vue co thanh nlav.- d6i luu

I' ,.. L"!! ,;

da,y cho mua :100.

Khu mat bao: Khu trung lim bao d:Udng kfnh 3o.-50krn .. Trong mAt. bao toc .0<) gi6 giar,m rnanh, v~phftl tam baa ,gi'D cang yeu.

HOM! hru xoay thu~n (;'0 th~: chia thanh 3 lap::

L ~. d ' ... 0'" 3k l' 1-" d ... di vi

. C1p,o LIm cung' -:m . a dp ." ong ..... 1 vao

- .

-'. I·I··~·· ·h· . ·'b·i-, 1;.. .. ~, . t- .':ii.. 'lop"" d~' ,.; .~'," - .-' .",.·~.l\'"

co ,laD:, p" an .u;Llv.&,I,g tam, I. .. ' ··-on,g vacmann

nbat la i1 g.' !nIDal dat 0 .. I km ..

'.

Lftn g' l'·'~a···· kb! ·o····~ng,.- 'l .7--:1:..'..... dong .'. kh···· ; c··hi". veu

-.J.y! ~ W',·I .. ~ I ,I. '~''', _. ,;JI.;;;E -. m..1_Jl, I, I,'U '_', :: .' '. ,I. ._ . 'IU. j." 'v':.

La t:hanb prn1n tiep tuyen, thanh phan huang tamratnbo.

Lap, dong di ra til! 7,~6km, den dinh cfia bso, '-'Ie dai dong di ra co thanh phan lU tarn ra ngoai cua baa chin mudi a gin dQ' cao 12km.

cae chuyendong xoa:y vao lam manh cr

-. ;o;:~, Ati.':., '"' ." t::", t~- . - .,..,..,J .. 'I,..... . .;;. th .J

m,~1l nat va xoay U. am mq.lJ!.u a tren tC310 co tne

thay r6 tren IntCln,g du'bng dong cua baa Donna nhu hinh I.,

25

Hill" J. Hoon tuu poan dlJ{Ji lanQ'o6/ IlIU (A) •. ph,antren lang OO{ lvv (B) tliongoon oooDClnn~ n:sJ,ay'1,(}If2l1!f))·{f(J. fJ'dfJng dang (dtiQng Jie'nJ WJ' c1UiJll'g clang irl'c (dl.JiJng ItfatJ

3.2.2 .. Truiln.g Hhi~l

Ba()m~nh (;0 Tal nang dong khi nuns, b6c Ien eao, dongkhf xungquanh lanh h~ xueng th,fp.. Hoan luu nay chuye,nnang IUQ'ng nhi¢l agung ketthanh 'U1e :nan.g va tir the nang thanh dQn,g, nang. Ngudn H.ang IUQTIg ban d.au He vi~c giai phong nang 1!1Q'ng do ngjrrrg kel hoi Iuit'1c. a, Ngu5,.n nhiet chlnh lam;~l bi,lS:Il mitn nhiet dOl vainhi~[. d¢ ,r.ift cae trong khu ¥\Ie hinh t11mb bao, Khi bao di chuy~nkhoi nguam nn.i~t ,enia no, hay eli vao m.i~n· vi dQ truag blnh eo nhj~l og lbap boo, hay di vao dallitn dong nhri~t a

m,~:I. dalt se ngimg Iai, .khong khiI6'p dum sat d:at biIanh doan :nh~~l do, bOc len cao va dan.nb va. do m~t, dat~.,nh Ulm Ianh di ~ 8\1' lanh di ciut lap ltbOng th.!' 13a.l diit la, u,g!uy6n nhanUim giam ye'u ba;o~ dong thang cU"ang hue CU3I kbong khl lanh lamtan ]01 nong eua bic.

3.2.3. 11~ thlJng m.ay

aru ·trtic chili, yen cua h¢ th5ng mly Ui :m:ay ttoi luu '~dru may muau CIO dt,mg xoan troa 6c '\i'~' phfa tim, bao. Tren hlnh 2 :la 8nh mity chap bio uta. 0 T:lymc ThaiBtnh Duong ngiy4/811997 ~

.Hinh 2'. DIl! ma.V'trong baa giaJ d'oqlfl rMe bilo (:a)gJ€JiI10iiJnbitiO(b)V3 .gir:Jl UOi91n ;bao ml~nh (typhoon) ,(:e). viJi oai may X,U~lJ croll"h bikJ~ m~tba(l' tfl'11'l1~tJr6' trtma.nh thjph6. M:ai b,ao r>O h€it n#'fh :t!ai xac fJlnh ro Vt ttl ,tam ,bao

26

3;,3i. Cae gia.i dt.,:n phat 'lrh~n fua.b.i'o

Trung bbilib30 keo dii khoing 7-8, nga), d~m. tfnh til tfulti cHern phi. sinh ~ phil. lli6n. cho den khi di vao bo ho~c tan ra tren bien. Tuy nhien e6 mot sio ban chi ke~ dai vai gia, va c;Ung co nhmg biC) tdo tai tr!u 15 ng.ay bo~e Hill hon n.cra. TheoRieh] (197'9) co th~ chia qua. IImh hlnh thanh vii! pbat. trli!n ella bao thloh 4 0. iai deannhu a hlnh 3.

Lb !I'

Ba:Qxufll hien tit mot nhieu dOng 00 san trong truoog duang dong nhi~t dm., phan 1m} {leboaug 80'% ~ru.tm.g bqp)bao blob thanb lien quaa v61 daih~i t\lnbi~t elm.

3.3'.2 ~ G,iai dlt(jR Ire'

KhOng phii tit ca. cae con bio d~t t6c ,clOt gi6o~p hao trong giaidoan hlnh'(hanh d~~ phat tri:~n thanhbso, nhieu xoay., thu~n tan dl san 24h. Mot s6 khac di chuy~n tr!.n rn¢t kh~aJ1g: each ian nhu ,ap tbip nhl~td6i. N,S;U. c~ s~ tang'cuangthl kht a.plliapnh!tgiam nhsnh xuong dud. 1000mb" Gi6 tClICmg GIl? bao blob rhanh Dl·C)l dai baa quanh trungtamxnay.

".3.3. Giai't1of.Jn ch'ln modZ

Dile dif'm giai .QOiplni,y· 1,a khf .ap iJ lim kh.ong ·gi.im tiep va t&; dl}l gio (:1!C. d~j ngung tang len .. Neu trong gia] d'o~ uet pham vi gi6 manh, SU:c:bao chi giOi hC}nttong ph,mvi . ban kinh 30-S0km dll trong giai dO(lrD flay co Ih~ mu T~ng tItn 300km., Khu 'vvcthUi tiet .x~u. nam b phfapbii so voi bu&g dich Icll.u,y~n eua. baa.

3..3'.4. If3ial d(}~1J Ian ri

Khi bao di chny~n vao dtitUtn do di~u ki.~n dia hlnh, hrcrna ,satting le:nva nbi't Hi kh"! na~g eung ca'"p am cho bio, bt mil di nen kfch thu6c eua bia gjam dii rat ahanh, sau .mOt th.(ri .gi~n ngan (~oa~g Ut l:?~~ay'~' thl.~.ao [an .ta hoan [lOan., dOl khi colllel6n t,l durn. d~l'l.g .~(:It:'P lhipnhL~t dOi, vag<ay rom 1an tfen mqt ph~m v.i. rOng ldn.

3'.'4. Dieu ki(m ,h'inhUlanh bao

Palmers "19.56) ,[tlla ra 3 dteu kienco ban ch.o ,s\T hlnh thlmh baa:

Khavuc dai duong, co di~n tich au lan, v6i nhiet-d:o matbi!n c.a." (tu '26·~27CC) de Cco. tb~ nMg loP khongklti .. . I m,~t .dfft l!n ca~' va Ian truy~nkhOt1g,khf tuong. ,d6iiim. vii n6n~ 11:011 khf ,quyen Kung: quanh, (t nh£l lu ml;l'ckhoang lkm, Nhi:e:t do .Ian cnng bio ,(him. hoc. hori manh cungcap ·nafig lUQtlg ngw:lg kei che 11¢ thong -b-

nao,

Hinh 3 .. Cacg.iai db~n Ilion th.anhbao TiP.til S~2011(}/1;9.79 .. Hlnh ,[nann fit ftgaV5lUJ tC1 khoiJ'ng 5PN .baa 'TlP eli ch:uy:ln ,tht1~. ria .p.hJ3' ~8Y ,c~a CaD ap q;iin nhilj.t T&JI Thai Sinh' Chmng ,pnat. trien . qua CaG giai da.p'n~ c.u6~ c{)ng m v:ao mi~il 6.rr (1di ,tdl' 5CFN frd thann xoay thu~n n.go~i n:h.i~/,rXii (Wa tanabel, 1980)

Thong sO Coriolis cogiti 'hi du IOn tao Koay .. Bio thuem.g hioh thanh trong Id6igi6i han DOl, vi dQ):-20QvIhai be;n xfch dao,

Dong co bin (;·6 ,dt) aiittbmg ditng IcuaSi6 yielJ bao dam s~u~,p trung ban d,liu ciiadon,g ,fim vao khn vl;(c bio trong thai ,gi,M (tfi'U (;·U.3.. s¥ h ~.~J telk ::" .. .". b b'"

__ .!ill1 lJ(l.i_:q~, . tao ..

Quy ·d.~o lrung blnb curt . bao UUIerng co dang pambon..D,c diem c·O' bin dangparaben cu,a . c,ic quy d.~o bao quy dluh bOi (.(J ch€ bao dichuY~:1l thea dong d!ndU:Ong~ dong khong chiu nhi~u dOng ,cua! bio cr ria cuacao .ap c~n ~et,mQt. h¢ thong khi ,ap tiIIl eao. Tuy nhien

~ . .

27

tOng co nhH~lI can b,a!o chi di thee dang dan trongm¢'[ tbm gian, sau do dO bO' vao dat, .Lien va tan di, Khi 0,6 quy d~o tu dong d:6n,g nam nen tay~U,y bik: co d~ng gin than.g' nhu trong tnrmlg HQ'P cac can baa 't;u thang 8 den ,thang 12 fJ'TayBac Thai Blnh _Duong va Bh~n DOng.

3~' .. :Sy- tan r:a, cn,a baa

Su tan ra eoa bao co lieu quam d:en s~ bi.en d6i c~a. di~u _ki:¢nmOttNang 'kbonr tblll~n lei cho sl1phat 1tri~:n cua bao, SL1 bien doil nay l,a s~ bien d6i ve cau true eOa bao tb~hi.~n b: sy:giarn dang k~cuanbi¢l cit? m,1 n!lIac bi,~n. tren mQt

kh rou· u:I1l-.... '-Ihnl d'-'LI-~ 'In" I O"oo:~g. 2~oC.· - ·s,u- g; ,cirm, ..... :u" a 11""",

. -. ·"'I~\r.r. V.I. I, ' , . ...:_\j'I" "bY"U-',1J:.~' U '_" '~' ~' .,. __ I".~_"_I_' 'Ii.! , ".Ii.'t,\;;"

mal Sal tao h¢i t~ trong lOp bien. Ekrnan (tap thlIp hon ] km), s1;I ghim CtnlOQ bat <in dinh, Sl1

• "I 'b'~ '~'. 1~ .. 't..,'f r -~, t L 1...;. tt..A . $.' ii¥l"~

gram noaa nm J\1.1ll '!JJ1villgl!l .uy tnongmoru ~:n;_';l,g

van bao~ s\I giim y·eu. bay pha 'va: Joi n6nJl. Trang do s~ biEn dol nbi~l d~Q m~t hien va rna sat 'la, nhfin-g, nguyen nh fin, quan trong,

3.(1.1., Sf! bltn dJinhi~t d~ mt;U .hillt

SIJ' bi.en d6i nhiet da, mit bien d6np."-.: vaitro

ill ,~ ~,. ~

quan trQng doi "\lOti. s~ tan cu.a bao, Ket qua eua

thu' nghiem tho thfiy rapg ta: ,cuang: dO va quy me, cua bao d~lJ tbich l~TIg 'ra-:t nh~y doi v<li s¥ bien d6i nhi~[ dQm~U nl10c bi~n va quymo eua khuvtrc nang tren b1~~n:

Ntu nhi~t d9,m,~t 'Ru6'cbi~n nbohan nguEtng 2"6~5(]C thl hao kheng bao ,gill ,d~t too culmg d..Q cua b,an rat msnh: ng)uQ'c lai, 1l~U. lll1u nbiet do mat n.lJ'ac bi~n Ian. hon 27,5PC thi cucm_g d~ cu,~ bia ,chic chan se ting ten. Trang tfllong h.Q'P nhiet d'9' m,truJuc bit~n dQt nhien ,gi.am, tu 27",5°C xndng 25~66C thl seed s~ gia,m yeu (~ua bao.

Neu khu V!le bi~n nong co, d'uong klnh khoang 300 kin duy ttl rrongkhu vuclo] baa [hi! CllGtn,g dQ' cua baoset~ng cuerng va duy trio

Quy rna cua khu \ry'G gio cafp bao se gi.a.m d~(leTl nlur khuvirc bi~n nong thu hep Iai,

Neu khong co ng:u5n nhi~. lit bi~,n till nhi!!!u o¢ng ,khm d~ukh6ng the phal tri6n cuong '11'9 1c1l,muc ap thap nhiet ddl.

,_ :Ne'iutthu: ngu,6n nhi~,l:tre:n, bien hoan 'Loan b,ma't d:i khi vao d.ili li!n thl :S1:f' giarn yeu cua bao 81e di~n ranhanh chong vla bao se tan ..

30,,[2. ,S,! gid.m h~i t,f!. do ma&:tlt trOll-, IUp thdp' R-hd!

Do 'cuO'ngd6cua su hoi tu trong Jdpma s.al din tm hoat dQ~g 0.6i luu 'rit: 'm"nh, tren ,Uhimgkhuvuc Ian trong bom Iuu ban [len '8y- gi.im yeu ell,at hQi I~ nay 51e din t6i s'~'giam yeu eua hoat dong d6i lull noi chung, Dieu nay ngaD ci~,vaiI 'chulftn nhiet va. mfl:me:n tit cae 'Inn

II' ,}' L! ~.r

th'p den cac lap ken cao, va cling lam giam

eUOng d~Q cu a loi nong ~ UiI:rn cho quan b~ ,gid

:nhle:t kheng CaD bang ..

...... .iu Ldu . .Kha"'~

,A,~, - . __ ~

4.1.. Khid ni.~m

Nhiet dQ,c6 the hi~u Ia d~i hreng dung deth~, ruenmuc; d:o nonp- hav lanb cualmot vat: the!

r~ I. 0 J '. '..,

hay ~1l.Qlrn6itnrang, nao do,

Dan vii coo nhi~t dQ'd1u~g dlm;g Ii centigrade ~~. Fallrenheit t'FJ1 bay d¢, Kelvin (K).

4,.,;i..P:han bo ChUIilgCU3 nhi~1 trong bi.~n v.a d~,i dmmg,

H,I,n.fI ,4. Phan b6' nhi~t d~ .nU'd'c m~t bJ8n .£h~ng troo',9 mus' dOng

NJgllon nhi~lb~n nhilma. hanh timhnhin CluQ'c III ,t:Ut mat nM. Phi.n bo eiia bite xa mit trm l~i. kh6ng: d.6n.g d.i!utrtn. cae khu 'we -di,{1 ddi Kh'c nhau, Th,eophuong .nganl, clu tn1c ~!et~~OD,.~ 'bi~D va ,d~i. DUong mang .tmh d~3 n, dta dOl ri,l LOn. GIn xich daonhiet d()lnuo-c biec cao vi :giam dan v~ phia cue .. Vf d~minh hoa Ut nld~:t dQ nucc m~tbitn tren bit!~ Dong 813m d.~n. tCr' nam len bile (l1inb 4).Theo phuong thjng dUng (hinh 5),nhi~t ,d.¢ m~t. bi.en thubng dao d¢n.g manh theo nhi~t ,dO khf qD~n, do do chiu .ami. buoog nhi~li c:u,a·how

1- ~ .. , ·~·-d(··h·····- AI.'. -.:'t .... '. '1' ." ...•. ~

im ,ruuqu ycin '.' oat UO'D;g cua cac : O~l 810

mi'.ul). LOp m,t n,ay co nhi¢t,dO t1100g doi d6ng nblt va c;6 chieu ~aY' .til "1m ehuc ·den Vat tr;~tm met tu,y vaomee dq x',aottOn ella bi~n. Sa.u, hon ]a tan~; nUDe co' nhlet d6 tha.v .. ·. dO· nhanh thee

e····· . . .. _.. -. - ._. " . .1 '. .1 .'. .. . . .' 00

c:1Q sfiu (lap d.Ql bten 'Ie, nhi~l dQ haylop nem nhi~t). Cu6i cung Ul lOp, mroc siu cu.a. bi~ft co

_L • ·~t· d';" f'· ·d· ...... ,/I.: .d:: ._l!...

IUll"ifr 'c y ~uO'ng .. , OJ. Oflpul.

l(}f)l)"

Hlnh 5.Phan .b5d~c tWng nhi~f 09 nutlG bi'in tn'f3iO tJ~ .$~'fJ

4.3., tng!hla c!ua v'i.~i,:n:g'lden cruunh,i~t lEft? nUDe biin trone sinh hoe va sinhlha.i b:i~D

It! .

Nhi~t d;¢ lamg,t bong nh~g d~(;: tnmg v(U If ella! nude: bien c6 val trb i,;!i quan t~Qng trong nhieu Iinh "1lc nghien C~ULl.D,c bi~.t"ltrong hai duong .hQC,. nghien cttll nbi~t de)" d:Q- m.u.6i. giu.p tmh, t,oan :m,Q.t· d,C) rie.ng' , (he dell :rien(}".~ nh~n.T

'.', .. . .. - _ 0. ,r _~

chi." cic kh6i :nu6"c ,nghi~n cuu s'l,f' di efuuyen

cil~ cae kh:6i nuUc, lulh toaD. dong ,ehA.ym,t dQ~ y,an~ac am, v.v ... Tro.ng nghi~n cUu c'ac hi~n nrqng dlm ti,e[ kllf h~u nJur hOf,t dt;ng. cl1a ~i6

~. . ,".~. 'h' .. ' . ·nhi·· .~ ...•. ct·, ....... b- .. ' 'E'1 N':- L-

mua,. dEll . ,t;>l 11;1 -. .~tm;,ao, llmo~ __ a

Nina ... , v,a trnng sinh hQC ,sinb ·thai bi~n D,gbie"

CUll iirm huang ,cua nhiet dO' tm. dew stlng sinh \1,'.1: tro.n,g bi~n.

Khoong nhiellOn taitren .hanb tinh ],£1 lOOOOc, song s\fs,5ng chi ·co m~1, cr day ohl,~t tit am 2000C d!'n IOOne. Da so Cat loai chils6ng dlft1C trong gi.di han hep eua nhi~\t d;6~ kboang tu boc den 50°C. Mot ;;6 vi sinh vat va, m6t .s6

, .'

[om tio .(Jsu6inU'ac nong chiu dLlQfcphl~t d¢

88'oC v:a: 80QC IUOllg ·wg.MQ·tvhi:loari een lrilngva.ca b6ngsong (j s1l61 n [fOre nong c 6

flhi~t dQI tho!n g, 52°C. -

Nhie[ ,do trODcr mt)1. tnranp nuee thuana

• Iii It;) t;:i ,_ e

Ihip han dmOi ttl1Crng kh5ng Ithi va ond3nll

hon, dodO, nhUng loa1 tbuy sinbv~'[n6i chung dtiu Ul! ,Moog lo~l.i. h.~p nhl¢J~. chung co. tb! tOn t:~ti trongmet .khoang"rihi~t dg nlao da1y (gQi 1a lchoing -nhi~l t6n tai), song ,r;hung chi co, th~ .pbat 'tri~n duqc trongkhoang nhi:~t d:Q thfch b?p (§;9l la,.~'oin~ flhi~t. p~a_t~~n) ~ap~a[ tn.eil tot :nba:;tCfl kboang rUuet d.O[Ol. uu (khoang

nhi~t cgt thU~E1)_ 'O,it bQ ph~n'thuy sinh 'v~t II nhilng lo.aibiennhi~t (trir cac loan chim, th6 sl6ng: 0 DU'.OC). Do v.,y ,oo(}i qua. trinh ho bap:~ trao d&ichjt~ sinh tfuOng~ phat tri~n .... l;::ua chung phu thu6c: vaonhi~el do c:uamOitiUrmg va conhnng gldi h@:B ve nhi~t dQ r(t d4jc tnmg,

Nhiet dO ,cling quyet dinh su phan Do' ,ella. cac loaf sirth v,t' trong bi~n. Hl~n naynhieu :ngbien C,UU vl!m6i lien ht} giua n1li~t d{) va s~ phf1n b6~di chuy~n eua mQits6100i ca giup cho cong vi~c danh. bat, khai thac hai san cO' hi~u ql1i ban. CO ,51$ pharr b5khacrihau v~ nhi~,t dQ trong [lUOC bi~i!'n do .Mieu nguyen nhan nhu $:11 khac nhau v~ d~a 1y (vi d·O)~khi h~u (ng,~ty de.m~!, maa trong .Ila:m)~ do 5\1' kbac nhau v:8 mut do xao trQn,-k_hi nallg' 'IrQy~nnhi~t (giu.t\ cac loP, nlldc-~ thai Du6'c).·v.v .. .De do ,cungeo 8)\1' phan b6 ra:l d~c !rung ,cHa cac low, sinh v~l, loai 113,

1 WI 'I '" .;[. 1-" .i ... nh -

~, L4 .J!oal. ua cm~ ' . .oaf rQug r ' '. I:t;t.

8\1' thfchnghi vO'i sy bien dOi cua nhi~t d,¢ 'con du:O'c tb~ hi~n i1 nbiltl·g: diu melt hlnh tbfii (;0.3. t:hliy sinh v,~tnbU' c.iIa.mQ,t s61~ai d·gfl,8 ·v.~t :001 tliongmua dong va mila -hev. v ....

T(t nh~eil, nml~t d¢ ilUClC tung inb huang; g:iin. tifp tm den c.a;c di:~uki~n v~t 19 vlh6a h,qocua nlldc -rna nhUng Y'~il t6 nay l~i t~e t:1ep

tac dQng I.en. om s:Sng cUrathuy sinb v~t ..

Tr'-I;pg Kha~ ~;UyiDVinVb?-ij

,5., THllY TRIEu

:;:.1. ll.i:.'D tU'qllIL .buy t,rh~u.

Nhing qua trlnh d.Ong,h,rc hocva 19 boa. hQc ~.rong 11l10C bi~n va d,@!l duong dohrc tao trieu ,g,ay nen dllQc gqi ~a, eac 'hi~n~;ltQngtll,u,y trle:;u bay thuy trieu .. Cluing xua:thi~n do lac dung ,eua cac l~cvu, tru .. cac luc ~p dan ,gina lnii d,ai" .m.~[ trang va m~t trcri. L~c[~.o tri~u Du,am,~Jt trang trung blob lonhoa 2" 171fu so vaib,tc tao tri.eJu ,eua m,~t trm. 'fi v~y nh.ung y!"nW co ban cua thuy trie:u dUQt quye~: dinh chu, yell 'bm 'Vi~tri IlJO'ng ,I:u) cuam.~~ 'h"an,g va 'h'alidA1t.,

DiO vi trf tll'dn.g biS cua ttai dta:tt :m~t trang va ,m~t nCri khong ngimg bi€n dOi nen gi.a tIi cac l~c tao trieucua m~m trang va ml~ttr'm cOng bien d,6i~:beo., Tai cu,[](gmqt die:m ehung co, tb~

tac dung cung hu6ng bo~c nguQc" hu6ng nfuau. '£)i!eu nay phan auh tren tinh chat vito :d.Q' lOO cua thii.ytri~u va '~arrn cho chdng bien doi.

ale die:u kien di,a [9 't~nhien cua bi~'n (d.~i duang) nhu hlnb d~g duang bO,.kich [huac~ dO sau, cae d:ao v,v ..... co iIlb huang dan,g It! den d¢ len va tinb. chat thuy tti.eu. N.eu d~il duong: bao phil ,khap Ifai dait bang m.¢t lap n.uBe cung Id¢ sauthl lbuy~rieu tren cbngmQ~ - vI dQ lanha nhau va. chi phu t:huqc vao cac l~t" taotrieu cua :m,~t trang vam~t 'troi

Tuy :nhit!n., c:ac dae d~ng' '~ri~u CUal m\lc nlUfac va don!: cbayo cung mlQtvi d~ 'bien dot trong m9t p~ viral [Qug. T~i m9'u sovtmg nhu vinh Phandit (ban dao Tan Sc6l1en~ Canada) dao dqR,g: triEllm~c nu6'c d:i;lttai 16m,~ con d :nih[tng vnng, khae nhu b 'bi,!nBan tichnam tren ctmg: 'vi dg ,iy thuc '~e 1~, .kho,n!g cd tl1u.y trieo ..

Hien tuqng trieu Ui: chuye,n dQ'og song. 'Dum tae dung eua b;rc t,@J) tri~u IUaD hoan trong d:~i duong xuat h1~m mQI song phmc~.p co ehu ky Ling voi chuky co,a bjcnhmIg 'e.o bien d'9 va pha khacv6i cua 1.1Ic. Cic b,1t nU<1c trang' song trieuchuyen dQllg tbeonilDn.g quy dao eodang hlnh.elip voi tIl;lc keo dai m?,LIih tbeophuang n~m n,garng.Nguo:j quan sa.t nh~n bitt ,duQc chuy~n ,d:ong ca,c bat Ilaocthen quI CIao eua. chung qu.~ cae dao'chflflg lu~n nofut cu~ m1i!G n,lltJ.c:va dong chiy ..

:!L2 .. N·b.iing lhm)t ngn va d~nb nghiJ'a quan,ln;mg Sij dang nllie nutlc khl song tri~n di qua d:1JQcc gQi H~, lri,ellJ I!D,! con s\!' h@! thap mgc nacre tm. 8:91.13 ~ri~u x.u6ng ..

30

Muc lluo-c cue dai t'flong vong mo.t chu kt c,ile dao dOng tb~y tri,e:u ducc: got. UtJ.nuoo lOn,~ conm¥tntIoc eve litu trans v~ng chu ky do gQ<l mao nu& mlng".

Chu ky trieu 11khoang tb(ri, gian gifia hai hin nll6c 1& hay hai l~n rJu'oc Iong lien Uep nhau, Dua 'lao chc ky, :ngllCrit ta phan bi~[ cae [(:u~i tdeu:

Ban nhtttri!u. le,6 ehu k,)r '[rung bmb. bang nira. ngaym~t trang (12h.25").

Nb$t tri~u co chuky "rung blnh bang m.:)t

nga.ym~t Il,ang (24hSO'}. ~ ~

Tri~u bOnh.qp 'V.ot chu ky "hay d6i iU nu-a n,g.ay sang c:a ngay trong vong: Rna. d:uiog, 'm~t trang .. Neu.chu k.y nimngay chiem uu the thl diluy trieuh6n bQp ,~y dugc gQi~a. ban nJr~l 'tri.eukho'Qg d.eu~ con- neu. chukYmQt. n,gay chie:m. lID the tlugei la 'nh~t[riieu kh.ong deu.

t)~ cao 'CUI.. thLiy tri.~u la v~ ttl mve nuoc 'tri~u. sovmml.fc kbong: d,~' siu.M~t lcbOng dO sau Hl nnrc m.rerc thap nlult c6lh~: CiQ theo cae; (!ileU ki~n thien v,an (nuIIJ'c .rong thap MaO. N gum. [a, gQimg"c-m.r6c nay la muc DU,aC thaI' nbdt 19 thuyet (m\fCkh6.ng If thuyet cua d.g s.a.u).. a mOi nUDe:· lai COSll ,chap nhanmuc

khong kfuic Dhau.· , , .. .

Bien d6 tbny tdeu Iit d5 cae eDit nlluc IOn bay nuucrbng kt!: t.it mire 'trie.u trnng binh, Vi tbuy trieu :IchOng phii, 1.1JO~n doi xlin.g quamue mr,ac trung binh, nen bien dq xac d~ theo mroe hw va nude rung khongpbii luonlnon

bang nhau, ~.

D(ll Idn £rieu III hieu cacm~t nude Ian. va.

'~nu6~ ·r-·''''' ,0· . g' k;;1 ·t·~ ~'nl -11k..:;.U

J _)1;','''''' . :Y, ' .. _.~_, ,~,_""", Ilj;l~,~ iJlllJ,J'a : ..

TIlm gian nude Ian tNL la [hm di~m. Xtl~t hi$n nude Too ..

Tho; gian nll~c r.ang tNR La,thuidi~,m, x.u.~l hien nude rong.

Thffi giatt nu,ue l~n hay n.u~ac dang Td[,a kboaug '(hai g.iantrong aoxayra sy- tangml.lc ntroc t.u nuoe .rong den nUloc IOn: Td;::; tNl..-_ trm

ThCri g:iannuocnit 'Tt Ia. khoang thai gian 'trlong do xay ra S1:l h~ th(pmuc nu6:c til' nu6:c Ian di!.n. nuac long:: Tr ~ tN R" ~. t~

DuOng dong tri,eu U~ dllang noi cae di~.m

c,6 phat trieu.nhunhau. .

r!IDyi;u VabVJ~~i

6. T'HUYT,RI~UDO

ELL Hifp tUQlJg thu} tr'ielJ do

M'Qt sti 1031 vi tao khi g~p dieD lti!nmOi

.... _ , ,_ '. _, ' • '. " _ t~

truang tbu~n ]Qi co kha n:ling bung' ph at vai

m~t dQQilO, dOl kbi lam dOi man Duae: 1,21.0 nen cae mau nhu )tanh, d-o~ n!Ul~ Van! ... ,gQi litri~n UlQDg DO' hOI tiodO,e haihay "ttuiy tri~u ocr.,

(bung c6 the lit tihwgLoai sinh d9C to hay kfiong. sinh dQC to' va la nguyennb&.n gAy cnet bang loat dfil vim ea v-a 'cac!ch}llg v~t bii~n .. Trang t\1 nhien~nh:~ng lord muangm¢Jt ho~c 'ea hai. d~c tfnh nay dllgc gQichUl1g Hi tao dQC hai,

. "Trollg tang 80 gin 5000 loaith~c v~t phil dubien~ 'c,6kbo3ns;: 300 lOla] co khi nang gtay If! bi~D tUQDg thUy tri~~u d'o" 'Irong do" kboang 60- 80 ~o.ru ,co kbi ning ,gat)' 'h,i,m~c duo chi 06 ,40 loti cokhi OM! sinh "ra, dOc td. Tao d~c hai timg ga.yranhmngthi~,t h~, oghi~m tJigng ve kinh t€ (ebb Y!lI cho 'Duell tr6ng thuy san), mOi trumg v,a sUc·khoe COB ngllai. .Di~u IWing 10 ngai lA mot 86 10m 06 th,~ giy hai, ngay a mat ,dO, 'rf(t th~Pi tboog qua: nhftng .d¢c t~6 G~a chung~

C d£ ItJ,p d~c tit taD.;

D(Jc to do tao sinh ra g:6mnhh~unh6m.

Chung :Ol19C deb; luy trong fbi' -cum. d¢ng v{tt thuysinh thong qua cbui5,ithttc in va 13. n,glllyfn nhan tn;rc ti~p ,ella nhie:u dang n,g~ d¢c nbu: .

*NgrQ doc g.a.y H~t co PSP' (Paralytic shellfish poisoning) do cac 10'81i thu¢c ,chi Alexaadrium vitI Gymnodiniums, tfch lu'Y trong nhuyell lbe hal. minh vb.

$' N,gQ dOe-lieu. chay DSP(Ditanbetic shellfish poisoning) do OlQt.SQ laal thu~c chi Dinopbysis, tfch 'luy trong Muyen the hai. manhvo.

.;t; NgQ dOc gay mitt trinh6: ASP (Amnesic shellfishpoisoaing) do m:Qt so I,oai thuQc chi Pseudo-nitzschia, rIch lu.y trong-nhuy!:n the, hai

manb vo.

:I': Ng(; dQc ea ran san h.6 CFP {Q.guatera shellfish poisoning) do nhom lao ,gi4ip song day nha ,Gambierdlscus tosicus, Proroeenmon spp., Os-treopsis spp .• Coolia monotis (Ph\llgc 5)~ tlch IllY t[ong rea ran san h6.

tL2~ N,g:uyennhallv3J tac h~l fi,~2.1. Ngll,ill ",lId1l.

Thyc ratio d.QchIjti tOn 't;p. tqnh18n trong nude va. La.~huc ,an. tU' .rJ1]]e,n. ella eLi.t. . ., g~a.tlhoy sinh ;g~ongnbu nhimg, loaivi tae co ,reb' We. ThongthuOng ,chung 'tOO. Lli 'V,mm~t dQ' nh~i, dpm va fit Ia.y h~· h~c tachiji coo c'hringctuJa thiy d~.Nhun~khi di.eu lti~n mOitruOng, pbuhgpj chliln.g cO the bung phat trong thm gian ng~ ~,O ra cie dql, no· hoa va g~y ra :nihilIlg thi¢lh;.ti

nghiem trong v81dnh ti!va,m6i t:nrOng.. .

06 nbi.eu nguyen lIlha.n dan den ~8 ~ gia.ting, nay~. MW,g theo HaUegraeff (1993), lfong. u61 cac ho~l c:i:t)ng eua. con ngubi d:6n;g vail '{fO quan t[~n,~ d6i vcn cae d.Q'1 no boa taod9c b()i. Cv the 1.a.:

* Trae d'di Iuu lUQ'flg nooc kern.

';i! s~ tbary d6i hAl thubngcua khf h3u.

* Giao .th.ong bien 'va v~n chuy~ngi6n.g, nu15,i tbu.y sinmang thea. baa t& nghl 'cuatao dOC 'to' om :nay dEn.:ri!ootrnac.,

*Nhung nguyen. nban quan t1'Qillgnhlt phii t~· d61, 13:, s\l gia ting ham. lL!Qn,g d,Inh duffilg trong ca:c "¥C, nud'c do cac ho~t d¢ng

nu6itr6ng: thuy san va. olJdc thai sinh hoat, .

6.2.2. Tae' It",

Ba lo~i Lac hai C113. tAo. khi nOr hoa 13.:: (1) :ph~l tri!n v61 m~t d~ cac Iam c~n ki~t oxy trong thilyvvc hOij.c g;!y cbetd¢ngv*t thilY sinh do tic aghen mang bQ~c t6n. thuang m,.ang:, (2) ,sAn sinh ra dQc: t6: 'gi~t hi;li cae sinh v~t trong h~ sinh thai 'va (3) sin, sinh ra d.6c lie; l!fch lujtrong cae loai hi( g,an (tho1ng qua cbu6i thuc an) g.i:y _h'Jit doil VOl ngutrislr dung, cae loa. tao cd tbtmwg mQt~ hai hay ci ba t~c, h,i tren,

(1) T do gay c:.n.,el ca.;

Ra:t nhi~unh,6m tao tbOng th.llang ton t~i trong Vt,Icruluc co khi nang g,Ay the't ,d61 vm dQng Vl~,t thuy sinh. M¢t s6~ loai tao Cera;t£um da duQC bietc.o l,ie,n qUaD d,€n hi~ntuqng: ehet c,ua (u trang bai ,m,ruth vb., N'oli.luca 8cinrUl.ans

3[

lA loai t:ao co kfch thuoc ldn c6kbi. nang' an tnmg cd tro:i n6i~ d:ding thm g.ay hai d.Qng \i;~t t t.~1Iy'- ""~,n ·l~·,o"··no l1I·U·C~, ham luon 0" a me roniac [--a"'~t- C''''',Q··

d';gc~i~hi.~y 'ir;ni tiUbao~'&~ ga.i~ii; d~Qsi.ti~

.~. 'r_,.l.. ~ ....• ... r .... ~ .... ... .'~ . . ....•..... ~.. . b" .... "

co .fI.J.J.anang lam, gay va XUY::-R tn ung mang

~ r1 eh ~~ d -. -11-.} ..... ..... . ...•... -. h -de

mang ca. ~ e .. el .' ,0 cJ,lay m.au mang, .. .o~c" ,.·'0

ngh~~t th a bCri cba:'~, nhay ,a mang 'tiet fa qua nhieu, ho~c do ngu,:yen nhan thli cfp Qteln nhudngm"aJ1g tao ·CU~ll kien ehe eac ta,c nhan gi.y ib~nh pha.t tri~n). ,ea con chiu arth blldn,g nhitu nb.lt Thalasiasira mala 1ft nguyen nhan chet bang loat cajanhlJy~n th~ b~i mrumv'Q' t,i vinh Tokyo do m~t: dQ cao, bilm,ang·. Cae thm n,ghi~m cling eho thdy aGh hUCm,g Clla tio d9C Alexandrium ctencac loii dgng v~.t khac nhu cope pod Acartie hudsonica. D,Qng V~l tlulY scan nu6i troeg long va 3:0 -dlim chiu nhieu anh huC1nCl' ... CIlIa tao ddc haihon dong .. ' viit s6n@."."till'

~ iI.J ~ ...• ,0 'Il

nhien trong virc rnlac vlchCing khong co lkhi

nang 'ch~y - tren leho], vue nuo:c bi ·inh h.uang eUa,·lao dOc hal.

. .. ~

{2') Tdo sinh d9c t6:"

Hi~n nay ngluOi tat oa ghi nh,n du~c khoang 40 loai tau c.Q.kba, nang sinh ra dgc to'. Pban Ian chung thuVC ba nhom tio 1iJ,~: tao lam (Cyanobacteria), tio giap (Dinophyta) va taa roi (Haptophyta hay Prymnesiophyta), Ben canh ba nhern chfnh nay, .mc:)t sO" loai khac cuns; cokhi nang sinh d¢.c; t6nhu ,tao silic (em Pseudo-nitzchia) va nhom tao Raphydophyta (chi, Chanonellaj Dce to do cac nh6mttio nay Oli;~· r~ CrA.m··· nhi ~n 10·· ''.I'l·~ .... h l!"", ... ,~,g d'· iii·O'· nhieu

ea,)" ,:-(a Ibv ... '. ,.~.~,I~~J .:I, __ ,,:~ .. ~ 'm,u,~ 1,1IbUJ'~I:l,~: I:_.\,)"" I".~ i~u

nhom sinh. v~t thac nhau,

.(3 )£)9(: uf.tic:lz lll.j treng cdc sdn p'hal'11' bf,ln,"~

.N'goai nhimg laC d¢ng say ,ehet tl1;MC tiep eua lao d·Q·C h,i den nhuy~nth6.!. dQc u5. d)o tao ga.y .ra c:on U:'Cfu~ll:Y tT-o~g nh.uy~n th! .. Vi~c qU.an tracba:mhJQn,g dQc~ to trong san ph~m nhuyen the d,a;ng Ui. yeu ,c:a;u bat buE,lc d:oi.v,di ttft ca 'cae quae .gia.D9iCtD co th~ ,du,Q'c ticb luy trang nbuyt;n. the tm vai thang., S.g d·fl!O thai. ,age to di~n. r.i bong hai giai doan~ giai doan ,d:iu m(tc dQ' .. giliamn.am lu.Qng dQc ~ to' rat' nhanh

~~' h·... 1- ~ t." ' .- t l!;. .", AA t"

xuong .. amugngvu:a p~,,~al'~n~n. ml1C dy an . :oan

cho phep v,a. duy 'tlit trong mQt nltai gian dai"

0.3 .. T~nhh'lnb n@" .. ~.·h.i.en cUu '!tan doc h~d

b " .

Cung can pbai khang· dinh La bungph:iit tio dQc h.~i Ut bi~n tllQngm:1:! nhien aii. co Ut'thmX3,

32'·'

..

xua, khima con oguOi chua tic d9ng nhi,~u ,d~n cae he: sinh thai ven <bien. Tuy nhien, c.ae. kb.ao, satm6I day cho th[y tan. s.u,at ca.c dQt nb hoa tao dOc (din denbun,g pfiat 'ngt) d'¢'c bai s,an)~a muc d6 l'hiet had. co ,x:u hU'dDg gia (ing trong kho.ani hai 'th~p nien vua qua. 'Mqt philn UIV} nhan U:u1ckhoa. hoc v~ van de nay ,dan.! nga)' d.llQiC .nAng b~n-. .Ngly crung co nhitu. ch1ll00g ·trlnh nghien CUll, v6i s,l,r tham gia cu~ nhi8u.rIha. khoa bQC va cae h~ lncfng quan tr.fIC Icung dUQc tang. cuang hon ne,u, chung, ta Ic,6 nhi~.u 's,c) H.~u .kh.ing dinhs~ hi¢n dl¢n va blungpbat 'eila tao ,J,()ch '.Ij. Nhung cae thong :ke "lau njmchothay~ lh~c st.r eo, s't.J' gia tang, denmue d,ang 10 ngai ve uin suat xuatbien vamuc do thiet hai do eac

- . i ..J .

dgt no boa tao dQC giay ra .

Vi~c 'fi.fo ha.nh eae chUang trlnh :ng:bien cUu~. tie::m soat tao doc hai tJong eae khu Y1:'C nuoi trong Uuiy s.an dim ban l,¢ feb ,cal.acac

khu.V1.,Icn~y vi no dam baD Sl:l an [Oan eua. m6i trltang nuol tt60g '[huy .s.an.,cua. h~ sinh thai ven bi~n va dam bao. san. lU'~g thuy san thOng

bj,:ac, dqt nb ho~a.t~o ~~'c b~i p~a.h:uj"E?i~u thletnh~c boo. :0.0 dam baD c ac san pbam thuy

sim. dll"]c san xuat Fa trong khu vtrcd!6 antoan doi vai nguoi tieu du.ng va nhu v~y Clirn bao uy tin cuasan pharo thuy san. ca'C quee gia khong th~·kh~ng dinh ~a khong ehiu anh huang: cua la,o oQc. h~i . ro.a. chi c.6 tht3 ,kh,&n~ (linh khii nang cua !quoc gjad6 trong viec ki,!m. soar tal) d¢c hai, tbon,g, qua d6khin-g d:~nh eae sanphj.m thu.y san duq:e san xuat t.o' vu.ng d,ej 1& an toano

6.3,,1.. fink htnh "".hi'A nc{ru t'do d(Jc ht;li .tT;e n ,t:hi g/iQi .

'Irong ,vmthary kUvua ~lUaJ van de laO' dlOC hai all dUQC '~huWQn:n~hien ~tru" tacrma. kho~ h~' llii d~t ,dIrc,1C nhl~u k~t qua vephan lo~, sinh lhM,~ d¢C t6 do vi tao ,gay tra va ,cae bi¢n PMP' ki.~m soaltaodOc.. Donh.l1np'tIenbOcUa .~"1 thuil

, .. ,lo.:!, .'Uu· 'l..~. ,". ~.iI_, -~:~n 1,· ... ·'·_.0'· ·d:.J .-~.<* ngitH _ n 0_. _, l~.an,g n~"u JlUl!eu .·oat mro ' Il'Q'C Pil~"

hi~n~ nhi~u lot!rl, at): to mOl duQt: gtd 'ilh~, Ki~n tbUc V6 tiod6c va. cae bi.enphapi lki~m. s.oo.t chUng cung drtn OmI§!; duQC hoan Uu~n. cae xu bu6ng: nghien ,ew chirlh hi~n nay li:: .

* Ng'hien cUu, p:ha:n, 10,i c,ic1ihom tao. d:¢c; * Nghien cum smh tbaitio doc ,hai: nghian C:Ull quy <l~t philo b6~ bien d9ngv~ uianb phan Eow \i. m~t ,d9Itaod:~tc'C y~ulomOi tnrCtng tB.c dQng dah s'1;l' phti,t bien va suy tan. cua calc dgt no

boa _tao dQc~i;. nghim clfu. bao ru nghi va, co ch6 hlnhthanh bao 'In nghi lew. taO' d¢C: ~i,

_* Nghien cm. CaD. true. va sieu Call tnic te

bra-Or tlto dqc, '

'* N'ghien clhl Id.Qc bJ: c~u true va ham lLJQDgd:Qcto co' Itrong -It! baa dio va su Hch IuS? o!Qc ·to trong cae bii .san,. .,'

Cae _ .outre co t:iem ,lycm~ v~ nghien CUll t~o dQc h~i va d¢c t6 13. Nh~t. B.in,MY, Canada,

Oi[ltri.yllia~ Dan ·Mj~l.ch~ Due. Dien hlnh 'Ie nghien CUD pbin 10,i tAo aOcha.l HI nhom cac taC gia Yesuwo Pukuyo (Nh$tBin)~ Jacob Larsen .,rofiJll.M~cb), Maria Faust (M:Y). D16n IUnh '1ft; ngbie,n coo sinh ·thal iii c,;j,c nbom la.G, ,gia Morton (My), Chinain (French Polynesia), ... va c1i~n hinD vf; nghl~n cwd¢c to' Ia ICiiitc rih.o.m uicgla Yasumoto, Takehiko Ogata, _ Masaaki Kodama (Nh~tBmi) .. Ngoai ra con co hang tram nbakhoa hoc 'Cleac nu6c khacdang tham gin vao c,ong viec nghien CUll lao. dQC va d·~c t6. Hang na:m eae nha khoa hoc t~p bqp tai nhitng h~lii ngJ14 qu6c tr' v,~ lao d~c ht-ti d:e trao ,doi ~et qua ngb'it!,n ct1ll .. Hqi nal :: d§u 'ti:e:n duQC 16, clnrc tai M.Y nam 1974,' sau 0:6 dltq'c d~ ky ta, chuckhoing 2 nam mQt Ian.

6.3'.2' .. Ttnh hfnh ."ghUn f'W .tdiJ d?c ht# It V~l,Nitm

V,ln d,e 'tio doe .hai dVi~t Nammoi b~t dau dUQ"c n,ghien" cii'u . trong imftng .narn g{in day. .. Nhung ghi nh~ ban dC~u cho ,tilfy :s\" hi~n di~ncu,a l't nh6Jt 30 IolU tAo dQc h;~i th!'m, lang trongeae vue nud:c ven l)i~n Via datmat db kha eao bm¢:t 56 viiug rnIac. Cac nh6.m. nghien ,cUn tung d.tl bal .g~p m¢E .80 trub-n~g hop cae Lolli bla doc "hat 'trl~n lam dl6i man uOOc. i:J met s..o vung

l1li r' - " .'

nhuvinh Via'll Phong, Nha Trang hay trongmqt

at) Ling nuoi 'tom a 00 SaIl, Hai Phbng.D¢,e to ASP (domoic axit) cli duQ'c, Kotaki Y va. ctv (2000) .kbing' d~nh Om lliay trong thanh t.ao NUzschia pba.n L}p tit bienVi~t N.am. 'f)()c t6 PSP ciing d.1l dUDe tIm thiy trong vern xanh thu iJ vtnh Ca:m Raiiliv;a c.l¢c· t6CFP (ciguato%in) Cli otrQ'c tim tha:y tfong eft r~n s·an hO. 'T'uym'llc d:q oQ'c t6 cotron.g hai. san con 'phl,l.[hu9C .. ohi~u vao ham lllqng va d~c 19c cuacae ,d¢c 1{5' c,6 '[rong :tio va mlic dQ' dlQc 1'6 rna ca' !lito hay cH)og- vllthtinmem\ hap th1;l, rnnmg nhllng s6 n~U'~1fen chothay tht.fC s.\, c6mm nguy hb!Ul ti~mt:angcua tao oQc h~i trong cae 'V\IcllllaC ven bi~n Vi~tNanl. rei v~:y yin de dim. baD' an

toanth1:fc phlm naisan xuil .khllu 1ft can tbi!t v~~. dip bacb. HieD nay Vl~tNam ·chua, c6 'cae h~ thong quan rrac tio d¢c thuOng xuyen, Nbung trong 'luang lailgan,. vll¢c lhiel I$p m.Qt h~ tJUJog quan tr,ic nhir v~y I~ d.h~u t~1 yeu ddi vdinhiingwng Dual tr6ng thuy san taptrung,

'M""" .'~ "Db.... . 'hi"·' - , 'b'

, .... '.' .Don 'v~y I c.1n co'., .uu,g ~g __ I~.en cUu iQi('/,an

lam n~n taQg cho vi~c thfet I~p m:Qt b¢ thong 'luau 'tra,c.~ cinh hao taro doc cho Ic:ac kha ~1JC rll.u5,i tr6ng thu:y sin trQni dh~:m, -cae' nghi~n cUu se Qua ra nhUng bi.e.u biet CQ' ban v~ khu h¢ tao d9C hai, guy Iu~t phan bocua tao dQc hai trong cacvuc nuac ven bi~n va n16i quan h~ cua chung dOli vm esc yetJItio .m:oitnrbng .. Trel1 CO so dO, ]tat d:inb duQC cae. 'Chi tieu, thong s6 co bAn v~. tao d(jc vam6i rIU',Qn.gmJoc ,clIo dlIqc quail triccung: nbu phu.arug 'phap V~fl hilnh b¢ th6ng quan [ric" giam ,s,al tao dQC hai,

'6,.4 .• Ca~- yeu bl illhbpirng, den 'Sl;fphat trieD cu.a f' ..t'"" -11 •.

ao u,!C. _~,1'jI:~

I(J.4.1. •. Nht~J iJ~1

Nhi~t dl? thuemg ra y~u ~6 kfcb thfch sg bung ,phat eua 'lio dQc hai, 'ma,i loaithich heW '",oimQt nguoog nln~t ,09. Nhi¢t d:¢ thfch hop nhiat cho Pyrodinium bcfhamen.a€ trongkhoeng '22,-34°C" vmkhoang toi thfch 2SoC. Day Hi 19 do t~i sao loai tao nay thuang xuy.oo· ga.;y fa. cac d:Qt thUy tritu db fJ cac,wng 'bi~n thuQc Philippin

Nhiet dQ' cuugquy d:~nh thanh phlan. loai tao llIong~c mroe cung nhu ph!nbocua tao dQctheomil;a.vA theo cEk:t~ng DIrGC khac nhau .. rvl:~l 'dQ cao cira Dinophysis a vimg chau Au 'em b~t g'~p trongrnua he, .. Citng thu~c motcili Pseudo-nitzehia nhung eac dQ1 bling phiH loai P. mlf,lt.i'se,if$ lh:uang :xuat hi~n vao 'OUO! filua, thu va roua d:ong .~ khi nhiet d6 HUGe v,a. cubng dt)anh sang x.u6ng tb~p,' trong khl cae loai khac I.a: P. pungens, P. pse..udodelicQl'i5:sima va. P. australis CIO xu hUltmg xuathi~nnhieu vao mua he. Loa:i D .. j'ortii ,ch~ xuAl hi9D trang c¢t nude khi Miet dO. >- ,s:°C va m~t da, ca,a' ella chung chi bfir' g~pl trong .khoang 'nbi~t dt) 13- 22°C; ha.ycanglnQI IQai N otUuca sd)uillans nhtmg cbun.g .~an:hlhlch n,ghi. vdi nl1i~l d.Qcao >25°C,. it khi b§:'[ g~.p chung bung pha[ ,a nhi~t dQ l~nh; t[()n.gklri ;d.u, chung do l,~i thich nghi

.;G..! ~t..! . d···· °h· #. ·h " 11.. ." . ~

'JUl. ilui:~t ...(J t, U:.p~ .. ' ilUJll~t cae dQ1 n.o boa ella

l:hung dell anhi~~t dO' th,a;p ban 25~C.

