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KY THUAT SO(Ng Thuy Van )

KY THUAT SO(Ng Thuy Van )

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" A

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l~illlllllIlIlI.III~11

or 172053*

HHA XUIT BAN @ KHOA HOC VA KY THU~T

NGUYEN THUY VAN

A K

KY THUAT.SO

Sach duac dung lam giao trinh cho cdc truong dai hoc kj thuat

Toi ban co SUa chiia

NHA XUAT BAN KHOA HQC VA KY THU~T H:\ N ()J - 20()4

Chiu trach nhiem xudt ban Bien tap

ve u«

: PGs. Ts. T() DANG HAl

: NGUYEN NGOC, NGUYF~N nANG : HHONG LAN

In 1. 000 eu6n kho 19x 27 em t<?i XLlC1ng in NXB Van hoa dim toe. Giay phep xuat ban 56 1189 - 35 - 10/9/ 2003.

In xong va nap hru chieu thanq 1/2004.

Ml)C Ll)C

Pban 1. D~I SO BOOLE vA VI M~CH so

Chuang 1. Dai s6 Boole 1- 1. Mil dau

1- 2. Bien logie va ham logie 1- 3. Cac ham logic co him

1- 4. Cac phuong phap bieu dien ham logic

1- 5. Cac he thuc co ban va he Qua trong dai s6 logic 1- 6. H¢ ham du

1- 7. Oit ham NAND, NOR 1-8. Ham XOR

1- 9. Ham tuong duong

1- 10. Mot so nhan xet t6ng <fual Bdi ti)p

Chuang 2. T6i thieu boa bam Boole

2- 1. Khai niern v~ t6i thieu hoa ham Boole

2- 2. Cac phuong phap t6i thieu hoa ham Boole

2- 3. Toi thieu hoa bang phuong phap Quine - Me. Cluskey

2- 4. Phuong phap toi thieu hoa dung bang Karnaugh eho ham dang ETI 2-.:5. Toi thicu hoa ham () dang chuan tile hoi

BiJi ui.p

Chuong 3. Vi mach s6

J- 1. Dinh nghia va phanloej

1- 2. PMm loai theo ban chat cu.. tin hieu dien vao ra cua vi mach 3- 3. Phan IU\ii (hco 111(lt d() tinh hop

3- 4. Phan loai theo e6ng nghc chc tao

J- 5. Nhtrng thong so Icy thuat ella vi mach so 3- 6. Dong vo IC

3-- 7. Gioi han nhiet dO

3- 8. Cong nghe don cue (MaS - METAL OXID SEMJ- CONDUCTER) 3- 9. C6ng nghe luang cue

3- 10. Cae mach ra TIL

T o'ng quail I'C l1l(JCh sS

Trang

6 6 6 8

10 15 16 16 20 21 21

25

25 27 28 32 34 35

36 36 36 37 38 40 42 43 44 45 46 53

T r(JfIR

Phau 2. MACH T6NG H{_)P

h!!lmg 4. Thief ki' V~I plum tIel! mach t6 hop

5X

4- I Mel hinh roan hoc

4- 2. Phan tich mach lei hop 4-- 1. Thiel ke mach 16 hop

et: tdp

5R 59 60 67

Chuong 5. Cac mach to hop thuong gap

6R

5- I. Be) cong nhi phan milt cell s(\ 5- 2. BCl tru nhi phan mot col s() 5-- 3. B() so sanh (Com para tor)

5- 4. Mach tao va kiem Ira chan lc 5·- 5. Mach phan 100li ngat

5- 6. Bo ucm kenh (MUX) hay he) chon JlI lieu (Data Selector) 5- 7. Be) phan kcnh (DEMUX)

5- K. Mach chuyen rna

5- 9. Mot so vi mach t6 hop Ba! t d p

6K

71

72

75 77 7R 79 XO 91 94

Phan 3. M~CH DAY

Chuong 6. Cac phan ti1 nho eel ban

6- l. Gioi thieu

6- 2. Dinh nghia V~I phan loai

6-- .1. Cac loai Flip Flop va dicu kien dong bO 6·- 4. RS -- FF

6·- S. T- FF

()- 6. J K -- FF

()-7. D- FF

6-·- K. FF lam viec nhu mot mach chdt 6- 9. Xac dinh dau van kich cho FF 6- 10. Chuyen doi giua cac loai FF

6- II. Mot s(\ vi mach FF

Bdi (tip

9X qK YX

100 102 104 105 107 lOY 111 111 116 116

(lwong 7. NhfJug khai niem co ban ve mach day

7- I. 77 7- :I. 7- 4. 7·· 5

Mot s6 khai nicm co ban vc mach Jay C{IC phuong phap mo ta mach Jay

Chuydn deli giua hai rna hinh Mealy va Moore Cle buck thict k~ mach day

Thiet ke mach day Iii di) hinh trang thai Thict ke mach Jay til bang cua Otornat Thier ke mach Jay til luu dc) thuat toan Blii td I'

119 119 122 125 12K 129 136 137 143

7-- 7.

Chtrong 8. BfJ dern

~- 1. Dinh nghia vii phan loai bo dern s- 2. Ma ella bo dern

i{- 3. Cac buoc thiet ke hO. dem

s- 4. BCl ocm thuan, nhi phan, O(lI1g bo v{li h(; sCi dcm Kd = 2n

8- 5. Cac bo dcm nghich, nhi phan, dong hCJ V(\j he s() dcm ~l = 211 s- 6. Cac bO dcm Gray thuan, ollng bo v{li he ~() dcm Kd := 211

1\- 7. Cac h() dern u(lI1g bo thuan nghich

i{- S. GIC bo dcm (hap phan, oClI1g h(l

S- 9. Be) dern nhi phan, khClng dong bo voi ~l s- 10. BC) dcm thap phan, khClI1g dong he)

14', 148 150 151

ISS 157 Hd

Ihl

8- 11. B() dcm oiU lai trang thai S- 12. B() dcm Johnson

s- 13. no dcm V(lI1g

s- 14. Mot sil van de can chu y khi thic: kc b(l dem s- 15. Mot sil vi mach ocm thtt(lng g~p

Biii td p

J (

174 174 179 un

Chuang 9. Hf) ghi dich 9- I. Gioi thicu

IXh

9- 2. Thanh ghi dich 4 hit nap vao nili ticp hoac song song, ra noi ticp, dich phai I x7

9- 3. B() ghi dich 4 hit, dich trai, dich phai ISS

9- 4. Do hinh tong quat cua b() ghi dich 19()

9- 5. Thiet kc b(l dern dung b(l ghi dich 192

9- 6. Tao day tin hicu tuan hoan dung thanh ghi dich 9- 7. BCl dcrn vong

9- 8. Bo dcm vong xoan (Bo dcm Johnson)

<)- 9. BCl ghi dich v{li ham hlli ticp cong modul 9- 10. Melt s6 vi mach gili dich

Bili t d P

194 191\ 201 205 210

2i2

Chuong 10. Mach day dong b(l

10- 1. Phan rich mach day d6ng bo

10- 2. Cac buoc thiet ke mach day dllng bCl

10- 3. Mach day d6ng h(l dung mo hinh Moore va mo hinh Mealy 10- 4. Toi thicu hoa trang thai

10- 5. Ma hoa trang thai

J()-- 6. Mach kicm tra day tin hieu vao Biii uip

2]3

22.6 235 239 244 246

Chuong 11. Mach day khfJng dong b{l

1 1 - 1. Cac bUlk thicr kc mot mach day khong dClI1g biJ I 1- 2. Mot vi du ve thict kc mach day khong U('lJ1g bo

11- .1. Hicn tuong chu ky va chay dua trong mach day khonj; dClIlg hCl

25()

11- 5. T6i thicu hoa va rna hoa trang thai trong mach day khong dong bi? 11- 6. MOt s6 thi du thiet ke mach day khong dong bo

Bai UlP

Chuang 12. Thiet ke mach so dung MSI, LSI 12- 1. Mb dau

12- 2. Cac bl) chon dir lieu hay don kenh 12- 3. Cac ung dung cua MUX

12- 4. BO phan kenh (DEMUX) va bo giai rna (DECODER) 12- 5. (Jng dung cua bo giai rna

12-6. ROM

12- 7. Cac ilng dung cua ROM

12- R. Cac mang logic lap trinh PLA 12- 9. Cac irng dung cua PLA

Bai td p

Chuang 1.1. Mach so hQC

13-1. BO song song n bit 13- 2. BO cong nho nhanh 13- 3. Mil bu

13- 4. Bieu dien s6 nhi phan nguyen trong may tinh 13- 5. COng tru dung rna btl 2

lJ-- 6. Cong tru dung rna bu 1

13- 7. Hi¢n urong tran

13- 8. Be) cong tru lien tiep

13- 9. Cong s6 thap phan dung bo cong MSI s6 nhi phan 13- 10Dung s6 bu cho phep tinh thap phan

13- l lCong tru so thap phan

13- 12Ddn vi s6 hoc va logic (ALU)

13- I3.Thiet ke mot don vi s6 hoc logic 4 bit 13- 14.BO nhan nhi phan dung mach to hQP 13- 15BO nhan nhi phan dung ROM

13- 16BO nhan nhi phan dung phuong phap dich va cC)ng 13- 17MOt s6 vi mach

Bai ui p

Trang ~61 264 172

275 275 276 277 2R4 284 287 288 294 297 300

301 301 303 305 307 308 310 311 312 314 315 317 319 319 323 325 326 :nO 332

Dap so elm hili ~p

Tai Ii~u tham khao

un NOI DA U

Trong nhOng narn gan day conq nqhe vi dien tu phat trien rat rnanh me. Sl,1 ra ddi cua cac vi mach cd lon, cue Idn voi gia thanh qiarn nhanh, kha nang lap trinh nqav canq cao da mang l<;1i nhOng thay deli sau sac trong nqanh ky thuat dlen tu Mach so, o nhOng rnuc d¢ khac nhau da va dang tharn nhap vao tat ca cac thiet bi dien tu thong dunq va chuyen dunq. Tinh hlnh do d6i hoi Ky thu~t s6 - mot qiao trinh co so cho cac nqanh Ky thuat dien tu, Ky thuat may tfnh, Tin hoc, Dieu khien tl) dong, Thong tin, Do ILlClng di$n tu ... pha: co nhOng cai tien phu hop.

Cuon Ky thu~t s6 nay nham dap ling nhu cau tiep can ky thuat hien dai va chLldng trinh dao t<;10 cua BO Giao due va Dao t<;10, trong khuon khel de tat khoa hoc cap Nha nuoc KC-{)1 : "Deli rno: dao t<;10 nqanh Di~n tu _. Tin hoc - Vien thong".

Cuon sach gam 3 phan

- Phan 1 : Dei s6 Boole va vi mech s6, trinh bay co so roan va ky thuat cua mach so

- Phan 2 : M,!ch to hqp, gidi thieu nhtlnq van de Iy thuyet CO ban cua mach tel hop, nhQng mach t6 hop thuonq g$p va ling dunq

- Phan 3 : Mach day, trinh bay cac phLldng phap phan tlch, thiet ke mach day, cac mach day thuonq qap va ling dunq.

Nqoai nhLing kien thuc co ban nhat ve mach so, each tra cuu va su dunq cac vi mach so de co the giai quyet duoc cac bai toan phan tlch va thiet ke mach so vol cac 10Qi vi mach cd khac nhau, chunq toi dua ra nhieu vi du cu the va ba] tap d moi chuonq, Phan qiai dap cac bai tap nay duoc dat o cuol sach.

Cac chLldng lien quan den vi mach deu co gidi thleu mot so vi mach (thong dunq nhat la ho TTL)

Cuon sach ta qlao trinh dang thoi con co the dung lam tai li$l tham khao cho sinh vien nam cuo: va nqhien cuu sinh cua cac nqanf Ky thuat dien tu, May tinh, Tin hoc ... va cac nqanh lien quan.

De bel sung va hoan chmh nhllng kien thuc da trinh bay d day ban doc co the tharn khao cuon "Thiet ke logic mach so" Nha xuat ban KH va KT - 1996 cua cunq tac qia,

Tap 2 tiep theo se de cap den cac van de Iy thuyet va ky thuat cu the nhLl : Hazards, chan doan sai lam, rno phonq logic, tu d¢ng phan tich va thiet ke mach so, thiet ke dung cac modul co san, thiet ke bo logic va so hoc (ALU), bo dieu khien, micro - processor, phoi ghep cac mach logic conq nqhe khac nhau, phoi qhep mach logic voi mach conq suat.

3

Trong Ian in 19.i nay, tac ang khonq the tranh khoi cor. dong gop cua ban doc d\~ xuih ban sau.

ThLl gop y xin gLIi I/e I<hoa Cong ngh~ thong tin TrLldng Dai hQC Bach khoa thanh pho H6 Chi IViinh hoac Nha xuat ban Khoa hQC va Ky thuat 70 Tran HLlng Dao - Ha NQL

,:":i'(~l clula, bC) sung song cbac

~.'d :0.(;.[, Tac IJi;'1 mong nhan duoc y kien sach dLlQC hoan chmh hon trong Ian

TAc GIA

.......

Phan 1

K

DAI SO BOOLE

, K

VA VI MACH SO

5

CHUaNG 1

D~I 56 BOOlE

1_1. MO OAU

Trong mach s6, cac tin hi$u thuong cho (j hai muc dien ap, vi du : 0 V va 5 V. Nhung linh kien dien tli dung trong mach s6 lam viec (j mot trong hai trang thai, vi du : transito luang cue lam viec i'J che' d(l khoa hoac la bit hoac la thong, trang thai tv du cua mot vat lieu tV co the la + B, hoac - B, (hinh 1-1).

Do vay, de mo ta cac mach s6 nguoi ta dung M nh] phan (binary), hai trang thai cua cac linh kien trong mach duoc rna hoa tuong ung lit 0 hoac 1.

M(lt bo men dai s6 phat trien tV cudi the ky 19 mang ten chinh nguoi sang l:%tp ra no : dai s6 Boole va con duoc goi la dai s6 Logic, thich hop cho viiflc mo ta mach so.

Dai s6 Boole la cong cu toan hoc quan trong de thiet M ya phan tich mach so. C!'lC ky su, cac nha chuyen mon trong llnh VVc dien tli, tin hoc, thong tin, dii~u khien ... deu can phai nam virng cong cu nay dung no lam chla khoa d{; di sau vito moi llnh vue co lien quan den ky thuat s6.

1-2. BIEN LOGIC vA HAM LOGIC

1-2. 1. BI~N LOGIC

Xet mot t:%tp hop B chl chua hai phan tu 0 va 1, B :; { 0, 1 }. Xi duoc goi la bien logic neu nhu Xi E B ( binary ), tire la Xi chi co the lay hai gia tri la 1 hoac O. .

Bien logic bieu th] hai trang thai hay hai tinh chat deli lap nhau nhu dung va sai , s6ng va chet, duong va am ... Trong ky thuat, bien logic thuong duoc mil hoa nhu sau :

Di$n the:

Xi = 0 tuong irng vdi U = 0 V Xi = 1 tuong iing' voi U = 5 V .

Trong each rna hoa nay, muc logic" 1" co dien the cao hon miic logic "0" nen duoc goi la logic duong, neu mil hoa ngiroc lai ta co logic am , ttic la :

Xi = 0 tuong ting vdi U = 5 V Xi = 1 tuong iing vdi U = 0 V.

6

Trang thai tit du :

Xi = 0 tuong ung vdi Xi = 1 tuong ung vdi

H

1"':2.2. HAM LOGIC

Ham f duoc goi la ham logic neu nhu f la ham cua mot t~p bien logic va ban than f cling chi lay hai gia tr] 0 hoac 1 hay noi each khac fEB.

f = f( Xn, Xn-l> ... , Xi' ... Xl) E B Xi E B vci i = 1 + n.

Nhqn. xet : M¢t tap hop n bien logic co the bie'u di~n 2n t<1 hop gia tri khac nhau (hlnh 1-2).

,

Hlnh 1-1. DU6ng eong III Ir~ cua v~1 li~u siil Ill.

ThlI II) Xn Xn_, Xn-l1 ... X2 X,
1 0 0 0 ... 0 0
2 0 0 0 ... 0 1
.. .
2n 1 1 1 ... 1 1 Hlnh 1-2. Cac 16 hop biEln cua n biEln logic.

VI du : MQt t~p 2 bien logic Xl va X2 se co 22 = 4 t<1 hop khac nhau nhu trong hlnh 1- 3 :

ThlI II) x2 x,
1 0 0
2 0 1
3 1 0
4 1 1 Hlnh 1-3. Cac 16 h<;Ip bifln cua x" X2.

Ham logic f la mot anh xa ttl khong gian e» vao khong gian B duoc bieu dien nhu hlnh 1-4:

Hlnh 1-4. Mo ta ham logic f.

f = f ( Xn, Xn-l , ... , Xl )

voi fEB = {O, 1}

X = Xn Xn-l ... , Xl E Bn.

7

1-3. cAc HAM lOGIC CO BAN

Nhu ta dil biet, vel n bien logic se co 211 t6 hop bien khac nhau , ung voi l110i t6 hop

/I

bien, ham logic co the lay hai gia tri khac nhau . Nhu v~y , voi It bien co the co 22 hi1111

khac nhau . Sau day se xet chi tiet cac ham logic co ban,

1_3.1. cAc HAM MOT BIEN

Gia tr] cua C{lC ham mot bien ( = ( (Xl) duoc cho trong hlnh 1- 5.

X, I~ " f2 f3
0 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 Hlnh 1-5. Cac ham mot bi~n.

Nluui xet :

t;, == 0 : ham hang 0 tuc t; luon luon = 0 . f3 == 1 : ham hang 1 tuc fI luon luon = 1. (1 = Xl : hum lap lai gi[i tri cua Xl'

(2 = Xl : ham dao hone ham phu dinh cua Xl (Icy hieu Ill. NOT).

1_3.2. cAc HAM HAl BIEN

Gia tri cua 1 G ham hai bien khuc nhau (t;" fJ, ... , (15) duoc cho trong baug tren hlnh 1- G :

X, X2 f r + f I r I~ f6 r
0 , 2 3 4 7
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 ~ 1 0 X, X2 fa 1 flo t, f'2 f"3 1'4 f'5
9
0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 0 i 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Hlnh 1-6. Cac ham hai bi~n.

Nhan. xet : Cac ham doi xung nhau qua true giua f?, fs la phu dinh ella nhau , Vi du : t; :::: 715 ; t6 = ~ '; ",

MQt so ham dac biet :

+ to == 0 voi V X : duoc goi la ham hang 0 + tl5 == 1 voi V X : ChiQC goi la ham hang 1

+ t, = XI.X2 bang 1 khi va chi khi Xl =X2 "" 7 Ham duoc goi la ham " Va " (AND), Mach thuc hien ham nay eel ky hieu nhu hinh 1-7.

ttllih 1·7.

+ h "" Xl + X2 bang 0 khi va chi khi Xl = X2 = 0,

Ham bang 1 khi it nhat 1 trong cac bif!n cua ham btmg 1. Day b\ ham "Hoac" (OR) va ducc ky hieu tren hinh 1-8.

A +. B

----

Hlnh 1·[1.

+ fc, = Xl (f) X2 ; t(, =: 1 khi va chi khi Xl ;e X2 '

Day la ham khong tuong duong hay con goi la ham ccng module 2 hay ham cong voi su loai trir (XOR), hlnh 1-,9.

Hinh 1·9.

'I'ucng ung ta co cac ha111 doi xung vni cac ham trtm :

+ t14 = Tt : goi la ham "Va - phu dinh" (NAND), hinh 1-10.

H'nh 1·10.

+ fv, = r; : gr,)j 1:1 ham "Hoac - phu dinh" (NOR), hinh 1-11,

Hinh 1·11.

+ t9 = To : goi la ham "tuong ducng".

Ky hieu : t9 = Xl ~ x2, hinh 1-12,

Hlnh 1-12.

M<'J rQng cho truong l.lgp n bien ta co :

Ham AND : f = Xn Xn-l ... Xl = 1 khi va chi khi Xn = XIl-I = .,. = Xl = 1 Ham OR : f = Xn + Xn-l + ... + Xl = 0 khi va chi khi Xl = X2 = ... = Xn = 0 Cac ham logic neu tren se duoc xet ky trong cac chuang san.

1

1_4. cAc PHUONG PHAp BIEU DlEN HAM LOGIC

Truce het ta xet khai niem ham xac dinh day dll va ham khong xac dinh day du, Ham xac dinh day du la ham co tri s6 xac dinh voi moi ttl hop bien. Ham khong thoa man dieu kien tran la ham khong xac dinh day du. Tai nhirng ttl hop bien rna tri s6 cua ham khong xac dinh (co the la "0" hoac "1") gia tri cua ham se duoc ky hieu bang dau "X'.

:L4.1. BANG GIA TR! CUA HAM

Tuong t1! nhu trong dai s6 thong thuong ,mQt ham logic co the duoc bieu dien boi bang gia tri cua ham do. Bang nay se co n + 1 cot (trong do n eQt la gia tri ella bien va 1 cQt la gia tri ella ham), 2n hang tuong ling voi 2n t6 hep gia tri khac nhau cua n bifn vao. Ung voi m6i t6 hop gia tri bien ghi gia tri cua ham tucng ling. Bang nay con duoc goi la bang chan ly hay bang chirc nang.

Vi d u : MQt ham 3 bien co g ia t r] d u o c ch o trong hlnh 1-13.

o day ta qui uoc X3 la bit co trong s6 Ian nhat. Xl la bit co trong s6 nho nhat. 'I'r] thap phan ella t6 hop bien d uoc x ac di nh bang

cong thuc sau :

Gifl tri th~p phan xo x2 x, r
cua t6 hop biEln .,
0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
2 0 1 0 X
3 I 0 1 1 X
4 1 0 0 0
5 '"1 0 1 1
6 1 1 0 x
7 1 1 1 1 Hlnh 1-13. Bi~u di~n ham 3 biEln f tren bang eMn IY.

X3.22 + X2.2l + X!.2()

Nhuoc diem ella phuong phap nay la cong kenh, dac biet neu s6 bien Ian. Uu diem ella no la true quan, d€i nhln, kho nharn l:1n.

