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·PETER BROUGHTON.& PAUL NDUMBARO·
Cable & Catenary structures
·PETER BROUGHTON & PAUL NDUMBARO·
This book has been specifically written to provide ound practical guidance and an understanding of the behaviour of cable and catenary tructural systems. It deals with the complicated subject of exact formulation in the theoretical treatment of these systems when ubjected to large cbanges in geometry, in a clear and concise manner.
The analysis of Cable & Catenary structures includes
• theoretical procedures for nonlinear analysis of cable and catenary structural systems, which may be subjected to large or gross deformations
suitable twodimensional and threedimensional numerical examples of these different systems
• the necessary flow charts which bridge the gap between theoretical procedures and the required computer software
• a computer disk containing a program suitable for the analysis of structures of general shape, loading systems and patterns of displacement.
This book wi 11 be of benefitto fiqalyear undergraduates, postgraduate engineers and all young practising engineers  in fact. to anyone seeking a working knowledge of the theoretical aspects of cable and catenary structures.
ISBN 0727720082
.......
.,. I Thomas Telford
IIII III
9 780727 720085 >
The analysis of cable and catenary structures
Peter Broughton Paul Ndumbaro
.
.... Thomas Telford
Published by Thomas Telford Services Ltd, Thomas Telford House, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD
First published 1994
Distributors for Thomas Telford books are
USA: American Society of CIvil Engineers, Publications Sales Department, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 100172398
Japan: Maruzen Co Ltd, Book Department, 310 Nihonbashi 2chome. Chuoku, Tokyo 103
Australia: DA Books and Journals, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, VIctoria
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Classification Availability: Unrestricted
Content: Original research and analysis Status: Unrefereed
User, Students of civil engineering and practising engineers and designers
ISBN: 0 7277 2008 2
© Peter Broughton and Paul Ndumbaro, 1994, except where indicated otherwise
All rights, including translation, reserved. Except for fair copying, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted ill any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publications Manager, Publications Division, Thomas Telford Services Ltd, Thomas Telford House, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD.
The book is published on the understanding that the author is solely responsible for the statements made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such statements and or opinions are or reflect the views or
op!11lons of the publishers,  ,
The Information contained in this book is intended for use as a general statement and guide only. The publishers cannot accept any liability for any loss or damage which may be suffered by any person as a result of the use in any way of the information contained herein,
Typeset in Great Britain by Alden Multimedia, Northampton, Printed in Great Britain by Cromwell Press, Melksharn,
Authors
Peter Broughton is currently Project Manager for Phillips Petroleum Company Norway on the Ekofisk II Development Project and is responsible for the design, fabrication, and installation of the new process platform substructure. He has previously held several engineering management positions within the company, including that of Project Engineer for the Ekofisk Protective Barrier Project Through Phillips Petroleum Company he is also Visiting Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at Imperial College, University of London, and lectures on various specialist courses, including a course related to the analysis of cable and catenary structures.
Paul Ndumbaro is currently a research student within the Department of Civil Engineering at Imperial College, University of London. He is studying the nonlinear behaviour of cable structures for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. He is also a full time lecturer in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of DaresSalaam in Tanzania.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the help of Dr D. Lloyd Smith for providing encouragement and for reviewing the manuscript, and to Dr P. Davidson for sponsoring the course as part of the MSc course in steel design. The authors would also like to thank Ms Flo Donovan and Ms Susanne Hill for typing the manuscript at different stages.
Contents
Notation
Vll
1. Introduction 1
1,1. General introduction 1
1.2. Sources of nonlinearity 2
1.3. Types of structure to which the procedures apply 5
2. Analysis of general twodimensional cable structures 17
2.1. Global system of coordinates and direction cosines 17
2.2. Loads and displacements in the global and intermediate
coordinate systems 19
2.3. Transformation from intermediate forces and displacements
to global forces and displacements 22
2.4. Basic displacements and basic forces 23
2.5. Transformation from partial basic displacements to
partial intermediate displacements 24
2.6. Transformation from basic forces to intermediate forces 25
2.7. Transformation from partial basic forces to partial
intermediate forces and partial intermediate displacements 25
2.8. Transformation from basicforces to global forces 26
2.9. Transformation from partial global displacements to
partial global forces 27
2.10. The incremental stiffness matrix for a twodimensional
cable element 28
3. The contribution of individual element stiffnesses to the overall structural stiffness matrix
29
v
4. The method of solution of the nonlinear stiffness equations
33
5.
Computer program flow charts
37
6. Analysis of general threedimensional cable structures
43
6.1. Global system of coordinates and direction cosines 43
6.2. Loads and displacements in the global and intermediate
coordinate systems 45
6.3. Transformation from intermediate forces and displacements
to global forces and displacements 48
6.4. Basic displacements and basic forces 50
6.5. Transformation from partial basic displacements to partial
intermediate displacements 50
6.6. Transformation from basic forces to intermediate forces 51
6.7. Transformation from partial basic forces to partial
intermediate forces and partial intermediate displacements 52
6.8. Transformation from basic forces to global forces S3
6.9. Transformation from partial global displacements to partial
global forces 54
6.10. The incremental stiffness matrix for threedimensional
cable element 56
References 57
Appendices 59
1. Computer program for threedimensional cable structures
allowing for large displacements S9
2. Numerical example of twodimensional structure
(vertical 2D truss) 71
3.
Numerical example of threedimensional structure (3D hypar roof)
Contents of diskette and user gurde
79 87
4.
vi
Notation
[A]
A [AA]
[d]
e
[E] E FXa FYa FZa
[k] [K] [Ko] [K]s [L] L
Lo
fp, Inp, np lq, mq, nq l.. 111n I1r
[p] p
Po
transformation matrix between intermediate and basic displacements
crosssectional area
transformation matrix between incremental changes in element basic displacements with incremental changes in element intermediate displacements
matrix connecting the incremental changes in intermediate forces with the incremental changes in intermediate displacements
element extension along deformed member axis (basic displacement)
unit vector of element basic displacements Young's Modulus
force at end of A of element AB in direction of global Xaxis force at end of A of element AB in direction of global Yaxis force at end of A of element AB in direction of global Zaxis nonlinear portion of [K]
structural stiffness matrix
initial stiffness matrix
overall structural stiffness matrix
load vector (global system of coordinates) length of element _ .
original length of elem.ent
direction cosines with respect to the Paxis direction cosines with respect to the Qaxis direction cosines with respect to the Raxis unit vector representing element basic forces element basic force
original element basic force (pretension of element)
vii
[R] force vector (element intermediate system of coordiantes)
R force acting along the element Paxis
S force acting along the element Qaxis
[T] transformation matrix between global and intermediate
displacements
T force acting along the element Raxis
u displacement acting along the element Paxis
[UJ displacement vector (element intermediate system of
coordinates)
v displacement acting along the element Qaxis
w displacement acting along the element Raxis
Xa displacement at end A of element AB in direction of global Xaxis
[x] displacement vector (global system of coordinates)
Ya displacement at end A of element AB in direction of global Yaxis
z.; displacement at end A of element AB in direction of global Zaxis
viii
1
Introduction
1.1. General introduction
Cable and catenary structures represent an interesting and unusual structural form to the structural engineer. In general, such structural systems form the main load bearing structural elements for cable suspended roofing systems, or suspension bridges, or alternatively they form the restraining system to other structural frameworks or components. An example of the latter case is the guyed systems used to SUppOt1 and re train guyed masts and towers.
The individual cable section (or component) or the chain link element provides the simplest form of structural element, in that it has only a component of stiffness in the axial or longitudinal direction. The interesting aspect of such systems relates to their unusual behaviour, which is exhibited by a nonlinear behaviour due to change in shape or geometry whilst under external loading. Generally. the behavioural pattern, for cable or catenary structures, demonstrates a nonlinear effect with an increase in stiffness under increasing load. Tn most cases, for these structural forms, a major portion of the structural stiffness is provided through the initial pretension. The application of external loading generally increases the level of tension in the main load bearing elements within such a system, "with other elements adopting a reduced level of tension from the original pretension level. Very significant nonlinear behaviour of the structure occurs when the effect of external loading is to reduce the level of tension within individual elements to zero. In such cases the contribution of such elements to the overall stiffness of the structure is eliminated.
Other structural forms, for which the procedures described herein have application, include inflatable membrane structures.
THE AI\/ALYSr OF CABLE AND CATEl\ARY . TRIJCr(JRES
The theoretical analysis of cable and catenary structural systems has previously been treated in many different way.
As an example, the theoretical treatment of a twodimensional vertical cable truss by Poskitt' represented a very particular solution, in which only changes in vertical displacements were considered. Similarly, the approach by Krishna and Agarwal/ in the analysis of a suspended roof model (threedimensional hypar roof structure) represented a particular solution, in which only changes in vertical dL placements were con, ider d. An exact solution of the same numerical problem presented by Kri .hna and Agarwal, as di cussed by Dickie and Broughton.f illustrated the significant difference in the behaviour of the stru ture when a more complete theoretical approach had been included. The exact solution, for the models given in references (1) and (2) arc included as worked examples within Appendices 2 and 3.
Other more encompassing texts, such as those by Vtlnay," Irvine," Krishna," Szabo and Kollar," Buchholdt," and 0((09 presented various theoretical procedures for the analysis of cable and catenary systems.
everal of the above authors continued LO provid less than general and less exact theoretical formulations. Other authors presented theoreti al procedures which over complicated the problem and very oft n were difficult for student engineers to under. tand and apply. The text by Otto? included a wide variety and description of many forms of cable/tensile structures.
The present text provide' an exact theoretical procedure for the analysis of cable and catenary structures. This allows for gross nonlinearity due to the effects of changes in geometry, or due to elements becoming slack. The theoretical approach follows a procedure for the nonlinear change of geometry effects of planar (twodimensional) frame structures first developed by Jennings,lO which in turn was based upon the matrix stiffness method of analysis a de .cribed by Livesleyl1 and many others. The theoretical approach i developed for twodimensional and threedimensional cable and catenary structures. This is followed by appropriate flow charts and the necessary computer software. Useful numerical examplesof differing problem' are presented.
1.2. Sources of nonlinearity
In the majority of cases, 1110 t engineering structural forms areconsidered to b have in a linear fashion. The analysis of the majority of structures i
2
INTRODUCTION
based upon a linear relationship between applied external forces and displacements and similarly upon a linear relationship between internal member forces (or stresses) and member displacements (or strains).
However, there are important exceptions where the above linear relationships are inadequate to define the structural behaviour properly. In these cases it is necessary to provide different and more representative (accurate) formulations in order to represent more adequately the structural behaviour.
For those exceptions, where the structure behaves in a nonlinear fashion, the SOUrces of nonlinearity are primarily due to:
(a) nonlinear material behaviour, or
(b) nonlinear geometric behaviour, or
(c) a combination of both of the above effects.
