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Bai tap vec to

Bai tap vec to

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CHUONGI

VECTd

§1. cAc DINH NGHIA

A. TOM TAT GIAO KHOA

Vecto la doan thang co hirong, nghia la trong hai diem mut cua doan thang da chi ro diSm nao la diem ddu, di€m nao la diem cuoi.

~

/

po. Hinh 1.1

Vecto co diSm ddu A va diem cu6i B diroc ki hieu la AB . DQ dai cua vecto la khoang each gitra diem ddu va diem cu6i cua vecto do.

DQ dai cua vecto AB diroc ki hieu la IABI , nhir v~y IABI =AB.

N~u khong noi ro di€m ddu va diem cu6i cua vecto ta con ki hieu vecto la :

.... --

a, b, x ....

Hai vecto gQi la cimg phuong n~u chung n~m tren hai dirong thang song song, hoac cung nam tren met duong thang. (h.l.2)

Ngiroi ta con noi hai vecto cung phuong neu gia cua chung song song hoac trung nhau.

c

D

A

B

a)

Hinh 1.2

5

Chlldng I. Vecto

-

- Hai vecto AB va CD Ia hai vecto cung huang. (h1.2a)

-

- Hai vecto EF va GH la hai vecto ngiroc huang. (h.l.2b).

Hai vecto b~ng nhau neu chung cung huang va cung dQ dai.

Khi hai vecto ~ va b bang nhau ta vi~t ~ = b.

----+ __. ---+ __.

Taco: AB=CD ~ AC+BD

(do tinh chat cua hinh binh hanh ABDC).

~

A a

~7B

1_..... _

c ~ D

Vecto-khong la vecto co diem d~u va diem cuoi b

....

trung nhau, ki hieu la O. Hlnh 7.3

Nhir v~y vecto-khong co dQ deli bang 0 va cung phirong, cung huang voi moi vectc.

Cho tnroc di~m A va vecto ~ thi ta dung diroc di~m B duy nhftt sao cho

- ....

AB = a.

B. GIAITOAN

[E] Vi d\l 1 : Cho hai diem phan biet A va B. Hoi co bao nhieu doan thang va bao nhieu vecto khac nhau ?

GIAI MQt doan thang duy nhat AB hoac BA.

-

Hai vecto khac nhau la AB va BA.

[E] Vi d\l 2 : Cho hai vecto AB va AC cung phuong. K~t luan gi v~ ba diem A,B,C?

GIAI

Hai vecto AB va AC cung phuong va co diem A chung nen chung cung n~m tren met dirong thang. V~y ba diem A,B, C thang hang.

[E Vi du 3 : Cho tam giac ABC can tc.t1 A. GQi Mia trung di~m cua BC va N la trung di~m cua A C.

-

a) Ta co AB = AC dung hay sai ?

6

C6c dlnh nghTa

b) Cac vecto nao cling hu6ng voi AB ? Cac vecto nao ngiroc hu6ng

-

voi BC ?

c) Cac vecto nao bang nhau ?

GIAI

----0

a) Hai vecto AB va AC khong cling phuong

nen chung khong b~ng nhau.

b) MN la doan n6i trung diem hai canh BC va A C

--

nen MN va AB song song nhau. V~y NM va

-

AB la hai vecto cling hu6ng.

Ba di~m B, C, M thang hang nen cac vecto

--+ --+ ---+ __..,.

ngiroc hu6ng voi BC la : CB , CM , MB .

- -

c) Ta co : BM = MC vi hai vecto nay cling

hu6ng va co d9 dai bang nhau. Ta ding co :

---+ __.,. -+ __..,. ---+ --+

eM = MB va AN = NC , CN = NA .

A

c

8

M

Hinh 1.4

~ Vi dl} 4 : Cho hinh binh hanh ABeD. L~y di~m M tren doan AB va diem N

--+ ---+ -----+--+

tren doan CD sao cho AM = CN. Chung minh AN = MC va MD = BN .

GIAI

Ta co AM = CN ( thea gt) va AM II CN (vi ABIICD).

A

M

----0 _

V~y AN=MC.

Tuong tv nr giac BMDN la hinh

- ----0

binh hanh, V~y MD = BN .(h.l.5)

D

N

Hinh 1.5

~ Vi dl} 5 : Cho hinh binh hanh ABeD. GQi M va N lfin hrot la trung diem cua AB va DC. AN va CM IAn hrot c~t BD tai E va F. Chung minh

----0 __

DE=EF=FB.