10

L4.2. PHU'ONG PHAp HINH HOC

Mien xac dinh cua ham duoc chuyan thanh mien kh6ng gian n chieu . Moi t6 hop gin. tri bien duoc bieu diiln bai mot die-m trong kh6ng gian do. Ham n bien tuong ling voi khong gian n chi~u nghla Is se co 2n diem. Ung vdi moi die-m se ghi gia tri cua ham tuong ling. Hai diem nam tren mot canh se chi khac nhau a mot bien duy nhat. Hlnh 1-14 bieu di~n hlnh hoc cho cac ham 1, 2 va 3 bien.

o

x

010

0/1

OJ

10

11

000

001

X,

01

h)

Hlnh 1.14. Biliu di~n hlnh hoc ham logic. a. Ham 1 biEln ; b . Ham 2 biEln ; c . Ham 3 biEln.

NhU<;1C diem cua phuong phap nay la khi so bien Ion, hlnh ve phiic tap (n = 4 : 2 khoi lap phuong j n = 5 : 4 khoi lap phucng).

L4.3. BI~U DI~N BANG BI~U THl1C O~I so

Ta cong nhan khong chung minh dinh ly sau

Dinh Iy : M(it ham logic n bien bat ky luon luon co the bieu dien duoi dang chuan tac tuydn (CTT) d3:y du hoac chuan tac hoi (CTH) day du .

- Dang CTT d3:y du : la tuyen. cua nhieu. thanli phan, moi thanli phiui La hQi (ticli) gom. day du n bien.

- Dang CTH d3:y du : la hQi cua nhieic tlianli phan, nuii thanh. phiui la tuyen. (t6ng) gom. day du n bien.

Ctich. viet ham sir duui dang CTT day du :

- chi quan tam den cac to hop bien rna ham co gia tri bang 1. So Ian ham hang 1 se chlnh la so tlch cua bh~'u thuc.

- Trong moi mot tlch (hoi) cac bien co gia tri hang 1 duoc giti nguyen, con cac bien co gia tri hang 0 lay phu dinh , nghla la neu gin. tri cua Xi = 1 thi trong tich se duoc 'viet la Xi con neu Xi =0 thl trong tich se viet la : Xi phu dinh (Xi)'

- Ham f bang tong cac tich do.

II

Cdch. v;et ham Sf) dlui; dang cnl dliy dll :

- Chi quan tam den cac to hop bien rna ham co gia tri bang ,). S6 Ian ham bang () sEl chinh la 56 tong cua bieu thuc.

- Trong moi mot tong (tuye'n) cac bien co gia tri bang 0 duoc gilt nguyen, con cac bien co gia tri bang 1 lay phu dinh, nghia Iii neu gia tri cua Xi = 0 thi trong tich se duoc viet Ia Xi con neu Xi = 1 thi trong tich 58 viet Ia Xi .

- Ham f bang tich cac tong do.

Vi du : Ta lay lai vi du trong muc 1-4 0 hinh 1-13.

Dang CTT : ham 56 f = 1 tai cac to hop gia tri bien ling voi gia tri thap phan la 0, 5, 7 va dU<;IC viet trong bang 0 hinh 1-15.

Ttl hop gia tr] billn Ttl hop gia trl bi&n Tlch thanh
thap phan X3 X2 X1 philn
0 - - -
0 0 0 X3 · X2 · Xl
-~-----~
-
5 1 0 1 X3 · X2 · Xl
7 1 1 1 X3 · X2 · X1
-- Hlnh 1-15. Cac tich (hoi) dily du cua ham r tai cac gia tr] thap phan lit 0.5.7 .

Nhu vay f = X3 . Xz . Xl + X3 . Xz . Xl + X3 . Xz . XI

Dang CTH : ham 56 f = () tai cac to hop bien ling voi gia tri thap phan la : 1 va 4 va duoc bien dien trong hinh 1-1 G.

Ttl hop qla tri billn Ttl hop gia tr] bi&n Ttlng_ tha~-h---I
thap phan X3 X2 X1 phan
-_
1 0 0 1 X3 + X2 ·1 X,
-~ -_--_-----_._-
4 1 0 0 X3 + X + Xl
2 Hlnh 1-16. Cac ttlng dily du LIng vdi gia trj thap phan la 1 va 4.

Nhu vay f = (X3 + Xz + Xl) (X3 + Xz + Xl) Vu diem cua phuong phap nay Ia ngan gon .

De cho gia tri mot ham logic, thuong ky hieu nhu sau - D6i voi CTT :

f-"'057 "N--') 3' G·

- L "Vdl - ..... ,' ,

0, 5, 7 la gia tri thap phan cua cac t6 hop bien rna gin tri cua ham b:\ng 1; 2, ;3, G la gia tr] thap phan cua cac to hop bien rna gia tri cua ham kh6ng xac dinh.

- Dei voi CTH :

f = n 1, 4 voi N = 2, 3, G ;

1, 4 la gia tri thap phan cua to hop bien rna gia tri cua ham bang 0; 2, 3, G I:'J. gi:i tri thap phan cua to hop bien rna gia tri cua ham khong xac dinh.

12

L4.4. BI~U DI~N BANG KARNAUGH Nguyen tac xay dung bang:

- De bieu dien ham logic n bien can xay dung bang gom co 211 6, moi 6 tuong iing voi 111(>t t6 h9P bien.

- Cac 6 canh nhau hoac d6i xiing nhau chi khac nhau 1 bien. Cac cot va hang cua bang duoc ghi cac t6 hop gia tri bien sao cho nhirug cot va hang canh nhau hoac d6i xung nhau chi khac nhau 1 bien.

- Trong cac 6 ghi gia tri cua ham ung voi gia tri cua t6 hop bien tai 6 do .

Doi vdi dang CTT thi cac 6 tucng ung vci f = 0 thuong duoc de tr6ng. D6i vdi dang CTH thl cac 6 tuong ung voi f = 1 thuong dune de trcng . Tai cac 6 rna ham so khong xac dinh duoc danh dau x.

Bang Karnaugh cho truong hop ham hai bien duoc bieu dien trong hinh 1-17.

o

~

r-o---,------,

o

0 1
- - --
x1 x2 x1 X2
2 3
-
X1 X2 Xl X2 o

r-----------~--------4

2 3

a)

b)

Minh 1.17. Bang Karnaugh cho ham 2 billn.

a. Cac 16 hoo b~n duoc bigu di~ Irang bang; b. Vf.dl,l vdi r = 2: 1.2 va N = 3 .

Trong hlnh 1-17a cac so ghi c'1 goc trai tren Iii gia tri thap phan tuong ung cua cac t6 hop bien voi qui uoo X2 co trong so la 2° , XI co trong so Iii 21 .

. -'/

X1

00 01 11 10
o 0 1 1 3 1 2 X
1 4- x 5 7 1 6 (b)

Hlnh 1-18 . Sang Karnaugh ella ham 3 bien,

a. Cac 16 hop biEin duoc bifiu diiin Irang bang; b. BiEiu dii\n ella ham f = L 1. 3. 7 vdi N = 2, 4.

Bang Karnaugh ella ham 3 bien duoc bieu dien trong hinh 1-18a. ':'rong do cac so ghi (j goe trai tren moi () Iii gia tri thap phan ella t6 hop bien ung voi 6 do, voi qui uoc Xl hi cot eo trong s6 Ian nhat 22, eon Xo Iii cot eo trong so be nhat 2"

Hlnh 1-18b Iii vi du eho ham f = L 1,3,7 vdi N = 2,4.

Tli hinh 1 -18b ta eo :

f = XI X2 X3 + Xl X2 X3 + Xl X2 X,

day Iii dang CTT day dll ella ham s6 voi gia thiet coi gia tri ham s6 bang 0 tai cac t6 hQP bien 2 vii 4.

Tren hinh 1-19 Iii bieu dien tren bang Karnaugh ella ham 4 bien CTH voi :

f = Il 1,7,13 voi N = 2,3,11,15.

Dang CTH ella ham so (voi gia thiet tai cac to hop bien 2,3,11,15 ham co girl tri bang 1) duoc viet nhir sau :

f = (Xl + X2 + X3 + X4)(XI + X2 + X3 + X4)(XI + Xz + x, + X4)

X,X2

00 01 11 10
Ix, ,------
00 x, + x2 + X3 + x4 x, + x2 + X3 + x4 + x2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4
01 x, + X2 + X3 + X4 x, + X2 + X3 + X4 x, + X2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4
11 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4
10 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4 Xl + X2 + X3 + X4
- -- (a)

00 01 11 10
00 0 1 J 2 I
0 X X
01 4 5 7 0 6
11 12 13 0 1~ X 1+
10 8 9 11 X 10 _j (b)

Hlnh 1-111. Bang Karnaugh cua ham 4 bign.

a . Cac t6 h~r bign ; b Bang Karnaugh cua ham I = II 1.7,13 Vdl N = 2 3. 11. 15

TU<1ng W bang Karnaugh eho cac ham 5 vii 6 bien duoc bieu dien trong hlnh 1-20 , cac so ghi tren moi () Iii gia tri thap phan ella t6 hop bfn ung voi 6 do (qui uoc Xl Ia cot eo trong so Ian nhat).

14

x

o

XJ X4 5=
I
2 00 01 11 10 10 11 01 00
- -- ------,-"-
0 0 2 6 4 5 7 3 I 1
1 8 10 14 12 13 15 11 9
"- ------- ------,-
11 24 26 30 28 29 31 27 25 I
--_ ...
I 16 I 18 I 22 I 20 21 23 19 17
i
I __L_ -- o

10

a)

000

X4XSX6
J 000 001 on 010 " 110 111 101 100
"""--
0 1 3 2 6 7 5 4
8 9 11 10 14 15 13 12
24 25 27 26 30 31 29 28
16 17 19 18 22 23 21 20
! 48 49 51 50 54 55 53 52
i --- I--- --
I 56 57 5~ 58 62 133 I 61 60
i ---
40 41 43 42 46 47 I 45 44
--
32 33 35 34 38 39 37 36 001

011

01)

110

111

101

100

b)

Hlnh 1-20. Bang Karnaugh cua cac ham 5,6 bii!n, a Ham 5 bii!n; b Ham 6 bien

1 5. cAc H~ THUc CO BAN vA He QUA TRONG D~I 56 LOGIC

1. A 4- 0 = A 2. A 1 = A
3. A + 1 :d 1 4, A, 0 = 0
~
5, A + A = A 6, A,A =A
-
7, A + A = 1 8, A , A = 0
9. A + B = B + A 10. A.B = B.A
11. A + AB = A 12. A.(A + B) = A
13. AB + AS = A 14. (A + B)(A + B) = A
15. A + B T C = (A + B) + C = A + (B +C) 16. A.B,C = A(B.C) = (A.BlC
i\":;""'9 ... ---- A B
17. ~A B 18 A.B = + I I"

NMn xet : Neu thay phep cong bang phep nhan , gia tri 0 bang gia tri 1 va nguoc lai thi phuong trlnh (j ve phai chuye'n thanh phuong trlnh 0 ve trui va nguoc lai.

Cac tinh chat 9 va 10 duoc goi Ia tinh chat giao hoan Tinh chat 11 va 12 duoc goi la phep nuot.

Tinh chat 13 va 14 duoc goi la phep dan.

Tfnh chat 15 va 16 duoc goi la tinh k8t hQP. Tinh chat 17 va 18 la dinh ly Demoorgan.

1_6. H~ HAM DU

Dtnh nghia : Xet tap hop F = { t. (XI ' Xz ... , Xn), ... , fill (XI' X2 ... , Xn)} trong do fj(Xj, ••. , Xn) la l11Qt ham logic n bien, voi i = 1 -;- ni .

Tap F la mot h¢ du neu mot ham logic bat ky co the' bieu dien. duoc bang niot s6 lULU han. cec ham f/Xj, X2 ... , XnY ctia F .

Ta biet rang moi ham logic co the bieu dien bang cac phep tinh : (+) (:) va ( -) tuc la cdc ham AND, OR, NOT la mot h¢ hani day du .

Nhu v~y muon chung minh l11Qt he ham cho truce la mot h~ du ta chi diu chung minh no co the bieu dien cac ham AND ,OR va NOT.

Vi du : Chung minh ( +, -) la l119t he ham du can chung minh he nay thuc hien duoc

cac phep AND , OR, NOT.

- Duong nhien h~ thuc hien duoc phep OR, NOT.

- Con phai cluing minh he thuc hien duoc phep AND.

TMt vay , phep AND :

A.B=A.B=A+B

duoc thuc hien boi phep OR va phep NOT. V~y ( +, - ) la mot M dAy du.

Y nghla :

Chi dung cac ham he du co the xay dung duoc l119t ham logic bat kyo MQt so M ham du thong dung :

- AND, OR, NOT.

-AND, NOT.

- OR, NOT.

-NAND.

-NOR.

1-7. cAe HAM NAND vA. NOR

Cac ham NAND va NOR duoc sii dung nhieu hon cac ham khac vi trong viec chi'>' tao

chung dung cong nghe TTL va CMOS co nhung uu diem sau . + Gia thanh thap;

+ Co thai gian tre nho;

+ Cong suat ton hac nho.

16

Vi vfJ.y chi khi co Iy do dac biet nguoi La mui kh6ng stl dung chung WlO viec thiet ke mach logic.

1_71. HAM NAND 0IA - nAo)

Ojnh nqhia : Ham NAND hai bien duoc bieu dien hOi phuong trlnh r = A.B. Ky hieu cua ham NAND duoc cho trong hlnh 1-21a , con bang chan ly cho trong hlnh 1-21b.

Nhan. xet: Ham NAND hai dau van se bang 0 khi va chi khi

hai dau vao deu bang 1.

Mo r(>ng cho n d au van , ham NAND chi bang 0 khi tat ca cac dau van deu bang 1.

Dung ham NAND de xay dung cac ham logic khac.

NAND 11'1 mot h~ ham dll nen co the dung de' thuc hien cac ham khac,

AD

---- AB

§ .. -

A

F

B

1 o

(a)

o

1 o

o 0

(b)

Hlnh 1··21. Ham NAND.

a. Ky hieu ; b. Bang chan IY.

a. Tao ham NOT (ddo)

"

NAND co the' sli dung nhu mot cong dao neu noi n - 1 dau vao cua cong NAND vdi

rmrc logic 1, dau van con lai chon lam dau van cua mach NOT (hlnh 1-22a).

'I'a co the xay dung 1110ch NOT bang each n6i tAt ca eric dau vao cua mach NAND vdi nhau thanh dau van cua mach NOT (hlnh 1-22b).

0)

b)

Hlnh 1-22. Dung mach NAND d~ tao ham NOT

h. T(!o ham AND (Va)

Ham NAND lit dao cua ham AND do vay ham AND duoc xay dung tli ham NAND bang each-mac nhu hinh 1-23.

Hlnh 1-23. Dung mach NAND d~ tao ham AND

17

c. Tao ham OR (Hoiic)

Nhu vay ham OR co th~ duoc xay dung tU cac mach NAND nhu hlnh }-24.

A

BFO-'

---l-=~ -

Hlnh 1·24. DUng NAND dEl tao ham OR.

1-7.2. HAM NOR (HO~C - DAO)

Djnh nghia : Ham ·NOR duoc bieu di~n bang phuong trlnh f = A + B. Ky hieu ham duoc chi ra trong hlnh I-2OO,b, bang chan ly cho trong hinh I-25c.

NMn xet : Ham NOR hai dau vao se bang 0 khi chi can mot bung hai dau vao bang 1.

Mo rong , ham NOR n dau vao se bang 1 khi va chi khi tat ca cac dau vao deu bang O.

Ham NOR Ia mot M ham du gi6ng nhu ham NAND .vl v~y co the dung no de' xay dung cac ham co ban khac.

~

aJ

A B F
0 0 1
0 1 I 0
1 0 0
1 1 0 ~

b)

I'tlnh 1·215. Ham NOR.

a. Va ; b. Ky hieu ; c. Bang chan IY·

a. T(lo ham NOT ( hinh 1.26)

F=A

Hlnh 1·28. DUng. mach NOR dEl tao ham NOT.

Ix

h. Tao ham OR (hinl: 1~7)

F=A+8

Hlnh 1·27. DUng mach NOR d8 tao ha:ril OR.

c. Ttu, ham AND (hinl: 1~8)

F~A.B

Hlnh 1·28. DUng mach NOR df! tao ham AND.

Ket luqn. " Mach NAND (NOR) co the dung de xay dung moi ham logic co ban AND, OR, NOT.

Mach NAND, NOR Iii nhirng h~ duo

1_7.3. PHlJONG PHAp THI~T K~ M~CH DUNG cAc CONG NAND vA NOR

1. Dung ham NAND

Hai buoc co ban de thiet ke mach dung ham NAND:

- Viet ham logic xay dung c'1 dang chuan tac tuyan;

- Thuc hien dinh ly Demoorgan vai toan b9 ham cac thanh phan khong bien doi.

VI du : Dung mach NAND de thiet ke ham f sau :

f = X1XLX3 + X1X2 + X1X;X3 = X1XLX3 + X1X2 + X1XzX3

= X1XzX3 . X1X2 . X1X;X3

(CTT) .

So do thuc hien ham f duoc bieu diEin c'1 hlnh 1-29.

Hlnh 1·29. So d6 ham f chi' dUng mach NAND.

2. Dung hum NOR

Cac buoc thuc hien de xay dung ham bat ky chi dung mach NOR: - Viet ham logic can xay dung a dang chuan tac hoi.

- 'I'huc hien dinh ly Demoorgan vC'1i toan bo ham cac thanh phan kh6ng bien doi.

VI du : Chi dung mach l'~OR thie't ke ham sau

(CTH)

--------_--- __ ._._----- -"- ---- _--_- .'.

= XJ + X2 + XJ + X3

So do mach thuc hien duoc trong hinh 1-30.

~ <i:» L

Hlnh 1-30. So d6 thuc hi~n ham r chi' dung mach NOR.

1_8 HAM XOR

1_8.1. D!NH NGHIA

Ham XOR hai bien duoc bieu di~n hoi phuong trlnh F = .fJi + AB

Co 2 each ky hieu ham van duoc su dung trong cac tai lieu hien nay nhu trong hlnh 1-31 a va 1-31b. Bang chan ly cua ham duoc cho trong hlnh 1-31c.

; I ffi)AffiB

0)

r: IJ F
~~ 0 0 0
0 1
0 1
b) 0
L-,
c) Hlnh 1-31. Ham XOR.

a,b. Ky hieu ; c. Bang chan IY.

20

Ky hieu : F = A €) B hoac F=A-rB.

Nluui xet : Tli bang chan ly cho trong hlnh 1- 31c cua ham XOR hai utiu VaG ta thay ham se bang 1 khi va chi khi 2 dau vao co gia tri khac nhau vi vay ham con Ul(QC goi l:l ham khong tuong duong hay ham cong modul 2 vi :

0610=0

0611=1

1611=0

1-8.2. TfNH CHAT

Tinh giao hoan Tinh ket hop Tinh ph an b6

A €)B=B€)A

A €) (B €) C) = (A ED B) €) C A ( B €) C ) = AB €) AC

Ngoai ra dua VaG dinh nghia ta cling co cac tinh chat sau :

A€)O=A A€)A=O

A€)l=A A€)A=l

A$B=AEBB=A$B A€)B=A€)B A€)B=C=A$C=B=B€)C=A

1_9. HAM TU'ONG DU'ONG

1_9.1. O!NH NGHIA

Ham tuong duong hai bien duoc bieu dien boi phuong trlnh : f=AB+AB.

Ky hieu ham nrong duong : f = A ~ B

Ham tuong duong co hai dau vao se bang 1 khi hai c.l:lu VaG co gia tri bang nhau,

1-9.2. TfNH CHAT

. --
A ~ ()=A A ~A =() A - II =.11 - II =.11 - II
A -A =1 A ~ I/=/J -A A - 1/=.11 - 1/
A ~ 1 =.11 A ~ (IJ ~ C) = (A - 11) - C A - /J = C=A - C = II =11 - C = A 1_ to. MOT so NH~N XET TONG aUAT

Doi vrri truong hop nhieu bien, co the' bieu dien cac ham NAND, NOR, XOR . tliUllf: duong nhu sau.

1-10.1. NAND

f= A

(1-1)

i= l+n

f = 1 khi co it nhat mot bien ai = 0, V i = 1 + n.

Chang minh dua vao tinh chat: A . 0 = 0 khi co 111(>t bien ai nao do bang 0 ~ al . a2 ... ai-l . O. ai+l ... an = 0 vay sat! khi lay phu dinh se co :

f = A ai = 1 .

i=h-n

L 10.2. HAM NOR

f = V ai = al + a2 + ... + an i=l+n

f = 0 khi co it nhat 1 bien ai = 1 hay f = 1 khi va chi khi ai = 0 vol V i Chang minh : DVa vao tinh chat A + 1 = 1 . Khi ai = 1 ; aj = 0 (V j ;c 1) ~ al + a2 + ... + ai-l + 1 + ... + an = 1

f = V ai = 0

i=l+n

1_10.3. HAM XOR

n
f=~ ai
j=l
n
Nhan. xet : f= 11 aj 1
i=J (1-2)

khi mot so Ie cac bien aj 1; V i = 1 +n .

Chang minh : Dua vao tlnh chat :

0$0=0 A $ 0 = A 1$1=0.

Do vay .neu so bien aj = 1 la 111(>t so chan va bang 2m. Ta co the chia thanh ni cap 1 $ 1 , ham f co dang :

f = 0 $ 0 $ ... $ 0 $ (1 $ 1) $ (1 $ 1) $ .,. $ (1 $ 1)

~ '----------~~----------~

(n - 2m) so 0 ni cap (1 $ 1)

=0$0$0$ ... $0

= 0

Neu so bien so aj = 1 iii mot so ie va bang 2m + 1 , tuong tu nhu tren, ta cling chia thanh 111 cap 1 $ 1 vii cuoi cung con thira mot bien aj = 1 , do vay :

f=O$I=I.

1_10.4. HAM Tl10NG Dl10NG

n

f= ~ aj j=1

(1-3)

n

f= :£ aj = 0 i=I

(1-4)

khi m(>t so Ie cac bien aj = 0; (V i =1+n )

Chung minh : Ta co 1 ~ A = A nen ta co the bo qua cac bien aj = 1 trong bieu thiic cua f, chi xet cac bien aj = O.

- Neu so cac bien OJ = 0 iii chan vii bang 2m thl co n cap 0 ~ 0 = 1 . Do do : f = 1.

- Neu so cac bien aj == 0 ia Ie vii bang 2m + 1 thl f co dang : f = 0 ~ 1 = O.