33

"", ''"'. I '.....' I~

I(ba nilnl thfch ung cua eae Oat )ao _ l~

khac lilian doi VOl d·,o mafl.,E)O man'lhalp'M,&t cb~ SY' ~h~t- t~ien - ~,~~; N'otUNca "HI 2"1 ~25%o? con

Q'om,a.n ph.b, h~ cho Pyrodinium bahal1!ellse Ii. kh.omi·g- >:2,8~.· Philippin la noi c6 dieuki~~n. nhiet 'do va, dQ' m~n ' 'phil bQP nen loa:i, nay thu!lm,gxuyen gay fa tbuy trieu do val MUng thiet b'~i .n~ng ne,.,

6.4.3" CUMg d.(j anhsallg

Tio doc, hai co tb~ Uk di dU'Obg ho~c tt,r ddOOg. M~I s6·]oili mang cHai d~ t'uh ~ay. Loai -t,,, dU.an,g Cill, aM sangcho qU3Jl,g ~Q'P'

trong khi, loai d~ do-ang ,khong ,c~ Mdl, sang, Boi V'~Y. JIhaD Ung eua vi tao, flU k1l~c .nhall tmac: dieuki¢n ,anb, sang. Nolt.iuca,scI111dlu:ns

c,hung xanh co khi nin,g quang hW', nen ~~n :anh ~,a1i1g cbo sinh .. truCm8 trong~i~? a~ 's,ang kh,6ng cOvai trb .trong .. sQ. phal tnen :CU~ chililg do 1211 chuag song di duang .. 1vI'~t: 'So lo~~ tao C;O Ioi. (ta,Q glOp., do roil CQU, c6 .. khi ning~.~l cbuy~n ''V,a phin ling .kha,c. nhau tru6c. cacdi~u kien anb 's,angkhalc; ooau,.Da.,y .. lamQlt trong nh'iing 11 do ic&a s\f di eLI then Gh~~1J nti.ng dUn~ trong cQt u~dc cuacac looi tao.lilii ketoTOl V~LU t·ro en.a. aM sang doi \'00. s:~ bungpbat cua 'tao d~'c. b@.i c",nphii can nhdc den nhn c~u ,anh s.a:ng cJJa tllng lalii.

6<.4 • .4 •. M adf dinh drlftg'

V 6i vi tao., mu6i dinh ducmg Ut tacnhan YO cung qua~trQng quytr ,d:tnb mue c1'Q'phong pb(i c,ua tao trong tnuy vvc. Ham. 11J~g dinh du,6ng eao tao dleuki~n thu~n IQi eho vi tin pltnH tri~l1. "M(it trong nbilng nguyf;nnhin lr~c ti~p' d.An den S11 gia umg tan ~uat tao. dQc hai trong tOm ginn g~n d,ay Ul s~ gia, Uing CUlt h~ .hJ:QfI1g dinh dlfong uon-g (:ac' thuyV\tc 'len 1bi~n. Moi lien h~ n.ay d,i" dU9~C: thl.£c [e'nhh~u d.Qt thuytri~ll do cheUng ,mUlh.D~ bu:ng ndtao AJexandr.iuffl: la,yJo.ri iJ vilng bien Tyrrhenian narm 2.onO. Uil m,~)1 vi d-;t. Kbi d6.,.ba:m IUQng, NH3-Nva, P' t6ng

8:6' trougm.roc U::n de'n 1.4 ~a 3~2 f,lM:" Moi qu,an ht} tuO'n~, tl:( ciing du,q'cghi nh~n l:J d'ao Seto,. Nb~l Ban va.nhie;unoi kll a.ctren the ,gioi

N ghi!:m trt;mg hOl1i~ 81:£ gi:a tan.g ng,u6n dinh dUCill,g k,eo thea Sl11hay d,6i v,e '[Y sci gina bani hlQng cae muoi Si:P' v,a, St:N. S11 lhay dcit n~y Ul do h.lmturgn,gp va! N dugc bd sung rit nhi811 tu:

34

ngu6n nude thii trong thi ham IU'qng 8i (vOn dn dut1C tao ra 'til x6i men tv nhien 'ltang ~~O 'th] du~g ImU khOngddi .. ·MllIoi. sWc , Ii ~tb~ pb£n cau tnlC; cbu yell, !ca" 'lhanb ~~, bAo ta,~ s.i1ic. BOi v~y, trong qu.atdnb pbat tIi~n, ~U~l, silic JcoV'al tIb d:a.c, biet d6'i vrn cae ~oal tao

silie, 811 thay d6i him llir,mg din dtnv si9'Cu ~e eua Gae loai tao silic do sll' h~n cbe. ve ng:uo~ silic, Nh6m, tio n.ay se·.kh6Qi, con gUi'duqc.~t tro LnI 'the nita.. Thay viia (l6 13: sg' w. dnf eua cac nhom. tio phal tri~n thOng' cin.sil~c:·.nhU' dlO roi vOinbung, dqt bung.phalgj.y h~i fit ]~dn ..

6 .. 4.5. Ca'c nguyen td vi lttvnr

'Cite nguyen.~6 qUan,'trQf:lg doi vmqn3, tnnh pha:t m.en. cluPtao .li cac~ kirn lo,~ . Foet!.Mn: COli Ni, OJ va Zn, Se va ,cae y€u. to phi kim ]O~l nbu' 16t. Cae y6'u 16 nay can tlri~l cho ,qua tdnhb,a:o dait chat efta tb~c v~t pbu duo S\I' vang mit bo~c xnll hien vOi ham luQl1,1 cae c·Da cae yEo .to'" ·~ay co. the: lie ch€ qua trlnh pba.t :lri~n CU:3 "ti~., Mot so tac gii g~n d,ay cho rang, thQC v,~t pbu du" khOng phat tri6nm'.lnb Cimql 510 ~g co ham, Iuqugcac. nguyen It) dinh duBng da .lll~g IC:30 nhu (1' owog B£c eve va,mQt sO' wng;

thuQc phia. bie . Thai .Binh Duang c? th~. d? thieu eac y€n 't6 vi ltJQ'IIg nbu Fe. MQt sO' nba khoa hoccon cho rRn.g co tn,e Ding eaonang sUfIl sa' clp ,avung bien Bac Cyic bin:g ,c.a.ch bon t'bem Fe d~ Uing kha nang dong boa CO~. c,ua thuc v~t phD du a donham. giam bOt hliim lU':Qng 002 trong kbOllg khi. NguOi ta ciingda gh"j[ nh*:n~ mQt ~H5 d~.b,Ung pihal cualaa d(>c., ban c.anh ,c:ac muoi dinh dua,n.g d:a, lUQng nhu N, P ,'e~on lien qu;an denm·(>t:· ~o . kim lo~. vi blqng~ Ono va Takano (1980) vA Honjo (19~:~) da tim.lhaYmal1ie:nh.~ gi:fi:a cae (,t'Qt bUogpba~ ,eua vi 'tao Chattonella an.tiq.uQ va lie,terosigma canerae a wag dao Seto (Nb~tBAn) v(ri, bam lu.cmgdf£ eao ,ena. vitamin B12 trong 'w.c, nua:c-. 'C~:be.ncJdnh l~ 1Il,gllyen. til trullg 'tam 'cfta., vitamin nay. Sl,f gia tang ham luqngvitamin lit do su 'tang .Ien ClUJ. bam ]lIqng Co Ut ngLlon nUfJC , .. 'thai~ £)Q pH ,eting inh huang d!"n bam

lUQIlg cac yeu to' 'Vi I uQl1g,. Cie dqt mllaaxlt ICO kba, ooo:g' gia. tang him lUQIl,g ca[ikim lo~i 'vi lugtlg,.

Nhu vay. S\I tbayddi vi bam lu.qn,g cae ngllyento ~i iUIJl1!! nay co: tM~ den. thay d6i v@thanh phifu tao, t~o dlt~u ki~u. ~J.bom;Qt 85 loai n,aa d'6 bung,phait tinal cae loiikh,ac.

C .4 i£'C";''' 'lt~.t;tlt-hA ...

'U .. T'IIW~., ", ,;~ ,J"E;j.'I4'"'_',t# .. : ''UIi

_ MOt loai tao d:Qc ~i kh{)ugth! bl1ng, phat khi 06 loai Ithac n61ll khOngtbang duQ'c: cacIoai khac trong vi~c c.~nh tranb dinh, duang~ aob sang, va cling kHong tb~ bung:phat du,gc Den m~t dQ' dt)n,g 'v3t phil du. cae, .'

'Ng'uy~n .DhM. cua bung: phat cung la do. ma't s~' rdi~uti.€t c:ua ,dQng: 'V~ t pbil, du. Trang llbiing thOi die,ill ,Mat dinh, neu dQug v~t: phi du hi tieu di~t nhien se ~o ,w.euki~n eho thuc v~tph.u du phat trien kh6ng bi g,ich h,n. Hi~:n tUQllI nill·ydi. dllQC: ghinhan b 'v-l't:l1g bi~nNiu, Yooc va wng d,ao Rhode ella 'M:y" . khi tbuliG 'trll' s.{tuduqc sir dyug lin Udngiam.m@;tug, d~n:g' v~t phu du trong thu;yVl!o, ke''t hQP v'm Chal thai tu hot g~ lit d,i, u~v ra dot thiiy· .. ··· td~u do eua

'.' '. '" ,D J' I~

AuteOC(i)CclilS an.ophageferens. NbUrig dqt chet

hang loat ella nhuy'~n thec1un,g t~o d:ieu ki~n, cho tao bun__g phat vl khong con dQng V~l ti~u th", c~n. 'lin va. tio phu du, Sg- buug phat cua, tao dQc hai cfing 0:0 tbe' b~'n,gin l~it do vai tfQ' cuavikhllAn hay virus. 'Hi~n ll~iJd:ang: eO, nbfing 'c,Qng trlnh nghien cwvailro ,ella vi ,kbuln va virus uongvi~cb~l che'kh.i. nang, bung phil cnata.o d~:c.

~t ,do bao tu' nghl eua liio co, treng wily vue cling I~ y'I!U,10 quan nvn_grac d9ng den khanang bUng pbat c'uatao dQc h~. cae looivl 'Iio co ,khi nang~o bao ttl nghi (cysts) khi dif;u Ki¢nmoi tmOng khong tbu{to 1Q'i._ O.cban til naylan.g x.u6ng day va cho: kill dten lri~n pbu, hW lai phat

.g ... :_'1.. A" 'M"A- AA 'b"" rrl.,l.j' ...... ~~.

men va sinn SOL -'?ot uY' eao nr ngull eao se ta

,di~u ki~n gillp tio bung phat nhanh khi di~u ki~n.

mOi nu(mgthll~ 1'11.0 (] cac vjnhkfu~ :nu6t it d'm;t trao dd'i 'muOng tt,l..o die;u la~n cho st;t phil tri~n coa 1hn)' tti~u do. Boi "'l~y ~ cae vnng :nll6'c nhu ben. cang,V1p1g: 'Mel du~ coi Ii vCmglfurig mm, nhan giong ·va pMl tjn mo,,.D die:uki~o cho s~ bung phat cua Vi.IiCi~ ..

Vitaa d~Oc hai lam.nt linh we khamoim~e nen 061 ,~Cri, pb,~'ldnC'a~toai l~ay b~i~ chua co nhttIlg. hi6ubL,tit c.hi tiet ''It vrutro dla t~g yeu. to m6itrtr.cmg, d'e'n s\! bung pbit eua «lhCing: ..

6.5. Pbuan.g .p'hapquan t:ra.c va kh!-m sl)\at tao d't)C h,i

6.5.1 .. Xdc dtnh .m~'c 4{chqu,un: "'at;

TtOllg. tbi~tk.i! Chlldng·· truth quan tract,aQ dQc h,i,. comt nmeu yeu t.0' ean dut;1c HIm ro'

lIutre khi bit d1iuclllrang «hili: MU nhung yeEl '[6 <c:~n qlJantrac"t'n suat quan tric" diem lam d~i di~n de d~t diem ,quantric. Mu6n v~y t ea.o pba.i xa.c dinh ro muc dich eua. vi~c quarr tIle d,~ tim hi~u tlnh hlnh lao 'dQC hai cua khu vt,rc: hay dl~ thee d'oi cac dQ1t bun,gphit ,clla tao bay d~ d~bao. Nell quan~r{{cnh,6m tao phD du thl chi6nlllQt ltiym.au lam&u phu du, quaa tr~c ofu6mg,ly fa -ngQ d~c cpp ·~ca r"n san bolm pb_ii quan trj.e nh6m tao .slong da,y. 'TU'ngnh.6m -nay dol h~i phllO'Dig phapquan, -rr~c phu hQP. Neu chi. d6 theo d.oi tinh trang tao dQch,i thl ngoai tao, chi can theo dOl ham hn;n,gnlIl16i dinh duung va. ham luq,ng: oxy la duo NhW1,g neu d,~ d.gbao t.hl nhi'!u yfu to' khac can phai thea doinl1u kha uang hi"p lb.\! dinh duong; cua ta'o~ sinh tnllCmg eua I,ao~.m ucdiQ lieu thy lao clUJ. cac d¢ng V~l phil. duo

6..5.2.WlJ tilt;"; Itl", Jquantrde.; fiol'll(l:nll vd: v:j tri

tTr;zm .q:uall trilc .

SO hXQI1g tram can phw dlJ'QC Icanrituic rut Jky lU0ng d~ ,dft.Jl1 bao tfnh d~ di~ll lit. cao 'ooi£t. So hlang 'v,a, vi tri d,iU cac:[ram, {;.~ c,an 'eu 'l/~n dia di~Ol va dj~u ki~,il dia. hhlh cfing nhu cac Y1e1U.t,o mOi lNOug c~ tb~ eila 'wn.g .. Qic tram thu m.au co th~ QuO'e ehonn - nhien hoac c-o dinh, 'Tram qwmt:r,ic' dijt ~ang gllID. vUng:c~ then' d.fiicfum bao cang t6t. Hai k~~ 1l1~1 cal III ln~,t cil theo chi~u r(Wg va :m~t cit thing dUng (huOn.s duQC c.iD nh~c trong dpm h.u:6ng '[hll mlu.

Su pnat tri6:n viI phln b6 lcuathttc vil phil du cib&utac, dOng bal nbieu yeu u) ibaC:Ilhau cu.a. khu vv:c ,quan trac nhu sg'phln ting bay x_tIo '[rQu. cu,a ,cqt nu(]:c, eae 'vung, I)ucrc trdi" cae dong chiy J ngJ]Qu outre: ngQt chay ra, C3:C ngu6n nude thai ... $11 v,~n -Q'gng clI,a cac ngu6:n HLf6c nilty ch~u ,arm hmJIl,g ellal nhieu yeu {.IO khac nbu I~c corioIis, thuy trieu, dia hinh cua bo- bi,en.. Tlrong khi, tbie:-t ke d~'[, u~m thu mlu., titt cl. cae yeu to' nayciin dUQc ctln Elhac di! co, d1Jqc: rru)t h~ tb(5ng tr,t;tm m,~t c',it co, tlnh d~i di¢n nhfft cho 'lOan bQ, kh6.i nude.

Do kitn t"o ,cua be b.i,!nkhien c,ac dong ebay tbuang phan b6dQ,c, '[beg. ba bi.en ... Vi ~y, nenm~U cit cae tr~m thu ,m~u dllgC b6 tr.f.wclollg goo vOiduOn:g bcr s! llm h1~u d.uQ'C 'l6t nhai .khoi [tuDe can ,qUID] lrae. Dei \1m nh.fingwng c6bb bi~n Dba ra, dong. cbi.y 'V,en bb Ilay co xu huang giO D,guye:nhddng chay va.nh:l1V~,Y se tach khbi

35

Bach kboD thUY salill

duan~l bu.. Khi d6~m~t cit ding ·cin phw eli cbutyen thea ~e (lYun boo baa quit ,duqc WQg

nu?c quan tt.ac,.M(>t d.ieu ,qua" .. lrQD.g ....•... c;dn .. " .. C.ir1 .. ollie khi tbumau 121 Jc6lbephan medtruoo.g

mO,g Uiy m.au thanb 'cae vung nho, canCtl vao dieD. kj~n moittuOng cy,th~ cua kbuV¥e.

Miu can dtK/chlv theo nhieu do sau khdc nhau.Vu~c quyet d~nh so Im;mg cae' ting ,nuae cfingnh~ so lUQD,g tram thu m.iuc;dn xem xet di~uki~n C'1.;l .ttl! eLrama,! wang d~ d.im bio tfnhd:~i dien, k1l1oang each gJG:a cae tan.g kbic nhau nen khoang 2-.5 m.

,(j,,,.5 .. 3. .. Tnm gian. va fa'n ,sudl qU,QR tric

Dt!' tim hi~ln tlnh trang va xu hlIemg bh!n dOng 'C"~r th~ eua tao dOc hai ~~i khu Vi!c nghien enu thl can pha:i quanl[~C Iien tuc trongnhieu nam .e. Neu d:a co rihltng hi~u bitt' co ban ve tao d(>c b@.Jt taikhu vt;t:c nghien cUu.va muc d£ch ella, cbuung[r'inh quan IJracl,atheo dOli ditn biln cua cac dQt bungphat tao dQC h~i"tbl '{hOi gianquantrac chi can t~ptrn:ngvao thai Icy tao d~em eua tao doc hai. !)6i v6'i rung. nuoe lanh, phftn tang ella muac .. x.ay [3. vao cuoimua. xusn cho 'tmdiu. :m.ua thu. Thai di~m x;a.otron nuoe C9 the: dl!Q'cd~ baQ, uuoc-~ nen thai .ky quan tr~ae eo' the e.hI 'l~.p . trung van nhtmg tllang cao .dmem, kbi xiy.fa. xao u¢o .. Nhimg iJ wng mrcc aong Mil Vi¢'t Nam, sl,I p'hilot~ng thuang keo dai quanh nam, va dOj khibi pbi va b&!l cac vung nu~ct:r'o~. 'Dieu nay dan d.en ~guy eo bungphat CU,1 laO dqc hai dll'oog nhula q!uanb nam ..

'Ibm gian cua dqt bilng phatEio ,eotht· too 001 hangnam td11l nhw.g. 'IthOng tbub'ng ruong d6i n~an~ tC?o kbi em viii ngay. Do v,y, tan suatlqu.an trac can phli dlYC~ men .It .W1,~n nang tu~.. Tin su~t 1.51 tmJnglaU1~ .hi¢n thu rniu :hang ngay. 'Tuy nhien, dieu nay IhuiJngkh6 thlJ!Chi~nt nha!t la, d6i v6i cacu~ ciich xabct Tu:y vao !rna nang tal ch.fuh va, nh~ ~.vc·ma ngubi 'I.IllM. ttac co me thgc hi~i1 ''{lui 1M. sUlft day wt: neu co, th6 'lhuc men duac. Cling tuy vao llnhliirrll 'm.1it Ugll~ qu:m tr5:C c6fu<S __ ,giim bdt t€tnsu~t quaD' t~c d~

doi :Uiy vi~c Umg .s61r~ quan triic nhMl.bao qua,~: du~ n?ng hoo 'vUfl,g quan :tric ..

(J.5.·4. Thu mciu

_ Lu6~ thl,C v~t pbu. du (~hm SlI d~ng enD li¥ mau. o'inh unb.. Kich.[hlldc ,m~t lrrdi thong

36

thlloog U1.20~m .. Lurni !duqG tlli sau va keoI@n 'm~t nude :nhi!u lin che tUi kh.i nude tIongl.Q cOma'll cu,.,. th,!c v,tphiU, du :Rft 'nhi!U miu Judi dU"Q'c 'mO 'ta trong dOl naog :nghi.8nc,Uu nu~t: V:$t pbil du - PbytJoplmklonma.nual

(Sournia 1979). - -

Mio. djnh lUQlng can dLt'1C la:y;; nltien tang khacMaIll. Khoangcach giila cac tAng la 2-5m,~ tu~ . thea dja, .hltlbC\1 the. dmg noi, Dung IUQIlg mau can,~ IOn can8: t6tDhung l!t .nh~"t phii ii3! .n Ut.. C6 tb~ tang tfub d~i, di~nclul ma:u bang each ltiy nhi.eu. nlallJ, dung' ILf~.g oho lai. trQu .llnv6:i nhau, Nhi~u phoangpMp thumi,u d:imh 11lQRg du~ sir dl,l,ng: trong ng1hie:.ncliutao d9c hai nhu;

""

* Ong :PVC: 'Thie"t hi nay chi don thuan Iii

~nOt 6n,gnh,qa PVC v6i n.iil cao so. b day du~ Ddh \lui diiy. Sau khi tha ,ong Kuong dt?siu d'~nh Uiy rnall~ keD day ten d.~: dong nut l,iva k.eo ong l1l;jdc d1!n1 luau len .. Thiel b~. nay chipbil

hQP vm cae vvc nuae noo,g -va. yen tinh. .

* 'Ong, PV'C pharr doan: MOlt tbiel bi ,khac d8: la:~ mi~ ,~~~c 'l~e? t~~,gl'~ ,6111 phan' dOi,ln. Day La. Ioai thlef- bi re nen, co the til tao duoc ~.an,g~ each sir d~ng.cac .6ng~VC d~i ~:Ua phli (khoaQg 3m) n6"i VOl nhau bang cac vaa khca, S~ukhi h{,,, day 60g noi nay ,xuong nu6"c, d~y nap phfa tren v,a~eo Ien, M,auiUIO'C trong 'CiQ't. n:uac . s!t dllc;1c gi il ng:w:y,en trong 60g thea thu' t'~ d:9 siu~. duQC keo le·n va khoa van ICUa. tUrng do,n lai va~~ymau. nu:6c theo cac tan,g khac nhau. ~xe:m~ Franks 1995.). Thi~t b,n~y eho phep Uty mao :nu6':t: tm d(l s:dut6ida 20 m ..

~ 'Bmb laty lll"~U.: Fhuo:n;g philp, nay dUng bUng

d"@:. 1..,~&r.. . .ot.. . ",", '~ .. '" ....' .:- ~ . • '. , - , -

,.,.t c~. LL.~"I song gio iOll ma ,c:;lctme.l b!kitackh6ng

su.. d~g duqc. CODhieu [Diu b'inh. thu trniu dtrac

trinh luytton.g '00 Jj~u. elm, Soumia (1979). "

* H¢ thong bom :nuiC,cbiJ~n; Troag pbucm,tr, phap nay,. naum la. Sill dyng: vOli h~ ,u]{)ng d6 :g,iurn~on 11y miu va bam. nUCrch?;n tau,' vi,e~ .U1u . ma~id~QC th\£c bi~Jll tren tau. PbUC1n.g phil' naJfil bi:~u qua. kIli muon la'y ,kh.6i ItrQng :nlt.ac ~:au ]~m,~. phLIang piuip dung ~ng hay d:ong bmh bly,mau ,khoo_g d,a.pling ,duo/c., Hem nt1a, phu.ang p.ha.p :nay cho pb§p, b'lY :rna.u chfnh xac LWlg tAng Botte. Trang nme'u truOng: bgp'. tao, dqc du t~p .trunga lu¢'t . ta~g nuae .r~l'·' I~ong trO?g ~Ql nudi~~ b~ thong bom .. :Qucre Ii plu.Ioog,

pbap tIn c~y nhat.. -

sss. COllin' ·",4";

Nbi~u pbu,O'il,g ,pbilp e6 djnh miu ,dang ,4uQ'c s:a d~ngnhtmgthon.,g dy.ngnhlt Ut, duo,g: d~,ch lugel (tnmg 'tInh ho~c axiO 'Va fermaline, Haipbuong pbap D.'ly dell che kit qiui (ot mural ]00'01 an toan hon eho n~l1o'i sa donO',

,. 0 10)1, 5

6 .. 5.,6~, PhlJn tich mdn

_ Miu djllh l,lnb dlIQfc ph.an theII ban,g kiM ,hlen, v.i ttUJdog. "Irong trD'Ong hQ'ptao ,ldip" kinbhi.~nvi buyoh Quang vol [hu6c uhuQm calcofleur white chophep nghien CUD, chi tiet dfu trll:c ·cae: Ufro cua, tao gla:p.

Ma.u dinh lUiQ'ng dUQC d~e lang nham co dong :miutrnackhi dem va dUQ'C d~m bing nhi~u 'phll0ll8phap nhu:

" Bud-ng d~m Sedgewick Rafter: demduQ'c

1 ml . 1" d" "k :1'_1.. ... :::.i!' • th '.... h - d'"

. " '_,~ sU\1ng LCU.UlI,. IneD VI '~ __ Umtg .i. o,"c,ao

n,g11:qc.

.,Bu,ong demo Palmer ., Malleney: oem. dUQ'c o~ lml.

" Budng de'm Utermohl (thee phuong pbil'

_ ~~, ,,. ~ -~. ., _' __ ~ ',.,- .. ,_',.' \1.. . .. _'

de lang): d'~m dU:Qc dung tfch 2-50' ml, sO':' d1,lng

kfnh hi~n vi ~tio nguq:c co hllynh quallg ho~c };hOng co huynb quang.

"'Phu'O'ug PU:P lQC va dem~n mim.g lQC: ,d~m dllc;tc l-lOOtnl lUy' 'tbn~ m~t dQ tio trong mill,; su: dyng kinh,hb~D vilhuynh quang mubng.

.6;$ .. 1 .. Mo hink ,d"bti,lJlid'Od:~(J h(li'

, Hh$nt~i~ di c6 MUng tha:rthcong nhelt dinh trongviec d1;l balo s\I' 'blm,gpbatcua. 'tao d:QC "b~i biog cae mo hinhtosn dllfa t.t~n eacket qua. llghienccln trong phong flIi nghiem '16 8il~ truimg va )l'eu clu. mOitru:ang cho s:y: prub. Iden eiIa vi tao" so vtn ditn bien cae yeu 16 mOL tnIOog ngoaithl1c ~a. 'Cic pbuong p.bap khic nbu' sir dlJl1~:cong.ngh@ vien EJUilD trong 'V~ec thea doicac yetI ,io mOl t.ruang vas'g' phat u coa tll\!'c v,tph.il dill tren di~n .(~ng~. dy;a 'I.ao do de du bao sU bunt'l" nhtit cua tio 'GQc bj~i.,

. .J ,o,r

'.6. C'a,c bl~n p'ha., xi It Idd ,xBy ra h.i~n il'.qng nb 11M riG dl)c h~i

* K1ti ph it hi~ntio d{)c h~i nd' hoa, I((huy tii~u ,do), c,in nhaDhch6ng co bi~n ,hap gi.ai quy,~t ,d5i voinbimgwng· Du.oi uong; tbuy ,sin.

Cae bi~n phapgiii. quyet ~u qua c:ua bung pMltao dQc h~i d6:ivai nghe Duoi ca bien l.a:

.. Hieu qui n11'1 lit dlm,gkhOng cung cap' them thne an cho di d,~ giam nhu cau ox)' cua ci .. Thy nhien, ntt.1l v:i.¢c, ngfr~.g cho an keo dai se ,inh bLfCtn8 df!"n. s'utkhoe cua, ca,

-Di chuy,~n l6ng nu,(J'l d:en ncd an loan ko¥; dim 16ng xudng g.tin. d'3Y bien d~ tral1h lOp nuae tiing m~t chi" ann huang cua Ulo d,Qc. h'.li .. Di~u nay ,g,qiym'Qt y;eu taU quan trong khi d'l~n di5m UU6l bing la, dq sauphu di:m bao va tbiet ke long phii phil h(1p.

,_ Bom nu6c bi~n tfr tang clay len titng 'm~t, noi ~)O 16ng ca d6 cung (:ap ng:uon rnroe saeh

cho :~6Rg ca. '

_. MI9t b~~n phap di dug:c ap dung a mQt 86 nude nhu Han Qu6c.,Nh$t ·Ban. va Trung Quae Iii; su dung dlt set '(d~ng bOt hOfC d~g long) rat tren \lung tbuy trieu do ",Oi lLf~;g 20- 200glm'2' d~l()i k:eocac l~ bao d.o d(}G h~i chim xllong day. Tuy nhi,enbi~n pb.dp Day h.i!~n vin dauB; lhu nghi~~m~ cDllladu(1c '~ap' dl:lng. IQn;grai.

,_ Hiental cscnha khoal hoc dang pha,t tri€n phmmg pha:p su dung b6a ,.hallam, t,OO]. mang iiliay do tao d~c taora trong mangca, hO trQc11 bo' baJp bay S,l1 dung hoa chat (nhll Qzon,) d~ di~t tao_ 'cae bi~n p:hap sinh hocnhu sinh V~l an loc (nhuyen lh~ hai rnanb v,Q ,d;~ lQc:(ao trong nuoc) bay sa dung d(>.ng v~t phil du, virus, vi Ithuinhay ,lTIQt loai tao khac: de, han che SL.!: 'bLlng]p.hat eua loai lao dang :nO hoa, Nhnng phu(lnspilap n~y ho@c la chua dU'qc thu ughiem .k.y hoJp: gia thanh con eao nen chua dllqcphel biEn reng.Hyvengcac ghHphap n,ay se SiOnt 'lrD thanb thl!c thi trong .mQ-I. vii nam t.m.

%: D···· ... » 'PS' .... P ··6 '1-·" .;if .... Jh' 'L

" :' Qc t6 . .,.: c . t' l~ uUQ'c:tlC, - .Jly trong

nhuy!n th~ tdivaililian.g." SU' dfto[.bii doc to di.en fa trong hai giai doan, g;iai do~n d.'11 a mde dQ giam ham hlQng d~¢e t6 rtilnhanh ~J:uo:ng

'h'" . '1" .. . ... '. ·l...l: .' ... I Ai' . '" 'L. .

. . ·.a~ .. uQng W,a"PLOO. tren. :m.uc uO an lo.an CnO

pbep 'Va duy td. lroog ~QtLhbi gi:an, d~ai.K1ll pbatW~n bam luqng. d'QC;lo cao nang nbuyen tlId c~n phii dilng khai .lbacnhuyc!n di!: vatbeo doi cllo tm kbiha:m 111qng xuong thap du6:i nguioog an toan men tiep tQ.ckhai. dlac. ..

Ngnyi:D 11,8:g N In yea" I.e n.uIJ TUoI,

.37

Bach khoClI fhuy $On

(7)

-

Minh 6 .. .MQ.t so 10.ai tao d'9!c h~;

(1 } A texandriuffl sp.; (2) D'inqph yi5 cauda ta; (3) ProroOrlntrom miceJR;' (4) Cern tium.fU.f'ca; (5) GnI1iauliilX p()iygrn.mma~ (6) NQ.ctflu()ascinti~ans, (I-B) F:St9udrmitl;sc:hi'Bspp.

".,1. Kbai Di~m

Dong, cbay bi~n (hi] luu] Ui ,s~ chuyen d(lng ngang ella UOlde trong bi~n va d~ dUOJ1g, dlIqC dijc tnmg bhi huan,g v,a v~n, t.6c cu~ no. -

'7 .~2 .. PlI,an )'O~d

7.2 .. 1. P'hdn, la~J theo nguyen nhiJ.n gei)' ra ao.ng ehdy

Thea nguyen nlUln g~y ra, cOlh.i phan

d" 'h'" 'h' "::;',_1l.. ..... 'l.~... I . nb.,4'" 1..'

'.,:.. ong c 'aytru.lrJ!I,I.lIIn.~lIl O~l .•.... U cong ,c.ulaym~t

0'0', dong c-ha:y gi6~ dong, chiy lro'l va dODg tn,eu (do song thu,y tri~ugay ra),

* Dong 'ch:aym~t d,Q:Ei dong ch.ayg.fj,Y nen baigradien ngang (chenb l~t:b thea phUong ngang) Clla, ap SUal thuy tinh x'lltll hi'~n khi m~t bt~n n~m n,glliengso vdim~:t dang·tbl! (m~;t pbingc;o tung m¢it dQ cao dQng l~c,. 'Tuy tbuQc vao nguyen nhan gay Den eb? nghneo,g c·u,aml,ll bitn~ co th.6 chia cae dong ,c,h.iy m~t d~thanl1:

Dong ,da.ng:mt 1ft dong chiy gay Den bed s\li,d.~ng va nit n~Uc: dlloi tac dQng Cy,a, gio ..

Dong m"t dQap l\Cc.~ Ht doug coay g~y nen boi ~8t1lh£ty d6i cu.aip sluft khf quy~n ..

Dong chay bet Hi. dong chiy g.ay nen ooi

d· -'. .. 'a . b ", ... "... ~k

su ans rrurc naoc a ven cO va eac Wllg cua

ml ~'L~

d- ,if.' 'tt. .; ~ b'

;song, .(l) mrec C1 eac song c. . a Y fa,

D'ong: chiym~t dQ {dDi lun):: Ut da'ml.g chay gay nen bOi gradienngang C'lla nl~.t d'Q' nl1'oc bien.Nen s.g phan bO thOng d.~u eua :m~t dQ'

'" ·lb';I. 11..~·1" d' . "." p-h""'" 'b"'Ir'llo"no d',a:'1!1 rou" ~

n.ucrc: ilen Clll.Ja, 10 S'~ .' .•.. >~'l ,'VJ\j.~ '. '06, ,~~. '!.> .. ~.

nhiet dO va d.Q ronai ~ay nen, till dong cha,y sinh ra ~e, d:uQt. goi 1a dong' ch.iy nhi,~t mudi.

Lytbu_ye:t va pbtJangpha.p rfnhcae .10,,1 dong char ln~t d¢· Ii giQllg nhau, Vi 'V~y dU':rn, dOry' chungta se sa d~ng cbe chung m¢it: danh lit 'ChWl}g l~ cae dong chiy m~.t d¢.Do nhuug die diem cua 19 thuyeit va p}nrong phap tlnh cjc dong cbmy - m,t o¢ ma ~chDng d.uqc ta:ch

thann mOt nb6mrleng bi~t.

*- Don,g Ic~ha:y gio v,a dong 'cb3iy U-Oi: Dong chiy trOji do 'ta;c d:Qn.g ken tbea eua. ,giCigay ne:n~

con dong cbay gio thi dotac dQng d.6ng thai cua nguyen nbann6i trellva di? nghieng eua ,[U~l bien tao nen dum I~C dQng t1¥C ti~p cu.a. gi6 va S\I"phin 1boliji m,~t d:9 do dong' cba.ytn5i.

* Dong 'trieu; Ui, dong chay do song thuy tri~u gay n!n ..

'.

* Dong chay qnan tric lh.~y saukhicac 1~~ ga.y ra chting da. ng!rrng talc dong: dUQc tQ.I UI dong ehi.y quantfnh,

7.2.2. Phanl,()~i don', c:hdy t'hBO d~, on d~'IJ:h

Thee dt) tin ,dtnh ngui1i ta chia 13:: don,! chay c6 dinh., dong chay tuall hoan va dong chiy ti:\m thai.

* Dong~ Ch3Y co dinh: la. dong dlAy c·6. huoog va. v~n 'loe it bien d.di trong maa hay 'trong nam du~qc il?i la dongcba.y 'GO d~nh {dongcbiy dn phong a cdc d~idU'O'ng., Gonxtrim ..... ).Tuy nhien D61 lllQ!t each. chfnh xac thl kbong co, clong chay ct5dt,nh, tat Cia cac dong chay oeu bien ,d;oi.Vi v~y ngu,m ta xem dong chay c'o dinh lit dong: cha.y Iuon 'luau tric dUQc 'CJ m~~t wng "flo do cua d~i d1Jan~g"Do:ng cbi y nay phu Ih IllQc vao tinh cha':tphAn bOm~.t d¢ Vft phan b6 ulu the eua tr.U'dug gi6.

* Dong cbay tuan. hoan: la dong: chiy bien diii dinh kY. :Dong trieuthuec 10':11 dong cbiiy

....

nay.

;+. Dong chay 't~r'll th.Oi (khong tuan hoan):

II dOD;g chay bien. ,d6i kh6.ng 06 Hnhchf11 chu kY. Doncg chay nay tnroc tien duqc giy nen hal . Vie phuong, di~n tfnh toa n tbl d.ly liJt, IQ~:i dong ctHiy p~ulc l~p nha-t.

".2~j' .. PMn lo¢ .dong ehiiy ttU!(),tl~ stiu. phdn ,lj6 Tbeod¢, sAu pnan bd co thechia dong cha:y tbanb:

* DOng chiy m~t Iiil dong c:tUly quan tnic duqc trong Idpmnx; bang hai (lOp, nllde tU'dng ling vi(Ji ph-!n chlm dum rnr6:c ell.a t.au'O-lOm).

* Dong ·cbaytitng sau: 1il dong ,cbiy quar; lTiLc, d.U'.Q'c b d()1 sau giua d'o-ngcbiiy :m,*t 'Va dong ,chi), sat day. ..

*D'ong ,ehiy sat day: Hi dong chay quam true d~ca: ldplut6c sat d:a.y. Ma sal day aM

'h ~ .... '-.'1-. t'" d-'" h t ...

,". llmlg m~1U JJ. 0], ong, c " .ay nay.

39

7 .. 2 . .4. P'hdn IO{J:i dong ,eIJa, tbeo tirJ·h ichdl ,eh;uyln d~nl

Theo linh c~hat ch:uy~n d,Qug dong cbiy. rj,U:Qc chia thimb: Dong (;:hay thing" dong cn:iy cong, dong chi.y u6'n khuc. Gte: dong chay conged lh~ ehia ra thanh eae dong x~oaytbu~, chuy!n dQo:g nguqc. ehieu kim dong: ho 6 bite ban cau va cung chi:eukim dong ho /j nam ban ciiu. cae dttng· x,oay l1,gh:tcb chuyen dQng thea hu6ng ngugc lai,

:7 .2.5',.,P,hdJJ lO(J.i dong. ,chdy theo link chill ,lj hoo

Theo tinh chit ly b6a, chi a thanh: eae dong cila'y n6n,g va lanh, m~nva nhat, Tfnh cha:t cua dong chay du'Q'c xac djnh thee tlIang quan giita nb.i'~t dt()hay dQ mUDi ,cu,akh6~i W.'liJOC tharn gia chuy~n dOng va, 'lu.tCl;t: xung quanh, Neun.hi¢t dQ' c'ua nu6:c troug don,gchiy cao han nhiet d¢ ella nUO'Cf<Ull,g quanh, lid dongcll,iy dl6 dlI~c gQi la, dong chay nons" :neuthap boo thl g<;>i }.3. dong cbit.y lanh, cae dong chiy ,m~n va nhat cfingx.ac' dinh ffiQt· each tuongtQ.

:rrw guy-fo. "'au '\11~~

8. n()Mu6r NUOC BI~N

Eh,'mueii nude ibi~n dUQc xem nhu .fa It9ng htqng ehung tfnh bang gam cua tal c,i (~:ac chit ran hoa tan tron.giOOOgam ntr:dc bi~,n~ vdi di~llki~nbrOm dugic'thay ba.ng lUQl1,g.clotuangc.1:uong,un c.a cacbenat deu bien lhanh oxi~ va tart. c:a cb~l huuc-o d~:u b! (1'.ot Ghay (,0 480°C) ..

H~ thll~ giiJa d:91 mu6l (8) vi ham lUQn~g clo (Cl) dU'Q'c bi~u di~n dum d€lng~

'S: = [),030 + 1 $050 ,Ct

Hamhtqng th1:fc cua mu6i. khong bao gio sai khac qu.a 0..25% so vm keL (,lltla, nnh EDan thee icong thue [r,e:n.

Ok bLen I1i}i d!a tach bi~t m9tph~ hay toan b~ khoi ,d~i throng the~Jol 06 th~ c6th:amh ph~n mUDi khac vi do dO. co b~ thtlcgiua, d(j nlLioiva ham IUQr.lg ell. khac.

40

NguCri ta di l$pcic binI d#c bift d'~ 'Uilh d:9 mu6i fJ Icae bien. nay.m,n :nay (U[ co ptuJangphapi boac thien hem de, xae d'jnh dO' mu6i dua tft.n ,do drul. dien coa. nuac bi~n. Phuang phap nay di ,ouQ'c ,ap dv,ng saukhi che t@Q thlnb c~6ngca,c dlJug e.g tinb vi d~ ,do 49 dan di¢n trong Dudcbian. UNESCO cun.g V01, Vi~n"Nghi.eR c:wItien Qu5c gia.nuO'c Anb di conI' be cae baog bai dUOfl,g hQcquoc teo

~I!r'n Wau trl+ij

9 .. ,0 N,HI~MMOI TRUONG NGH.g cA vA T',A.C HAI eUA S'U 6, NH.rtM:

. ~ .

o nhi~m mot :rnrbng ngh~ cal chu y~u Ii 0 nhi.e.mIIloi tnroog aca.c 'thuy V\,lc lien quan den l\gb6 ca ..

Cae thuyvyrc hi a :nhl~m ],3 h~.u qua ctia cac. ho,:t dQ;ng Jean,g n;g;hi¢.p.~ nang nghl~p" piUit tri~rikinhte .. xi hQi GOa eon ngum va cae bo~t d¢ng chji~ntra.nh.Nh.ling, n.guon g,aye. nhiem du, tf!ndat, hay trong khong .khicuolcung d:~u lnll xu6u,gthuyYlJc, din d€n.~

+ Lamgiau dinh duOn\gthuy~c.

+ Cie chit i[Joe .11. ay··.· .. ·· ha.l. cho sinb valva con

I. c ~ '1

ng:u01,."

+ S~' giao. dinh a,lIang: va, ngQ d'Qc eae thu'Y Y\It cu6ieung din oen tie~u, di~1 s1;r song",hu.y hoai eac h~. sinh tbai,lMl1 ~uy giamng1.1.0n. 19i va da d,~.g sinh h9C.

S~ 01 nbii..mmoi t:mang nude: dU1t;1chi~u .Ii SU' lam. giim. gi.a trikinh I;t! va chic ning boat d¢ug eua tbilY quy,en do con n,gu:oi gay ra, T~'c dong sinh thai cilia cac cb~t ga.y Qnhi.~m 'I~n sinh. 'val thuy sinh a t~t ca. c~c -m.Dc dOtl1rti'

bao,ci. the d'6Il ,qu~n 'th~ va. quan ,x.i. '

·Olmiic ca 'tb,~: chat giy [) ,nh1e;m. buy hcai cac chJlc ning&inh ly~ lam thay deli ~ptlnh" giam nh!p' di~u tang ttUbng,tang' miictu vong,

dmite quiD du~::chlt ,g,Ay6Dhi.am Hun gi.am g.(J lUQllg va sinh v~t 11JQng~ ,giarn n1l1C: sinh san" langm'uc t.it vang~,~Uim 'bl6"n diQng siS lUQng kbO.ngtbeo m'Q,t chu ky nao, do .Q.Q sinh V(U khOng rh~ thi:c:b ling va ditu 'hoa, dUCfC tr.@:ng thai tan t~i cllamlrm~.

"jmli"c q-uan xi:' c:;ha:tg,ay ,0 Dhlem. Himthay dO,i ve egu true 'Va ho~t dOng chuc nan,g ella OCl..

em cd:n m,{jt khln nio do, kong quin x:abi tdn !humgtIT}, tom qut1n xamlt can hing~ de dltn,g b~ BUY thOM. va di~tvoqg. Khi qum.. <xi b~ hUy

hoai .~, LoA ~-.t.·'h"· _, L~ h(tt,.. " ..

. ,O~l" ea .!iL,,? Siiu) t: at tung ul " uy uO~l, cae

quitn the hi di~1t vong, tfnh da daag - sinh hQC va ditmyen cnngglarn va bi£n mtrt.

Mol cbat g:ay onJri~m d~ll co eo' ,c·h~ g.ay

hi ." .... . ... . ..... ~. h'~' 'b ": . bi .·ik.' .":::.... '0 ""_.li-.

. ,':II neng, S(lDig ca tt e t.lI1m1g. ;~ n~demt;].U.l

khong chi domQ,t icha!t rna chin taco d.¢ng; ddng thoi clulmQt s,o: chittrong ,di.e·u lci~n nhi~u yeu ·t.,LS eua m:oi truODgb.i trd nc!n Bim ban d6i VOl

heat ,fh)ng seing, e·ua. chung. ' .

NguEmg gay ch!t::D~ danb gii baD chdl cua ,mgt ,chit giy b~i l~n co tbe, trong sinh thai hoe thu'C1n.g dung ca,c chi s6' LC5iO (hayDLSO). IJ.Ay lit ham lUQ'nB bay Heu ]ugng m,a, ti,li d6 .50%, sinh ~tth( nghi¢;m ibi (;~htt. Li,fn, quail.

den di~JJJ Ray lao tum gian tac dqng" C1bam 11lQ'n.8 thap, lie' ,ch~t 50% di9ns ~l,~tth.r ngtU';'m, thCtigian, phil . dai 'han .8o'V'O'i h~m luqng cao, Do v"y ,cac chl sa LC50 nayDL50 phai ]~enl

v. 00.;- .. t.h ... 01 .. :." g .. ,ian, ,c,_ g.:. ay.,. chet. '. _.Th ... 1·.1I .•. _'.lJn.7.!~g.-· nglU'01.' ta ..• hav.,

d"· "4' 4' . 'S 1'" "9·t:. . "~. ~ j{'.. LI C· Q{; Le'" 71: : ,u~n~l~ '\'54~-:~,~l?a;a Vl~t :5~"'~ , 50"

LCiD 1 LC5D '. Day 1.a, nguoog gay ",J;tt CUi: .mQ~

-," .~, ... I'" M' ... .," n ch .' .1-".11· .," ... ...l '

ehrttt nae ae, .... lie an loan c 0 Pde.p bllJOOg nno

boo n,gu.ang g.~Y che'ttit 1'00 den 1000 1M. t:uy lhuQc-d<)c tmh ena chat gay o'nhle,m, va, ban

fnh - ~" ". -- L fI... d cG'"' ". i eh ~t .;} .,

tL_; man cam etta smn v~:t , .. 01 '\fm e • at u.et

o nhi~m .mol trrr.Ong: Ia '8\1' thay d61 Hoh ch.[t eila. m,oi truong. vi pham 'lieu chuan moi tnlang. Chllt. g:~y () nbi~m la, nh:Ung nhin, to lam cho rutti trubng tra nen dQc. hsi,

Tii!uchudnmoi tntoog:: Iii nlliing cbuin rnnc, giai han ch()phe~' (t;J~CP~ ,chJ?c quy d:pm di'lng lam can 'eli! ,de quan Iy'mUllfU'oog ..

6 nhi~m 'moi U'tfioog- U:u'OO: la ,s;1J thay d6i thaM pbdn. va tinh chill ·eua. 'DUo-c, gay inh buan,g d:enho~t . d"Qng s6n~ b.inh thu~g _.fua con nguUiv3< s.mb v~l. Klu S\l thay d~JI .tbaoo

pha~ va tfnh, ,cbf1l. :uan;uoc,Yllqt q~a,~Q~t ng~ang c'~:~Jlhe~.,th~. s~ ,0nhie~n1Jac. ~~ (1 mile I1,guy .blem dol. VOl slnh v~t va con ngU'm"

Bien cbl1cmg: chauAu da .. d:inh . ughla/6 nhi~m n[J'~c .nhu S31U:. '~Sl} oooi.em nuC1c Hi'm'Qt hitn d5i ebb ytu do cQnngum gay rae d6iv:~ cha't hzangnu:Cic" lam 0 .nhle,m l)U':ac va. gtty ha,..l ~ho vi,ec.'- SU d~ng, cho cOng n.ghi~p~ nang nghiep.," mnol c,a~-l1ghi ngai. - gilli trl,cho d~lfl~ va.' .• tnuoi c,ung nhu' c.ae loai homg d.~i'~,

,

N-.·. , .. ····, . .,~n· & .. f.{ .. "'" ,..i'!lI"l b ·nb···. ':ile·::iIT"li. ·m.·., i,o ... i.tr .. U iC.'(m.···~. o •....... R.,u:.CJ."'e.-.:

guo .. bY"" ~rw~ Y' ... I, .• ,;~ .". - - .. . C'.

o nhie{m m.Ol tWOo'g,nu6'c- c6d1,~ co ngllon goc

r" nbie.n bay nhan t,o.

o nhiem co .ngu6n gOt lu,r nhl.en: Ii. do rmra, tuyi!t tan" gi6 ba:o~ l(lb..l.t~. v», Nuuc rolla .rei xu6ngmat d:~t, dul1ng pbt'S d6 thj.,kbu co.ng ngbi~pk6'o th.eo(alic cba"i ~I,n xudng ao htt s6ug :su6i ho~,c. c3jc s,aJ1 phlm elm.a llo~t d¢ng

-, ." : ' ... 'l",. ,~ l,,;? .. " .. "'. . "'h'~t' . '! a

s:Ong etta SU'J..IJ; v", t, fl.e c a cac xac C.I . '.e. ..Ieu_

chu.ng (s~ () rihj~m nay con dUQic goi Hi. (II nhie,m dien).

Onht~m nhan tao: cnu Y'~u do xinuac: thai ttl!' c.acvUng din: cU',cackhu cong nghi(tp,ho~t. d¢ng~ giao -thOng v$1l tai, thuoc tru silu" thuoc di"¢,t - co v~a phtm bOflnI,ong :n6iD.g n;ghl~p, .. ,,\'ao m6i ·truimg -nU'Oe.. Thee thq! gian, cac d,~g g.dy 6., nhiem. co th~ d.ien ra thlfcm,g xuyen hO~CIUC th'01 do 5.'11 co~rni roo

Phtn lo~i ,6 :nhiem m6i truOng ntfac'~

Thea bBtn c.h,~t cUa. ta,C' nhftn gAy 0 nhi6.m. gam: 0 nhiem vQ.()O'" 6 nhi~mhftll co, 'l~ nhi!m hoa ch,at,° nhiem vi sinh v~t" ,0· nhi~m cohoc hay v~t 1,Y (6nhl~m nhi~t ho~ do cac chat let brng kbong, tan, () nhi~m phong x~" .. )..

Thee 'Pb~ vi 'thai vao~Oi tru'em:g' nucrc~,c6 ,o.nhii,em. di~.m (vi du 6nhi.em tumi~ng cong thai cua n_ha may) va 0 n_hi~m di9n (v[ dl\l {) nhiem H"lmqt V\) tran dGu tr,en mi.tbi~n J.

Thea vi 'lrf kbOing gian, ec6 0 nhiem. sJOng.~ ,[) nhiem bei" 0 nhiem b'i!~n, (, nbiJ!m nUDe m~t, ,0 :ohi~,m:nU'C1c ngam ...