This text treats the source of nonlinearity in the structural behaviour, which is attributable to changes in geometry.
For the nonlinear behaviour of structures due to changes in geometry (and large displacements) there are essentially two forms of nonlinear behaviour:
(a) structures which demonstrate a softening effect with increasing load (b) structures which demonstrate a stiffening effect with increasing load.
These two different forms of structural behaviour are illustrated in Figs 1.1 and 1.2.
For the former type of structure, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1, the effect of increasing the externally applied loacl(s) is generally to produce an overall softening effect, in which the structure gets progressively less stiff. The actual shape of the externally applied load/s) versus displace
p
(0 Arch type of structure
(ii) Load displacement behaoiour
Fig. 1.1. Structure exh ibiting nonlinear softening ejfect
3
TIlE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
ment path can vary (one example is illustrated in Fig. 1.1), and is dependent upon (he structural geometry, the form of external loading, and the boundary conditions. This form of structural behaviour is associated with wording such as 'buckling' and 'snap through buckling'. Generally this structural form, and form of structural behaviour is more complex than that associated with the second form of struc
ture (b) which demonstrates an overall stiffening effect. .
For the latter type of structure, as illust.rated in Fig. 1.2, the effect of increasing (he externally applied loadts) is generally to produce an overall stiffening effect. For this form of structure, it is equally essential to provide a suitable behavioural formulation in order to develop an unBerstanding of the stru.cture· and to pro~ide a proper representation of 1i;edistrfuutlori ol)r.le!.nal]fr<ies (si[esses) and displacel:nents (st.rains) ~ithjn individual elements. This text considers the different types of stnl~ f~ fOl:which ~his type of behaviour is representative, and develops a theoretical procedure to deal with the latter form of structural behaviour.
The text introduces the effects of geometric nonlinearity which are due to large or gross displacements of individual elements. For this latter type of structural form, other very significant sources of nonlinearity are included, and this is clue to individual elements becoming slack (a chain or cable element being unable to accommodate compressive loading).
p
(0 Suspended cable type of structure
(ii) Load displacement bebauiour
Fig. 1.2. Structure exhibiting nonlinear stiffening effect
4
INTRODUCTION
All of the above effects are considered to be important in developing an understanding of the behaviour of structures, as illustrated with the simple model in Fig. 1.2, in order to achieve an accurate understanding of the distribution of internal forces and displacements within the structure.
1.3. Types of structure to which the procedures apply
The types of structure, for which the text and procedures contained herein apply, cover a wide range of land based and offshore structures. The list below is representative of the types of structure
• suspension bridges
• suspended cable net roof structures
• catenary mooring systems for offshore semisubmersible drill rigs
• cable stayed masts
• cable stayed offshore deepwater jacket structures
• certain inflatable structures
• catenary moorings for offshore loading buoys
Several of the above types of structure are illustrated below.
Suspension bridge
~,,~
~~
I, i'
Fig. 1.3. Suspension bridge
In this example of the susp nsion bridge, the curved upper chord members and the vertical hangers are represented as cable elements, for which the procedures in this text apply. The vertical columns and the bottom chord members con ist of elements having both axial and bending stiffness contributions. A large proportion of the inherent structural stiffness is provided through initial pretension.
5
TIlE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATE. 'ARY STRUCTURES
Suspended cable net roof structure
Fig. 1.4. Suspended cable net roorouer rectangular plan
In this example, the curved roof elements spanning between supports are represented by cable elements, for which the procedures in this text apply. The boundaries are considered as being either totally rigid or consisting of elements having axial, shear, and bending stiffnesses about both primary axes.
These types of roofing . ystem are light weight and relatively stiff for the amount of material provided. A large proportion of the inherent stiffness is provided through initial pretension.
A numerical example for a threedimensional hypar structure, as defined in reference (2), is included in Appendix 3. Several examples of various forms of cable net roofing structures are referred to, and are included herein.
Figures 1.5 and 1.6 refer to the Olympic Stadium in Munich. Fig. 1.5 shows an interior vi w.
6
INTRODUCTION
7
t r:
y
.~ ._
s:
s:: 2
..... < THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
Figure 1.6 shows the columns, cable SUPPOlts ancl anchorages of the Olympic Stadium, Munich.
Fig. 1.6. Detail of columns, cable supports and anchorages of the Olympic Stadium, Munich
(Courtesy of Architects Behnisch and Partners with Frei Otto and Engineers Leonardt and An lrea)
8
INTRODUCTION
Figure 1.7 shows a different form of cable net roofing system in the form of a tent structure for the Diplomatic Quarters in Riyadh.
Fig. 1.7. Heart Tent, Diplom.atic Quarters, Riyadh
(Courtesy of Architects Frei Otto and Ornrania and Engineers Bum Happold)
Figures 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10 refe'r to the Jeddah Sports Stadium in Saudi Arabia. Fig. 1.8 shows the layout of column supports and the cable net at an intermediate position during hoisting,
9
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
10
INTRODucnON
Figure 1.9 shows a closeup of the cables and connections. This shows a relatively simple clamp connection detail between cable segments.
Figure 1.10 shows a closeup of the simple clamp connection and of the fabric supports.
Fig. 1.9. [eddab Sports Stadium" Saudi Arabia. Closeup of cables and qt
connections
(Courtesy of Architects Frei Otto and Engineers Buro Happold)
Fig. 1.10. jeddab Sports Stadium, Saudi Arabia Closeup of the simple clamp connection detail and of the fabric supports
(Courtesy of Architects Frei Otto and Engineers Buro Happold)
11
THE ANAlYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
Cable stayed mast
Fig. 1.11. Cable stayed mast
In this example of the cable stayed mast, all the cable stay elements, which provide lateral' support to the vertical mast, consist of cable elements, for which the procedures in this text apply. The vertical mast structure usually consists of a framed lattice structure, each element of which has both axial and bending Stiffness.
The purpose of the cable stayed system is to provide a relatively stiff support to the mast structure and to reduce the effect of environmental loadings applied to the mast structure itself. Large reactions which would otherwise have to be accommodated at the base of the mast structure (if without stays) are considerably reduced by the actions of the cable stays. In this way the internal forces within the mast structure and hence the material required for construction are considerably reduced.
12
INTRODuCTION
Cable stayed offshore deepwater jacket structure
Fig. 1.12. Cable stayed offshore deepwater jacket structure
This example is vel)' similar to the previous example of the cable stayed mast (onshore). In this case, the vertical lattice tower structure is used to support heavy production equipment above sea level, and is provided with lateral restraint through the use of a cable stay system. The procedures described in this text apply to the behaviour of the cable stay elements. Due to the generally larger scale than for th onshore cable stayed mast, the geometry and weights involved are considerably larger. Invariably, the initial geometry of the cable stay elements is curved due to the considerable weight of the cable system. In this example further nonlinearity is introduced with the effect of the lower portions of the cable catenary (or chain) sy tem either lifting off or touching the seabed. Normally, the restraining catenary system is designed to be most effective in extreme storm conditions, in which the tower structure is subjected to significant sway motions. In very extreme cases, further nonlinearity is introduced into the system by providing clump weights on the lower portion of the cable Or catenary, which may in turn lift off or be restrained by the seabed.
The behaviour of such systems is generally more complex due to the different form of nonlinearity introduced into the system, with the objective in the design to progressively introduce further increases in stiffness as the applied loading and deformations increase.
13
THE ANALYSIS Of CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCfURES
Inflatable structures
Fig. 1.13. Inflatable barrage or temporary dam structure
The above example illustrates a crosssection of an inflatable structure which is used as a temporary dam. Such a system would be used for flood diversion. Figure 113 shows the deformed shape of the inflated structure under the action of lateral loading due to flood water.
The structural form of this type of structure is achieved through the inflation of the membrane structure. The membrane structure requires firm anchorage foundations, as the membrane itself provides little weight or mass to resist external loadings. For purpose of analysis the continuous membrane element is subdivided into suitable element lengths. The procedures described in this text apply to the behaviour of the membrane elements, and will allow for the gross changes in geometry as the membrane is taken from the partially inflated stage progressively to the fully inflated stage, and finally to the fully deformed stage due to the application of external loading, as shown in Fig. 1.13. The purpose of analysis would be to determine the internal forces within the membrane through all stages of loading, to determine whether membrane thickness and internal pressure are adequate, and to determine if the overall geometry under applied lateral loading provides a sufficient height for the purpose intended.
14
INTRODUCTION
Catenary mooring system for offshore loading buoy
;(' L_ .J
/ \
/ \
/ '"
_// '''''.
//70/))~~;: ~
Fig. 1.14. Cffsbore catenary mooring system
The ahove structural system (Fig. 1.14) is represented hy an arrangement of catenary cable or chains. It is used to restrain floating structures such as offshore loading buoys or permanently moored tankers. Vertical support to the buoy and rigid arm system to the tanker is provided through the buoyancy within the buoy. Under severe loading, due to storm action on the buoy and the tanker, the horizontal displacements of the system can be considerable. Horizontal resistance [0 motions is provided through the stiffness of the catenary chain system, which is usually pretensioned in order to provide an initial stiffness to the system. The procedures described in this text apply to the behaviour of the cable or chain catenary system, and will allow for significant changes in geometry which are experienced by the chains during severe storm loadings.
15
2
Analysis of general twodimensional cable structures
The previous chapter has given a general background into the behaviour of cable structures, and has described the type of structures to which the particular methods of analysis have application. The analytical procedures described are simple but provide an essentially exact formulation for cable structures subjected to large deformation.
This chapter covers the geometrical nonlinear stiffness formulation for a single planar (twodimensional) element, consisting of a cable element, rod, or chain link when subjected to large deformation,
The basis of the theoretical nonlinear procedure is based upon the work by Jennings10 Whilst the procedure, described herein, for a planar cable element is simpler than that provided by Jennings (who included bending effects), the purpose of including the explanation, at this stage, is to be able to extend the procedure to threedimensional structures at a later stage.
2.1. Global system of coordinates and direction cosines
Figure 2.1 provides the position of a typical element within the global system of coordinates (XY). The typical element (AB) has coordinates at either end given by XA, YA at end A, and XB• YB at end B.
The original length of the element, with respect to the global system of coordinates is given by:
(2.1)
17
THE ANAlYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
y
B
Xs X
Fig. 2.1. Global system oj coordinates
The typical element has the usual properties
A = crosssectional area E = Young's Modulus
For element (AB) it is convenient to define a set of local axes P and Q.
The Paxis coincides with the longitudinal axis of the element (in the undeformed state), while the Qaxis is orthogonal to the Paxis. The axes P and Q are referred to as the intermediate coordinate system, and are shown in Fig. 2.2.
From the local element intermediate coordinate system it is possible to define a set of direction cosines for the local axes, (P,. Q), with respect to the global coordinate system, (X, Y). Thus:
4, = (XB  x.)! Lo;
(2.2)
The above terms define the direction cosines of the element longitudinal Paxis with respect to the global axes (X, Y).