7

Chlldng I. Vecto

GliH

Ta co AM = NC nen AMCN la hinh binh hanh, do do AN II Me. Suy ra MF la dirong trung binh cua ~ AEB va NE la duong trung binh cua ~DFC, nr do ta co F la trung diem cua EB va E la trung

--+ -- -->

di~m cua DF. Vay DE = EF = FB .

(h.l.6)

£jyB

D N C

Hinh 1.6

C. BAI T ~P ~N LUY~N

i.i. Cho hai di~m phan biet A va B. Cau nao sau day dung? a) Co mot doan AB hay BA ;

-

b) Co hai vecto khac nhau AB va BA ;

c) IABI = lEAl = AB ;

d) Cit cau a, b va e dSu dung.

1.2. Cho di~m A. Tim t~p hop cac di~m M sao eho : a) IAMI = 4cm ;

~ ........

b) AM cling phirong voi a ':F 0 eho tnroc,

1.3. Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD va E la di~m d6i xirng cua C qua D. Chirng to

- --

AE=BD.

1.4. Cho mra luc giac dSu ABCD noi tiep trong duong trim tam 0 duong kinh AD. Chi ra cac vecto bang voi Be.

1.5. Cho tam giac ABC va di~m M (y trong tam giac.Goi A " B ',C' IAn hrot la trung di~m cua BC, CA, AB va N, P, Q IAn hrot la di~m d6i xirng cua M qua

A',B', C'.

~ -----+ ---+ --+

a) Chung to : AQ = CN ; AM = PC ;

b) Chung to ba duong thang AN, BP, CQ d6ng quy.

8

Chuang I. Vecto

Tuong tv' til giac MBNC la hinh binh

A

--+ -

hanh nen CN = MB

(3)

___.. --+

Tir ( 1) va (3) ta co : A Q = CN .

Do do nr giac A CNQ la hinh binh hanh, Vay hai duong cheo AN va CQ giao nhau tai trung diem 1.

N

Hinh 1.9

-.. -

M~t khac nr giac AMCP la hinh binh hanh nen AM = rc

(4)

---- ---+

b) Tir (2) va (4) ta co QB = PC.

Do do nr giac BCPQ la hinh binh hanh nen hai duong cheo BP va CQ giao nhau tai trung diem I. V~y AN, BP va CQ dong quy tai 1.

~ '''' ?

§2. TONG VA HII;:U CUA HAl VECTO

A. TOM TAT GIAO KHOA

1. Djnh nghia tang cua cac vecto : Cho hai vecto ~ va b .Tir mot diem A tuy y ve "AB = ~, r6i tu di~m B ve Be = b thi vecto AC diroc goi 1a tong cua

~ ~ ---+ -+-+ •

hai vecto a va b. Ki hieu : AC = a + b . (h. 1. 10)

B

c

A

Hinh 1.10

Nhir v~y ta co : AB + Be = AC voi A, B, C tuy Y (goi Ia quy tac ba aidm).

-+ ~ ---to .... ----+ _..,.

ABCD la hinh binh hanh nen a = AB = DC va b = BC = AD.

Nhu v~y "AB + AD = AC (goi la quy tac hinh binh hanh). (h. I. II )

10

Tong vo hieu cue he: vee to

~c

A -+ 0 b

Hinh 1.11

2.

A . ~ ~ ~ ~

Tinh chat: a) Tinh giao hoan : a + b = b + a

b) Tinh kSt hop

... ...

: (a+b)+e=a+(b+e)

.... ............

c) voi moi a ta co : a + 0 = a

d) I~ + bl s I~I + Ibl (b~t d~ng thirc tam giac),

3. Vecto d8i cua mQt vecto'

Vecto d6i cua vecto ~ la vecto ngiroc huang voi ~ va co cling dQ dai voi ~ .

...

Ki hieu : -a.

... ... ...

Nhu v~y a + ( -a ) = O.

-

Ta co AB = -BA.

4. Hi~uciia hai vecto

.... .... .... ....

la a - b = a + (- b).

A

~

~

o B

Hinh 1.12

........ ........

Hieu cua hai vecto a va b, ki hieu a - b, la

t6ng cua vecto ~ va vecto d6i cua vecto b , tire

- --

Ta co AB = OB - OA (quy tfie vJ hieu vectay voi moi diSm 0, A, B.

B. GIAITOA.N

IE Vi d\l 1 : Cho tam giac ABC vuong tai A biSt AB = a va AC = 2a. Tinh dQ dai cua vecto t6ng : AB + AC va vecto hieu AB - AC .