1.1. Mot h(>i dong giam khao gom 3 nguoi . Lap bang chan iy cho ham bao hieu neu da so uy vien trong hOi dong giam khao bo phieu thuan.

1.2. Lap bang chan iy cho ham sau :

y4=ABD+BCD+AC

1.3. Dung cac phep tinh NOT, AND , OR de viet lai cac ham cong Modul (ky hieu ill.

$ ) vii tuong duong (ky hieu la ~) :

F'j = A $ B EB C

F4 = A $ B EB C EB D T3 = A ~ B ~ C

T4 = A ~ B ~ C-D

Khai quat su phu thuoc cua ket qua vao so luong cac gia tri 0 va 1 cua cac bien so trong truong hop ham n bien .

1.4. Dung bang chan iy de chung minh dAng thirc sau

A $ (B - C) = (A EIJ B) ~ C

1.5. Cho truce cac dang thuc sau

A$B=AEBB A$B=AEBB=Alif'1f=A-B A$B=A-B=A-B=A-B

Dung cac dAng thuc tren de chung minh :

A$B$C=A-B-C 1.6. Xac dinh Y , biet Y = ( A + Be) 15

1. 7. Hay chung minh cac dang thuc sau :

A+AB=A+B

AB+ AC+ BC=AB+ AC AB+AC=(A+C)(A+B)

1.8. Don gian cac bieu thuc sau :

Y=A+ ABC+ (A+ ABC)(A+ ABC) Y= (AB+ CD)(AC+ BD) Y=ACD+ACD+ABC+CD Y=B(AC+AC)+AC+AC Y=ACD+ABC+ D(A+ 13)+ XCD

1.9. Chung minh rang neu : A = B C + B C thi :

A+AB=O AB=AC

AB+AC + C=CD

1.10. Voi cac gia tri nEW cua cac bien so A B + CD = 0 thl

AB + C (A + DJ = A B + B D + 1J I5 + II CD.

24

CHUaNG 2

Tal THIEU HoA HAM BOOlE

2_1. KHAI NIt;M TOI THIEU HoA HAM BOOLE

Truce day, khi ky thuat vi di~n tit chua phat trien, t6i thieu hoa ham Boole la mot trong nhirng van de co ban cua ly thuyet tong hop mach logic. Ky thuat vi dien tit ra dbi,d~c biet su ra dbi cua cac mach tich hop co vita ( MSI) .co Ian (LSI) va cue Ion ( VLSI) lam cho viec t6i thigu hoa khong con y nghla nhu tntoc nira, Tuy nhien , trong qua trlnh phan tich va thiet ke cac mach logic don gian, nhieu hie vtin dung den mot so khai niem HEm quan den van de t6i thieu hoa. Trang phan nay se trinh bay nhung kieu thiic co ban nhat ve t6i thiev hoa ham Boole.

Xet VI du sau :

Cho ham f(X3 , X2 , XI) co bang chan Iy duoc bieu dien a hlnh 2-1a. Biet! dien ham a dang chuan tac tuyen (CTT) day dli :

r = ft" s, XI + X" x, XI + X" s, XI

(2-1)

hoac a dang chuan tac hol (CTH) d{iy du :

f = (X3 + X2 + Xl) (X) + X2 + XI)(X3 + X2 + XI) (x) + X2 + x\). (2-2) So do thuc ham f a dang CTT day dti va CTH dfiy du duoc bieu dien tren hlnh 2-1,b va2-1,c.

M~t khac nhln vao bang chan Iy va t:)n dung to hop bien tai do ham khoug xac dinh, ta co tM viet :

(2-3)

R6 rang bieu thiic (2--3) se cho mot so do don gian han l'[it nhieu ( hlnh 2-l,d).

Tat nhien khong phai voi ham nao cling chi can nhin vao bang chan ly la tim ngay duoc dang bieu dien don gian nhat. Da 56 truong hQP ta phai dung d8n c6ng cu " t6i thieu hoa ham Boole" . 'I'huc chat cua van de toi thieu hoa la tl111 dang bieu dien dai s6 don gian nhat cua ham. Dang don gian nhat a day con tuy thuoc vao ham duoc bieu dien a dang CTT hay a dang CTH.

Sau day se xet van de t6i thieu hoa ham bieu dien a dang CTT kh6ng xac dinh day du va dua ra each ap dung cho ham a dang CTH a phan cu6i.

Neu ky hieu s6 tich cua ham a dang CTT la n va gia thiet rang so do thuc hien mach chi gOIn hai tang: tang 1 la cac mach AND (thuc hien cac tich) va tang 2 la mot mach OT( (thuc hien phep tuyen ('A'lC tich 1'1 Ulng 1). Cac mach AND va OR eO s6 dau vao kh6ng han che,

25

I .-------.-~-·-·~-----I----;

~_X_3 __ ~-X-< --l~::--l--~--j

I ,
0 i 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 X
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
L 1 1 1 1
._- a)

~--D-

X2-- l

X/- I

,

X3 __ -'I XzXI----I

r

~'

Xz X,

b)

Xz

F

C)

Hlnh 2-1. Ham logic va cac $(J dO thuc hi~n,

a . Bang chan Iy cua ham ; I). SO db thuc hi en ham cl danq cn d§y du ; c. So db thl,lc hi en ham cl dang CTH d§y du : d So d/\ thuc hien ham da don gian,

De danh giri r19 don ,<-:;111n trong each bieu dien c dang CTT ngllai ta thuong dung mot trong hai thong s6 sau.

a. Tong so duu VU() (; IUllg 1 : c

n

Cit = L S·

I

(2-4)

i=l

voi Si: so bien trong tich thti i cua ham;

n: s6 tich cua ham,

h. nfng ,\'/1 duu VU() cua mach (cd 2 lallK) C" = Ca + ti .

(2-5)

Vi du voi ham a dang CTT eo so d6 nhu c'J hinh ~-- J.I, la eli

ea = S6 dau van tang mot = 3 -I- 3 + 3 = 9 ;

eh = S6 dau van cua mach = 9 + 3 == 12.

K~t qua cua t6i thieu hoa phai dua ra duoc mot each bieu dien hum sao cho e<t hoac

ell la cue tieu. D6i voi mot ham s6 cho truce e~lin ' e~lin la duy nhat, tuy nhien co the co nhidu each bi~u di~n irng vdi e~in ' C~in ay . Trang cac phan trlnh bay sau nay ta se danh gia de> t6i thieu cua ham s6 qua C",

De cho ti~n, ta ky hieu ea la e , e~lin la emin, Nh<1 quan he cua C" va eil co the suy

ra e" va e~in tuong ling.

2-2. cAc PHUONG PHAp TOI THIEU HoA HAM BODLE

Vi~e t6i thieu hoa ham Boole noi chung co the dua ve mot trong hai nhom : - Bien d6i dai s6;

- Thu~t toan .

Co s<'1 toan cua cac phuong phap nay la cac dinh ly, he qua va tinh chat cua dai s6 Boole.

2_2.1. PHUONG PHAp TOI THI~U HoA BANG BI~N DOl DAI SO

Ham duoc dua ve bieu dien <'1 dang bieu thirc va bien doi mOt each trl!c tiep thea xu huong giam dan gia tri cua e . Sv rut gon thuc hien tren co s<'1 cac d.nh ly :

A + A == 1 , A. A == 0, A + :A =: A, A. A = A (2- 6)

VI du cho ham so :

{=AX+AX+AX

= (AX+ A.Aj+ (AX+ AX) =X(A+A)+A(X+X)

= X+ A.

(C = (j)

(Cmin == 2)

Do tinh true quan cua phuong phap, k€t qua dua ra nhieu khi kh6ng biet duoc Iii di'i t6i thieu hay chua. Day khong phai la phuong phap chat che cho phep tv dong hoa qua trlnh toi thieu hoa.

2_2.2. NHOM PHUONG PHAp TOI THI~U HoA THEO THUAT ToAN

Tieu bieu la hai phuong phap sau : - Bang Karnaugh

- Quine - Mc. Cluskey.

Dudi day ta se nghien cUU ca hai phuong phap nay cho ham bieu dien 0 dang CTT xac dinh khOng day du, nghla la co nhung t6 hop h op bien rna ta i do ham kh6ng xac dinh. Ham xac dinh day du chi la mot truong hop rieng cua ham xac dinh khong day duo

27

2_3. Tal THn~u HOA BANG PHUONG PHAp aUINE-Mc.CLUSKEV

a. Dinh

Dinh la mot tlch gdm day du cac bien cua ham ban dau (neu ham co n bien dinh la

tich n bien)

Dinh 1 III dinh tai do ham s6 bang 1. Dinh 0 la dlnh tai do ham so bang O.

Dinh khong xac dinh Ia dlnh tai do ham khong xac dinh.

Thong thuong khi cho mot ham so a dang CTT nguoi ta cho tap cac dlnh 1 (L) va tap cac dlnh khong xac dinh (N) cua ham ban dau.

Vi du : Toi thidu hoa ham r(X3, Xz, Xl); Co L = 2, 3, 7 (cac dinh 1);

N = 1,6 (cac dlnh khong xac dinh ky hieu la X).

Cac dinh nay duoc goi ten thea tich tuong ung.theo rna nhi phan cua chung hoac s6 thap ph an tuong iing v(fi rna nhi phan nay ( hlnh 2.2 ).

56 thap phan 1(X) 2 3 6(X) 7
Mil nhi pMn 001 010 011 110 111
Tfch Y.aY.2'i1 - -
X3 X2 X, X3 X2 X, X3 X2 X, X3 X2 X,
-_ Hlnh 2-2. Ky hieu cac dinh .

h. Tich cue lie'u

La mot tlch ma tai do ham bang 1 hoac khong xac dinh voi thanh phan cac bien khong bo bot di duoc nira.

Tich cue tieu 18. bieu di~n cua 1 nhom 2k dinh (gom nhirng dinh 1 va dlnh khong xac dinh). Ta n6i n6 phu nhung dinh nay hay cac dlnh nay duoc chua trong no. Nhoni 2k dinli nay La cue dai do ut;y ticli bieu dien no se c6 s6 bien cue tieu - ticti cue tieu . (Neu ham ban dau c6 n bien, tich cue tieu phu 2k dinh , thi so bien cua tich la n - k ).

Y nghla : Tich cue tieu la tlch co so bien It nhrft phu 2k dinh 1 hoac X cua ham so .

Co so toan cua viec tim cac tich cue tieu la ap dung phep dan:

AX+AX=A.

(2-7)

Viec tim cac tlch cue tieu cua ham cho a vi du tren diroc bieu di~n trong hlnh 2-3a, So do phd dinh cua cac tlch nay cho a hlnh 2-3b.

Dinh danh dau la dlnh 1 cua ham s6 va dlnh nay duoc phu duy nhat boi m(it tlch cue tieu.

d. Tich quan lr(mg

Tich quan trong Ia 1 tlch cue tieu va phd it nhat 1 dinh danh dau.

Y nghla : T6i thieu hoa ham f nghla la tim phu t6i thieu cua ham f - phu het cac dinh 1 cua ham s6 . Neu mot dlnh 1 cua ham so chi duoc phu duy nhat boi mot tich cue tieu thl tlch do nhat dinh phai co mat trong phu toi thieu. Tich do chlnh la tlch quan trong.

1(X) 2 3 6(x) 7
001 010 011 110 111
1 JCDI®I ®CD01
0-1 01- -II -10 11-
IX3X, I 1 ~
X3X1
X2
-1- -1-
~ ~ b)
oJ
Hlnh 2-3. rfeh cue lillu.
a. rm cac tlch cue lieu ; b. So dOphu dfnh· cua Iteh cue lieu. C -3.2 PHl10NG PHAp QUINE-Mc.CLUSKEY

Qua trinh t6i thieu hoa gam cac buoc sau( hlnh 2- 4) :

Cho ham vdi t~p L cac di'nh 1 va lap N cac di'nh kh6ng xac dinh

1 : rlm cac tich cue li1!u

2 : r'm cac phu t6i Ihi1!u

DlIa ra cac bi~u di~n cua ham tho a man Cmin

Hlnh 2-4. Cac blJde 16i Ihi1!u hoa.

)( . _I

Vi d1,l : T6i thieu hoa ham tcc., X2 ,X3, X4) co

L = 2, 3, 7, 12, 14, 15 N = 6,13.

Giai doan 1 : Tint cdc ticli cue tieu .

Giai doan nay gam cac buoc sau (hlnh 2- 5) :

1. Bieu di~n cac dlnh 1 va dinh khong xac dinh cua ham dudi dang mil nhi phan bang a.

2. Sap xep cac t6 hop mil tren thea s6 luong chir so 1 co trong chung. ta thu duoc bang moi g6m cac nhom co luong chir so 1 bang 0, 1, 2, 3 ... (bang b)

3. So sanh m6i to hop thuoc nhom thu ivai 111Qt to hop thuoc nhom thu i + 1. Neu 2 to hop do chi khac nhau d 1 CQt s6 thl ket hop 2 t6 hop do thanh I11Qt to hop moi, trong do thay cot s6 khac nhau cua hai to hop cu bang 111Qt gach ngang (-) dong thai danh dau ky

hieu V vao 2 to hop cO ( bang c ). 0 day chung ta da stt dung tinh chat:

XY+XY=X.

4. Loai bat cac to hop gi6ng nhau trong bang moi thanh lap va lap lai buoc 3, cho den khi het kha nang ket hop cac t6 hop voi nhau thl thai (bang d).

5 . Tap hop cac t6 hop nam trong bang c1l6i cung va cac t6 hop khong co danh dau v chinh la t~p cac tlch cue tieu cua hanl Z. Giai doan mot ket thuc d day.

Bang a 86 chli Bang b Bang c Bang d
s6 1
2 0010 , 2 0010 V 2,3 001-V 2,3,6,7 0- 1-
3 0011 3 0011 V 2,6 0-10 V 6,7,14,15 -1 1-
6 0110 2 6 0110 V 3,7 0-11 V 12,13,14,15 11 -~
7 0111 12 1100 V 6,7 011 - V
12 1100 7 0111 V 6,14 -110 V
13 1101 3 13 1101 V 12,13 110 - V
14 1110 14 1110 V 12,14 11-0 V
15 1111 4 15 1111 V 7,15 -111 V
13,15 11-1 V
14,15 111 - V Hlnh 2-5_ T'm cac tfch cue ti~u.

Nhu vf!J-y t~p cac tich cue tieu (Z) cua ham f gam cac khoi sau :

0-1- (phu cac dinh 2, 3, 6, 7) : Xl X3

-11- (phu cac dlnh 6, 7, 14, 15) : X2 X3

11-- (phu cac dlnh 12, 13, 14, 15) : XI X2

Giai doan 2 : Tlnt phil tvi thidu. .

Phu toi thieu phai phu het cac dinh 1 cua ham va co C dat Clllill' Do v~y giai doan nay

30

chi quan Him den cac dinh 1 ma khong can xet cac dinh khong xac dinh cua ham. Mat kh11C de dat duoc COlin phai tien hanh loai tru cac tich cue tieu kh6ng can thiet va giu lai C11C tich quan trong "nhat thiet phai co mat trong ket qua t6i thieu ".

Qua trlnh xac dinh cac tich quan trong tien hanh thea nhieu buoc va JVa vao khai nicm

"tlch quan trong a buoc thu i " . M!'?t s6 cac ky hieu duoc stl dung :

Li : t~p cac dinh 1 dang xet a buoc thu i ;

Zi: t~p cac tlch cue tieu dang a buoc thu i ;

Ei : t~p cac tich quan trong a buoc thu i ,vai i = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

Cho truce L va Z (tap cac tlch cue tieu - duoc xac dinh a giai doan 1). xac dinh Cmin' Giai doan 2 duoc tien hanh nhu sau :

1. ver i = 0

t.; = L = { 2, 3, 7, 12, 14, 15 } z, = Z = { XI X3, X2 X3, XI X2 }

Xac dinh Eo (tap cac tich quan trong a buoc 0 ) tu Lo va Zo thea each sau

Lap mot bang trong do m6i hang tuong ung vdi 1 tlchcvc tieu thuQe Zo' moi cot tuong ung 1 dinh thuoc Ln' Danh dau X vao 6 im; n) neu tich cue tieu d hang thu ni phu dinh a eQt thii n.

Xet tung cet .cot nao chi co mot dau X .thl danh dau 12>. Dinh tuong ung vdi cQt do la dlnh danh dau , tlch cue tieu tuong ung co chua dinh do la tich quan trong (bang hlnh 2-6).

~ 2 3 4 12 14 15
0
X1X3 ® ® X
X2 X3 X X X
X1X1 ® X X Hlnh 2·8. Xac djnh t~p cac tich quan trong Ea.

Voi vi du nay, cac dlnh danh dau la : 2 , 3 , 12 va t~p cac tich quan trong Eo la :

Eo = ( XIX3 , XIX2 ) .

2. Voi i ::: 1

L I = Lo - Cac dinh 1 duoc .JhU a Eo : loai khoi Lo nhirng dinh 1 rna Eo da phu.

Z I = Zo - Eo - Cac tich khong can thiet : loai khoi Z" cac tich quan trong nam trong Eo va cac tlch khong can thiet.

Lap 1 bang tuong tv nhu tren ung voi LI va ZI' tu bang do tlm tap cac tich quan trong EI .

3. Tiep tuc lap lai :

Li; I = L, - Cac dlnh thuoc cac tlch nam trong E, Zi+ I = Zi - E, - Cac tich khong ean thiet.

Lap bang eha Li; I va Zi+ I de tim Ei+ I

Lap lai buoc nay cho den khi Lk = 0 thl dung lai . NMn duoc ket qua:

31

k-j
,Cmin = V Ej
j=o 0' (

VI du tren, Lj = 0

nen

Cmin = Eo = { XjX3' XjX2 }.

Ham tim duoc 0 dang toi thieu :

f = XIX3 + XjX2 .

2_4. PHUONG PHAp Tal THIEU HoA BANG KARNAUGH CHO HAM D~NG CHUAN TAc TUVEN

Phuong phap nay duoc tien hanh theo cac buoc nhu sau :

1. Bieu di~n ham da eho tren bang Karnaugh

2. Xac dinh cac tlch cue tieu cua ham

Tlch cue tieu duoc tim bang each dan 2k 6 co danh dau 1 hoac X voi k toi da . Cac 6

nay k~ nhau hoac d6i xiing vai nhau tren bang Karnaugh. 3. Tim phu t6i thieu

Chon 1 s6 ft nhat cac nhom tfeh cue tieu sao eho phu duoc het cac dinh 1 cua ham. Dirdi day la mot so vi du minh hoa.

Vi du 1. Hay t6i thieu hoa ham

f(X» X2, Xj' Xo) = L 1, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13 N = 12,15

f""x1xO A

X3X2 "" 00 01 11 10

3 2

~--'-.-~--.-~
6
i
i 1 I
:14-·~
15
I I
11 X
B
11 10 D

Hlnh 2·7. T6i thi~u hoa tren bang Karnaugh.

32

Ham duoc cho tren bang Karnaugh 4 bien, cac tich cue tieu duoc xac dinh nhu hlnh 2-7 ,

voi :

A = X3XIXo B = X3 X2 x\ C = X2 x;

D = X3 XI x; E = X3 X2XI

Nhom t6i thieu cac tlch cue tieu phu hetcac dlnh 1 cua hamla : A , C , D , E . V~y :

{(X3' X2, XI' XU> =: X_:X,)\." + X2:Yo + X~XIXo + X"Xz:tYI

(Clllin = 11 ).

Vi du 2. Cho ham {(X4, X3, Xz, XI' Xo) duoc bieu di{!n tren bang Karnaugh nhu a hlnh2-8.

o

1 0
2 00 01 11 10 10 11 01 00
0 1 1 X 1
1 1 X 1 1 1 1
11 1 1 1
0 1 o

Hlnh 2·8. Bang Karnaugh cua ham L

Cac tlch cue tieu cua ham duoc trlnh bay a hlnh 2-9.

NMn thay A, D, F, E la cac tlch quan trong dong thai eiing phu het cac dlnh cua ham, nhu vay Cmin = (A , D, E, F).

f(X4 ,X3 ,X2 ,XI) = A + D + E + F = X4X~o + XzXlXo + X4XIXo + X3XzXI

Cillin = 12 .

f

X3~':OO

O~(

01

B

X4:;: I

11 01

-,rt---,--

C

I

10

E

Hlnh 2·9. Cac tfeh cue ti~u cua ham I:

33

2_5. TOI THIEU HoA HAM a D~NG CHUAN TAc HOI

Tuong tv nhu ham bieu dien d dang CTT, de danh gia d¢ don gian ella ham bieu dien d dang CTH, nguoi ta cling dung 2 thong so sau.

0) TOng so dau vao tang I :

n

c4 = 2: S·

I

(2-7)

i=j

Si la s6 bien ella tong thu i , n la so tong ella ham .

b) Tong so dau vao cua macn :

C" = Cl + n

(2-7)

Vi du :

f(X3, Xz, Xj) = (X3 + X2 + Xj)(X3 + X2 + Xj)(X3 + X2 )

~ C"=3+3+2=8.

Viec t6i thieu hoa ham viet duoi dang chuan tac hoi ( CTH Icung tuong tv nhu toi thieu hoa ham viet dudi dang chuan tac tuyeri ( CTT ), khac d eM :

- Thay cac dinh 1 (tich tai do ham bang 1 trong CTT) bang cac dinh 0 (tong tai do ham bang 0 trong dang CTH).

- Thay tong cac tich (trong CTT) bang tich cac tong (trong CTH) khi bieu dien ham. Sau day chung ta se xet mot vi du toi thieu hoa ham d dang CTH, dung phuong phap bang Karnaugh.

Vi du : T6i thieu hoa ham

f = IT (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 16, 20, 23, 29) cac dinh 0

N = (4, 8, 15, 24, 28, 31 ) cac dlnh khong xac dinh.

, ~-

Xz=1

10 10 11 01

-Ii Bf--

- B 4- - a 0

i II !

• ~ -r--- ~ -t t

, I

I I X I

I II I

=iF-~ ,l -

C I .X'I ~--~-E

'~

:;0 :

j .. 1

loo

r I x

11 ! x

lO-MI

D

Hlnh 2·10. T6i thi~u hoi! ham ci danq CTH.