The direction cosines of the element orthogonal Qaxis are given by:
Thus:
(2.3)
(2.4)
18
ANALYSIS OF GENERAL TWODIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTURES
y
\
B
Q
A
x
Fig. 2.2. Intermediate system of coordinates
2.2. Loads and displacements in the global and intermediate coordinate systems
The load vector as applicable to the ends of the element (AB), and referred to in the global system of coordinates is given by:
(2.5)
The above system of global forces is shown in Fig. 2.3.
The corresponding displacement vector as applicable to the ends of element (AB), and referred to in the globaJ system of coordinates is given by:
(2.6)
The above system of global displacements is shown in Fig. 2.4.
The overall objective in the stiffness formulation is to connect the external global load vector, [L], which will include all global loads applied to all elements of the structure, with the global joint displacement vector, [xl. The global displacement vector, [Xl, defines the global displacements of all elements and element end positions (or nodes) throughout the complete structure.
19
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
y
. 
x
Fig. 2.3. Globalforces at the ends a/element (AB)
y
A'
I y"
______ J
A xa
x
Fig. 2.4. Global displacements at the ends 0/ element (AB)
20
NALYSIS OF GENERAL TWODIMENSIONAl CABLE STRUCTIJRES
This connection of external or global loads to the global displacements of the structure is through the complete (overall) structural stiffness matrix [K].
[L] = [K] x [xl
(2.7)
The development of the stiffness matrix for such elements provides for the nonlinear effects due to large displacements.
The purpose of previously defining an intermediate coordinate system for each element (P and Qaxes) was to be able usefully to define a set of so called intermediate forces and intermediate displacements for a' typical element (AB). The load vector as applicable to the ends of the element (AB), and referred to in the element intermediate system of coordinates is given by:
[R] = [R, S]
(2.8)
where R equals the force acting along the element Paxis, and S is the force acting in the direction of the element Qaxis. The above system of element intermediate forces is shown in Fig. 2.5.
The displacement vector as applicable to the typical element CAB),
y ~
/ "\
~
s
'\ ~
/,
/
/A
R
e
/~
X (~tr;_"s
r lA·5o/, r: / ~ )
• f
«» e )
Fig. 2.5. Element intermediate forces
21
THE ANALYSTS OF CABLE AND CATEl ARY STRUCTURES
and referred to in the element intermediate system of coordinates is given by:
[u] = [U, v]
(2.9)
where u equals the displacement acting along the element Paxis, and v is the displacement in the direction of the element Qaxis. The above system of element intermediate displacements is shown in Fig. 2.6.
y
8'
A
x
Fig. 2.6. Element intermediate displacements
2.3. Transformation from Intermediate forces and displacements to global forces and displacements
The element intermediate displacements may be connected to the global displacements through the transformation matrix [T], in which [T] is composed of the element direction cosines, as defined previously in
. equations (2.2), (2.3) and (2.4):
(2.10)
22
ANALYSIS OF GENERAL T\VO~DIMENSTONAL CABLE STRUCrURES
The above equation satisfies displacement compatibility at the ends of the element and may be written in matrix form as:
[u] = [T] x [X]
(2.11)
The corresponding global force vector and intermediate force vector are similarly related in order to satisfy conditions of equilibrium at the ends of the element:
IL] = [T'] x [R)
(2.12)
where [1") is the transpose of matrix [T], and in the expanded form, equation (2.12) is written as:
(2.13)
It is important to note that both the global forces and displacements and the element intermediate forces and displacements relate to the original underformed position of the element. This means that there is no nonlinearity introduced in equations (2.10), (2.11), (2.12) or (2.13).
2.4. Basic displacements and basic forces
A further set of more basic element displacements and basic element forces may be defined, which in turn relate to the element deformed position CA'B').
The basic element displacement is given by the element extension as measured along the deformed member axis.
(2.14)
In matrix form, equation (2.14) may be written as:
[E] = [A] x [U]
(2.15)
where [E] vector of element basic displacements
[U] = vector of element intermediate displacements
The above systems of intermediate and basic element displacements are shown in Fig. 2.7.
23
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
y
A
x
Fig. 2.7. Element interm.ediate and basic displacements
The element basic force is given in the form of the element basic displacement and any element pretension, as follows:
P = Po + eEA) I t; x e
(2.16)
where
E Young's Modulus
A element crosssectional area
Po original element axial force (pretension)
La original element length
P new or updated element basic force
e element extension along deformed element longitudinal axis (basic displacement)
2.5. Transformation from partial basic displacements to partial intermediate displacements
Equations (2.14) and (2.15) provide the connection between the element basic displacements and element intermediate displacements in absolute terms. It is convenient to develop the partial derivatives of the element
24
ANALYSIS OF GENERAL TWODIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCrtJRES
basic displacements with respect to the partial derivatives of the element intermediate displacements. This is achieved by examining the partial derivatives of each term in equation (2.14) in turn, thus:
[be] = [La + u, _v ] X [b u]
La + e La + e bv
(2.17)
In matrix form equation (2.17) may be written as:
[JE] = [AA] X [3V]
(2.18)
2.6. Transformation from basic forces to intermediate forces
The transpose of the matrix [AA] is used to connect the intermediate element forces to the basic element forces, in order to satisfy the conditions of equilibrium at the ends of the element, thus,
[R] = [AA'] x [p]
(2.19)
or, in expanded form the equilibrium equation is given as:
[LO + 11]
l~l = Lo:e. X [Pi
Lo+ e
(2.20)
2.7. Transformation from partial basic forces to partial intermediate forces and partial intermediate displacements
Equat.ions (2.19) and (2.20) provide the connection between the element intermediate forces and the element basic forces in absolute terms. It is convenient to develop the partial derivatives of the element intermediate forces with respect to the partial derivatives of the element basic forces and tile partial derivatives of the element intermediate displacements. This is achieved by examining the partial derivatives of each term in equation (2.20) in turn, thus:
25
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTIJRES
(2,21)
In matrix form equation (2.21) may be written as:
[DR] = [AA'] x [£5P] + [d] x [DU]
(2,22)
The above expression can be expanded by substituting for [Jp]
[DP] = EAI Lo x [DE] and by substituting for [DE]
[DP] = EAI Lo x [AA] x [DU]
(2,23)
(2.24)
Thus, equation (2.22) becomes:
[OR] = {[AA'] x HAl t; x [AA] + [d]} x IoU] (2.25)
or in expanded form this is 'given by:
llLo + Uj
[DR] = .Lo + e x EA x [Lo + U ,
'6s u Lo L; + e
La + e
v ]
La + e
Pv2 Pv(Lo + U)
(Lo + e)3' ct; + e)3 X [~~]
+
Pv(La + u) P(Lo + ui
(Lo + e)3 ci; + e)3 (2,26)
2.8. Transformation .from basic forces to global forces
Equation (2.12), which connects the element global forces to the element intermediate forces, is used in conjunction with equation (2.19), which connects element intermediate forces to element basic forces, thus:
[L] = [T'] x [R] and [R] = [AA'] x [p]
26
27
ANALYSIS OF GENERAL 1WODIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTURES
In expanded form this is written as:
[;;:] = [~~ ~:q] x [~:: :] x [Pj
F.Yb m" mq La + e
Equations (2.11), (2.15) and (2.16) may be combined with equation (2.27) in matrix form to give:
(2.28)
[L] = [T/] x [AA'] x [po + (EAI Lo) x [A] x [T] x [X]]
(2.29)
In expanded form, this is written as:
(2.30)
2.9. Transformation from partial global displacements to partial global forces
Equation (2.7) represents the relationship between global forces and global displacements in absolute terms. It is convenient to develop the partial derivatives of global forces with respect to the partial derivatives of global displacements.
Because equations (2.10), (2.11), (2.12) and (2.13) connect the global forces to the intermediate forces and the intermediate displacements to the global displacements include only linear expressions, the corresponding incremental (or partial) changes in the various terms must equally apply, thus:
[bU] = [T] x [bX]
(2.31)
and
[bL]
[T'] x [bR]
(2.32)
27
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCITJRES
Equations (2.25) and (2.26) may be expanded by substituting for [OU] and [bR]' thus:
[OL] = [Tf] x {[AA'] x EAI i; x [AA] + [d]} x [T] x [OX] (2.33)
where the expression given by:
[T'] x {[AA'] x EAI t; x [AA] + [d]} x [T]
represents the incremental stiffness matrix [K].
2.10. The incremental stiffness matrix for a twodimensional cable element
The expression given in equation (2.33) which provides the incremental stiffness matrix, [K], for the element, in expanded form is written as:
[K]
[ [LO + U1
Lo + e EA
x xx
v t;
Lo + e
+
u; + e)3' Pv(Lo + u) (Lo+ e)3
Pv(Lo + u) ci; + e)3
P(Lo + ul (La + e)3
(2.34)
2H
3
The contribution of individual element stiffnesses to the overall structural stiffness matrix
The previous chapter has dealt with the nonlinear stiffness formulation for a single planar (twodimensional) cable element. The purpose of this chapter is to explain both the contribution and location within the overall structural stiffne s matrix of the individual element stiffnesses.
The procedure for incorporating individual element stiffnesses within the overall structural stiffness matrix has been explained previously by Livesley,!' amongst others. The purpose of providing a clear explanation herein is in order to explain fully the co.mpwer software, and also in order that the text is fully complete. The explanation is also equally applicable for threedimensional cable structures.
For any structural model, the members (or elements) and the nodes (or joints) are numbered separately and sequentially. Hence the degrees of freedom of each node within a complete structure, which are represented by the displacements at each node position, are also sequential.
The overall structural stiffness matrix, for a complete structure, combines the stiffness contributions from individual elements, which are in turn arranged within the overall structural stiffness matrix in an ordered and sequential fashion.
For a twodimensional element, such as a cable element, having two degrees of freedom at either end, the displacements at either end represent a subset of the overall structural global displacement vector, [xl For a. typical element, having ends A and B, the degrees of freedom at either end are represented by that portion of the global displacement vector given by (xa, y", Xb, Yb} The stiffness contribution of the element may be divided into two sets, representing the two ends of the element. In the sequential overall node numbering system for the complete structure, the node numbering, representing the ends of a typical element, is invariably nonsequential (unless the structure happens to be a combina
29
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
tion of single line elements). Thus, the stiffness contributions, representing either end of a typical element, are separated and spaced out wirhinthe overall structural stiffness matrix.