GIAI

Theo quy t~e hinh binh hanh thi AB + AC = AD voi AD la dirong cheo hlnh binh hanh ABDC. Ma goc A vuong nen ABDC la hinh chtr nhat, Do do AD = BC. Ap dung dinh li Py-ta-go trong tam giac vuong ABC ta co

11

Chlldng I. Vecto

BC2 = AB2 + AC2

= a2 + 4a2 = Sa2

V~y IAB+ AEI = IABI = AD = BC = aJ5 .

Theo quy t~c v~ hieu vecto ta co :

- ~

AB-AC = CB.

HilJh 1.13

[B Vi dl} 2: Cho b6n diem bftt ki A, B, C, D. Chung minh cac d~ng thirc sau :

---+ __,... __..,. __..,.

a) AC+BD=AD+BC;

_. __..,. __..,. -----+

b) AB+CD =AD+CB;

--+ -t ---+ --+

c) AB-CD=AC-BD.

GIAI

a) Theo quy t~c ba diem ta co :

---+ -----+ ---+ __..,. ----+

AC=AD+DC va BD=BC+CD.

---+ --+ ---+ ---+ ---+ -----t ----+ __..,. ----+ --+ ~

Do do: AC+BD= AD+DC+BC+CD=AD+BC. (vi DC+CD=O).

b) Theo quy t~c ba diem ta co :

----+ ____, ____,

CD=AD-AC.

c

-----+ --+ __.,. __.,. -----+ --+ -+----+

AB + CD = (AD + DB) + (CB + BD) = AD + CB

----+ ----+ ....

(vi DB+BD = 0).

c) Theo quy t~c v~ hieu vecto ta co :

Hinh 1.14

-----. ---+ ----+ -----+ --+ ---+ ---t ---+

Dodo: AB-CD=AB-(AD-AC)=(AB-AD)+AC

----+ ----+ ------t __,..

= DB+AC=AC-BD.

[B Vi dl} 3 : Cho sau diem A, B, C, D, E, F my y. Chung minh rang :

..--. ---+ ----+ ---t --+ __,..

AC + BD + EF = AF + BC + ED.

12

GIAI

T6ng va hieu cue ho: vee to

Theo quy t~c ba diem ta co :

- ---

AC=AF+FC

-- -- --

BD=BC+CD

EF=ED+DF

~ --+ ~,---+ ---t ---+

Cong thea vS 3 d~ng thirc tren ta diroc : AC + BD + EF ;, AF + BC + ED

--+ --+ -to ----+ -----+ ~

(vi FC + CD = FD va FD + DF = 0 ).

[E Vi d\l 4 : Cho tam giac ABC va G la trong tam cua tam giac. Chung minh r~ng: GA+GB+GC=<)'

GIAI

Ve hinh binh hanh BGCD, MIa trung di~m cua Be. Theo quy tic hinh binh

- --

hanh ta co: GB+ GC = GD

rna GD = 2GM (tinh chat dirong cheo) va GA = 2GM (tinh ch~t trong tam)

-

nen GD = GA. Do do GA = -GD .

----t ----+ __,.. ....

V~y: GA+GB+GC=O. (h.l.15)

- -

Vi d\l 5 : Cho hai hrc F.. ' F2 deu co

cuong dQ Ia 50 N, co diem d~t tai 0 va hop voi nhau mot goc 60°. Tinh cuong d9 hrc t6ng hop cua hai hrc nay.

GIAI

Theo quy t~c hinh blnh hanh thi :

F2 Hlnh 1.16

rna OF! = OF2 = 50(N) nen OF! RF2 Ia hinh thoi co goc 0 bang 60° va hai

dirong cheo OR va FJF2 vuong goc voi nhau tai trung diem H. .

13

Chlldng I. Vectd

Ta co OH= 50 ~ (duong cao tam giac d€u canh bang 50).

V~y IF; +;;1 = IORI = OR = 20H = 50.J3 N.

[E Vi dl} 6 : Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD tam O. Chung rninh r~ng :

----+ ----+ ----+ --.

a) BD-BA=OC-OB;

GIAI

a) Theo quy t~c v€ hieu vecto ta co :

----+ ..__. ----+ ....

b) BC-BD+BA = O.

- -

rna AD = BC (vi ABCD la hinh binh

----+ --. -----+ ----+ 8

hanh) nen BD-BA =OC-OB.