Bieu di{;n ham nay tren bang Karnaugh (hinh 2-10). Sau khi tim cac tong cue tieu , ta thay cac t6ng A, B, C, D, E la cac t6ng quan trong, phu Hit ca cac dinh ° cua ham, ta co :

fmin(X.vX3 ,X2,x1 .x.; =

(X3 + XI + Xo)(X4 + X3 + X:)(X4 + XI + Xo)(X2 + XI + Xo)(X4 + X3 + X2 + XI)

C~lin = 13 .

2.1. Toi thieu hoa ham sau d dang CTT theo phuong phap Quine-Mc. Cluskey : f(X3' X2, Xl' Xo) = L 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15.

2.2. Toi thieu hoa ham sau d dang chuan tac h(ii theo phuong phap Quine-Mc Clus-

key:

f(X3' Xz, XI' X) = 11(3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14)

2.3. Toi thieu hoa ham sau d dang chuan tac tuyen theo phuong phap bang Karnaugh :

f(X3' x, XI' X)= L 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 15

2.4. Tdi thieu hoa ham sau d dang chuan tac h(ii theo phuong phap bang Karnaugh : f(X4' X3, X2, XI' X) = 11 (0, 1, 12, 13, 16, 17)

N = 8, 9, 24, 25

2.5. Viet dang dai so don gian nhat cho cac ham sau :

Ya(A, B, C) = L (0, 2, 3, 4, 6) Y,,(A, B, C) = 11 (0, 1, 4, 5, 6).

CHUaNG 3

VIMJ:\CH

Vi mach - (Intergrated circuits) la nhirng linh kien dien tu rat nho be nhung phuc t~p, moi vi mach co mot chuc nang xac dinh va duoc che tao bang 1119t c6ng nghe thich hop, Vi mach hien dai thuong da nang va co tM su dung linh hoat trong nhieu thiet bi dien tu khac nhau.

Co nhieu each phan loai vi mach :

- Phan loai thea ban chat cua tin hieudien vao, ra cua vi mach,

- Phan loai thea rnuc dQ tlch hop,

- Phan loai thea c6ng nghe che' tao.

3_2. PHAN LOAI VI MACH THEa BAN CHAT CUA TiN HI~U DI~N vAo, RA

Tin hi~u dien duoc phan thanh 2 loai :

- Tin hieu tuong t1,i (analog) : bien dO bien thien lien tuc thea tho! gian trong mot. gi,'li han cho phep (hlnh 3-1,a). Vi du : dien ap hoac dong dien xoay chieu,

- TIn hieu s6 (digital) : bien d9 tin hieu chi co tM quy vao 2 gia tri hiru han mang y nghla logic 0. hay 1, ling voi 2 muc thap L (low) va cao H (high). Tin hieu gian doan thea thai gian (hinh 3-1 ,b).

UJ

oj

b)

Hlnh 3·1. Phan loai tin hieu dii)n . a. Tin hii)u lien tuc ; b. Tin hii)u s6.

36

N eu ky hieu : X la tfn hieu vao cua vi mach, Y la tin hieu ra cua vi mach, theo ban chat cua tin hieu X, Y co nhirng loai mach sau :

x

Vi

x, Y x, Y x

Y

x

Y

: tin hieu tuong tlj : tin hieu s6

: Tuong tlj (Analog) : S6 (Digital)

: S6 (Digital)

: 'I'uong tlj (Analog)

{ {

: Vi mach tuong t\t

: Vi mach s6 (Vi mach logic)

M:;tch bien doi tuong tu - s6 Analog - Digital Converter (ADC) Mach bien doi s6 - tuong tlj Diginal- Analog Converter (DAC)

o day chi xet den cac vi mach s6 la vi mach co tin hieu vao va tin hieu ra deu la tin hieu s6. Cac vi mach tuong tu, cac b(i ADC Via DAC duoc trinh bay trong cac tai li~u khac.

Vi mach s6 bao gam tu cac cdng logic don gian nhu cac mach AND, OR, '" cac mach l~t, cac mach dem, cac mach don kenh, phan kenh ... cho den cac loai mach phuc tap han hAn nhu be? nho, cac mach vao/ra, cac mach dieu khien ngoai vi, cac mach vi tinh, vi xu ly ... Vi mach s6 duoc su dung rong rai trong moi llnh vue.

3-3. PHAN LOAI THEO MAT DO rtca HOP

M~t de? tich hop duoc dinh nghia la tong s6 nhirng phan tu tich cue (transito) hoac c6ng logic (tuy theo each danh gia khac nhau chua thOng nhat) chua tren mot don vi dien tlch cua manh tinh the ban d~n trong vi mach,

Miic tfch hop duoc dinh nghia la tong so nhirng phan tu tich cue hoac cong logic chua tren manh tinh the ban dan cua vi mach.

Loai mach sa transito se c6ng logic Nlim san xuiit vi du
SSI Hang chuc Vai O~u nhling narn 60 7400. 740 6, 7400, ...
MSI Hang tram Vai chec Gilia nhling narn 60 Giai rna, bO . ghi, bO nhd nh6
MUX DEMUX, ...
7447. 7483, ...
LSI Hang nghln Vai tram Cu6i 60 gilia 70 Bo nhd Idn. MP 4,8 bit, bo ph6i
ghep vao/ra
VLSI Hang van Vai nghln Cu6i 70 d~u 80 BO nhd cue Idn. MP 16/32 bit, bO
d~n nay difJu khifin danllng phdc tap 8086,
Z8000, 68000 NS3200. NH7200. Hlnh 3.2. Gidi thieu cac loai vi mach thee ml1c tich hop,

Nhirng thong s6 nay tuy khong phai luon dung nhung cung noi len ll1UC de? phuc tap cua vi mach ay. Theo nnic d<) tich hop, eo nhirng loai sau :

37

a. Vi mach co nho

b. Vi mach co vita

- SSI (Small Scale Intergration)

- MSI (Medium Scale Intergration)

c. Vi mach co Ion - LSI (Large Scale Intergration)

d. Vi mach cue lon - VLSI (Very Large Scale Intergration)

Bang cho d hlnh 3-2 gioi thieu mOt s6 loai vi mach so theo cac muc tich hop kha.

nhau.

3_4. PHAN LOAI THEO CONG NGHe CHE TAO

Hau het cac loai vi mach deu duoc che tao tit vat lieu ban dfin. Sau phat minh vi dai ve transistor nfl74), cong nghiep ban dAn hilt dau phat trien nhanh chong va da 10.111 dao Ion nen cong nghiep dien tit. Dau tien v~t lieu chit yeu If. germani, tit nhimg nam 1900 tro lai day thl vai tro chinh lai chuye'n sang silic. Cac linh ki~n quang - di~n tit va sieu cao tan moi ra dbi thuong dung vat lieu g:n-.; day tinh nang hua h~11. Chung cho phep dat toe d¢ dich chuydn nhanh hen silic tit 2 den 6 Ian. Cong nghe moi nhat dua tren hieu ling Josephson cho phep dat toc d¢ dich chuyen va m~t d¢ tich hop rat cao nhung con dang C1 giai doan thu nghiem, kho khan dac biet la phai gift vat lieu siau dfin a dieu kien nhiet d¢ cue thap.

Ve mat che tao, IC co the' chia ra lam 4 loai (hlnh 3-3): IC khdi rAn (monolithic), Ie mang mong/mang day (thin/thick film) va IC lai (hybrid).

1 Vi mach 1
I
I I I
Mang m6ng I d§.y Nguyen kh6i lai
(thin I thich film) (monolithic) (hyl:l(it)
I

1 1 ITl.long tl,ll
I s6
Tl.long tl,l
l s6 J (lu3ng cue)

I I -
I I
I lu3ng cue 1 Don cue MOS
I
I
I I
I I I I

I RTl I I I ECl J Kenh p CMOS
DTl TTL
hoac N Hlnh 3-3. PMn lo~i vi mach theo c6ng ngh~ chll tao.

3_4.1. VI MACH BAN DAN KHOI RAN

Mach tlch hop ban dan kh6i ran (monolithic) la mach duoc xay dung hoan toan tren mot don vi tinh th~ chat ban dan la Si.Sau do chat ban dan se duoc khuech tan vao trong chat nen d~ tao thanh nhieu loai mat ghep khac nhau. Nhung mat ghep nay co th~ tao thanh diot, transito hay dien tro.

Nhung v~t li~u ban dan duoc khuech tan vao trong chat nen duoi dang hoi va dong lai tren chat nen sau hang loat cac qua trlnh "tao mask" trong dieu kien nhist d(l cao.

Qua trinh tao "mask" Ia qua trinh trong do nguoi ta tien hanh oxy hoa be mat chat ban dan, tire la h1p kin be mat cua no bang SiOz. Sau do phu mot lop cam quang len tren be mlTtt SiOz. Dang mach duoc thu nho, chup len phim tao thanh khuon sang. Dat khuon len tren be mat chgt bao v~, chieu anh sang vao ta dU<;1C cac dang yeu cau. Dung hoa chat an mon cac ranh, bo chat cam quang de thuc hien khuech tan chat ban dan vao, "Mat na'rluoc tao bang bang phuong phap quang hoc nen con duoc goi la phuong phap quang khac,

Vi mach monolithic co 2 loai : mach luang cue VI} mach MOS (Metal -Oxide +Semi '- conductor: kim loai - oxit - ban dan). Ngay nay, vi mach MOS tro nen phd bien hon vi MOS de cM" tao, t6n it dien tich hen nen cho kha nang tich hop Ion.

3_4.2. VI MACH T(CH HOP MANG MONG vA M.4NG CAY

Cac IC mang mong va mang day duoc che tao bang each lang dong nhung vat lieu nhat djnh tren mot de each di~n (chang han nhu gam, su ... ). Sau hang loat cac qua trlnh tao " mat na", tren de duoc tao thanh dien tro, dien dung hay dien cam. Cac diot , transito ... It duoc che tao thea phuong phap nay. T'ransito thuong duoc che" tao bang phuong phap thong thuong, vdi kich thuoc nho (thuong dung FET). Do mach nay co the che tao rat nho nen no cling co nhirng uu di~m gi6ng nhu mach tlch hop nguyen kh6i (lC monolithic). Hen nira, kha nang chiu dung cua cac phan tu cua no tot hen IC monolithic. Vi v~y, d6i voi nhirng mach doi hoi chinh xac cao nguoi ta thuong su dung mach tich hop mang mong va mang day.

3-4.3. VI MACH LAI (IC HYBRID)

Vi mach lai la SI! ke"t hop cua hai I01,li vi mach tren. Mach Ial co the' bao gom nhieu tinh th~ monolithic duoc ghep nai voi nhau thanh mot kh6i , no cling co the Iii su ket hop giira mach monolithic voi mach mang mong thu dong. D6i khi cac IC monolithic, IC mang mong / mang day duoc ket hop voi cac phan tu ban dan de thuc hien cac chuc nang rieng.

Do tan dung duoc uu diem cua ca hai I01,li mach noi tren, vi mach lai co uu d~m hem han cac loai mach khac, Chang han, do kich thuoc vCl cling nho cua mach monolithic, cong suat cua mach nho. D~ nhan dU<Jc cong suat Ion , trong mach lai co the k€t hop mot mach monolithic cong suat nho voi transito cong suat Ion. Hoac dung mach lai co the tao mot mach chinh xac cao bang su ph6i hop giira mot mach monolithic va 1111,lch mang mong chinh xac cao.

Do phai ph6i hop nhieu cong nghe nan dong thoi voi su holm hao, mach to hop lai dat tien han cac loai mach khac,

3_5. NHUNG THONG 56 ClIA VI MI:\CH 56

Nhirng thong s6 quan trong cua vi mach s6 la : - Mire logic (Logic Levels)

- Tr~ truyen dat (Propagation Delay)

- Cong suat ( Power)

- D9 on dinh nhieu (Noise Immunity)

- Kha nang mac t:'I.i vao, ra (Fan in , Fan out).

3_5.1. Ml1C LOGIC

Miic logic la gia tri dien ap vao, ra duoc qui dinh cho cac so nhi phan 0 va 1. Thuong nguoi ta chi ra gia tri danh dinh cho 2 miic logic.

Trong thuc te, gia tri dien ap co the bien doi chut it do kha nang cua cac phan tli trong mach, do sl,i bien doi cua nguon cung cap, do nhiet d¢ va m<)t so thong so khac. Thong thuong, cac nha che tao se dua ra gia tr] Ion nhat va nho nhat cua dien ap cho phep doi vdi nnic logic 0 va logic 1.

Mire logic la thong so quan trong cua vi 111~ch so. Nho thong so nay co the de dang nhan biet duoc nhirng trang thai logic ra va vao bang each do nnic logic bang von ke hay oxylo. Hii~u biet ve nhung mire logic se cho phep phan tich su hoat dong cua mach.

3_5.2. TR~ TRUY~N OAT

Tr~ truydn dat la khoang thol gian de dau ra cua mach co dap iing doi vdi sl,i thay doi miic logic cua dau vao,

Tre truydn dat la tieu chuan de danh gia toc dQ lam viec cua mach, Toc d9 lam viec tuong ung voi tan so Ion nhat rna mach van hoat dong dung. R6 rang, tre truyen dat cang nho cang tot hay toc dQ lam viec cang Ion cang tot.

Hlnh 3-4 minh hoa thoi gian tre truyen dat trong mach so. TrEm hlnh ve chi ra dau vao, dau ra tuong iing. MQt chuyen bien ttl 0 => 1 a dau van gay ra su chuye n bien ttl 1 => o a dau ra va nguoc lai. NMn thay , su chuyen bien d dau ra xuy ra d mot thoi diem xac dinh sau khi co chuydn bien dau vao. Do la tre truyen dat.

Tre truyen dat thuong duoc tinh toan d dii!tll 50'1" bi~n dQ tren cac suon truce va

suon sau tuong ung gitra xung vao va xung ra.

Co 2 loai tre truyen dat :

- Tre xfly ra khi dau ra thay doi ttt nnic cao (high) xudng rmrc thap (low).

- Tre xay ra khi dau ra thay doi ttl miic thap len muc cao.

Do cau tao cua mach logic, tre doi vui 2 loai chuyen bien thuong hi khac nhau. Chung giong nhau ve rmic, gan nhau ve gia tri nhung khong tuong duong.

40

Dc? rong suo n t ruoo

. ,

(lsi) va dQ rc?ng sucn sau

(ts2) cua xung vao va xung ra duoc dinh nghla :

DQ rQng suon trurio tsi (dQ rong suon sau ts2) Ia khoang thai gian de bien dQ xung thay d6i trong khoang tu 10% den 90% gia hi bien dQ cue dai cua no.

D6i vbi Mu het cac vi m ach s6 n gay nay, tr~ truyen dat la rat nho. Tr~ truyen dat co the nho co 1 ns (nano giay). M9t vai loai mach logic co thai gian

tr~ Ion co vai tram nano giay (n x 100 ns). D9 rong' suon truoc va dQ rong suon sau thuong nho hon thai gian tr~.

Do che tao, do duong dan mach va viii th6ng so khac, tre truyen dat co the bien thien dang ke so voi gia tr] rat nho ella no da duoc chi ra trong catalog. Khi do tre truyen dat se bi tang len.

Khi mac lien tiep nhidu mach logic thl tre truyen dat cua toan mach se bang t6ng cac tre truyen dat cua tung tang.

3_5.3. CONG SUAT

Ra

5udn trudc

Mtlc t . 90%

Slidn sou

Vila

_L --+_

1 : 1 1

MtlCD_ 10% 1-1-- - - - ---+ - ---r-

til 1 1 1 1 tsz

51---; ..... 1--+1 ~I. ----4-----r---+-I .. t--=-'=-

Mtfcl 1 1 1 1

______ ~~I~ 1 1

1 I 1 1

1 1 1 I

1 1 ---------1-

1 i 1 : 1

~~ ~ - + ~ - ~ -'-----------1--'

ttrt, 1 I: 1

-~ _ ----J

Hlnh 3·4. Tr~ truy'en dat,

MQt thong so quan trong khac cua vi mach Iii. cong suat. Doi voi vi mach phai quan tam den nhieu loai cong suat.

C6ng sua I lieu Ian

Day la tieu ohuan de danh gia hl<;1ng cong suat tieu thu (t6n hao) tren cac phan tli trong vi mach, Cong suat tieu bin thuong co vai m W doi vdi ll1c?t vi mach so va la gia tri trung blnh giira c6ng sudt tieu tan khi di1u ra a nuic 0, 1 (cac cong suat nay thuong la khac nhau). Cong suat tieu tan Ian tuc Iii S\i tieu thu nang IU<;1ng di~n Ian. Tat nhien mong muon cong suat tieu tan cang nho ding tot.

Cong suat tieu tan co y nghia dac biet quan trong trong cac thiet bi xach tay hay cac thiet bi dung pin. De lam giam s\i tieu thu pin va dam bao sli dung pin duoc lau dai, nguoi ta co gang lam giam c6ng suat tieu tan.

C6ng sudt d{eu khien

C6ng suat dieu khien la cong suat cua tin hi{m dieu khien a dau vao bao dam su hoat dong dung cua mach,

R6 rang cong suat dieu khian cang nho cang tot.

41

3_5.4. DO aN O!NH NHI~U

D¢ on dinh nhieu la tieu chuan danh gia d¢ nhay cua mach logic doi vdi tap am xung tren dau vao cua mach,

D¢ on dinh nhieu (tlnh) la gia tri dien ap nhieu t6i da tren dau vao khong Him thay doi trang thai logic cua mach - con duoc goi la muc on dinh nhieu, D¢ on dinh nhieu khi dau ra a nuic 0, 1 la khac nhau. Do vay, nguoi ta phan biet d¢ on dinh nhieu mire ° va d¢ on dinh nhieu nuic 1.

Tap am duoc xem nhu la bat cu mot tin hieu nao khong mong muon phat sinh trong ban than thiet bi hoac duoc dua tu ngoai vao, de len nhung mire logic chuan cua he thong. Tap am nay co the bien doi cham thea nnrc mot chieu, hoac la a tan so CHO, thai ginn ton tai ngan. Tap am co the xily ra ngau nhien hay lap di 11)p lui. Trong Il1Qi truong hop tin hieu tap am co the gay ra su chuyen bien trang thai sai nham

Tat ca cac mach s6 logic deu co do on dinh nhieu kha cao. D¢ on dinh nhieu cua hau het cac mach logic deu trong khoang tu 10'1( - 50% cua dien ap cung cap.

Trong 111¢t s6 truong hop, tap am bi Ioai bo boi chinh mach logic voi tu' each hl"phan t11 chuyen bien cham" : mot so tap am co tan s6 cao t.rong tu nhien hay cac tap am xung co thai gian ton tai ngan den muc mach logic khong phan t"tng kip de gay chuyen bien trang thai.

D¢ on dinh tap am la mot tham so quan trong doi voi cac vi mach so bai Ie hau het cac mach s6 trong qua trlnh chuydn bien trang thai deu sinh ra mot luong tap am nhat dinh. Han nira, nhieu thiet bi so dU<;1C s11 dung trong moi truong c6ng nghiep co nhieu Ion.

3_5.5. KHA NANG MAc TAl vAo, RA

IIf .vii' llii dllu ru

H~ so tai dau ra la s6 tai co the nci duoc voi dau ra cua mach ma vAn darn bao duoc Sl! hoat dong tin cay , dam bao t6c do, gioi han nhiet dO va cac thong so khac,

Do han che bdi cong suat ra Wi da cua mach , do hinh dang cua mach, . " tat nhien

so luong tai co the n6i voi mach logic la co han.

Co 2 each co ban d€ n6i tai vao dau ra :

- Dat chung: Cac tai dU<;1C noi giua dfiu ra cua mach va drit.

- Ngu6n chung: Cac tai duoc n6i giua cac dfiu ra cua mach vii. nguon cung cap.

Hf so llii duu VU(}

H~ so tal dau vao la so dau vao cucdai c{1a mach rna vAn baa dam mach JiUH viec tin cay. Mong muon M so tai dati Vi1O, ra Ion.

3_6. DONG va rc

Co 3 phuong phap de dong vo cho tinh the silic lit : phuong phap T05, dong vo dang hop va dong vo hai hang chan song song. Chung chide minh hoa <1 hinh 3-5.

S If!11!1~~

/1,/1/1

I~ II I

FLAT PACK

TOS

Hlnh 3·5. Cac 10<;1; d6ng vo IC.

Dang dong vo IC don gian nhat la T05. No co hlnh dang tieu chuan gi6ng nhu transito, tuy nhien co mot s6 cai Win. Kieu dong ran nay hien nay van con duoc stt dung tuy khong phd bien.

Uu diem cua no la co the tieu tan duoc nhiet tlch luy. Vi V{.lY, ki~u nay chu yeu dune stt dung trong cac IC tuyen tinh,

Dong V() dang h(Jp

Dong vo dang hop (Flat Pack) la kieu dong ran IC voi kich thuoc nho nhat vdi mat d<) cao, Do dong ran mat d9 cao nen cac IC thucng duoc che tao bang gam Iii vat lieu co the chiu dung duoc nhiet d¢ cao. Mat khac van phai giai quyet van de toa nhiet.

Flat - pack thuong duoc sirdung trong cac he thong quan su co d¢ tin cay cao va thiet hi c6ng nghiep dac biet,

D(ing V(I hai himg chiin song S(INg

Kieu dong vo IC phd bien nhat la kh~u hai hang chan song song (Dual in Line Package).

No hoi Ion hon cac kieu dong ran khac ve kich co nhung co nit nhieu uu dif!m : de hip nip va stt dung, Cac loai IC dong vo kieu DIP co kich thU0C khac nhau, thay doi tu 8 chan den 40 chan. Hau het cac mach SSI co 8,14 hay 16 chan. Cue mach MSI thuong co 14, 16 hay 24 chan. Con LSI, do klch thuoc Ion, doi hoi s6 luong lim d:lu vao, dfiu ra nen thuong duoc thiet ke voi 24, 28 va 40 chan.

Co nhieu kieu vat lieu duoc stt dung de dong rAn. Thong dung nhat va re nhnt hi dong goi chat deo, Dau tien cac tinh the IC duoc d(lt vao khung kim loai v:i sau do toan bo mach duoc bao phil bang ky thuat due chat deo, Ngoai ra, nguoi ta eon stt dung ky thuat dong ran bang g6m. No co kha nang chiu dung nhiet d<) cao hon,

3_7. GI6r H~N NHI~T 0(>

Hau l.et cac IC d!1u duoc tinh toan d{~' co the' hoat dong trong mot dai nhiet d<) kha 1'9ng , thuong la tu -55"C -;- + 125°C.