From the previous notation, the stiffness contributions of a typical element had been given in equation (2.33), in which:
[K] = [T/] x {[AA'] x ABILo x [AA] + [d]} x [T] (31)
represents the stiffness of both ends of the element combined in a single expression. In the above expression it is useful to define:
[k] = {[AA'] x EAI L; x [AA] + [d]}
0.2)
in which [k] represents the nonlinear portion of the element stiffness matrix. Thus, the stiffness contributions of a typical element (to the overall structural stiffness matrix) are given by:
. [K] = [T'] x [k] x [Tl
(3.3)
Previously the element transformation matrix, [T], had been given in terms of the element direction cosines (from equations (2.10) and (2.11»):
(3.4)
In order to separate the displacements and stiffness contributions at either end of a typical element, it is convenient to separate [T] into two separate groups, each representing either end of the element. Thus:
(3.5)
and
(3.5)

The stiffness contribution at the first. end of the element is thus given by:
[Kn] = [T t'] x [k] x [T 1]
(3.7)
and the stiffness contribution at the second end of the element is given by:
[Kzzl = [T z'] x [k] x [T 2]
(3.8)
30
INDrVlDUAL ELEMENT STI.FPNESSES
Additional stiffness terms are also calculated and represent the 50 called cross product terms, and represent the inf1uence of one end of the element on the other. The cross product stiffness terms are given by:
and
(3.9)
(3.10)
in which the cross product stiffness terms, [Kd and [K21], are symmetrical within the overall structural stiffness matrix, i.e.
(3.11)
The stiffness contributions from either end of the elements [KnJ and [K22] , and also the cross product stiffness terms, [Kd and [K21L are
[KJs
T I
y;........cf'
lb I[K121j
1 1 ...... 1 I
J 1 1
I 1 I
I I 1
I I I
1 I I
r+1r D ~
1
1_· l~!
IK221

31
(3.12)
THE A AL YSIS OF CABLF. AND CATENARY STRUCrURES
assembled in a sequential fashion within the overall structural stiffness matrix, [K]s, represented in graphical form in equation (3.12).
The spacing of the individual element stiffnes contributions, [Kn], [Kn], [K21], and [K22], within the overall structural stiffness matrix is dependent upon the sequential node number system, and in particular is dependent upon the node numbering adopted at either end of a typical element.
For a typical element, the distance, C, given in the overall structural stiffness matrix represented by equation (3.12), represents the number of degrees of freedom in the overall structure which precede those degrees of freedom associated with the node at end (A) (or the first end) of the particular element. Similarly, the distance, D, represents the number of degrees of freedom in the overall structure which precede those degrees of freedom associated with the node at end (B) (or the second end) of the particular element.
[KuL [K12], [K21], and KZ2] represents submatrices of the element stiffness matrix. For a typical element in a twodimensional structure, each of [Ku], [Kd, [K21], and [KZ2J represents 2 x 2 stiffness matrices.
The above explanation is equally applicable to threedimensional cable structures, in which submatrices [Kn], [Ku], [K21], and [K22J of the element stiffness matrix represent 3 x 3 stiffness matrices
A' explained previously, the distances or po itions within the overall structural stiffness matrix, given by the terms C and D, depend upon the overall element and node numbering system adopted for the structure.
It must be noted that the overall structural. tiffness matrix, [K]s, is symmetrical about the leading diagonal, even allowing for all the nonlinear terms included within the element stiffness submatrices, [K]. All terms along the leading diagonal of the overall structural stiffness matrix, [K]s, must be nonzero and positive. For a cable net, or catenary type of structure, the contributions from individual elements [Kn], [Kn], etc. within the overall structural stiffness matrix should be set to zero if the basic extension of the individual element given by the term, e, previously in equation (2.14) is negative. This is a basic source of nonlinearity for these forms of structure, and is due to the fact that individual elements cannot take compressive loading.
32
4
The method of solution of the nonlinear stiffness equations
The contribution of individual element stiffnesses, as defined by equations (2.33) and (2.34) (in Chapter 2), into the overall stiffness matrix of the complete structure, [K]s, has been defined with equations (3.1) to (3.12).
Similarly, the relationship between global loads, [L], and global displacements, [X], in absolute terms has been described by equations (2.29) and (2.30). In a similar way to that in which the individual element stiffnesses are combined into the overall structural stiffness matrix, as described in Chapter 3, so the contributions of element forces referenced to the global axis system in equations (2.29) and (2.30) are combined to provide a global vector of the internal system of forces which is applicable to the complete structure.
For equilibrium conditions to exist it is necessary that the sum of the element forces referenced to the global axis system, as defined in equation (2.30), for all elements in the structure, must be equal to the sum of externally applied loadings. Any imbalance between the externally applied loadings and the internal system of element forces, as determined by equation (2.29), is referred to as inequilibrium.
The aim of this chapter is to explain the method of solution whereby the 'incremental' or 'tangential' stiffness matrix, as defined by equations (2.33) and (2.34), is used to determine the inequilibrium between the externally applied loads and the internal system of element forces, as defined by equations (2.29) and (2.30), and furthermore to project Or determine a more accurate displaced shape of the structure in order to Significantly reduce the inequilibrium resulting from the difference between externally applied loads and the internal system of element forces. The method of solution of these sets of equations is based upon the NewtonRaphson Method. This procedure is described by Lrveslev."
33
THE ANALYSTS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
The method is explained with reference to a structure which gets progressively softer with increasing load application, as previously referenced in Fig. 1.1, but which is equally applicable to cable net type of structures, which get progressively stiffer with increasing load, as previously shown in Fig. 1.2.
The NewtonRaphson Method is an iterative method, and of all possible methods of solution of nonlinear equations this method has the most rapid rate of convergence. The method is based upon successively calculating or determining the incremental stiffnesses of individual elements, and of the complete structure, in order to make an accurate forward projection of the displaced configuration of nodes and of individual elements, and of the complete structure in order to minimise the inequilibrium between the externally applied loads and internal system of element forces. The method is explained with respect to obtaining a solution for a set of equations for one single increment in the overall applied load vector. Although the method is applicable to a multi degree of freedom system, the explanation is simplified and is further explained with reference to a single degree of freedom (such as a single node displacement along a particular global axis). This is shown in Fig. 4.1.
For purposes of explanation, it is required to compute the displacement vector [X] corresponding with the overall external load vector [L]; with the external load vector, [L], being a single specific increment in the application of the external loading. In this case the initial overall stiffness of the structure is represented by [Ko]. This is based upon there being zero displacements of the structure, with the initial stiffness matrix, [Ko], corresponding to the undeformed shape of the structure. The first solution to the equilibrium equations is obtained by combining the equations in the form
{[L] [Lo]} = [Ko] x [bX]
(4.1)
where [L] [Lo]
externally applied load vector
the internal system of element forces within the structure (as given by equations (2.29) and (2.30))
For the undeformed shape of the structure the magnitude of the internal system of element forces within the structure, [Lo], is dependent upon any initial state of pretension. The expression .{[L]  [Lo]} represents the amount of inequilibriurn in the structure (or the imbalance between the externally applied loads and the internal system of element forces). In this case the expression {[L]  [Lo]} represents
34
SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR STIFFNESS EQUATIONS
[Ll Loads
Q ?I
I
I
I ~
=:.
/,
[XaJ [XbJ Displacements [X]
l
[X]
L
1
'I
Fig. 4.1. The NewtonRaphson Tangential Displacement Method
the first increment of load to be applied to the structure. The stiffness matrix, [Ko] , and as calculated by equations (2.33) and (2.34), represents the stiffness of the structure in the undeformed state.
Equation (4.1) is solved, knowing [Ko] and {[I]  [Lol}, to provide the incremental change in displacements, [JX]. The first set of displacements to be calculated are represented in Fig. 4.1 by [6X] = [Xa].
At this point, the structure 'has adopted a deformed configuration' represented by the displacements [Xa] , and the inequilibrium between the externally applied loads and the internal system of element forces is recomputed.
The revised inequilibrium, or new load vector to be applied to the structure, is represented in Fig. 4.1 by {[I]  [La]}. In this case [La] represents the internal system of element forces in the structure given by:
[La] = [T'] x [AA'] x [P]
(4.2)
which is the same as the previous equations (2.27), (2.29) or (2.30).
35
THE ANAL YS1S OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
Similarly, for the 'deformed configuration' of the structure, represented by the displacements [x«], the revised or recomputed stiffness matrix is based upon the new deformed shape of the structure. The recomputed stiffness matrix is represented in Fig. 4.1 by the slope of the line given by [Ka].
Thus, the revised stiffness matrix and revised inequilibrium vector are combined to give:
{[I]  [La]} = [Ka] x [6X]
(4.3)
The new set of equations are solved to provide the new solution given by [bX] = [Xb], as shown in Fig. 4.1.
The process is successively continued by recomputing the new stiffness matrix at each stage given by [Kn], and the new inequilibrium load vector, given by {[I]  [Lnj} in order to determine the displaced configuration of the structure, represented by [X], and which corresponds to the externally applied load vector [I]. The process is continued, with the solution for the displaced shape of the structure progressively converging,and given by:
[x] = [Xa] + [Xb] + [Xc] + ... + [bX]
(4.4)
The solution is considered to have converged when either [bX] is small, or the ratio of [bX]/[X] is small. Alternatively, the solution is considered to have converged if the inequilibriurn vector, given by {[I]  [Ln]}, is also small and insignificant.
Following the solution of the equations for the particular increment in the external load vector [IJ, it is usual to increase progressively the magnitude of the external load in stages. For structures which demonstrate large changes in stiffness it is usual to apply the external loadings in small increments; such a procedure avoids the possibility of the solution method from diverging, whereby the iterative procedure, described above, does not converge. Possible divergence is more likely for structures which exhibit a softening effect with increasing load.
As explained previously, the methods described in this chapter are equally applicable to structures which get stiffer with increasing load, which generally include cable net and catenary structures.
36
5
Computer program flow charts
In order to summarize the work of the preceding chapters, and also to provide the necessary link to the programs, two flow charts are provided. The first flow chart, shown in Fig. 5.1, provides the overall sequence of operations, while the flow chart, shown in Fig. 5.2, provides more detail together with relevant reference points to the locations within the programs.
Both flow charts are equally applicable to the twodimensional program, and also to the threedimensional program given in Appendix 1. The flow charts are considered to be self explanatory, and are included as an essential means of introduction to the programs.
37
lliE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
t
Input joint and I
element data
Calculate member
direction cosines
Input load vector [L.]
I
I
~
Assemble individual element stiffnesses
Assemble mand [T'] matrices
Assemble [AA] and [AA'] matrices
Assemble [d] matrix
By multiplication and addition,
assemble element stiffnesses
[T'] x { [AA'] x EA1Lo x [AA] + [d] } x [T]
Compute internal system of forces
[Ln] = [T'] x [AA'] x [P]
Place individual. element stiffnesses in the
overall structural stiffness matrix [K],
Calcul.ate inequilibrium vector (ILl ~ [Ln])
i
1
!