----+ -+ -----+ -+ ----+ ----+

BD-BA=AD va OC-OB=BC

Hinh 1.17

----+ ----+ -----+ ---+

b) Taco: BC-BD=DC rna DC=-BA.

----+ ----+ --+ -t

V~y: BC-BD+BA=O.

[E Vi du 7 : Cho tam giac d~u ABC canh a. Tinh de> dai cac vecto :

-----t ----+ ----+ __..,.

AB+BC va CA-CB.

GIAI

Theo quy t~c ba di€rn ta co : AB + BC = AC .

V~y lAB + JiCI = IACI = AC = a.

Theo quy t~c v~ hieu vecto ta co : c:4 - Ci3 = EA .

V~y 1c:4 - Ci31 = lEAl = AB = a.

14

Tong vo hreu cue hoi vecta

c. BAIT~PRENLUY~N

1.6. Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD tam 0 va Mia diem tuy y. Chung minh :

- --

a) AB+OA=OB;

--. ---+ ---+ ---.

b) MA+MC=MB+MD.

1.7. Cho tam giac ABC vuong tai A bi~t AB = a va goc B = 60°. Tinh de) dai cac

~ -+ ---+-----+

vecto : AB + AC va AB - AC.

1.S. Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD. Goi M va N I~n hrot la trung di€m cua AD va Be. Chung minh rang :

-----+ --+ ----+ ....

a) AD+MB+NA=O ;

---+ ----+ ___.,. ....

b) CD - CA + CB = 0 .

.... .... ....

1.9. Cho cac vecto a va b khac O.

a) Khi nao thi ta co: I~ +hl = 1~1+lhl ;

b) Khi nao thi ta co : I~ + hi = I~ - hi.

1.10. Cho tam giac deu ABC canh a, duong cao AH. Tinh de) dai cac vecto :

- -

a) AB+BH ;

- -

b) AB-AC ;

- -

c) AB+AC.

1.11. Cho tam giac ABC. Neu vecto t6ng AB +"AC nam tren dirong phan giac

-

trong cua BA C thi tam giac ABC la tam giac gi ?

1.12. Cho hinh vuong ABCD canh a. Tinh de) dai cac vecto :

- -

a) AC-AB ;

- -

b) AB+AD ;

---+

c) AB+BC.

1.13. Cho hai hrc F; ,F; l~n hrot co cirong de) 80 N va 60 N, co di€m d~t tai 0 va vuong goc voi nhau. Tinh cuong de) hrc t6ng hop cua chung.

- --

OA+AB=OB.

D

BUONO DAN - uAp s6

1.6. a) Theo quy t~c ba diem ta co:

- ---

b) Ta co MA = MB + BA

B

Hlnh 1.18

15

Chlldng I. Vectd

- --

va MC=MD+DC.

- --

V~y MA+MC=MB+MD

vi BA + DC = 0 (hai vecto d6i nhau).

1.7. Tam giac ABC vuong tai A co goc B = 60° la mra tam giac d€u co BC = 2AB = 2a.

a) Ve hinh binh hanh ABDC ta co :

- --

AB+AC=AD va AD = 2AM.

V~y I Ali + ACI = IADI = AD = 2AM = 2a.

b) Ta co: IAli-ACI =ICiI=BC= 2a.

- --

1.8. a) Ta co NA+AD = ND.

Til giac MBND la hinh binh hanh nen :

MB=DN=-ND.

____. ----+ .__. ~

V~y AD+MB+NA=O.

A

B

c

Hlnh 1.19

E:/D

B' N C

Hlnh 1.20

____. ~ ____. ---+ ---+ ---+ ~

b) Ta co CD-CA = AD rna AD =-CB. V~y CD-CA+CB =0. (h. 1.20)

1.9. a) Til diem A ke Ali = ~ va Be = b thi ta co :

~+b=AC. Do dol~+bl=I~I+lbl ~ IACI=IAliI+IACI

hay AC = AB + Be. Di€u nay xay fa khi A, B, C th~ng hang thee thir tv

... ...

nay. V~y hai vecto a va b cung huang.

b) Til di~rn A ke Ali = ~ va AD = b khi do ABCD la hinh binh hanh.

Theo quy t~c hinh binh hanh ta co : ~ + b = AC . Theo quy t~c v€ hieu vecto ta co: ~ - b = DB .

16

T6ng vo hicu cue hol vecta

Di€u nay xay fa khi ABCD Iii hinh chit nhat, V~y AC vuong goc voi BD

--+ -+

hay hai gia cua hai vecto a vii b vuong goc voi nhau.