Theo dui uJ'qng nganh ngbe suo dgng, s:om: onhiem nUoc d:ung cho sinh ho't~,O :Mitm ntttJc dung cho n,ufi,g nghi¢p'.~6 Mi8m n.uoc duns cho llgh8 ca"

10~ cAe LO~: ,HINH 0 NHI.I£M lO~l~. 6 nhi.e'm chat bUncO'

.1'"(11.,1. Phdn lOI}'i ,ccJcc:hdi (; .nhilm hftu f;,(j

cae chat ~111lr1 C(1 wue.ID. v,ao nuO'c, dU'<1c phin :thanh hai lo~ilbe~kha. "nall:g b~ phln. h&y sinh hQc.:

cae chat hfiu ICO' de hi phm buy: baa gum cae hqp cMt, hydmt c,acOon.,p[otein~~ cb&t b60, Ugnin~ pectin~.. co til l:6 baeva cae lochll.i'C coo dQng~\:~tjtht.lt 'Itt. Qie. chit hfm. co nay GO chil, yell trong n:U'Oc 'IbM sinh ho~t, tU .khu dan. eu,: nude tooi Gong n&hi~p, tDeae Xl nghi~p eb6' bien. ilivc phfun~ lomtt Trang mlue thai ,eua khu dan. ,c.u'c6 khoWt_J 25- .50lfD Hi hydrat eacbon, 40 .. 60% pro:tem va 10'% cbtitbeo.. Qrung lam suy

41

giam lugng oxy boa tan trong .. DUCK; . 3nh, hu6ng xa:u clfn eac w nguyen nu6e nhu ,_ 'Qng:v~t thuy si~ va, lam g,i~~CJlalI~qn,.~ nude sinh hoat, nuoc dung eho nUDl trong tbuy san.

cae cha:t hOu, cakh6b~ pban huy.: g6m cac;, hQP chttthtlu.cJ(}' vong them, eac hop Ctltlt dEl! vong ngung tu, cae clo huu co trong d,6 co thuOc~dl san, oac d~n.g polime, cac d~g poliancol, v.,v .. Chun,gkb6 bi ,[>han huy do cae tac nh~n. sinh hoe binh lhlJoog~ co, the t:o.nla~, Iau dai, tfch hly "I~m b~n vem'Y quan, gay d:~c chomoi truang!t ,gllY' hai cho dO-I song ,sinh v,~t k~ ca, con ngu~O'i. cae chit huu, ,eo cru,em .55% tong S,t) c;hat raoll 750/6 trong h:uyen phil, va

khoang, 450/0 trong chat nm hoa tan, .

cae chat hllu co: co tfnh doc cao co th~ nhi,em vao nu6c. Ole c:Mt:nay 06 trongn.l1Ii6'c muOng rat b~ll!thU¢c nb6m eac chat hilu ce kh6 bi ph&n hUy. 01110,g tich lay v~a. lon lLN trong nuac,ttong co thimuy sinh, .gi·:y _ 0 ,nhiem. nude mau dii va gay we b~ eho h~ sinh thrunaOc-. Chung co tll~ 13., Icac.hqp chat df vong ciiani~a va iJxy ~ c;;ic hydratcacbon da VOl"h,g ngung tu, cae hqpchiit phenol nhu 'pollic:lobi.lPhen~t v», Cie C!tit1 nay ~mhuOn,~ CIO tron:g~nl1Dclhii 'GC)1II~ ~I1g~~p, [~.~ac ~~)g tr~n:g cay !l0n~: ,- l~nqm@~' dUH~

.". 'II-.:'''''U. thu ,nt'>h"l 'i "";:';'UI '("'.;1'(;,- ch ~t· ·0·· ~1[ ,""0·· ea e L""'''I<1 1.1.IIU,,-, .. "U~ 'uu ,;;la, ... , .... u, ...... , .u_·,l, .... ,~· 1..i-1 "-' ... >.J\(u

nOD,g boa du~;rc khac d~. baro ve thve v~t cllng nh']! nhimg chat kich thich sinh tfUdng". til ng:uon DUde thaicua~, vi~n! xi nghiep dung qu'nru~u thuoc sa;~ kbu~,v.v,

Cac hon chathflu co CiO tinh d6-c cao bao

. ~r .~!

g6m.::

+ Phenol va cac hop chateua phenol:

Phenol va, cac bqp ,chat, ella, phenol COl t.Wh d¢e cao d6i v6i sinh v~t :n6i chang, ke eft doi voi nguiri. M.Qt sO' hop chat phenol co th~ gay ung tlnr, Dloi v6i nuOl tf.6ng: thu" 5uin~l6 'c'htrc Nong.-LuOOl.g Th.egiai. (FAO) quy d~nh ham, lUQIlg phenol twang nu6't' khong qua 5rngfl d6i vt1i cfhQ Sa~nlornidae. (ea h6j) va, CyprinMdae (ca chep)..Thong' 111' so oll2nOolIT~BTS cu.a Bi?!huy s.~n quy dinh pia 'lrtgiai h~n ~cho ph~p' (GHCP) ~qua pben~m £~n~ 's,O' trongvLlug nl1~c ngl9t [lUCID thuy san E,a O.02mgj1l" tr'O.Dg nUde:

b li~n·· \/jl0.,11 (if l'II'~I'J;;' 'J. ,t I}'II '~1'!J ¢'a" n-' 1:·''''''·I[1,·bc.;;' I"::', OC, .0- '0'· 1· 'm" .... 11

~ . IU~ 'OJ ,IUIL~Ii.IU" . l.l"Y'J" 10 ... ", V !Ij;".-,Ibll; , U _.OJ, ',. ,t, '... ' ; 'OJ'I,!

+ cae chil baa ve thue vAt:

~, !!!' ,~

kha b~n 'troo,g mOitrulDng~Cbuog tfch Uly va t;ou luu gAy bohiem~ g'ay d@ccho ng,trOi va, dQng V~l. .1 ClO hang tram mo,i Ihu5c. 'bao V(} tht;lc ",t"thU(}C dL~t ,,~,o· duqc sa dl;IDg trong tr,c5mg t191. Citc chtin. d6 lA ,cac bgpchit phospbe hw ~cO'., elo hiJn eo, cacbamat, phenox~y axetic

va pyrernid l6ng hop, .

M¢lt dieu ngllY bi~m [a, cac c:haltl1ay ,co d~ ~n cao, d'ic biet - 1!a cac hQPcbal clo bim eo. Chllng tho' hi phan buy- va 't tcb n;.. ,gay 'Dnhiem m6iltnrOn,g omJc. 81:1 tlch. ~ dllQC ch'Uyfn din len thea chu.Oi thue ;au va. 'lie .ll~i ngay cangtin.g dm. TCVN 5943 ~ 1995 quy dinh gim I~. chn pb5p t6ng hoa chat baa v~, tb", VQil trong nu6c bi~n ven bO dUDg cnonl!lol thuy ,san Iii O,()1mg}L Th6ng 111 so OlI2OOC1IIT-BTS eua B¢' Thuy san guy djilh, gi:6i h~ cho pbep eua cae dljt bao v~ rbtrc 'Vlt: (rwD'DT) trong vung nu&cngolDuoi th~y :sa'n nt, O,Jjrng)ll~ DDT 1ft O"Olmg/l. ,.' ..

+ Cae chat'tanin va. lignin:

Hai hqp chat nay co ngu6n gocm~c V;~l.

Tanio co b cac nha rnay sin xuilgciily, ahe bi~erl g61" IeI' mfa vathuec da. Lignincd 111ij.t (; Ic:ac xi :nghi,p su dung nguyen U¢u thl,lc v~U, (miad.uOng~ gi~y.!. rau quit v.v.), cae cblt nay tlIlll00g U~.m cho ulldcthai 'c6mal!J. den, lam. Sl1IY giam chart lU'Qn,g nl1ctc c.a'pcbo siJlh,h:()~t:, du lich, HOng [1gh~~p, nuei tr6ng thuy san, Chung g .. a.y dQc chocacloai sinh v~t tbiry sinh,

. M·{)ittrong n.hUDg nguyen nhan chfnh g;ay 6 nhiim chi{t hUn. 'Co lIong m~f1'i tnllOn,g na~6'c Ht V1~C sU: dyng phan bUn C;(1 E.ron.g, nong nghi~,p.

Phan hnu co g6mc ,eoca.c Ioai phan bon ngu6n gloc hu:u co (co thanb phin C1 H" O~ N) nhU' phan xanh, :philo dluong,,, phan 'vi' sinh, , .. cllin,g v,di C'acb~, chlll hitu co nbu x.acbatllltTc v~tf d9ng V'~t chua bi phan huy (d~ng miln tho), hay da b~ phin huy va.liing bQp,th~n1h ngpeha1 mi)n. (m.unnhwy,en) 13 ngu6n [,0 dinh du6n.g r,~t.l(f[ cho cay lrt),ng. Tuynhien.. sl,f'phtn huy ]phau hDu CO' du thila. va x:ae b[ hUD CO'itJOllg dieu ki~n yem th:f. Se ~o fa cae chat. dQC h~i 1am 0 ubi,tm, mOi, truOng' dlit~m;Oi tmong nuec ..

Tfiongm6,i l'I1IOng yllm, kh11' s.an pb~m cu6i cilng cuaqua. uinh :pbin hiiy cic cba:th.\hJ, leo' '410 ra :chu yeu 19. CH4~H2,O~. C021 FI2S., .. gay d¢c c.ho mluitnrmg. Trang di~'uki¢n Y~ln khf, sulphate-a. Ih~ hi kb:u llduth sulpbide 'SQ,U dn ke1t hQP vmH2 t~o thiinh H:zS gly d;QC:

42

Sa.> u. d6 .... sulphite b.>"u, U.~€r- tuc tic dung vw

-- 2+ ~.' . :t" ., ~

F'~' . bo~c- H~ trong (I"at hD,C trong nu&t~o

thaRh cb:ft gay dQ'C' cho sinh v~t

S!' -t F¢'~+ ~F'e~ 3:2;'"ir 2H+ ~, H S

. ", 2:

Cac l()),i pifian hUll cckhi lan truy6n VRO moi lnr,On,g mroe eon Ui, nguoll 0 nhi.!m dich benh b6i trong phln c6 nltnh.iih.lnr(mg giun s'n~ vi triung v.a c.ac mam, benhkhac. Klli xam nh~p vao nude chung: '00 di~~ ki~n sinh, sol nay n(,,, Ian truy~n qua. nuaJC m~tt nUQ:c :ng~m hose hoc hen vao kbong khf lam, () nhiemmolt ImO'l1g,g.a.y benh cho d:Q:ng v~t thOysinh, lieu d:~~t vi sinh v~Jt c.o. leb,! v ;'1. NeD ·t-rorig thuy V\1'C co qua nhieucbat htru co, trong dh~:u kien yern. kbi (bil qua ttlnhkhll! se chiem 1lmtl1e:~ san pharo, 't~fO ra 1.8 eacaxit hOU co liltm cho moi tnrang nuut tra nenchuava chiia nlrit.u chal dOc CH4, CO2, H2S.

IlJ,.1.,2' .• Phil' ,ditting· )'a sy suy g,fti,m cliditll(j'ng nuiJe

cae c~ha~ bfftlCu'lllii xarn nb~p v3!.omoi lruCm,g nude bi khoang be.a lam, gnat tang ham LUQ'ng nita Via phospho trong .nuOu: va co lbi· din Ldi hi~n tUQ'ng phu duang~

Phu duUn:8 iA .8.11 gia ul.ng bam lugng, nita v,a phospho trong eac thuY\1l!c Him cho cae 10l1i lbtJt v~~ b~c thap (rong ~ tio) lPb~t tritn manh, No I~H)! ra nh.1lng bi~n a,oi 10n trong thuy ~ .. ~ Iamgiam oxy dan den ,cha:l. lUQ'ngDU'O:o b] suygiam v.a 0 n:Diem.

'Ca sb sinh.hea eua. hi¢tl tU'qng. phu dlXong la ph.an ung quang hoa (photosyntesis), Phitn ung na.y rit pbuc :t~p xiy .fa lbeonbi~u buac.:,

Tnrcrc bel elic cha't di~p lue (chlorophyl) va c.~ac .• ~.. s.a.·.~ . .c.l. o .. ",.t .. pil.~ .. g ••. ". m." .. I.e r 1.11.t.·.) ... '~. tron., g. ' .. c .. ~ .... ~.y . x.a::.' .. ~·.~ _.,h .. a ...• 'p." .tb~ .. " aM . sang .. de t6nghQPDf.n cac dl£ic buucat~

H.,z'O vi, CO~, Tiep thee Ht! qua uinb bien d6'1 sinh h6a~,ld:nghQp nen c'c1c tl bao, Qu.a tTlinh quang boa. :dlIgcmo ta. nlur S,(lU:.

..

'8 I H

rCH~O}

1/115 gjIUCQil!iO,IBI," d' t5~ Qh,at

PhanLtng qnang hoa. co 'the! chi a lam :2 buuc:

+ 'Quang nang dUQc 'cbuy!n thanh .hoa fling (bien d6i nang lu'~g;) d6 th~c hi~n cac pbantmS h6a. hoc.

+ Caebon v'o CC} d.uqc 'cbllJy~n d],a;oo cac bon .itCm co: va dang d,au lien dU'Qt b.In:!) thanh la glueozo, sau dO. c,huyen thanh phIln tu' eua I.e' QUO. Thanh pha:n chu yeu cua. rong, tao Va. cay xanh la cac nguyen t6 C~ 1-1, O. 'Thong: thU'oug hxt:mg C, H" 0 trong cay xanb v.alrong tao chiem 9'S'%kh.oi JU'Qug Uf'O':i ulanguon cung clfp cae nguyen to nay chu yeu t:11 CO2 'Va H2'O.,

N "" . ., ....Ai .]l.,."' "

goal ra, frons rong Itl,OV3]. cay xann con co

nb.iin,g n,gllyen to da ]UQ118 va vi I.UQTlg. cling tham gia vao ciu true te bao, Vai 'lb!f(c V~l pb~ du, ,ffiQtpbiu til co. th~ 111.0 ta b~flgc6ng tbifc::

(CfI'lO'}!(m(NII3)H'lH)P04,

Th cong th.'trc tren cho tb~y,t tj sO' C:N:. P [a 106.:. 1.6: :I" Ty soN:; P du'Qc goi la "gia tri b~en 'd,t? d;o'~' (Redfield value). Gianri nay bi~u thi lugng C'Qn thiletN V,a P de taonen Tong, tao .. Dua "lao ty·,,~· i:e na\{~. ta co, the bie't dude y~eu" to'

'I! :a J' .~

nao ta, ye U to han che' S Q1 phat trie Iii tala. ron g tao

trongthu y vue.

N6h .chuy~n '~gi.i[f.~ bien d~ d{/~ tit nguyen tu gam sang mg/l ta c,6N: p;: 7: 1. Do do ,neu. ty l~: N~ P :>7 thl PUo thinfu. y€u t6 h~nc,h:~'~ ngage .~illeu ty m~ N: P -<.7 lbl N U'id thmh ylu fo bq.ll'chc.

Khi 'thuy vyc qua dtr {hua cacc:hit dinh dl1Bng N va P tao dieuki~n cho thgC' V~l phu du phil trienmanh, tang sinhkh6i. Ke{ ihuc yang dbli n'[QEkh6i mm;rng fon than x>a~c: Ibl,fc V,l phi! du bitho[ :rila. phan nuy dan deI'l. Urm giim nghiern trong ham lllqng; olxy hoatsntrong nuoctlllJ:gt yen to co bit" eua quiitrlnh t~ lam sach cua.m6m truiO'ng nultc. Sl1 phan huy eua tao :~a.m¢l[tron,g ,Moog nguyen nhan chinh ,g:ay ra 81;£ ibieu Cyxy ngmem trQng ic:ua nuac, d.ijc b~~t a t;ang day a, IQua trlnh 'nay Kay ra theo plnrcng trinh:

(CH20)JO~{NH:3)['6H]P04 + 1380',2 ~ I06COl4- i 22H2.'O +16HNO,~+ H]P.O,of

Til pain lIng nay, eli' 1 phfln lit th~c V~l phu du da sU' dlJng 276 n,guyen tut ox)' d,~ li1en

hanbpbin UngpbAn buy v,a, giii .ph6ngrol¢it, hIQn,'dang k6 ··axit va CO2 vaongutl,nnu_ClC l,am giam pH 'ella nlloc.Nu6'c bi nhf.em bAn va. ,co mid. h6i th6i din drefi d'qng v~t dallY sinh (tOm, I(;a ••. ) c,he;t ,bang·lo~t.

Ngu.yen nbin c'ua hi~:n tll'Qhg, ph~. du&g la D;guonthii co chllanhieu N va, P.

Phdn l'o@i nguon.rhdl c6;chita N vaP:

~. Ngu.6o di~:m (Land. :POIIlt soarses): lit ngu6n thai tit h~; t.hol\g· conis rinb c'u,a tMM ph6." :lhi xa., ,cik khu cOng nghi{!p,.Ngu,On thii ,nay phl:l thuQc. III nbi~u "ao mucs6ng ella nban . dllnvi. chuin mire v~ sinh tr-ong .khuVl!c. ,N g;o,ai ra phospho c,o~ d.uqc sir dung rat.nh~(hl trong s,an xutft .ph.b], boo. va, bQil: gi~t..

- Ng;u6n di~n haypbmtan (Land 0:00- point or- diffuse sourses): ng1!16n t'baj nay ralt r(jng I6n baogdmcac khu ,,¥t: san Kuft nOng nghl.~p, ,lim nghi~p va eac \~,g chity Ir.an tu: cac khude thi:

. . ,- . .. - ..

+ Vungcanh tac: phan bon, x6i mon,.

+ Khu chan tha: nhan sue vat -va cae sao

lr I-

phamtb6i rfia,l x6i mon,

+ Cae khu we sAn 'J{U~t slfa va Ic,at sin

phdmslla~ . ·

+ Nuae thai din dungtrong khu VJ.l'c.

Hien nay s~ phu d:UOng cac lhnY\'\Icda tro thanh van de nghiem trong 'c6 tim voc loan

cau. a Ga.c nu6'c: cong nghi~p phat tri6n ngllm ta d'i ngbien cttu cac.hQJl phan g;6p vao pbd. d~ang;. Vi at) iI Thu~ Di~n nam 1989 khoang: 26%, nita giy 6nhiC!rn eac wng hi!n co nguoR ~.6c to nungnghi~p!. 23% tu' rUng v,a nganh lim, nghi~p,~ 10% lAng dgng tok]d quy~·n, 8'% til'dar ng~p nuuc, .19%ti1 nu6c t11Ai.d6 Ib~ va no~g tho:n1., 4'% tQ c;6ng nghi~p va' 1 O%tili: cacn~gu6)n khae, Tai Anh v~. xit W,ales thi bai chin thi gia sue d6ng:g6p I~rn 20% vao hi,¢ntuQ1l,g p'hD d'llang.

1.().1.3. Ng.p, ,dl)c fr:il"t~:g ,trlue do, p'hli drl6ng

Rang, ti~o phi,tui~n vaim,$t dQ ea:o trong: thuy vyc ,6 'tb~ gay ng9 dQc ella viingnudc ho~c sinh ~a ,cha;t dqc giet cbet ca..c loai dgog

viit tbuy sinh ... LoM taoPrymneslumparvum

~'. ' . . -', ,. I __~I

sinh sOi manh i1 nut1c phd duOQg sinh ra cac

cMr d~ ,g&y ch«t ,ea,,, M~II~p doanPrymne:slum: parvu.m· khoangl04 ~ lOS t'6 bito:/ml co t'hf sinh ra mQt luqng chit d:~c dil d~' giet tC~t .. Qi~1 chait dQc CUI tao ,~,am, (Cyan;(.lvacter£a) co. lb.¢;. gly ng:u:y hi~'m cho C'O'1} ngum.~, gia ,sue va dqrlgvijJt hoang di.Nhieu Loai (I:Qng 'Itt trong cae chi Mycrocystic, Aphanizomenonvs Anabaena e'g. the sinh rs chit co id"c tfrib cao del ,duQCx,ac d~nh. Tuynh~en cll~l d~c; kbOfJlPhii luO!D 100.0. xu~thi~n khi. tao Cyanobacteria .00 boa, tHing dQchafu d:Qc cO: th! kh4,c MIU. Di4u nay lam cho c.h6ng kh6bi phil hL~n, va dq eloin ..

10.2. 0 obi,em diu m,g,

D,~u 1& m¢:m bQp cbOCt" buu co eao phtn t1.I' pbiht t~p hdu nhu ,chi c:bw hydr.oeac:tu)n. D:S.u duqc ".0 tbanb tlr xa xua, bingnhwg phin ling phuc t~p x,ay ra. dam m~ll kj'~n a.p .s·u,(t va nhL~i d;~ b d~ sau nbfi"t diM" I(:ung, viti cae 'V~n. d~ntg dia c:h~l.

Hqp 'eha't hUll co dau ougc nmtlJay i:J hJ:nh d1l\'c th@,khj' thlIilng g9i Ulkhi thien :nhi,en ~ a the: long: goi Ii da:utbO", cbllt rin. boij,c IU~f3! ,ran d'uQ'c fun th{y ItPDng' dati. cit, diu da,phi~m. Nhlin,g chit dOlniUlg tfnh .boa bQcphilc ~p vit bao ,g\~j,m hang tram I}o~, phful ttr. cae phinltu!' duqc sd,p' xep theo tbd tl1,kicb thu:6'c pllut 'tJ:lp ttl metal den hydrooacbon th~ khf v6i tr9ng ]Uqng phan 1Jl n~gH5g1mol, cae hQP dufE rin c6 ph~ til ldn ban 20.000g/mol. Tuy tlWlb. ph·an. chfnh cua dLll,l. rnb Ut hydroeacben tmenohi!n nhtmg bao gi'a ,cong ,ch1IamQ,t_· phful phv,nho di kern 11 cae: h.QP chat kbong thuoc hydr-ocacbonlio 13.. ca.€: 'chatnh~a,cac axil ~boo CO:~ c:ac.' hgp chit hU'iU co chUa S va N, cae tap' •. chiit vo CO' khac va. trona

'11·_' b

diu 'ruG con cbua ca nucre.

Hydrocacbcsr cu.a dau 'mo' tbll~3 hQ: -Hydrocacbon parafinie: cung, lbuc t~ng qual chung CtrlH21l+2

~ Hydroeaebon them; 'cbng thuc t6ng qua,l chung CuRln -s

~ H:y~lrooacbom ftatf:phenic: cOn,g:thOc: t6ng qmit chung C .. H'2Q va. co di~,gm~cJl viong,~

~ - ~ .. ~

,~ . ~'.. -T IIA~ "Irl') U' '0'. NG

IP,HAN THU NIHA_': !iYly,~ I'L'_, __

N gllyi.n nhii,tl. eua :0' nhilm ddu:

Nguy~n Ilhlnciia ,0 nhiem diu 131 do sir tram. dau [11,15 bo~,c, do tinhche sin 'pb~m dlu.., Stt ki¢.n llay 6Wriem d~:u Ion 'va. triirn~ trQng la trW; d,~u hoiJc- cacctun than do,t, til: cacmu ,ehu dau rhai fa ho~c tLr eac g~t!n;g khoan, til cac xa Ian ho~c tu cae. tan do ran nm c'icmO'i h2I.R cua 6ug dau. Khithuy Vl;rc: hi '0 nhiem dau, giua m,ijt tboang CUll nuac v~ kh6n,gkhf co m(Jt lifp dau mong hay day dan d5n lam thay d,5i qua trlnh trao dOi khf co,a IlUCwC MIl s.~ hiI'p thy ,(lXY 'va . .boatan khi cac bonic (C02), Khi I tan drill,mo dO ra bien 'c6 th! Ian tca, tren -m¢t b~ mat rQng. den 12km2, tao n~:n 16p 'liang d§u chi day 111.000rnm ng'at) c~ch'nllt6'c v,O( ikhOngkhl. TIt do Utm '[bay dOi t~ ch,l(t cuamoi tnrcrng nU{l:C nhu lim. thay ddi s,uc~ cangm~[: ngoai, id.Q'pH" nbiel ,do., .khi. nang' I tmoddi 0=<''\1 .. ·.·· va, kill

• ~I _. r- J..

c~ac bonic ~ "OJ. V .

An.h I:ludng clla 0 Ilhilm' ddu:

d~ bifn va d~i duong, khi b! mit bi 6· nhi.e,m dau se ,anh huang den sinh hoat v,a 51! s6'ng eua cae lquan the, chim bien, c.~h; dO'o,g; v~t s6ilg b bi.~fl (nbu bit) Cthl~ cae krid cii~ gia:p' xac~ than mem) 'la cae d(licilg v~t .khong xuong :SOH:g khac (nbu: san h6)~ cac [oai Ihl}'C v~t 'cuarWl:g ng(tpmij:n (nhu' su.~ v'¥t),. L6pmla;n,g d.aumo ngao each khong cho eac da nangm~t tra1 xuyen qua nu&:: hi~n!, lam C'h~m qua trinb trao (ltl,i ox.y ella nude bi:~n, trlI6'c bet lam n;~unS' s'L_i 'sinh s,in hay gi,!"tcb€t cae laai sinh 'V~l nOt. (sinh v~t phu du) va, taobieo" -LOpm.ang d,~u dO. lcling giet c:he;;t lullDg ca, va ca, b(>t :song '0· ngay lr,enmJH nude bien.,.

- .. ~

LOp, diu mo tren m~( bi~n do tac d¢ng ,c'ua srong v~,hai.trieu c6 '[h~ bing xueng sa.u It~ gtty tac- hai ,ebo he sinh thai bi4:n.Dom,lu .5i'c~ x.am, d,en 'eua, nhci turm;g d~um~~. tro.ng nudrc bil~[ltao nen .mo~ cht:ftbjng :x._am denma ngll'Gi

- - - 'Ii ;t; _ ~

'ttl g:Ql U. hdi tr.ieu aen.

Co ehe" gay h(l'i ,cd" ddu ltlQd(J1 118£ lInly sinh v"t.'

~ Chat hydroca,cbon tluirm, V80 t6 ,chile t€ bao tlgin,cin quatrWh. chuy~n hoa!, lIi~ ngCm~r s,y.trao dOli cM"tgiua wbao v6i mOil (Nang ben ngoai v,a lam. cho CalC sinh v,t bi ch!t" Dau .mo

va ca,c sanphlm eua. ,chung lam tho calC' sinh v$t bi~nchet khi a him lUQng d.,t O,2mg/l nu;6c b~en~ Him cho cae sinh v.'l day cbet thi a ham luan. ',.0." L43m,...11 va la:m cho ci ldncb~tkhifuam

~.. b I( 5J'.l

luang.·e da,~ ng··.··uoog, I6m' ..... t:I ; .•

~I ,_. ,II '_ . . _ '5f ,IL

- cae din xuri:t dju roo tich tQ trong oC1tJbe sinh v$:t bi~n.~ lam cho th~t ciia cluing cO: min dd.u mbkhong the dUng ,de Imnthoc §nV3 C:Q, thE dant6i hlnh thaml b~n1t ung thu do lamr6i loan thong tin di tr1Jy~.n; nhat .la 0 ca. Con .ngum kill an cae hai s.an binhiern diiu rno co. th~bi ng.Q dQchoijc cling (:6 '~he m:&c b~nh urrg UIU.'

..' cae- da.nx:uat ciia hydrocacbon :trong mxOc biSn hi c,ij,(:, vikJuJ,&nhie;u .·thi phful gial va t~o ra cae chlftg·~ly 0 nhiem khat: tllc.mg tQnh.u cae chat hoa hQC.bUiU C(1.

- Dauma bam vao cae loai th\Ic v~t ella rtmg ng~pm~n" lam cho cay ng~.[ tba vacb€t~ dong th:c1i Ullnm,atma:i lnlOng sd-ng ella eac loai lio~, h!u~ vem, tern, ... va cac d:¢ng v~t khong xuong s.ong Idu\c ,$;ong l~P trung t~i vimg .~ eua cae cay ~nt vet dan den buy (U~t h~ slnhtbaidmg ngap m~n venbien, Thee c,alC: ket qua. nghien ctru, 5 nilm sau thim hiQfl 0 nbiem dau me, khong. m(lt Ioaisinh v$t naophuc hoi. duO'. c ... glvra cac' ~thuy'\'uc chet",

.. i' .. J ,,' ,.

D '. """b.:J'· '1" 'h"'- ~ " k

- .iu mo coo [- e .. am. C '.' e~ ca. eac ran san liB

.. ~

h .~",ltl· 11;.'1. A. Ill..un'" ··.,···~:ri'i1n,Cr 'b.'iT? b-'cc," ~, --'L';I''','!'

u u9 SdU, urn" u nu __ 8 ". LJlU,Q men .~ a UJI.JiJ!em

diu Ino! nguai ta thay co d~n 2{3 san ho bi huy diet. Do cae ran san b.o 13 m,oitruOn~., .sono.l, ~;-iIih san va phal tri~n ella nhieu loli 'tOm :a ca. .. ,sy buy di~t san h6 se keo theo S'\' BUY

giim cUBlnhi~u lo~H h~it san. .

-Da.umo ngoait('b::; d~ng Him chef nbj~u lo~i biH san con lam mal m6i uUClng song vi XU3l du6J sinh V~'I di 'CU D"en nhfing vilng khac din den U.:m suy giam ,sin lUiQ'n,g eua ]lgh~ lea,

IQua trln.h 'p1l.~1.C hal cdc ,h~: sirth thai biln :sau

''''h- ,. b·'·... .r' .,:;:' d ,~~ ,?

Ifi. .... ] 'J 0 lliuem .·.·au mo.~

.'

Sau kill bi '~h3itrieu. den~J!~ quat[lnhph~c hoi b~ s,inh thai 'bien c6the cru3!fa lam 3 siai· do~:

- Gi.ai dO@Jl:mb .r;gug ban d,an:: qua tllnh ,0 nme.m. i:J be ffi(it cuog: Oh11 fJ ,d'Q s.ilu :IceD dal lham g,jp dot 't.hm gia.n eua, ~s, Iran. diu fa bi6n va gay ty l~ t.u vong cao c~c loili shut \'~t hi.en,

45

BaiCh khoa Thuy san

",. Giaidoan 6n dinn: taikhu 'VIJ'C b~, 0 nhi~m, dt:lumo" flllO:C' bien, cdc trli:m dc:h~ v,a. sinhv~t bi~n~tuy tbuQ,c v.a.o viec cdc sinh canb din da:n '~ra' l~i 51100 dinhma giai doan nay 1(;:6 tll~ keo d,'ai tll: vIii tbang den tren 1 nam,

- Giai djn~tai l~tpt~p doan va tai~o qu&n xi sinh V~l bi~n:' day Hii giai do~n khOi pbyc s'J th~gt l~p l~i eua b~'sinh 1th:n ch.rQ'c da,M dab bOi cac thbi kSt kh.llic nhau v,a ,g,l ai do,n nayc:6 th& keo dB-I ntlleu nam dt!o tren :mQt th.~pt)r iJ cac vi aoon d,(j.

Khnan;g thai gian tu 6 ,~, .., nam c6 (be du d:~ xmi bEt diu v~t c~a tharn hoa ,0 ,nhi~m d~u rna fJ rnoi truong bH!n va da.>:i dUfJtlg, wog 6.0 d~6i~ nhung c:ung 06 nm; do nhung '06f c!nhnha"t

d~b~ [hOi b~n co tb~ keo daitren 10 nam ,0 cdc vungnhist dai~qualllnh. khel phuc h~ sinh th~1i bj:@':n co tbe.Kay ra trong lboi gian ngan boo.

Tuy thuoc vao dieu :ki~n moi trumgt thb'r [j,et b tilng, 'vUngl lac h~il ella ditu v,a cae san pha,m. dju d6iv,6i m.Oi tNang Ia.ldl,ac: nhau,

Anh huoog gay d¢,c cua dihltrong moi truoog chiutac dQng C]],Q 'll1¢t $6 yeu [0 chfnh sau:

- Loai dt'iu va cae dQc tfnh lien quan c,im: cac hop pha]] hydrocacbon,

- Khoi lUQng dtlu~

- H~u qua c-Ilasl$ t6n. t{li cac pb€ phA>m dliu

dum c~c ,di~ukie:nm6i truang.,.

~£)ieu kien ella. diu nhu s~ Ioang vel, B\I b~y hditrorn.g thien nhi,en va nhi~t dQ efta thCti tiel.

.... Loai m6i truemg ICO .anh huc,ng den tfuh dOc nhu dieu kien then tLel vakhi hau,suh.ie.n

I! I~ 'i L! of;

di~n ella nhirng 6nhi,~m khac,

,_ Kha nang nhaycam ella sinhvat trong JJ.~ inhth n bi ~ 00'::1'·· di.'

51 .. · ... '. t .: ,a.l .: ~ 0 .. ', . tern ".- au ..

SlJ' C.6 d1u nan thuemg xiy ra trong cae b~t ""'-\0- 0' .,11.. "'·m······· ,..:I~I ... t,. ([iI" tin, il, ... ,. 'U.A1I'!io ,c'h, ,m1vfi:o' """'e<b;~ A'n IJI~._ ... '01 ILtW· ~-,;. UU'11 .. L11.u, _' ~~,~ ,~.llj"il ' , 'tiL,.! ~ ,", ~:11 _" _ ,~~,' 'I

tang: tril d:[ii mo' va. cae; san pharo cua :chUng thl1Cm,g ,g~y ra cae h~u q ni. nghiem lfQIlg, nh«t ~a a troug song"vlrth h~cvtmg V'{:fl ba'. Khi co S1!j' 06 datl tr'ani ean.tt~n hinh cac.buac sall.:

Th- 'b'"

- onga:ct

.~ Cae boar dang·' cu tb~::

.' ~. ' ~

46

+ Cifu ngum bi nan moat khbivling mguy hi~m.

-+ Tim moi each Hginkho,ng ehe diu ttl: nguon 6.nhitm lebay ramoi [I1lOn.,g: ..

+ Trang tfltdmgbqp tai nan d:am va taa ho~c "vO'kho chtta can nbanh. chong lim each. san dAJJ, v..a. ceil gi(i' t~il noi antosn,

'n· "'h' '. . L.:i", .l.. d "11 ....

+ , .1m cacn ng:anlU]long C,nQ ... ~:a.UJlan [arnot

lnl1i1ng bang each dungpbao ngdtn diu chnyen d~IJIlg bo~c d.oog tre, nRa ,~t thinbpbao .Dlan vanhanh chong ti5chtic thugom,tltbam. hilt den VOl tho congo

+ 'Tmoog: hQP dan nan :ngoai khoi X3 DO co th~ dung ciha:t pha:ntan (l~u (duQc s~ d6'1lg y c~l1a cac CO' q uan ,chuc nang co th'~ quyen).

T· , '"'if A ..... ' kh .... , .. ,·d-··:.,.··· 'g'" ,/,,"-11- d. phan tan'. trong

uy~~, uOI .. DII,g .. UD, .... i:t,!l_llL ,.__ . l.!.L.

song, vung cua song V,a, vUng venbi~n.,

+:K.hi dan tran vao Da ,gay' 0 'Ilhijm ttm moi bi~n phip v,a pbudng ti~n tbu ,gom dau, Hun :S'3.£b ba bi.t!n. C~n d~u thu gom cinduQ'c CD' quan ehuyen mon huang din xu 19"

~. Cie bi¢o.pb.a.p phong ngu1l: Cac bi>~n phap pbong ngira. Ii co bin va can thi~t., an.

~.~ .\1 d ,'U' c r."'- 1:",""7 ·.h-'" ia· •. eh ··.Qh- ~.~~cF. ~.1i'Pi ·tmr' •.. 0: ,C,iiuSlIc

xa.J . . ..• ng, ",31C, .. J:::: .. U • . .... tr .. 'UU:iUb U<iLlI - ',~__,

cO d~1!l tdm. hang nam,

'10 .. 3. {) nhi~lJlkim ]'(uJj n~Bg:

Thea quy uO'c, khi DaO ty trQn.g kim 10"i 'V :> 5' ~/n13 th. duO'c soi 1ft kim Ioai nlng,.- .'

I~' ,01- '.. b", tii,t; '_

ae kim. lo~i co. nang :nutJt: Dam rrong dai, .r9'ng lit: co,·ich den giy kh6 ehiu cho ten dQe :~i gay nguy hlem.

Ca:c kim lo~i n~n:g nhu: Hg, Cd, PiJ, As, Sb, Crj, Cu, Zn, Mn.,V' .. v. co. trong nllfic "'1m. ~n.Qng d¢ eao d~u lam eho QUae bi 0 nhitm .. Kim loai nJng. .thong tham ,I:iallo~ fttham gia "tao qua trlnhsinh hca V,a, thuemgtic:b lillY Iai lrong co rh@ s"inh v:~t!, VI v*y chUng la, CllC chill dQC h'.t1 doi vm sinh Vfil..,

Kim lQ~in~n.g 1c·6m~.ttt()ngmOi twang nudetu nhi~u ngtl:onnJul' nUDe thai cQng ngh.i~p v,a siub ho~t~ tu gia!o th.ong~'Y'tE, n.ong nghi~p~khai th'c .khoang Sa11 .•. 'M9t so nguy,!n 1.6 [JJhu:,Hg~ Cd" A:s :rat dQc djo1. 'Ym tbuy sinh

V'~t k~ ca a n6ng ,dQ tha:p. Trong Tieu Icbu&n chat llIQilg:mOi hUang nu6'e~ ham luQItg cac :o~nyen t6'kim loai :~,~L1g d:uQc quan tam himig ,diu. TCVN 5943 - 1995 quy djnh gidi han chc pbep trong .nuOc bien vU1l8 nuoi thuy san yen h.o. c'u:a Ho;;::: o.O~·Oc,I,r:'m·g!l·."., , Cd = 0' .. 00" ,'S'm- gil.,: A.·'·s":~

_.. ' . .0 "" J, ' , " '. . _, .,.... _

OJO Img/l, v, v.

De xac dinh ba,m.nu<;m,g kim loai ntn,g trong mroc eo the dung cae phuo:n,g,p,hap nhu phan tlch h6a hoc, phan tich 'luang ph~ h[{p thu

'I. ·S··) '. Ich I'"

nguyen 'llt lAA·~ .. ", pha.n he'. quang pho pbit xa

~lasm~_ g~ep noi cam ttog (lCP ~, EA~), phan tfch c\lc pho. v »,

M{Jt s6 ddn U;.u vt,Oo nhilin Hg va Cd trong . moi lruiln:g nuac:

ai!c loai muoi. 'Ibuy. ngln (Hg) k.bi nbiem vso mOitrubng n1tac bien, dfJi dunng lien chiu tac d¢ng c,ua b~ ~rl khuin co mft trong nude

._ h ~ dfi.· 'h'" rib tho 1 th ~ A; r"~

m~n c uyen .~ .01 t'!a, . ,. me _ y: .... nuy nga:o. \...4C

c~hat [huy ngan hOu. coma, di.en hmb lit methyl th .?'y ... n aA .... doe hon c~ cac m U-i(il ·llI..t'l'Y nga ... c·o~·

' .. u. ·eilll,I.· y ... , .. ,V'" •. _", "., .. UJ.! ,EI""_ u wJl, ., .

xu huang tfch 19 trong th~t~ xU'OQ,g cna, ca v,a d;i)I t6i ham blong dOc hai d6i \fieri ngutti,. Khi nguOi in pbainh'im,g. l'~ai cit bi nhiem'd¢cbmmethyl

th", . h' ~ d'A .... 4'" 'h ... '1 " -';" . ,,: u.y ngan t C .1 at '. oc nay tl~!: .i.J'Q:ng ~n trong to

ch.ile than kinh Him bieh d6i chec nang ell,a, 0'6 .gay benh Minamata (do ngubiNh~t d,~-t ten).

cho con n,gum. ,0 ,giai doan ml1i nt1;:dgng v~t !huy sinh, ~nh,'Y ,cam. VOl Hg han 80 v{ti,giai doan 'tmang thanh. Gii IIi .LCso d 96, gio' eua. Hg doi vOi c.a :nuQc ngQt Ul.33 ~ 400 ,~gI11t

Trcng cac Ioai ,ea bi~n.t co mQtxu ~tr6'n,g thuemg nhung con ca to han va gia ban lith tl;l Hg lLlang d6i nhieu hon,

CS mot s6tbu.ywc Duacn:gQt,ngum ta cling nh~n th~y c6 hi~n t\(qng () nJliem Hgo ci luang [1;£", S~ tfeh .. luy sinh hoc leua Hg b ca trongmot s6 b6 ,se lang lieD :nell hd d6 c·o linn axir, blfi Ie di6u. kien nay se thien v~ hu6ng t30 ne:n methyl thuy ngan, 0 nhiin:g ho co ti_nh axit it: ban, si:t I1Imh thanh dimethyl th.u.y ngan uu tfue han, nhung chat .nay it, co kha nang tfch t,~ sinh hoc vi no co th~ bay hoi. 'Vao khi q uy,fn duui d~g :nhllng nguY',e:n ~6 Hgmg~,mnlIOc.·

Cd co d(>c tinh cao vai dOng 'V~t 'thuy Sinh" Loai d'Qng v~tphu du Daphnia magna ,r,at nhay cam vim Cd, Gia, ti; LCso co,a Cdvoi Ioai nay 18 Ot03mg/1.. Gicloiii ca de ha"p th~ va tfch luy Cd

trong co 'Ute., .

10..4. 10 ,nhi~m thu,uc baov~ thl;fl:' '\~l:U

Thuoc baa y,~ thuc v~t Hi nhlln,g chat d'QC co. ng.u6n .goc tu nhien bo~,c 't'Ong hcipl boa hoc, dugc: dung de phoag 'tru' cac sinh v~t co hai tho. ,cay tn1ni va nong - Sail, cluing co c:ac ten 8Qi khac nhau nhu thuoc tilt benh~ thu6c tru sflu, thuoc tnt co,, v», TIO.ng 'q[ui trlnh su d9ng cbi co, .mot p.hin thuec tac dung tnrc tiep d~n, con bUng ,. 'Va sau hai,con laf r-Oi v~o nUde va da:t gay 0 nhiem" Thu6c ,sf. "Ian truyen va tfch lily trong moi tru;ang dal" n.uuc va cac san phdm, nong nghiep, thUy san, tham nhap vao co the nguaJ. va d¢ng v~l thea chu6i thtk· an.

H.i~n na.yco. hon 1.000 hf1P chiC' dt[QC ,ch~ tao va .sir dl;Dg lam rhUDe' bao v~ thl/C'v~t CAe loai 'thOng: 'tbuOltg nhat la,:thuOc bir sAu (insecticides), thIJOC~ di¢t d), (herbicides) va thuOc di~[ nim (fungicides). Bing 1 trlnh bay cae nhomthucc trlr sau va di~t; co chU. yeu hien nay.

NgLr,on: Ross, 1993

Nh'im.g loai thu6'c ,d~c hieu

1. TIlu6cw s!u (insecticides):

.. Clo hiJU cd' (Organochlor:ineu). _, Lanhihl co (Ofg:anopbosph~~) - Qe~atnat (Cu-bamatles,)

I 2. 'Th;u!oc trlr cb (Herbicides):

_ Phenoxiaxedc (Pbe.ll0xyaceti,c ,acids) - Tolhuidin cnJlbuidine:s)

- Triazin (Triazines)

.;. PIle-o.yl LIre (Ph,enylu.rea:s,) - Bipyrjdyl (BipY[id:yls)

I ,_, G!yx_in (Ol.yells)

... DDT: Aldrin. Heptachlor -P,arathion .~tali3ithl(Jn

- CacbaryJ;,. Ca'cbo.fuf:~_' " __ ~~_~~ __ I

_ 2!.4~ D, '2,4 -5 m T _ Triflu.ral in

- Atrazin. Simatrin

- Fenuro'n

~ Diqua.t:.P:ara.q,u at - Gly'phos,a~

47

Vi~c ~lJlJ d\lng b6a ch~1 bin v~£lu.rc v,3t. trong :nOng nghl~,p di lam. [liysmb nhi~u vl"n de v6. mei trll'oog. Di~n the thvc te cll'a 'thu6c ban v~ thqt.V~l duqrcminb hQa l:rtl~ng hinh 1.:

PhullI. thuoc

L~gdQng: k~;mg - ....... Khong khill~~~~-- ........

CAy .&u h'}i

trd.ng ~ .......... ., cln di¢1

Dl6n b].~h tl111'(; te

_-'_-_ - Ii

~

:HUD'C Dae bi~1 ngQl ~ ~__._~

L

! NI!(k nglim D,~i duoog. an hd,

NUd' v~Y'!1 dinh bUling ciia vi~c SLr d\lug thucc tru san la di~t hai, .nhtrng di!n bien th\lc tE C U8! no ~~d anh hcrerng dQc h~i len dSft" nu6'e, kh6ng khi, bien 'Va, d:~i dumg. eac: san pha.m

hi . h " '> A -" "I~''''''~

no:ng ng~~l:~P" rnuy san, o:Q,ngvc)'t V,a SUit Nioe

eua ~cori ng· .. ,tr,m. Die bitt du luang.' rCua. nhIDlg:.'1 chat 'c.o tfrm doc' can 'nhur Chiordane,~ DDT. Picloram va Zimazine co lh~ ttin tai ra't lau

.1 ... L m .. ' . ... . . ._ '. 1_ ! '_ ~ '.~."' ..

trong m6itwang,. 'H'uili. 2 bi~u thl dlllugng thuoc Urn sau~trir co theo thdigian.

~p.tar::ll#J. ~ij'). I~~~_....I

D i9.;!,no!'l' pi iWftfli,WUIUJ' P' ~--~--~--~--~--~

"

Pl-QJvrati'i: 1==:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::=:::::===:===::::1 Simazdii~ I=============:=:J.