Solve for oX: I
([L.] .; [Ln]) = [Kn] x [a.XJ
[aX] is large 1
I I
I [aX] issm
Print out solution: [X] = IXa] + [Xb] + ... + [aX] Fig. 5.1. Overall computer program flour chart
38
all
COMPUTER PROGRAM FLOW CHARTS
_t
Start
,
Enter number of joints  NJ
Enter number 01 members  NM
Enter number of loaded joints  NLJ
Enter number of support joints  NSJ
t (1)
Input joint coordinates I
t (2)
Input structural connectivity
and material properties
, (3)
Input external load
vector [RL]
i (4)
Input boundary conditions
t (5)
Compute direction cosines
t (6)
Initialize intermediate displacements
UI = 0, v = 0 & W = 0;
Input initial pretension forces and
I displacement vector DI$P = 0
, (7)
, Compute basic member displacements
and basic member forces
t (8)
Print input data
, (9)
Initialize sHffness matrix [SK] = 0
I for the structure and internal structural
nodal load vector [RLN] = 0
, (lOa) Fig. 52 More detailed computer program flour chart including program reference point locations (part 1)
39
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTIJRES
Set element I = 1
Compute positions NC & ND for
element stiffness submatrices in
the overall structural stiffness (see eqn. 3.12)
(10b)
Assembly of transformation
submatrices [T1) & [T2]
(10c)
Assembly 01 matrix [AA)
(10d)
Assembly of matrix [0]
(10e)
Compute element stiffness submatrices
[5111 [5121 [52,] & [522) and assemble them
in the overall structural stiffness [5K)
(101)
Compute element nodal load subvectors
and assemble them in internal structural
nodal load vector [RLNJ
(10g)

yes 1< NM
no Fig. 5.2. More detailed computer program flow chart including program reference point locations (part 2)
40
COMPUTER PROGRAM FLOW CHARTS
Compute structural inequilibrium load vector [UF] = [RL]  [RLN]
(11 )
Introduce boundary conditions
(12)
Solve system equations [SK] x [DELX] = [UF] for incremental displacements
(13)
Compute current displacement Vector [DISP] = [DISP] + [DELX]
(14)
Compute intermediate displacement u, v & w
(15)
Compute basic member displacements and basic member forces [E] & [P]
(8)
Remove slack elements
not converged
Print results
(18)
Fig. 5.2. More detailed computer program flow chart including program reference point locations (part 3)
41
6
Analysis of general threedimensional cable structures
The previous chapters have dealt with the nonlinear stiffness formulation for a single planar (twodimensional) element together with the methods of assembly of individual member/element stiffnesses within the overall structural stiffness matrix, and the method of solution of the nonlinear stiffness equations.
This chapter covers the geometrical nonlinear stiffness formulation for a single threedimensional element, consisting of a cable element, rod, or chain link, when subjected to large deformations, and is a direct extension of the procedure described previously in chapter 2.
The procedures, described previously, for the assembly of individual element stiffnesses within the overall structural stiffness matrix, together with the method of solution of the nonlinear stiffness equations are equally applicable. In order to make the explanation of the stiffness formulation for the threedimensional element straightforward, a similar format to that in chapter 2 is adopted.
6.1. Global system of coordinates and direction cosines
Figure 6.1 provides the position of a typical element within the global system of coordinates CXy....:Z). The typical element CAB) has coordinates at either end given by XA, YA, ZA at end A, and XB, Y G, ZO at end B.
The original length of the element, with respect to the global system of coordinates is given by:
Lo= J[(XB  xAi + (YB  YAi + (ZB  zAi] (6.1)
The member intermediate system of coordinates, given by the member axes P, Q, and R, are shown in Fig. 6.2 As previously, the Paxis
43
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
y
B
I Y.·
I I
x
I
1/· Z. ___ X~ __ J
Fig. 61. Global system of coordinates
coincides with the longitudinal axis of the element (in the undeformed state), while the Qaxis is orthogonal to the Paxis, and the Raxis is orthogonal to both the Paxis and the Qaxis.
The direction cosines, of the local intermediate axes P, Q, and R, relative to the global coordinate system X, Y, and Z, are defined below.
For the element Pvaxis;' the direction cosines relative to the global axis system are:
For the element Qaxis, the direction cosines are:
In this case the coordinates Xc, Y c. Zc refer to the coordinates of a convenient point located along the Qaxis at some distance away from end A of the element.
44
THREEDIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTuRES
y
'\, I
B
x
z
Fig. 6.2. Member intermediate system of coordinates
The direction cosines of the third orthogonal Raxis are given by the right hand rule:
If = (1np . nq  ~ . mq); m, = enp' lq  4) . nq);
and n; = Or" mq  11"lp . lq) (6.4)
6.2. Loads and dispfaccmenrs in the global and intermediate coordmate systems
The load vector, as applicable to the ends of the element (AB), and referred to in the global system of coordinates, is given by:
[L] = [FXa, FYa, Fz", FXb, FYb, Fzbl The above system of global forces is shown in Fig. 6.3.
(6.5)
45
TIlE ANALYSTS OF CABLE AND CATE ARY STRUCnJRES
y

r
x
Fig, 6,], Global forces at the ends of element (AeB)
The corresponding displacement vector as applicable to the ends of the element (AB) and referred to in the global system of coordinates is given by:
(6.6)
The above system of global displacements is shown in Fig. 6.4.
As previously, the connection of the external or global loads to the global displacements of the struct:tn; is through the complete (overall) structural stiffness matrix [KJ:
[L] = [K] x [X]
(6.7)
As previously, the intermediate coordinate systems for each element (P, Q, and Raxes) are used in order to define a set of socalled intermediate forces and intermediate displacements for a typical element
46
THREEDIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTURES
y
B Xo
Zb!
!
8'
A
A'
x
z
Fig 6.4. Global displacements at the ends of element AB
(AB). In this case the load vector as applicable to the ends of the element (AB), and referred to in the intermediate system of coordinates is given by:
[R] = [R, S, T]
(6.8)
where R equals the force acting along the element Paxis, S is the force acting m the direction of the element Qaxis, and T is the force acting in the direction of the element Raxis. The above system of element intermediate forces is shown in Fig. 6.5
The displacement vector as applicable to the typical element (AB), and referred to in the element intermediate system of coordinates is given by:
[u]
[u, u, w]
(6.9)
47
111E ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
s
\,
:
T
y
x
Fig. 6.5. Element intermediateforces
where u equals the displacement acting along the element Paxis, v is the displacement in the direction of the element Qaxis, and w is the displacement in the direction of the element Raxis. The above system of element intermediate displacements is shown in Fig. 6.6
6.3. Transformation from intermediate forces and displacements to global forces and displacements
The element intermediate displacements are connected to the global displacements through the transformation matrix [T], in which [T] is composed of the element direction cosines, as defined previously in equations 6.2, 6.3, and 6.4.
48
THREEDIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTURES
y
......."\v ....... \
.> )
(Lo + u) /
: r»
.......
./ B'
A .......
./ /:
A'
B
x
Fig 6.6. Element intermediate displacements
Xa
[~ 1 [~ mp np 1r ~ ~l Ya
lq mq nq lq mq nq X Za
if trlr nr 4 m; nr Xb
Yb
Zb (6.10)
The above equation satisfies displacement compatibility at the ends of the element and is written in matrix form as:
[v] =.[T] x [X]
(6.11)
The corresponding global force vector and intermediate force vector are similarly related in order to satisfy conditions of equilibrium at the ends of the element:
[L] = [Ti] x [R]
(6.12)
49
THE ANA.L YSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
where [T/] is the transpose of matrix JT]. In expanded form, equation (6.12) is written as:
Fx" lp lq 4
FYa mp mq mr [ ~]
FZa = np nq nr x
FXb Zp lq Ir
FYb 1'l1p mq rn;
FZb np nq nr (613)
6.4. Basic displacements and basic forces
The basic element displacement is given by the element extension as measured along the deformed member axis,
(6.14)
In matrix form, equation (6.14) may be written as
[E] = [A] x [U]
(6.15)
where [E] = vector of element basic displacements
[U] = vector of element intermediate displacements
The above system of intermediate and basic element displacements is shown in Fig. 6.7.
As previously, the element basic force is given in the form of the element basic displacement and any element pretension:
p = Po + (EA) / La X e
(6.16)
6.5. Transformation from partial basic displacements to partial intermediate displacements
As previously, it is convenient to  develop the partial derivatives of the element basic displacements with respect to the partial derivatives of the element intermediate displacements. This is achieved by examining the partial derivatives of each term in equation (6.14) in tum, thus:
l 1 [6U]
[b 1  La + U . V W 6
e  Lo + e ' Lo + e' La + e X 6 ~
(6.17)
50
THREEDLME SIO AL CABLE STRUCThRES
y
A
x
Fig. 6.7. Element intermediate and basic displacements
In matrix form equation (6.17) may be written as:
[<5E] = [AA] x [bU]
(6.18)
6 .. 6. Transformation from basic forces to Intermediate forces
The transpose of the matrix [AA] is used to connect the intermediate element forces to the basic element forces, in order to satisfy the conditions of equilibrium at the ends of the element.
[R] = [AA'] x [pI
(6.19)
51
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTIJRES
In an expanded form this is written as:
In + u

m t; + e
V X [P]
La + e
W
Lo + e (6.20)
6.7. Transformation from partial basic forces to partial intermediate forces and partial intermediate displacements
Equations C6.19) and (6.20) provide the connection between the element intermediate forces and the element basic forces in absolute terms. As previously, it is convenient to develop the partial derivatives of the element intermediate forces with respect to the partial derivatives of the element basic forces and [he partial derivatives of the element intermediate displacements. This is achieved by examining the partial derivatives of each term in equation (6.20) in turn:
Lo + U
lnl Lo + e
v x loP]
t; + e
W
L; + e P(v2 + u}) Pv(LQ + u) Pw(Lo + u)
ci; + e)3 , ci; + e)j ci; + e)3
Pv(Lo + u) pecLo + ui + w2) +Ptnu U:l
+ CLa + e)3 ci; + e)3 (Lo + e)3 x
Pw(Lo + u) Pvw PC(L" + U)2 + v2)
ci; + e)3 (La + e)3' ci; + e)3
(6.21) 52
THREEDIMENSIO AL CABLE STRlJCTIJRES
In matrix form equation (6.21) may be written as:
[t5R] = [AA'] x [(ip] +'[d] x [(iU]
(6.22)
The above expression can be expanded by substituting for [t5P]
[(iP] = EA/ L; x [(iE]
(6.23)
and also by substituting for [t5E]
[(iP] = EA/ L; x [AA] x [t5U]
(6.24)
Thus equation (6.22) becomes
[(iR] = {[AA'] x (EA/ Lo) x [AA] + [d]} x [t5U]
(6.25)
or in expanded form this is given by:
Wl
v
Lo + e w
EA xx Lo
[LO + U v w]
 
La + e' Lo + e' L" + e
PCv2 + w2) Pv(Lo + u) =PusL; + u)
(Lo + e)3 , (Lo + e)3 , (Lo + e)3
Pv(Lo + u) PCCLo + U)2 + w2) Pvw [El
+ (Io + e)3 (Lo + e)3 (Lo + e)3 X
ruci; + u) Pvw P(CL" + u/ + v2)
ci; + e)3 (Lo + e)3' (Ln + e)3
(6.26) 6.8. Transformation from basic forces toglobal forces
Equation (6.12), which connects the element global forces to the element intermediate forces, is used in conjunction with equation (6.19), which connects element intermediate forces to element basic forces.