- -

1.10. a) Ta co AB+BH= AH.

Tam giac ABC d€u canh a nen dirong eao AH = a~ .

V~y d9 dai CAB + ss , bing AH = a~ .

A

- - -

b) Ta co AB-AC = CB.

V~y d9 dai (AB-AC) bing BC = a.

Bd-----<>-H----bC

Hinh 1.21

- --

c) Ve hinh binh hanh ABDC thi ta co AB + A C = AD .

Ma AD = 2AH = .J3 .

V~y d9 dai (AB + AC) bing AD = .J3 . (h.l.21)

1.11. Tam giac ABC din tai A.

- - -

1.12. a) Taco AC-AB = BC.

V~y d9 dai (AC - AB) bing BC = a.

c

- --

b) Ta co AB+AD=AC.

V~y d9 dai CAB+AD) bingAC= aJ2

- -

c) Ta co AB+BC = AC.

V~y d9 dai (AB+BC) bingAC= aJ2. (h.l.22)

B A

Hinh 1.22

1.13. Vecto hop lire Iii t6ng cua hai vecto F; , F; .

FJ vuong goc voi F2 nen vecto t6ng Iii dirong cheo cua hinh chit nhat OFtRF2• Ta co

R

Hinh 1.23

2.GT&CHTNHH 10 - A

17

Chlldng I. Vecto

Ma OR = FJF2 = .J602 +802 = 10M.

V~y cuong d9 luc t6ng hop OR bang 10M N .

, ? A , A K

§3. TICH CUA MOT VECTO val MOT so

A. TOM TAT GIAO KHOA

1. Dlnh nghia : Tich cua vecto ~ =1= 0 voi s6 thuc k ;r 0 la met vecto, ki hieu la k ~ , cung huang voi ~ neu k > 0, nguoc huang voi ~ n~u k < 0 va co d9 dai

bang Ikl.I~I.

A B
0 ~ CD=2AB
c D
- 2-
F E EF=--CD
3 Hinh 1.24

-t..... .... ....

Ta quy iroc O.a = 0 va kO=O.

2. Tinh chit: Voi moi vecto ~, b va moi s6 thirc k, / ta co:

-+ ..... .... ....

a) kia+by=k a+kb ; k(a-b)=ka-kb

.... .... ....

b)(k+l). a=ka+/a

.... ....

c) k(la) = (k.l) a

-+ -+ ..... .... -+ -+ .... ....

d) 1 a = a ; (-1) a = - a ; k a = 0 ¢:;> k = 0 hoac a = O.

3. Bi~u ki~n d~ hai vecto' cung phuong

Di~u kien cAn va du d~ hai vecto ~ va b (b =1= 0) cung phuong la co mot s6 thuc k d~ ~ = k b .

18

2.GT&CHTNHH 10 - B

Tfch cue mot vecta v6i mot so

4. Di~u ki~n d~ ba di~m thing hang

DiSu kien cftn va du d~ ba diem A, B, C thang hang la co s6 thuc k ;j:. 0 sao

----- --

cho AB =kAC.

5. Bi~u th] (phan tich) mQt vecto theo hai vecto khfmg cimg phuong

Cho hai vecto ~ va b khong cling phuong, N~u ~ = m~ + nb voi m, n E lR thi ta noi vecto ~ bieu thi diroc qua hai vecto ~ va b; hay vectc ~ duoc

... ...

phan tich thea hai vecto a va b .

B. GIAI ToAN

IE Vi du 1 : G9i Ila trung diem cua doan AB. Chung minh rang voi moi diem M

-- -- --

ta luon co : MA + MB = 2MI .

I Hinh 1.25

[E] Vi du 2 : Cho tam giac ABC co trong tam G. Chung minh rang

GIAI Theo quy t~c ba diem ta co : U4 = J:1j + IA

-- ---

va

MB=MI+IB.

~ ---+ ----+ ~ ~

Do do : MA + MB = 2MI + IA + IB .

Ma IA + IB = 0 vi Ila trung diem cua AB.

-- -- --

V~y MA + MB = 2MI . (h.l.25)

-- -- --

MA + MB + MC = 3MG voi rnoi di~m M tuy y.

cis:

Theo quy t~c ba diem thi voi moi diem M

_____... ~ ---+ ---+ ~ ----+

ta co: MA = MG+GA ; MB = MGtGB;

-- -- --

MC=MG+GC.