.M.r:!'!ztJl,(l: I======~

fi'9.ilfJZllI)['Jo 1=========::::1

Tf.itJl;1rg1/~ I=====::::::J

2.4: :5 •. T 1==:=::1 a.rD I=J

,8.t'lf,t)@ IJI

~~~~~~--~~~~-,--

,0 .2 4 8 ,B 1,0 '12 14· 1$ 18

i7l~"

48

Du ,lrrvng tH'U{fC :bdo. v" lh"cv~t:

Du 11l'gD.grhuOC· bao v~, th¥cv,~l ,la ubfing· chat d~c U~U Ion luu trong dart 'V.a t.rong luong th:\!t va thg'c.pbim!. trong .s'in ph~m n6ug nghi~p v,a treng tll(n;:; an v,t :n:uO]: do s.a dung thuoc ga.y nen, Nhtmg ,cbat d'~c: thu n.i.yba.o gOm d~ng hqp char ban da.u, ca~ din xilJ.at d,~c hieu, san ph&,m. phan giii,. cbu.yen noa tru.ng gian, cae .sin pbim.ph.anUng~ia. cae cbit phy gia c6y nghIa. vem~t dQc i,Y . DayEFI 'Oiling hqp chait doc,

• ~l

DU'll1qng tULlOC bio v~ thl,fc v~t t1U'gc Unb bang !lg bgp chat d:Q'c trong Ikg DOng san ho~c bang mg/kgnong san.

M'uc du lUf!ng u!li da (Maximum residue

r .. "M"RL' ) 'l'~ 1 . ~-

nmn , ·:a dIQ11g hop chi. d(lc c an nbttt

duQ'c phep t6n hru trona; . nong sanma lLbong giy inh h.uang ,Cllen C'O: th~ ngubi vii v~t nu:o-i khi s~ dung nong !i,indo lamthue in. .

Mac du luQ'Ilg, toi da cu.a m:6i loa.i Ehu,oc trong tCm,g s.an - pham c:a.ytrdn,g· va ~~[ flUOri thuOng dlIQ'C quy d.tnb kba·e nhau ,(j mol :n.ude cin cu vao d,c di~m sinh 19". ,sinh thai va :ru:n{t II coo ell! 'Va!()c d~c di:~m, diM du.ong 'CU,i n,gum dan nl.tOc do.

Ngow mi~t tlch C\IC, Jn~ '0 n:hilem thu&: bio v,~, thl1c v~t co the gayra nh,Ung h~u qlJ.i nghiem IrQngcho moi tluemg. Thee eac k€t qua. Il.ghi.en elm, co! Uti b"e-rl 50% s6 thu6c phun cho cay bang bi rC1i xuong dal_ Thune ton t~i trong dat dtbl dan dU'QCphan giii qua heat dQng sinh hQc ella, oft va quatae dQng ella, c.te Y'eu~o IS! boa. Thy 11hLe!ntoc dQ phan giii :eGa, thu,oc 'ch,m neu tbu6c ton t~i cr cUit vd:i IUQIl,g 1(10., nhit 130. dI(t co. cae b~t d(lng sinh. h9iC yt!ll~ do d'o khi thtlr5e b~. rllIa tr6i seg.ay onhiem ngulSrl nuoe,.,

Ngu:onglfr: 0 l1:1dl:m Illude bdaF~th¥t:r~~'

Nu,oc. co th~ bi '0 nhi:emthuoc:bao 'Ie thuc

'! ., I.'

v~€t[[fong'" ciii.c tnim-ra hrt'n sau:

~ < ~ ~l"'"

·~·Ddth1J6c bin 'v~ th.l;lc v~t thua sau khi &0:

dung .

'.

- DO nude raa d¥ng Cl;I chti'a thu6c bio v~ .th,c v~txu6n.g b6~ ao,

- Clyuung. ngay canhmep h6!1' ao, song su6i dugcpbun 'thu,6c bao VI~ thuc v,t

- S~· chay, ron. hoac qua trlnb x.Cii men, rua trei dA't: ,da: b~ !o nbi.e.m thu6cban v~thl,fC v,~t.

- Thuoe bio v~uhyc v~t lin trong nUl'c1C mua 0 ca.e vimg c6kb.ong khf 'bi 6 nhiem thu~6c bao v,ie thuc v3:t

. iii - ""! ~

,,...,D,ong tbuoc bao v~ thijc v*t. d!Sg,iet ea 0

~"'h'!'

cac u uy vy:c.

T:ck hl;Ji c,ua tJulac bdo 'v, thllcv~t:

~ IGay hai cho d¢ng v~t eo Ichr trong cae loai con trimg, s6 muqng cOn tfilng gay h~i chl chi !f:m" 1 %. con lad 99% cOn 'l:f1),O(7.··· .. · la cin thiet

.. ,v ,. ,., '" 0

trong quan h~ hOuteh, khengchi cO feb l¢ . cho con .ng'11'Ol rna een khong th~ta,eh rOO du:qc nang sinh, quy~n. Thnoe: trlr sau goch.6a hoc kh6ng ehi t'i,r!:·u d.i~t con UilUg co hai :ma con lieu diet c:a con lrilng co leb.

, .. - - !,

, .. T~etJ dietcac loai thien dt!cn"lam m~t can ~g gum tMt: thu5c bao v!?tbvc v~t .bi nht Iriii Ku6ngcac tbiJy VIle tim hal 'ca,c· .bJi~H dQng v~t

lhuysinh nhu ech" .Mai,. faD UU'C1cma rihOn,g loai nay lathien die h c~:a sau ftu~i. Nhu v,y se lam t,ang 'them 86 hlQ'Ilg sau 11$1 vlda. di,t mailt thien di,cb eua. chong.

,_ TileJU di~[ cac toai ibn y sinmhu tom~ ca, cae loai d.Qng, v~t pbil du, .dt?ng v~u day .... ,; lam suy giAmfl,guOn 'tbm.c an IC~l,a chung kong Ihuy V\lC.

- (7Ay :nhiem dQc lao dai d.oi "Oi, d:a'l va. m.roc lien quan ,d.~o thoi gianp.nan huy CU'.I timg lOr~i :tbu6'c.

.•. Stir dung an roan, co hi~u qua. thu6c: bao

v~ th\fc va.:£:

+ Dung: dUng thuec.

+ Dung dung cachpha ·tbuoc .. "*" Dung dung lieu h.rqng ..

+- Dung dung Inc .

10,.5,. Ticb :Joy sinh bqt:, (BioaccumulaUon) va ti.ch [ur gia. tln.,g, (B,iomagni6caUon) ch.al ·gay doc

..

Cae boa c:oa:"t' dOc tac' dQng d:en co the. sinh v:a.l thea :2, kh~u:

Ii - - -

- 'GAy dQctuc thoi (Acute. toxicity) cJQr tb~ din den em c'her &.3U m¢t thai gian n,gan .. a,~c chis6 LD hoij.c LC lit chi 86 d~Q'c xac dtnb III li.E.u g:ay cb!t Cae; cht£gay d(lc tuc thai thuang ell ham luorn'l? cao han nhieu so voichu ng

~I ,e;.

'thuOn,g cd trong t~ nhien,

.. Giy d.Qc Ii~m. lang (Chronic Iox:ycity) ]3. khi nang sob huang Iiu da.i ,d:eh co tbe sinh V,~!~ 'nac dQng dell cae chu tdrih sinh hoa, pluU trian" s,inhtnrang,.!, v». eua ,ca. th!.. Lj!u g1i:y ann, !nrC1ng hem tanlg thU'angkh6ng 1&1, th~m chi chi canm~Qi ham lU'Q'D'gnbo co san trong t~ nhien va 00 sa dien ra gay d¢c ti~m taug la k.ha nang tfch tl@ cac chat g:~y ct(>c cuami,>l s6 co tht sinh v~u ..

l'O~5,.J . Tich liil Stin}, ,ht;M!

La kIl·a nang tlcb lily mgt SilO' h6a ,chat .nhai dinh treng calb~.,

AI 0." "']7

Con di~p 1i ]oai hai manb vo a bitSn co ,kha Rang tfch .luymq:t sokbn Joainhtr .kern, ,dClU,g" cadmi va erom jrong d6 ham ]u<;mg cadrnl trong eo 'lb~ di¢:p cao han tm 2,3 trieu Urn so vOl trong nuac bi~n.

s~ 0 lihlc!m mot tnrong khong chi aM

1l.." dK ".'" "h"' h 'h~" .~, A"~ d-'

mrong uen cftu true ran l p.-,ao1m'llC; U:Qa

d~n.g,-m~l d:Q va sinhthoi cae nhom thuy sinh v,lm,a, con ga.y ta,c d:Qu,g tieu cilF!c tiem tang khac lilt bien. dOi ch((t hr~g, cua nhllng ca. the tren co soden [\I cac clult gay d¢c: nhu:m¢t s6 kim loai nijng"j, cac hoa chit baa v,~ tb~c:V~l rrong cac COT quan flQi t~ngeua m¢t s61.oo:i >c:::t lhfin mem, giap xac

'Thong 'thll'oug"m¢,t s6' cac Ichat gAy ,rj¢(:

- ' , , . .

nhu kim 10,,,1 n~ngt, cac boat ch1i,~,bao v~ thuc

v~t co ham luqn,gnfm thap trong mol t.ruOng nude chua do d~ gay CI1U!t cho cac nhom sinh V~l. Tuynhien, m.qt 36 lo~ithuy sinh. trong quatrlnh dinh duong, "blip ph~ ,CIa thunap va tich tu theo thtrigian nhfmg thanh phaln h6a hoc k!~ tren, S~ tfch Illy cac !ch~t gj,y d'9C nhu v.~y denmQt: gi6i han nao etay v,~ ham luong ho~c thoi gian thl ba~ d!au bieu hien anh hubng den CO' the sinh V~l. 'Kba nang Uch luy sinh hoc din toi hi~n tl1Qn8 gia hing. c.ac chal {If a'! do,e.

,0 ,]' I.

1().52 .. Tlcb Ill:Y du d~c sin.l1 w4t :ngbe' cd

Su p. ia tiuP-nhanh ham lucllu.·.·1!: cac chat

+ ,0 ,0 ......

d¢c ur n.ong d,Q S'lr d~tng nho. d:e'n ham lllQll,g

cao viI rat can ctrrgc tlch Illy trong chu6i tlurc ,an cac co th~ song dugcg'9i la ~~lfch lu:y du d¢c sinh 'v~t~ ho,c ~'kJ~,u)'ech dr.l~· sinh hfJC:~' (Biomagnification).

Khnyech d~i sinh h9C -duQ'chi6u don glaD Hi tfch 1111:? cae chat ,dQc v,mh.am. IUQngcao trong cO'lh6 sinh v~t ,a ,c,ac b~~c dinh duang eao ban .. Vi dy nch lily du o¢c sinh ,,*t trong chuoi thllc an:

Thl]C v~t pbil, du 4 Ca: in lao ~ Chim nUde an ca.

5.0

II., THE!O .DCU Mlu TRUc)NGN'GH~ CA 11 . .1 ~ C'h.a'~uqml;nmc

'Cl1at 111Q'llg nu6c 'b! nhlen du'1C dinh gii qua: ~I:)ac dLl!mc'c yeu~6 va:i: 19 ~dO due, cb[l. r~n, :ph6'ng xa, ma~~ rlhi~t ,dQi~ n6~g "0:9' CatC ch~t '\10 CO\ n6n,g: dt) cae ,cb~t hUll co va. vi sinh. v~t tron g nguon n1iO:c,.

_, Thanh. phM v,~ tIlng thai quan th~ eiia tbily sinhvar trong nuOc.

Do viec xac dinh ca,c thanbpbin boo -,19 duQC dI\lt· h~~n tin c~.y, 60. d~nb vm cI,O ehfnh .xac ca.o nencac tt; ,entre mei trtta:ng qu6c te'v,a. cae q~H5c:gia deu. s'U' d~n,g ,care thOns: so ly' ~ 11.63. d€ quy d:inh.cb,a"lltD:Qng nuCYc ..

Thantt.- han. thUy sinh do it bien d6i tue nb.Oi. khi cl lUQIljg: nUde thay ddi va thttlm.g:c6 sai 8,616:0, giua cae co quan quan tric, phuung phap quan trac~ nen chua co ti,~u. chuan quy tlinhm,a thircng d1!Iqc xem x:et uti sung!, d~c biet ~a, cae thilY sinh vat nhaycam voi su thay

d&i ,challU'qng' :ouac (sinh v,tcmth4.), .

aie y,eu to' ,anb hitting den cbat: 111Qng nuOc

~il'l" ... ·'I.·::e·~n· ~,~, .11LW..lE· .. ,,!!!

Ngu6n ,g6c chU.y;~u. gay 6 nhiem mroe cac kenh rach, song, ho,~ bien [[;l:

- N 116't thaitir khu dan e u, b~nb vi!~n, e o quan, tnrong b>Qc (gQI chung Hi DllO'ctbii sinh hoat),

,_ ,Nu6c thii Ur co' g,(jr s,an xu·(t cOngnghL~p va. d!chv~ (goi chung La nu&c(h:ii c6ng nghiep),

- Niroe chity 'tdln do rmsa, 111" ]lJt 'to: vi'tn.g n.ang nghiep, cong ngb.i~p, kbu dan cut dUa, vao ngu6n nllOc.

,_ N1JOC mtra euontbeo cac ta,c:nh:an 0- nhiem tmng khong khf CItra vao ng,u6n :nu6t.

" Chfil 'thai r~n chUa. hoa ch.(t, dau rna, vi trung tv cdc ngudn sinh hoar va cOng nghiep,

Viec kiSm scat, kh6ng che va.quin :ly 10 nhiem ngudn nude o6i v,m 'C.;iie mguOn. di~m Ul! twang ,dtii dian, gian ... Trongkhi 11.1'0 Iclui v6i c~c

~' l .. ~ ... ,·' d' 'I _,.L,

nguO!il A.UOng ·.~;leinfu.iJ1t nudt mU'acha'y trIan" Ii

lut, 'VJ.V.;, 'ViJ~kiem soat, khong ch6 va quan 19 la, b!l sO'ckh6 ,khan do khong th,e x,ac d:inh chfnh X3:C ngu.6n goc.? vi trf, quym:o Ian. truy~u c:ic tac nhan Q nbiem,. Vi v4.y ,m,c)t b, thOing Q_1Ua.n. tr,lc c·hit lUQRg nllcit vm m~g hrm cae t~m c5 dtnh ,do ,d~c" tho :miu, phan tfch va xu 1; 56 U~u c;&"n IOllqc xay d1Jng: ehornei qu6c gift,

:m,bikhu vire h03JC 'loan cau, _.

~ 'Ii .

o quy m,O toAn citu" 4 co quan tbUQC Lien hiep quoc (UNEP~WHO,UNESCO,WlvIO) fli xily' d\ffi.g heth6ng qu.an tri\c m,Oi trucmg toan d!u (GEMS) vm 3 d:6~ tut,mi giai'm sit ch'u y~u 18.: UllOct kheng Iduv8 thycprutm.

a Vi~t Nam ltu nam 1995,BQKhoa, hoc COng ngh¢ va M:ol 'tru'oog d.a thiet l~p h~ thon,g quan trae m,oi nUblligquocgia; trong dO. quan tr,ac chlit IUQ'ng nlIDe lit m,Qt· trong eac n.QI dung uu tien, MQt s6 bC)~ tinh thanh dang xay duug

11 .. 2.,Tl~u chuiIn chailuQ1lg: :Ollac

TieucbuinGba"t lUQDg :nuct ch.rQ'C: quy d~Flh d\ia vao muc lieu s;u dyn,g; nuae llong Icln d9 tilnbkhiet .(:.301 ve m,t h.6a Iy ~ sinh hoe; mrec thuyf.~ca:n.da[Q baa dq m~n va ffi'gt: s6 nguyen to du;ui tn.U,c co h.~i cho ely [tOng,; nucre dun,g cho nuOi 'tr6ng 'tblfY .sin cAn nuUt; sach nbuna,: lai c6 do min p. hil hon

C '!!. iii _. ¥-r'

Tieu cbuAn chll: lU.Qllg nUde la :mm: dQ !chua eho pbep C3,C; chit nhiem b~ trong qguon m.rCYc t non.a ,do ."i,ai han chophep cdc ,chait dec

o .. p ~ ,Ii""'.. ...

h'.ll va tI~g thai v~ sinh chong .. Moi doi IuJQllg

St1 d~n,g H1!OC co yeu clu dinh Iu'Qn,g ell th~ Vi~ gi6ih~R eho phe:p va v¢ sinh chung, rieng, Bang n phln Ioaingudn nlIOc. theo mQit s',Q chl lieu, 19 h6:a eo ban, eua :moil tnrang' n uac ::.

BOD (mg/l)

0,12.

Dung tl'Qng

o :nhiim

<,'~,' >1.t'N,' ~''1 ~ .. 1 \J

Chi.s6 coU

o ~ 100

lOO~l.OOO,

fJ1S

,;

Mbi

O~13

o

4

1-'2

3

>}O

B¢pH

0·1.0

.,

4-1CI:

;5 .. 9,5

,8 -6

M,au (d¢)

ao

{l08

• <

<500

:;;i2000

.sOO-lOOO

007

- 'I "_

aoo

Clore a" frog/I)

<2.50

Bing :2 trlnh baygui 111, .'. ". ,h~ cho phep Vie ndng .dQI cac chat Onhiem trong vtlng nltoc 'ogQt nDoi tauy san. Bing 3 ltrlnh bay gia tri gidi

200-350

.:>700(1

500~ 700 100-10.00

h~ cbophep ve :nang dO cac chat 0 nbi~m trong I1U& bitnvU11rg nUlai, thuy San 'len bu theo Thong 111 So Olj'lOOO{IT .. ErrS ena. B¢ Thuy san.

51

B ... , iIioo. 'b' .... ' 'Th "',ct,

_ ,aC~;11 ,r.:'lr~loa , __ uvscn

Bing 1. Gla t:rjgild h~,n eho ,he, veno"nl: d(lo dechilt o'o.dim trio.ng:vung nUGe ngQ<lnuuii thoy sin

(TI10ng Uf 86 Ol/2;OOO/1]:~BTSngay 28 thling 4 nim 2000 'Cilia ,~ Thor san)

IT

Gil ui l1im han

'!- c ~

1

pH

2

BOD (2OPC)

COD

OX), hoa tan

>,3

6

8-0

12

As

,

8 I Magie

50

Cd

10 Chi.

1] 1 Crom M)

0.05

12 Crom. (III)

I

I'

I, 13 DOng

I

1.0

14 K~m

Zn

15 Mangan,

0.1

16 N:(k,en

1,0

17 Sit,

Fe

18 1 Th' 'iDle, ,-, riI,., " A,,:,

__ yg,GU

19 Amenia« (trnh fueoN)

2.0 1 Nitrit (1mb thea N)

21 Florua

F

2'2 I' Su~fl!la hydro

23 Xisnua

26

m,jj d.4u rna

27

Chit tdy m,a

28

ColiformIYfPNI100ml

5:,000

29

30.

DDT

31

OJ

32

52

Bing 3~ ,u:ia. tr~lZi6i I~',DJ ,cbop,hepv'e, DDDg dt) cac' clllt onb1!cm trong: nlJloc bien.

VllltG nuoi t.bUy san, ven bOt

(ThOng nr sO' O1l2000m,-;BTS nsily 28 thang 4n:am 2000 c:ua DO' Th:uy .d.n)

TI'

1

.Asen

6 5·' 0' ,0;::

t!i,"'.' ..... O~IJ

2

As

~ . .5

<~o

50

5

(5

Coliform

NH.3

0,50

7

Cadimi

Cd

(1005

~, -

Pb

o.os

Crem (VI)

10

I

I Crem (m]

H

0.01

Cu.

13

F

14

0.01

15

M,angan

16

Fe

0,:10

17

18

19

20

21

22

1.0

23

1.000

Th' - ~. u:y van,

11~3 .. , Thee dii moi trUtrnl:n:g:h,e co

Vi9C thea doi mOitnfoog; n:ghe ca chit ytu la, thea ·d.oli., da.nhgjac'hlthrQrig nuo:c trong crue thliy WIC .not ala va 0 bitn Iien quan den n,gb~ c,i. Vi~c thea diji nay efuJ, phai duqc tb9c h1~n thong qu~ 3 :thi:ph, phau co' bant~o nenmOi

tntang fiUO'c:

'. Th.Mb phhI.thQy 19" thuy hoa. - Tharib ph'" thilY sinh.

Tuy nhien khong' 'fh~ lien haoh do d,~c. dugc; tal ca cae tbong :so Ic.uamOitrucmgma phai l¥a CbQIl cac thong, sf) d~c tnmg da.ng

53

dUQ'c cong nh~n 'Va S,lJ' dung Irong 'nude 'Va, tren tbtgk1i,.

1'1.3.1'" Thea duf Ih:uy van

Cac thOng, so can theo d5i bao g6m: dong chay (m/s), muc nUlac (m), lou IUQug (m:l/s).

11.3.2. Thea dol duly Ij .. ,hOtl hp-c

Qie thong, so co ban M,al ,can theo d6i baa

g,.=I:-m·

_ V. I II!

- Cac thong sO ~d:ng, qu.at: nhiet d¢ ('toe), d(>trong (m) d9 due (NTU" FTU)", ,pH,; bam hXQ'ng oxy hoa tan, dQ' rnuoi (8 roo)~ c)ha:t ran 10' lUn,g~ dlat [,M, hoa tan, dQ cimg, cblorofil] a.

- cae chi"t dinh duOng:NH/. N02,-i' N03-'~ P04J.-', SiD].

- Qi,c chat, hihl c,a:: COD, BOD,. cae ion

('N""" KH M" 2+ 0), 'C'rN'~

,- a 7' ' , , .... ",' g .... , ,.', .: 'I 'V.v.

_, ca,c kim loai nang':: Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As,

I I. . -

Hg.v.v.

_ Cac cbat buu co ben viin,g: dau rna, phenol, hoa ch~t bac v~ 'tbl;lc v~t

11.3.3. ,TheQ dOt finhv~

'De the 0 d.oi; ,danb ghl mut; d(; ('J,nhiem HIlOc, ngoaicac thong, sO' thuy my' - thuy hoa can Iq.· •. uan tr:B,C cac sinh vatchi thi, sinh vat p. bu

. I.. t,

du Peacal coliform, tOng Coliform, cac sinh v~t

g,ay benh (Pathogen).

D~ daM gia tac dQng C'll,a 0. nhi6m den h¢ sinh thiiinlluc c~tbi'el, phai gUM trlc cac thong s6thuy sinh sau:

1'1.3.3.1. Sinh l/~t phIJ du: quan trfic eac sinh ;v~t DO kha nang chi thl o nhiem ngudn nuoe do:

- 0 nhiem chii hiiU co (gay can kiet oxy).

Ph 11 dUO'nghoa, .. ,

,_ 0 nhiem hoa chat d¢c (kim Ioai n~n,g, hoa. chat baa 'V~ thuc V,~l .. !)

_ 0 nhiem dan m.,B.

54

11.3.3 . .2 .. D(J.ng vr;it day kh6ng XKtlng s6n;g

DQ~g 'v3t day ,kboog XUO'l1"g' StOng do co nhi~u 'U'U diem, neu[-hub'n.g diugc su d~nglam sinh v\lt chlthj trong quan t;r,ic 0 nhi!m nuac, do.la:

- Tuong d6i phd bi~ trong cae thuy VIle, da d,:\ng ve loai, S~ phat 'trie:n eua ,chung d~c tnmg ella dieu kien thuy vin, cfu. t:ruc :ofn day 1/.30, chat I UQ'D,g lllloe.,

,_ Tuong d,oi co d,~, tai d:ay ca.c thuy ~c., chiu 811' thay d:di lien tuc cua chit luqn,g nUde, vii ch«- dt) thiiy van trong :n,gay.

Thiri gian phst lri~n kha Ian. -D~ thumdu va., dinh loai.

D,Qng v.$,t day.khOng xuong song (d,~c bi~t lA nhom dQng v3t d,dy ,thOng: xU'O'Dg song CO'

'-.G..... . - ", . _ '. ~ d' . . 'I" . chi hi· :_iL. h

]uil) IhU011,g dUQC su eung tam C,' t. smn hoc

d.e da'nh. gi.j 0 tlhi80m mei truC1n,g nuoe do cae nguyen nban:,

- () nhie.m heu co' vm 5\1' suygiam oxy hoa tan.

,A. ,.,_ . ,. ,. .• ,. ~

- a nhiern do cac chiU dinh dumt,g.

~, -

- 0 nhiem do kim loai na:no .. va. hoa cbat

,. Ii 10

'ball, . .it th - ,.q,;j;, ':0 VIj;; ',UC vat,

. • .' !Ii

0,'" _L: ~ , I·" I ' "':, - 'L , .' . '~, . ,'. . .... ~ 'J" - ·.iL .' ..

nmem do cac laic .ulln. nay se .' ,am may

d6i. quan xi, dQng V,.t d,iy., Cie 0 nhitm do kim loai n~ng, boa chat baove tlnrc v,t con duc;IC

P"h~t hi' f: d g, dana q. 'U'- v ,'I'~' ,-", d· inh t;:1:·· luu ,,~_.n ~I.-o . ~ng '.80 . 1'Y'C xac_~ .. 1.. un,_:

"., 'h'~' 11K" A~ . d~

cac i ,oa ,C .rd nay trong nong vat I; ay,

a~' - ~

nhie:u qucc gia, ehau Au, rd:d si6' guan

tri,c sinh hoc BMWP (Biological Monitoring Working Party) duoc su d\lng de ,danh gHi chat luang·. nude,.

. ,

D~: Iva chon calC thong soly- boa- sinh hoc dJlC tnmg theo d5i~ quan td.c v,a danh gia chil lugng mali 'lruimg nUGC ngb.!ca co tbe thee huang; din cua h~ thong Quan tfac M:oi trllang Tolin. cau (GEMS) do Chuong trinh MOi wang 'roan. cau ciia Lien hiep quec (UNEP)'I T6 cbOc Khi tuqng The gim (WMO') va 'To chucY 'Il Th~ gi6i (WHOI) thanh ~~p (Bing; 4}.

Ding]' 4. Ly'a CbQD ~ac thOng sod" 'q u.a,n.lrac chat hl9J]K nuac t~ olden (ldIOng cu.:ctrung eho 0 ,Dhi~m,I1HJn,Gn,ghi¢p)

Quan tric caban.

no"~' •. f-

utM. 1m: ".,

- --:!

bO'ih)i

Th• I"

___ UVrJ'l

,j <!

xx

X.I xx.

x

I Phospho/phosphat

Cha~.[3n 10' bIng xxx l'KXX I xxx xxx

- ._- -- - -- -;- - - -- ----+----~I-~~

~DO._ du,,_'c/, Do. tr_'on'.D -." -- _

_ t:I X" xx K.X xx

--

, DQ dan (BC) xx X >: x

1.'T6n.D".~-. ell!t rin ~m1 'X,',~' '''"'It''"", il

"---=:-=--""~"--~~ ~ -+-__.... ,1"1;,"''''''' :11

, I - -----1If--------'I

pH xxx xx x. 1 xx

~~~--~~~-~----I·~-~~-~--==---~---- -----~----~-----~---~I

OX), hoa tw_ fDO). xxx xxx x lit

DO .•. ~ccm,o,_,".' 'Ii" '" v

I:! A ,ri.n.

cae ,C:hrtl hll'n COl:

Tong cat'bon huulca

xx

--

xx

xxx

COD

-_.

BOD

-,

-I I

n 1

-- -'--:....__-I------.J------~---+_----~

xx

-]"

I ca~ ion:

Na*

M,~+ cr

I ._

xx

x

xx

[I

I SOl'F

~

fI-

x

Cic kim~oijli n~g AStin vAt selen

}[,

XJ{

xx

x

Dung mei hilu CrJ

:X

xx.

Feacal coUform

xzx xxx

--·-1---

xxx XX,X

x

x

xxx. x.xx

1.2. XirLY NUOC nUNG CUO NGBE: eli

Xu ly 8U'OC' dung ella nghie ca cbu yeu Il xir ly [lilaC cip eho nuoi trOJ1,g th:uy san vii xu m.Y ngu5,n mroc thai 'IN cac ahamay, xt nghiep che bien thiiy san v,a. til! cac ao dam nl1:0i~.r6.ng lhuy san .. tnrec khi cho dd vao cac thuy W;c tv nhien dS b.&.0 v~ nguonnuoc va mOi truOng.

Tnroe .. khi XU' 19 mrec can tie'o hanh eli~1ll tra, khao sat, xik:dinb d~c ditm eita ngudn )]U(1(: cap cho nuo~ trdng thuy sin1 nguaunu6c thai In eae ho~t dQng: ngh~ eel d~ chon cdc phmcrng an vOl nhftng quytrtnhco:ugn,ght Xl[ 19 thrch hop, dam bao tfnh hi~u qua vt yeu cxu ky "(hu~l ciingnhu veklnhle.

12.1.. Xu 1$'uuO'c cfipl cho nuo,. tr'ong thiiy s,an

Nubc- Qmp ehe nuei tro,ngnbuy san do..i hoi phiU (:·6 chat" lUQIlg phu bt!P, dap (rug vbi yeu c~u cua san XU;lt.. Nu:6c du,ng cho nuoi tr6ng tbu y san d.uQ'c ,kh.ait,b;~.c Ill' nL1'octh~cn nbien, baa ,gom. cac ng~6n Rube m~'[ l1o~,c nude ngam. ale nguen nu6'c nay [huang c6 chLia cac tap chat a dang bo.a tan, kh6ng. boa tan,.cQ nguen g6cvo co hoac llUu co" :N,go~hi ratrong n:u6c, nha~ Hl. nu6c :m~~ con 'chua. vi sinhvat nhu cac loai vi khufin,r sinh V~lt ph:u du vac.ac Ioai vi sinh v~t khac. Vi v~Y. khi khai 'lhlaq nude thien Bhi8.nd~ s'u dQng .cbo unoi lr6ng~hu,y sin thuong phai tien hanh j{Lr ~y mroc :m¢t each tboa dang.

:De chon cac bl¢n phap XLI ly rurae can can cu vao cac chi tieu, tlnh cha:t cjia ngu6n ntrue 'va yell Call ,C u.[h~ v~ chat ~uQng nlilXJ.C cap.

12.1'.1. 'T:inh chlit l1U6c j'ai'etl llhienra yeu "~fur dot rom chal; .lllttng l1u6'cc,ap

Trong Ity lbu~t cap ll.u,Q-c,. :ngubi. ta d.ti nh gi~ c.hA~ ll1Q'Dg lur6:c cbu yiu qua cac cbi tieu sau,

12.1.1.1. Vi n:h{it ly h9C

- Nhi.e,[ d:¢: nhiet d'g nude thay d61 theo f}:twil~:td9 khong kld~nh:alt[a ntIrn: m~.ttuh.i¢~ dQI mroc lien quan true [~ep den qua trlnh sanxu~t nuoi tr6n,gthuy sio.

- 1)0 dll}cb.a.y 'dQ' trong: bi8u thiluong cae chfit 10' lirng (nlnrcat, set. bun, cae bqp chat hiru ce) co trong nUl:k. i)Q d\lc turih b~n~ rugA

56

hay NTlTJ d(> 'Hong l.amQ'f khai nL¢;m ng1JQc Iai 'CHat d,Q' due, tfnh bangm, D:Q d~c cang cao, QQ. trong cs;ngnho.

.~ D¢ mau: nUCJe co th~; CD· mau do cae hQP 'cbat boa tan ho~c cac ciltii keo gly ra ... D'Qmau. do theo tban~g mill coban.

' .. ' Mui vii: nocrc c6lli~ 'c,6mu.i bUD,mui m'oc do cae th~c 'v~t th6i rll.;} gay ra,tmui tanh do s.a..t hay mid thai eua·. hydrosunfua (HJS). Ml}~ so hop cbat hoa. tan co th~ lam cho nude ·co .mf.d vt

d,c biet, man, chat, chuavv .

l""IioA . ·H· . b·..J!'- thi 1· '.'." '. '., . -H-+ · ·"t· ... -

""U'l P J imeu rn] ~tx:gng Ion '.. . 'co rang

0116c. KhipH=7 nuDe co tfnh trung hoa, pH<?' nUoc co unh axil, n,guQ'c I,i, khi pH>7 nuac co '" h 'kl'"

ie'l· I " _-, ,-,'

tm em.

-DQ cli'ngc:ua nuoe:: bieuth] lugngmu6i ea+2 va ,M'g+2 hoatan trong nO'CtcJtbwoog do bang .o¢,[)uc (,'n. d¢ f)oc nrengeng vai lOmg CaOhay 9~19 mg MgO'c6 t.rong·llf.l DIlGC_).

- H.irn~,uQDg Fe va Mn; &inb, 'bang mg. Hero chill Fe lam eho nuec co. flJCii tanh, mau vang ...

_, Cae h,QP C.1.lll nh!u:NH."iH N02", NO'3": su co. n1~"L c.u.a. cae hgp cha~,na'y' chUng t6 vemotC dQ' nhiem ban nUQe thai vao :ng:udn OI1O:'c.

- Cae co.",,! dQc~ nhu Hg As, Cu, Ph" Zn ... neu cbua.lrong nuCic. vui ham ~UQTIg qua. gioi hip] cho ,ph6p seg;ay dOG hai d6i vm Gqng v~t (huy sinh.

12' . .1 . .1.3. Ve' vi ,sinh

Tong s6 vi sinh v~t hieu khl co trong m,¢t lft nu6c bi~u th~ d~9ban cira mrec v~ m~tvi trung,

- ChI s6 colii bieu th~ sO vi trnng E..coli eo trOrt,gm'9t Ut nude. Chi tieu na:ybieu thi kha nang co. hay khOng co vi khuan ga.y -'b~nh duong rUQl ot.rong 'D:uac ..

~ M6i quae gia deu !Co tieu chuln v~ chat IUC1ng n1l'ac ,cap ,~cbo eac mue dfch sir dl,llng, do ccr~uan. c~6, than] Iquy1en eua nh3i nuec pb.e chuaR .. , Yeu.,c!tu. chat lUQilg mUat cap tho cac Dhu cau sin xuilt :rat (fa dang, tuy thu¢c villo

· - "if' II i' ,I, ,.-ii' -','-' .... '-, --U~I'C

P,H,ANI1HIU NHAI~ MOl, TRlvNG

tfubchft ,CU@ 'ro.fH qua, trlnh san Kuit ()oI vro, quy trlnh s,iD xultcb.t! bien. tbuy san c~nrnt6c co cballuqrng rihu llLt6c elp eho sinh, hoat,

E)·6i 'vOi nUGe su dqn,g cho nu6i t.rong, thuy Sian 6VietNam cin can ;Ctl v.aG 'Th6ng til sO' OlI20(}O{IT.-B:J'S quy dinh gia tri gicri .h~n eho phep've n6ng d¢ cdc cha[t Q :nhh!.m treng vimg nUO'c- ng~9t nuom thu,y san vagi6i hancho phep vi! nong dQ cdc chin () nbi,em trong nlla,c bi~n vimg nu6i 'tb~y' s.an ven bo.

12'.J.2. :CaC' ,phtf:un:g p.hdp,d dd.V ch,u:yen eorlg: 1I,gh, xu lj' ,n,ulic

Tren thg!c b~ ngtrCri ta thuCm,g phiilh\l'c bil~n eac qua tnnh XlI ny~ nhu lam trong va khu rnau, ,k}llJ :s~t, thu trung" lam msm, HLm nguQi,khu ,mu6i v», ... cae qu.a trm:bxu 19 [ren co tn~ 'lhl,1'c hji~n then cac phuong ph.ap sau:

2' 3
1 2 ;3 ,4

2 3,
- ~, Phuong pl:uipcahQc nhu dung song: 'viI ludi chan rae:, lang t~ nhien, loc qua Judi,. v, v ..

.. :Phuang, pbap Iy' hoc nhu kh.u' trang bang tia ttrngo9i~ lam. ngiugi nude.

.. Phuong n, ha,1\J hoa hoc nhutao keo tu

~ r r li1 !, I.

bingphen~, khi'i tm-ng bang clo, lammem bang

VOL. v.v,

T~,p h9P cae phucngphap va 'thi~et. bi de" thye hi~n cac quatrlim x~t It tlUa~ thee nl~t no~c ml~t s6 phuong pbilp gQit Hi day 'chuye!D coug ngll¢ xu 19 :nlJ\~IC~, 'Tuytblt)'l?c. yan Ichat luqng nin1c ngudn va yeo c.au chift hfQng. 'Onoe eapm;a co, cac day chuyen e.6ng ngh~ xu 19' kb.ll!c nhau, Khi dong nguon nllO'c m~l thl phai lam trong, Itt u ! mao 'Va,kbu trllng ;e'on DU'CtC' n,g;am thl-ph6 bien Hi p.hii ,khil' s&t v1t. khu trung; .

Q1;c hhili 1 vi 2 the bi¢n bai 'SO' deS day ebuyan cong .ngh~ xU ly ,ml6'c: 'UU1O'ng dung rihtil cho 2 lo~i ·~gu.&n nu6t n6ii Ire D.

Ninh 1.. 51),~ tr~m xt} It IJ·Udc m~l.(m~ ,1J1~n;g)

4 - b~ trQn::2~- b~ phan (m.g~,3i - !bilang FI@:angl; 4·~ mang ~:h~nUt1c; 5, ,_ be [~c: nhsnh; 13, .~ nhl (;1"0; 1- b~c:h(fa; 8" - ~f~:m bdmcap II

N~' d'~ ~·,.en .'at

H,I.nh 2. So dO. xa iy nUde n'gam (m~t C~"')

1 ~ ,g~,en 9 kihoan V'8, bCjlm bam G~p;2 ~. 'tha_p k'~llt 'S~t~: 3 .~. b~,I;j~~ . dang t1ijp x9 c;·4 .• ~ 119c nhanh;;5 • dunn g (jin ,clo;: 16 .. b~ ch~a nlJ'O'c :s~,ch! ., - trilim bam cap n

57

Bacn IlchoCl Thuysan

12'.1 . .3 ... LiJmtFo.ngpukhu mall

Lam trong 1a. qua. trinh tach cac ~p cb{{t lei hmg gay ra de) d\lc: cu.a. nu6c .. Kh.u mitu thong thunng .H. loai lro cae t~.p' c,b~t Him ehomrdc c 6 maut chu yC:u lit cich~ c.hit keo co kfch \bUae h~t trong .khoang 104 den lor6'mm. Nu6cmij£ tbLiemg du.c va comaunen hai quai lilnh na.y 'Ebl1O'ng dttqc;tbl!1c hi¢n dong thm. CO hai :phuon.g pnapxu ly sau:

- Xu 19 thong phen: dung kbi cang suit nho vanu6e ng:uon co d() d.y.e va dQmau trung binh,

- Xu If c6 ·p.hen: dlm,g .khit "trae c6 IdO dye cao b:011 2000mg/l 'Cae h~t c~n ](1 lung va hat keo !fJ trong 1l1l0'C' c6 kfeh tbU'O'ckhamo, Rell ling ril"t ch,m .. D~ tang hrl~u qua ling Veft shim kich- thuGe b! lang nguOi. taphai cho phenvao nUrJc d.~ keo t~. cae loai phen thnilng sir dung

'l'~ -'h'" - _b" .e ·~K·--· 'C<O·--, - A-·-lI {'S·--·-O.\2'AH··· ·0--·· ··h-·-

.1 a pnen [mom. . 2S -4·- -11'l-14J3t-- ·ot . 2· . - o~e

nhem sunfat A12.(S04)J ho~cpbe-nsat, s·al sunfatr Kh] dna cac phenhoac sunfat nay vao

_. -

nUDe chung: sS tic d~ng v6i cac :muoi. axit dl3.

Ca, Mg d~ tao thanh cac hydroxyt kemtan, d~

·kJ:t ., EllA k·.!' .~. ·L? , . . .... h_';·h ~

.1 IIdt tU3.,vung:'et cua pnan trng se nap t·y cac

hat keo tllJ nhien, hOi~C bi ·hip thu len b~ mat cae hat c~n lo lOng" do do t~olhanh C3:C hat (,;,6 .kichUlll',D'C Idn:

A12(SO;l)) + 3Ca(HOOll.l ---:,. 30;1304 + 2Al(OH)3, + ,6(;.02 12.1.4 •. Klut stU

Ngudn nude chua sat thUOng g~p 11 dang mu61 hoa tan Fe-(HC01h. De Ioai I:ru sit trong cac ng,pon nOO,e nhu v~y ngum ta sir dung fQng tai phuong phap ox)" bOil !ij,al bing oxy eua tbi trm. Phuongph.3ip :n.ayc6 the ehia thanh 2. n~i sau:

12.1.4 .. 1._ Klll( sdt bdflg lam thoang

Phudngpbap n.ay d I,fa tr'eD nguyen tile: sau:: nUCle ngam truoc bel dlJ'qc. lam. thoang, tue ma ph an thanh c ac h~l nba, d.~t_ang dien lien. tiep XUC \1m khong khl, nh:b v,y nl1Ctc "hap th\l ox)' co treng kh6ng kId va mQ'tph2in CO2 boa tan ~.r()ng nuac ;§·e tach ra khoi nuuc, Sau d66Xy se ,oxy hoa Fe'l+ thi!uw Fe3+.. Fe?"" se t,o thinh hydl'ux.yt k~t ltra Fe{O'H)l.' CU:cii cung: cac ,,'to

58

Fe(OH)3 <$uqe 'ulch ra khoi nuifc bing li.ngva loc. Phin Un,g tr~n. co th~ bieu dic!nbin.g: pbU'oogtrlnh 8 au:

4Fe(HC03)2 + Oz+2HiO = 4f:o(O'H)lJ.·+ 8COlt

D~ phin. Wi xiy ra nhanh v.a. tri,~u de, nuac phii co - dC? ki~m.lhlchbQP va, pH nltm trong ph,m vi 7 .. 7~5.

12.1.:4 .. Z. Kh:u sdt ,bdng ,ltim riu;ufng dcmgidn va loc

.

Phuoo,g phi,p nay ra:t don giin, 0 day kho,"gc,~n phun nu.dcma chi can cbo nUDe tran qua .rm!~ng,- ,du.g d,t cao hon be lQC idloang O,Sm.. Dan din tren be m"I. cae h~t c .. \,I, lee ,s,e tao tfuinb m.¢t ].itpm,ang c6 Cad t~o tu CikhQp' chat: Cuat sit. Mangnay 06 tac d~ng xuc lac doi

.. .. ~'h ,. ..~. z.; .... I" ,.. ·1 T

voo calc :p_jUl lUllS xayra uon,gup cat .• 9C. .ruy

v~y pbuang phap nay chi sir dung dut;1C khi nu6c ngirm c6bam lUQngFe I1ho ban 9 .mg/L, pH >8 v,aty 1~ fehJFetiJ trong nU.uc- IQc .thQng

.. 3'om . ~ ·]·~d··lI - .. b·~ . ·00- ~ . dO" 1'-,,~-

w~ ,qU,I:c' erG', t1lC a aam t ao __ Jtln,gleu A.I:~n

d! tCjLO' thallh lOp m,ang xiictac .. Khi nllO"C ".guOn co dQ lti!m ho,c pH -thttp" ngllOi ta du:at them VOl van d61tiem boa nuO::e.

12.1 ",5~K.'h'a tTung

Sau khi qua be linlg, b~ lQc;phan lOn vi lruog b trona; n.1lXOc da: hi gifi Iai (90%)vil bi lieu' dL~t Tuynhien dt! d·am bi~ v,~, sinh,phai.

kiult:ruug nu6't., -

Phtloo,g pba:pktuJ trullg: nucrcdlufulg d img nhflt. Ifl clo hoa. tue la sa dung clo va hop ,chill cua clonhu v.6i clorua (CaOCI2;)t Javen (N.aQCl) 1a nh1lng chat oxy hoa manh, ,co khA nang di~t 'trilll,g.

Khi dua voi clorua vao ntree se xiyra

phan. ling;: .

2CaO'Q2 -io Ca.(O,Q)l -+ CaC1l~ Ca(OCI)2, + COl, + H20 ~, CaCO] + 2HOCl Khi dun c10 vag nU'ac .se xayra phan lIng:

Cl + H~·-O·· •. ~ ··H·-O··aj ..lL ·H~·n

'2· .. :2,.- .. -----:If' ., ......•. ---.-- .. ","".1.

HO··C·~·!iI .. ·H·"'· ·O~ ·Cl· -

<).:I,!,.~ .. .'. + .... ' ..

Ci1, HOO, ocr deu HlrID:rtng chill oxy boa

m4rih.. -

CIa hay v{),j clorua duqc dua '1,10 nucrc treng dutlng ong til 00 Icc sang b~ ,chUa vUi U!uluqng 0,15- lmg/l.Ng.oii clo, hi~n nay ,!~on dung phllOOg, pha:p di~fi pnin mu6i NaCl t~icbO~ s,anxuat· J aven (N.aOQ) d~ sat t;rimg.

Ng;oaieac p:hUOtl.g pbap elo boa!, tren tbe gim ohie,u nuere €on 5'U' d:yug cae phuang philp

sa 11 A.& ,I:>"'t·· .·run~:- Un"111l'.'A.",,. ~ ,!WI \I""" ~i!oi!-. i., . 'e;) .. II.II~.

-Sir dyng tia tir ngoai: dungm9t lo~i deIl phil, ra tiattr ngoai ,de di~t trung, Phucmg phap my deCOl liim nlum,S;. tbi!!t bi. dilt, .hay hong va td'n di~n (10- 30KWllOOOm3 ",aBc),.

~ Sir d1,1ug 6Z0:n, (OJ)! khj, dua O~vao nU{1c se U)O thitnh o.x)' nguyen til' Ii. cha:t co khi nang di~t trung,

,~ 5u dlJDg song sieu Am:: dUng thif5t hi phil: fa song sieul;m, ttm lS6' 5IJ()KHzt vi trung se bi liEn di~t.,

12.,2. X" ,ltnw6'~ Uiai n~he ci

NUDe ·tbai ta cae ba,t d"Qng cna. ngh.eca nhuch6' bi€n thuy sAn" nUIJii trt\n:g tbuy san nen d~ <ahay rnkhong xu 1:9 se gay 0 nhi~Ii1 moi tnJmgt aM .hu.mg d~n tbilY sinh "'l3. co tb6glty (llch b~nh dot. vdi ngubi cling nhu d.{>ng vt.t

Cp nhleu bi~npbap xa ly nu6ctha.l nhu XLr lynDa 11.9.0, ,xu)y ca-lY, .. boahgc.ket bQP vlticac bien phap sinh hQC- .. cae phU011g phip x.iI 19 sinh hQc duqc sir d~.n.g .nhie.u vcri hi~u qua eao, rJ-~c bi~t dOl vm IlU:6~c thai c6chua nhieu cb£t bDu ,OCl de: biphan huy nhu ntrac thiitiU cacnh'a :m.ay cbe biln duly sin va cae ao dllm. D.ooi tr6ng thuy san. Tu.y nhienphucrng phap xu 19 sinh bQC cilng it m~u qua vai ntIOc thai c,Ong nghil~p c6cac chit ·VO en dQc h~ (kim~o't nang, axitl'ltiem) ho,c cdc chfit hiu ecben vrLtng 0c.a.cclobenzenj! phenol. .. .) 'va cung It hi~u. qui d~6i vdi mQt s6 1:Oi},I sinh v1,t giy b~rih. Trong ,cik; u1.ran.g, .h.QpJlay cSn tet: hW phuong: phap xu~y sinhbQc v8i cac pnu,(1n,g phap xu ]9 c~6",lY·-h6a hQc.

J2.l,.1.Phutmg Jlhdp .~.i' Ij nude thdi b.ang b'~R pili, ttl - Ij ~. ,lioa .hpc

Co .5phuang pbtlp CO' - ly - hea hoe 'lhuimg duqc d.un.s hong xu 19 ntlOcthii nhu san:

12.2.1.1. P.hlltrng phdp icing va d6,'lg t~'l

NU,D't th.ai. dltqe dUlJ v,ao be cbua l!ngcac chat rAn. Theng thuooig ,eae chit. lex limgUing r,(tch@m hojc kh6[tmg. D~ ling v~n b5c ling cae chft Day ngllOii ta dun,g.mC)t s6 b631cb~t san Jfim Ute nbAn.ket lin.g:

_. PbenA12(S04h .. n H20 (0= 1.3-1,8):

- Soda !<(!t hqp v:6i ph.eu: N'~C03+ A11(S04h; ... Sit sunfat .FeSQ~. 1 H20;.

.. Na6'c vei Ca(OH)'2~; -Na.triahlminatN~Al',10'4;

- sat (Ill) clorua 'va sa]t c:m) sunfat,

DUng :pben fhi 'phan ling, tao phosphatket lang nhu s au:

A12:(S04h + PO,,]· ~. 2AlPO" + .3S0 .. -2 pH. toi uu;. 5,6. ' ... 8

DunllY10i. hQ~cbicacbona.tt. c.acbonat~, phosphat: varnagie thee cae phanUng~

Ca(O·Hli! + CB(HC03h4 2Ca003 +- 2]l~O Ca(OH)2 + H:2.CO) .~ Cacol + Hl;Oi

Ca(OH1:! + 3CaHP04 .~ Ca(OH)(P04) +- H20 2Ca(iOH):;+M'g(HCOL3);l ·~·2CaCOJ + Mg("O:H)2

+'H20 Dung. sat (Ill) clorua d~ taophesphat:

Fea]. + 6H2'O .... P04~~ ,--+ F,eP,04 + 3Cr + 6H~O Dung· Natri aluminat d~ lo~i phosphat:

,N~All0"4+2P04~3+4H2'0 ,~ 2AIP04T 2NaOH +o,Olr

59

NbOng cba;t get, lAng thanh 0110 va trong; bun chua nm~u hop chflKn6 tan. Viet su dung bon na.y UIW. pilau, bon co the Utm,cb.o ~.~y

I,,; -_ - .iJ -:-:-

tro,Q' kh6.ha.-- thu,

__ _ n~, __, _ '. p . ..

12 . .2.1.2. Plutr)l1g phiip hap p.lUj

PhUO'Ilg' ph.ap ,nay dlJa tau ngu)!ien,tic la Cj3.C ch.[it 6 nhi!,m tan trong n.uoc:cothe duQ'c .'hap ph~ tren be ,m,~[ m,gt s6 c-btf.t :rnn (ch.it hlp phu), Ca,c chat .happh\1EhU'bng dung trong mue dich nay Ii than, bo~t tfnh d~,g b~t ho~c dcmg 'ib¢,u~ 'than bun s~y kho. hoac ,co' '(h,e l~ (tal set hott linh ,00a!:Y diatcrnit, betonit,

;.01_- ",' 1:'- _""- : __ ' '-.,i:._ _ ·",~I,'-:":' _. ". :,"'.0: _,--:..;1', _ " ,'L'_,",'

a,c .r:hal bmJ co. kim IO~1i n~ng va eac cuiU

man d!b~ ha.p ph~. Luong' chat h~p plly sir dl:lllgtuy lhuQc vao khi nang bap ph~ cua Urng chaf v:a him hlQ'nS cbitbill ,co trong nLfCfc. Phuong phap nay co tao dung t:6't~ co tl1~ h~p phu du(1'c 85' .. 95'% cae !c.nat hOO co val)lB:u.

. I. ..

D! lo~ioo kim leal n,ng.~ cae chit bun. lX1.~ vo co doc hai n.p.U'm ta dun,.o. than bun at hip ••.. ·

ii' 'Ii it:::! =

Phu va nuoi boo ta.,., .ouc' binh) .. tren m.a:t he),.,

.. II ", ., '"

12.2.1.3. PhtfG1'lg phdp trung hoa

Nude. tb,ai co ,d6 axit cao can cho q ..• ua he

. " .

th6ng lQc voiv~t Iieu co tfnh kitm nhu 'v-oi, da.

vol delomit bo~c du.~g nuocvOi trong ho:a tr!:tc lie'p,.D6dkhi co the su dung dUDI dicb Idem (NaOHho~c Na2,CO']) vso muc dfch :nay.

Nude rhii.i. c6.tinh ki!t'm dimg axit ky thll~l pha 100ang d,~ trung hoa. Tnroc khi tmng hDa. lcfin cnuan hi va tinh roan S~lO cho sau khi [mug boa, dUQC pH CO,3, nlJac a mU'{; dO mnng muen vm luang·~.· h.6a cbat \ita! d'U.

. ,',

12.2,.1 .4 .. ,Phuemg phdp ellier .tdclZ

Phuong ph~'p nay sir dung cac be chua. va, hing d~ xlllS' )'lUGe. Qk~ h~' nay eo th~ labe bl! t~n:gbo,c;ao ho dugc gia co' nenm6:ng 8:3,0 eho n.troc th,ai n nga'mvaQ cac d:ng dill S.tilU.Nttd'c thaj vao C-3C lOt nay va, luu Iai trong thai g ian Ut 2-, [Db.. Th9'c: t.E" diy )3. sIt mo phong qua trlnh lOng d9ug ty nhien ella nude [rang c~c thiiy V\1'c. Sauthoi gian 3g.iothl b~.u Mt e:ac chait [,in de Il,angv:a. 3.0-400/19 nh.c!lng'cha:t rina ding .. lalting: huyen 'phil du'!c lang 'xu6n,g day b~.,

60

Ph4n DUGe U tren du,Q'C duB. va" cal: qua trlnh xit 19 deb eye v,m 'cacp.blJdftg phap len men hleu khi.~ thieu. ,kId". kX ,khi boiJc It)" ,khf khang bat bu¢c.

GlcpbAn ling c~ tu.ytUng ,cOng do~ co 'tb~ Hlmpbin bOIl eho ca.y JrOng .hOijc dern thieu buy"

12.2.1.5. PJiuang ph¢ip dift khuaH va pJiiin ,.buy chat ii(Jc

Nude tna.i sau .khi x:u lyban__g ,ca.C bien pbip cain lhl!et 'truBe kilt d!tta, vao ~H5'flg,. h6bo~c I(;iilc nguon nlldc.kba.c bay iquayb;ti, dung cho s,an xuatt sinh hoat v» .. cl:n phai sa'tkbua.n. Chart

,,- 'II .. L .t!. .:t,.... . d" - ,. 11,,'L A . ~ - d'A h .' I'"

,8atNIUanutUdn.,g "'lUlg V3,AJUong g:ay ··.··9(: -'_~] .. 31

khi clo (C[2).Vi~c clo boa. nude. uham. di~t cae vi ginb~t~ tio va nun gia,m ml!l.i eu,~. nuO'c. Cae hop chait elo dung ;(1' d~y lit: clo long (d'llqc cblii"a trong ci,c binh thep) , v(J!j clorua cd dQ hoat dQng ciia clo lit 25-3.5%, cae hypoelerit NaDel, Ca(OCI~) vil,a c6 ho~t tmb eua. clo vita co tfnh ox') h6a nen co thepb§:D hu.ynhieu cha'., dec htru ce thanb .chat thong dQc·.

J2.2 .. 2~ P'hrttm:g ph'ap xU' ,':I nrruc tJuli ~'lJ,g ,bt~',l phdp ifinhk9c

XXI ly llll!C1C thai bang bi~nphap sinh hoc d'~a tren cos,o hOCJt dQ'J1;g $,6ng ella vi sinh v~t ·(:;0 u',ong nude thit Lam s"ch nuo:cthih bang bi~l1pbap sinh hQc lit lQi dung cae: vi sinh v~U cd U. trong nuac, :S,1l d'~ngcic chit dinh dlloog

;;,. m' . :;;"1' trn'hno -U..4r.· t··~· . it· ,i'l"-o 1Iu-~,a u.? 'v··.· V' I uV1J.8 D·Y~ . am nguon nang .JlVUli;:!'"'U

V~l chat. te bao, Chl1ng.phan h'wy cae cbal hfru CO' tbanb C02~ iIllO'C va muoikh.oang, ldrumQt s!6 Ichit.hinh NIO]~'t N2, ~~ V .. \1,. co 2phttoog pflap ch.inhx.ir Iy nu& 'thii. bang bi~npha:p ,sinh DQC,;

~ cae Pi huang·· pbilp··· hieil khi

~', • . ,," . • • .', '_. '. L ' ,~ ", ,,: '.. : .. '. • -- .' , • ',!!,

.. Cie, 'p. bUiOllg 'p •. hap' iki khi,

I I""",,, .", . ,.

Ngom fa ,c1m co. 2 ,phlWngpJlap phV" d.6li: - PhUC1ug ph'p trueukhi (Anoxic).

- Pbuang phap t:u.Yllg.hi(Fa.culta.tive)_

H'mh3 giw,thi~\l tom t4.t c;fc: phUOl1g phip sinb hQc la:m s.~dhi1lfd:c 'th.ai:'

HjellW (aer-ob~(: )!

_K~ klli' (an.3iier,o]tlic)

Thieu. k1B (anoxic)

..---------""---------=:::~. '. 7' ~,,-,~ __ i\O. bl') chli.a .Auelctnii (was~e s:ta;bilimnol1l ponds and

.. lageons )1

,Mimg lee I sinhh9c (strkkling fi1~ers)

Bun hOi~[ tfnh (aerobic acUva.ted. sludge)

'Bl!: ky khi J(.anKrobic slud.ge. digestp.l)

·Bit!.)c ki Itllt HASH (upf[ow anaeroble sludge bl,antedl)

KhU', rutr~u

0( diOOitt~icatiof!l)

r'4~p ph .... if'iIn a nh.o::n ·t'" ~!- "",'" ._·LF'ft'I" .... ,. d':i

~,.c •.•.. · .. 'LilU!!i~D .f"' .. uYJi:en ~o JUllu.ug 'WY_~\;m

." nh . d'· ~

va nmroe e :tern sau:

~-. - - - . . -

U· .,.