Nhirng mach dac biet co thg HUll viec tot a ngoai giol han tren chi dung trong cac thiet bi co dQ chlnh xac cao va thuong la rat dat.

Rieng loai IC dong ran bang chat deo (plastic) co gioi han nhiet dQ nho han, thuong ttl OOC + 70°C.

Trong cac muc 3-8 va 3-9 se trlnh bay sa hroc dac diem cua cac vi mach dan cue va luong cue, Viec danh gia cac vi mach chu yeu dua vao cac chi tieu kg thuat da neu a muc 3-3 nhu : cong suat tieu tan, thai gian tr~, dO on dinh nhieu, kha nang tai, Ngoai ra cling phai xet den mot s6 thong so:

- Kha nang tich hop (cang Ion cang tot)

- Gia thanh (cang re cang tot)

- D~ che tao

- D~ ph6i hop (tuong thich) vci vi mach cong nghe khac,

3-8. CONG NGH~ DON CVC (MaS - METAL OXID SEMI-CONDUCTER)

Dijc diem

- D{; ch€ tao VI qui trlnh thuc hien dan gian va it cong doan han cong nghe luong cue do v~y gill. thanh reo

- Mat d<) tich hop cao VI transito dan cue nho ve kich thuoc va tieu thu rat it dien nang.

- Cong suat tieu thu nho.

Tuy thea loai MOSFET duoc dung rna cong nghe nay con duoc chia thanh cac loai

sau:

3_8.1. HO PMOS

MOSFET dung a day co kenh p nen goi la PMOS (phan tli mang dien la cac 10). Cac 16 von dich chuyan kho han cac di~n tli n thanh ra PMOS co tan so lam viec nho (khoang IMHz) ; mat de? tich hop len, cong suat tieu thu nho, d~ che tao, Tuy nhien, ho nay lai kh6ng tuonghop voi TTL doi hoi nhieu dien ap ngu6n nuoi khac nhau.

Cac ,uP loai cham , re tien thuong duoc che tao bang c6ng nghe nay. Vi du : NEC ,u COM 43/44/45 va TMS 1000.

3_8.2. HO MNOS

Kenh dAn trong MOSFET la kenh di~n tli n do do dat duoc t6c de? dich chuyan cao han PMOS hang chuc Ian. M?t d<) tich hop rat IOn. Vi du : RAM 256 Kbit thich hop cho cac VLSI, c6ng suat tieu thu tuong duong PMOS: trung blnh 0,2 111 W/cong.

NMOS noi chung la tuong hop voi TTL chi can mot ngu6n nuoi duy nhat trong nhieu truong hop. Cac cai tien cua ho nay nhu HMOS, XMOS, VMOS co 111lTlt d<) tich hop cao han, c6ng suat tieu thu it han, tan so lam viec Ion han.

44

Cac LSI, VLSI va cac flP 16,32 bit thuong duoc cM tao bang NMOS. Vi du : 8080 / 8085 /8088 /8086 , Z80 / Z8000 / Z80000 , MC 6800/68000, NS 16000/32000 ...

3_8.3. HO CMOS

o day sLi dung cac ~p MOSFET kenh n va kenh p a cM d(> tai tich cue do do c6ng suat tieu thu rat nho, trung blnh IOIlW/cong. CMOS lai rat tin ~y ~l ngunng doi trang thai logic bang khoang 1/2 di~n ap nuoi, Tuy nhian tan s6 lam vi~c va muc tich hop co phan nita b] han che so voi NMOS. Cac vi mach CMOS hay duoc dung trong nhirng thiet bi di~n tu y te, quan su, c6ng nghiep, .... M~c du con dat song chung co kha nang thay the ho NMOS trong tuong lai. Nhung loai SOSMOS (CMOS tren saphire) va HCMOS gan day da dat duoc toc d(> xap xi TTL trong khi mat d(> tich hop rat cao (nhu PMOS). Nhuoc digm cua chung la khi lam viec a 5 V thlch hop vdi TTL thi toc dQ bi giam di nhieu,

Vi du : liP dinh trlnh 8 bit RCA-1802 , NSC 800 12 bit IMS 6100 va ROM l Mbit 731000G.

MQt so chi tieu ky thuat cua CMOS:

CMOS
- ThClt gian tr~ : 3O-100ns
- GOng sua:t tieu tan: O,01mW (1mW khi tdn 56 1MHz)
- Kha nang tai 50
- D¢ 6n djnh nhi~ cao (45% Ucc)
- Mllc logic : Mllc 0 = 0 V ; Mllc 1 = Di~n 8p ngu8n
- Cac c6ng logic cd ban : NOR , NAND
- Ngu8n cung ca:p : Uc c = 3-15 V 3..9. CONG NGH~ LUONG cue

Thanh phan co han cua cac vi mach cong nghe luang cue la nhimg transito luong cur Then che d(> lam vi(lc cua cac transit» rna chia ra nhirng ho sau day :

3....9.1. HO ECl (MACH lOGIC GHEP cue PHAT - EMITOR COUPLER LOGIC)

Mach co ban nhu hlnh 3-6.

Dac digm: Cac transito deu lam viec a cM' dQ khong bao hoa, Do vi),y toc d(> chuydn bien nhanh (tc. mach < 1 ns), cong suat tieu thu lon (trung blnh 25mW/1 cong), kho dat duoc mat dQ tich hop cao. Che tao phuc tap. Di~n ap ngu6n -5,2 V , khong tuong hop voi cac ho khac ve mat logic. MQt so chi tieu ky thuat cua ECL :

,------------------------------------l

Eel

- Thdi gian tr~ 1-3 ns

Cong su§t lieu tan: 40 60mW

r---------------------------------------------

- Kha nang !iIi : 10 - 25

- DO 6n d;nh nhi~u Cao

- Mllc logic: Mllc ° ~ -',75 V ; Mllc , = -0,9 V ~

cac, c6ng I09i~" cd ban: OR/NOR j' - Nguon cung cap : Uc c = -5,2 V

'---- -----------------------

-¢fE

- ---9J Yo 0 X

I

Hlnh 3-8. Macri logic gr.ep cue phat.

3_9.2. HQ "l (MACH lOGIC rtcn HOP PH UN -INTERGRATED INJECTION lOGIC)

Cong ngh0 nay rnni ra deJi con chua duoc st't dung nhidu nhung co nh ieu triPll

vong VI :

- Mat u9 tich hop rat cao gan nhu PMOS

- Cong suat tieu tan nho chi thua ho CMOS

- D~ che tao, re nhu cong ngh~ MOS

- Co the 6n dinh va tin cay nhu ho MOS

- Co the che' tao phan tuong tu chung voi phan so trong cung mot vi mach. Vi du

!lP dinh trinh 16bit F9445, SBP9900.

3_9.3. HQ TTL (TRANSISTOR - TRANSISTOR - lOGIC)

HQ nay diroc dung rong rai trong moi llnh vue va da tro thanh mot tieu chuan : goi la su tuong hop TTL ere xet cac ho khac ve miic logic

"0'1 0 V -i- 0.8 V

"I t"

2,4 V -7-

5 V_

Dac diem : transito lam viec trong che dc) bao hoa nen thoi gian tn'i Ian khoang vai nano giay, cong suat tieu thu nho han cong suat tieu thu cua mach ECL vai 1:1n ; mat d(> tich hop cao. TTL chi dung 111(>t nguon dien ap nuoi duy nhat la 5 V.

Mot s6 ky hieu cua TTL :

Theo nhiet d(> cong tac co cac loai sau:

74 O°C 70°C

84 - 25°C -:- 85°C

54 - 55°C -:- 125°C.

Qua trinh cai tien TTL di theo 2 huang chinh :

- Tang t6c d(i : Dung diot Schottky (tao bel ghep mot chat ban diln va kim loai). Dac dielll cua diot Schottky la thai gian tre rat nh6. Nho diet, transito khong lam viec d che d(i bao hoa do vay tang t6c d(i (3 ns) nhung lai tieu t6n dien nang gap dol ( 20 mW!cong ). Mui nhat la TTL -- AS (Avanced Schottky) nhanh gan bang ECL (1, 2 ns).

1

- Giam c6ng suat tieu thu it han 10 Ian (1 mW!cong) song lai cham han 3 Ian (30 ns)

Ket hop ca 2 huang cai Win nay da co :

TTL - LS (10 ns, 2 mW!cong) TTL -ALS (3 ns, 1,25 mW!cong)

Ngoai ra, nguoi ta cling che tao cac TTL cong suat cao dung cho cac mach doi hoi cong suat Ian. VI dIJ. : 74HOO .

M(>t s6 chi tieu ky thuat cua TTL:

TTL
- Thdi gian tr~ : 10 ns
- Cong suat tieu tan : 10 mW
- Kha n~ng tai : 10
- Do 6n dinh nhi~u : Cao
- Mllc logic : Mllc 0 = +0,4 V Mllc 1 = +3,6 V
- Cac c6ng logic co ban : NAND/NOR
-~
- Ngu6n cung cap : Ucc ~ 5 V ± 10% 'T'TL la loai vi mach hien nay'ang duoc sa dung rong rai, cac mach ra cua TTL r,O nhieu loai khac nhau va duoc gioi thieu trong muc 3-10.

3-.10. cAc M~CH RA TTL

Cac mach ra cua vi mach ngay cang duoc cai tien de dap ung nhu cau sit dung ngay cang cao cua thuc te . Phan nay S8 gici thieu mot s6 mach ra cua vi mach loai TTL - la loai duoc su dung rong rai va neu mot s6 ung dung cua cac mach ra nay.

4'/

----- ---"-----

3-10.1. TANG RA BINH THlJONG (KEO L~N THl,I OONG - PASSIV-PULL4..JP)

Mach ra co S<1 do nhu hinh 3-7, trong do CL la tu ky sinh gom CI~p rap va C t,ii'

Nguyen Ij :

- Khi Ttat Ura = "H" :::::: 5 V. TI,l CL duoc nap r; = u; CL'

- Khi T thong bao hoa Ura = Ucchh :::::: 0 V = "L ".

TI,l CL ph dn g di~n ,Tf =CL (Re Reebh)·

Nhqn. thdy rang: khi T tat, Tn Ion ~ thoi gian qua dQ tang ~ giam toe dQ chuyan bien cua mach. Nhung neu giam Rc ~ T lam vi~e a eh~ dQ tich cue ~ cong suilt ti~u bin tren mach tang. Do v~y mach ra nay it duoc dung, phai cal tien mach ra.

Hlnh 3-7. M~eh ra keo len thu dong.

3_10.2. M~CH RA COT CH~M HAY KEO L~N T'CH CVC (TOTEMPOLE HAY ACTIVE - PULL4..JP)

Hlnh 3-8. M~eh ra k80 len tfeh cue,

To

T~

T,

T;

Hlnh 3-9. N6i chung hai mach ra cot cham,

Mach ra co S<1 do nhu hlnh 3-8.

Mach co dl)c di~m : Zra = ZT bao hoa , do vay Zra luon luon nho. cu th~ :

Zral = ZTI bh ; Ura = "H'. Zral = ZTO bh ; Ura = nr Uu di~m : T6c dQ chuyan mach cao.

Nhuoc di~m : Co kha nang hong mach khi ndi chung cac dau ra.

Vi du : khi n6i chung dau ra cua hai mach nhu hlnh 3-9, mach se hong khi ··"1 va To' cung thong hoac T1' va To cung thong (mot dau ra d mire cao, mot dau ra d mire thap). Xac xudt xay ra hong mach tang nhanh khi n6i chung nhieu mach ra,

3_10.3. MACH RA HO COLECTO (OPEN COLLECTOR)

So do nguyen ly cua tang ra hd colecto ducJc cho d hlnh 3-10

Mach co cue thu d~ hd co th~ duoc s11 dung nhu mach logic thong thuong bang each mac them Re len nguon. Gia tr] cua R; phu thuoc vao till mac d dfiu ra. TAi co th~ la cac mach TTL khac hay dim LED ... Thong thuong gia tr] Re = vai tram Q + viti kQ .

l1u diem: - Co the chon Re thlch hop v{:ji tlnh trang cua tai,

- Co th~ noi chung cac dau ra va dung

Hlnh 3-10. M~ch ra hd colee to.

chung mot di~n trd Re' Luc nay, diem noi chung thuc hien chuc nang AND vai mire "H" cac da\l ra (goi la wire AND hay dot AND).

TMt v~y ,khi noi chung nhidu dau ra (hinh 3-11) mach hoat dQng nhu sau :

- RA = "H" khi tat ca cac c6ng deu co muc ra la "H ".

- RA = "L" khi It nhat 1 trong cac cdng co muc ra la "L ".

Hlnh 3-11. N6i chung nhi'eu d~u ra mach ra hd colecto.

3_10.4. MACH RA 3 TRANG THAI

Cac mach ra tren deu co nhuoc diem: luon luon chiu nhieu anh huong cua tal. Cac mach ra keo len tich eire hay hd colecto co trd khang ra khi T tat Ion, do v~y thoi gian qua de? cua mach Ian. MI;lCh ra cot cham tuy co tri'1 khang ra t~i cac trang thai 0, 1 luon luon nho nhung lai chiu nhieu anh hmrng cua till, mat khac khong cho phep noi chung cac dau ra.

Nam 1969 tai truong dai hoc Toyota, ngiroi ta da phat minh ra mach ra 3 trang thai.

Ba trang thai d6 la :

- Trang thai 0

- Trang thai 1

]

Nhu mach ra cot ch~111

- Trang thai treo : Tra khang cao.

Sc; do tang ra cu6i cung hoan toan gi6ng nhu tang' ra cot cham (hinh 3-12,0.), trong do 2 transito T) va To tuong duong 2 khoa di~n tt't (hlnh 3-12,b). Chi khac 1ft nho tin hieu dieu khian co the tao them trang thai treo. Cu the' :

Trang thai 0 : To thong baa hoa , TI tat Uri! = OIL ",,=, 0 V

Z,,,,, = Z'I ,d>h

T) thOng bao hoa , To tat.

Ura = "H "::::; 5 V Zra = Z.nhh Trang thai treo : To, T) deu tilt

Zra = 00

Dau vao, <tau ta khong anh huang llin nhau.

_J'5V
, fSV • f I) V ~ +SV
I ~
T, ~ ,
i
• •
Kj ~---- K· ,'- Kl (" ,.
'(
i ,
.. _" Ra I
1 K'l K2 t
~ z, • /~
To t Kz (
I
.~ I
_l_ J"
OJ b) Hlnh 3·12. MCich ra 3 trCing thai.

a. SCl dO nguylln Iy tllng ra cu& cUng; b. SCl dO lLIClng dLlClng cua mach ra 3 tr anq thai.

vi du : Mach NAND dau ra 3 trang thai co so do nguyen ly nhu hinh 3-1:3. Nguyen ly : Xet tac dung cua X

- Khi X = ''''L'' T tat mach la mach NAND vi :

A , B = 1 , 1 ; ra Y = O.

A , B = 0 , 1 hoac 1 , 0 hoac 0 , 0 ; ra Y = 1.

- Khi X = "H " T thong bao hoa ~ T3 Ult ~ T4 Hit ~ Tz tat ~ Ts tat

A , B = bat eu gia tri nao dau ra luon luon M mach.

V~y X la tin hieu diE'lu khien trang thai treo cua mach. 0 day khi X a muc "H" mach co trd khang eao , khi X a rmic "L" mach hoat dong binh thuong.

50

r

rel

R,

• • A B

Hlnh 3·13. Sci db mach NAND ba trang thai.

Ky h ieu cua mach 3 trang thai (hlnh 3-14) :

Tac dung cua mach 3 trang thai:

(a)

1. Khi d trang thai treo dau van khOng anh hirong den dau ra , do v ay co the Stl dun g mach 3 trang thai de tao nan nhirng dttang thong tin 2 chieu,

VI du : So do Stl dung mach 3 trang thai tao nen duong thong tin 2 chieu cho d hlnh 3-15.

Nguyen If lam oiec :

- Khi Xdk = 1 : mach 1 lam vi~c blnh thuong, thong tin di tit A ~> B (B = A), mach 2 d trang thai treo.

- Khi Xdk = 0 : m ach 2 lam v iec binh thuong, thong tin di tit B => A (A = B), mach 1 d trang thai treo.

2. N6i chung cac dau ra 3 trang thai. Mach co dau ra ba trang thai co the n6i chung cac dau ra voi nhau. Chi luu y phai tao tin hieu dieu khien sao tho tai mot thai diem ba1 ky chi co duy nhat mot mach hoat dong. Con nhung mach khac phai d trang thai trd khang cao. Neu co 2 mach tro len cung linn viec thi co the xay ra hong mach nhu khi n6i chung cac dau ra cua mach ra C9t cham,

Vi mach co dau ra 3 trang thai cho phep viec ghep chung tren BUS chung tro nen de dang.

(b)

Ra

[ -- YoAB

o z,

(c)

(d)

Hlnh 3· 14. Ky hieu cua mach ra 3 tranq thai.

a. Bo dem khong dao vCli dau vao di~u khien ticn cue H

b. BO dern kh6ng dao vCli dau vao di~u khien tich cue L

c. t30 dern dao vdi dau vao di~u khieln tich cue H

d. Bo dem dao vdi dau vao di~u khleln tfch cue L

Hlnh 3·15. Tao thong tin hai chi~u ttl mach r a 3 tr (long thai.

".

Ket lutui : Ky thuat vi mach phat trien nhanh chong va dat duoc nhung thanh tuu . khong th~ luang truoc diroc. Can nguoi van dang tim kiem nhung c6ng nghe mol cho phep dat duoc ket qua tot hen nira. Cuoc canh tranh cua cong nghe dien tt1 (hinh 3.17) da va se khong baa gia ket thuc,

Hlnh 3-17. CUQC thi dua oua c6ng ngh~ di~n tv.

52

9A '" ,,"

TONG QUAN VE M~CH SO

GI()J rmrn vt MACH s6

Cac mach s6 duoc chia lam 2 loai :

- Mach til hop (Combinational Circuits);

- Mach dlly (Sequential Circuits).

A. Ml:\CH T6 HOP

Lit mach mit tin hieu ra chi phu thuoc vito tin hieu vito. Phuong trinh xac djnh tin hieu ra cua mach la :

Yj = NX], X2, ... , Xn) voi V i = 1 + ni .

Yj lit tin hieu ra <'1 dau ra thu i, cac X; (j = 1 + n) lit cac tin hieu vao, n lit s6 cac tin hieu vito, nt lit so tin hieu ra. Co the goi mach til hop lit mach kh6ng co tri nho .

B. Ml:\CH DAy

La mach co tin hieu ra phu thuoc vao trang thai trong cua mach va co the phu thuoc hoac khong phu thuoc vao tin hieu vao, Phuong trlnh dac trung cua mach dAy la :

Yj = NX], X2, ... , Xn, S], S2'''' Sk) voi V i = 1 .; m.

Y, la tin hieu ra <'1 dau ra thu i , X; (j = 1 + n) 1;\ tin hieu vao, Sl (t = 1 + k) la trang t'uii trong cua mach. Mach dAy co kha nang nho (Iuu trir) dir kien, Vi v~y mach day con drl'1c goi la mach co tri nho,

Co the coi mach til hop la mot truong hop rieng cua mach day voi so trang thai trong rua mach la 1.

.... , ,.(' ~.... A, • ""

BAI TOAN THIET KE VA PHAN TICH M~CH SO

Bai toan ph an tich la bai toan tu sCI do mach cho truce xac dinh chuc nang, dang song, tinh nang ky thuat ... cua mach do.

Bai toan thiet ke la bai toan nguoc cua bai toan phan tich nghla la tir chuc nang, dang song, tinh nang ky thuat ... dat ra ban dau ,xay dung duoc mach thuc hien chuc nang do.

Qua trlnh thiet ke, phan tich, cac h$ thOng so gom nhieu buoc. Vi du bai toan thie't ke gom cac budc :

1. THI~T K~ LOGIC

Qua trlnh nay chi lien quan den khia canh logic cua bai toano Tren co sCI nay cac vi mach s6 da co chi ra sCI do logic thuc hien mach.

2. THI~T K~ DI~N "ttl

Day la van d{; lien quan den viec thuc hien mach dien ttl cu the: chi ra sCI do dien ttl thuc hien mach.

3. THI~T K~ LAYOUT

Lien quan den viec che tao mach voi cong nghe da chon, VI du : tiep xuc, chieu driy lap oxit ...

Trong pham vi cua cuon sach nay chi de cap den bai toan phan tich va thiet ke logic mach so. Can chu y rang sau khi da co bieu thirc logic cua bai toan, tren co sa nhirng' vi mach co san phai xay dung sCI do logic. Viec do thuc chat Ii! thuc hien rinh xa tv cac gi:i tri logic 0 va 1 vao cac gia tri dien the L (Low - muc thap) hay H (High - mire cli('n thCj eao) cua mach vi dien tv. Phep anh xa nay la tuy y .

Neu Logic 0 => L Logic 1 => H

goi Iii logic duong N gtiCJc lai neu phep anh xa :

Logic 0,* H Logic 1 => L

goi 11\ logic am

Thong thuong nguoi ta dung logic ducng, trong cac catalog cung thuong cho vOj cac logic duong,

Can Iuu y rang: Gifia mach dung logic duong va mach dung logic am co sit tuong duong nhu bang sau. Dieu nay rat co loi khi thiet kEf mach C~I t.he.

Logic duonq Logic am
AND OR
OR AND
NAND NOR
NOR NAND
, .' .. ,
-----,-- _ ___j ,.! /. '''' - ,

TIBET KE LOGIC VA CAC VI MI;\CH CO LON

M\lC tieu chu yeu dat ra khi thie't ke la mach pluii t.huc hien dung nhung chuc nang yeu cau, dam bao d¢ tin ci;i.y, de bao dlitfOg vii d,.d. hi{;u qua kinh 1,6 cao. Muon dat duoc dieu do thi mach duoc thiet ke can phai don g1cln.