__..,. ---+ ---+ ----+ ----+ __..,.

V~y MA+MB+MC=3MG+GA+GB+GC=3MG

__,. ----+ -to -+

(vi thea vi dl,14.§2 ta co GA + GB + GC = 0). (h.l.26)

M

B

A

c

B

Hinh 1.26

19

Chlldng I. Vecto

[E Vi dl} 3 : Cho tam giac ABC. L~n hrot l~y cac di~mM, N, P tren cac doan AB, BC va CA sao cho AM = .!_ AB ; BN = .!_ BC ; CP = .!_ CA. 333

- ~ .....

Chirng minh : AN + BP + CM = 0 .

GIAI

Taco:

A

---+ 1 ---+ ----+ --+ 1 --+

BN=-BC ¢:> AN-AB=-BC

3 3

(1)

-----t 1 ----+ -----+ ----+ 1 ----+

CP=-CA ¢:> BP-BC=-CA

3 3

(2)

---+ 1 --+ ------+ ----+ 1 --+

AM =-AB ¢:> CM -CA =-AB (3)

3 3

Cong thea v~ (1), (2), (3) ta diroc : Hinh 1.27

---+ -----+ ---+ ---+ ----+ ----+ 1 --+ --+ ----+

AN + BP + CM - (AB + BC + CA) = - (AB + BC + CA) . 3

--+ --+ ----+ ~

Ma AB+BC+CA =0.

V~y AN+BP+CM =0.

............... {~+b+~=O

Vi dl} 4: Cho ba vecto a,b,c tho a man

2~-b+4~ = 0

(1) (2)

..... ..... .....

Chung minh a va b cung phirong voi c.

GIAI Cong thea v~ hai d~ng thirc tren ta duoc :

..... -+ -+ .... 5........ ....

3a + 5c = 0 ¢:> a = -"3c. V~y a cung phuong voi c.

.... ........ 5........ 2.... -+ ....

Tir (1)suyra: b =- a- c = "3c-c=3"c. V~y b cung phuong voi c.

[E Vi dl} 5 : Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD. G9i Ila trung di~m cua CD. L~y diem M tren doan BI sao cho BM = 2MI. Chung minh ba diem A,M, C thang hang -.

20

Tfch cue mot vecta v6i mot 56

GliJ.[

Theo gill thiet ta co: BM = 2W .

Do do, thea quy t~c hieu vecto ta co :

-to --+ ~---+

AM - AB = 2( AI - AM) .

B

- --+

Suy ra 3 AM = 2AI + AB .

I la trung di~m cua CD nen thea vi du 1. ta co : 2AI = AC + AD .

Hinh 1.28'

V?y 3AM = AC+AD+AB=2AC.

H~ thirc nay clnrng to A, M, C thang hang. (h. 1.28)

~ * Vi d1,l 6. Cho tam giac ABC noi ti€p trong duong trim Him 0 va H 1(\ true Him. GQi D la di~m d6i xirng cua A qua O.

a) Chirng minh nr giac BHCD la hinh binh hanh, Suy ra :

~---+~ ~

HA+HB+HC=2HO;

----+ -----+ ~ ----+

b) Chirng minh OA+OB+OC = OH ;

c) Clnrng minh ba di~m 0: G, H thang hang voi G la trong tam cua tam giac ABC.

GIAI a) Ta co: BH .L AC (vi Hla true tam)

DC j_ AC (vi AD la duong kinh).

Do do BH I I DC ( vi cung vuong goc voi A C) Tuong tv CH II BD (vi cung vuong goc voi AB). V?y tu giac BHCD la hinh binh hanh,

Theo quy t~c hinh binh hanh ta co :

-- ----

HB+HC=HD.'

BC va HD la hai duong cheo cua hinh binh hanh nen giao nhau tai trung di~m M

Trong tam giac AHD, 0 la trung di~m cua AD nen ta co :

--+ -- --

HA+HD=2HO.

--+ ---+ --+ --+ --+

V?y HA+HB+HC=HA+HD=2HO.

Hinh 1.29

21

Chlldng I. Vecto

b) Theo quy t~c ba diem ta co :

----..--+--+--+-----+----+----+---+--t

~=w+m;oo=w+m;oc=w+oc.

----+ --+ ---+ --+ ---+

V?y OA+OB+OC=30H +2HO=OH

(1)

-- ---

c) G If! trong tam cua tam giac ABC nen ta co: OA + OB + OC = 30G (2)

--

So sanh (1) va (2) ta co : OH = 30G.

V?y ba diem 0, G, H thang hang (Duong thang diqua tam dirong tron ngoai tiep, tnrc tam, trong tam cua tam giac duoc goi If! duong thang Cl-le).