$: ,0,' ,A'~lOm: ., .

. ' '_' U,J!.~ __ , J~i

_. !C6 the ~u'lj' nadc Iha:ic.Q pb.6nhi,!m. ban ca.c cba"t hOu co luang ,d61 n~lllig.· -

-H:~th6nac6 the t\1' dic!:!u' chinh theop~6 c·alc cMt nh1i!m bin van6ng dO c:ac chCftnhii!m

·biAn·· . .

_' rilL >_'.'

- Thi:~ik~ v,3ttang thiet hi dicmgiin .. *Nhu<1cdi~m.~

-- -- _. il - - - .. --

~. :D!u tu e:o bin. cho viee xav C::hm,".:k_ba 'tdn

L., J I. Ci

kern ..

- Phii co ,che dQ cong ngh~lam sach ddn.g bo va. boan ehinh,

II - -- -

- 'cae chf€t hilu eo kh6 phan hoy cung nhu cdc chitc6 d:QiC tfnh .anh huang oe:rir thCri gian va m~~qlla lam sach, ate; chdl co d¢c tfnh tic ,dt)ng d~n qum the vi sinh v~t noi chung va. trong bun heat doh lim giam bi!~u suit xiI ly ella qua trlnh,

- co th.~ pbai. lam loill.g .nliOc tbit co n6ng dQ !chit bin tao" nhu v~y sf; lam. Ulng lUQIlg

.~ t.. .. ~ .•

.nll'O'C tnai,

Tuy eon mOl. so: nh;uqc:di~m, nlnmg cae phtrang pILip sin~h hQC yin dugc dung p'h.6 bi,en r¢'llg f,ii va to fa rJltth£cb hQ'P· .. c~o qua t~ liun. sach nude thai chUa cac chaithw 'co d~ phan hQynhU nu&¢h,U eua cae obi may ch~ bien thuy s.an, 11186'0 thai tu' cae ao d~mnuoi tr,ang tbuy sin ..

12.2.~2.1 .. ..w' lj nU8e thai. bdng phltrlng ph&,p hiiu khi

PhltC1ngph4p nay d~3l wen hoat dQog; cu.a. quan th~vi sinh v,t bi~u kld l):XY hoa eac chat hiin cO" bing oxy boa. tan co o' trong JlU6;c,Ket qu.a 18. cac cha:t nhitm bin bi phan hoy vao nuCtc dUQ'c Hun saeh. Co. the tonit1h gu'- trlnh oxy flO-a MU' sau:

~~t1!-w C"+ n .~ ·H'·:-·O·.+· co-· •...•.. + ·NHC'.-:, +i"9.ft'g. ']Il'i-"tng'"

Ul.14_ .u.'~"_'''' ~ ---,- ':2; .' . '. -.ll. ' .. '3-'- .. :U.U.&JiI. '" . !Uy1iI"

Trong dit!u ki~n 'Ill,eu kill, amon c'ung 'dltQ'C lo~j bo bang oxy blh", nba sinh v~t: tg' du6ng::

.N1l¢ t· + O2 ~, N0:3.-· -+ 2H~ ... .HiO .... nang, h:n;m,g Di~uki~n Ican urn.el eho qua. rrlnh Ii. pH .= 5.,5 - 9,O~ Oxy hOla tan (DO) kbong nh6 hen O~s.

m'gA,nh~~t d.Q 5- 40°C,. .

Go hai bien phap ·ca5ng ngb~ xu lyrnrdc thii 0 diiu ki~n hieD .khi Ii: x,u ly b die,u ki¢.n tg nhien va xu 19 b dielll ki~n 'tang cuOog.

._ a di.f!uki~n. f\J" nhien: "ngumta eho nu& thii chiy VflO 3:0 h6cb11a. bo,"c chay triln. III dong

ru9n,g~i dam .. pha. 0 :nhOng rim d6b~ sinh v~t u..thii e d" bl'hlhWlh '\1'': r h ".

1l_'De _' . _ s =-. ' .• fin . ,_0._ . _'. '. ,a . am s~c,. nlfOC·.

... a di!u ki~ntWlg CUO'£lg; .hi~u khf:bang each sue kh'i:~ vi. sinh vat hmJt dOng manh me trongbun hoat tfnh C:fing nht[lro~;g-'mang sinh hQc se: rut ngan thOi.gian. lam. sach va hieu qua eao bon ... Trong.bi¢:n phap xii ly nuDe a ai~u ki~n ting cIiang" ngum ita c6the t,o ra ca.c ditu ki~-n. t6itmnhu On dinb nhi~t dQ~ 6n dinn hrgng O,x.yhbatan., .....

,Qua trlnh xu, 1y thea. phuong "phjp a_o" h6 ,chua. kbi dangian d'l1Q'c t6m ub:muJ' sau:

61

NUOiCthii ,~, Chin rae ·~Ao b6 chua. nlIOc thai .~ NU'Oc CIa xu IS'

Pl~llang pbap' ac h6 cbw th\lCchlt. li.pbtrang

t"a, nrlam sach eua.. IU~ d11lJC, a' du til' 'lin

pu.p __ . ~U." ',. n",,,_. . p yng". '"

va cho d,en ngay nay van con .tfqnh. hanh,

11 2' 2" 2···· v:.~ I · · h' ",' b ;:;. h' h'~' t r: u s: ~ ~ _,'. _ .. .'\H ,OY nuoe t(u.angp. 'utmg pap l1.,,!

,It he

Day Ii plnnmg pbapxo- Iy nllCtc thii dung dE loai -h6 cac chat hihl co trong phan lang 'C~ll 'Va bun dtiy~!n,g eac vi sinh vat ,k~kh[ va kx

-~ .. IJ..·f t,. ... ' Ana bii1t ib. ·.U' A,ro, .D.J"I . .I, .fi...llU ":,b .. , __ ,~, . I . 'y~l~

C "'2'" d "l ~ l.. T.,'I..;;; (. ]I.. .".~ .,

_ 0 giatc o~n ten men JIiI.,X km tpnan gUlf!!

cacc'ba~ hU"u co l;J dieu Jti~n, k~ khf) do h~mg bam chung Ioai vi sinh v~t ky khf bait bUQC va kheag bAt bUOt tham gia:

Len men ky khf Hi qua Er[nhtbity phln~ c;huyen lI6.a Cae san pb~m, duiy phin (nhU'3txit beo, duCrng" •. ~) thanh cac axit vs clic aacol mach ngdnhcn, cuoi cung thinh CO:;! va. H20,.

Len men metan: 18. qua trlnh phan huy cac ch(t hilu co (himb metan (l~) va khi eabonic (CO'2). Quarrlnb nay nh~y ,camvdi S\l thay d6i pH, vung t61 1.111 c:ua pH cho qua trlnhnay lilt 6),8 - 7,4.

r~ c,, r ~ :t-'ll'.Otn'.o._ .•. ·.pttap .•. 1 h .... l·.. HU tluton.o ' .. , dUIl'D o,i 'V ill'

~c pn.__ --t;. -- . n,J.' . cO . cO 4

19 Ic~n nuOC 'thii Ur c'h,uong trai chiJl nuoi, nude thai cong aghiep v,a 00 'lh! sm dung de XLr Iy bUn day ao dim nuoi tn5ng tbu.y san, c~ nul1c thii n:r cae .nhamay ch.!!· bi~'[ltbuy sin ..

N,goy.L.Du':dDI: n,o

13 .. nAND orA CHAT LUONG .MOI TR,UONG

NGHfCA ' .

Da:nb ,gi!a ch~t tuqng m~Oi tru.ang n.,g;be eta rna ch:u yeu u~, danhgia chit lu~g, nucrc[hong qua eac theng sO' chi. thi, Vi~c lva cb9n cae thong ;S,Q kha:o sat nham uh1fCchi~n mue dlch dauh gia va ghim sat elI!l. h.rgng mcd. t11loo8; f.al quan trQog VI se giup cho ~

- Danb ,gm dling d~n chat lUQ'flg mei tNOn,g, mue d(l ,e,. nhiem vi, nguysnnhan gay () :nhii!m ..

- Ti.et: kiemehi phi, th.mgiMl~ nhan 1,~c

-V,~¢c: hra chon cae thong .so khan sit IdJ~

daM. ,gi,a 'chat IlJQllg moi wbng phm dl,fa vao mue d{ch gia!'m, sat, phuc W. cho tram gi3im sat

oar so, gi3m sa.t ch(t.lUQIlg nu6c d:uog cbotbuy san, V. v. va can eli vaa - bincha:t ella ngu6n nutle, ngu6n gay () n.hiemi,v.v.

'1·3' '1 C·"" ,""hA: ..... -K. ··h'" '·h'~·'''''~ ,- 'b .' ~.~ ,,:lh·Ll I'u,-,- ~~.,i1C L_~unl sue. I Ii. . , uan. gl~C .. al . "::"J,lIg:

mol truOng ng;be: ea

cae bang 1" 2" 9 theo OEMS lA taili~u giup D,gI1Oi nghien coo m6i truoog ngh~ ca, djnh hUOngnnanh khi xay dung p.buongan quan tracva, d.ie.u tra, l~p' danh rnuc 0 nhiem c!n 'luau 'traJc;

B,ang 1. Cae: l:bDng so daub liauguihl bu6c 1\1' "n-h' ;;'-n ~ ;po·a" I:- tram 'q' u'a·n··r~~!"" ,ronli 'b"a~n lth· .(!o .... G.~E'M····· ·s·)

,·11",",1 u""'_--''"'' _ Ii;'-'LI '_,_- J 'Iti;:.,iI,,,", ~V'-''. __ ''_ t __ I_~V ~~,,--._"_-_':

x

2 pH

x x
x -:1 x
x x
x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x X-
x x
x x
x x J. Be (d~ dan di~n)

4 100

I .5 I,Niuat

8 Qm_xi

Bin,G: 1. Cat: thong so danh g:ia.ng,ll)on DulWiC:,clu) lhiiy :sin, (t_eo GEMS)

IT ThbtlJg .~d SOng I Ho Nlfcrc ngam

INh.i~~ d"

2 PH

X I x:
X X
X X
I x x
I x. x
x x
~ X-
X X 4 DO

5 NitQi ~ Kje1dahl

1 Nlla ,~ amonlac

'9 ,000 X I x

HJ TOe s6 cae bon.hLiu cQ) x

1 ID. CW,oro,~yn X. .1

1.3 sir x x

16 NhOm, I x x

] 7 Stllph.:n x x

'IT

lNguan gly 6nhi~m

ThOn,C1 !us blc ha~,

I~ '.

:3

I

'or'I "'~ "N" "0"' 'NH" .", rv4" ,. " ""3 ,- -~4

I

4

TSS,.khming chefl eua. run. cae [)~ d~c~, d(lc tmb sinh thai nguyen ('6 vi lIiIQn,gc6 .d~(; UM cao

g; Khai tlnio~ v~ chuy~[1 Dau m,a,. BC)iD~ (COt),), sanph.im da.u TSS, mall. phenol

diMmo, tho

UJ

COng nghi'~p lee hoa I diu

UOD5;, ToSS. d'u mo. tdng N., DO. 'Tong S. o, dQ d"lc",-dl.~ phe.nol

n

BOD<5' TSS~~dng N'I t6~g P ~ DO, d~'~ Vikhu.an, dQ d~c,!, mau.pH mct

12 COns If],ghi~pl do h¢p. pH!.OOD.s. NH .. +~ DO tnti diy

l3 Imng nghi~ c'heJ bitn BOD5• t6ng N, TSS", ~6ng P, DO dlil,~. tOm" 0'

~ -4 COngo ,~ghi~1 ell:! bi:!P]BODj• pH. TSS~, d¢ d~~"; DO sua

15 COn~s :n\ghi~,pruQ'll. bia;BODs,TSSrpH. DO ,nU'th:: giaj khat

BODs (COD).. TSS. d,~umO'. t~,[),g N" S. Cr,.16[lg QoBfo:rm,

Tong P, Be. pbeno.1.DO. d¢c tillh. sinh tfui.i

I

lS CClng ngh.E~p d¢t ::3,~dBOD5' TSS~, Cr. pheno,]

~6ng:h~' I

21 COng [tgh:i¢~pphan b6n: ~PhM d~m

- .Phatl :ph6tphat

~, ~ITJ +. ''T'FlIS; NO·· ,!.,,! ll<j. .~ I v.. . ;), 'I

,~ IDS~ ·F~ pH

,-pH, IC'ff nna ~hQu co ~ T 6.n.,gP, TSS~, Fe

Gai ,emil: ..

Tt,LT6'c .khi khao sat can 06 lh6.ng ~i[}v~ ngudn .gIl;y {),mhi&mde co the ceO sung tlujn,g s6 khOnggh.i mr:ong ban,g nay.

thOng; s6b3C: 1.: lit cae thOng .!i/O 'bat bUQC phw. kbio sit

Th.al[l,g "SO b::@c 2: Ii; ,~ac thOng :s.(j, b6 SUfI;2

each k,hoa linuy san

1.3~2~ .Dan,bghi :ke't qua, giam sa,1 103'.2.J.lJtl:JzJI. g,M k,et qua phdn ,l{ell

Sau khi Hen hsnh quan teac va phan deh 'cae tbo'.Dg s6 chi, thi, l~i hien 'tfuOO1g va trong phong .hI ng:hi~~.m: tal ca cac thong s6 v.t ly, b6:a hoc, sinh hoc phii phu" hgpcho Ult;iC dfeh khao sat. Bu,6:c ti€p theo danh gi.i d.'Q chfnh xac eua ket qua quan trie theo eac phuong phap

th.r£ 'kA P-'h- 111'''''''''11-., ~ , t, '" "h'''' k'~' hooh ,~

_, iong xe. ,"~~u,)ng,p~~,aploan L onge cno pnep

loai trill' cac sai si6 :ng:dunhien trong qua, lrmb If'II trA, .... , tf E' h v'~ 'i"" ho b ·I~"d~ "A, ·t. Jl"1 n c foy,' 'C'lJ'~QI L.E(il (iPI~ ~i thu .r1h.l .. L.I, .- '-' ;; 'LI ~]j-_" . ILl ,,,,-"'L "'Y "",," ~_." "-'~ ~~'" ",~,~. ~ .. -'

duq.c .D;anhghi .terl qua, phan tich con cllrqc hen hanh ban,g each ,kiem tra cheo gii.la. ,cae phong thi nghi~m~dambao loai bo cae sai .sO' b~ th6n,g do thi~~. bi, phucng phap ho~cty thtl~t

h b"

t .·\fc hien,

Truong hop til ki~m Ua. ket 'pJJa phan deh,. c~n luu y nguy:ent'c vem~t ly lhuY'tt: tOng duang lu«;mg cae cation. dong blng t611g d:m:mg h.tqng cae arion treng eung mQ-'[miu. nU6't.

13 .. 2.,2. Ttij,h .I'(J\rJn .t'dl 1.rJ('flI,g ~ nhiltn tue lhOi

Truoo.g.·.·.··. h®. c6m.ot miu mroe 'I,m. no.np' do

'~.,tK ,~. e .J

chai 0' 'nhiem U, C, phan b6 dong d~u trans. ca ma.t cat ciia mot deng sOng·'·· cd van t6c dona

+ >Ii 1_: .. ' iii .E:i

chiy Ut Q; thl dong, "moi (tai hrQ'Og chalt ,6

nhiern) ta,c thm elm. rnqt chlft dlLtQctinhlh.eo cong thue.:

Trang" do:

K1: han,g s.e;- (tbuoog = 1)

.. " '. ..... . '" '00' ,,'" I'. h .....

Og; tal .hlQn,g .(): n uem toe t ,et1

Q: v~n~6c dong chay (m/s)

C: nang ,dg chill 01 nhir!m (m'g/J bo~c J.lglll)

T .' .. ' .",. "~' - ..Ih· .. '.' ... ' ".~ - t,}' ,~, , . ,-,.i, -~",'FiI· rong ILruUUg "'QIl' co nmeu .IUaU nuoc,

n6ng d¢, cua chat nghien ctiu leo cac giai tq iduic nhau, vi(in loe dong chay khac nhau tai cac doiem. cung ..• · mat cfilth] donO' :kh6I duO'c- tlnh

. IIj =. ,.,

thea congthUc:

QM- K1LCi X Vi ·xtJ.builu,

n·"']

(2)

64

"T· c - d'~-

.rongao:

ft= 1 .. [1

Ci: ndng dQ i1 tbu,y t~c i

Vi: t6c dt) don,g cba:ya ,thiy true i

A.bi: dQ rQng dong rS{}Qg; tUmI:S t1ng v6i lbuy true i

hi: dQ :siu tai (bU.y tl1J#C i

Ngoidra vi~c tfnh toan dong kh5i cO.n dUQlc rll.l.Ic bi~nm,eo cac ph:u,'cug pfuap ngo9i suy theo tbm gian ho~ctheokhOng gian,

13,.3. X it If so n~ u

13.3.1. "f),(jnllgia 49 tin c~Jve" mijt phtt" ,tren

Do trong m@.ng ;luc1i ca,c,tr,m. g:ia.m .satcn.a:t. b..rQ'ng :nu6'c co nbieu co' 'q:uaD., nhh~u phong 'tbi nghi.~~m thamgia quantrae Il!n vi~c ki,!:mt'ra chat lm;mg ph.!n tfch ca;n IdU'QCth\l'chi~n. Mue dfch clm. vi¢cki~m tra nay la~

.. Daub gilt sai s6 giua cae pnong till nghiem kill pna::ntich cac thong so trong cling met min IUl6"c.

,_ Khi xac dlnh sai s6 thl chi r,o' l'y do gay sai s6 (sais6 h~ thong: dc thiet b~ phaD lich bo,c sai so do plnrong phap, bo,a cba;t~ kY thu.~'t 'phin tiich ..... ) va .Qe:ra clnrongtrinh dieD. kb]~n ·df [hong nhit 'Ie k.et quapbi!l:n tfchgiiIia cac phong tId nghiem ....

. ~ Thu dUQc so li~u tin c~y v,~ ket qui phan tfch,

13.3~2.Xri Ii silU~u du'lyvdn:

can thee qu:y dinh cua.GEMS ho~c cua TIS c,hue Khli tUQl1g Quoc I.e (WH'Q).

13'.3.3,. fJdnh gid m,ttc illp 6 nhilmn'g110R fUIOt'

Vi~tC i1anb gia muc ;dQ 0 Ilhi~:m n~guon nude d'118 vao giia. tr~ ella cac th6n,g s6 chon IQc.K'y ithu~1 nilly ,Sill dung c'c chi 86 (index) de th~, hien :muc ao 0. nhiem .

• i '. -- - - -

co nhi~u em s6 da:liligi,a, cba't lU'QIlg moi klfOng nu6'c..Mqt. 8,6 cbi so ,D!e'U dUi61 d,a.y

thuUn,g,duQc sir d~n.r:F -

~, ' ,0,",

~ I-'('I¥'\I') "'W"

_ ",' -~,UJ"~"'!jji "':;"III

NPI = eUI:I=1

Trona~db:

NPl:, c;hi 86 0 nhi~,m, dinh dUOllg.

PQlD: chi 5:0 ch.lt hrqng cho thOng so n, c;6

g-ia hi tu 0 lui. 100 -

(0': 0 nhi!m n~ngl' :I 00: kbong (" nhiem) Wn ;h~ s,o danh ghl vm thon.g SOil

Chi s,o NPI du:uc tfnh dna vaokel ,qui,quan trficha:ngmaug ~ac tbong s6 ~+" N02-~ N'D 3 - , PO:~,-:' ~ N -K:ieldahll" t6ng; p,' Ortho - '" phosphat, p,H~ chlorophyll, dl' siiu., d(l d~c., ...

,2. Chi. so O,nhi!m,hfhl, co (OPt):

DUQc Uob thee .telt qua gu·an lra;c; ,bang thang cac thong: ,s;(5NH4 ,fr,~, BOD" COD.tf ,DO.

3.~ ChI s:6 0 nhiem c6n~ nghiep (IP]);

WI dung d~ ld:tinb giao nhii~m eho ca:c tic nhan onhiem vi hrqn.g (tJu hoa cha:t BVTV) ,

kim lo~i n~Ilg" dau mOt CN"" plJyhydrocacbon them, phenol, PCB~ v. v,

4. Chi. .sO' da dang sinh bQC (BDI):

, 'T6no so they sinh m,at dl

8D'I- 0 ,

-,-" - TOng sotbuy sinh

Hien nay & V'i~t Nam 4 chi .~ro tren chua chJqc ,guy d,bm su dung trong vi~ daQh. gii 0 nhi~~n ngnon ftmGc.

~;n sO' ,,~hi so da, dang dang duQ'C 8U d~ng d~.d.anh. gia cbit hlqng nUCIe a Vi¢t Nam:

~. ad sO' Margslef D (I 9$8):

D.:;::. ' S .... 1 - log N

r"L..:' ·S'h· .' . " 'W,····· .. H·' '~(~lru: -:'l \

~, \".10 SeC) .: annan ~leDer, ., I. 'j(;I,;},;

S

H~I= ~ ~'P" '1'0",0 'P' , ~"i··' '~:2j

i"..]_

Trong d,o: .P, ~. ~.IN·;

H.i: so lllt1ng Cia thi cua loal thtli N: tong sd cath~ ...

s: t6ng so laiti

WUb (1 '9(7) va nhi@;u lacgJ.a khac eho dng, X3C di:nh chl so da dang lamot trong nbiliHg phuung .pha,p tot Mat eM phat h1~u 'Va dam g- ii sur nhi,~m bd:n .

. -, ~,

Thea Sunoko (1995)::

D.bo.ac .H~

. .r. --

Hai 0. rlhl~m

I-~~ u_,·'r.~~~'I~ ~~-1

Kh6ng.tJ, nb.i~hn (HUUC' s~c:h) I

.R:al s,ch I

~,- 4,5

-----

>4,.5

- ChI 86 dQng v,t day (BS]).:

,Chi. sO" ,BS! dllQ"C s~u dyng d6 daub gila chon -111"""""0' n U'uc q, 'U, a viec uuan t ,:; '~, A"-g. ·vc;!l··t t,,'b '~··n· , ,,_!yu~ '",_, ,'~~ ,hr' ,,; itrac 'U!9u~ 'J1'I.,Ii10,G

xucm.g song, (DVKi{S) co: [,On s!d~g a d:i.y. MQl

:: - - ..,.,

trong cae BSI hi'~n dang s:o' dyng. iJ cbau Au va

dU(1C. nghien cuu Un.g dung iJ c.ac Qude Dong

N,tJmA, trong d6 co Vi~tNam d.~ daM gid

m-·(';.p 'd"A, Ii.,M'·· ." 'l'i~:m'-naii,A'II ,o,-!FA",,· t'Q.nQl' '!:"1110J,; 1:.~, ·h,.9:.· ,;U.,1~1 " ''I V -'Ii;;' - - -, ,1;,llb,'u;VJ:.l, , , u:y~· IiJ!U~"'O'~1 liJj,il!;ll _.I, ,l~, ,,~.

tbOng: ·di!,m s.Ei v~ quar, 'tric s.inbhgcBM·WP (Biol.ogicalM.onitoring\Vo.rking Party), Tru lop giun it to, h~ tbong nay sir dung h3c ph!n lo~j (taxon) ,DVKXS o mile hQ .. M6,i hC? dug.:: qlJ)" eho mQt di~m s6phb hgpv'm HM nh~y cim. 'V,m 0 nhlem biIu co (di'~m eua cae he?

'1I"h' : [a, m g" i Qo.f~-'" d~; ,.-:2,'""", ·d.·'IT'~"" xae ,A·i,..,."'- '1 Lj.Al1 D q'IIHII • ••• _ J ,1:_~'tII. ,UU,Jl, ".i~I;I,., . u.y~ ,.~'_" U~J:Ul 'J~lu. 'e '_, ,~I~

nghtencUu),.. Vi,em sO' BMVIP l,a; diem t6ng cQn,g cuaui"t 'co.ca,c: ho, L'ay d.i~m so BMwP chia eho 8,6 hQ oa th311n gia tinh di~m Qlt.qc dh~m SJD trung binh ASPr (Average score per taxon) v:a. day chfnh la chi 86 sinh hec ·Utcmg irug v6imQtm(iJI:;. cha[, Iuqng DUGe ..

NJuyiD DUdDI 'TluliO

B ...... I ..... 'FiIio.'" .j

. CCli~ I(UOClI!UUys.Cln

14., nt THO:N:G QJlAN TRAc vA CANH uAo ·M.CH TR UCJNG

H'~ thong, q'Ualln~c va caM bao mei t:n.roog Hi h~thong cae frung tam, c~c tr~m~ eac ,[Uem do veri muc tieu co baH 1.a:

• ! -

1. [lainh g.hi rae ~j;Qng cuacic hoar dQng do con nguaigAy fa dol vcrichat h[~g m:oi uuang llghe ca (DUClCli 'chat day ... ) cHa cacthuy 'VU,'c~ danh gin khillding gft d~ng trt.i nguy~nmOi t-:ruimg cho nghe.C"d.

2. Xac dinh chit hrona m6iiIUtCmg· .• · .. ve, m,ilt

~I • e _-_.

ban ,ch.a:~~ tu nhien boac dIa.hi anh tnrooo .. ' tu cac

>Ii !Ij. C

u:gu6n ben ngoili dua va.o thuy virc,

3. Thea doi, cae nguon g,ay 0 Dhie.mmoi tn£emg, bimg pha.t dich benh va duang d.ic>ua. cae ch~t dgc ht_ti,bm1ng l&y Ian dieh benh d:~c bi~t khi eo su eo lnoi truans.

4 . Kae; d" h x u hUOrtg' thay d~" ,bitt bl'mrg~'

.. .. _ ~:n. ". . .. ". ._ ". . (J.I" ~_ _ "', .. e-,

mol tru(fng~ c.aoo baom6itrtl.ern,g ,~ dich benh va d~ xuill cae bi¢u pbap phong tri,

Thong thU'Cmg:m\lc tieu (, 1) du~ thQt h.i~n bing each thiet t~p eric tram t~lc d'Qog (impact sladon)~mc~c tieu (2) da,gc th~c bi¢n. banS cac tram co so' (baseline station): mue tieu (3) du.gc thl,fc bi¢nball,g mcttrong :2 kieutram tren tuy thu¢c \faa nguOn gfiy 'Onhi~m ·co ngut'Sng6c lI;[ nhien hay .. · 'n~ha.n tao; muctieu '(4).·· duoc thuc

I, I - 'I ' . • ""

hi~n bAng cae tram xu huang (trend station).

1.4 .. 1 .. Da~ d:i~m ·e:a,,~loa:i tram.

- - -- -,," ... - - • "_ - - - -, - - ,II~'- - - .-. •

Cac tram eel' sa dll'1C d~U t~i khu .vv:c khonrg bi rum hUOn,g tnrc ti\ep CU{l; cae· nlnan g21y 6 nhitm.l\fhi¢m .. vy ,chinhcua, tram Ull xay dl;lng mere do CO' sOl eua cacthens s,ohl nhi~n va de

J. ~ ~

xuat cac IB.c nhan gay onhitbn man tao (nhu

thuoc bao v¢ thrgc v~tt kim loai n~ng~ diu ,m'o .... ) va de d:anh gia xu Inrang litu dai CUB ch~f[ lueng nlloc UlIlgml1at ,e~,c thllY VIle do lac dong:- .• ~ci' onhiem khong kID .. Cac 'tram: nav con

~ " ·6 iii J.

(luac Q.a't[ai cacvUnQ bien g. ,.i6i d~kiem, sDit

,.. ;p ~ e

ngudn Onhili~~m. to' ben ng'OlH dUll v,ao quoe gia ..

*' Tf~mtat~ d,~)ng::

'Cae tr~m, t.at: dQng dUQG d~l '~,~i l<hu VI!C hi raG dOng eLLa con ngl1oi. vikhu. Vl1G co cae nhu

66

caiu nLt.6'c rit!ng ·biet .. :D6i vUi ngbt Cat cae; tr,~ dUQc. d~t gina viIog nun] hay b~o v~ 'thuy san.

* Tram xu l.UI6tng:

cae tramxu hu'O"ng d1JtlC d~l a vi td d~c bi,~,t d~~ danhgia X~ u. hu6n.g thay ddi chat lUQD,g mO,1 truOo.g IhtlY V1;lC. de tram nay can d~i di¢n cho vung.[Qog haym9t khu \rQ'c.Ngoid ra tram 'xu n.U'ong con duqc sa dung d~ d,aoo gUi. rai 11lQ1lg eac tacnhan gay ,Oinhiem flu ,sOng dU'fJ ,ra bi~n va di~n bien .x:am.nb~p m,~ tu biendua vao clift lien ... ),Vi v~y, tram nayth.uOOg dur;;rc d~t i1 cac cua ~a.ng km.

a quy mO .mio~. vi d1kl. ti:nlg wng' Iiluoi thu.y s'an"mang Idem q usn tric c.6 tb~' thi~tl~ lap vOl nhi~u tF;i).m, m6iu't\;m co nhllni ml}c···t]~Il;

nhiem "V rieng ho~ckel hqp.

v! trf dijt, tram phii dua vao nhlel1 yeou t.6 tlll$c t~ dee bao dAm daRb gia chfnh xacchst h1t;1ngmoi tru'em.g fUllY v~c.:

* Tfnh d·ai di!en: Cae mOns·· 's,d' q.' .. nan ttlc

';I ~ . "

ptuii d,~ di~n eho d,c tnmg v~ cbat lU'C}ngmO.i

tru'emg ella khu Vl/c n,ghi,en CUll (trong d.C. chat lu~g ollocphg du]~c vao bIU Iuqng) sq xao

tr(lnva. ting nu6c). .

* Kboang each tm 'phong (hi nghiem: Th01 gian chuyen miu too cac pbiJ:ng thf nghi~m au' n_g)an sao eho cae thong 56 c~n pban tieh khong thay d611 th-anh,phan va n6ng Idi{l.Vl ~~.y khoang cach u), tram v~.ph0nglh:f nghi~m can. du'O'c tum tw khi tbiet. It! 'mt,ttlg. ludi quan tric

va canh baomoi tnlbng.. ..

* cae am huang phatapr V] 'Ui cac di~:m thu mau can dUQ'c chon d~phan anh dung: d,c die,mcha;t luqng 'm.6itmang: eU.a. cam@it· c~t..

~ 1:tfu so tho' ~mau: Tan ;s,6thumiu cang day t 09 chfnh xac eua vi~ dinh gia, dien bi€'n ch~l lugng 'moi tru'iang: c,ang eao.Tuy nruen tro.llg tbl:tC

4, tt' d .. :· .0· h 9 I'll c· ;h' rt 'Ij. i... ~'l., A .. , 1 .• ""." ... 1..,: ''''.f: 'b+ iL.~:~.1". n. L> .fA:_. w' .. I .~ .. ' ,,~I, ',- -._,,_.~ ~.,¥ ,L,li'lll1l,l, ,I'~~,,,, 'LlU,e( _;',,~, IkliJ .. fl, ~~.il, ·'l4.Ul

SIe) 'mum~iu a cae: tr~m ,gimn sit ntoitrUbug dUQ.:

"Illy dpm ?:J mITe, c.o tb~ ·c.Mpnht}nduoc ..V[ dll ~ chuang trinh quocttf GEMS y~u ,ca.u dn s6 tbu mao lh~g th~g cr cactr,~ giim sat cbtt bJiQl1g nu& clIrQclrinh bay trang bang, 1.

Billg, 1., T'an silbu rm.Auhan:g Dim if eae 'tr~mlij;M ,sat £bit lu~gnU!6'c thea y~u ,cliu :cua GEMS

SOng

4? ,12 (b)

,~ Nu:dc'u6:ng

- Nude;: ~;o.y h;1i

- Nu6c. :Lt.!·",y s,b!

. Tile d&.n;g da d~g

12 ... 24(c, d)i 1':2 (~)

'Ill +12, (d.) :2

6 (0

4 + 12 Cd) 4

4

4

2+ 6 (i)

4

Obi chit

'(a) ~. Ok 1:r.i;ml·IOO :50 c:m ldJoo sat 2 ., 5 .Dam ph\li 'lhu(;)c,viID lll'U lw;rng vA:~ Ulay dd,~ challUQ1lg' mo.] truimg :mrt:'1.c.

(b,- Thbi.glan. thu .rn.iu. can md:~i:$n chJ lcae tfI.ayd;6iv~

rnutrmh tbuy van trong nim. .

(c) ~ T,Sn ~6 liul ma:u eM, tb.etl cllu rr.lnh thu)' v.an" v~~t::~ thu mlu :C~I/C ,da.,i ,can tien h.anh trong ehu ky [huy van bl't: thuOngnhlt.

(d) -Tan so'tbu miru caft, phil h'Q]J vdiwuu dQ tly nuUc: va 86 dan ~ MU c'u 'Cap, n:lfC1C"

(cJ -ThO'.mgim thu.miu can, fiEn.hinhkhI .hru, lI.rqng: m~.

In ,n",... "'.'''' c-., • .i ... ,., IIi' .:k,~ - - il _ .. - .LJ.,·· .. ~.:m· '''''~ n "'"'g' ","'i, I"o~t V J - " .. ~,u ~~g ~,~, ,~ i~~~lI, m~u. {J I.UU'~ 1!;.I,~e .. _.!-oP ....... "".,.a.

sinh hoe: coo .

....... ~- -- i; ~ - - ~-

(g) - Thb.i gianthu miu chi ~h!n. hW1h. khi. lLl\l~.I1:~ .. geao ... (b) .~ :D6i.vdi cac ho don t~gvl 2. tang I!;:!o mu 2 mau/nim: (J' c:ttc then. di~m phan ting md'~ ~ao nh.aiva th4p [IDh:ltf)6.~. V{f,]eac .he) nhlau tM.g rho' 6 miu/nilm,.

14.3., Phuang plui.p Iqu.an frat" pbilo, 't:Ic;h mol t.rtfCm.o -,·vaXJu :Iv soli;eu

e "ii' Ii"

Th dinh "'DA 'T'''' -.. 'M'-' '. neo quy_ ~_ .. _~ cua . .uy ·elil nguY'~n va :(>1

truang Vi~t: Narn trong ~~Qu.y dinh tam lhOi ve phuong phap quan tra;c~pllAn l.rc~hm6i fru!loog va quin Iy so U~u, 1001".

'lIJ' oil I':' n-... ...... tWi'!L .. -

l .. ~uyeD _uuD~:.,u.O

MOi lmang ngh~ ca thuy vvc nQ,i di3! Ul nci sinh song vipha't tri.en cu·;_{ Cal; dong thuc vl3;.n. thuy ;sin nQi d~.a\" la. eo sa d:~t6 ,chuc' g,an xu«t nghe ca nOi dia nhu khai that: ngu6n 1(11 thuy slin t.\fllhien~ phat lrie'n ngu6.n lQ'i tbuy san It} nhien nhamrnl;l(';. d:£cbkhai '"laC ho~c slr dung m~t HIlO'C .d.e nuOitr6ng thfi y san, hoac ket bQ'p

.. 2" I ' ., 'h' '::~t.. "b" 't .'., «. d"

ca r oar •. mn t .. Ut san XUat '-0.

Lo~i hinhmQi mrOng Dg,hf! ·ea thuy Ygt. n¢i diaa Vi~tNam ella yeu gam. sOns~, su.,Cii, d~m b6 tu· :nbi€!n., bfll chua nuoct 3.0 bo·nho va ca.c· Io,iru(>ng lda nude: co .kbin.ang .kEt hQP nuoi thor san haic ,cbuy~n d6i sang nu6i thuy.san. a,

T6ng d~~n tichuIngh:J~i :m,t nl1O'c n.6i ireD dtrQ'cthong ice theo bing sau:

N gud": '~'Ci n:uetc ngql Vi~t: N'am"';; t~ n, Nguy.eo '1M Hao:,. NXB NOmrg: nghi@;p, Ha N~[. 200'5.

MI~· '1: bl1::_·L 'm'IAI 1'''''1I';''''''amcSt' mr Ao:-' .d:~u r6

.0:1 ,~.()'l ,111.1.1, .... Y.a. ~ .... v.U,~ ~ ',,!,. ,u_ .~, __ , ""_

vi. iff nhtt ,ct~nh. ttong ngb~ca n¢i Id~at "kb6n,g: chi do cUeukl~n <U¢n tfch nhi!u hay .it ma ph&l quan trQng. hen ca lit dieu ki~,n mei t.Nern.g cOla mOiloai mit nu:at; do.

- - - ,. !Ii

Qic:phUmlg mite sir dung moi tmang ngh~ ea noi dia: co 3 phUOO1Q,·.tbuc cl1fnhI3i:

.,~, r ,e

- LaJykhai tbac ngud:n [Qj. 'thuy san t!1J' nhien La ,chfuh: diy Ii pbuon·gth.li'c san xu;[l Iau dbi nhft:~ hien vincc;n thut hien iJ IreD ca.£. sOno. va

!' ~~, e

h6 cbua·b5n.

- Vita khai thac .nguon lqi thuy s·an t~ ntIi,e;n,. wa phat: td~n nuO i. cac lloili thuy s.an co gla. t:Q Idnnt.e caa, hoacco cae bi~n phaipph1;l:c b6i~, Hi:i t~.o nguElntQi cho m'Qt .86 lo.al thiliy s·:fun tl..r nhien Hi. !cae ddt tUgD.g khai thac, Hi~fl ~ap dung cluj yeu v,rnca.c san.g" hO" iNS chua. i'o"i v(raJ, 'Iuy theo st;rpbitlri~:n eu.a.kinh '{evil khoa hoc .kY tJudlt viec Slr dong m,fiJ nu:oclheo b~Ong nuO"i tr,6(og· rhuy sa.n ngay 'cang co bi~u

qua eaehen. -

.. Ltiy phal lrien nuOi tr6ngthu.y sin la. chfnh: chU. yell dol vdi cae Ioai m·at nu6'·cdo con ngl1ml,O ra ho~c ·chu. d¢·ng khongcht! duQC molmrong fJ :m.uc d'Q cao Mill' 3.0 hOI loai

- - ~

67

rill,a va fu¢ng lua n.u,crc. co khii nang tel hqp

I· ~,,~ ':'h--:--,"IIJ,_, __ ~- -, I

11 U,Ql t uv san.

,J

Cac loai hinh moi truoog n "ca thuy\~c ~'9i dia nhu song, su6i. d~m 116 u~ nhien d'a c:6 mQt qua trlnh rich SLr lau dai ve stJ can bang sinhthai, 6n dfnb cac d,ieu kientu Dbi~n!, .on dinhthanh 'phi" gi6ng 10311, san h.t'9l1g: v,a cha:t ~ul;(ngkhai_ tbik~ [huy ,fHlln"Do nh,w,gtllie;u sol trong cong lac qUall my baa v~ moi truoog" .nguou £Qt ugay 'ca,n-g co nhi6u vUngm.roc hi n1.a~ ein bing sinh tha~~ngu6n mroc b~ 0 nhi~m~san hrqngtbai tbsac giim sL'il" co c~ oiinh btu Me. da'n" nhieu ngu dan fJI1U1C diay CIa, chuyen s6ng On d~nh birng ngh~ eel thm nay

ngu,6n, sang ,gi,am SUlt h04e thu nh~'P ,kh~ng cbac chdn. bo~c phii cbuy~n sang s,inhs'ong bang nghi!khac .Vl tb€ trong vi~II::' sir dung IC,~C loaf -m.oi truong ngb' cti Ibill' V1;f-C, uQi d:i,a can pliai d~,c bi~t hru y x:&y d11hg va _m~c hi~n ~'c bi~n phap biov'qmoi t:ruemg d~ du:y tri. V;I~C khai lilac s,t! dung miU,nuac thea huang phil trien b~nviing~' ,610 di-~ blu dai" d~c bi~t phiH ling cuang cac bi¢u ph.apquan ly hanh chfnh, nghiem chlnh chfp hanh dl.cb(l Illi.t I lien q:Utml nhu! lu~t. Thuy san. Eu~UMoi 't.rumlgjlu~~,l ,D,at dllli •. , ...

c. M:OI QUANI H~ 'GtilA IMOI TRUONG v,A .PHATIR',IENBEN·V~G

'ji _ _, . ..' ,._.., " ,'J,.,', . '? .

S,AN XUA'T TlHUY SA,N

1,,, QUANH~ GIU:A~1.01 T'RlfONG vOl. 'KHA,I 'TH,AC TH]jy SAN

Trong tl;f nhien, ngay tukhi ,co khf quyen da eOn tai hieu U'ng Ma. kfnh, bi¢u Un,g 'giul1lU¢t cho tral ct~t.Bi~1g each haptn'=:l va pl}.l:~ xa, hue x,~ h6ng ngo~i t:rbl~.im,~t d,fi:t~ cdc khi tl,l'nhi!n lam cho bem.a[trai oat ,aU am d~ d:aro baoeho s~ s!6ng: .. Neu 'khong co cac khf nha kfnh, to

trung binh ella b~m~l. tnii dal khong:p.biH~ Hi t5°Cnhu bi~n nay rna la- t8QC . Song kill .[long dO cD.a chang ling len ben, ca.c hoat d~ng. cua COil nguOi! uai dit obi n,ang l~n, kio thea, nhien bien ,dQug ella cicyi!iJ, 'to khac,ttong do d~c bi¢:t nghi~m tl~mg~a S'1! ddog cao mue Dunc bi~'rL Tmh Jtf'.W¥xau di nay elm, khi h~u, moi trubng ,am huang tn,rc tiep va to .IClll den moi hoat d9ug sin xua:t cua con nguiJi trong Uitca ca:c nub -\:vc nang do co noll Vl,fC khai :ilIac tbu)! san. Ceo ngurn 1a. m¢t yeu t6 va. cun.g quan I1"Qng trongsa.n. X11[[. cae thong s6khfhtu,moi biJOng eo aM huang nhi~u t6i con nguoo ·eo nghla ciling ann. huoo.g '[O'i nang suit va cbrl blQ'ng san phAm, :mQt cacJl gian tiep,

Sou bi,en d¢.ng cuamei lfUOng di ga'y ra nhi~u· hiu quarJghiem tfqng. Cae con hao thuO'pg l~m g~amnhi~:l d'Q be m,~i n1Jd,ebie:n va anh hu6ng den s:i~n lo~,g ca, khai tb:a,c- duqc. Tai cae Wng. nu6:c ,G@:nt baott) 18. nguyen nhan. lim ,chouU'oc d.~c nhi~u ¥a h~n che 'Vi~c .xt\;c-

dinh huang di vao bo- eua m(?t sO' lQaica von khongth~ s'ong duqc trong nhtrng di~u kien nhu v~y. Die wng daM bat. va san hJ~g .(:n,a mOJt s,6 ca nai rdla. nhu cal ufch co. th~ bl t:tl.ay

ddt han trongkhi co bio. a Vi~t Nam.,.m6i Dam [rung blnh c6 bang chue can boo xuill

• , '. .D~·. - _..f,.... ~[;l:. .. , ....~'.~ 1\,.. h-"'? C .' 1~t..;;;, ... nh '~' "I ,,"

hl~n. U1:l0 u3.dffi a~.I.U . UOIlg .lI.Hung . _ 0 uen

." .._ - t .. 't,.. 'h-·.t h '!.. ~'t. . - '" •. '. -" 11 ~"

qua tfl'nh ,ltu81 t-"aC:,al san o mroc tit, no tarn

di.i¢t hai c~ lit nguui va eua choMCmg ngu dan thai thac I'ren bi~l1 khcri. Qj'oofing con bruo larnehlmhsng ehuc chiee tau khat thac him .san~ lam cheet v~ ,m,at Hch hang, tr.a,m ngu dan.

Mua 'VV cling ,auh buOngm~nh. o,en. qua trlnb khai thac. Mua he ca tbucngdenwng can va len gan mar nUDe, eon rnua doug I~i den vung nu:6c' sau, :Nbi~t dQ't anh sing v'a, s\f di~ C~U'

heomu ~ "'''h,.'J· 'II"' .t...'~'-- ,. ~.'l.."" 11-'

t eemua cua eac ea [-_,e..am. bJI.l'C an co ITI.e Jla

nhilngnhan to gay ra g~ dicbuy!n eua ca. Nhung di ell th.ing dUn.g theomua cu,a ca di gay ra ~V' chenh leeh san ltrQn.g daclJ., b~b ca theo mua, Trong nhfinglhang mna ,(long.~ du,i khi eiing thu duoc sinh.rgng eao ,,~oa m~t sd Ioai ca, .nlumg san luQn.S cao thtnmg vaomua he, Cae nbakhoa hoc <ia nghien cuu va lh(y [,ang mil,a :d6ng va rnim,a. xuan sin lugrtg ca :phy

1J.,. A .~ . ·h;}··· "" "'. 'kh' ~"'- ..

tuU:ye vao ,S',! 'Ii 01 qua cua cae ~ .,~ :I xoay t:~ va

c,ac - fvon kh.£ quy~n, san luqng ca kbai 'th~c ducc cao, nha:t xuat hi¢"D trang 1 .. 2. Dl_'~lry trJl'6c

. .

va- sau lchi khf xoay t,~ theli .qua" eo 'th·; 1i do ket

~ " ub'· .. ·.;tk . ...8 L·g·

qua, cua, s~:~; Jteu u.~I:1g b~;n ule:n.

.. . OVi~:tN,a.m Jl[gh~ khai th.ac thuy san ceO hal w.c~blnh trong nam.aob hllemg boo h~ thoog ,gi6 mira, do l[, vv B.lcvao ihM kygio, mua dl5ng b'ic va. 'V\I Narn vao 'thai ky g:i6 mua t'&y nam, Thong thuiln.g '13,0 muavy. chinh thl sin .luQItI thuy sin khai ·thac dKfJC eao hon

_ -.:!i;. , . _ !!'

nhieu .khi chua ,den mua vu. Then di!eu tra eua

cae nhi khoa hQC -. m.i\(mg 'biw Nam 'Trungbe va. Nam bt) tbi:y I"mg~ v.ao mna gio d;Ong hac.~. cam6i vach tb~Jang ttp trung th~nhdan ·I.dn 0 dudimng d!Qi~bie:n rmi~:t dQk~' day vOl Gradien T=O,2 l~i khu vee c6 d6 sau 65 .. 95m vanhi~t o¢ DUrIC ting <til ttl' 22:25°C; c.i nuc do dudi l~i t:Q,p tmngrihieu (1' VUIl,g 1]1100 co c:h? siu. 9j ... 135m., nhi~t dQ nuoe Uing day 19·-.z2DC~ dO muoi 33,5-34·~.5i96o. S1!~P trung thaM daD nay lam cho nang, su3:t da:nb bit hii san ta:ng cao,

cae yeu. 'l5 hal dirong hoc erin-g co. 1nb h.uemgkh6ngrih.o d:en qua trlnhkhai thac thuy san, 0t.I. th~ eac :uba khoa h:QC dEL tbay fling vai m¢t so nghekhai. thae nhu nghe ludi d:; khoi va ~9t.U viulg thl ta,li nh'Ungkhu 'Vue: nl16'ct.rfii boat dQng manh ho~c tang o1)t. bL!n. xull" hi~ng:ait be In~t~ nhi~;t d¢ tra.fIg lap Duae: ttc O-·50m c6 'lht, luang tat 20,5-21:SO,C,c{) san lU'artg danh

.,;1:. ,_", , , __ .,., _ '" ," ,_: .:', ,_ ,_ ,- )I'

bat. hiu. nhu ba:ng khOng.Vong bh!n. lCO s.inhv~.t

lugng ch>ng' v,l):t phil du cae (huang trang v&l vitng cJo nhieu.~u tron.g cJa vi .~:a nh.U'ng blU ca quan trQng cho san. 1l!Q11:8 khai thac cae,

Tom. b;d, :an_bhuemgcua.rnoi truemg d6i 'lui m.Qii hoat dqo,gsan xuitt ella. con ngutti la .rat to lon,~ trong dO, linh \'\fCkhal 'mbac fh6y san CUIl:g kb6ng nim ngoai nhtmg anh ·hu,{m.g nay.

N,guyin. \,AIII IU1a:Dil

2. QUANU.:$ 'GIO'A M()] TRUONG V APH:AT TRIIN NIJ'OI 'TR.ONG T'HU¥ SAN'

Do da dang ve cae lo:~i bln.h m~t nnDe va ,di d.ll1'O'c tfch lillY' :nhi.eu kinh nghiem tit nudi[ cat let; truyen bill doi" Vi~t Nam co tienl nang Um ve·pb~t tri~,n ,uuoi trdng thuy san, San. lUQng

. '~'UIA:''''~c . ,e. the ·U~.v ,Qa ·t·· - .' . : tnnma ·nh·L anb . . c1f..long,:·. . nvl. "ron.g ... J .... n a:n.g IUl'UV -,0 . .... _u_".

bi~n dang' t;'lliem 'l:Y' tJ9n:g dang k;~ trong tang

.~ ]1.. ..... ·h·'I'·· .,r·" :" .' 'I .. " ·N···.···· ", .• '. ,!!;-

saD. .. uc;mg t uy san eua. ea IlUOC •.. U01 tfang

th'uy ,sin eta. trO' tbfuID .1Jl.91 ngaM s.an. xuii lieu dung r"ngI6nv61 congogh~ chuyen din tu Duoi quangc anh.tp:O sa saug quang canh cait

tie'n v~a ban thi;m e anh . NuO,i.Iham canh dll'Q'C ap dung doi vol ,W;QI sO' d6i lUgng c6ghi. tIi kinh tec:ao.. V~~.c phat tr.i~nben vimg Dual Irang thuysan 'con g~p, nhieukh.6 khan. do eac han che ¥e; moitNGniI~c6ng nlh~' sinh. hoc, kinh "le - x:a. bQi va. nhuclu.; trong d6s1:£]ien quan giiia. mOi t:ru:(m.,gvm phattrif'n UUOI tn1ug tho.y san theo huang: b!J;l vi'ngc~ dUQC gUM tam trong cae ke botch p:lUl1 l:ri.en d~: 06 .giai.

phaphqp~y.. .

QiIC han ebe v! moi tnrang: co til! cam tra lP~hat tri~n nu:ol lrOng thuy san bao.g6m:

1 .. Dia die:m khoIl!!: thu$n lQi:

·-·D:~a hlnh kh,ongtbu~nIQ] {dQ doc qua 1em., .. khuvnc khong lieu duq.cnudc ..... )

_ Chat brqng d:ll khong tbu~n l~i (l~et cau d(t ,qua nhe, d:;{!t bi pben chua, (hann phltn cllJl1 hUll CO' trong dlt qua cao .... )

_ N.gudn furOre khong thuan lQi (d1.[thrQllg nuCfc kem"kb6ng phunQ'p eho ouoi trdng lhuy san ''0e ham IUQ'n,g 'oxy hoa tan, d¢ pH~ dQ trong

cua nl.f6c ... J .

2· r"I····h·h ..' chi . .. . ~.. "'~ aobi ·

." u'!C, .~ll:C Im,ral ca, sao ~ len

3. Cae: tal boa dIC) thiennhien: bag, illlt, DUCtc ching., dQ:ng dlt ..

4. SE;l bnhi~m .do cac bo~t dQng kinh I.e-·· xithQi:

- Cac chat Udi sinh hoat '~dac biet III vi

.khmm tll' ,pha.n~ cac chiltt~y)' ., .