53
THE Al\ALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATIl\ARY STRUCTURES
[L]= [Tf] X [R] and [R] = [AA!] X [p] [L] = [T'] x [AA'] x [p]
(6.27)
In expanded form [his is written as:
FXa lp lq If Lo + U

FYa mp mq m, Lo + e
FZa np nq n, v x [P] (6.28)
x
FXh Ip Iq I, Lo + e
FYI; mp mq m; w
rZh ~ riq n, L" + e Equations (6.11), (6.15) and (6.16) may be combined with equation (6.27) in matrix form to give:
[L] = [T'] x [AA'] X [Po + (.£AI Lo) x [A] x [Tl x [X]]
(6.29)
In expanded form this is written as:
FXa lp lq I, L,,+ u

FYa ~ n1q m, Lo + e
FZa np nq n,. v
x x Po+
Fx" lp lq ~ Lo + e
F_Yh m'P mq m, w
FZb rip nq n, Lo + e
(~) x l VCL" + ui + v2 + w2  t; j
Xa
[' ~ np 4, mp ~l Ya
x =l« mq nq lq mq nq x za C6.30)
4 m, nr If mr nr Xh
Yb
Zb 6.9. Transformation from partial global displacements to partial global forces
Equation (6.7) represents the relationship between global forces and global displacements in absolute terms. It is convenient to develop the partial derivatives of global forces with respect to the partial derivatives of global displacements.
54
THREEDIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTIJRES
Because equations (6.10), (6.11), (6.12), and (6.13) connect the global forces to the intermediate forces and the intermediate displacements to the global displacements include only linear expressions, the corresponding incremental changes in the various terms must equally apply
[c5U] = [T] x [JX]
(6.31)
and
[JL] = [T'] x [JR]
(6.32)
Equations (6.25) and (6.26) may be expanded by substituting for loU] and [JR]
[c5L] = [T'] x {[AA'] x (FAI Lo) x [AA] + [d]} x [T] x [OX] (6.33)
where the expression given by
[T'] X {[AA'] x (FA I Lo) x [AA] + [d]} x [T]
represents the incremental stiffness matrix [K].
55
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCI1JRES
6.10. The incremental stiffness matrix for a threedimensional cable element
lp fg ~
1np 1nq mT
[K] np nq nr
= lp lq lr
1np mg m;
11p nq n; x
La + u La + e V
i; + e w
P(v2 + w2) Pv(La + u)
ci; + e)3 , (La + e)3 ,
+ Pv(Lo + u) PCCLo + ui + w2)
ci; + e)3 , u; + e)3
=Pu/L; + u) Pvw
(La + e)3 u; + e)3' Pw(La + u) (La + e}"
Pvw
ii; + e)3
pe(Lo + ui + v2) (La + e)3
(6.34)
The above expression, which provides the 'incremental' stiffness matrix, [K], is used to relate the 'incremental' changes in global forces, [bL] with the 'incremental' changes in global displacements, [bX] in the manner
(bq ~ [K] x [<5X]
(6.35)
56
References
l. POSKITI T. J. Numerical solution of nonlinear structures. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 1967, 93, No. ST4, August, Proc. Paper 5362.
2. KRISHNA P and AGARWAL T. P. Study of suspended roof model. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 1971,97, No. ST6, June, Proc. Paper 8168 .
. 3 DICKIE J. P. and BROUGHTON P. Discussion of paper on study of suspended roof model. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 1972, No. ST1, January.
4. vlLNAY O. Cable net and tensegric shells  analysis and design application. Ellis
Horwood, 1990.
5. IRVINE II. M. Cable structures. Penerbit lTE, 1981.
6. KRISHNA P. Cable suspended roofs. McGrawHill Book Company.
7. SZABO J and KOLLAR, L. Structural design of cable suspended roofs. Ellis Horwood, 19M
8 BUCHHOLDT H.A. introduction to cable roof structures. Cambridge University Press, 1985.
9. OTTO F. Tensile structures. MIT Press, 1973
10. JENNINGS A. Frame analysis including change of geometry. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 1968,94, No. 5T3, March, Proc. Paper 5839.
11. LIVESLEY R. K. Matrix analysis of structures. Pergamon Press, 1964.
57
Appendix 1
Computer program for threedimensional cable structures allowing for large displacement
Al.l. General
The program presented herein is written in FORTRAN and is based on the formulations and now charts presented in the main text. The program is capable of performing static analysis of three dimensional cable structures with rigid supports. All loads are applied at the nodal points. The results obtained for the analysis consist of the vertical and horizontal displacements of the nodes, and final member forces and changes to member forces.
The main aim in developing this program was to translate directly the theoretical formulations into a computer program. with emphasis on clarity, of all necessary steps, rather than on developing the program efficiency In order to achieve this objective the How charts presentee! in chapter 5 have been used. The detailed flow chart is tagged with relevant reference numbers which appear on the rightband side of eacb main step on the flow chart. The same reference numbers, which appear on the rightband side of the corresponding group of lines in the source code, are used to implement the relevant steps in the flow chart.
Al.2 Input/output data.
An input data file for a particular structural problem is prepared using any text editor. The name of this input data file is requested when the program is started. Data items in this file are arranged as follows.
• The first lines of data contain the total number of joints, total number of members, total number of loaded joints and total number of support joints in the given order.
59
THE AI"IAlYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCrURES
• The next group of lines, which is equal to the number of joints, each contain the following data items in the given order  X, Y and Zcoordinates of the particular node. The data are arranged consecutively from node 1 to the last node.
• The following group of lines is equal to the number of members. Each contains the first and second node numbers of each element, followed by axial stiffness (EA) of the element. These data items are also entered consecutively from element 1 to the last element.
• The following group of lines is equal to twice the number of loaded nodes. Each pair of lines contains the loaded node number on the first line, followed by the X, Y and Zcomponent of the applied load on the second line, for all the loaded nodes starting from lowest numbered loaded node increasing up to the highest numbered loaded node.
• The following group of lines is equal to twice the number of support nodes. Each pair of lines contains the support node number on the first line, followed by codes for X, Y and Zrestraint on the second line (if the support is fully restrained in a given direction, then the code = 1, while if it is not restrained, then the code = 0) for all the SUppOIt nodes, starting from the lowest numbered support node increasing up to the highest numbered support node.
• The final group of lines each contains the value of a pretension force in a member, arranged consecutively from the first member to the last member.
The results are saved in an output file, the name of which is also requested at the beginning of the program execution. The first part of this file contains the input data, followed by the results obtained from the first cycle of iteration in the NewtonRaphson procedure. This, in turn, is followed by the final set of results after conv rgence has been achieved using the NewtonRaphson procedure.
60
COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR 3DIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCfURES
Program for geometric nonlinear analysis of 3~D cable structures using standard NewtonRaphson technique
PROGR"'"1 CAr;LE:~,
DIMENSION X0(90),Y0(90),Z0(90),JNI150),JP(150),NDOF(270), RLP(150),RMP(150).RNP(130),RLQI150i.RMD(150),RNQI15~), RLR(130i,RMR(150) ,RNR(150J,RL0(150),AE(150),RL(270), 5,:; 1:270,270) ,U1151il) ,V( 150) ,WI 1501 ,E (150), P1150) ,
* RLN(270I,P0(150),UFI270I,DELX(270),DISP(2701
CHARACTE:R*16,INFN,OUTFN
ITER~0
PTN=<l.0
E:RF<OR=0.0l1.
~JRlTE(6,*) 'ENTER INPUT FILENAME (MAXIMUM 16 CHARACTERS)' READ(5,*ItNFN
WRITE (6, *) 'ENTER OUTF'UT F I LENA"lE (MAX I MU~I 16 CHARACTERS)' READ(5,*IOUTFN
DPEN(B,F1LE=INFN)
OPEN(l,FILE=OUTFN)
C INPUT OF DATA .IRITE( 6, * I
WRITE(6,*)"**~lREADING IN OATA'****' WR lTE 16, * I
READ (fo, *) NJ , NI", NLJ , N5J NDF'''NJn
INPUT OF JOINT COORDINATES
CALL JeCOR I NJ, X0, YI1l, Z0) I NPUT OF Ma1BER CONNECT III I TV AND MATER I AL PROPERT I ES
(1)
C~
c
CALL MDATAlNM,JN,JP,AEI INPUT OF LOAD VECTOR CALL LOAD ( NOF , 'Rl. " NLJ )
It~PUT OF BOUND ARY CONn IT I DNS
CALL B(]UND (NDF ,NDOF ,NSJ I WRITE(6.*)
WRITE(6,*I'**.'*ANALYSIS •• ***'
WRITc~(6,*)
COMPUTATION OF DIRECTION COSINES
CALL DIRCOS(NJ,NM,X0,Y0,Z0,JN,JP,RLP,RMP,RNP,RLD,RMD,RNQ,
* RLR,RMR,RNR,RL01
INITIALIZATION OF DISPLACEMENTS AND PRESTRESS
(.2) (3) (4) (5)
C
C
(6)
c
CALL I N IT (Nr1, U, v , W, Pi1l, NDF ,DISF')  (7)
c~ COMPUTATION OF BASIC MaIBER·DISPLACEMENTS AND BASIC MEMBER FORCES
CALL BASIC(NM, RU] .,U, V,W ,E, P0 ,P, AE)
 (8)
c~ PRINTING INPUT DATA
CALL [JUTl (NJ, NM, X0, Y0, Z!II,RL, IN ,JP ,RL0, AE ,P0 s NOF)  (9)
10 ITER~ITER+l WRITE(6,*)"iteration' ,ITER
C COMPUTATION OF STRUCTU~AL STIFFNESS AND INTERNAL SYSTEM OF FORCES
CALL ASSEM I SK,NM ,,IN,JP, RL"P,RMP ,RNP, RLQ, RMIl ,RND, RLR ,RMR ,RNR ,
* RL0,U,V,W,E,P,AE,RLN,NDF)
(10)
c COMPUTATION OF THE UNBALANCED (INEQUIl.lBRIUM) LOAD VECTOR
DO q0 I~l,NDF. q0 UFlI)~RL1I)RLN(I) ~
(11)
C MODIFICATION OF THE SYSTEM EQUATIONS FOR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
CALL MODIF( NOF. S~:, UF, DI6P ,NDOF)  (12)
C SOLUTlON FOR INCREMENTAL DISPLACEMENT
CALL GE(NDF,SK,UF,DELX)
~(13)
61
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
C COMPUTING CURRENT DISPLACEMENTS
DO 20 l=l,NDF , 20 DISP(I)=DISP(I)+DELX(I) ~
(14)
c COMPUTATION OF INTERMEDIATE DISPLACEMENTS
CALL INDISP(NM,U,V,W,RLP,RMP,RNP.RLQ,RMO,RNO,
~ RLI~ ,RMR ,RNR, 0 [SF'. NOF, IN, ,]P) (15)
C COMPUTATION OF BASIC MEMBER DISPLACEMENTS AND BASIC MEMBER FORCES
CALl_ B AS I C ( 1~~1 , RL0 , U , V , W , E , P0 , P , AE) 
(8)
c CHECKING CONVERGENCE
C:TN"'1iJ.0
DO 30 1~1. NDF
30 CTNCTN+DISP(I)*O[SP(I) CTN=SQRTICTNI/NDF
C: I N=CTNF'TN
CINeIN/C1N
c'TNCTN
c SCANNING FOR BLACK MEMDERS
CALL "LACK ( Nr1 , P , AE I  (16) PRINTING THE RESULTS AFTER FIRST ITERATION
(17)
c
IFIITER.EQ.1) THEN
WRITE(1.*)'RE5ULTS AFTER ITERATION NO.1 (LINEAR SOLUTION)' CALL DUT2(NJ,NM,P,DISP,NDF,P0,xe,Vm,Z0)
G(1 TO 1111
END IF
(18)
IF(AIl6(CIN) .GE.ERROR) GO TO 10 (17)
c
FiRINT'[I~G FI1~AL RESlJLT8 WRITE(6,*)
WRITE(6,*) '.e ••• WRITING FINAL RESW_T5~~***' WRITE(l.*)'CONVERGED AT ITERATION NO.' ,ITER
CALL [JUT2( NJ, NM ,F', DI5P ,NJJF ,P0, XIZI. Y0, Z0 I _j
(18)
Cl.OSE(l) CLOSE(S) END
c .,.. C·'''_
SUBROUTINE JCODR(NJ,X0,Y0,l0) (~
c~ 
C THIS SUBRUUTINE IS USED TO INPUT JOINT COORDINATES AND
C JOINT DEGREES OF 8~E5DDM
c·, .. ,···_,,··.,,,  '..,.... 