[E *Vi d\, 7 : Cho tam giac ABC va I If! trung diem cua BC. Tim t?P hop cac di€m M thoa man: 12MAI = 1MB + UCI·

GIAI

A

--

MB+MC=2MI.

Do dol2MAI = 1MB + ucl ~ 12MAI = 12Wl

~MA=MI.

I

I If! trung di€m cua BC nen ta co :

8

V?y t?P hop cac di~m M If! duong trung tnrc cua Al. (h.I.30)

Hlnh 1.30

[E * Vi d\, 8 : Tim di€m C tren doan AB sao cho : CA - 2CB = 0 .

Cho di€m M b~t ki trong m~t phang va goi MN If! vecto dinh boi MN = MA - 2MB . Chirng to duong thang MN qua mQt di€m c6 dinh,

GIAI

Ta co CA = 2CB ~ CB + BA = 2CB ~ BA = CB . Do do B If! trung di~m cuaAC.

----t ----+ ---+ ---+ ---+ __.,. ---+

Taco: MN=MA-2MB ~ MN=MC+CA-2(MC+CB)=-MC

-- ...

vi CA - 2CB = 0 .

V?y M, N, C thang hang, Suy ra dirong th~ng MN qua di€m c6 dinh C.

22

Tich cue mot vecta v6i mot so

[E *Vi du 9 : Cho tam giac ABC. GQi D 1a diem dinh boi ED = ~ Be va I 1a trung diem cua AD. G9i M la diem thoa man AM = xAC voi x la s6 thirc.

-

Do do: BM = (l~x)BA+xBC.

c) Ba di~m B, L M thing hang khi co mot s6 k *- 0 sao cho :

----+ ---+ ----+ ----+ k --+ k ----+

BM=kBI ¢:> (l-x)BA+xBC=-BA+-BC.

2 3

Dodo: 2(I-x)=3x. V~yx= ~.

C. BAI T ~P REN LUY~N

1.14. Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD Him 0 va goi G la trong tam tam giac ABC. a) Chirng minh rang : AB + AC = 3AG va AB + AC + AD = 4AO ; -b) Cho M la diem tuy '1, chimg minh : MA + ME + Ai(; + MD = 4MO .

-

a) Tinh BI thea BA va BC ;

-

b) Tinh BM thea BA va BC ;

c) Tinh x d~ ba di~m B, L M thing hang.

GIAI a) I1a trung di~m cua AD nen ta co :

- 1 - - 1 - 2- 1- 1-

BI =-(BA+BD) =-(BA+-BC)= -BA+-BC.

2 2 3 2 3.

----+ ----+ ----+----+

b) Ta co: AM = xAC ¢:> BM -BA =x(BC-BA).

A

c

Hlnh 1.31

1.15. Cho nr giac ABCD. GQi M va N IAn hrot la trung diem cua AC va BD.

Chung minh r~ng : AB + CD = 2AiN .

------+ --+ ----+ ----+

Chirng minh: AA'+BB'+CC'=3GG'.

1.16. GQi G va G' IAn hrot la trcng tam cua hai tam giac ABC va A 'B 'C '.

23

/

Chlldng I. Vecto

1.17. Cho tam giac ABC trong tam G. Goi 11<\ trung diem cua AG.

----+ ---+ ---+ _.

Chung minh : AB + AC -+- 6GI = O.

*1.18. Cho tam giac ABC c6 AB = 3 va AC = 4. Goi AD la phan giac trong cua

-- ----+ --

g6c A. Tinh AD theo AB va AC.

* 1.19. Cho tam giac ABC nQi tiep trong duong tron tam 0 va di~m H djnh boi :

OA+OB+OC=OH.

Chirng minh rang H la true tam cua tam giac ABC.

(Huang d~n : Chirng minh AH = 20M voi MIa trung diem cua BC).

----+

1.20. Cho tam giac ABC trong tam G. Tinh AB theo GB va GC .

1.21. Cho tam giac ABC trong Him G va I la trung di~m cua AG. Lfty diem K tren doan A C. Tinh Ai theo AC d~ ba diem B, I, K thang hang.

*1.22. Cho tam giac ABC.

a) Xac dinh diem D thoa man DA + 3DB = 0 ;

b) Tim t~p hop cac di~m Mthoa man lAM +3MEI = 8.

*1.23. Cho tam giac ABC. Xacdinh diem D thoa man DB - 30C = O. Cho MIa diem bftt ki va AiN = ME - 3MC . Chung minh duong thang MN di qua di~m c6 djnh.