Cac buoc thiet ke mach s6 duoc mo til nhtr hlnh sau

Hinh thuc hoa (bang chan Iy hay phudng trinh logic)

a)

1
Sai toan N6i cac MSi, LSI
bil.ng cac mach
, SSI
Tach cac
chuc namg 1
se do logic
+
Chon cac vi
mach MSI, LSI l
tieu chu§.n ul.p rap va thU
t ci

Bai toan
(mach day)
1
l
Hlnh thuc h6a T6i thiiiu
(db hinh, bang) ham logic
1 1
T6i thifiu hoa Chon c6ng
trang thai
1 1
Bifiu di€in dudi Sd db logic
danq nhi phan tJ
_____j
l c1_J
Xay dl,lng he cac
PT ham kich cho ~p rap
FF a th,j
-----_._-
I b)

~.
Xac dinh r-
he th6ng l_
+
Tach cac [-
chl1c nang I

Chon cac vi
mach LSI c6
chudng trinh __ :=1 _

8(~ ,1'-;;-1

---~),)'~

- J _

Phat tr,e~

L:'ln me:_J

Lap rap va thJ

d)

CdC btrac rhitr kc Loyie mech sri :

a) Cac buoc thiiit kii mach t6 helP dung SSI

b) Cac buoc thiiit kii mach d<1y dung cac Flip-Flop va S81

c) Cac ouoc thiiit kfi mach s6 dung MSI, lSI

d) Cac budC thifit kii mach s6 dung cac vi mach LSI c6 kha nang lap trlnh.

Truce day, voi nhung linh kien roi rae co dien nhu role, den dien ttt, den ban dan va nhirng vi mach co nho ssr, thl mot trong nhung nhiern vu quan trong ella thiet ke logic In. toi thieu hoa de dat dUQC so Iinh kien Iii it nhat.

Trong nhung nam gdn day, vai su phat trien manh me cua kg thuat vi dien ttt, su ra dbi cac mach co trung va co Ian MSI, LSI, VLSI vai gia thanh ngay cang ha da lam cho qua trlnh thi~t M cac M thOng so co nhung thay doi dang ke. Vai cac vi mach MSI,LSI,VLSI va nhung LSI lap trlnh duoc bai toan thiet k€ la chon cac mach do, n6i cac mach do bang cac mach phu them nhu SSI va phat trien phan mem ... chu khong phai 13. t6i thieu hoa,

Cac bu't'1c thi~t M doi voi m6i loai mach s6 noi tren va cac dac diem cua moi loai mach so se duoc gioi thieu chi ti€t {j cac chuang sau.

PhaD Z

MACH TO HOP

. .

CHUaNG 4

4 _1. MO HINH ToAN HOC

Mo hlnh toan hoc tong quat cua mach to hop duoc mo ta nhu hinh 4-1.

Trong mach co n dau vao, m dau ra. Cac Xi (i = 1 -i- n) l;'t cac tin hieu V[lO, cac 1j (j = 1 -;- m) 1:'1 cac tin hiau ra.

X = { XI' X2>' .. Xn } : Tap cac tin hieu vao,

Y = { Y1, Y2>' .. Ym } : Tap hop cac tin hieu ra.

Luc do mo hlnh toan hoc hlnh 4-1,a duoc mo ta mot each tong quat nhu hinh 4-1,b. Mach to hop duoc mo tit bdi h~ In phuong trinh dai s6 Boole nhu sau :

X, --.X2 -~ X3 ---

x

Mach to' hdp

x ----. n

b)

0)

Hlnh 4_1. Ma hinh toan hoe cua mach t6 hop.

a. Ma hinh toan hoe ma ta cu thii sa tfn hieu vao va sa tfn hieu ra:

b. Ma hinh toan hoe t6ng quat cua mach t6 hop.

Ve mat toan hoc co the noi Otomat khong co trl nhd chinh la mo hinh to all hoc cua mach to hqp . Otomat khong co tri nho duoc mo tit boi phuong trinh sau :

a = (X, y, {! ,

d day: X la hO chit vao; Y la hO chit ra, f la anh xa tu X VaG Y.

58

4_2. PHAN TicH MACH TO HOP

Bai toan phan tich la bai toan tu so do logic cho truce viet ham logic ella cac dau ra thea (';ic dau vao, va neu can thl con phai chi ra dang song cua tin hieu ra tucng ung vdi tin hieu vao, xac dinh gia tri tin hieu (j tung diem trong so do. Thuc hien thea nhirng buoc sau :

- D~t cac bien phu van moi mach dau ra cua moi mach logic.

- Viet phuong trlnh cua cac bien phu do. (viet h'in luot tu dau vao cho den dau ra)

- 0 bieu thuc cu6i cung, thay the cac gia tri tuong ling de rut ra duoc ham logic cho

cac dau ra cho so do da cho.

Vi du : Phan tich mach t6 hop cho (j hinh 4-2,a.

'I'ir so do logic cho (j hlnh 4-2,a lap duoc so do kh6i voi cac tin hi$u vao, tin hieu ra nhu (j hlnh 4-2,b.

aJ
A-
B-- - Yf
C-- Mach
0- to'
E .- hr;rp - Yz
F- -
G --
b) Hlnh 4-2. Phan tiC_h mach t6 hop.

a. So d6 logic cho truce ; b. So d6 kh6i mach 16 hop cho d hlnh 4-2,a.

Nhiem vu dat ra la phai xac dinh duoc cac tin hieu ra phu thuoc van cac tin hieu vao nhu the nao, nrc la phai xac dinh duoc cac ham sau :

YI = <PI (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)

Y2 = <P2 (A, B, C, D, E, F, G;

Buoc 1: Dat cac bien phu FI, F2, Fy F4 nhu trong hinh 4-2,a. Ta co :

Suy ra :

YI == r; F3, Yz == YI + G.

Buoc 2 : VUlt phuong trl.nh cac bien phu do :

YI == Fl' F3 == FI + F3 == Fz + C + F4 . F Y2 = YI + G = YI . G = F2 + C + F4. F. G Buoc 3 : Thay the cac gia tri Fz, F4 vao cac bieu thirc Y1, Y2 "

Y1 == Fz + C + F4. F == A B + C + D + E . F

==A+ B+ C+ D.E.F

~---=----=-

Yz = F2 + C + F4. F . G == A B + C + D -1- E . F . G

== A ,+ B + C + D . E . F . G == A . B . C (D + E + F ) . G =A.B.C.G(D+E+F).

4-3. THIET KE MACH TO HQP

4_3.1. BAI ToAN THI~T K~ vA esc BUOC THl,fC HI~N

Bai toan thiet k€ Iii bai toan tit yeu cau (chuc nang, dang song, tinh nang kg thuat ... ) xay dung so dB mach thuc hian nhimg ph an tli cho truce,

Cac buoc thiet ke : D6i vo i

truC1ng hop thiet ke dung cac

ph an til rbi rae va cac vi mach co nho (SS1) thuc hien tuan tu theo cac buoc nhu bie u dien c'I luu d6 tren

. hlnh4-3.

Nhu da trinh bay, voi su phat trien nhanh chong cua kg thuat vi mach viec thiet ke dung cac vi mach cO trung blnh va cO Ion MSI, LSI, VLSI, LSI I~p trlnh duoc co nhieu thay d6i so voi phuong phap thiet ke dung cac vi mach co nho (SS1) va cac

M6 tei boi ioiin dtJrfi daoo chuc nang

TOI thieu hoa

Chi'ro sa dd logic dung eho cdc cong do eho

Hlnh 4.3. Cac btldc thi6t k~ mach t6 hop dUng cac c6ng va cec vi mach cd nh6 (881). -

60

..:ong. Nhirng van de nay se duoc de cap den trong mot chuang rieng (chuang 12) a cuoi cuon sach nay.

M(lt van de can chii y khi thiet ke mot mach to hop co nhieu dau ra la nan slt dung nhung phan chung cho cac ham do de sa do thiet ke la dan gian nhat.

4-3.2. THI~T K~ MACH T6 HOP 2 TANG vA NHI~U TANG

a. Mach 2 tang Uu diem.

- Co the thuc hien duoc moi ham logic;

- Co toc dQ cao;

- Vi~c phan tich va thiet ke mach dan gian.

Nhuqc diem:

- Trong mot s6 truong hop thiet ke khong nhan duoc sa do dan gian nhat;

- 'Phuong yeu cau cac phan tlt co so dau VaG Ion (trong truong hop so dau VaG cua

phan tlt cho truce khong thoa man chung ta phai tang so tang cua mach len).

~ AND OR NAND NOR
1
1. CTH
AND X cn x
2. T, ap dl,lng D.
(Demoorgan)
tCTT
OR CTH X X
2.7, ap dl,lng D.
1. cn) tCTT
NAND X X
= 2. f, ap dl,lng D.
2. cse TP
ap dl,lng D. (cac thanh ph~n
khong thay d6i)
1.CTT 1. CTH
NOR X X
2. ~ ap dl,lng D.
2. cse TP
ap dl,lng D. (cac thanh ph~n
khong tha y d6j1
, Hlnh 4-4. Cach thi~t k~ mach hai t~ng vdi cac phlin tLi cho trudc, Gia thiet rang :

- Cac gia tri tin hieu vao Xi' Xi co san.

- 'I'ren cung 1 tang chi slt dung mot Ioai phan tlt (AND, OR, NAND, NOR)

- Nhung ph an tli nay co so dau vao khong han che,

Cach th iet ke mach 2 t ang duoc cho (j hinh 4-4.

Vi du : Cho ham logic 3 bien F(A, B, C) nhu hlnh 4- 5.

Toi thh1u hoa ham nay, viet duoc phuong trlnh ham F nhu sau :

F=AC+BC+AC

F = rA + C) (A + B + C) :

Hlnh 4·5. Bi~u di~n ham F tren bang Karnaugh.

dang chuan tac tuyeri (CTT)

dang chuan tac hQi (CTH).

Neu yeu cau xay dung so do mach voi tang 1 va tdng 2 cho truce nhu sau : 1) Tdng 1 dung AND, tdng 2 dung OR :

Tu thuat toan da neu (j bang hlnh 4- 4 ta co :

Viet phuong trlnh ham F dUC1i dang CTT :

F=AC+BC+AC

Tu phuong trlnh cua ham F d{} dang dua ra duoc so do cua mach thuc hien ham do . 2) Tdng 1 dung mach OR, tdng 2 dung AND :

Viet phuong trlnh ham F dUC1i dang CTH :

. ,

F = (A + C) (A + B + C) 3) Tdng 1 dung NAND, tang 2 dung AND

. Viet phuong trlnh ham F dUC1i dang CTH :

F = (A + C) (A + B + C)

Phu dinh 2 Ian tung thanh phan roi ap dung Demoorgan :

F = (A + C) (A + B + C) = (A C) . (A B C) 4) Tang 1 dung NOR, tang 2 dung OR

Viet ham F dUC1i dang CTT :

F=AC+BC+AC

Phu dinh 2 Ian tung thanh phan roi ap dung Demoorgan :

F = A C + B C + A C = (A + C) + (B + C) + (A + C) 5) Tang 1 dung OR, tang 2 dung NAND

Viet ham F dUC1i dang CTT :

F=AC+BC+AC

Phu dinh 2 Ian ham so roi ap dung Demoorgan :

F = A C + B C + A C = (A f C) "(B + cJ (A + C)

62

6) Tang 1 dung NAND, tang 2 dung NAND Viet ham F duoi dang CTT :

F=AC+BC+AC.

Phu dinh 2 Ian ham s6 roi ap dung Demoorgan (cac thanh phan khong bien d6i)

F = .If C + B C + A C = (A C) (B C) (A C) . 7) Tang 1 dung AND, tang 2 dung NOR

Viet ham F duoi dang CTH :

F = (A + C) (A + B + C) .

PM dinh 2 Ian ham s6 roi ap dung Demoorgan

F = (A -!- C) (A+ B + C) =(A C) ·(AB C). 8) Tang 1 dung NOR, tang 2 dung NOR

Viet ham F dudi dang CTH :

F = (A + C) (A + B + C) .

PM dinh 2 Ian ham s6 roi ap dung Demoorgan (cac thanh phan khong bien deli)

h. M~ch nhieu tang

Khi s6 dau VaG Ian hem s6 dau VaG cho phep cua phan ttl' cho trudc hie do phai tang s6 tang cua mach, S\i thay the cac mach AND, OR, NAND, NOR bdi cac phan ttl' cung loai co so dau VaG nho hem duoc cho a hinh 4-6.

0,
a, -r»
<=>
an
a) on
°1
0, 9 )
¢=)
an
b) an 0, ~
a, ~
<==)
On
C) an
a,
r:~
¢=> ;n~
dJ Hlnh 4·8. Thay thii' cac mach nhi~u d§u vao bdi cac mach cung loal c6 s6 d§.u vao it hon, a. Tha·y thii' mach AND; b. Thay thg mach OR;

c. Thay thg mach NAND; d. Thay th@ mach NOR.

4~3.3. THI~T K~ MOT H~ HAM T6 HOP

Bai toan:

Xay dung so do thuc hien nhisu ham logic cho truoc sao cho so do la don gian nhat. Gia thiet mach duoc xay dung co 2 tdng trong do cac dtiu vao Xi' Xi coi nhu co san

va sO' ddu vao, ddu ra cua moi mach khong han che.

Vi du : Thiet ke h~ 3 ham t6 hop

f (a, b, c, d)

g (a, b, c, d)

h (a, b, c, d)

Gia tri cua cac ham duoc cho trong bang Karnaugh hinh 4-7.

o

00 01 11 10
0 1
1 1
1 I 1
0 1 9 ab cd

o

o

00 01 II 10
0 1 I
1 1
11 1
10 I I h cd b

o o

a 00 01 11 10
0 I 1
1 1 1
11 1
... -
10 1
.. _L......_ f ab cd

o

OJ

b)

C)

Hlnh 4·7. Bang Karnaugh cua cac ham f, g, h.

a. Bi~u diAn gia tr] ham f ; b. Biflu di~n gill trl ham 9 ; c. Bi~u di~n gia trj ham h.

64

H~ ham t6 hQP nay co the thiet ke theo 2 each sau :

Thiel ke rieng re lirng ham s{/ :

'I'ir cac bang Karnaugh bieu dien cac ham do, tien hanh toi thieu hoa nhan duoc ket qua sau :

f=abd+ z s «: s ;« g-=ad+abc+abcd

h =acd+ t t «: abd+ abd

Vf!y so dau vao cua mach thuc hien ca 3 ham la 30.

(Gmil! =12)

Thiel ke theo phuong poop sir dung cdc phan chung cua cdc ham.

Lap bang Karnaugh cho cac cap ham fg, fh, gh va fgh nhu hlnh 4-8.

19 cd

b

a
00 01 11 10
00 1
01
11
10 1 0)

fgh cd

fh cd

gh cd

b

a 10
00 01 11
00 1
01 1
11 1
10 1 ob 10
00 01 11
00 f f
01 1
11
10 1 b)

C)

b

0
00 01 11 10
00 1
01
11
10 1 Hlnh 4-8. Bang Karnaugh cho cac cap ham Ig, Ih, gh, Igh.

d)

'I'ren bang Karnaugh cho tung ham so f, g, h danh dau cac phan chung nhau bang f1, nhirng ph an rieng cua ham nay bang 1 (hlnh 4-9) .

'I'ir bang Karnaugh hlnh 4-9, viet duoc bieu thuc cua cac ham f, g, h nhu sau :

f=abd+ abcd+ abd

g =abd+ s s i : abcd+ abc

h =abd+ acd+ s «:«, s t :«: abcd.

V{ji cac c6ng thuc nay, X§.y,1 ng duoc sC1 do mach thuc hien 3 ham t. g, h nhu hlnh 4-10.

h cd

b

a
00 01 11 10
00 -e- B'
01 -Er B'
11 B'
10 {J OJ

9

c

ab
d 00 01 11 10
00 11 11
01 .e
II 1
10 .£r 1 b)

f cd

ob
00 01 11 10
00 .e-
01 .e-
II 1 .e-
10 e C)

Hlnh 4·8. Danh d§.u ph§n Ghung, r;eng cua cac Mm I, g, h va cec ham chung cua n6.

a. Danh d§.u ph§n chung, r;~ng cua ham h vd; cac ham gh, gh, Ih, Ig;

b. Danh difu ham chung, ri~ng cua ham 9 vdi cac ham Igh, gh, Ig, h;

c. Danh difu ham chung, r;eng cua ham 1 vd; cac ham Igh, gh, Ih, Ig, h, g.

Voi so do nay, mach chi co 24 dau vao, dung 7 mach AND, 3 mach OR trong khi do so do thuc hien mach thea each thist ke rieng re tung ham mot co toi 30 dau VaG va phai dung toi 10 mach AND, 3 mach OR.

Chu y rang each lam tren cling hoan toan co tM ap dung cho cac ham phu dinh : f,

i, it, r: fTt, g it, fi h.

9

Hlnh 4·10. SCI dO mach thuc hien he ham I, g, h thea phUClng phap lily phan chung.

h

66

f

4.1. Phan tlch mach t6 hop cho a hlnh 4-11:

Hlnh 4-11.

4.2. Thiel ke mach to hop tang 1 dung NAND, tang 2 dung NAND co ham logic nhu bang tren hlnh 4-12.

f b

e

a
d 00 01 11 10
00 1 1
01 1
11 1 1
10 1 f

be
a 00 01 11 10
0 1 1
1 1 1 Hlnh 4-12. Hlnh 4·13.

4.3. Cho ham logic 3 bie'n (a, b, c) nhu bang tren hlnh 4-13.

Xay dung so d6 mach thuc hien ham nay tilng 1 dung AND, tang 2 dung NOR.

4.4. 'I'h iet ke mach to hop thuc hian 3 ham to hop : f (a, b, c, d) ; g (a, b, c, d) ; it (a, b, c, d) duoc cho trong bang Karnaugh sau :

f

cd

g

b cd

a 00 01 11 10
00 1 1 1
01 1
11
10 1 h cd b

a 00 01 11 10
00 1 1
01
11 1 1
10 1 ab
00 01 11 10
00 1
01 1 1 1
11 -
10 1 1 0)

b)

C)

Hlnh 4-14.

CHUaNG v

, ,,,7 'V

CAC MACH TO HOP THUONG GAP

. . .

Tren co sa ly thuyet ve phan tich, thiet ke mach t6 hop da trlnh My a chuang 4, chuang nay se giai thieu mot s6 mach t6 hop cu tM nhu : b(i cong (Adder), b(i so sanh (Comparator), b(i chuye'n rna, b(i don kenh (MUX), ph an kenh (DEMUX) , b(i giai rna (DECODER) ... va phuong phap thiet M chung.

5-1. BO CONG NHf PHAN MOT COT s6

5_1.1. PHAN TfcH BAI ToAN

Tuong t1,i nhu phep cong 2 s6 thap phan rna chung ta da quen thuoc, phop c(ing 2 s6 nhi phan cling bB.t dilu tti cQt s6 co trong s6 nho nhat.

Vi du : Thuc hien phep cong 2 s6 nhi phan A, B (4 bit) sau :

C: 1110

A: 1011

B ': 0 1 1 1

=> Day nho sau phep cong tirng bit (11)10

(7)10

S:10010

Tti phep cong tren, nhan thily a moi c(it s6 tha i : thuc hien phep c(>ug chii so Ai cua s6 A voi chir so B, cua so B va vdi 80 nhtJ Ci-I cua c(it so co trong so nho han ben canh dua den. Ket qua phai dua ra chft s6 cue. Mng tai c(it do (Sj) va s6 nho sang c(it gia han tiep theo ngay canh day (Ci)' VI v~y hQ cong nhi phan 1 cot so (hay 1 bit) phai co 3 dau vao Ai' Bi, Ci-1 va 2 dau ra la s, Cj•

So d6 kh6i cua b¢ c(ing mot c(it s6 duoc mo ta (j hlnh 5-1,a voi :

Ai,Bi Cj-1 S·

,I

la chir s6 a cot thti i cua A, B;

III so nhd cua c¢t co trong s6 nho hon ben canh mang toi; 1a chft s6 cua t6ng a cot thti i;

Ci la s6 nhd dua den c(it co trong s6 Ian hen !Jen canh.

B(> cong noi tren duoc goi lil b(> cong ddy du 1 bit (FA - Full Adder). Bang chan ly cua

"

hI) cong nay ducc mo ta a hlnh 5-1,b.

Bie'u di~n t6ng Sj va s6 nho Cj tren hang Karnangh hlnh 5-1,c, t6i thie'u hoa hai ham nay, nhan duc;1C ket qua :

S, = Ai $ B, $ Cj-1

Cj = AjBj + Cj-1(Ai + Bi)

8{5 ct5ng
- 1 bits
-_-- Si

c,

a)

Ai Bi ci- J S,. c,
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
f 1 0 0 I
f f 1 1 1 b)

c

c, A

c

s, i-bo 01 11 10
i
0 1 1
1 1 1 e, i-I 01 11 10
; 00
,,---....
0 1
1 (1 1 1) C)

Hlnh 6·1_ Bo cong day du (FA) 1 bit.

a. So dO cua bO cOng; b. Bang chan Iy cua bO cOng day du 1 bit: c. Bang Karnaugh cua S,. Cj•

5-1.2. xAv Dl)NG SO DO

SCI do h(l cong nay co tM xay dung theo 2 each SaU ;

a. Xay dung SCI do h(l cQng 1 hit true tiep tl:i M phuong trlnh Sj, Cj noi tren,

h. Xay dung sCI do hI) cong 1 hit tit cac hI) han tc1ng (llA - Half Adder). each nay thubng hay duoc dung trong thuc teo

Bang chan ly cua he> ban t6ng duoc cho a hinh 5-2,a.

Tit bang chan 11 rut ra S = a $ b ; c = a b. So do cua hQ cong day (J 1 hit xay dung tit cac h9 ban t6ng duoc chi ra a hinh 5-2,c.

A B S C
-~ f---
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1---
1 0 1 0
_ ----- -~- _
1 1 0 1 0) 1-----'

A I

s

B I

I C

I L __ -I I I

L J

b)

Ai c;
HA, Iv
Bi ~;

~.
Ci-l HAc S2 C)

Hlnh 6·2. Xay dl,lng bo FA tLJ cac bo HA.

a. Bang chllc nang cua bo ban tang (HAl; b. So dB bo ban tcing (HAl ; c. So dB bo FA '>')9 cac bo HA

Co the kiem tra dUQC tinh dung dan cua so do nay 1l19t each d~ dang. Thea so do 5-2~, viet dU<;IC cac phuong trinh diiu ra :

Sj = S' 2 = S'I E£) CH = Aj E£) B, EEl Cj

Cj = C'I + C' 2 = AjBj + Cj_l· S'I = AiBj + Cj_1 (Ai ED Bi) = AiBj + (AiBj + AiBj) Ci-I =

= Aj(Bj + BPi-I) + Bj(Aj + Aj + Ci-I) = Aj(Bj + Cj--J) + B, (Ai + Ci-1)

Cj = AjBj + Cj-1(Ai +Bj) •

Sj, Cj dung III phuong trlnh dau ra cua he> cong day du 1 hit.