DIMENSION X0(NJ),Y~(NJ),ZmINJ)
WRI'TE(6~*)·jDint coordinates. _ 0" nn .1_00 I=l~hl,J
liIl r<!CAD I tl" n X0 ( I ) , YI!) ( I I ,1'0 ( I I
F:;:ETI_JRi\.l
EI,ID  (2)
1> ", .... ", .. 
"lIBROUT II~E 11DATI\ I Ncl "JI~, 110, AE)  (3)
I; ,  ,, , ,,,
THIS SU8ROUTINE 16 USED TO ENTER MEMBERJOINT CONNECTIVITY MAn~[X AND
r: j':if:~'VrlL.UE, FOf\ EliCH MEI'"IBER
[> , . ', ~' ... "" ... "" ....   _. __ ._ ... ,,_. , , ,    
DIMENSIW~ IN(NM).JPINM),AEINM)
F~t::TUf~N r:::N'[j
WRITE(6~*l mem ber rrirm e c Li v i.Ly & e x i.e I et.Lf f n e e ss e s, , ~. OC] tv) 1~1,1·.~1
10 READIS.') IN(II,JP(II,AEIII
(3)
62
COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR 3DIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTIJRES
c       ~                             
SUBI~OUT j NE. LOAD (NOF , RL, NLJ ) (4)
c
C THIS SUBROUTINE IS, USED TO ENTER EXTERNAL LOAD VECTOR
C   ,  ,               
DIMENSION RL(NDF)
WRITE(6~*) nodal lo~ds ... " DO 10 l~l,NDF
10 RLI I)=,L0
DO 20 I=l,NLJ READIEI,qJL K= (JL.\.) *:,:·'··1
20 READIS,.) RL(K),RL(K+ll,RL(K+2)
RETURN
~D ~
C
SUBROUT! NE BOUN I) ( NDF , NDOF , NSJ J (5)
C 
C THIS SUBROUTINE SPECIFIES BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
C     ,          ' 
DIMENSION NDOF(NDFJ
RETURN
WRITE(6,*)'boundary ~onditions ... · DO 10 I=l,NDF
10 I~OrJF r i ) ~0
DO 20'1 l=l,NSJ READ(8,*)JS K=(,)S1) *3+1
20 READ[8,t) NDOF(KI,NDOF(K+l),NDOF(K+2J
END
(5)
c',
SUBROUTINE DIRCOS [NJ, NM. XI'l, VI1I, ll'l,JN., JF' ,RLP, RMP ,RNP,RLO, RMO ,RND,
• RLR,RMR,RNR,RLI1I) (6)
c
C THIS SUBROUTINE COMPUTES DIRECTION COSINES FOR EACH MEMBER
C·
DIMENSION XI'l[NJJ,Y0(NJ),ZI1I(NJ),JN(NM),JP(NM),RLPINMJ ,RMP(NMI, RNF'INMI ,RLQ(NMJ ,RMQ(NM) ,RNQ(NM) ,RLR(NM) ,RMR(NM), RNR(NMJ,RLI1I(NMJ
DO U!l I~1,NM
A=X0(JPI I) )XI1I(JN( I) J B=YI1I(JP[I»)YI1IIJN(IIJ C=ZI'l(JPII) )ZI'l(JN(I IJ RLI'l(I)~SQRT(A*A+B*B+C*C)
RLP(IJ=A/RL0(IJ RMP [ I ) ~B/RUl ( I ) RNF' ( I ) =C I RL<'l ( I )
A=RLP( I I B=R~lP( I) C=RNP(IJ
IF(IA_EQ_0.I'lJ_AND.(B.EQ.I1I_I1IIJ THEN RLQ( 11=111.111
RMO[ 0=1111
RNO(I)=I1I.11I
RLRI I )=C
RMR(IJ=!Il.11I
RNRII)=0.11I
GO TO 1"1
END IF
DEN=SQRT(A*A+B*B) RLiH I) B/DEN RMQ([)=A/DEN
63
THE ANAl.YSIS OF CABLE A ro CATENARY ~TRUCruRES
RNO(I)=0.11I RLR(J)=A*C/DEN RMR(I)=E!*C/DEN RNR(I)=DEN
10 CONTINUE
RETURN
~ ~
C
SUBROUTINE INIT(NM,U,V,W,P0,NDF,DISP) (7)
C
C THIS SUBROUT INE IS USED TO INITIAL! ZE THE INTERMEDIATE DI6F'LACEMENTSl
C U,V AND INITIAL PRESTRESS
C_ 
DIMENSION U(NM),V(NM),W(NM),P0(NM),DISP{NOF) DO 1i1l I=J.,NM
U(I)=i1l.11I
V(I )=111.0
W(I)IIl.1Il
1111 READ(B,*)PI1I(I) DO :,~0 TJ., NDF za DrSP( J )111.0
RETURN
C:~~~
SUBROUTINE BASIC I NN ,RLI1I, U ,V, W,E ,P0,P ,AE) _ (8)
c                 .
C THIS SI.JBRDUTINE IS USED TO COMPUTE BI\SIC DISPLACEMENTS AND BASIC
C MEMBER FORCES
C~
))1 HENS I ON Rl.I111 Nt'll , \J I N~l) , V (NM) ,W (NM) ,E (NM) , PI1) (NM) ,P (NM) ,AE I NM)
DO 10 l=l,N~1 A=RLI1I( I) +U( I) B=V( I)
C=W( I)
E (I) =SQRT (A*A<·B*B+ClC) RLIll ( I ) l~ P(I)=PII1(I)+AE(I)'EII)/RLI1III)
RE:TLJRN
~ ~
C  .   .   ..          .    
SUBR01JTINE SLACK (NM, P, AE) (16)
c_.
C THIS SUBROUTINE REDUCES STIFFNESS OF SLACK MEMBERS TO ZERO
C~·~
DIMENSION PINM),AEINM)
END IF
ZR=1.0E21il
DO 10 1=1 ,N~l IF(P(I).LT.Iil_Ql) THEN AE(I)~ZR
F'( I )=111.111
1111 COIH I NUE
RETURN
END (16)
c .. 'r
SUBROUTINE ASSEM(SK,NM,JN,JP,RLP,RMP,RNP,RLO,RMQ,RNO,
* RLR, RMR, RNR, RLII! ,U., V,W ,E, P ,AE, RLN ,NDF) (10)
g.~~~~;~;~~~~~~;~~~~;,;~~~;~~~;~~~~~~~~;;~~~~;~~;,;~~~~;;~~;~~~~r
C OF INDIVIDUAL MEMBER STIFFNESSES AND COMPUTES I.NTERNAL SYSTEM OF FORCES
C·~~
DIMENSION SK(NDF,NDF),JN(NM),JPINM1,RLP(NM),RMP(NM),RNP(NM),
• RLQ( NM), RMQ (NM) ,RNQ( NM) ,RLR (NM) ,RMR( NM) ,RNR (NM) ,
* Tl(3.3),T2(3,31,RL0(NM),U(NM),V(NM),W(NM1,E(NM),
* P(NM),AA(l,3),D(3,3),SS(3,3).AAT(3,l),AEINM),
* S11(3,3)~S12(3,3),S21(~,3),S22(3,3),TIT(3,3),T2T(3,3).