HUONG DAN - nAp s6

1.14.

a) Goi E la trung diem cua BC ta c6 : AS + AC = 2M

---t 3 ---+ --.... ---. ---+

rna AE=-AG vay AB+AC=3AG.

2 .

Theo quy t~c hinh binh hanh ta c6 :

----+ -- --

AB+AD = AC.

A D

!J??J

BEe

Hlnh 1.32

----+ ---+ -----+ -+ --+

Do d6 AB+ AD+ AC = 2AC = 4AO. (h.l.32)

24

Tieh cue mot veeta v6i mot 56

1.15. N la trung diSm cua BD nen ta eo :

AB+AD=2AN.

MIa trung diSm cua AC nen ta eo :

-

AC=2AM.

----+ -----+ ---+ ~---+

Do do AB+AD-AC= 2(AN -AM).

- - -

<=> AB + CD = 2MN . (h. 1.33)

1.16 Theo quy tile v€ hieu vecto ta eo :

A

C Hlnh 1.33

. ----+ ----+ ____,. ----+ ---... ----+ --+ ---+ ---+

AA'=GA'-GA; BB'=GB'-GB; CC'.=GC'-GC.

----+-+--+----+---+---+-----t----+.---+

Do do: AA'+BB'+CC'= GA'+GB'+GC'-(GA+GB+GC).

---+ --+ ----+ -to

Ma G la trong tam tam giac ABC nen GA + GB + GC = 0 va G' la trong Him

----+ ---+ ----+ --+

tam giac A 'B'C' nen theo vi du Z. ta eo: GA'+ GB'+ GC' = 3GG'.

----+ ---+ --+ -+

V?y AA'+BB'+CC'=3GG'.

- - -

1.17. Taeo AB+AC=2AM=3AG

(M la trung diSm cua BC).

I la trung diem cua AG nen AG = -2Gi .

----+ ---+ ---+ ..:..

V?y AB + AC + 6GI = O. (h. 1.34)

*1.18. Theo tinh ehAt dirong phan giac trong cua goc A

trong tam giac ABC ta eo :

DB AB 3

-=-=-

DC AC 4

--

Do do 3DC = 4DB rna hai vecto DB, DC nguoc

hirong nen ta eo :

A

B

M Hlnh 1.34

c

B

A

c

--t --+ -----+-----+

3DC = -4DB <=> 3(AC - AD) = -4(AB - AD) Hlnh 1.35

-- - 4- 3-

<=> 7 AD = 4AB+3AC <=> AD =-AB+-AC. (h. 1.35)

7 7

25

ChttClng I. Vectd

*1.19. Xem VI du 6 trong phan giai toano 1.20. G la trong Him tam giac ABC nen ta co :

---+ ---+ ~ ~ ----+---t

GA+GB+GC=O <=> GB+GC=-GA.

--+ ---+ -t ----+ --+ ----+ ---+-----+

V~y AB= GB-GA= GB+GB+GC=2GB+GC.

1.21. I la trung diem cua AG nen

A

- - -

BA+BG=2BI

---+ ----+ 1 ----+ ~

<=> 2BI=BA+-(BA+BC)

3

<=> BI = 3.BA +.!liC .

3 6

c

-

f)~t AK = xAC thi ta co:

Hinh 7.36

---t ----+ --+ ---+ ---+

BK -BA = x(BC-BA) <=> BK = (l-x)BA+xBC.

V~y B, L K thing hang khi co mot s6 k;e 0 sao cho BK = kBI

3 1

<=> - (1- x) = 6x <=> 15x = 3 <=> x = -.

2 5

- ....

*1.22. a) Ta co : DA + 3DB = 0 <=> DA = -3DB .

V~y D chi a dean AB thea ti s6 -3.

b) Ta co : 1M] + 3MBI = 8 <=> IMD + ill + 3(MD + DB)I = 8

<=> 14MDI = 8 <=> DM = 2.

V~y t~p hop cac di~m MIa dirong tron Him D ban kinh bang 2.

- ....

* 1.23. Ta co: DB -3DC = 0 <=> DB = 3DC.

V~y di~m D chia doan BC thea ti s6 3 .

..._..... ---+ ~ ---+ ~ -----+

Taco: MN=MB-3MC <=> MN=MD+DB-3(MD+DC)

-

<=> MN=-2MD.

V~y dirong thing MN di qua di~m D c6 dinh.

26

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