70

5_2. 80 TRl1 NH, PHAN MOT COT so

each lam hoan toan tuong tv nhu khi xay dung so do thuc hien hi) cong nhi phan 1 c(it s6. Bang chan Ii cua h(i tru day du 1 hit (FS - Full Suhtractor) cho i'J hlnh 5-3,a.

o

Ai

ChU 56' th,J i eua so' hi iru'

Bi

chli so' thJ i eva siitri:

[I

Sii' nhrJ duo tdl crjt co trr;Jng so'tin ban

c.,

N h t1 tir cot co trpng 55 nho hdn duo uen

Hi

ChU sri' cua hi~U

o

o

000

I-------_+_---~~---~- ---~-~---~~-~ --------~ -~-f_______~-~ ..• ~----~-----~-

1 1 1

I----~---+---------+---------~---~--I-----------. ~~-~----- .. ----~-

o 0 1 1

I--~----------- f----------~-~-~-~ ~~~----~-- -.-~~~----~-~-----

o 1 1 0 I

I-------~ I--------~ -~---------- -~-----

o 0 1 0

I------~-.-___t---.--~--- ~-.~--- .. ----~-~--- +--------~~---+---~-- -----j

o , 0 0

I-------+----~~~~ ---~-~~--~---~------~~ f_______------l-------.~------

o 0 0

I--------+-~----------.---.------+--~--~_l__------~---

1

o

~--

a)

A B H C
0 0 0 0
f-~
0 1 f 1
1 0 1 0
f----- -- -----
1 1 0 0 . Ct-,

b)

HSz

Hi

1--------- --.----

C)

B

HS

A

---; +

H

f---.---

c

Hlnh 15.3. Bo tru nhi phan mot cot s6.

a. Bang chLIC nang cua bo ban tnr dll.y du (FS); b. Bang chdc nang cua bo ban InJ (HS) ; c. So dB kh6i cua bo ban tnr (HS) ; d. Sd db bQ FS dung cac b6 HS

71

'I'uong tv nhu bi) cong, ta co the xay dung b(> tru day du 1 bit true tiep tir M phuong trlnh viet tu bang chan Iy 5-3,a hoac qua cac bi) ban trir (HS - Half Subtracter). Bang chan Iy cua h(> ban tru (HS) duoc 1110 ta 0 hinh 5-3,b, tu bang chuc nang nay viet duoc h~ phuong trlnh cua b(> ban tru :

H=A$B C=AB

(H la chu so cua hieu):

(C Ia so nho sang c(>t tiep thea).

So do cua khOi ban tru duoc mo ta 0 hlnh 5-3,c. Tren co so do xay dung ht) trjr day du 1 hit qua cac ht) ban tru nhu hlnh 5-3,d.

Trang thuc te, ht) tru day dll 1 hit it duoc dung rna nguoi ta thuong tim each hieu diEin cac so thea dang ma bu va hi en phep tru thanh phep cong vdi m3. bu cua no. Dieu nay se duoc xet chi tiet trong chuang 13.

5_3. 89 so SANH (COMPARATOR)

Trang nhieu truong hop phai so sanh 2 so nhi phan A va B de chi ra duoc mdi quan h~ giira chung : A > B hay A < B hay la A = B.

Mach to hop thuc hien chuc nang noi tren duoc goi Ia ht) so sanh. Truce tien chung ta hay xet hi? so sanh 2 so nhi phan 1 hit va sau do thiet ke cac ht) so sanh 2 s6 nhi phan nhieu hit.

5_3.1. BO SO SANH 2 so NH! PHAN 1 BIT

Bang chtic nang ella he? so sanh nay duoc cho trong hlnh 5-4,a. Tir bang chuc nang hlnh 5-4,a viet duoc cac ham dau ra cua hi) so sanh nhu san :

Ham (AI = B I) = AI $ B I Ham (AI < BI) = AI BI Ham (AI > B I) = AI SI

Tren co SCi cac ham nay, xay dung duoc so do ht) so sanh 1 bit chi dung cac mach NAND nhu hlnh 5":4,b.

Ai e, Ai = Bi Ai < Bi Ai> Bi
0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 0 0 a)

Bi

Ai> 8i

Ai=Bi

Ai < e,

b)

Hlnh 5-4. BO so sanh 1 bit.

a. Bang chdc nang; b. so d6 be so sanh chi' dung NAND.

72

5_3.2. BO SO SANH n BIT

Gia stt co 2 so nhi phan n bit A, B voi :

A : All All-I ... AI

B : BII BIl-1 ... B I

trong do qui uoc AI' B I Ia C9t co trong so nho nhat, A,P BII Ia C9t co trong so Ion nhat.

Sa do khoi cua b9 so sanh 2 so A, B duoc mo ta a hlnh 5-5,a.

De xay dung sa do mach b9 so sanh nay co tM dung 2 each nhu sau

a. XIIY dlJllg sa do true liep lir cue hum ,\'UU

A>B

(2n bien)

A=B

(2n bien)

A<B

(2n bien).

Voi phuong phap nay thuc chat la xay dung mot M 3 ham logic, moi ham co 2n

bien.

h. Xuy dl:mg S(1 (10 gkin tiel' qua cue M so !;ullh 1 bit

Xet vi du cu the vci n = 3

A = A3A2 AI B = B3 B2 BI

De xay dung duoc sa do mach so sanh nay, phai can 3 mach so sanh 1 bit va cac mach phu tro.

Dau tien so sanh 2 C9t so co trong IU<;1ng Ion nhat A3, B3 :

A3 > B3 : A > B A3 < B3 : A < B

A3 = B3 : so sanh tiep

Trong truong hop A3 = B) ta phai tiep tuc so sanh 2 chir so A2, B2 co the xay ra truong hop :

A2 > B2 : A > B A2 < B2 : A < B

A2 = B2 : so sanh tiep

73

AI> Bl : A > B Al < Bl : A < B Al = Bl : A = B

Tom lai

(A = B) <=> (A3 = B3)(A2 = B2) (AI = B 1)

(A > B) <=>(A3 > B3) + (A3 = B3) (A2 > B2) + (A3 = B3)(A2 = B2)(A1 > B1) (A < B) <=>(A3 < B3) + (A3 = B3) (A2 < B2) + (A3 = B3)(A2 = B2)(A1 < B1)

'I'ren co so do xay dung duoc so do bi? so sanh 2 s6 3 bit dung cac bi? so sanh 1 bit va cac mach NAND nhu hlnh 5-5,b. Trang do

A3 = B3, A3 > B3, A3 < B3, A2 = B2, A2 > B2, A2 < B3, Al = B1, Al > B1, Al < B1,

duoc dua ttl cac dllu ra cua 3 bi? so sanh 1 bit den.

89 so sdnh A = B

(Comparator)

A<B

A>B

0)

A3~B3---I A2~B2---l A, ~B,

A=B

A2(8z---l Az=B2 ---J A3=B3---J

AI <B7

A3> 83 ---l A3=B3---I Az>BZ---J A3=B3---l Az=Bz ---; Al)Bl-

A3<B3---I

b)

Hlnh 6.6. Be so sanh nhiflu bit.

a. So dO khlli cua bt) so sanh /I bit ; b. So d8 cua be;; so sanh 3 bit duoc xay dl,lng til bt) so sanh 1 bit.

74

5_.4. M~CH T~O vA. KIEM TRA CHAN LE (PARITY GENERATOR / CHECKER)

Trong thong tin, khi truyen dir lieu (Data) Hi noi nay sang noi khac can phai xac dinh xem co loi cua su truydn hay khong ? Va neu co tM thi sira 16i do.

Co nhieu phuong phap rna hoa dtr lieu de co tM lam duoc dieu nay. Phuong phap don gian nhat la them met bit van dir li~u duoc truydn di de' sao cho so chir so 1 trong dfr lieu luon luon la 1 s6 Ie hoac chan. Bit do duoc goi la bit chan le.

Bit cluui : Neu bit them van co gia tri sao cho chir sO 1 trong dir lieu la 1 so chan (Even). Bit Ie : Neu bit them van co gia tri sao cho so chir s6 1 trong du lieu III 1 so Ie (Odd). vi du : Voi rna ASCII, chfr s6 9 trong M thap phan duoc ma hoa nhir sau .:

(9)10 = X011. 1001 ; X la bit them vao neu X = 0 : h~ chan; X = 1 : M le.

De thuc hien duoc viec truyen dir lieu thea kieu dua them bit chan, Ie van du lieu chung ta can phai :

1. Xay dung so d6 tao diroc bit chan, Ie them van n bit cua dir lieu.

2. Xay dung so do kiem tra duoc M la M chan hay le vdi (n + 1) bit a dau van (n bit cua dir lieu, 1 bit chan, le).

So do khdi cua mach tao bit chan Ie va mach kiem tra M chan Ie duoc mo ta a hlnh 5-6. De vi du, xet truong hop don gian voi dir li~u co 3 bit . Truong hop dir lieu co nhieu bits han each lam cung hoan toan tuong tu.

n bits --7"--' data

Kiem ira Mchan Ie

Tao bit
chi; Le
n bit ~ Xe
data
oJ Bit eM; Ie ( Xe,xo)

b)

Hlnh 11.8. SCl db kh6i mach tao, kiiim tra chan Ie.

a. M;;lch tao bit chan Ie ; b. M;;ich kiiim tra h~ chan Ie.

5_4.1. MACH TAO BIT CHAN U~

G9i 3 bit cua dtr lieu la d1, d2, d3 va Xc' Xo la 2 bit chan, Ie them van dir lieu, Bang chan Ii cua mach tao bit chan Ie cho truong hop du Mu vao 3 bit diroc mo ta (j hinh 5-7. o day Xo la gia tri bit phai them vao de'M la M chan. Xc la gia tri bit phai them van de M III M Ie.

Tit bang chan Iy ta thay Xo = Xe hay Xe = Xo'

Do tinh chat cua ham cong Modul n bien : ham bang 1 neu nhu trong n bien, so so bien bang 1 la 1 s6 le, V~y viet ngay duoc :

75

Xc = d 1 E9 dZ E9 d3

Xo = XI" = d 1 E9 dZ E9 d3 •

VaG Ra
d, d2 d3 Xe XQ
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 a 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
I 0 a 1 0
1 0 1 a 1
I 1 0 a 1
1 1 1 1 a Hlnh 15-7 . BAng ehlle nang cua mach tao bit eh~n h~.

5_4.2. MACH KI~M TRA CHAN LE

Bang chirc nang cua mach kit1m tra tinh chan Ie cua M duoc eho trong hlnh 5-8.

vao Ra
d, dz d3 X Fe Fo
0 a a 0 1 0
0 a 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 a
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 0 I
I 0 0 0 a 1
I 0 a 1 1 0
1 a I 0 1 0
1 0 1 I 0 1
1 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 a 1 0 f
1 1 1 0 0 1
I I 1 I 1 0 Hlnh 15-8. BAng ehlle nang cua mach kiEim tra eh~n, h~.

76

Tit hang ta thay :

neu h(\ la h(\ chan (Fe chi ra tinh chan cua h(\); neu h(\ la h(\ Ie (Fo chi ra tlnh Ie cua he),

Hai ham nay luon la phu dinh cua nhau. M~t khac do tinh chat cua ham cong Modul, ta co:

5_5. MJ:\CH PHAN LOJ:\I NGAT

Trong ky thuat, thuong co nhieu thie"t hi ngoai vi duoc noi voi may tlnh, ,uP. Mach phan loai ngat (Interrupt Sorter) nhu mo ta a hinh 5-9.

I I II JR
TBNV - 1 J

I TBNV-2 I AI
J I 89 phOn I fiP
I 109/ ngr1t I
I I
I I
I TBNV -2n I
I i2n An Hlnh 15-11. So dO khcll cua be phan loai ngiit (IS).

Mach co nhism vu :

- Tai thoi diem t neu co It nhat 1 trong cac thiet hi ngoai vi co yeu cau ngat thl mach phai tao ra tin hieu yeu cau ngat IR (Interrupt Request) giti t<'1i J1P.

- Neu tai thai diem t co nhieu thiet hi ngoai vi cung giti yeu cau ngat t<'1i J1P thl mach phai chi ra duoc thiet hi ngoai vi nao (rna cua thiet bi ngoai vi do) can uu tien giai quyet ngat tai thai diem do. IR == 1 khi {~'"' It nhat 1 trong cac thiet hi ngoai vi co yeu cau ngat giti t<'1i J1P. Cac tc1 hop (AI' A2 ... An)2 la cac rna nhi phan tuong iing cua cac thiet bi ngoai vi.

V~y h¢ phan loai ngat se co 2n dau vao, (n + 1) dau ra nhu so d6 hinh 5-9.

VI du : XAy dung so d6 hi) phan loai ngat (IS) co 4 da'u vao, 3 da'u ra. So d6 khOi cua bQ phan phan loai ngat nay duoc mo ta a hlnh 5-10,a. Gia thiet cac thiet hi ngoai vi se duoc uu tien xit If ngat theo thii tv 3, 2, 1, 0, cac dau ra At, Az duoc qui uoc : A[ bieu dU}n hit co trong so 2°, A2 hieu di~n hit co trong so 21.

Bang chuc nang cua h(> phan loai ngat duoc hieu di{in tren hlnh 5-10,b.

77

Po IR

P, A2
IS
P2
P3 A,
0)

vii 0 Ra
Po PI P2 P3 IR A2 AT
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X X X 1 1 1 1
X X 1 0 1 , 0
X 1 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 0 ----- 0 0
1 1 b)

Hlnh 11-10. BO ph§.n lo~i ngAt 4 d~u vao, 3 dftu ra.

Tit bang chirc nang xac dinh duoc cac ham dilu ra nhu sau :

IR = Po + PI + P3 A2 = P3 + P2 P3

Al = P3 + PI ]>2 ]>3

Trang do Pi = 1 (i = 1 .;- 3) chi ra rang thiet bi ngoai vi thu i co yelU cau ngat, IR = 1 khi co yeu cau ngat tit It nhat mot trong cac cac thiet bi ngoai vi giti tai J.lP.

5_6. BO DON KENH (MUX) HAY BO CHQN Dlr lI~U (DATA SElECTER)

Dinh nghia

B(I don kenh la mach co 2n dau , n dau vao dieu khieri, 1 dau vao chon mach va 1 dau ra.

Tuy thea gia tri cua n dau vao dieu khien rna dau ra se bang mot trong nhirng gia tri (j dau vao (Xj). Cu the' neu gia tri thap phan cua n dau vao dHiu khien bang jthl Y = Xj. N ghla Ia neu :

(An-lAn-2 ... AjAo)2 = (J)IO thi Y = Xj.

So do kh6i cua MUX 2n => 1 (2n dltu vao, 1 dau ra) ducc bieu di~n (j hlnh 5-11,a.

7k

En ---------,

Xo •
XI • Y
MUX Y doura ~
2n_1 X2n_2 •

X2n_1 •
b) Xo ----; X, ---;

X2n_l

An-,An.2 Ao

n deli; vao (lieu khiin a)

Hlnh 15-11. 815 dbn kenh MUX 2n => 1.

a. So db kh6i; b. MUX III mot chuy~n mach dj~n tli.

Phuong trlnh tin hieu ra cua MUX 2n ~ 1 nhu sau :

Y == Xo(An-1 An-2 ... Aj ... Ao) + XI (An-I An-2 '" Ai ... Al Ao) + ... + X2n_1 (An-1 An-2 ... Aj ... Al Ao)

Neu ky hieu ~ la tich bQ phan cua An-I An-2 ... Aj ... AI An

Ai' = 1 khi gia tri thap phan cua so nhi tMp phan (An-l An-2 ... Ao)]() = i. T6ng quat co the viet :

Y = Xo(~) + x/A;) + ... + Xj(A;') + ... + X2n-IX2n_1 (A;n_l)

Thuc chat MUX la chuyan mach di~n ta dung cac tin hi~u dieu khh~'n (AI1-~11-2 ... Ao) de dieu khien su noi mach cua dilu ra vbi 1 trong so 211 dilu vao (hinh 5-11,b).

Hien nay bQ MUX duoc dung nhu mot phan ta van nang de xay dung nhfrng mach t6 hop khac.

5-7_ BO PHAN KENH (OEMUX)

Dink ngkia

BI) phan kfinh Iii. mach co 1 dilu vao, n dilu vao dieu khien, 1 dilu vao chon mach va 2n dilu ra.

Tuy theo gia tri cua n dilu vao dieu khH~n rna dilu ra thu i (Yj) se bang gia tri cua dilu vao. Cu the n eu goi n dilu vao dieu khie n la An-I An-2 ... Ao thi Yj == X khi (An-1 4.n-2 ... AIAo)2 = (i) 10'

79

DE'MUX 1 dau vao 211 dau ra (MUX 1 ---+ 211) duoc bieu dien d

hinh 512,:1.

Yo • Yo
En ~-.- Yl
(Chon mach) f)EMUX .____-- 11
2n Vao
1-·'___"_"2n Yi udura ~
X • Y2n-2
£J(ll; vao • Y2n-l I I

b)

An-JAn-z AD

'---~ n dal; vao diiu khien

aJ

Hlnh 5-12. BO ph§.n kenh DEMLJX.

a. So db kh5i: b. DEMIJX 11\ mOt chuyiin mach di~n tLI.

Phuong trlnh tin hieu ra cua DEMUX 1 =:> 211 nhu sau :

Yo = X . AI1-1 AI1-2 Ai Ao

Y1 = X . An-I An-2 Ai AIAo

Ky hieu A; la t.ich bQ phan cua An-l,An-2 .. , AIAo

AT = 1 khi (An-I, An-2 .. , AIAO>2 = (i)1O T6ng quat : Yj = X . ~

BQ phan kanh con diioc gol la bQ giai mil 1 trong 2n. Tai mot tho! diem chi co 1 trong so 2n dau ra d mac tich cue.

5_8. M~CH CHUYEN MA

Trong cac M thong di~n tU' dung mach so, du li~u (Ienh, so lieu) duoc truyen di hay xU' ly d dang ttl (Word) nhi phan gom cacbit 0 va 1. MQt ttt n bit co the bieu dien cho 2n phan tii tin khac nhau voi gia tri thap phan ttt : 0 =:> 211 - 1. Ttt nhi phan n bits do goi la mil (Code) cua phan tU' tin tuc. Co rat nhieu loai mil, phan nay S8 trlnh bay mot s6 loai Ola tieu bH~u thuong dung, sau dd se xet den cac mach logic thuc hien ch uy(i n rna.

;0

5_8.1. esc LO~I MA TI~U BI~U

a. Cdc loai rna kj tlf thU'ung dung

- Mil ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) : mil nay dung 8 bit de mil hoa cho 1 ky tu.

- Mil EBCDI (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) : dung 8 bit;~ue mil hoa cho 1 ky tv.

- Ma BAUDOT: ma nay dung 5 bit de bieu dien cho 1 ky tv, no thucng ducc dung trong buu di~n va mot s6 loai teletype.

h. Cdc loai rna thuang dung d( rna hod cdc con oW}

De mil hoa cac con s6 thucng dung cac loai mil : mil nhi phan, mil du 3 (XS3) , rna Gray, mil Gray du 3, rna nhi phan cua so thap phan (BCD), rna thap phan, rna 7 vach ... Bang mil cua mot so loai ma nay duoc cho trong hinh 5-13,0.

Mil co tM chia lam 2 loai : loai co trong so (trong so cua cac ky hieu nhi phan ducc slip xep thea thu tv 2°, 21, 22, 2" ... ) va loai kh6ng eo trong so (trong so cua cac ky hieu nhi phan khong phu thuoc vao vi tri cua chung trong ttt mil).

- Md nit? pluui :

Day la loai ma co trong so, trong so cua cac ky hieu nhi phan duoc xap xep ttt thap den cao la 1, 2, 4, 8, ...

- Md BCD (binary coded decimal),

De rna hoa nhi phan cho 10 chit so thap phan can bi mil eo dQ did 4 bit. Tuy theo each stl dung 10 tren 16 t6 hop ma nhi phan 4 bit ma ta eo cac loai mil BCD khac nhau. MQt so rna BCD thuong gd,p la : BCD - Normal (hay NBCD) , 2421, 5121 ...

Mil NBCD la loai mil BCD don tri va co trong so (8, 4, 2, 1). VI du mil NBCD cua 9 Ia 1001.

Ma 2421 va mil 5121 la loai mil BCD khong don tri, nhung chung co dac diem la rna bu 9 cua mot so nao do cung chinh la rna bu 1 cua s6 do. vi du rna 5121 cua so 4 la 0111, rna bu 9 cua 4 la 5 (1000) chinh la rna bu 1 cua 0111. Dac diem nay se the hienro tin diem cua no khi xay dung cac mach s6 hoc (se xet trong chuong 13),

- Md du 3 (XS3)

Ma nay duoc tao thanh ttt rna nhi phan bang each cong them 0011 (a) vao tir mil nhj phan tucng ling.

-ua Gray."

La loai mil khong co trong so, cac ttl rna ke can nhau chi khac nhau c'1 mot bien S(), Mil Gray duoc dung de bie'u dien bang Karnaugh.

- Md Gray die 3:

Mil nay cling co dac diem nhu rna Gray va nri duoc tao thanh ttt mil Gray bang each I~ch di 3 hang.

Ma tria nh] phon cua so'IMp phon
nb] Oil 3 Gray Oil 3 BCD Thrjp phon 7 v(lch
phon Gray Normal 2421 5121 So'thap 0123456789 abcdefg
1 phori
0000 0011. 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 a 1000000000 1111110
0001 0100 0001 0110 0001 0001 0001 1 01000 0 a 0 a a 10110000
0010 0101 0011 0111 0010 0010 0010 2 0010000000 11011 01
0011 0110 0010 0101 0011 0011 00/1 3 0001000000 11 I 100 1
0100 0111 OlIO 0100 0100 0100 0111 4 0000100000 0110011
0101 1000 0111 1100 0101 1011 1000 5 0000010000 1011011
0110 1001 0101 1101 OlIO 1100 1001 6 0000001000 10111 11
0111 1010 0100 1111 0111 1101 1010 7 0000000100 1110000
1000 1011 1100 1110 /1000 1110 10ft 8 0000000010 11 I 11 If
1001 11 00 11 01 1010 1001 1111 1111 9 0000000001 1111011
1010 1101 1111 lOll OJ
1011 1110 1110 1001
1100 1111 1010 1000 a
11 0 1 0000 1011 0000 f '9 /b
J 11 0 0001 1001 0001
1111 0010 1000 0011 d

I I

I 1 '~I

.-..1 I

...... 1 I I

.-....1 1

I

I

1 I 1 I I 1

I 1 ~1

1 I I

~_.

bj

Hlnh 5.13. Mot s6 rna thlldng dung dEi rna h6a con s6.

a. Sang rna; b. Den Min thj 7 vach va cac con s6 tllOrlg t1ng.