.~. Onhie:m do 1l0,ng. nghi'~p -(fl'gudn nu6c c·ap cho nuot trong: 'thuy san co chua du hl:QI1g tbu6c Ita sau"c1i~t 00,,, ph!n.bon ... su dung trong n6ng :nghj~p) ~ -

_ 0 nhi~·m docong ng,hi~p (d.it sLir dlfng va. ngudn n:UQC cip cho nuoi trdn,g thu.y s,an co ,choa eac chal th~h dQC hal, d~'c bi~·t Ul cdc kim loai n~ng, c'6 nguo~n ,g6c lit SlUl xu It c6ng nghi'¢·pl ..• )

.. _.O nbiem. dau:do. san xuft, v~n chuy~~n~ tal n~n tLl eac UtU ehb dau ....

5 .. Tq gay O,nhiem: Do vi¢oe fhi nudi thuy sin vmrn.tu¢ eaa va cho an qua nh.ieu (huc in, t~pll'uog nhieu lon,g nu.6i 'c,a bi:~n {j .mot

khu Vl!c... .. .,

.i 1·.··.'_··.· .. -N··. '~-~""I'fr MlU TRUcjNG VCjJ C •. -.-H-~

3. QUA H~ G _ A " . ',_ _ r.;

, 6-,~' :l: "-. - ..• p' · " ..- ., - -: U

SInN THIDY SAN (xcm.ll .. ,2 . L. .,hutm:gp,hapi~~

I't'i' --1ii''''- Ib;'I"'IJi ri o,JJlVC 1_. , g.,

4. cAe CHINn SACH CO :LIlt:N QUAN nfiN QUAN LY'M.l:n TR.UONG- TRON1G· sAN

~ _"Ii '" __ ';II

XUt-\ T THUY SAN

BO, sung Via hoan thi~n eac chinh sacb co Hen quan din moi truoog d~ plla.t trJr.~n s,an xun thuy -san b~n vung p.h.ai dua tren vi~ liep c~n sinl~ thai - moitnrcng, chfnh g,:~c'b va d!rd1 che ll6ng h-'W va lien nganh, bao g6m~

- Chmh sach v~ baa VI~ :rngu6n [qi va qu'y gen thuy san.

-alum sach v,~ bao .~ moi tnranglQ" nhie'fl va :moitluangttODg g,an xutrl thiry san ..

- Chfnh sach vIE; quan ~y v'a su' dung tong b"gp cac thuy~c nuac ngot ..

- Chinh sacb 'V,~ quan 1,9 va SU: dung tOng hQP vung ven biin v.abitn ..

- Chfnh sach ve qUttn It quy hoach 'lh.eng nh!t da nglulh. cd lien quan den ngn6nlQi thuy

,

san,

- Cbinh sach ve tai chfnh trong'san xutit thu:y s:iiJ1 (thue1tll1 dung, ngan hang~~rQ g,iup

khi co. thi~n tai, tharn boa \~a dich berm)'.' ~ -

~ .. ' E !

- Chinh sach cai tien va phat tri!n cae cO:ng ngb¢ sin xutlt thoy san titn tifn hun" sach han trong Slam xu§:tth!uy san ..

- Chfnh sach tho hut diu nr trong va ng,oai HUGe vac cac Ilnh vue san. XlJat thu.,. san.

l\1:=QY~l1 DU(JUig Th,o

70

1. MQt' sO' thuqrt ng,u: thuong dung

2 .. Bao- v~ VOi phat triien nguon liQi haJi ,san 3" [)cnh gia nguon, ~Qi hoi slln

4. Phuong phaptham ,do dieu tro nguon !I'Qi hUiiisan -5. Dgcmrung va snh vgt hOC co :bHan Vi~T NkJI,m

6 .. 800 ton bien

7. rNgu:on i~Q1 co bien

8. Nguon ~Q'i r6ln hj,i,en 9" iNguon IQi ctap XCIC

lO. Nguon IQi d¢ng 'V<)t thainrn1S"ml 1 '1. NguQn ~Qi, chan dau

1 '2; INguon IQi rU¢f khoang 13,. N.glUon 1'9il ruel bien

14. Niguoin IQ~ d¢ng v¢t qu~' hf!§1m li5. Nguon ~Qi co' bie;n

116. Ngu:on b;lii reng bien

~I. Nguon IQi '~hUy san 'lIrensong hD

2. :Sao, v~, vaph6t trie:n ngiuonIQIi,~hU1ys6n n~i dial

71

1.1~ Sinh thai hqc~ (E'Co]o,gy)

Sinh thai hoc HimOn khoa hoe vtm6i

~ "!"

quan h~ IUiml\g' tacgiiia cae sinh V'~t vai 'mol

wong ttl nhien Ina cac sinh ¥~t. s6ng 0 do.

1~2., Tii nguyen (Resource)

Thll~t ngil chung d~cbi bIt ky scanv:~U nao Iduac d'ung ,d~ cnng ctp cac bien phap nham th.o:a·· mla~-cac - ye;-~-a:~;a~~n~ ~u6~ccu~ ·co~

nguiJi. Tai nguyen (ngu6n lQi) thuy :san Ii phuc ht1n, cac loaithu,v sinh vilt: co oia, tri eua mat

~',t"" . J !' e., .

w'ng d~a ly xa,e dinh duQ'c kha.itha:c va su dtQIlg,

chonhifng muc dfchkhac nhau.

1 .. 3:0 Qui. th~ (Pop,ulation)

'L ~ ru 6 "b' huoc I .~.~. . h it

". -a n \' 'mea t":e t ll,Qc mQt ,O~l SID .. I, V\_t

;song lJ mQtkh:u "'l1e nhart, d,inh cu.a. viIog phan b6., (:a,e; ca the trong c:ung:m;QtqllSn th~ (:,0- moi. quan b~ ch~t che' vOinhall va co quy lu$t Him cho qu~n tl\l~' tro thanh mQt, the th6ng nh:lt co lien b~m.t thiet v6imoi tmO'mg s,on,g~.

IA,~ QUaD xi (Oomll1Junl:ty)

La t~p.hQP c~c ql.Jl$:n tbf: sinh v~<t thu9Ci cac loait Idni'C nhau cun;g :s6ng trolii mQ,t sinh canh C.O ~iu tn1crrhait dinh, tbe hi¢n m¢l buac phit tri:en can eua. qua trlnh pha.t trieD c~h;n s,6ng~. co vi trf va vai (ra obit dinh [rong qua trmh ,chuy~n hoa v~t chit va nang Ilfgng lr-ong:thuy '\te.

MOi qu,an x,ii tbuy sinh v4t dUQc d~c trung bm 'thimhph4n loai, d,c ,dic~m dinb tfnh va d-inh l1Jlqng eua, cb(h1;g'" .moi quan t:t~gilla cac load vm nhau vi. vdi cae nhsn "to' sinh thai eu,a :m6i trI1Ongv,o' sinh,

1.5,. Ca th~ (Ind i\iid ual)

LA timg eel the sinh v~tnham' dinh song rrong mQ;t mei tni'ang va chiu itac d'9ng: C'ua cac di~u ki!~nmoi t.ruOng··, dd,

! '.,

1.6. Loid put.he '(Dominanlsp eeles)

Trong rn(nquanxa thuy sinh v~t bao gio' cuug c6mQt loai hay mgt s;.o loai giu vsirro cbu y€u tao thanh hat nhan cuaqua;,n x:a thuy sinh Y,I~ do ~a 10i11 uu tbe.L;o-ai iru the ch1'qc xac dinh b,ting tfnh ,ch·a:1 Iq,uln trong (:cu~ loai dO, trong ctnlng quan sinh v~t v~m,t ,so Iueng, khoi luang bay vai trocIl8 l.oa:i do trl~]1g' chu trlnh 'ehuy~n hea v~t ch~t va hang lueng ..

LOlli uu theth~ hi~n[ieu bi~unhal, d,~y d.il liliat d~c tfnh Call 'fmc c.ila quallxa! sinh v,t va cUing Iii loai gi[rvai fro' quyet d.joh trong bien ddi ve caillrD:C cit.a qwin :xi do.

_ 'D' 10·.·. 'I ~I ··V·.· .... p:u.i 'T' ~~N' ',' N' G· •.• • •. U·~-:-I n .. ·~l,jI' 2 .... A .. ';~ .. .A. ;,H..ft.". 'l"Kllt. '., " ... uN LvI HiU

SAN

:Z~l •. Ngudb 1q1, hal sin

Ngu6n b;ri bai sin bi~nVi~t Nam phong phli,d-a dang va co. tam quantrong doi v6:f S\f pbal tri~n kinh 1e!' c~a d.a;t nu'a'c~ no Uil lien ,Q;I!: Id~ phRI lri,8n ngim.bthu.y s.an ua thanh m',>! trong nhUng- nganh kinh t~ m';u,i .DbQn.

Vi~tNam 'Vdj, chi~u dad bo hien tren 3260 km, CU 101 kmit 11inb tb6 co 1 km chlel1 dai ba bi~n.t cO: 20 km chi~.lJ. dai dUOng bo c6m.Qt eua song, Tfnh IIiIlng blnh .mOi tinh vel1bi~n cd 112 km dUCmg bo bien,

73

Nam, treng ,.-ung kbi h~uMl~t Qui gnQ mua,wng hi!" dl.ic quy6n kinh Ie ella Vi~t Narn co dien Hell f'QUg tren. 1 trii~U km2" glp han 3 laovil:ng lantttho tre,ndait U~n. Co, tren 3.000 hon Ida:o Jim obi) trong dO, co Ilhi~u dao eo liem nan,g ph:at td~n dftrb £hanh nhwg trung tam dich "1\1, h~\l cin ngJ~,e ca.

Ngu.on lQihii san Vi¢lNam dUQc ,danhghi van Io.~jphong pbu trong khu vuc, Qua cae c,on,g trlnh nghien cuu ,neu tra to: truot ,d:en nay aa, xac ,dinh bi.~nVi~t ,N am leO. Thoin,g 2.030 loll IC'.~ co 19 tloa.i ci voi, '225 loaitom, 663, 102d tin rong 'oie:nl 55 Ioairmrc, 5 loairuat, 21 loai rinb~~n., Ngoaira con co nhieu loai bail san quy gia,. nflu bao ngu, trai ngee, so, .huye'i" san h6 dio,., .. Tru IIJQlJ1g ngnon lQi b~i si~n udc tinh khoao,g :3 ~O - .3 ~5tri~u [~n, khit, nangkh,ai thac 1~4 - I ,:5 trieu U1Il. Di~:nU'ch vimg ven bien Vi~'[ Nam (dQ S3U <: 30m. d.6i VOl vimg bi~"fl DOng Till" Nam be, vinh Hie ba, va <:: 50 om. d6i "cD :vCtnS' bifnmi.~n' Trung) khoing 106 .. 0.00 krn2~ bio,g 11'% WR,I dijJc quy~n kinh t~ eoa Vil~tNam (tren 1 tri~u km2). a, Thea It&: doh tnl llllQllgnii san vling ven bi1kboan,g 1,5 tri~u l~ va. lebi nang khai thac l3 Ol6 t:ri~u t!n~ song, tht1c te (rang nhllng narn g:~m Iday san lUQllg hai gan khai thac QUQc 0 cae wngruroc gan bet d:~t kh. ~.' i-I'-' t -~. c dllm 70 van 'tin. d:iivuQ1 q' u.ipim . . 0 _ng reu_ . ", - . -, -' " - a.: _. f,;'"

han cho phep"

Vdi dj6u kien 't'1 nhien thu~n IQi~vUn,g bi'~l1 Vi~t Nam co- nang suatsinh hoc tUlOll:g: dl6i eae, song bien l~it dang dUng tru~(: IiliUng tbach th1l~'-l.On: dins,t) vUog 'yen bi~n va qu.a trtnh do tbj hoa ngaymQl .gia, tau\g, 56 luqng talD thuyen nh6 t*"ptmng khai thac qua, mue d'vftng ven bo cung vm viec sir d ung c acpbuau.g ti~n~ phuong ,pha:p daub. bil cO dob hu~y di~lrunl chaJt n6~ boat chat tlf;c hQ.i {xyanuya)~ .x.tlng di~n, cU'Cm;g d¢ anh sang qua m,nh:" c,a,Gngb~ te~,xi~p" dan,g .... din a.en tinh tr~g Suy gi!am"!i c~ ki~t. ngu6n l'qi ~ tan pb.a larn suy th,o~ii nai C"U" truva m,6itruang s6ng ,cua, c,ac loai thuy san. Muon bao V~1 bio ton va pnat trieD lbin vUngmoi truongt ngu611 lqi cho cbong ta.va chotac [be h~ m.ai s,~u,doi hoiWt. c,;im.Qillgaai"tffiqi td chuc x,a J:r¢'l pbili, co Y thul;~ (rach nhi:~m cbung, phai co nhCfng bi~n phap quan,ly la'roue t6i lfU v-a, ,co hii?u qua nguon tal ngU:y1e:n quy gia. m,a, tbien nhi!n d§l ban t,"8. Gho .chungm.,

74

2,.1,. Mu:a:vu, kha.i lime

Trong cac :ha:i.U dong khaithac hal sin~ viTin d~ nim vDng d'~c' di~~ cDa, cac .ngu: tnfOngva 8U xu:i!t men' ,eua e,ac~IOii hii g,cln theo :rnua va

I~J • ~I • •• !I!

di tra thillnh m{lt nong nhfing ylu to' qoan trong ,co. tlnh quyet dinh clen vi~ nin,g C:8:0 nang suit thai illac ciIa nghe ell nhan dan hi~ nay. Tuy nhien doil v6i mOl lo~ bii san sl1 xult bi~n theokbOngg:ian v3.thm .,sian deu, co MUng sal kha:c ro ret, d~c biet 'IIi nguon 1~. ca

g' '11 ~ llOl n~_o ..

(1 wng bien 'Vi~t Nam, dacbi!!,t Hivnng bi~Il phfa Bie (v~nh Bac~b¢" tInh, hiIili UUlitiet

. -'h~c .r.I. '" ..• ,·!;l-a. . ..... "·t" 'l:~ \fAy .. ·It:: ... ·t,. ch·'·~~ ".1,11 "Iv b-,O'\-:lb ....... p. . .aiD m.D. ["O~" T . .l _ 'i'·UU.l. I .. I .~" _ ~Ii .J I . I, a ' .. ,"" nv""

va, ngudn l~ibAi san. eua. tU'ng vung nude ,cUn.g mang tfnh mira VV['O thrum eac uga 'tnfOing kb.iic nhautrong nam ..

Vao mlua xuan da sO cae Lo.aic.a- co xu huong, di co vao vung nuue Dong gltn ba va ven dio,; .om co nhi~t dq va, cau true di!a chit thfch hW d~ ti~n ,nanb sinh. san .. 'VI v~y .mila nay ph~nldn. c,a phan bin vao bii de Ut.m tho nang suat khai tb6,c giam. Thm. gian tit than,g 4 .. 6 cfirng Ia tbOi gian phil han ch@i bo,c cam eac phudngti~nkha.i (hac a cac bii 00 ..

Vaomu,R he m¢l 56 lOBi van tien himb smh san,~mQ[ s,o loai ·,da ·tel th(kgiai do@:n de rQ. cac~ Io,ai lea .nh.6cbn phan b6 ovUng gan ber, cae loai Ian di chuy~n dan ra cacviJ:ng 'ntrac sau it~p trung kiemm6i taora cac ngu i-ruan,g yoi dientich r6ng va.rn.!t cliO tuang ·dffi cao, Day Ia; thOi gian cac lo~i! :~:gh6~kbal uiac hii san, bO,1 d.(i'ng thuin Ioi.

V'3.o nina. thu va dOn:g~ do ,inh hu:&ng cua khlha,v Iuc aia; nhie!t d6vnllO .. nude p.·.an. bd .o ..•. iam

• rJI -' ,! ,! I~ 0. .."

thlp;1 _cae l:oai cJatruang: ImaM di chuy,!nra cae

vUng n:1J6'c san conhi+t diQlcao b01l,~ . .k~t hqp v6i ca ldn :nho hOnbqp~ ~pb'ung .ki~mmdi'Vdim~t do c,aotao thanb Dh.uug. 'bail ica:xa ·bet.

'I! !~.. . - ,_. '-

'Ngu6n lc;ri tom eSt co ii c;a ,hai mua mua, nang. Nai t,~p ·tnm,g: CU3\ cae IoM 1,0m he,tJwD:g '\,'"enba d!9 .sau. .dud! 30m, b 'VjnhBac. b~, t(t. Quang N.inh dt!n :Ngh9An ~ H:a Tnm. voimQJt sOkhuV9'c tlQng dic!m la:bai tbmMy fdi.eu, Cat Ba - Ba L,t, hon N~- L,cb 'Obep, :L{lcb Ban0 ... Lacn !Q .• ·..uen.,

. 0 ~IJ ... .:_.

,~, _.. _ _ Ji .. _. '$i_ rJ'

PHAN THIli HAil: NGUONI U;H THUYSAN .

VUngbli!nmi~n Trung nai co do sau dll'6i. 5nm~. troD,g'ca haimua mua n~g ,ct~Li 'Ia n.cdt$.p trona; c.u.atOm he, 'Tuy nhiennoi c6 ,dO siu Iren. SO~~m~a~g tom vO. t~p tnmg vi idly klni nhieu, con mua rmra san Itf~ggiam di roret

,~,

dvilH,g 'bi!n 1)0ng va. Ta.yNam bO vOi[ 00

Sall duoi 30m~ tron,g: co bait mua .mtta,~&ng trir l:lJQng temhe va tom v,O: tlldnll d5i cae voi mot .sf' kbu 'V\fC trQIi,g die:mnbn: eua Cuu,gH~u·cO,a" An Dinh" Anh ,Dong ,- Nam Du (Kien

Giang), 'fly bac;Hon, Ch110L (CAMau)., "

NguO]l, lqi m\fc: mua VI:' thai thac {j wng bi~n.vinb, Hac bQ V,a wng bi'~Jl g;tin ba mien

T~ngdliI yemli vy, Nam (thang ~9l. a wng bien DOng. vit Ta..y Nam, bQ: mua \'U 1d}~d thac .ffilJ'C· ,ebo yeu tir'thang, n ~ ,2 (0 xa bit) va tu tbang4-9 (0' Q'Q ,siu g~nba)",M~t:. nangmaa ",.

1..:t.a.t 'ib~'" chf .... 1l..· ,..'" :I;1!...~ . . 10" d"~ .I._{ 3' ,~,

lUlto.l, t.! I~ ... " . UJ:JI1. I~U luullng .. ' .·'enlll.mng ._ nam.

sau, cae Ieai ml}cpbln b5 chu yl!u a d 9 Sau 30-50m va eo sa hi!'n dOng .• ··.·· thea. thQii p ..... ian

I. ~I ".' ~

trong ngay, Do unh bum.g Quang va bo@t dOng:

b~t m6,.1 CiUI mire n~n s,an hrqng thai thac bi~n dQng thea tUng Ioai :ngb..e...Dui vw!cac loai ngb~ dttnganh S.fiIlg d~t~p trung m\l:c nhu v6 de,n, cau m1:Ie:~, chlJ-pwl1c.... thl khai thac \rao ban dem, Ul totnhit.

2,.JO(Su dl,nlgh.QP' IS' nguoBlqihAi sin

Bi .~.Vi~t Nam colh~chia. ra 5 VJttng 'chfnb~vUng bLen vinh :Bacb6, vUng mien Trung, vitoU' bh~;n[)g~g' Nam b~~ 'viJng bi~.n :tay Nam b¢ va VlCIug bien qU'in d,ao TIUCln,g Sa. - Hoang sa.

'CUn,g vm nhOng dinhgii v~ngu6n lQi sinh. 'v~t bi~nVi~t N'31m va sy' pba:t tri.en cu'a san .xult,. ch.ung ta di cd· dU'~ buc tranh chung v~ bien Vi~t Nam. T'DY nh.ien. moi tnr~g 'va ngnt5n lqi cfing co s~ 'thay o6i thea ,ca, hai chi.eu :hllang tfch clJ,C va n~u. eye. Trongqna trinh c;ong ngh.i¢p hoa~ do th~ hoa va s\Tgia tiin\~l dan s6~ q[ua nhmh" sv phat tri~nm~nh m.e eua cae IOfl nine khaitilac nham 'Vao .cae loiiti ha.i sao co lia tJi.kinh le va xu.at khlu. cao" chit hlqng, 'mO.! nuong bi suy ,g.him' dang kt,mQt s610hl bii sinquy h];~m dang tT1)ngtinh, tI~'g de do,. bi tieu dillt.

L" '-, ;~

Daub gi,atbuc uangtmh bln.h nguOn lei .h~H sin bi€n ·Vi~tNa.m cho tha::y~ Tdng g,an bl'Q'n1 ]lai .sin (bao gdm ng,uc.n h;d ca, g.i:ipXclC, nhuy,enthe.".) hang Dam. Lang len deu d~n. Nbung th:l.:fcmf" v,i!nan~ ,sua1t danh 'bil[hl co xu badng g:iim. ICU ror~t -(kboang tren dum 50%)

so' vatnam 19'70. -

Hai Iy do chil, .y,eu trong 'nhi~u 19 do dan lei

suy giim ognon lQi UIl: .

~ Sl1tang t6ng sin IUQ11g hal s.inkhal [hac dU<;1cb.ang nam khong pbii la S\T gia tangciia tIn 1l.J.'QD:g D,gnlinlQ'i ,rna· do sohn;mg dIU tliuy6n danh bat hang nam tan,S len. Nam 1~18,3 toan quoc c6kh,oang, 29".117 tau (buyeR hip may ~ cotrg suit may trung bbID eua 1 UiU la 16~3 'CV; d€n2i005 di co 90.880 chiec va ceng su~t may

trung blnh d~t 58,5 CVjtau. -

- Sg'Siam sut nang $Uat ('blah bit l.a biiu. hi,~n cua sy suy thaa,l' 'Vie ngufin lqi, v,amtYi Wang. Nhin ·cbung,:- tbth hlnh sa dung cae h~ sinh tbai viin,g bien ,gin bC1 Vi~t Nam vao .c:ac ml.lc dfcbkhai' thac,n.gu{i,D. 'tgi;. phat trien sAn xutt kinh fei.xa bt}i '06 cb~eu hU.'Ongtiug din. H:¢ s,inh dla.i duQC sIr d'L,lng manh me nb~i II vung nude Yen bo" wn;g nrleu cira. song, ..

,0 vung bi~n Vi~t Nam, nllft la. vu.og,m.t6'c. vee bOt khai [hic: hai sin dad:~t t6imuc. giGi hf:lil S,Q '100 ti.em nmg, san co. Nbi~u loiH ci cO gia.trt kinh Ie v'a, a nbieukbuYm:fc danb ca aa khai that: tdjmuc: bo,c qui ·nnl.c~

T~:inhieu khu Vl,Ic ti~m. nang, :n;gll1o:n, Ioi aa gimn tm 25-3.0%) tn~m cbi c10 lac.~ cop,cii tm 50%. Ngb6ca. Vi~t Nam dang g@,p nbGn,g .1dl6 khsn nlur ngllon lqi vung gftn b& cli bf khai thac qua, mue ,trong: khi do nguon IQi. 'Vu,(lg bien siu Xiii ber clnra duqc. khai that 'O,Uflig mac, h~tb.ong quan lynguan lQi thily s,an eon y,c,n w chua ddllg bQ.

~puon .1Qi hai san phong phd" da d~~llg va co. tht !:Iii tiJIo ollqcnhung kheng phii 'YO t~n DeU con n,gubi .kbOng bift bao v~ v.a pb~U.'ri!en ngudn tai n~ru.yen do .. Nguy hiem bon neu con ngum.khOng dQ,tbaa v,~ nil 'mQtth~ thong nhal trong ke' bo,cb pbat tri~n t ch~y tbeo phat tri~n run! III nh~~ m'gc lieu kinb ti d! -d.at dUCle mon,g muon ,ten da,. bart ch'p guy lu~ithl ~Ie

75

Bach [tboa Th~y san

LIJ' ~ 1l..,--"Ii • "" .....11.. _,II - rIj ,-'Iii _'iii;.

pnat nu~n sa;t tea. ;gHl v! suy tllloal mOl twang va

can kh~t tai nsuv .•. ~en.

~, !I' • O·.J

H- oa t- d;t.,'lrI or P'I~I'!:JJ F'Q'n·iI'1I,a·";"': 'la~·m··· 'S'U' 'y.' 'crl<am?'

u', ~,., '. _'~JJI0 ~,ua. 'L-',: .I.~I, .1I,,1I·,bfU',"'Jltl .1. -,~. ..:_ '_ ... .- 01'- _. ":

ngu6n lqi~, suy thoai nloi 'truOn,g sinh thai dang ditn fa ngaym¢t trrun tt9ug if nble:u kbuvyc t'- en t, _,." .d,. ia-.t~ 'l.',i:-~ -j- ""~:- . -,.- "b'-' ,~ i:., .'. L i A

Ii __ral . ~ llilJllc;U ctIa, song ven xen u. yo

MiJem do ntracthil til cae khu cOIl:I nghiep,

1!,.l.. A ... · ~1i..." rh .'" 'I . d· ·h'~ th -. -'"

,l'ildJ no 'UJ~ u ,al ra, u~g enr tJJ8.l _Vioe tnt S.an,~

phfln bon trong nong nghif~p;. Ham hlqng d,au. vi mot sO' kim loa] nang •. , om,ot: so vu.nQ' I1UOC di

.. "",', '" D

vum Iq,.ua mue a,.·,iOiban cho nhep'.' .

• ' f .1:11 I; .r--

N,n phil huy ran san he, p~.1Ja rung diu ngu6nvl cac rung, ng~p m~ ngay D1gtting tren the'" gjm" d:ltbi suy thoai do sa mae ho,a dh~,El ra 11 m.lle Itren 6: tri~u ha m(U. nam, dOng: thl1j teo thee bang lo~'f cae tai bi€n moi truung nhu dt).ng, da:£, bio" lut, han bin,. tri~u cLIOOg ... , dang diinra b .nOO nay hay,narkl13c .. 'Ibeose lieu th6ng ~e CUI U:y ban. Quoe t6 ve bao \l'~ Lbiennhi.en. hi~n (Ii 'co hon_ LOaD loa1 ,dl?ng v~t va han 2.500 low lb~c V~l dang 'GO ngJ.lycIC1 bi di~t. vong. Riengd6i voi ,ea da. ICO bon l4Ioii b] buy di¢t va2S7 loot dang co nguy co tUy~1t

'L'!' ,

cuu.ng.

B,aiO'V~ ngo6n I'g1, lamQt trong MUng- van. de song c,on eua, cbit mroc, eua. nhan loai, lit nhi~,m 'VU c6 'Imh chat, xi h¢i sau ~ac, gan, Htn vai CU~H;; Mu Ira-'M X()3[ d6ighim, ngheo d'mOl quoegia,

N,guyen nhan lam giim Rgudn lqi hail san. ch.u yeu nhu sau:

.. Do, S11' bien ddi cua dieu kienmel rnIbng,;

'M'·~i'ln1:i:t'b·u"" ~a"n··· hi tt.tC1..I~1T.~ v6i-m· flt bJ"~n·

... Il.,I,l l'v~l .. ' -JO, , :. . !J,J • .I_ U u.U,t:l> '~_ ~_.' ~ ,_

d't') m6i truCrn,g obIt dinh~, kbi di:@:lllki¢nm,{ji tfllemg nhu khi tllqngthLiy van~ thuy ly~ thuy hoa bien dd'i dQt ngQt bo,"c do mal tn1O'ng b] 0 nhiem vuet qua. :nguBog thfch nghi c,lia rn¢l low nhail d.jllh. Be Utm cbet h.ang Io~.lt S1tnhv.t

-DJo· 12ic d'Qng C'uaco.n. nguai va jUule ut\kh nhi~m cua -c¢ng d6ng,,:' Neu MU eon

• ~h,· .#~, ;01L.'~".' ·t' .t -b···· _'L·~~ l,.l..",. fh··. ar sa dUnO' rI:guu'] co Y Ulucrac .. mJih?m .r .... uQJl ... :: .... , ,_ ". I ·.··~.--ei

d:[ doivdl vi~ baa v:~ va phattri~n ng:uon lQi thuy san thlngu6n Iqtihii t~.o va t,on t~i Uiu aai hen \Tung ... Ngll(1C 1,,)1. neu (;on ngU'ai c,o nhung ho~t ·d¢ng. vo tr,achnhi~lmlful ngu6n lQ'i s.e nhanh chong.bi c~n ltit~t

Ole IUl~t dl)ng chfnh coa con uguc1i llm suy giam ngu6n ~.g1mbi tnr~g g6m:

+ Thai vao m.'Oitrui:mg nhii~"u chat thai ran, thai lkhf va lb,ng chua dUQ'c xU: Iy g:~y ,onhi.em mOitrucrng,.

+ Sir d~ng ,qua.nhi~u pbAn bon, boa c'hil:l' 'biovt; eJ:g;fl:,glh\,c v,l trong nonl' ngbf~p.

+ Da':nb bdt khOng co quy hoach va k6 hoach, di.n. ,dii!'n,k:ha:i:tha,c 'qua mUle.

+ Sir dung cae loai lucri c·o kicb dnro-c m,at ludi quanh~ di d,a.n.h bat: ca, COIL.

+ Sir d.Qng nbU'ng 'bi~phap ,(J,aobbalt co. 14:....1!-. 1!..£·h~·· d' {I ] .' .... : ... , ;:; d h '. 'WUl caat .. uy .•. I?t ngu,:. n "qJ ~UJ!;U sU' ._'Jog c.·ail

nO,xung (U~n~ chit dQc d;e danh bAt thuy san ...

Trout 811 g.iam stlt nguc1n l¢ 'thoy san" c:trn phii CJQ, bien phap sir d~ng; flQ'p ly nguiinIgri [huy sanvmm'9t s6 ,s.iiiphap sau day:

-Dau, tu vao oaiC chuang trlnh biov~ tWh. (la dang si:011 bee, bao v~ va tai ttllO quy glen, bao v~"mol tnrang: song cua. cac La,ai 1tbuy san.

~Khai thac, (huy $-an did&i vdivi~cbio \r,~ 'vaphattriennguon lQitbuy s.an thea quy

h ... eh t..~'i t· • il .. o"nh' h h .. '

o~c .. pl~a:l~n(:n nga- .. ! quy .0'll.e_ vung,

-Hoan~fd1~n cae van ban pllap luat, thi

hanh Lu~t TIlUY 8aflVi,~t Nam, -

.. Gilo due C9nl dOng, nang eao nh~n tbue bao v~, v.a phit trien, ngu6n Iqtj[ ~hllY san Ifi tracb nhiem. Clla~oi:n dan.

~ - V~-

,. H9P lac q.u6c te trong Ilnh Vl,(c bio v~ va phattri.en ngm.on lqi thny san de thve hi~n ehfnh sach va ,dinb hudng- tren:

. ,

+, cae, bi¢.n pbap baov¢ ngu6n lQi, moi 'twang can d:ugc chii trQng to' c.ac: bi~J1~ phd.p banhchlnh;; phi.p lu~t den 'cacbi~n :phip ,k.j 'thu~tLll$l Thuy san, ;C,acquy d:trmv,e bio v!~ nglrt6n IQi thuy sin c.inpbii dtJa dUQcv3to, (lug.e song hangngay cu..angttm dAuva cOng tao 'quan lY.

+ ~.thielptuU, dlla, nhilng nh~ 'thut vai 'luau. diem baa v~' moi t.ruQng,~ bia v~ ng,uQu lot tilm eta. d.anorsinh hoc van Vi,~1 .... ~ ... t:!n,.o .... ,o;..'l\;.;{t'

~, , . '. D - ,. "I!' .' ._ '- ~ . ,1j,¥'!W' U1l.U I, 'b ~(Wla

chI d~o [mng chuang trinh ghlO d.l.;lc cbiIili. qny

.cun,gnhu ngo,i kh6a vi hoatpOng ella, cae GOan th~ trong cae nuang hQc.XAy dung b~ thong daD tao va, cbuang. tnnh dao tao lioan chinh cbottft ca, c,ac, truOn,g. dai h9C ,. chuyen

ng;anb va khong chuyen nganh trong ca ntJcJc.

. + Xuilt ban :nhung van bin phjp quyma nha n116c da, ban himh v,~ Luat Bauve 'MO~ twang va. Lu~.t Th~uy S'an. Khuytn khkb va tao di~u kien cho 81# hoat d¢ng cIIat.p the va ~,i nhan ngitn :ngna ou.Qc S.ll pha huy m6i ~rubng ngudn IQi hien nay.

+ DO' ehue hQi thao chuyen de eM .ugudin co co b!¢,i trao dci,:i kinh nghiem, h9'choi n,ghie-n ~:Uu, tlull hinb va nhUng vlln de co ann huong "tai hQ va tuong Iai cua hQ.

+ Trao d6i thong rin, dan ~o V,a ngudntai chfnh,

+ Phuc hdi urn elf tn1 cho .cae sinh v~~ bj~n.

~ . - - ... ..

+ Dao tao ng:uon, nhan hrc, ttm klem :ng'tJ6n 'tai chfnh.

Co' quan qu.an 19 eUI3., ngauh dUlY san lUr tnmg \long d~n d~a phuoog cttn 80m I~p quy hoach cho S'~ phat tri . .!n ngh8 .nghi~p. Pbin v1lng ho~[ dgn.g cho .mOi mO~111gh6 v'a, 'co bi~n phap cip bach d,8 bia v~, ngu6n lr;d [hoy siin.

:Ngin cam hoae han chc di!!n muc n :nh€il ca~c: taw nu6:c ngoa:f len lut d~n danh bit hili s,tm ,(1 viJ.ugbil~n Viet Nam la. nhiemva het stre can thiet. 'V LIng bien. can ,chu tr9~g bia v~ II khu vue nu6c ven ba co elf> s.aunflo han .30 m d6~ v6i vumg bien vinh I§~ bQ va, Dong Tdy Nam b¢ vanh6 hen 100 m. d.oi vm vungbiinmi,en Trung v,a nam Trungb() do a d:a.yco rih.i~u bii. de cii~a c·ti, b21igiao vI efta t&m'11 La noi sinh s,ang coa cac !oai. hili salt Trll'Oc mat pooi han ene' danh bitt iJ khu 'we ttt bo tal do s'au 10m. "lao tro~g rJ11Ung ·thing co, tOm ca d~ t~p (rung nhat (ta l:hang 5 .- 7); roa rQ,og khai tnA,c r,a wng llaOc sall, lren .. 30 m.

:8hattri~n khai tbac th.ea c.m,eu, salt~ chL1 t(iQ.:ng cae nguyen H¢u dUQc phAm cO- gia t;ri c:ao chi,€'l xuift tic sinh va.'1 biEn" Vieckhai th,s.c thea ,chien siu ~ac:- ,s,an. :pbtm sinh ·~~t bh!n chi thl;lt hi¢o. d,ugc vm. vi·~c:Dng d~ng. cac quy trlnh cong .ng:b~ sinh. h9c, cbo de nhan t~o.

Xncti~n tl1amQt 86 doi tU'qIlg quy biem v,aom.<?t 5,6 {buy VVC: nO~ dia V'3'\rfing; viM ven

b'~-~~m' ·I···a" m 'fi1!:n' Q' n'g"'~'~A:"1jI ·'I·m;" ~·'~u"l·uc.';n ngijn

. lcIT.IlU]I,il!. ". . '._. "'1Ol· ,. C' U."IioII·V~.~';.·· Ul.J ;;!<~"'~ ,,", :u;

,ch~n giam sl1t ua ILIQng. d:5i voic.~a·c dOi.tU'qng

d".c bi~t. qu-y bieoo.

Thi~t I;Qip cat khu baol.6n bien" bao v¢;" ph\l,choi cac h¢ sinh thaH vJt ph'ttri~nll\gll(in 101 tbuv s.an larnOt fmn vue ,co y nghfa chien luge: d,6i voi Hen ·[)jgfmh~ ban ,g6m :nhj~u Iinh vgc Hen quan d~n flhi:eung:a:Flhklnh '[6 cua Dll!Ctc ta va. lien quan d'en cac mrec trong khu ruc.~ Vi va.y, hao vi nguan lC1i thuy s.an Hl yeu c,~u c.a;p thi.et trUl6"~.;nih. va "[[ion dati, Hl uach uhiem dUl loan dan.Xly ch.m.g cae d:n.rong trlnh hanh dQn'g,pb61 hQIJt vai cac .nu6c xung quanh bienD6ng~ trao ~U~i kinh nghiem, trao

d, J,-!L·t1,. An (J" t·; 'n' a; 'U-''1I ,ca .. ,.... r111' ~·c·· .. ,,5 ",.:;l 'V ,.~II ~Ifuei, 0: ·c· ,a" c O. L.··lV~~I.C .i'_l' o/~ . a..·W 1J,1 \Jr." 'l1"~ ~I"';J U,!~~.I~ ,,' ,,'~-

khu baotdn bi~nnhtm. bio Y:r;:m,o,i '[flIang;, bao

'tAn ... A,,,.. ,dl; e~n' van hda b·:"a~ ...... ue,": ·v,~ ph ,~;t ·~·"·l·,e;t·n· ~j;n"-

_;Y ... \ .. ,-a~ ".1 ,~,a, , 'Vl(lh I '" y~ _-_"_ V 'r,"jl ',IU, ,-" -Ui,. U '-,", u~, .

vltng .. _' da dana sinh hoc.

• !II C! ~j

"3~ U.A,NHGI.4. 'NGU6NL(l'1 'THUY SAN

Danh gia ngu.611 19i th:uy 15M (Fisheries ReSOI1JICeS' A ssess ment) Hi qua trlnh thul.h~p.~ phan tfch, xiI' 19 cdc: s.o :Li¢u thu 'th~p du,?cva dua fa. calC kel quacuoi cungnham xac dinh st.r anh buang· eua 'quiitrlnh . khai thse d.6i v.oi ngu6n I!Ql tbuy san nham duy tIl va khai thac hQJ;J 1y ng:U:clD 191.

Tru l~tQl1;(~: (Bioma:ss:)ma t6ngkh6i IUQ'fl':g ella mot loai ho~c uhieu loal d 'm¢lt khu vue naG d:6 cin xac dinh,

Kha nangkhai thac Ulkh,6i IUc,Mg bO~iC $,0 ca the (s·in luqng) Gwa mot loai hD~C 1Il11i~u. loai co th6 thai thac dugc de tnlluQIlS .oa duqc xac di;nb.

Sanhl~.g khai thac sinh hoc cho phep (Allowable Biological Catch -ABC) la bien d¢ gimhr<;l1g cho pliep kbai thac dOl voi ID'Qt 86 loal hoac. rne>t nb6m loai 'tI-e" c.a sa sinh hoc.

! I. - - - "- 'I

Sin [UQ11,g khad thac ben "lUng t6i da

fli:if· .. ':" "c'- ,- ·s··.···u"<tc,~~n"o),b·-l· 'yo ····~e,l·.J cM····o'y .. ·)· ]~, ,'; ..

vua]amum, .' SI~U.u",,~ ~ .. 1.11 -. , ... J .. ~ san

lw:;m:g trung blnh Lan. Mar co thl! khai tha~c ben

'~n~',ol,..il.A;ii"I.Cr O~,'l .;_1.,. 'h.u',dJI]"'" 0 ··tM n-'gc cU"'o""'o 11m. I':

"~JUUII"O .M .. I,U~.10 ~1dl.,J uL.wJ::I, ,. , ." - "',0 . -V',,L, - ... :' I " - 1 ,i',' -,!p'

San. Itrc;mg; kinht,e tOt aa (Maximum Ec!oo(}mie-Yie1d .. , MEY) Ul,t&ng I,qi nhua.n co

··h··.~ .'1.... ·ht.· .A . ·t~·· ..• ~ '1' I .. i. '.'1 .F •

t.e ~n:U :0 :li'D U:UQ'C ' .. 1.1 s~an ... lfQ'ng . .Il\ .. uaa t,,}H.C ..

77

1(1;; hren o·f:,d,' uu I 0, , 'It' ., I ," y", ;",~1' d~' - 10··.· y ...•... )"[" '~Il._.¥,Ic'li;l' I~ul !,;I.!,II.,p,lm,Um ., I.e .... 'c" .. ' Jla

rnlfc san J,u:crng oat dual: 10'inhu~n 1611 nbal~ bao g.(~m ci ·rnh.img xem xet . ve cae' yeut6 kinh

Le. xii, hOi '~a sinh hoc,

'T6ng san lUQng choph.ep khai thac (Total Allowablle Catch- TA,C): Ht sin lUQ1lg: duQ'c khuyen caokhai thac bang nam, d:.o1 v6i mQt lcaihay .. · ... · m,Ot nbom 100i.

. '

Luc;tn"g 'ca 1be _m~ (Spawning Slock): I.Hi t'~ng so ca th~ ho~ct6ng kh6ilhllgngcu,a cac cti [he due va cai ~ ham, gia sinh san.

LU'Qflg, b6~tung (Recruitment); la s6h.JrQng ca

;;,.1!.., J Q'll .... d"'" d d ," 1,. ~:' d'''' ~',,1i.. ~ kh . ",IL,"" me cua ~oru . a ... '. ~I .~en ,'Ideo ,·.ru cotne ·w IIJl.la.c.

H~ s6 che'l do thai tba,e (Fishing Mortality): lit nliuc chet do ta1t cit cac hoat d¢ng khai tbac ,gay ra, ky hieu bAng ,ch:11l: UF~'., -

H~ 86 ch!t l1J rihie~u (N.a:tuml Mortalirty): CO,

L ~., • ,1" e h bi kh ,-.. hi hi inh

Ole xem c an ea C" Jla . <I ," .•. al. tha.c.c: . en ):1,': ..

bq:im.g cua nhihtg y~ul6 'tv nhien .. K€I: qua. me ..t . 11 b' ~ .. .. .#C ... (vi d d 'L \:.t~ngtong_ ,~ cua eae yeu t6 nil.y . V) ·· .. ·9: •. 'leu

~nh, b~ ,an tltjt, W." .. ) len h'~g thaJ. 'sO lu~.s eua,. dan duQC ,gQi la m)[fccneJt:t\l' ldlien .bay h~ so chel nr nhien, ·tv hieubang' 'chit ~'M'!'. He sO ,cib.eIM

_;l:n"'e~"c "'U'1 -mJ. $,..,'- ",~, "v"th~ an. ",,"(',. 11 .......... WI· .. '>;1 ... ,\.,. ·c··":'!.ng· U!l.··· n I..,;··.a I .. ulillO'~ a ," .. ·VV' ~''''' Jlu>a .. OJ! '''';1.«.1 . U ".'

'In?ll~ I ..... un-:"'gc ·~ ... ~.~c- nhau .

,~IIir .. :;'_~_ .ll'U'ilu,., ,JUJ,at ... ,

H~ 810 cbet chung (Total Mortality): Ul 't~p' hQP C'~.a h~ s6 eh~t ·tV· nhitnv8, b~ 816 1cbt!1 do

I",\... - • '.··h"·. I,...... hi . • .' . b •• " . ", h - HZ.···'~ 'Z .. ·· ."p'.' ·M'

'LUar t: ~c;r..:yl~uang !C, 1.,1' '~,~,. . ::-::. 'T' .

'B";£' d" h" ., ("P I"

.It;;n' "Qng enung qUin,.opt.LaUon

Dynamics) Ili, bien oqng sO lugng ca tb~ etta

"1' .... ' ~ ~,,,,, .t,_ L 'h .," '" . », h ""~

'om va, m,lle UQI .iliili.lll .uong: ,eUa. C3:C milc C .el

thai dUlc 'va chet ['1 nhie;n~ cllng :nhuqua, trinh sin_h trubng ~ bd 'sung, tioi sg lugng nay.

Phu~g trinh, sanluQng,Baran.op (BararulV"s, Equa:tion~Ca;[ch Equation):

Trang d6:

e-, Sin td'~g tl. ~ Lz. - thm giafi

F ,'", He s6 c]let (lo kha~ thac

Z - H~ 86 cbet ,chung

N ~,S6 hIQng cath! song Si6t

tku 'I11nYmb

78

4. "HUONG PHAp TIlAl~rID'O, B'Ii!U TRA NGUON LO] HAl sA.N

- . - '. ---, - ii • -- - -- - - _".' --

4 .. L Kbain,i~m

D'ien. tra pham viphan be tai ngpy@;c, bien. dQ'flg sO' .hrc;rng ngu6n lqi va d,ieu Id:~n bai du:ong Ia m¢t c6ng: tae yO cang quan trong dol ven:nhiing khu bi~n chua l," d.y.ng khaithac . Trengtlnrc 'b!~. vi~c thim do danc~, la, co' so eba vi~ diRb ,gi,a lrei luc;tng tai nguyen gop pban tich cgc: eho cong liie. xay dung k.~' bo:,chb;gan

'h' ,""'. ·'~'~'Id.'" c L.,,:" M·· X't:~ .. 1;."'",,O'Io,O". c'nno nh. me W l'"'~n

.. £!on va ..at l1i;\.U. . ,~Ii. IilJl«'<!-' 1.,1,,1.&1'10 F - .. -, " J\.!.p

thai cho c6ngtac chi [1:(10' Sao xult tru'uc:mat~ e6 nang .suat cao chat luqng 1.6:,,, d~, fa nhfing hi~R pmip khai thac va ,sir d\lrl;g ngu6n lQim¢t eacb hQp Ii beth.

Trong cong lac dif!u tra ng}u6n, t~ hal 'sao phai loon luen k~thQp ch~lcheliu.a. ,cae Ma.n t,(\ sinh v~t hoe 'Voi mol truong" MO:l tnr,bng

. ,_. (t ~ 'L ," . ." - 'lb., '" .. 'tt< ·h·' '1ILJ~' - ~ ~_,:l. 'H~. I ~A

son.gcuaca 'Cul.'l.ara 'cacUJ.JI,an . JU' .. ' , ... ' ~S . .li.un ',:"~1'0'

sinh, Trong nhan '[.0 h.lm sinh, d~'c bi~t c,dn d.i sau V~U), nghi.encuu nhUng sinb v,t ,ehu yeumam I,huc anoho ca. No co quail be chat. cbe VOl dan catlm moi truuc va. saukhi d~. Trang C,aCMart 1,6 v6 sinh c.buyeu la khf tu~g va ha:i van, nhu huang '\<13; toe ,dQ' bai luu ,c6 quan,h~ VmS\! d"i

'M cr a~' .' · ,I''' - "I" .. ~

CU~, SI., ae vaton t{U cua can ca 00 va ea con,

Nhuugnnln t5 thuy vin khac nhu rihi;~t It1QI dO mtijin" dQ S:, u.; cung co, late dLi:Jlng ,quan ~rQng vdi bnen d.Qng; :s6 IUQl1I[?;san ca. Moi quan h~ giua cac yeu t6khi tllqng 'Vm ngh~ ea la di~u rna ngu dan di rUl fa trong kinh ngbi,~<m s,in :xu~n Iau dm,. vI'dliJ ngu dan thuOng u6i~ n,eu nam. nao c.omua Il}t Vag thing tu ',(hi nam, do se dUQ,c

.... ,)'g'l 111;;. _ Iii

mUil. ca nul va t15m 'mOl.

DQd;6~, tron.g, con.g tile d.i.~u Ira nghi.en ecru ngudn 1(11. Dii san,vi~c n.,hi.~n eUn. thea ngc phil dltruciC mgt buO'c, daugthal phai du.c '01.1, Id:nb nglrl¢'m vatbdn;g ke ket qua sin xuait cu.a quan cbuug.

Tnr6'c tien yeu ciu nghien c'uu kho31 hQc;,. nhlt thiel phai g"im Hen vdi yell c:a.u cuathvc ti~n sin xuit va khon__g ng:Ung d~~ym:~nh san :xn~l vdi nJ~ng sua-:t (:·1.0 va ch~t I'llQng t6t" dOing tbD'i xay d'l,IIlg cd .sa khoa hQC 'fiing: chIc cho

:ngallh tbuy san.. .

Xu,€(t :phat t.anhWlg mE;lc dieh. tren. d,o.J boi nguoo I~m cong uie ngbe: ca, phai c,,6 tinh tltin

b'ach nhiemcao, bio d,amthu tb~,p tai H~u ,nlQt

~ -h" l)..,f_'L " 'I·' ~ '" 'b ~:l.' -

cac ',', 'CJLlWUI xae, , l'f:;D tuc va co ,·,·~(u:C'j,ng.

-Ph1!1O'ng phap thong ke san 11lQDg ca dinh duQ'c qua, nhi~"!l nam. cGng co fI nghfa quyet dinh d6i vOi plurong phap x.ac d~ tnt hrqng

"

Cat.

FJBMaLD:OV (1925) da:, de 'c~p den hee 'lhuye:t Hob ua lugng cal mQt each Sal! sac" .M'i?:r treng nbUng 11,H~c lhuyet quan trong ve~ru :IUQDg CUJJI ,ClOg HI nguOrl '~,Qi ca CUI :01QI 'wng noue dUQ'cx:a.c d~nh boi ,muc dQ phi nhieu v,~

- ","Ii..' - ~.' ,;,.,. ~- . .;:1"

nguon tmrc arr cuavung nuoc uo.

N goaira cac nha ngu Io~i con ,ap d~ng 'phutmgpb!p dy:a Vao quan h~ gilla. cacnhom t.udi khac nhau trong SaR luqng: ca, ,danh dlOC,lC ho~c pbuong philp thi. ca, danb dail.. '.'

Triong vi~c,n__glrien cUu nlntng bi~n 'pMp phal tri~n ngbe (lauh ca, !Can. phai th~y rang yetI 10 eo bin trong nhiin~ ..... ti,€nbO ,~ khoa hoc kv.,

,.'. 0 II • i'

thu~t cjj"1 nghe d,anh ca cOng nghl¢p hi'~n naylll

phii trangbj eho nghe, ,danh ca, phutrng ti~n ky ihu~:t cho pbepccl tb~ th~c hi~l1vi~c tham dOl a uhlin.g' '\tung t~p'trung nhung d6ituQIltg daDh bal quan trQng. N eukhong biet dUQ'c co sCi sinh v~t h.OC, sinh 'thiihQC, s,~phan, b6, nhiing con ,duem.g di c:u ella c~c dOl luqng do,! tbOng danh g-,ia. so bQ dUQc ve· In~t so IUQllg va chal lllQtlg cilia lo~it nguon lqi diQ, thl kh.6 c6,th~ d.lla ra mot ban. dlJ brio ng&nhij(" 'V,a dfti han d! thu DUqC hieu suat. cao trong viec khai thac. ]{b6 coth~ xac dinhduQC chien lhu,"t, phm. bOchfnh. xde va co hieu sual cao cua ,(lhllng d~¢ii tau ,danh ca.

Ne:u nhln nhan v~ vfn d~ sinh h9C thl nhlingViUug bien ~a d~ dlldOg 06 th~ phan chia thaob 3 loai hlnhttuy thea tlnb hlnb khad 'tbic chung va dl;f bio,khanang sail hrqng dola:

NbGng vUug bien chua dU'Q'c u:ghien c:lfu va .khai th.ac.

Nhimg wn.g; bi~n dUQ'c nghie:n ctiu. va

~, .. l.,' .1-. "'~'t'

.M.l:al. U,L,ac t ' .. ,

:Nhung vUngbi~n da dU'Qt: nghif!n CUll nhieu. 'va oi hi khai tha~c qmimuc,

o Viet .N,am,~vUngbi~n ,gt1n bo c6 d}Q' s,9;u dum 30 .~. dU'Q't xepvao lo,1hmn 'nUl ba, nheo sl,f phin chia. tn~n,,}

TrucK; nhGng' quan !di~'m vatlnh hinh tn1!c lien tren, cengtae nghien coo tham do v,i d" baa nguon IQi cal trong hoan canh thIJCc te ella. Vil¢t. N.am can tiEn baM theo nhtmg bu6c ehfnh sau day:

4 . .1.1. ~6 chirc nghlen cOn thsm do, ngu,{)n lqii sinh v,~tn6i chung VB, ng.~on ]qici n6i rieng a Vlmgbi~n Vi~t Nam. Nghlen cUu sau v~ d~c d:i~ni khu h~" d~c di&mn sinh V~l hQC cua mQt so loai, :m'9t s,o nhom Ioai roY' nghia kinh te .. Xac d:~nhro OhClngnbAn t6 cua mOinruang; 3:nhhmmg trt,rc till" dfn phin 00 v,a di ell eua trmgloai1 '1lirng nholD 10m,. xac dJnh trCi' lut,mg va 1ma nangkhai fuacngu6n IQi sinh v~t noi chung va (:ua ca n6i rieng d61 val. cac d6i tUQng, kinh 'lC". quantrong.

Thu thap tai b~u qua vien tham, quatham dob~ngm,ay baiy d~ trong n19t thai gian ngan 06: dLrqc nhil~u s6 u,uve hru. dllO'tlg hoc n,ghe en, v,e ph,an bo va di cblUy~n c:ua. ci~c din can6i vi c-a Uing sau ..

4~1 .. 2!. Td ,ehlLlcmQ'lm}t:tng luairQng rii UUl th~]ltai H~u treu cact!au thuy~n 8ml xu§i [lgb~ .c,i Cia lan" trang bi cho rob] t.au mot m.ay tham do thuy am de· do cal co. UQI ban quat 100 vang hoat o¢ng IQng hon ke ca theo Gm.~u th'~ng dUng 00'1 ·dQs3tu 2500m) cung MU thee ,chi~u nlm ngaog (to-ii nhl1lngkhain,g each ]0.000· l:2JJOOm.)" co nb:u viY mm t'bong tinkjp thai h,o tro kh.a quan clio viec dl1 baa n,g:h,e danh bib ca tang tren va t~,n.,g day".

Trenmot s6 tau s.an .xuat se bo trl lUi l,-2 c~n 'oQ khoahoc am hieu nghe cal co knit n.ing thu th~p, phlln Hell tai H~1ll tnrc til!'pghlrp cho ceng la.c: chi dao khai thac e3 trenbil!n cung nb:u xu 19 va t.~p hcp tai H¢,u phue vy. cho dlrg bao eft ngan hanva dai han,

Treu .. nbullg tat! lbuyen san xua't khang C:O can 09 ,kh.oa hQc .Utw. vi~c tft,flt; tiep '[hI can t6 Chl1C boi dutmg .nghi~p,"lJl ca' ban,! b~et pbln Hc:h .khai qualcbung ve ngu twang va, gill chep \laO bing bi~u 'llleo m,au in ;san· cho can bQ,! thuyen vlen., Sau mot chuye:n d].lau, segur loan bQ ta1 1i¢u. ve cho bg' ph.~!ll dq ba:o.

4 .. 2. ThOig,ia:n". ph~m, v.i va vi trl nghiin ,dhi

Toy thea tbibhmh cy, th~ eu,a tung wng Iludc~ pbuong huon.g va nhi~mvy cua tung giai

79

~, '1'- t, ) h ~,,,,,' ..t. - 1!.. • d' 'I..,

uoan xnae nnauma 'q' ;u",et umn 0.01 •.• ung, pnam

fI! ,J' tI! 'I! ._' '. I.

vi, V~ trf va tbai gia.n nghien cw.

'[)6i vill nbfingkhu bien chua dc!n banb khai thac ho~,c chua t~n dung khai thac lai, nguong eho pbep, phil tien hanh di6u [rab),u,g hon d~ ni.m dU'C1C co, th.e pham vi pban bo t"gll

'j:"'.r • I. '," --

nguyen va. ttie:u kien h,,\.i dUD'ng. Day la,khiu VO

cirng qUaIl tn;mg nham tlm hif'u cach:i~n IUfiIlg vaq •..• uv h.u~.t tunhien a.nh hUbnar den dac diem

J IJ '. It> "!'

khu h~ ca, thuoc vilng_rnroc 0:6.,

D6i vmnhtlng vung nuoe d.i dllJ.Q'C nghien cUu va t*p trungkhai _ 'th~c~, thl hlnh thuc tien hanh nghien CtIu co. th~kh6ng can phii dieu tra :m~l n,ng (vl se t6nn_hieutho~, gian han) .. Do dcJ. can di vao di~lllrat t:rQ'fig di~m d~ bi~t dnhhlnh C\l th~ Umg bii ca v~ .saHl luqng danh bib,lhanh phWl, ch~t IllQDg dan Ie,&} khaithac va di!llki~n t~ nhien ella "lung bii ca. Nghien CUll d~c d'Lem sip .. h V~I hoc Ulm 'co 'sOt cho cons blc daM ,gia tru 1 uqng tiIng oai ca va ti:mhi~u. t~aic ,quy tu~t di cu, phan b6 ,bien d:Qng luQng, tai nguyen.

.Khl da quyet d~nb din phii lien bloh dieu tramorvang nUDe nao do.thi tuJ theopham vi r()ng hep ella vung mrec 'masac d'¥nh lr~m vi nghien coo, mat rQng., th.uang sap' xep cac tram

vi nghien cuu thea hhih ban cct (1 ngoaikhoi ch!e"~d<) thuy hQG ~t thay do.i hen, dCl~ d6,m,6~ tram cJo th~ cachnhau '15.-2.5 hiU 19. Nhimg lJ vung g,an ba do ,inh hubng nhieu cua l1;11c d~a~ dieu tien tu nhien de bien d6i. do d:6 can 'p.hii.

~. ~ ~' - , .

xacdinh tram vl dly hon, Mo.ilr,mlhuang. each nhau 10-1.5 hai 19 ..

Thai.gi.an cao. thiet cho mqt. d,gt dieUlnl m\~tr9ng la, 2, na,mva cho dieu tra ugll trlJ'.Qn,g UQn:g di~~'m cGng 2 nam, trong do n(3.Jm '~h,u 2 co th~ tam~heo mba .. Trang 1 nim, ma,i tha.n,g ti~n hi.rID I cbuyln dj~u tea. t6ng, blgp lIen bien .. Thai ,gian xui'ltphat Icuamoli cbuyen D"ghien cUu nen, cO g:ang VaQ cuoithan,ghUCic va sang d!a'u tha,ng gau l a co th.e c:oug tac[n~n bi~ll dlIQ'C ... Moi clhuyen dLen. tra Icing hQP'llen bien thuongkhong: qua 25 n,g.ay .. Nell di.~u tra '"iu 'ttu:oog trQng di!m k!it hQ'pvm dl:l baa t~i bi~n truOng~ thot gian [am vi~c' trf;n bi~:n cang' nhieu ding tot. Tr,~m vi d.ann ca ca,n day d~c 'mm tung cap .s6H~u eba d~ bac ca hanJg ng.aYl' hangtuau va, da:nh gia. tnl IU!;1ng tung D\gU tfuOn.gm¢l ca:ch chin]!]. xac.

80

·4.3., "Nhu,ng, .n,guyen IIC chu n,g

MOii chuyen di nghien C'UU, Ibuyen truOng, thuy~n 'lien va. can bQ khoa bQc phii d~ (;,(10 tinh thin trac,hnhl~m, guyot tam boan. thAnh. thAnglQi c:huy.en, nghien 'coo. dam baokb6i IllQDi~ cong tac eao, challuQng con.gt31c tot.

cae vt td tram nghien CUll da, v2. san. tren ban. d:o", co xic dinh kinh .. 'vi d'Qc~ lh.~ .. Khoog dnoc t11Y ti~n thay d:15i "4 trf trarn trong soot

thm gian d'iieu tra Ui,ng hQP. Ornot tr@!m nghien cU'u., fbtly~n tnrlmgphiixacdin1l vi trl tram

L::'_L .. ' T " .'~. 'LI."nh 'L.P .... ,. •. "

CUUUIl xac, , uy tmuuJ :_~_ C1;l tne t'l1l1,8: tram v~. va

kba ning ky thllJ~t eo dugc m,il dung phuong pbap thienvan, d4:a van., ra Ida hoac vo tuyEn tam phuong de x.ac atnh. vi lrl Phai gbi. chu C\I t:h~ ph'lfong pba.p duQ'C ,8,11 dJ\log ...

Pham vi eho pbep sai so t16i. vdivi 'lrlth~c euatr~m ·tr!n hai do kbOllg qua 2 hali.IY.Khi dentr~m~ tau phii dUngt~icb81 .30 phut d~ nghien em., cac ditu kien ciiamci trU'oog nhu: khi 'tU'on~·~a.l''11in sinh ··v·"~rt' dav sinh '., vatn o·.J:,!".

,_. -_~ ..• _'-~' U_., y ~_ , .:I, .J.!L:U '~'" . 'J' o:J!..l ~t ,. . .'!

elra. ,ch~t v .. v ...

. . , - . --

San khi di nghien ecru cac yeu t;O mOi tr1loog; tau bat dtiutha IU,(1i d~ danh ca~ lam dung d~ danh ca thf nghi~mlhubng iii luCri[ keo~ Itr6i~run,g hing va ll1di va.y dung loai kfch thuac .. Tr()in~g 'thbi gian c6ng t,~iC trenbien, cbi dungmQil loai ·,tum (lm twemg hop d~c biet), Tuy¢t dol khong tuy ti~n thay oaf luCri. va ky lhu~t danh 111ai d.a quy djnh.

M6ime Luo-i keo lien tuc 1 g,i,a khang k~ thOi. gian tha Tum xuong, dieu chinh Iu:oi va keo hIW .. 'Knit ke:ol.l1oo, vi trl tram cung nim b trungtam doan clIOngm.a lm1i dJi quet trong 1 gicr ..

Neu 'tr~m nao rach hIOi bo~,c clinh. bJdi chua. dung "luy cach~ %.el (hay can phii danh luCri l~i tbl canbQ phy. tEach chuyen d~!ll tra. 06 'quy.~n (~uy~t dinh daM l1J6'i l~i,nhungkhong

,qua 3, b1nnroD:g m9t t~m,. .

4.4. Nbullg nguyen lac: cia bah,

Bu6'cthu, th~p tAi ni~m IA.kba:u [tit: qUlan lrQ'ng d~ daM gia., chfuhxalC duq'c luqng tai nguyen. Thu th~p t.ai li¢up.bai bao dim 'ch:fnb x.ac., lientl,l'C va co h~ th61ilg~ phai nlm vUn,g

d,~c di~m hinh thai cDa,n](Jt 86 low cal Ul ,d6L tuqng nghien cUu sinh v~tbQ'c va Martg lm~:i c.a chl'phln t.lcJl,ve ngu tnfbng. MOi me lum phan tfch SO 'con cho cae loai ca Ia 1301. tllQ11! n;ghi.~D CUll sinh v,t bgc·y,a 25 Icon cho cae loai ,ea chi. phan deb vem,~t ngll twO'ng'. Nhrmg:mA.u v~t nay c~n bao dim llUb chat tu nhien, thOng chon lQC, de talli~u -ph':nitnh dung (lJc dierrt, cua dan ca .. cae tId U*u phAn deb va chlnh 1y'

xong phil dug-c ngum .k]uic kif;m,tra lai, .

4~5~ Ph.Ollg, phap ,ghi: ehep ngu 'irttOnl,

Bangghi k~t .qua. d3;nh.lual di. in sau" can bQ nghien 1cm.l ca chi' vi~c dien vao cac muc nhu: khu vyc...... tau,.... ngay..... thang .... _ ..

~. t »: . .~. 1 " .'::( ~ J

na.m, ,,_'farm .. Su •.... lne . UO'l Sti. ..•..• san Udn'17 .

~ ~I ~

Qu.am6i tr~m nghien CUll, saukhi d§: keo lucri len 'tau" LU.Y san 111qnE; ca daM ,dugt n.hieu hay n ma ehia ra nhieu hoo,.c it phiiin d'!phin. 'tEch ..

* D.i~u ira "t6ng bQP~ NED 'me lu:m dum 2:0kg U;dphin tich loan bQ: ne:u.tn!n lOkI thl chia ra :f:lh.i~uphan d,§ phan tfeh, Phan Uly era ~han tfch khong dual 20kg.

;ik £>ieu tra ngu truang tn;mg di.~m: Neil san lU9l1gme:nl16'i dum: 20kg tbllPh~n tfeb lOam bQ~ n~n trsn 20kgthl Ichilfy 'mQt phttn thong dum nOkg.

Caphiirul1. s~eb bUn nlnmg phiirua. nhe rIDing cd! cd, khoi b~ nat hay tr6.c vay. San dO, pban bi,t ra twgl.oiti ca, ]khac nhau, khi phin bi~t phil dam baochmh xac~rorang. an .kh61 IUQrlg, <tern sd' concea mb·! loai, S911ll dorinh ra san luang v,islo con ooa m,6i loail ca, trong toan me lum.

Trude het~ ghi so 10m co sin IU9hg: cao, sau d6m.m den loai hai san cblbi.~t den gi6ng va he, Cae Loai c' chua "ac dpm dU'gC~D m@c,o is,in IIlQ'Ilg caotht viet [.en 'Vl~t Nam bo~k9 :hieu san £1:6 Ia:ymd.u.: neu II 'ell iC,O' nhO 3~·5 con, c.ti' e,g Urn 1 ~2 con boo V30 VM man c6 gm the va ngam V30 farrnol n6ng d¢ 89bman;g v~'. pho~g thl ngrut;m de xac d,pm,nhom ca con b)i cho vao ,ea ~p. enoi cOn.! ghinh~n xel me [um.

mUng loa[ ca pbdn deb. sinh vi},t hQccbo

n•· 'g.~.'. tlll'.' tnlemg -. eb[ 'ri:hill tieD. cae mac sau: d'o

IU _ '.-, \l_,!t _".', ..... ,[_.. - •.

ehieu dai~Xa,c dinb giai do.n chin'muo! t'Layen ;sinh dvc,dQ no d~ day.,

4.,6.,P'huang: :ph:apphin, I~ch sin.h v.t hQr co

Mfi-t" ·n'O:·Ii"}.o.· iT'l'~tln I 'c'h' - m ,o~~' n g'U'.'~l·· gh I' chep,

\f J • ou,u .. rll4I.1 .. _ "_. - .. '?I - .!~,'L. _' '":,1 __ W' .. :_:.' - - '--'- ~,:- .. ,

nguoi ph~J1 tfch co quyen quyet dinh treng ceng tic .. Khingubi phan nch 09C xong, nguoi ghi chep phairlhaciiji roi mal ghi vao 51;6 UIY ho.,c bi~u.Khonl, dUQ"c l~Y )toa, hf1U vierm nham pnai g~.cb eli v.a vLe~1 I~ii Jen tren,

Pba" tfch sinh v~Jt hQc g6m, nam bu'ac san: 4.6 .J~ Do chilli. difi co till

~, Chitll dAi kinh tl (AD~Sttmdard length): [ILJ"mul: m,om den dot son,g CILl{)i cJlIng:

a~·'~·· d· .. • el' . '.' '. (A", C·· f arlk ,- ']h' ')' " ~.

,-, I 11,. ·11'1 .. ~l- t ·l:;i\n· 1- ,'.. - - ro_ . 'r e'D: 'g'_ It- - I _ -e- 'f'r! 'i" m'Ll,', ,t

_cA· u. .~~., ~~_~, ' .•.. ' ... ,_ ' .... 1(.",'. !l,1U _,_."

mom den_ (1:ilu tia gifta. va" duoL

~ Chielll dii.i toan than. (AB--'Totall.ellgth): illr m:utm,om dln. bet duel.

Doi v:m m'Qt 86103i ca co, duOi pbat ui~'n~ d'~c bi~tnll.u ,.3 dua, c.ah6" tnl do, til mom dt!n 1611!~u :~non. Chi~u did ,ea nghien c:(fu dUQ"c, do vm d9 c:hfnh xac toi O~5mm.

Dan vi do cmeu did tfnh ibingrnilimet (mm)

4.6.2. f)1J k.hdllllf!Jlg~ Itnhbdng g.um (g) Oo,m hai lo~ikhoi hxqng.

,-,Kh6i l.uqng loan lhan du,?c ky hj'~lI (w), _, Kb.oi :luqng; than bo nOi quan (w'),

Kh6i 11lQUg ca 'nghien cern, duqc cin. vai d:Q' ehlnh xa:c tai 1 g.

4.6.3~ Xd~ dinh 49 chtn mu6i tllylll ginftd,!-c

Phuong jphap .xac d~nhm·tIc d,Q chfn Dluoi tuy~n sinh due gel,m. 3 p.Jtucmg phap chinb.

4.6.3.1 .. .Phl:f(;!ng pillip ,quan sat bang m;;'t: IJn@l/1 {thea lhang sinh d;tc ,tJUl.rPC Phon,g' ngtt loai Astr~kh..anJ E'6:m co ,6 gi'ai doan:

*Oiai drO~n 1: C'th~chua truOng, thanh~ tuy~n sinh d\lc, chua phat lrii!n~, dfnh c]t~t vaQ vach lIang cDa. thIn, co ,d,ng dil daimit

81

Bach li(.h:OD Thuy son

* Qiai doan II: Cd th~ c.h.u:a 'chin :rtlu,o,i [uyeno sinh. due bay eft uhe saukhi de IIltnJ pha.t due lai. £)3: c6(h~ phlf1n bi~~: dU'q,e dl)'c cai, ca

. ""III'lf' tinh '. 14'"...·a~·'ncl nh 0\ d ~"1·· co c ......... If- . ., :ie-·' ~·n(j:u·' t"lr&>ng.·

u~.... ..11. ' ' .• L . .II.v .... . ._ ~'.' ·.'V .. ~.lILW ;:tA,.~" :~ ...... ,""'.-

(l~c bay hai bon.g., ca. cai tlong OQan sao chu~ th~ 'nh~:Q .ra. lrimg, ban.gmattbuemg.

*= Giai doan 'III~ 'The (i'ch noan sao tang len chi~m 1/3 - 1/2. roan bg xoang bung, Trang .[loin. s.3.0 chua day u!Crng ntuj, khongtroag SlJotl baic:6 m.iutra.ng.Neh. c~t ngan,g uoan sao dung fnOi dao g~lnhlt dll ln1ng nit: kh6 r~nAg ra khoi vach mang nang CUll nQ;an sao, Tnrng, [huang hmh thanh dam ho~c: 'CIl}C. Dich hean co mQI s6m~ch mall, chua co. tinh djch,

* Giai doan IV: Now 'sao faU. ldrl~ chi,!m. 2/3 xoang bung, T'rung Idnl trong su6t~. khi ta rep vao moan sao nun·g se' chiy Ill. Citbo 'mang noan sao tnrng se roi nhau .. Tinh boanmau tl'.ing ... chua d,liy tinh dich, n€u .khe in vao b\lngj thl linn dich l~lP tut: ebayra. 'Bem~t :C~:l ng:ang

t" ... 1;,.,"l" .# -lh~, ... ht ...

l.LUI [1~Oa._n. ,CiO .. i:uJi'._ ron.

* Giai doan V:. Ca ·d;i bat diu de tnrng, n.oan sao va dieh ho3.n rill chfu, mu6i~ chi c.ln diing lay «n nh~ vao b\iIlg If! trUng va tinh dJc.h tiel ra tl!' do. ..

* 'Obd. d:or'n. VI: Cisau khi de trUng:.~ tbe' tich. cUia noansao va d:tc'h noan teo m.~.irat be, lep, d.ay mau, (nann co :ffiau do s,lm .. DQl khi ltong moan. SlaG con CO, m.¢:t. so tnlng nb6 do :mo: boa. 'tan v:a bi thin. c~ bf(p thy .. SaJt1 .mtfy ng:ay m!~n U.I!Q'ng .day lD,8:U .matt di v:a.l~ichuyen S,~tng giaidoan H.

Neu I.uyen sinh ave i:J giila hai giai doangan nhau, Jat kho nh~n fa HI b van giai doannao I1h1 ghi'cbHl'sO cuahai giai ,do~o gina co them 01¢1 gach ng.ang nhu; giai do~ D -m;m-N ...

4.6.3 .2'. p.~ut(1ng phap .xdre di/llt h? slichih. ffl](,($i fu)'eh sinh: d":lC b.1118 altang kIn)! tnlng

Trenm~IlDien do di~u ki~n ·son.g gi:6 va

h h "i:...L. ~ tlu ... h'· .' dt '. ·D··· do'

dyng cu han e _.e, rCllO' l'~~C l~,n ~ lIQ'C. .., 0'.0

'h~' th 'h '." ···_:L d ." ,:;'. hi'"

p __ 'a:l tnu t_~p tuyen smn « 'L.J'(: amolt~~ng

khoang 10-1.5 m~u~ bia quill '[Tong dung dich fonnol 5o/vmang v~ phong thf ngbi~m.

82

Muon tinh IUQl1B ,chUa 'tnlngl trong "mil.a de d6i vm cae loti c:aco giai doan ]V vaV .moi tha:ng:thukboang: 10 naiR sao iJ ca.c nh6:m. ca ,chie,u daikhac nhau, Nbfimg [loin seao .diEQc baa quan. tJ_1ong dun.g dich Gilson, mOi noio sao o\1ng met lorieng, 'clo nhin hi~.D r6 tang .

:Pbuang pbap pba dung dich Gilson; HNOJ (80%) 15m I

Axit axetic C6n (60 %) NUl.ac

H·@Cl·

,0 "2.

9ml 100.m[ 880['Q1 20g

4.6.3'.3. Phumrg philp .Ur (;/n!lc Ju;c (t(biio) 4.6.4 .. Xde dilll tip no dfJ da}'

Then tbang' .5.b{l:c (Ful;ton~, 19.o2)~ ~c O~D~ day _kh.oogc6 t.hLIe ,an B.@c 1: D~ day c6m(jlt H lhac 'w ~c 2: Thuc- an chua 1/2. d~ day

~c3,:: Thuc in trong ~ day dl!y MLIng vach da day khong nU'l&m

~c 4::D~1 day rat cang

4~6.5. Tiu th{lPlll,4:uv9'i oi )tac d,l111 tuiJi

'Tu6i c·a xac dinh thee viy, dot song. oa tai,

_ 1: J

tia vay ,0 ml)1t soc a~ vay bi troc di ho*c hoan

toankhoog e6 v'y~khi ·d6 lay nhi tb~l.C.b (da tail ho~c dot song d~ x.ac dinh.

* Lay viy: Vf1YlbuO'ng hiy 0 'lFen dlIoo,g ben trn6'c vay lung: neuv!y c; cno do d'[ IVng mal thl la'y ,Ct chO vay nguc IIp len.Vay lay duqc cho V.aD s,o hoac nli vfiy? so lUQng v.ctyliy tu 10~ 20 c,ai trenmdi con ca.

:!e' L!!If. d" ....J .~.. " 'k" . J: . dI_J.. A''''

"'11)'_ ill taUt: t1ung .. eo ca t xuong umn uau,

lay da tai cho vao tui gLa:y co ghi nhan hleu,

* L~y d:,ot s6n.g: Hiy 7-10 a'or s.ong trtrat,. ,chal sach ca:c cava cac ptuin.m~m .khic ra kbo.i. xuong. Cbo v~o ttii va ghinhan hieu ..

each ghi sa v~y:

Quy~n Sel viy kfch tb:dO'ckhoing 15x.5cml'

,gom 50 trang, ngoai blaghi: -

Ten. ea 56 s~: " .

.,. ,iii!:. , ,_ .., _, _. . I'", ,'11

PHAN IH(I HIA.I': :NGiUONI L(UUI.UlV :S.A,Nj

Me hr "'. , ,~ _ '_ co.- "h'-·,· ,- __ -,-

. ',. _ , m SU ••.•... ngay t _ ,allg nam~~ .

·Dl;3. ·di~m _ , "." n, "

Leai Illlm., ,.,.,.,. Tu SO., .•.. ,", " .. den ,.,., ,., .

-N ,;-" 'hl- tfch:

... ' ,glum .P I'L I .. n, 11,."- l!i"1 'Ii ~""I,·,. "'~'~''!'''''''. '!" •• '1"" '!' "" !''I' !'~!'! ~'I'!iill,l'rti i'iilrii'Ii"~ l1li '!"~

Mili '(rang trong qu:yen ,$6 va, dung cho m(lt cat th~? vie:t cac rnuc sau:

Chi~u dai (.AS, ACj, AD) Kh6t lUQ'ng (W~,W~)

[)Q no da day (d)

Giai doan sinh due

,I -- '!!-

Pb.,m Tb.n~'

~ "~

s .. IJIA-!e DliM CH'VNG v~ SINHV,AT HO'e

cA BIEN Vl$T NAM ,..

B,i6n Vi~'lNa:m n~m trong khuvrrc nhiet dd:i gio mila", Khu be Ie-a bi.~n Viet Narn thuec khu h~ d()ng v~t ,& :DQ ... Tiy Th!iBlrih Duong, .. Do vQiY!llc;a bi!~IlVi~t Nam ,khung chi fill ph:Cing phu, da. dang ve- thanh phin. }IQ8i. m:a CO(1 dft d~c tnm8 eho ea b:i~n nhi~~ dbi ve nhting, d~c di~m SiM. v~t hoc,

5.1. Tu6i va, toe dQ si.nh~ruiimg;

D'R s6 en: bi~n Vi~t Nam co kichUn.tdc khong IOn" cae loll ca daub bat" duQ'C chu yen co chi~lJl dai phil boul 200mm" trong dO. nhltng loal c~c,6 klch thuacDho bon lOOmm. il::ung; chiem sin htQllg: kh6ng :obo. Cae: lolit cit co chj~u dai H:r 200mm den 500m:m co sin br~g thap ,bal1..Doi vo.i .rd:1Ung lOlai ,ea c 6 tb~ d,t kfeh thcrat- 1& nhu c,a! soag, ca b6ng"~ ca: kern" ca nhu .... 56 cathe co. chien da:i tren 500mm da.Rb l}at oUQ'c eiing khO'o.g :nh.i~u.

,Cd tbe chis eae loaica da'nh b4t dl1qc theo 4 nhom c.hi.eu dai nhu san:

*Nb6m 1: Qi.c [oai ca c6chieu dai duai lOOmm HI cac loll ea li~t vamt')[ s6ca pbent c:a

b I' ' .... ~~ "'"

·~tC~ ca CJoU Yang v.v ...

* 'Nbolu 2.: cae loai ca. co chieu dai tu uM ]OOmI11 d~n 2iOOmm.'Vay Ii nh6m ca. chitm san hl'mtg, .... cao nha\t, bao gam:: ca d:u'i~a Eugtlg;

.• . ,- . ..?'. _ .

cami~.ns.anh~ ca can.g:, c,a; ,ebi:m .. .An 'DQ~ ca trac"

ca tnch, ca la.ro, da 8'0 cae [o£!j trong bQI cakhe~, v,a :m,Qlphin camGit ea hOD,lh ca. song." ..

* Nbom. ] ~ CLi,c Ioai c,a. co chieu dai 'tit tren 200rn.m d6n 500mmll sin luong thuQc' nhom (;3 na.y trongcacme lu,aithon.g nhieu, do la en hong, ca ke.m~ c.;imoi vam,Qt SiO ]nai c-a. i:t g~p kh ac.,

* Nh6m 4: Cac loai ca. 1c::6 chien daj tren SiOO:mm nhu mot SIO ]OiajL 'lhu6c ho eathu, no .cii

. 'i ;Ii'!' .,

dua,

Tuli thr;J.:

ca bitn Vi¢,[ Nam, cu.ng nhH da so cae Ioai ~-,. b vung bMn .nhi~t dm, co, chu ky song luang d6i "gan.n,a 8,($ cdc loai Cat d~c bi~t la c:,a·c:Lo.ai ell .kinh Ie va. c:ac ]oli cit tlllrbn~: g,p, thlJong chr song 3- 4 nam ... Trong d6[Uoi thQca.o nb~t cU.a ca Dt;]:C s6 va.ca nne ,thuon HI. 5 .-. () tudt ella

",. "'fl·· _"' " _" ·'L 'l;t· '1'" Ale A' ,

ea tnc , . Xuetn.g;v,a, ca men " am la '1'-.), UhJ 1~ ,C1UI

ca nloi lit 7 tUl6ivi eua ca hOng lit 8 tu6i.

6 vOng bi~n gfu hCr:!i ca danh b!t dtrqc 'crru, y~iJ. Iu 1 ,_. 2 tu6i (rieng ca,rnch va caJ. n~c ter I .. 3

lo6iJ. OI\Fung bi~n xa bc ca danh. bill IdllQC thubng fJ 091 tudiciJ,o hen (4·~ ;; luetH,

rac' ,tl~ sinJl truhg;

'D:! , I 'h'- Co 'k' ,-I) . ,-( c c--g,·a"':1f.'I nen t6c dO, sinh

_ 0 C U. .J SvJ1g n. II !;,;; . ',. ._It,!],

tJ;Vdng, cu,acac lo.ai - ca. chi. d.,~. gi.atrt~:oi da. trong nam d.a.u~ sau do bIt d,augiam dan, ngay to' nam th112. C3i Due va, ca trfch co t.& dO, sinh

~ • '!II • '.

truoo,glrong nam diukhoang lOOmmtna,m inl\'

2: d~tkhoang 20 .. 3iOmm; d')nvai da 86 cae loai cikinh te' Hoi chung, trong nam tho I co the da.t.~di chieu dai lO()-200mm, IU' nam thu 2 toe dQ,sioh. tw6ng dIlgl:am OJ.an va. bit: dau nam tbu 3: tr,a di, toe d,Q1 sinh truUno, g-., him. dirore,t

.'. .~ . ~

H.1iu nhu 1~1 ca cdc Ioal ca d~u de phan aQt va ccmna de .keo dsi, rift nhieu loai eli IC·.o mua dek~o dati. ,gan su6t na.m.

Tuynhien~mila cJe cbu. yeu eua -lia s,O cae loai ca, la to' thang 3- den thang 91, ~rong d6 t~p

83

:Sc)ch khoc, Tihuy' scm

trung nhil ~,a, rlr thang 4 de~nthang o. a vung bi~n Nam he) va Ham, Trung bomua de ella, ca lh.uang keo da.i hon (Ill: lhang 2: - 1 i)~ leo :nbieu loai c.a de: quanh nam (c ii, td,chxuIO'ng, ,cit ,meli V;~Gb., •••• ) va, co' nbOng lo.11li ca, co :2 mua de cbfnh trong narn (can~c so. c,a, nne thuon ... ).

Tn) nbCi'n.g Ioai ca noi d<.li dtrong (nhu ca tbu, ca ngir), ca ehuon thuoog de tnmg b cac vuu,g g,3.n cua, vinh Blc bO, va cac vimg nUi6c thuoc bien mifn Trung; da Sod cac loal c,a, thuun.g d\~ '[rtrng 0 nhUng vung nllDe nong gan bet, giin etta song, quanhcac dao hoac trong eac vinh,

.

,5~,3. 811},'[ d9:ng bitmo:i

Thanh ph~n thuc an Gua hau het cdc loai c.a fit r¢ng~ khOlng eo su lirachon ch~t che~ do dO. S,l,[ phan b6 cua cal t.ucmg: .a'oi :r¢ng.Da s'o cae loai ca in tap, e6 nlnmg loai ca, in ca sinh V$t phu du vs sinh V~] day. C6 loaf ca, chuyen an sinh v~t phil du Ml1I1g khlbi doian ca, trm,g:, ca. va eel con .. Tuy v3Y can ell vao thanhpbdnnhuc - "'-1 "" h ~ hi ~ 'I ,,, nh '2-" . '-h .. nb'" ,~ an co tne pnan c. ia ca lila C-, ru om: i __ om ttl.

hil~Il 'va nhorn eta dll.

Thanh phan lhUc~an cu,a nhom d11 dlt (ca thu, Ica nglrf'~ camoi. .. , . .) c:tnl y~u 111 cac Ioai cal co kich thuuc, nh.o (ca cam, ca Iep, ea chi

'V", ',0," ,~. g', ",~ '):', ~ r~ m '1'0;""

Y~'~" .••• ,,1 ." .... , .' "~:"".

Thanh phin. 'lbut an elm.a. nhom ca hien thuOiJ.lg gam ea d(Jng v~t phii du,~th~c v~tphu du, oQug v~t day va ca mQ£ so thuc V~l day. Thanh phin thucan cua chung tlnnmg phan a,rib. [hue trane thiinh phan sinh vit.tnhU du b

• .,b, III ,r

1110j tnreng bien.,

CUol1.ng dQ batm6i lhtrang fhlip', Ci da,rib dugc U:nloog 0 ttnh t[E,lnB, d6i hoac chi co lit 'thue an" d¢ no d;~ day dutOng b ca~c b~c til 0 Ceil 2 .. De bu Iai, ca, bat m6i Hen [1JC thee thal 5~1.\n trong ng:ay v,a theo mua Yl;l. bong nsm, Bi.en dQing: Go,a lCuim:g d¢ bit :m6i 'thea ngay d~m va thea mua khang d.an,gtf .. Do v~.y!!' t6ng l'11gng [hue an cuam!6l c:a th~ uong D'am v,an lon, va vI theca' vin co. t6cdq sinhtrUon.,g cao.

PbQm I:lIu9c

84

6.1. L,ch sir hloll tbanh va phit 'triEn

Khu bi,ou5n ra. dCii t'lrrilt ;s6m~ chang h{ln.~ mOt khu bao Iton a An 1)0 co to" 2000 nairn, hUac diY~ o Ind6'ntsia. ,06 ita boo 1500 nam .. Nhieu. khu baa tan kluic .raGOO nhu nhtmg vnng dit thneng lieng cua chua trai,thiIDlLnb hay khu nghfa dia, K.e til :oua. sau cua th~ kj l'9".khu bao ton d'trQ'c xem Hl Ilhung ned cam sin ban va sinh V~I b do aUQfc.ba!o' 'V'~J di~n,.h'inh ,nhA£ Hi uVu:O'rl Qu6c gia"Y ellowstone (My) duQ'c thanh l~pnam 1872. K~ tu d6,c.a,~ khu baa tdn pbat trien thea m(;iit phong t.rao va, bao ham nhmngquan ni~m ng:iy c,anglie,ntifn. Day cllng 1a Iludau tien cum tllr' 'Vuan Qu6c gja" dugc: sa d'l:Ing., Cae th~pkytiep theo, ,nhi~u nuac tren the gi,ai da ti€n hanh thiet 1~,p eae khu baa ton 001[] Banff a Canada El Chico lJ M~xica,~ Tongariro 6 Niu Zibin v3iVuCrn. Qu6c gia ThI:lY Si ..

Tnroc linll! blrihffiQl so van, d~ v6 kinh phi ho~t dQug, rno hlnh to c:ht1c va kinh nghiem ho~t. dOIlg: U cac khu bao leJumm ngay caqg tfO' [len buc }tuc,. Tai chile Bao tOIR1bien, nhien QIU& ·te (1ntema:tionru Union forthe Conservation of Nature_IlICN) da; ra dm nam 1948. U1CN (na.y eo ten mm La The World, Conservation Union) .c6m,¢t each ket hqp dOc dao 86m u.hi~u chuyen gia trong cae r1k1lh,V1,1'cb~o v~ cae loaii SmD v~t v.a. canh ,quan. lucac to cbuc chmh phil va phi chfnh phil tharn gia, Neunhu .aD,i hQI cae Vtron 'QUOC gia (the World Conference on National Parks) Ian thtl Man (t962) co kboing 10.,.000 khu bao t6n thi denD~ih9i l~n th(f 5 (2003) da. Um,g lenlOO.OOOkhu baa t6n ben toan the ,gim. M:\lC lieu va nhi~,mVQ coac.ac khu ban tfin cOng oU'gc m6 r-¢:ng khong con cm chu y duy Mat dell sinh V~L Hi~n nay muctteu cu,a b.a~o t611, nhan manh tro viec s:{r dl.lngben vtblg Itai nguyen thien nhien, baa v~ gia tIi ~cb su~van h:oa~ elta 11 caM quan~ da d~g sinh hQc, feb lqi mOL tnrbng, nang caomo-c s.ong va 811 tbamgia co tnl.ch nm~m eua c(>ng dong dan tCU dia pbuang trong cae van d.~ quan 19, qUylel 8ach - ,~' - 'kh' b~ ",,>i!'

.c ac:. c ..... U3.0 ~on. ".

Thee ang IlOc veDa. d~ng Sinh hoc (1992) hien da c618;7quOcglarhanh vien, 011 khu baa tdn d]1Q'c xem [a.:. ~,~ 'vUng d~il ly co giOi h~ dU'qc thi~t l~.p~lde'm solit. va ,qu.an· Iy nhim d~t cacmllJ,c, Heu 'bao v~ da: vach ra", TUy nhien, v6i dinh nghia nay, calC gia tri van hoa \i'a 'c,ackhlll baa tOn biin chua dU'Qcq1.l3.n tam, C.hlnh VI v~y, t.~i CuQc hQP[)~ihQi d6ng ve, VU'Qn QU:Oc gia va Khu Ban t6n (the World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas) bin thLl 4 (1992) clJixac dinh lsi Ht: '~MQtvilng o~n He;n bay bifn di duQ.c xem xet nhmn. baG !t6n, duy td Hnh da dang sinh hoc, tinh It;' nhien, co cbUa d.\lng cacgiti ·t;r~ vin.b6:a. duqc guinly thOng qua. :pbap' In~·t va cae: ,eong c\I hi¢,uqua.khac·~~.

Trang q,DilIinh pha1 tri~ntki~m nglti~,m tit 10 nhom tiSu c.hi (Category) nhim xac dinh cac pbt.ttang thuc gum 19 khu baot6n'l! nam ['9'94· IUeN dii d:d.c, rtit con l~i 16 nhem tie·g chi cho cakhuiJalO u~ntf~n elil li.~n va khu haou6n. bi~n.~ deeD the d~t. duq:c s~ ,dOng thu~n cu,a cong d6nJ' qu:6c ~e'" baa gil.m:

~ Khu baa tdn (J·tJ tru thien nhien: Nh6m 'lieu chi lit (eategpry Ia; Strict nature reserve): khu baa t6n chi danh cho mue dich nghien ct1:u khoa hoc. La, vimg d(l li~nlbie':n co cae be sinh thai, ,ci6 die ,d:iem dla chit eanh quan vta, cac 10;3.,i sinh ·v~.t n6i bing hay die hOn. MQi sinh v~t lJ khu bao (fin nay dUl;1c: baa Y~ nghi.em I1g~1 v.a giu nguyen hien tr~g'i Chi co eac hoat 4Qng nghien citu khoa hQc dU'qc phap vao khu v~c nh~y cam. nay" con cae heat dong du ljch ho,"ckba.itha,c thi hi cam hoan toano

'Kh" '.. b' .. '~ . . "... , .... . .... ~.:t..:A.' t.... . d'~

... ' __ U nao l;{j:D. cae fOal smn Vo,.t J!~oang a~

Nh,om dell cht Ib (Cite,gory lb.~Wildeme,ss area): kh:u ba..o lt~nnb:am, quin ly chu yell cae loal s.inh.v@.t bOlting dl.La. m'Q·tvU:ngdat/bi.~n nguyen .sO' hay chi b,bien ddi rl:t it d.ang tb~ hi~ncac inh tn.timg va. d:~c tinh V6'11 co cua .nO r~n can. ,duqc bao v.~ vi quill 151 d~ gin. gtO' cae di~u ki.!n tU'nhleo.Kh:.tc vCrinb6m !atrell" 0'

- - .. ..

ki~u khu !lao t()fl nay du lich va c;ac ,gia hi )Ca.

hi?l dUQe thLra nh,ntron,gqua uinh boo.:ch d,tnh va.quanlY ..

_. Khn bao t6n ki&u w,OO. .qu.&gi.a; nhom lieu chi U (Calegoryn: Nati.ona.l park): khu bao~dn duac q .. uan ly." nhim bin v8 cac he sinh.

II -' ., t!J

thi~ v,a phuc V1J n,gbl ngal. giii trl, Lawng

d.I't./bi~n dttQ'c thh!~lijp d.~: (0 baC) v,~to.an ven sinh caai hoc c-ua. mQt hay mQ·tv~i b~.sinb thai eho cae the h~, hi~n t.~i va tlJartg .Iai·~ (ii) nghiern ,c~m khai thac haycac ho~t oQng Itrai 'vat cae muc tieu thiet ke va hO~l d(>ng cua khu baD t6n; (iii) eung cfp cacv~.n b()1i d,e phat huy cac gi~ tri rinh thin, khca hQc~ gia.o due, nghingci, tham' quan ph'u, hQp v6'i va.nb6a V,a .m.{)itrl1ong.

- Khu biotan ky quan thien :nhien:Nhoim tliu chi III (Category Ill: Naturalmonument): khu bao t6n duQ'c qu.in 19nham baa v~ ca.c w:ng thien llhien.d.jc: g,a;c. La. noi co. ~mQ.'t. hay mqt vai gi.i tfi ve Hlijllhiennhit:n, reinh quan hay cav.an h6a. vathisn nhien n6ib~1, dQc CiaO'. quy :bl,em" dai di~-n hay ctula d~g c3icy' ngbTa vinboa~ tam linh buy~n bf..

-Khu bao tou loai va sinh cu: Nhom ti!u ,eh(IV (Cllego.ry IV ~ Habitat/species management area);khu bia tdn uham bao v~ t.hon.g qua cacbi~nphap quan It cac loai va Iloi elf trt1 eua cho:n.g. La wng: ditlbi&n 'chill. s~ ean thic.~p tfeh cue ega quan 19~ qua. d6bao da,m vi~c dlly tri cackhu siahcirphir hgp v6i yeu

>i ' If ~ ~ l' ... 'i'" hvat >i. 'b:?' .a

C,aU s:!.Jug cna cac .·C1a~ SlIT'. V~" can · .. ao V~A

-Khn baa t60 cae danh .lrtmthlng canh; Nhem 'lieu ,chI V (Oltegory V:: Protec:ted l.ands1capels.e,a;sc.ape l: khu ba.o U:lfl nbam hae 'V~ cae khu nghi ngO'i va oJ.)' ,nhi€u danhlam thang ,c,a:rih •. La wn,g dtlt, wng yen bo\ bay wng bi~n ,co .S'l;l can thi~p til Ulu cua con. ngum V,a tae ,c1Q:ng leu;a thien nhient~oQ,en m9l khu. Vl.ft: ,co ,d'~c dlem. rieng bi~t voi. cac g.Latrid~() d.ue!! tinh th~, sinh thai va van :boa d~c sac!t dongithOi c6 tinh. cla. d~.~g ·sinh. bQc ca.o .. Congo lac day ui Unh n:guy,en. v¥" eua. c,;ii,c gia :tri. truyench.Ong, na;y 13. v,tin die ,song con c~.a v:i~c bao t.On" t.on t{tO v,a ntn b() a cae .k.hu bi.\o t6n nay.

_. Khu bio ton C'tlC ngu.6n lQi ll;Inhten:

Nh~ 'o"'m- tieu c~tVI.· (...., ... I'~onr'V ·v·.···.···I· ··M······ ···"l'..".~rr~"'"

',.- ,., .-~j _. ,-,~,~~ L I \~'I.~ClV&'J .' ,~"'-,"~LI,Ut:iI~

re,solllrceprotected area)~ khu bao ton. nbam baa V~t duy tEi va. qluan ly vi~c sit d\lng b~n \itng' .DIUOn I~t, nhien. La. n.oll ,co ,cae b,~

'tbong: tu nhien kh6ng bien ddt bay it: bien doi, can dU9:c quan my va, bio v~ lau dai~, duy tri tfnh da dang sinh hec va cung cAp ben vQng Cat; sin ph!m, hang hoa W.f:l baa dim cac dich 'V'lJ can tbi,et da.p w,g nhu cau n,gay ding 'ling eua con

, !I;

ngum,

,6,.2. Kbu baCt t6n a Vi~~ Nam

Chfnh phuVi~t Nam to' lau d:a y thuc dugc tam quan trqng; va y ngbla ella vi~c phait trien kinh le" ban v~,rnoilruOing: v,a sir d~ng hqp l~y Uti nguyen thien .nhien.V ao :nhiin.g narn 1'960 Vi,¢tNam da:, ,co nbUng, bmrc di.khCrl (ht,lll ehfnh thu,e v~ bat) ton tv nhien, Theo Trang tam D'II bao bao ton 'Thegim (WCMC) daM gia.J, V'il~t Narn Iii qu6c gia x€p ·tbt1' 16lron.g bang x.ep hang ve nhtmg vung co Huh da dang sinh hoc cao tren 't:rai d~at (WCMC annual report, 20(2).

VmmQt di~n tlch bi~n gdp 3 hin di~n tieh d'at li~n,~ nhtmghien nay viec :8U dung va, quan lYI,ai ng,uyen thi:e·'o, nhifl[l bi~n con C,Q, nh~eu van de ba"t c,p '\!,a. chua h~' U" dang la 'mOt moi de doa d5n .ldui nang phat tri~nkiIili te bien ben '\rUng. Vi v~:yvi~c truer 1~,'p mQt h~ thong: cae .thu bao tOnb~~n Iii cong ~\I b6 bQ' va ,ciIng:' \fbI. LUQtt Thuy san H1C(j sa phap l1 d~ baa ton nguon IQi t\l' nhien, bao v~ chu quyeu va tang c'UQng ngu!6n lQi,thuy .s,an.Day l,a yeu CaD r&t c.rip thiet cho muc tieupha:ttrif,nkinh Ie x,a hOi ben 'vilog trong qua trlnh c6n,g nghi~p. ho'~ hien d'lll boa va chu, d~n~ hci nh(tpi quoe ~e.

010 tm 'th.ang 3/Z004-~, tGng, soca.c khu bao t6n CUB! Vi~t Nam (bao gam ca ohling khu dang d.uQ'C d~ nghi) uriah Chinh phil phe duy~t Iii 206 khu vuc, H~ tb.6ng.~ .I1fty bao glOm 13 woo, quO:c gia, 71 khu du tru(bien nhien., 33 khu Van boa - Licb sa - MOj truOng, 65 khu ng:~p uU'O'c" 1 $ khu baoton bi.~n, 5 HIp di sin tl1!" gim d.UQt UNESCO cong nh~.D'6 vUa lao tsi sin ·tV runen vi vann6a cna. din t9C khong chi coaVi~t Nam rna con cafue"gi6i .. Cach tiep c~n va lyoa chon trong viec xem xet va ru5xua:t cac khu 'baolt1n ,",2 , ... A. b.?. va trenl bien thehiern SU' n6 lucva co

"",,(1 ",en . v . _~ ,'.. .. ' ... ': . .' !~' ,.1. -.' ,,'., '" - .' ... , ' . _ '

gang CU3. Vi~t Naentrong viec ba.o v~ tmnguyen (ta 'ta::l ~o va kheng tal '~o): duy trivagiu gin c acgh~, tq vanhoo, khoa hoc Qch slt va cae, gi;a

hi .mmg d~ml1i1l8ic d~ tqc; (cae ,gia 'tQ 'V~:l 'the' va cac gia tri phiv~t lh~)..

,6,,3. MQI: so to:n t:,ij

Bio t6n da dang··" sinh hoc bifn.va ven bo

;1,.' ~

va b~ sinh thai thiy"lQ'c nQi (r~a d:a duqc chfah

phu quan tim. va miorgn.,S. V~ diebi,() ton thien nhien, d,c bi~t la cackhu balD tOn dl rat dllQC quan tam nhimg cho toi 111m diem hic?R nay t. conthieu hin, :mQt b~ th.dng lieu chi khoa hQC: de hoach diribt xac ,rJp v.a q[uin Ii ,cae khu bi,Q! tOn bian, d',cbi~t viec Iquy beach v,a: x,ay dt;mg cac khu bio tOn bi~:n .fa cong vi~c he:l. SEC moi me d6i voiVi~l Nam n.6:i chung va D.,gillb (huy Smt no.i ri.eng .. Nhtmg lh6 khin ch.mbhl~n nay Hi,:

.. , Thieu co' g,a khoa hoc cho v.i~c h.otJcb dinh va -r'hiet I.~p cac kbu. ba.o ton bien,.

.. Thieu co sCi pbip lytJiong vi¢c hoach "pm, qum 19 v,a sir d1JIlg eae tfiu baC) teln bi~n.

... 'cae nghi~n c.wPbuc v:t} dtnh tu.rOng; cho ba~o t6n ora d~n,g sinh hoe con. qua. Lt.

- can c6 S,! phoi hop 'o,ghien cuu va a,ong quan 15" nham. baa VI~, uU t40 va. :phat tden ngu6n l¢ nay, goP phdn cai drl~n b~ sinh thai ven bet dang b~ xllong c,ap ..