82

-Md sua sai :

Trong cac rna sua sai ngoai cac bits mang thong tin con co mot s6 bit them vao de phat hien va sua sai, Ma sua sai dan gian nhat la rna chan Ie, khi do bit them vao goi Ia bit chan Ie (Parity bit).

- Md bay uqch:

Ma nay dung mot tv ma co d9 dai bang 7 de bieu di@n mot chir s6 (hlnh 5-13,b).

Mach chuyan ma la mach thuc hien chiic nang chuyen tv 1 loai rna nay thanh loai rna khac hieing iing. VI du : Chuydn ma NBCD (BCD Normal) => ma du, 3 (XS3) , rna du 3 (XS3) => rna nhi phan, rna nhi phan => rna Gray, rna Gray => rna nh] phan, ma du 3 => ma du 3 Gray ...

Chi tiet han, con co the phan cac mach chuydn ma thanh 2 loai sau :

a. Mach. ma hod -L(Ip ma (ENCODER)

Mach nay co nhiem vu tao ra cac rna so. 6 moi thai diem chi co 1119t dau vao 0 mire tfch cue. Vi du : mach lap rna NBCD cua s6 thap phan, mach lap rna ASCII cua ban phim co so do kh6i duoc mo ta a hlnh 5-14.

ThrJp phOn ( DecimaL)

o 1 2

NBCO

Cac phifn cua ban phim

LrJp rna ban phifn

Ma ASCII eva ky tv

9

OJ

b)

Hlnh 5-14. So dCl kh6i cua mach l<lip ma.

a. Mach lap ma NfJCD ; b. Mach lap rna ASCII.

'" Mach I~p rna uu tien (Priority Encoder) Iil mach mil neu tai m9t thai diem t co the co nhieu dau vao i'J mire tlch cue thl mach se tao ra rna cua dau vao duoc uu tien a thai diem do.

b. M(lch giii; ma (DECODER)

Mach nay co nhiem VlJ bien d6i ma nhan duoc thanh mil ban dau (nguoc voi mach rna hoa), Sa do khdi cua mach giai mil NBCD sang thap phan va mach giai rna NBCD sang mil 7 vach ( de hien thi cac con s6) duoc mo ta i'1 hlnh 5-15.

Giai ma. 0 , a
{ 1 NBCD 1 giai ma b
NBCD N8CD 2- NBCD
~th4p phan ~ 7- v,?ch
9 9
a) b)
Hlnh 5.15. So dB kh6i cua mach giAi mao a. M<;Ich giAi ma NBCO sang ma th~p phan : b. Mach giAi ma NIJCO sang ma 7 vach,

Mach chuydn rna la mot mach to hop co nhidu dau VaG va nhieu dau ra. Cac budc

thiet ke mach chuydn ma hoan toan tuong tv nhu cac buoc thiet k8 mach to hop nghla la : - Lap bang chan If cua mach ;

- T6i thieu cac ham ra ;

- Xay dung SCI do mach thuc hien.

De cho van de dUr;1C ro rang, xet mot s6 vi du cu the sau.

1. Much. cituyen mil nhi pluin sang mii Gray

Bang chan If cua mach duoc cho trong hinh 5-1G,a, sCI do kh6i cua mach nhu hlnh 5-1 G,b. Bieu di~n cac ham ra :

G3 (B3, Bz, Bl, Bo); Gz (B3, Bz, BI, Bo); Gj (B3, Bz, Bj, Bo); Go (B3, Bz, Bj, Bo)'

cua mach tren bang Karnaugh hlnh 5-16,c.

T6i thieu hoa nhan duoc ket qua:

G3 = B3

Gz = B3Bz + B3Bz = Bz EB B3 GI = BIBz + BjBZ = B, EB Bz

Go = BIBo + BIBo = B, EB B;

Can cu VaG cac ham nay lap duoc sCI do mach thuc hien nhu hlnh 5-16,d (SCI do chi dung mach NAND).

2. Mach. chuyen mil Gray sang md nhi pluln

Bang chan If cua mach nhu da cho trong hlnh 5-16,a. Tv bang chtrc nang lap duoc sCI do kh6i nhu hlnh 5-17.

Mii nhi ohan Mii Gray
113 1J2 111 110 G3 (}2 G1 Go
-
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 0 1 Q 1
0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
-- t--- ---
1 0 0 1 1 1, 0 1 I
i
- --- I-- --I
1 0 1 0 1 1 1 ~
-- --- --1
1 0 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
'--- a)
G3
B2 Mr;Jch chuyeh G2
ma nhi phon
B, thonh moGr(1y G,
80 Go
b) 8,80
Z 00 01 11 10
00
01
11 1 1 1 1
10 1 1 1 1
L - c)

8,Bo
B2 00 01 11 10
00

01 (1 1 1 1

11
10 ( 1 I 1 I 1
1
Hinh 5-16.

85

· 8,BO
00 01 Iff 10
00 (1 1 )

01 1", f
11 1 1

10 (1 '1
I I 8,BO
8Z 00 01 11 10
00 rt' rt'
01 I 1
11 I I
10 0 1 C)

d)

Hlnh 5·18. MI;lCh chuy6n rna nhi phan=> Gray.

a. Bang chUc nMg ; b. Sci dO kh6i ; c. Bang Karnaugh cac ham d1lu ra ; d. Sci dB mach thuc hien.

G3 83
G2 CI/lJyen mo Gray 82
G, sang mo nh! phin B,
Go Bo Hlnh 5-17. So dO kh6i cua mach chuy~n rna Gray ~ nhi phan.

Lap bang Karnaugh cac ham ra :

B3(G3, G2, GI, G,); B2(G3, Oz, GI, G.); BI(G3, Gz, GI, G); B()(G3, Gz, GI, GO>

va t6i thieu hoa ta duoc ket qua:

B3 = G3

B2 = G2 EEl G3

BI = GI EEl G2 EEl G)

Bo = Go EEl GI EEl G2 EElG3

Tu M cac ham ra nay d~ dang Il)p dude mach thuc hien dung cac phan tit t6 hop cho

trudc.

3. Ml,lclt chuyen nul du' 3 (XSJ) = du' 3 Gray

Bang chan Iy cira mach cho trong hinh 5-18,a. Tu bang chan If xac dinh duoc so d6 kh6i cua mach chuysn mil du 3 (XS3) sang ma du 3 - Gray (hlnh 5-'-18,b) va mach chuydn rna du 3 - Gray sang ma du 3 (hinh 5-18,c). Lap bang Karnaugh cho cac ham ra va t6i thieu hoa cac ham nay nhan diroc ket qua.

a) Mach chuye n ma du 3 ~ du 3 - Gray

G') = E'3

G'2 = B'2 EEl B'3

G'I = B'I EEl B'2 GOo = B'o EEl BOl

Tu h~ cac ham ra nay chung ta dti dang lap duoc so d6 mach thuc hien dung cac c6ng cho truce.

blMach chuy~n mil du 3 - Gray ~ du 3

If3 = G03

B'2 = G02 EEl G03

BOI = GOl EEl G02 EEl G'3

B'o = GOo EEl G'j EEl G02 EEl G03

Tu cac ham ra nay h~p so d6, mach thuc hien dung cac cdng logic cho truce, Tom lai:

Vi~c chuyan mil nhi phan, du 3 =Gray, du 3 - Gray duoc m6 ta nhu so d6 a hlnh 5-19,ava 5-19,b.

87

.01/3 (X53)

.-------------------r----~--------.--------,

Miidi.13 I Madi.13-Gray

r--a""O·--3 --r--/J·:-2--,--/~r~T':,I(,' 'I ' ~-i-(-: .':

r--:--t---: ; -+; -~ :- ~ ~- ~: E:-

t-------1'-----+---+----- -----c------ ----- .---j

o 1 0 1 0 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 1 0 1

o

o

o 1 1 1 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 1 1 0

r----j------4-----+----f---.----+----------.-+----j

1 ° 0 1 1 1 0

t--_1_--1 __ 0_-+ __ 1 __ ~._--O_--- 1 __ + __ 1 1 I 1 __

r-_1_-+ O_-+ __ 1_.-t-----1. ---1-- r-- __ 1 1 ± 0

1 1 0 0 1 0 1.' 0

r--:-_4---:---t--~---+--~---4I--:--+I---:"~~ ~;---~-::-"J

r- __ 1 _ _4---1_--+--1--+-_1_- r-- 1 I ° .~O_' -l--~.~

r-_O_+-_O_-t- __ O_+--_O 0 I ° J__O __ [ ~~_1

~ __ : L __ ~: _ _L ~ __ ~,~~ : _t-_ :~~-~ :[-_: j

a)

o

Chuyin ma d« J

-- mo du' 3- Groy

Chuy€n ma dl/ 3 - Gray -ma du'3

Du'3- Gray

Du'3

b)

C)

Hlnh &-111. M<;lch chuy~n rna du 3 = du 3 - Gray.

a. Sang chUc nang; b. S~ dB kh6i mach chuy~n ma du 3 = du 3 - Cray ; c. S~ dO kh6i mach chuy~n rna du 3 - Gray = du 3.

G,G*

B,B*

Hlnh 5-19,a

b)

Hlnh 5·1Q. Chuyiin d6i nhi phan, rna du 3 = Gray, du 3 . Gray.

G,GlI

8,8*

4. Mach. c/tuytn mil NBLl) :;. ma tlt(lp phan (NBCD to decimal Decoder)

Mil NBCD chi dung 10 to hop mil trong 16 to hop rna nhi pharr 4 bit, 6 to hop ma con Iai trng voi cac gia tri thap phan 10, 11, t2, 13, 14, 15 se kh6ng xuat hien a dau vao vi vay a dau ra ta phai dien gia tri kh6ng xac dinh (dau X).

Bang chuc nang cua mach cho trong hlnh 5-20,a, l?p bang Karnaugh cho cac ham ra Yo, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Ys, Y6, Y7, Y8, Y9 va t6i thieu hoa cac ham nay nhan duoc ke't qua nhu sau:

- - - -
Yo = 83 fl2 8, 80 Y5 = 82 8, flo
Y, = 83 B2 8, 80 Y6 = B2 B, flo
Y2 = 82 B, «. Y7 = 82 8, flo
Y3 = B2 8, Bo Ys = 83 Ho
._- ---
Y4 = B2 81 flo Yg = fJ3 Bo Ttl M cac ham dau ra lap sa do mach thuc hien dung cac phan ttl to hop cho truce.

5. Mach. chuyen ma (giui mil) NBCD sang mii 7 vacli

TEm va slj b6 tri cac vach sang cua den chl th] 7 vach da duoc cho a hinh 5-13,b. Bang chuc nang cua mach duoc bieu dien trong hinh 5-13,a.

Ttl bang chuc nang lap duoc sa do kh6i cua mach nhu hlnh 5-21. Lap bang Karnaugh cho 7 ham ra va t6i thieu hoa cac cac ham nay, nhan duoc ket qua :

a=C+A+ABC+ABD b=B+CD+CD

c=B+C+D

d9

d=A+cli+~Eb+X~E+BED e=Bi5+ CD f=A+BE+cli+Bli g=A+BE+CD+BC

Tit M cac ham ra nay l~p dt1Qc sa do thuc hien dung cac phan tu t6 hop cho truce.

Gid tri Nhi phon Thap phOn
thifp phOn B3 82 81 80 Yo YI Y2 Y3 Y4 Ys Y6 Y7 Ye Y9
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
--~--- _ -- ._---_ ------ .. _---
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
--
2 '0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
---_._- t-.---------. - -_ --.---~-.
3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
--- - -
4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
._--,-.
5 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
--_--
6 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
7 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
.------- .-.-~---.----------
8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
.... - '--------_._------
9 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
-- -------------_._-_._-_._-------
10 1 0 1 0 X X X X X X X X X X
- -_ ... _----_ .. - - ~--".-,---- .. -- .. -- ... -- .. - .. ---'- .. --.----------- .-
11 1 0 1 1 X X X X X X X X X X
I--- ._---_----_-_._-- ---
12 1 1 0 0 X X X X X X X X X X
-- r--
13 1 1 0 1 X X X X X X X X X X
---------- 1------------
14 1 1 1 0 X X X X X X X X X X
~- .. -------.-----.-.----
15 1 1 1 1 X X X X X X X X X X Hlnh !I-2O. Bang chllc nAng cua mach chuyE!n rna NfJC[) .. Ma th~p phan,

A a
b
VaG B Giaimo BCD c Ro
(BCD) - Mo 7 voch d (7 vach)
C e
f
D 9 Hlnh5-21 : So dO kh6i cua mach giai rna NfJC[) ~ 7 V ach,

':)0

5_9. MOT so VI M~CH T6 HOP

Cac vi mach to hop gam tu nhirng vi mach co nho SSI den cac vi mach co vira MSI, co Ion LSI. Chung g6m nhung mach don gian nhu cac cdng AND, OR, NOR, NAND, ... den cac mach phuc tap nhu MUX, DEMUX, ENCODER, DECODER ... Cung thuc hien mQt chuc nang logic, lai co tht11a nhirng mach khac nhau tuy thuoc vao mach ra (keo len thu dQng hay tich cue, 3 trang thai hay M Collector) hay cac thong so kg thuat khac.

Phan nay gici thieu met so vi mach t6 hop loai TTL nham giup dQc gia buoc dau lam quen voi each tra cuu vi mach.

IC md. hoa .'

74147/LS147 74148/LS148 74LS348 74184

74185

IC gidi md. .'

7441 7442/LS42 7443

7444

7445

7446

7447

7448

7449

74141 74145/LS145 74LS138 74LS139 74159 74155/LS155

: rna hoa uu tien BCD ;

: ma hoa uu tien mac thai duoc ;

: rna hoa uu tien mac thai duoc, dau ra 3 trang thai ; : chuyan d6i -ma BCD ~ nhi phan, nhi phan ~ BCD ; : d6i BCD ~ nhi phan, nhi phan ~. BCD.

: giai rna BCD ~ tMp phan, Dau ra chiu di~n ap cao (60 V); : BCD ~ thap phan ;

: du 3 ~ thap phan ;

: giai rna Du 3 - Gray sang thap phan ; : BCD ~ thap phan, dong Ion (80 mA) ;

J: giai rna BCD ~ 7 vach ;

: dau ra muc tlch cue thap ;

1: gial ma BCD ~ 7 vach ;

: dau ra miic tlch CI,iC cao ;

: BCD ~ thap phan, dl1u ra chiu di~n ap cao (60 V) ; : BCD ~ iMp phan, dong Ion 80 (m.A) ;

: giai rna giai 3 sang 8 ;

: giai ma 4 sang 16;

: giong 74154 nhung co dau ra M (Open Collector). : giai rna 2 sang 4 .

Vi du: Giai rna BCD sang 7 vach :

Loai nay gam co cac IC ky hieu MD54/DM7446a, 47a, 48, L847, L848, L849 Cac IC 46 A, 47A va L847 dung miic tich cue thap con L848, 48, L849 sa dung miic tlch cue cao. Bang thong so cua cac IC nay cho C1 hlnh 5-22.

So da chan cua Ie dU<;1C cho C1 hinh 5-23 va bang chan ly hinh 5-24.

91

Daura 1
Loai - M"o Ir;;;- - --T,' k"'",- -- -D~;g--r 0,'" ap C'"9 ,,'I ~
cue dau ra ra I chiu di,lng tieu tan
1-- -------t--- --------------
DM5446A low open-collector 40 mA 30 V 320 mW
_____j_---- -~
DM5447A low open-collector 40 mA 15 V I 320 mW
~5448 high 2 k~l pull-up .4 ~--s:5-~ 265 mW
DM54LS47 .]. low XPen-cCllector 12 rnA I 15 V I 35 rnW
1--------- ---- ------- -------- ---+------r--------
DM54LS48 high i 2 kU pull-up 2 rnA 5.5 V 125 rnW
1--- r------------
DM54LS49 high open-collector 4 rnA 5,5 V 40 rnW
DM744GA low open-collector 40 rnA 30 V 320 rnW
----
DM7447A low open-collector 40 rnA 1 15 V 320 rnW
-265mw~
DM7448 high 2 k~l pull-up 6,4 rnA ~ 5,5 V
DM74LS47 open-colle;~'---24 rnA-' - 15 V
low 35 rnW I
----1---
DM74LS48 high 2 kU pull-up 6 mA 5,5 V I 125 mW I
DM74LS49 high open-collector 8 mA __ ~ __ 5,5_~ ___ _j__ 40 rn~_j
- Hlnh 5-22. Bang thong s6 cua cac Ie giai rna NBCl) => 7 vach

{)Ou ro

Vce f

b c

d e

g

a

1/6 15 II, 13 12 11 10 9

r-r-: >-

I 2 3 14 5 6 7 18 B C Lamp RBI

~ Test BI/RBO

D A GND

'--:---.r----" Oov vao

5446A / 7446A (J},(N), (W); 5447A / 7447A (J), (N), (W) j 54L5 4 7/ 74L547 (J), (N), (W)

fk)

Hlnh 5-23 B, b.

92

Dou ro

,------"-------.

Ucc f

b

e

d

c

9

a

1'6 IS 14 13 12 " 10 9

r-e- -

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 18 B C Lamp RBI

'-----.r---J Test BI/RBO Dali voo

D A GND

~-------"..---'

lJou voo

5448/7448 (J) ,(N) I (W) i 54L548/ 74L548 (J},(N), (W)

eat; ro

Vee J

g

a

b

c

d

j14 13 12 /I 10 9 8

- r--

I Z 3 4 5 6 \7 B C

~ Do/; VaG

81

e GND ~

fJfiiJ ra

54LS49/ 74 LS 49 (J), (N), (W)

Hlnh 5-23.C.Scl dO chan cua Ie giai ma 7 vach.

--.-.~ - - ----~.
Th~p phan hay D~u vao D~u ra
chllc nang -----
[) ( 11 A III a b c d e f g
0 L L L L H H H H H H H L
1 L L L L H L H H L L L L
2 L L H L H H H L H H L H
I-----'--
3 L L H H H H H H H L L H
-- _- -- ---
4 L H L L H! L H H L L H L
-- - --- c------. ------t------- ------ r-----
5 ~-~: l~J: H I H L H titi-- H H I
~ 6 H L L H H H ~-H-t-H--!
'--- -- -- ---~
i 7 L H' H H H H H H L L L L
r---
8 H L L L H H H H H H H H
9 H L L H H H H H L L H H
10 H L H L H L L L H H L H
- -
11 H L H H H L L H H L L H
12 H H L L H L H L L L H H
13 H H L H H H L L H L H H
H ,H ;:=:t:=L +-i- --
14 H L L H H H H
=~=F-~ ---- ------ "------1
15 H H H H L_j_L L L L L
1------- -~ L I
-- f-----i------r----. ,
____ ~ ______ L_ ~_L!__l X L L I L L \ L L ILL !
-- ____ . ____ ....L. ____ _______ ....L __ .. _. ____ .J. __ "_~ ___ _; Hlnh 5-24. Bang chan Iy cua bo giai ma 7 vach (dliu ra tfch cue d rrnrc cao).

93

5.1. Hay viet dang dai s6 don gian nhat cho cac ham s6 sau va xa dung mach thuc hien ham s6 do chi dung cac cdng NAND:

Ya(A, B, C) = 2: (0, 2, 3, 4, 6) Yb(A, B, C) = nro, 1, 4, 5, 6)

(Voi A, B, CIa cac bien - cac dau vao cua mach, C la bit tre nhat). 5.2. Don gian mach logic tren hlnh 5-25.

Ve lai mach sau khi da don gian hoa,

A

.--.
~ J
f
J
~
l
I
J

]


J

I \...


~ ~ y

B

C D

E

F

Hlnh 5-25.

5.3. Xac dinh mach tei hop mo ta ham sau sao cho khi xay dung mach, s6 linh kien phai sa dung la it nhat (mach don gian nhat) :

Y=ABCD+ABCD+ABCD+ABCD+ABCD + ABC D + ABC D + ABC D,

Ve mach to hop do.

5.4. 'I'huc hien ham sau bang nhirng loai mach khac nhau :

Y (A, B, C, D) = 2: (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13)

voi qui uoc D la bit tre nhat,

5.5. Xay dung mach to hop 4 dau viu: va 2 dal ra chi dung mach NAND voi 2 ham ra Y1, Yz :

94

YI = L (3, 4, 5, 7, 13, 15) Yz = L (3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15)

Hlnh 5·28. Cho bai tap 5.5.

5.6. Xdy dung mach t6 hop 4 dau vao va 3 dau ra YI, Yz, Y3 :

YI (1\, B, e, D) = L (10, 12, 14, 15) vCii n = 7, 8.

Yz (A, B, 6, D} == ? (0, 7, 12) voi n = 2, 14, 15.

Y3 (A, B, C, D) = L (2, 8, i4) vai n :sO, 10, 12.

Hlnh 5·27. Cho bai t~p 5.6.

D III bit tre nhat va n la t~p cac dlnh khong xac dinh.

5.7. Thiel ke mach t6 hop bien d6i rna NBeD sang ma du 3 (XS3) va nguoc lai (qui t10c D va Z la cac bit tre nhat).

Ma BCD

Wl

x MO

~ du'3

{w

Ma x du'3 ~

Al

B Ma

~ BCD

Hlnh 5·28. Cho bal t~p 5.7.

5.8. Thiet ke mach dieu khien mot h(\ thong den d~t theo kieu ma tran 3 x 5. Vai cac I~nh dieu khidn khac nhau, mach s~ hien thi cac chir in hoa : e, E, F, P, T tren hlnh 5-29 la hi~n thi chit E.

Hlnh 5·211. Cho bili t~p 5.8.

95

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