PH AN 1iHfJHAI; NGUON u:;U TH~~V SAN

87

fi,.it C~U R,a -Khu dl;f tru sinh q'Uy~n the gifl'i Quanda.o Cat Bil chfnh [huc dllQ'c ,!6 chue 'V\<i:l.·"H1 ho~'a Khoa hoc Gino due c'ua Lien hon

_" ~JI .,,' -.' ~I .All '-_. ' •. , - - .. ~i '''I''L~

qu6c (UNESCO) c6n,g.nh@:n 13 .• khu d~trii,sinh qlly~n ther ,giai tu nghy ] 9/1 2/2{~4.N.~ay ~.1 thdng 4 nam. 2005 t~i da~ !d.a: dien. fa. l~ ,do~ nh~nBAng quyel dinh elm, UN,ESCO ,va ky niern su kien nay. 'Quan dio! au B'a .laItl9i( q,u·gn thlg6m.367 ~d,io.nho. n~~tr?ngvi,~_L.ruJ; Ha, thuoc m'6~ phan cua di san thien nruentbl!

gi61vinh H~ ·~ong:. ,Ddo Cat~a Ii, hen '~'a_o I~ nh~t trong long., so .1. 969 d~o .. t~~n " ~,nh H~ Long thuec dia phQ;n huyen Ca~ ,Hal, t~.a,nh :~ho HID Phong,. each trungtam thanhpbo .khoang 30km" v6i ,dl!~n deh khoang gao 300km2 v;a I~n sO' tren 10.000 ng1Jm.Khu dg tril sinb ''Juyen cu Sa narntrongkhoang: .. to\! d~ . t 06~52' .~ 107°07' dO. ldnhDliing va. 2~oP42" - 20°54' d9 vi :Ba1C-, thu¢ckhu V\lcnhi~t (Uti gi6mintt~,c~iu.a:~ h.nCmc;g eua d~i duong, nen cac 'chi s6 'VIe nhl¥[ do" ICU, a:m, IUQn,g roUa. cflng gan tlloog t\l' .nbu: cic khu vue xung quanh, Illy cnhh'!-n c6 d,~c d'i~ln. khac 'bi.et Hi mua clong ttll it Ianh hen va mila he lh·] ft· n,(jug- bon so' '1m trong dat _li6.n. LUQ1lg mira tllUng: b'inh 1.700·~ 1.~l:OOmm/nam, 'ffiuamua cbu y~u La vao tll;:l,l}:g 7,8. Nhi:~t dQ trung blnhkboimg 25.~, 2:8DC: daodQ·n,8. 'mh~o mira, v~ mnca he eo. the .. len._tr.en 30oC'Iv:e_~~ua dong: trung blnh 15 ... 29°C .nhung ~o tn,?1 dliem co th:S xu.5ng dllCti. lOoe khi t6 gl;(j mua d6,n,g 'b3tC.!)OI im- trung blllh85 %.Dao d(mg, c:.u,a ~huy tdeu l,u3,] - 319 In .. :1)9 l~)~n_nLra~. bi~n b~eudQng III 9~J%o (mua mua) de'n 31,19.'00 (mua khe ).,

QUaD d,ao cat Ba U}J. om h91i 11._1 d~y ,~u. ca,c gi~ uj bag 16n. da dang .. sinh bQc,~. baD: dar~~a~~ lieu chi eua, met khu du tril sinh quy~n the ,glfJ,n theo quy dilnl cilia UNESCO. Cbo den. nay~ Viet Na'rn cia co 4 khu d~trU sinh quyea the

gioi~lrQc UNE~O~ 06~:g.M~~ :la:~CA~ ,Gi~.t Cat TIen,!. !chau tho song: HOng v,~quin d~o C~t

B'a. Tong di¢n tich kbu dt,r lrrt SInh. ~lJye~ Cat BEt n~Hlg bon 25~OOOha dll~c pb . .F;i,1l cma! Ih3!~ .. 2 wng lOii (bin) lo.n nghiem ~!l~l: va khOng cot~c d,ong, c&a con nguai),c 2vting d~m (eh? p~ep phal lr.i~n. kinh te h~n che~, l~tn .~'Qp ~~i baol6n) ~/;fl 2; vung cbuy,6'.l ~iep (p.tult trf~r:ki~ tet·~u du l.rU s'j[flh quye,n Cat Blt Co clay du ca rung m"ua :nhiet. dal trel1 da.o aa. voi, rim:; ng~p miju,. cae ran san h6, thaltl. fongcjo biieuj: ,d:~,c: bi~;t )i, h~ th6ng hang :(h?ng va.?~~ s1M, ~thai !ung. ang d~c thu. 'Rung quO'c gma Cat BJI nam ca.'ch '[rung

88

tIm, lhi tctn Qit.Ba 15km v! phi3.l~Y b~c, r~-ng khoong 26,.240 hatrong do co 11J]~~.~a~g can v.a. 9.200 ha rung ng~pm,n~ (:'0 khu ~g

nguyen smb .. nhi~tld"di n?n~ 570 h~t .~'Oiinp][e~ .hang dQng ky thit Quill dao at !3a IC'O~ :COVI~[ teo,. \'61 'CtUlg quan ctrQn,8 tron~ .chle,; 111'Q~ pha~t tri!n kinh ttvi bIOI v~ an ninh quoc pJUUl.g, .0

- .. -, , . ~ , ' ~ n:it - V-·c ... ~, N-', N··· .. ' '~. ,. "~;: d'a":' c

vung ~le.n. :phla..Gtl'C'_l:~t~:,am...g,?.aI"V~ .u,."" . \,.;

biet .. khu oi: tfU sinh q nyen C!at Ba. con. 11.IU,g~U' inOt' ti~m nang. sinh v~(vO c:u'Ilgphoncg phu v,a da,' dang, Theo ket qua (,hong ke\r-a, !c~pnhij:t: them rDO~ sd' kel qua nghien !GOO til narn 200'3..2004 cliia Vi¢nN g:tliencuuHai san:' Tht;rc V.~I co IiOD.g sll kho,an8 741 l~ai, trong !,d6 ~~c v~t bi.en 101m .23 loai cay ng~p 'm~!,. 79 1011 .. rong blen,t 207 loal tnl;lc V,l pbO dll.D!pn,g v$t[ren can c6k:hoang 282 Ioai, d,~c bi~t co loii VOQC altu v,ang (rrachypitlrecuj'poliocephaJ.us)~: d~iy Ii loai thu d,,'c bi~t guy hiem tren lhe giul chi con Iai ifJ VielNam (khoong .50 - 60 con thee Sach:do cua· IUCN). DQrlg \l.~~ bi~ngi6m c6: 98 loaJ. d'Qng v,$tphu du, ] 96 l.oldca.. bi~~ (trong d6 cO- 79 loi\i,ca r~nsan he), 1~7 loa~ sanho, 532 108.:i d'9gg v~u day .. Trong tong so 1001 sinn vathj!!n tlllj khu ",¥C au Ea, d.i :pbal hien th§7y Ie:" 2] Ioai quy' h~em, ·tron~!?· do CO ,,2, loai ghi troag danh mnc eoa CI1ES,. 7, l?al trong-sa.ch d6 Vi,*l Nam c.an duqc bio v~ hl~'n vin con t6n tai trongkhu vue.

Ngoai ra, cat Ba con Ia mgt trong nhfmg hen dio nghi mal Iy tuang va tho mQng: ella Vit!t Nam, T'ttoog tniy~n xu.akia ten d:a.o Ut cae Ha; la b~1J phu:ang eho Ca.c O:ng theoThanh

G'i6ng ,danh- gi~.cAn~ . Olhi, tran Calt B~ hfu~n. nay vin co den. 'Lho cae Ba.NhIln,g. ban d6 hanh chlnh thai Phip thuec (nhu ban d,o nsm 1938) eon g_hila cae m. Nhu v~y, co lel:e!.l g9~ cae Ba eta bi doc chech thanh cat Ba a, Le fl¢J ~u~ ng-ubi dAIlCalBa gi6ng F1h~ 1~ b¢i .Ieua nhilng ngtrai Kinh lJ khuV\f!ckbaic1: tlly nhi!n co tb~m ngay I !hang 4 dUOllg lieh bang Dam lii l~ hO'1 oghe cal vakbal truong, mita du lich. GatBac6 ,d:lfang xuyel1 dan dati 27kmt co nhi~u. deo doc quanh ,co"m.en. [heo .me:p bien~ xu yen qua war.. quocgial phong .,eanh :ley th~~ non nuC1c boo tlnh. cal Ea. co nhi,eu hang d:gng vi c;w qu:an thien Mien o'\rp pb'J-c .Vl:l du. .khach tham quan. Dba: dQng Trung' T'nmg1 dQn.g Hung San, IdQug Phu. Long~cac. oii tam obu: Cit Co [~ cat co 2~ cat Co 3,. ,a.tDUa~ cat. Ong,Ch 'TraiGai~DuoogDanh. Troo.gnhfin,g n-am-toi,rma nuQ'c dl,I d~nh s6 d1i,p tux!y d\nl'g

b day nhwg ~I'thuy cung" de con :~gum colb~ trQc ticp quan sat cac dan cat heo, t(im hum~. rna bi~ntml.fc ,,6ng~ ca. ~~.P hoi hIQn quanh nhlffig eum san. he. 1110 ra sacmau.

Nhu v.~.y co th~ noi, qUill ,~o ,cat ID:nol tll day d~ cae h~ sinh thai. tieubi~u cuaViel :N~ va .d~ danh gia. III m,¢l trong. nhiih1:f~~ Hoi eo, h~ sinh V~E bwn ,dio pnoo.g :phu va da. d~g vito b~c ribit rni~'n Hac Vi~,t Nam. Vdi vi¢c, ,dl1QC ,c:ung l1ih$.nIa tho. d1.X tru sinh quy6:J, 'qUdn ,oao at. m ,Be ()Qr 0($ bQi thl,lc,ru~n t.ot han cbuc nang baa ·tOn da d,n, sinh h~., baa. ·~6rD . cae cmm quan d~p~ 'mne day phatme:n kinh te beo.vin.g, cfing Dbo auy trl. vaphan, tri&l. cac gia tQ van boa. truy6n thong eua Vi~tNam. cal m con. co .1~m nang

'I ..... d;)' +'1... .. t..J'.. ...1... •. t. .~' I .. ::._l:.d·· I, lieh bi I,~ , ,~:LJ

~on, ae u.dlC Jloen. :~ . .IilliieUlloaI nmn 'U .. te __ 'l~n twU

nghi ducfu,g~ "<I',u lich sinh tb.ai~ n,~~n cUu khoa hQC~ tham hiem hang d,¢ogt duIich mao hi~m. du ijcb'n,glrn'la .: qusyphim dum 'IIL1ac.

NI:uyi .. Qu,a.DI Dimll

,,' NGU6N LC~U cA B,I~N

7.1. ea bac

Ten khoa hQc:.

Pentaprton I07f.gi manus (Cantor ,(850) Ten tieng Anh: Longfin silver biddy

lJiic didm Jzinh thai:Th,Ml hlnh balll due dai, det hrii ben, -e6 - va.y tron CO' vIta va. d! rYo.g. D.inh .A' ,~... h ., b" d1 ' .. .2. ·M···· ~ - .' h'-" ..... uiliu va naa ben oeuco v,ay .. :,-,l~:nge va co

duf),i de dang, hie 011.0 ra rhl 6ng; ~mj,¢ng ,cDia xu6n~ duaL.Hai ham c'o nhi~!urangnho,.V il.Y ngvc'-dai va nhon vuQt qua g6c vily b~um6n .. G,6cv&y h~umon (lei hem phan tia m.em ena villy Iung. Thaamau sin'g bac,

P,nsl! bd: ea phart b6r¢ng a c:ac vun,gnu:6:c khp ~'Dong NamA ..

.;:iJ . : '~.. _ ' ' _ _ _ _ _ , _ ' _ _, _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _,r., _ _ _ _ , _ _ ' _ ....

o Vi¢tNa.m ca ph~n bo {j vinh Hac: b¢·~ mien

Trung, Dang va.TayNarn '09.

Mila .,~ kha.i tha~' .. ~ QUa.M nam

.Ngft ;C:if' ihtd thac: Ltrai'teo utng day .lfich tllulte khat tJzac~' ·8:0 - 1.00mm D{tIH,g san 'phdrn': Thai.

'.2,. Ca. bae ,ma Tenkhoa hoc:

Ras.rre.llig.er kanagurta (Cuvier, Uj f7 ) Ten ti€ng Anh: Indian mackerel

.-

.,-.

- if---

lJ~cdiitu hll.tlithai.~ ThinkD.a cas, chieu dai dd.u lOll han cbl&J.caolhan. Sau vay lung 'thu hai v.a viy h~u men co .5 vay P"\I. LuQ'c mang [[ift dai~ thay rEi khime mieng, Thanmau xanh den, S,Uiem mau b~\7,6:il cae ,cham vang .. Co hai hang cham den doc thee gee v,ay lung, c6m~t dai den hep cb~y OBi thea pilla than tien, va. co mt5t cham den tren than ngay du,(1t rla val' nguc, Vay bmgmiu v,imgI1h~t v.ac6 chaIn den.

~ . ~

Phdn: bil~· An ()6 .. ' Tay ThaI Blnh Duong, An

D;Q~ Sri Lanca, 6xtraylia, Indonesi3,MalaY&Ea~

Phili-' . N' he §. B' . (t T' 'Q'. '. :(

..• 'Ippm" ' .. ~ t Ban, .run.g •... JJuC.

o Vi~tNam ca phan b6 0 vinh Hie bQ~. Trung bg va DOng Ta.y Narn bQ ..

Mi't.av{4.1cha:i thdc.,~ Quanh nam a,

.Kic IJ~ tnuit Idulithdc:, Dao d.gl,D.,g ttr 180 ~ 250mm., hJfl .nb~t 350mm ..

,Ngu'(;f khmthdc: Luctvay, re, keo day, rC3Ju. Df'ng 8dnp'h'm.;~· Ttroi, phm kho, dong h9P~ hun thO-i ..

89

·7,.l·~ lea. b3Lch Id.le~u Ten khoahoc:

G:ymll."cra/lius griseus (Sehlegel, 1843) Tt!n. tieng Anh: 'G:ray Iarge-eye bream

f)I!C' dE/m .hinh t.1Jdi: Than hlnh. blo. due dill va det hai ben co v.iyhtGtC tJldD.gd6i LOn, dUUng: ben hoan chinh, Phan truo:c ell.a diu khOng c6 viy, vay b'endinh d'u bit ,di1:u to: ngay saumat. Xuang napmang nuck Jeo 4- 6 hang "'aiy. M1~ng: 1&1 ma phii :m6i day. Rang phia [rlitacbai hang nhol 'Va cong .. va:.y lung lien tuckhong cc khta 16m .V,~y :lung va viy h3u men deu. kh.ong 106 vil' b~ .. Vay dU:Oii chia thuy nOllg, g6c vay co vay. V,fly ngqc. nhQ!o; hai vay bung g:fin nhau, kbOi di~m.,a sau ,g.oe vfty ng~c.. Thin ca mau xam, pain. lung d~m hen, philD nhieu bung nh(ll han,

P:h.iin b6~'

(J cae vi3ng bi~n phfa nam,v.a D6n,g chiu Phi, cac yung. bi~n thu(lcctulu[)3i Dumg. PhHippinJ Indi6nesia, Trung Qu6ci Nb~t .san·vi. 'Vi~t Nam

o V~~tN·am c,a. phftn bd a vinh Die bQ,~bien mien Trung, Nam b().

~i14'n:,av, .khat ,thaJ!': Quanh n~m. ,l(J,h Ihutic k~hal thd·c·,: 135 ,_ 34nmm. Dl!.ngs-ti,n pIi4m~· Ttroi, phoi kilO ..

7AC' 1" 'b "

+'''I~ ' .. ·'it ·.aD ao

Ten khoe h9C:

AtfopU£ strop'us (m.oc,h & Schneider. 1801) TeD t,i!ng ,Anh~ ICleft belly trevaUy

1J9c;dilm 11,1111 rlld!: Thlnc:ao, hlnll b~tl dl;lC, tait dep ben. Diu co danghlnh thoi, 'Vien d,a.uph(a trerlmit. r,at ldt Ch.ieu. d:ai than bang: 1.,:7-2~.o bin c:h:h.eu eao than, bang '3 ~O -3,7 la,o chitu dili da.u. Matlw,. tron,khoan.g each hai mat .rQ.ng.. lban pbu vaYllontnhb. V~l"y lung tbu nbil nhot nim gqo trongrinb hmg, 'vay h@:~m~o~l d6i KUng ·v·m. v,ay llDl,g Our hal. Oiuag6c v,ay bl;1ng va v!~{ h3u mon c6m¢tranh. siu doctheo vieD bvn,g.. Lung mau xanh, bl}ng mau s,ang bae. 'V~y bung rnau den, cac v.a.y ,kb.acm:au 'vangnh,t.

Pha" hli

Vung bi~Il.nhltt dCd va c~n nhl,et am .AnDO ~

- • - I. !I! _. • •

ThaiBinh .Duong., Vi~t.N,am ..

o Vi~lNam ,ea pbfm b6' ven bb vinh ·Bac bOo

., tI! i!'

Trungbq, DOng va Tay Nambo.

Mua II' khui thac: Quanh nam

/fig« "'g k,hai t1ule: LuCri. keod'ayc., .,. 111.61 v1lv., .,. - vo.

. ! -" . . '<." -_. ':J',-:," ,-~, 'I

Kith tll.'l:tic kJi.ai thac: 150 - 200mm D~ni ,siln ,him:· TU.al,.phm khe,

.b. .. rno. . .ou.., - ..

I~ _ '."_:¥"'I-'

7.5 .. Ca. ban ngt) Tenkhea bQC:

Psettodeserumei (Schneider, 1801) Ten tie"ilg Anh: Indianhalibu;

fJij.c dilm.h.inh ,t.h,di:· Than hlnh tnrng hoi dai, det hai bell. Hai mat each nhau ith6ng xa lam. Milit;.ng rc,;ng ha:m dill qua 1/2 ehieu dal (l~u. Rang MQn. sac., D~i b¢, ph~n caClia vay lung 'Va tom bQ cae tia vay haumen de;u 'co chia nhanh, Hat 'vay ng\f,c 100 tiho kh6n..g :khac ahau nhi~ul~m,. Tiatva.y a b¢ pb4n ,giOneD chia nh~nh"E)uOn,g 'ben 0 hai b~:.n aeu :00 nang, i:J ch& [T,en vay ngt,rc boi cong len.

Ph/in: 66: ca phan be) & DOng. chau Phi; Hang Hai, AnDQ, Ottlttaylia,. Pmlippin, Indonesia, Malaysia, Trung 'Qu6c.1Nh$t Ban,. Thai Lan va Vi¢tNam.

Mua v~: ]thai' ,tluic,: Quanh ni:OO

,Ngl( t'~kh(d "hac: LuOikoo tiing day, bn5'i.re va c,au.

'JJ,. Ca be l:U"OC Tenkhos hQc;

Scomberoides iysan (Fars,kal, 177.5) Ten, tien.g Anh. Yellew Ieatherjacket

f)iic ,mlTn Idnh. thai: Than d.ai1' det berL.M5m ~U v~ lo~' Kuong. a trtn O1at. Chj!~~ dili d~u biln,g 4.,5 ... 6~O lin du,Cm.g kinbmit \',3, ouang kin.h mJh bAng ,kh.o~ng chieu dai, m.om, , Ham, U-en dai dellphia saum't.Ring bam tr'en 10.. m~Qit hang rang hlob. non iJ phlang oal va.mQt dii rang lo!n.g nhung it! phfatrong, Rang b.am dl!Ol [a hal hang rang ·hirlh non 'tacb bi~t bM.mQt ranht co -ramgnha, tren brai~ 'V,a:mImiu c,ai vi .xuong hi m.j[a..V,ay hmg tho Mat co mot gai ngu'Q'(;'V3t 6 .. 7 tia cling hIM t:huimg.V ayl.ung tb~l hai cO< l tia c!.lng va 19 ~ 21 tia mem,. Yay lung v.a va.y h~u 1116']] co, 7-8 tia .:giong nhu va.y phu nhung khongtach b.i~t hoan toan, 'V ay nave ngAn!. khong giOI:l"g hlnh lum U~m. V~y b~\l, m.{)n c6 :2 tia ciIng Uenn.t),a:u, t:h!p 'rhea ia I tia, c6TIg Ya 16-,19tia menl .. Vly nbo, hlnhmtii ten, 'Do6'n,g ben heiluen song aphfa tnroe, khong Go. v~y lang.

Phin. tren eira than man xanh nhat, phfa du,di man arm vang ho~c sang, b~:c: !co 5 .~ S d6m tron a hal ben thin ..

Phtln bo:V ung bi~n nhi~t d:ai va. c~nnhi~t oexi An D'Q' ~ Thiii BlnhDut1ngtH6n,gHai~ Nam Phi, AuDQ,lndon.esi.a, Pltilippin, Sri: Lanca, Nb~t .mo,. Trung 'Qu.oc, Viet Nam, 0 Viet Nam ca phan b6 b v~nh Hac bq,~mi~n Trung."D6UI va TayNam hQ ..

li1,i'la'l'f.' thai t.hdc: Quanh nam

NgltC'~ .k.'hai tlldc: Lucri keo day,. luir.i reo Krell lIutuc .kIwi thde: 25:0 .. 3j()mm

~ «.s.. '''1''\,,", "h' ~ 1L,.'.- "

D,~ng san phl!J,m:: Jl uOO~ pr 1CfJ.. AJ1D. •.

91

7.1 .. Ca:be An 1)6

. ,,' .

Ten khoa 11~QC:

l'lisha indica (SwainsoD,. 1839) Ten tieng Anh: Indian ilisha

-f)if.~c dl.im hinhthtii: Than d3j_~ dyp ben. Diu tuoog, doi to.M6Jn ",gin. Chieu diri than glp 2,8- 3~O 1&:n ehieucae ul:an~, g:ap 3,7 - 3tS ltn chi:eu dal. tfaiu,. ,l'iriat tLftlng 0:01 to" m,angmo mjt nit phat ui~n. Khoin,!: ca,ch giQa halmat hep, b,ang phat~g. Mi~ng nha, xien, m.Oi day. Rang nhisu, nho .. V,iy ~[on. kb6 rung .. Viy gai vien bung ra:t sac. G6c vAynun,g v.~ vi)' b~umQn e:o v,iy be, Kha,j di~m vay lung hoi Cf sau thai di~m ciuav.ay bl,lng. Viy It,u men r~t d.,af, thai d;iem DAm. n:g:ang: bang c;u6ig,6c \lay hrng .. Vay 'f[lg~c to .. ,V,fiy b\lng [lhn .. LUl1:g rnau v;an9 Iuc, bu:n~. ··m.au t..rang.:.. V.s. v.· .. ··h_:au

,~ 'I· r !' ,.0 "-.' J "I'

rnon, yay ng~c~vay bung' mau ·Iring. V,ay

lung mauvang 1 ue.

P'h(j,~ 60:: Bi~F1 DotUg chau Phi, ,An DQ Duong! Ma:~ay.sia,. Trang Quoc,,~Nh~[BantVi~t Nam.

Mua F~ khoi rhac.: Quarmnam~ '~p trung vao [b,ting 1 O~· I 2.

Ngut,~ IdUll ,"hac.: L,um va.')' " ILrm re~ rung,

~ _'t,.

rn:auu, .....

Kicn th't/uc kJzQi th,{u;; 150 - -2:00JlIW, l6'nllha't d~l250mm.

D'f;lng' .9dncpluim,;~Tiu·ori ,ph:O'i lebo, HUll .mlm.

92

7 ~8,. Ca. camsQc Ten khoa 11Qo:

Serioia d.umerilt (Risso .. 1810') Ten ti~ng Anh: 'Gr-eater amberjaek

lJ ~ _..~' :r.' h ,t, ."., Th·· . d·"'" d' .- V' ... ~ .-

!,p:c "rem,~n'_ t,,-a,.~ . ·-an_;_,il, ••.. ~p ben. ·· .. ··~I,;:n lu;..·

ng cong deut vh~n b~ng tuem! doi thing. Dau dep ben, chieu dai d!u g.~n bing chieucao than, M,om nhon, chieu dai b~ng 1)5 lfin dUO'ng kinh. mit Rang MQ-R,. JmQc thann dai r()ng va hu6'ngvaot:rongm,~~,ng. Rangm'?!: thanh da:m rQ.ngtre,n xucm.g .bimfa va .mQC thanh dai tren XUdn.g kh_dllI cai.Kbe mang .khOng lil~n VOl . .JC. LUQ'c.ma,n~; dliva 'cUIlg. Toan th1n~m;a1 dan '~lil x,uang ua]J mang,ph4 '~"iy Iron .nbb .. DUCnlg ben hoan toan, kheng co \lay ling. V ay lung ·thlli nh~icd m.¢Jt gat cling rnQcl1guQc,Virty ng\llt ngin, tron, V'iy bung dai han vay n.~AI~. Pb&n l~ tmgmau na.u x:ilnh1,phan b\l.ng mao. tran'! d~c. Docthan c6m¢;t dil'tnifull yang' chay to sau m.at ,deh bip duOi .. cae vaymau xam den.

A~

.P,hanbd~~ AnDQ _. Thai B~inh Duang,H,6ng

.H:ai,. Ind6nesia., Phi Iippin , Trung Quac"Nbi;it 1B,an~, Vl~t Nam .. cr' Vi~t Nam ca phan bO a vinh Bi.c bg, Trung ·bQ.~Na,m bg. .

!'It~g'll: c~ kha'i .t'U.Ic.; LU1(1i k60 day,.

Mua "~ khai thac: Quanh nam,

Kick l:hutic .khat "hdc: 300 .. 500mm.

D ~. ,:ott T ..

_ f,lRt: sa« .p'llam:· UOl.

PHAN lHIOr IHAI:, N'GU6N LOll THirv SAN

'~9 .. Ca camvan

T--: ... "'~:L h

' en, Ji..::UlOa .:" '.Qc:

Seriolina nigrofas:clcrta (Ruppell, :1.8:28) Ten '[ieng Anh; Black-banded trevally

lJj)r: dilm ,hinllthdi: Than htnh biu due, d¥P ben, bung rron. Dfiu. dep ben" phan IrUoc nho cao lam tho diu CiO dang hinh vuong. Mom

n -a_, ,'" "h'-·:; dai 1"- hi-'-d"-'" " kl - e ,

_g n, tu, C leu . ,31 ,on "an uong kfnh mat,

Mth tren, .uno, mang rna khong phiH tri~n .. Rang: dai"nh<;>l1, moe thanh dai r[t, rQng'" Tren xuon'~ khau cai, rang., 'moe thanh d:aitono'.

D . ! I. D

M,ang nip'm,an,g khong lien vmue, Lucc mang

tieu giam,co d~g h~t nhe, Duang ben bean

... kb: ~., - -:-'..... .

toan, ,,'. ,ong. co vay lang, V,ay hmg fQD,g co 7

tia cilng' ngin, va. yeu. va..y ngl$c Dg:~n; reng. V,rty bung tmmg ,o6iphit tri~n.~ dM, ban v:ay n,g-gc., Thin mao niu Yang. Ngang than Co 5 - <6 dii mao den" chav xien x:u6ng" dum 'v,e phfa

., J I ~

n ."_(11 ~I'~"d;~"" ·"th~ '"h''''' d'~

nroc I(J CD. icncac aai nayce t e me noac ou ..

dean), V~y lung thu hail mau den, dinh mau tclng. Yay lung UUl nhat, v.ay byn,g va, yay duoi man den. M'ut v,ly b~ng maU,lral1g.

J .

Phd'" b{i: i\n D¢ - Thai Blnh Duong, Hdng Hai,

Deng chan Phi, Indonesia, Trung .Qu6c~ 'Nh~t

'Ii'

Ban.; Philippin, Vi~t Nam. 0 Vi¢tNamt, eel

h b-" I). inh "B':: b 0 T b-'" N" 'b"~'

. ,_. ,"._", -_.' ".:, I 'j .'fl.· _- I ' '( I,: ", I •••• _ .111 ,- "J' -

P an 0. 0' v~ i eac ;I,·rung -9 va . am «;1 •

M,ua, v~ ,khai thac': Q'u,anh nam

Ngu ,C"IJ leha;, thae: Lum k60 day, lum r-:!., Klch thu:be khai ,thde: ISO ,_ 300mm Dljag stin phdm,: Tuoi.

7 .. 10 .. Ca cAng vi,- to Ten khoa bQc.:

Tberepo» theraps euvier & Valenciennes, 1829,

Ten tieng Anh: Large scaled terapon

Df!c diim hcnf2 lila;.: Than hlnh baiu due dai, dep ben, vien lung va vi!n bung cong d·eu. D.fiu. Um Vlta phai, dep ben" 'trudc tnin hoi 000 cao, Chieu dai than bang 2,4- 2~.9 l~n chieu can tb&nvi, bang: 29 - 3,6 '((in chieu dai dIu.

Xuon - f·, .',' a chfnh ,." '2 ." ',' .,," ", ... " ' ", -. ,.,;.

uv,lu.g nap ,mang cmr co , , ,_ J g'li~ cung, gal

dUal cnng to khoe k3~O dii qua khe mange. M,at nrong d6i Ian. Mieng chech, hai ham dam bang ohau.Ring nhon, moe thanh dai fQng tren hai ham, Xuong kh~u Cal va xuong Hi mfa Jdlon,g co rang. Luge mang dsi, ctmg. Than phil vdyhrQ'c, kh6 rung, DllICm,g ben hoan toano Vay lung dai, lien tuc, co khe lorn sau a pha.n cu.5i gai leUng. Vay ngtrc ngan" rong, VayduOi chia thanh hai thuy n,ng" Lungmau xam hose naunhat, bung mllU tr.fing due, Ben than co 4 soc den. Vay hmg co vet den rqI1,g" iJ gila. gai cOngo thu 3 - 7." V'l\y duoi c6 .5 vtin mau den, 06i -:tUng.

''!Ii ~ iii,1'

P'hd,n btl:: Hong Hai, chan Phi" An DQ'il

Indonesia, Philippin, Trung Qu6c~ Nh~.t Ban, Vi~tNam.

M'uav¥ khat' tlldc: Quanh nam

Ng.u c~: khattillic: Lu6"i k:eo day Kick ,t,huue khtd rhdc,: 100 ,_ 17.0 mm D~ng' .rdn phdin: Tuoi

9.3

"'"

7.m-I. C'a co An no,

- . ~

Ten khoa hoc:

Maktu:r,u inxJic:a (Cuvier.,1832) Ten tieug A.oh::' Black marlin

.n~., )1';"-'" ,.,~ tl.."'J ~ i 8:u' c ';lin. tl-aT'll ·b··;j·na llc u~ C uUil.I.R .lrdHn ·,.,0,:.: "'-'[h~;·. ' .. ae I I.~.a.ul&,o ..J

chieu dai tha.n tfnh til da.um.ut ella xt(ou.g ham duoi. Mom dal, Duong ben. de.u. djfull. Dauto

1I.c~' ~"h'~ 1-/4' l\ . /.1 d" . h ~.::'.~l ''" .. A~"

vartj. JUloang _ I, cmeu ;,an tao tmn lU'CUOl

.xUOO1.g bam. dum. Va:)' .:n.8l/cgan. nhU'vuClng goc v61 thanh. been. cua Co' th~ (khong xuoi).V.t\y

1i..1, ii ng" .f+, ... <1.... P'';; '~"h';£ I ,J~ 'nbc .c~. honvav 'fl' a'. -r- ·V···.·-g 'Y" LJ ~."JoI, ~_. V w~"-- ~" 1;, W' ,1,V-.t.l, ;, - '; 'U - ,V'II, 'If "'J ". ,b y,l~ ~ ,a r

I· .. - .... a" '.' ...... l.. d' . -~ ,iI.·~ - ••• ,11", ~c ".;(,1' 11,,;1,!.." ,

ung mau xann I.' ,8, Er'U'l xam ,IlU.IU'Il:g vaysnac

m,au nau den, Hal btn lban khong co cac vet ngang .. Bung tr'ngb~c. Khi ca chet tren than c6 xu.~t· hi~n Ilblln,g vl~t tfin,g.

4~9- 5,3,l1in chieu cao than va. 4,,0 .- 4~9 lan chien dii dJlu. Mattu011g OOtto" khOng co. maogmo mit, kboang cacbbait rna:!, rQng,t hoi. g;6Ien.Mllt sau cung cua xuong bam trea dAi den khe mango Tren harm1xunng bi mia, XU'dllg khau cii dell 'c6 rang MO .. Khe mang fl?'i1.g}, bxQ'c mang uhidu, rnang giapha t t:ri~n. vay 111)0,. de£\lng,. C6ml~t vay ltmg u.rang doi to, khCri diem nim ngang bing vim diem ,giua .eua khoang each tit yay bung Iden vayhiumon. -Vihy ng,ut to, va.y bu.ng:n.ho. Thin ma.U tr:ing~ ben thi~ co 'm9t SQ~ dwmau Iring b,c"l.ren d,~IUC6 mQ'tchimmau xanb luc, Va,y lung va viy d:u.Oi mau xanh IlJ!ct ca,c v.a.ymau tring ..

. . . J _

Phllu bo':DlongPhi~An DO, Malaysia,

Ind6nesia, Trung Qu6c -. ~Nh~U Bin, Philippin, V~~~tNam .

Mua Fp khai t.hac~· Quanh nam

Ng«'cli' .kIwi· tluk~' .tum, Vly, 'mWih~ lLl5ikoo day. ,K(ch th.rruc khai .thac.~90.. lOOmm

D.~ng' san' ,bdm;~~ TurJi,phdi kbO", lam nli\Ctc mam,

~#

Phan: b.6~· An. DQ - Thai Blnh Duong, Vl,~t Nam,

OVi~t lNam~ capbanbo IJ wng, bi~n XR. bo

mi~n Trangva DOng Nam bo , 7.13. Cli ,com tb,utnJg,

.M'iUl "P' ,khai thiic: Quanh nam, Ngu: c~. thai tluic; Re, cau.

K'{cJJ,tlluoC' kh,al thac; 1.5.00 - 2.000mrn .. Dt;lng sdnphtim: An. tucti

P.IiI.m. Thu:~

~

7 .• 12,. Ca COlin A.n Dt)

Ten khoa hoc:

S'tolepnDrus indicus (Van Hasselt, 1:823) Ten d,engAnh: Indian anchovy

B'{ic dilm hin.h thai.: Than hlnhtrn, lilC1i dep ben",

D '. '... d',t· d'~""K -. ' .. ~Ch······ .li:. d');' ·h· a_ '. f

au 'llJ'cmg. r)l_al .. 1.nom t:lt._~_jlelJClll t - .. n g P

94

TeD khoa 1J(~c:

Stol'eplJ;orus commersonii (Laeepede, 1803)

'It It',,,,", s Anh .• C··,-·,'II '.,' .... ~!' ..... ,h. · .... · .. 1

_ en ~l,~ng. JUl .•. omm.e.rson s a.nc. ov)

B~c ,t1i£m h.in.h t;nili: Than dai~.dvp beIl,.Dau IUmg doi to .. Mom hoi nh.Qn .. Chieu dai thin gap 4,4- 5_,.2 Mnchieu cat) than. va. 4~:2-, 5~O t~n chieu. dai dill. Mat to, khongco mang m.Bmltj khoang each had, mat ('(Illi,g •. Tren ham, Xltimlg la

- ." ··'·'ur· ........ ·· 'khc ~'. . .~. d' .~.. ." ... .' nh ,? 11"1.. .

. mla.." x .. \.I!ijUg. '. ·.'aU Cal .. euco :raug .'~ o. !'\.lite

mang TOng, hroe mang d~p:,mo.ng va cnri'n:g. V &y tron ,'to vua, fItt df. rung, KhCd di.~m lena val' b.mg ham 1& sao. khai di8m eua va..y bung, g,dn I1ga:L1 .. g bang vdi khbi di~m cia viy h.3u men, V'a::y h~umon to, dai.. Thanman tring:.,

·~ren diu ,c6 hai chim.mau xanh luc, ben than.

co m.Qt SQC d,?cma.o trang. b~c. ..

~h~ 1#1.' DO~g Phi, An £)9. Thiii Lan, TrllRII Qu6c.~ Nb~t ,Bin,Philippin, Vi~t Nam,

41~lJ, v~ khtli tbtic: Quanh nam, t~p trLlng vao thang:9- 3.

Ngu c~ Idlai tlldc:' Lu6ii. va:y, .. manh, Iudi keo day KJch .tlutuckj(Ji tho.;c: 50 .. 70mm.

Dt;IlJg san pl!lim.: TlIoi.pho'i. kho~ Ea.m -n:ucrc; m.~m.

7 .14~ Ca ehai

Ten .. khoa hoc;

Platycephal.us indieus (Linnaeus,17.5,s) Ten ti:e;ng. Anh: Bartail flathead

Di)c dtlm lu'nh thai: 'Thin d~dllron dlh.l rilt bin.g~ detva f>l?n,g.Duoog goc va gait.reo d.a u trrmlang va tha'"p bern nhi~u so vm (a,e, loai ca chai khae .. 'Vi~n sau xuang n.ipmanig trudc t;6 hail gcaikhon.g khac nhau h:o~,c gal dum hoi da:i hen gai tren, phfa dual cUia n6 khon,g c6 gai nguQc (clliu M.Qn~, chIa raphfa tfU6',C;) tren mit khans; ,ed vAn da, ·V&yrat· be, tren va;y dubng ben khoag co gai, klch thubc- 100 - 200m.m. urn nh~t: lOOOmm.

Phd,n bd.: :D'~3J Trung Raitt Nato Phi, Bi~.n Do~ kDQ, Indon~sia. Phi lippin, Trung QilOC~ Dai Loan, Vi~t Nam, OVi¢f, Nam ca phan bo· b vinh Ric. bo. mien Trunz va Nam boo

. , ., ~ ~ ~

ll'.Ua: J1~' kl;Uli~ thac:Quanh Dam

Ng'tl c~ kJz(li thd.c! O;u" ludil keo tan,g day .. Kiv:j tluruc kha,j thac: 300-, .300m.m,

7,.15. cs (:.h·em

Ten khoahec:

Lases cCJlcarljer' (Bloch~ 1 7'90) Ten tieng Anh: Giant seaperch

.fJ~c di/m llinn thd~i z Than dai, dep be'n, pban. lung hoi go cao, hap du.6i ng.an.£)au diaL nita trU,o'c nhon, '1u gay denmut. mom eong xuong.~ chh~;u d~i Ian hon chieu cao. Chieu d.a;i tban bing 3 ~2 Ian. chieu Qao thin va b~ng 2,~9 1:'0 chieu dai dain. Mep sau xuarrg n~p' mang tfU',c,c: h'toh rang cua, g6e du6i c6mgI gai cLing. dai, XuO'ng n~p mang chfnh co. 1 gai det, Mat hm"khol~ngc,ach h'.;dm,~t hep, Mi¢ng .rQn;g~ chech, ha.m dU6'i nh5 d.ad bon ham teen.R,ang llhQn,khoe. Xueng khau ctH va xuong Ia mia co nb:i,~u rang~ moc thanh dai, Than phu viy llfQC .nho, yeu, Hai ya.y hmg tach roi nhau, Vay lung thit ohat co, 7 gai cctng. V iy ngirc ngin"fQng. Vay duai

tron, kheng chia thuy... -

r!'t.~ ~A~

Phd.H ,bi/: B~,c Ot"tr.~'ulia. An 'DO. Indone.siaNI·'u

,1 - -,I! - .. ~I . " " ". _'. -', 'I ,;a;, .1 '-'-

Ghine, Philippin, .Nam Troung Quae, Vlet Nam ..

o Vi,~t Nam, ca ph~n 1b6 tJ vjnh Bd:c 'IJQ~,miien TmngNam bQ.,

~'4 aa,..~kh~(JJt hd,c~' Q uanhnam .

lVg.ll c.~ kbat thdc,~ Lucri ken day~ cau Ktch Ihude kJuJitlld:e: 350. - 600mm. D{lng sdnpluim~:' Tum.

9.$

Te,n khoahoc:

Ariomma indica (Day" 1870) Tenl:i,e'ng Anh: Indian drift fish

lJ~,c tli.lm hl,nh thai: Than hlnhbau due, dep ben. Chien dAi d.an. )nlp xJ bing hoac cdkhi 100 han, chieu cao ~.1,~u~ bAng 0,.5 Lin ehi~u cao than va O,,2S Ian ,c~hi~u ditj til' mut mom den c.be 'lay du6i. Mi~*ng: tron,tu, rach mi~ng mil. Hat ham. deuco rang,m3i ham 06, m<)t hang ran:g nhb. Xuong kha:uc,ai kh6ng co rang. V;~y hlnh tren, d'i rung; 'DuOng ben lien 't~c, ben congo Hal vAy Ieng tacb rOi,. -phangai cung, ye;u. Yay ng~c nhon, dart Viy bu.ng nh6.Viy du6ri phan thuy sau, chia hai thu.)' bing nhau, Than co mau xam d~:m" can~r yf, phfa lung va, vic!'O eua eae

. , ~ ~ - ~h

va.y~ ffiaiUS3!C cang t61 . , (Dl.

if!O.';'

Ph{i,nbti":An DQ, Trung Qu6c" Vi~t Nam

Mila v~khal t,htic: QuaM nam,

Kith thrt6:cklzai t,hac.: 80 - 160 mm

Ngu C''.'' khmthdc~' Lumtr!o day

D()ng ,sanpM1Il: TUdL pbdikho"

7 .17. Ca. chID) de.1iI

Ten khoa hoc:

Formic .Ilig~r (Bloch~179,5) T~n dtng Anh: Black pomfret

.'Jdc t1ilm, iillhthdi; Than biM thoi rittcao va

. .

dep ba.i ben, D.d:u to vUa chi~u cao Idnban

ch1.eu. dai, .m,om trion tiJ.. Mat thong c:6mimit m.o. :Mi~~g nllb Ibph£a tmac da1!l"lfitO'i x:l!en .. Rang' hai ham nhon 'Va MO',mo,thing vi sap xep ·rnrt thua, Xuang Ii mfa, xuong thaD. (:,3i va· tlen hrm lh6ng co rang. Yay lung va vir b,u man dlH~ tia cdng chi ton tai .a eae cathenbo, val' nggc diU .. lea comau na.~ xarn VOl cae di6m. nl.~u, xanh xam .. Phan dU:dl diu va than mau .sang hon, Qie yay co mau uau xrun.,d~mboll iJ mepvay.

P,ka.1! ./Jo: Ql phAn b6 a cac wug nuOc aim trong khu VlJ'c :DOng Nam ,A, 'V:i,~t Nam .. aV~~t Narn, 1(::1 pbiln.bo 6 vinbBic bO'~mien Trung, Dong va TlyNam. bQ .

.Muo: v~ lehai thac:' Quanh nam .. Ngltc{, khai'thd:c: Ludi teo day .. Kicn .thuuckhai tilde: 200. -300mm ... n".ng sa.H' plltim: Tum.

7~1~L. Ca ehhn gal Ten khoa hoc:

Psenopsis alU)ma.la (Temmillck & Scbleget, 1844)

Ten ti~ng Anb: Japanese bunerfisb

fJ(tc dllm hi)dz thiii.~Than hlnh ball, due del ben. Chi~u eao than bana.' 30~45·:fJ!f..,·· ......... ~:~~; d~i:' ,'h; ,A,..,.

_", J'_ ••• ,_,_-'--, !_"_; -_,l---"I~I _.,~_' _11"'70 !\;i'IU~I~ I"lull :,lruLI~

Cu6r1\g dub.! ng!n C:810 va d~t.. Vty lung ICJ :ng,IY I.ren ho~cbal vephia sa.u. mQt cbii'n, SICl~ vm g,6c vay ng:\Fc. Lo ,b~umOn 0 chfnh giii.aho,c: hai. v~ :phfa tnlOC cialhan. 'Viy ng\fc btqD triln

d~· '~" '. J( c _ .. ·h.'-' 11' .... - ,00' ,', 'h'- '.-. nhon 0·'· ....

eu, (J cac ea [, ae ,11,00]... ,.·.m u 9\11. . .. me viy

bung 0: ng,a.y dumkhm. di~m COat g:5c v,ay ngrrc. 'Viy nha,. DU'ang ben luang d,6icao .. Pil&n'trOen

~ _ _ _I!'_ _ _,iIlJ _ _ __ , _ _ _ili-,- _ _ "

PHA:N mu HAl: ,NGUON L,QI nIUYSA,NI

'd1;t kbongpnn vAy. Lung m1tu xam d~m, b~D,g :min sanv,," bae,

o 'I'

Phd.nbil: Nb.'t :Biin" Trung IQu6c, Vi¢tNam. 0 Vi~t Nam caph:ln b6 i:J vitnh ·Bi.e DO va mi!~n

T~ung,., ..

M'un P,l,l kllal thac: Quanh nim ..

. N_gJ£ ,c~klJtd tMc:Llfiri teo llay, \fiay,. Kich tittuckh,tli' tl",le.~ 120 _. 190rnm. D;flllg saH phim: Tuai~ phoi tho"

7~l9. cs cbim gia; trim Ten khoa hoe:

Pkua» orbicularis (F,on~katl775) Ten. tieng Anb.: Roundbatfish

,f)ac ,dilm~ ,hinh thdi~· ThiUlhinh thai rat C3.Q .• Mi~:n,gb6 'va b~g khang the co du6i.,· [la:u cao 'Va ngan.VWlb, uguai phla truac dau den eo gae, mom, nhe ra. Cbop giua :cua. rang to 'va diti bon. chop iO hai ben. ,X'uanghi mfa khong 1(:,0 rang. V&y c kho!ng~:i1la: 'lay lung-va, bQ ph~n eong nh1tt ,eila. d.ubng ben co 20" c]liec. V,ly hmg ,co .5 tia c:Ung; v,a34 - 38 :ti.a ,m.em .. Vay b~:u .mOo co. 3 tta ,C'Utng v,a. 26- 21 tia m~m.

Phan 116: .An DQ! , .. 'Th<H BlnhDll!crng~ Trung Qu6c, Nh~t Bin~VL~t Nam,

Milo. v¥ Ithai tMe: Quam nsm

.Ngrlc~ .klwithk: Lu6i k:eotAng ,aa.y, lu6i. ,r-!. K£c,h: tlnleYt' ldJ,ai t,hac.: 250 - 300mm

lJt;l1Jg san phJm .. TUdi ...

7.,2.0~. CD chim.ltAng Ten khoa bQc~

Stro,11U1le.oid€s ar~enteus (Euphrasenr 178,8.) Ten tLeng Anh: Silver pomfret

o"c diim htflh thai: Thin hlnh gin nlnr tron rlt dep ben. Ba.p duoi nl~n~ eae, Daun116" d'~p ben, Ch.i~u dai lbln bang 1,3 - 1 ~4 hin. cbi~LI eao tbflnt bang 1,6 .. 4,.0 U~n chieu dai d.~u .. M~t tuong deH. lon.Mi,~ng .rat bet g,an nhu thing dung; flam duaw lliganhao ham tfe'11. Mom rat ng!~n~ til" tron, Rang n1t nho, boi der, :m6i ham, chlco mQt hang nh.o,. xep xit nhau, Xuong lEi mfa va,~l1O'flg k.b~u Cal khODg~ 'c!o rang .. Khe :mang nho, lUQcm.ang tron, dar, nbgfl a, Toan. than (t:rU m,om)phu vi.y

"'["0""" 'n~,o', ~11!~IO ben hoan ito' 'a"u r·,tlt·,· 'C-F;>,iI"I'D'

I '.'., 1.1.·, VU,VI.IiO' IlJ. .UL _~~, . ", "", .PI ,\.:01',!, ... ~.

'lheevif.n hmg. Vay llIllg d~d" hlnb luBi He,m~, gai crmg tin du:di da .. Va.y h$um:OE1 dong d~ns. voi v.fty 1ong .. K.hangc6 va.y bung, ·Va.~r duo,. phAn thanh hai thuy!, thuy duo! dai hen thuy tren .. Toan thinmau tr.i.ng~ khang (10 man si,c die hi!t,

ii ill

L~ __ _ _ _ _

Phdrr /J6'!~ An. DQ Duong, Indonesi,a~ Dai Loan,

Tri~u Tien,Nh*t Ban, Trung 'Qu6c"Vi¢:t Nam,

Mrla v:l(l khai thact Quanbnam.

N g'llc{t'klzai thac~; cau, 1'1161. kee da:'y,r,!,

K ~ h thubc kit" Iha' ,. nnlI9'Q'm'c "

. ,I·e.... .. " ,m,c • ""OJ -. .." .. m.

D )l't. 2 'T' ,,' .'

_. ~n:g 51"n, pritim: . ,UOl.

97

7.21. Ca. ,c'ldv3,n;g, Tenkhoa h9C:

Selaroides leptolepis (Valenciennes. 18 :13) Ten tieng Anh.Yellow snipe trevally

lJq.c ililm lrtnli thai': Than htnh thoi, dep ben. Vit,~n lung vi, "~ien b,ngcongdeu. :D'a'U dal, dep ben. Mat trcn, mang mo :mat phil tri,en~ phin trlJo,cphu den vien m.al,pban sau d~n d.6ng lU,. Mi~ng, hoi chech, hudngM:n tren, Ring uho, ham du!cd. co mot hang, ham tren, xuong 141 mia va X'lJ,cmg khau Ic:idj, khong c,a rang. Man;g nip mang khOng Utnvd:.i uc, DU'On:g ben hoan toano Phfa trtT.Q'IG cua va, lung co 'm,9t gaimoc nguoc, Tia 'lilly lungthti nba;tv~ll v'ilt '! luna tb Ii ba ~ dilj. ttl f"",V, -- '01.'

---- "J -- , --J -, ,t:j -, -_1- -.", -. "--1:" . aJ

ng.l,fc dai, VllQ1. qua khai ('Uem cua vay h~u 01,6n. V,i,y b$u mon d6ng d~nt.g v6i Yay lung thu hal. Ph!:n lung mini xanh xam, pbin hl,l.ng m~m. ([ina:. Doc thin cd mot dili rnau vang

I~ '!' ,. ,I:>

chay 'tlr vi~n :nIp mang d'6n vij~n tren bap

..t' &.,

uU01,

Ph.tbz: bi;': An 'Do ,- Thai BlnhDlIang ..... ! IndOnesia,

. '

Malaysta.~Thai Lan, Otxttayli,a,+ Philippin. 'Irung QU.6c,Nll~tBan" Vl¢;tNam. 0 Vi~t

N·· r '. • .. "":~"'" b,"~ ~·:~rl',.. n.f: b'''' -T 'U ..... IO' b~·A! v~

. am, ca puan 0 u V~nlu ,LmC Q,~ _ (JIJ1:bY Al

Nam bq.

Mua •. ~ khot thdc.~ Quanh Dam.

Ngu' c~ kluli ;t,hdt::V ay ~ manh.vo, '1l16l keo day. KJch Ihnat; khaitluic;~ 90 ~. 121m:m.

" .- /1.' . T' ..., h i kh '11"' -'

D't;m,g san p'hum.~ , um, p~~m _~iO~ ram mam,

Ph,m. '1.h.o'\ie

98

7.2,2 .. Ca cblldn d~n :ph,U'aDa ,dtJ.ng Te:n khoa hQc::

Dactylopteras orientaiis (Cuvier &.

Valenciennes, 1843)

Ten tieng Anh: Or.ientaJ.flyinggumard

lJa. -c. tiiim hinh' thai; Thanhlnh tru VIl.o0'(7, diu

!, !13 ~.

lo~m~t, 10. Goe sau duOi cua Xl1c1ng nipmang

pilat uien tao thiulh Dl~t gal lan, koo! diU tal gOc va)' bung, Viry nhbtho~ llm.Oi vi}' !d,~u co Ml1Qt gai nho len ,gan nhu viy Ian.g .. , V ly nguc fait rQng v,a dai, cbh~u dili khi. v~y x,l!'p l~i d~t {,ai v,iyduoi. Chieu d,ai thang&"p 2~,9 ,- 3,3110 cbie;u daim,om·· . Khoan 'g'. each g·'~u":'o:Iol.""~ m.i~ 'b, .......;; hen

_ _ _ . _ " £\.J.1t _ _ ..... . . . l gUAll. . _ _l~ .• ,,",Jl .. ' ,p.

- "'"

Phdt)M:~ Hong' Hii" Chtlu, Phi~Otx.mlyliat.

Philippin, Trang 'Qu:6c~, Nhtt Bin,Lndones:ia, Malaysia, 'Ihai Lan, Vi~'t Nam .. 0 Vi~( Nam~ca

-J.".Ai ... l.,. ..... t: .:_'!!"'D:f 1l.,A·· .• ~- 'TI' .e ·"'N--. -LA

PUi:lIJ.l eo or v!-Iu.IIna.c [}'!, msen _ rung va ., .' am l~.

Mua v~ khai l:hac.: Quanh nam

Ngu (;1# khal tluic: 1.u6i ~eo day. Rich thuV'c khai thac: 150- 200mm D,!-,ng san ,lduim: Tum.

Ten khoa hoe:

Cypsel'u"rus poecilopl,eru;s

& Valenciennes, 1846)

Tell tieng Anh: Yellowfin flying fish

(Cuvier

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