WS(3,3),RLN(NDF);TMP(3,1)
64
COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR 3DIMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTURES
c lNITIALlZATION OF INTERNAL SYSTEM OF FORCES AND STRUCTURAL STIFFNESS
DO 10 1~1,NDF. Rt.N(I)~1lI.0
00 10 .]=1, NDF
HI sq I ,J ) =0 . III ' DO H10 l=l,N~l
NC= (IN ( I) 1) n , ND=(JP(11lJ*3"
C ASSEMBLY OF MATRIX Tl AND T2
CALL ASST (NM , I ,RLP ,RMP ,RNP, RLG, RMO, RNa, RLR .. R~lR, RNR, T 1, T2 ) (1 Oc)
C ASSEMBLY OF MATRIX AA
CAL L ASSAA ( NM, I , RU) , U , v ,01, E , AA I  (1 Od)
C ASSEMBLY OF MATRIX 0
CALL ASSD (NM, I, RL0, U. v .01, E, P. D J  (1Oc)
C COMPUTATION OF MEMBER STIFFNESSES IN INTERMEDIATE CDDRDINTE SYSTEM
C 55 AND CONTRI8UTIONS TO THE STRUCTURAL STlFFNESSSll,S12,S21 '1< 522
C TRANSF'OSI NG MATRI X AA INTO AAT
CALL MTRAN c i , 3,AA, AATl,(10i)
C MULTIPLICATION OF MATRIX AAT BY AA
CALL MMULT(3,1,3,AAT,AA,SS)
C MULTIPLICATION OF ~lATRIX 65 BY A€:/LVALUE
G=AE ( I II R 1_0 ( I J
CALL M5MULT{3,3,55,GJ
C ADDITION OF THE ABOVE RESULT TO MATRIX D
CALL MADD {3, 3,S5."D, 55 J
C COMPUTATION OF 5U8MATRICES 511,512,521 & 522
CALL MTRANI3,3,Tl,T1Tl
CALL MMULT(3,3,3~T1T,SS,WS} CALL M~lU L T ( 3 , 3 ,3, WS • T 1 , S 11 ) CAll_ MMULT(3,3~3,WS,T2~S12) CALL MTRANI3,3,SI2,S21) CALL MTRANI3,3,T2,T2T)
CALL MMULTI3,3,3,T.2T,55,W5)
CALL MMUL T ( 3 ,3 , 3 co 015 , T2 , S;Z:2 J ~~ (1 Oi)
C COMPUTATION OF INTERNAL SYSTEM OF FORCES FOR THE G IVEN ~IE~1BER
CALL MMUt.T(3,3,1,T1T,AAT,TMPJ(10g)
DO 6~ K=1,3 I
60 RLN(NC+K)=~LN(NC+K)+TMP(K.11*P(I'
CALL MMUL T ( 3 , ., • 1 , T:2 T ,AAT , TMP)
DO 8~ K=1,3
8~ RLNIND+K)=RLN(ND+K)+TMP( K,l) tP( I) (10g)
C ASSEMBLY OF STRUCTURAL STIFFNE:SS 5~. BY PUTTING S11,SI2,521 & 5"~
C
IN THEIR RESPECTIVE: POSITIONS
DO B5 rN~1,3 ~(lon
IC=NC+IN r
ID=NIl+IN
DO 85 LN=1,3 JC=NC+LN ~
65
(108) (~O)
(10b)
(10)
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
,JD=ND+LN SK(IC,JCI=SK(IC,JC)+S11(IN,LNl SK(IC,JD)=SK(IC,JD)+S12(IN,LNl SK(ID,JC)=SK(ID,JC)+S21(IN,LN) SK(ID,JD)=SK(ID,JD)+S22(IN,LN)
85 CONTINUe (101) Hl0 COI~TII\IUE
RETUF(N
END (10J
c~~··
SU6HOLITI NE f1DDIF (NDF ,SK, UF ,DlSF', NDDF) (12)
c~~~~~~~~ 
C THIS SUBROUTINE IS USED TO MODiFY SYSTEM EQUATrON BY CONSIDERING
C THE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
c· 
DIMF.:NSION SK(NDF,NDF),UF(NDF),NDOF(NDF).DISP(NDF)
DO lIZ! 1=l.,NDF IF(NDOF(I).EQ.l) THEN
DO 20 J~l.NllF UF(J)=UF(i)SK(J,li~DtSP(I) SK('], 1)=111.0
20 S K ( I , J ) =~ .0 SK( I, 1)=1.0 UF(I)=DISP(I) END IF
10 CONTINUE
RETURN END(12J
c·
SUBROUTINE INDI5PINM,U,V,W,RLP,RMP,RNP,RLQ,RMQ,RNQ,
* . RLR" RMR ,Rt,R, PISP, NOF ,IN, JP) (15)
c .. ··· .. · ..  .. . .. 
C THIS SUBROUTINE COMPUTES DISPLACEMENTS IN INTERMEDIATE
C COORDINATE SYSTEM
C" .. 
DIMENSION U (N~11 " V (Nt11 .. W(NM I, RLP I NM I. ,RMP! NM I .• RNP INMI ,RLQ I NM) ,
* RMOINI1) ,RNQ(NM) ,RLRINM) ,Rt'IR(N~I) ,RNR(NM) ,DISP(NDF),
* IN(NMJ,JP(NM)
DO Q.0 1~1 ,NI)
NC=(JN(I)t)*3+1
ND=(JP(I)tl~3+1
XA=DISP(NC)
YA=CISF' (NC+l)
H,=IJHlP( NC+2)
XB=IlISF"(ND)
YB"'[lISF"( ND+t I
ZB=OISP(ND+2) U(IJ=RLPII1*IXBXA)+RMPII)#(YBYA)+RNP(I)*llBZAI V(I)=RLQII)*IXBXA)+RMQ(I)*(YBYA)+RNQ(I)*IZEZA)
40 W(I)=RLRIIl*(XBXA)+RMRII)*(Y8YA)+RNR(])*IZBZAI
RETURN
END (15)
C·.
SUBROUTINE OUT l( NJ ,NM, xe , YIOl, HI,RL4 IN ,JP, RLIl,AE,PQ), NOF) (9)
c
C THIS SUBROUTINE IS USED TO PRINT INPUT DATA
C"·
DIMENSION X0(NJ),Y0(NJ),Z0(NJ),RLINDF),JN(NM) ,JF"(NM),RL0INM), AE(NM J .. Pi2l (NM I
WRITE(l.,11il0) WRITE(l,lHl) WRITEI1.121Z!) DO fQ) ]':'l,NJ K=(]1l,,3+1
11" WRITEI1 ,130) I, XliH I), YOlI]) ,ZIil(]) ,RUK) ,RU K+l) ,RL( K+2) WR lTE (1 , 140 )
66
RETURN END (9)
C·
SUBROUTINE OUT2(NJ,NM,P,DISP,NDF,P0,X0,Y0,Z0) (1~
C·
C THIS i,UBROUTINE IS USED TO PRINT OUT THE RESULTS
C
DIMENSION P(NM),DISP(NDF),P0(NM),X0(NJ),V0INJ),Z0INJ)
WR HE 11 , 170 I
DO 30 l=l,NJ
J=( 111*3+1
XX=X0(1)"DISP(J)
YY=Y0(Ij+DISPIJ+IJ
ZZ=Z0(I)+DISP(J+21
30 WRITE (1 .• 160) I, DISP( J) ,DISP (J+l) ,DISP( J+2), XX ,YY" ZZ WRITE (1,,190)
DO 40 l=l,NM
40 WRITE(1,2~0)I,P(I),(P(I)P0(1))
170 FORMAT(lX, 'JOINT DISPLACEMENT',I,
• 'JOINT XDISP YDISP lDISF",I)
180 FORMAT(lX,13,5X,6(2X,E10.3»
19fii FnRt1A T I' 1 X , . l'iE.·18ER FORCES'  I
*" '~lE~lBER FORCE CHANGE IN PRETENSION'
2~0 FORMATIIX,13,5X,212X,EI0,3)
RETURN
~D 0~
c·.
SUBROUT I NE ASST (N~I" I , RLP ,RMP, RNP, RLQ" RMQ, RNQ"
* RLR, R~IR,RNR, r i , T2) (1Oc)
C· .. ,·,····~~~
C THIS BUBRDUTINE ASSEMBLES MATf\ICES 1'1 AND T2 FOR A GIVEN MEMBER
C
DIMENSltiN RLP(NM),RMP(NM),RNP(NM) ,RLQ(NM),RMD(NM),RNQINM),
* RLR ( NM ) , RMR ( NM ) ,RNR ( N11) , Til 3 • 3) • T2 ( 3 ,3 I
Tl(l,l)=Ri..F'(I)
T 1 ( 1 ,2) =Rr'lP ( I )
T 1. ( 1 ,;,,) =RNP ( I )
T.t(2,1)=·RI_Q(! )
Lr 1 ( :,~ ~ 2) .... F~t1Q ( T )
T 1. ( :',~ , 3 l ::=.Ri\lQ ( 1 )
Tl(3,.1)=RLR(J)
T1 ( 3 ,2) =R~IR ( I )
1'1 (3, ,3) =RNR( I)
T2(1,lJ=RLPII)
T2 ( J ,21 =R~IP II )
T2( 1,:"J=R!'JPII)
i~' I~:, 1 ) =R'L[~ ( J )
T2 i 2, :;; )=R)'IO ( I I
T212,3)=RNQ{II
T2 (3, 1 I =RLR ( I )
T2 i 3,2 )=R~lR (I)
T2 ( :3,;j) =RNR ( I )
COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR 3DlMENSIONAL CABLE STRUCTURES
WR ITE ( 1 , 15121 ) 00 20 1=1,NM
20 WR ITE 1.1 , 160 ) 1 ,IN ( I ) , JP ( I ) , RLIII ( 1 ) , AE I I ) ,F'01 I ) WRlTEll,~)
WRITE 11, *)
1 ~0 FDRr1AT ( .1 X , . NONLJ NEAR ANAL VS I S OF CABLE STR'UCTURES' / ,
* 1X,'~~·//)
IHl FORt1ATllX,'JOlNT COORDINATES AND LOADS",/)
120 FOR~lAT i IX, 'JOINT XCOOR YCOOR ZCODR XLOAD YLOAD Zl.OAD·) 130 FORMATI1X,13.6(2X,E1I21,3»)
.140 FDRMAT I ,LX , • MEMBERJO INT INCI DENCE AND MEt1BER F'ROF'ERTIES,' /)
1~0 FORMATllX, 'MEMBER NEGATIVE POSITIVE LENGTH AEVALUE P0'/
* JOINT JOINT' )
16~ FORMATI3X,13.5X,13,6X,13.3(3X.E1~.3»)
RETURN
I::NIl i1 Ocj
67
TIlE ANAlYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
c
SUBROUTINE A55AA( NM, I ,RU) ,U, V,W ,E, AA) (1Od)
C
C THIS SUBROUTINE ASSEMBLES MATRIX AA FOR A GIVEN MEMBER .
C·
DIMENSION RL0(NM),0(NM),V(NMI,W(NM),E(NM),AAII,3)
DEN~RL0( I )+E( I)
AA 1.1 , 1) ,~ I RL~ I I ) +U ( 1 ) ) I DEN AA(1,2)=V(I)/DEN AA(1,3)=WII)/DEN
RETURN END{1Od)
C
SUBROUTINE ASSD( NM, I ,RL0 ,U,V ,W, E,P ,D) (10e)
C~
C THIS 9U8ROUTINE ASSEMBLES MATRIX 0 FOR A GIVEN MEtl8ER
C
o I MEI~S I ON RL0 (NM) , U ( N~l) , VI NM ) ,W (NM ) , E (NM) ,P.I NM) ,0 ( :; ,3 J
OEN=RUi ( 1 ) +E ( I I OEN=DEN*DEN*DEN
D 11,.1) ~P ( I ) * (V I J l*V I I) +\>1 I I ) ~I>! ( I I ) IDEN D ( 1 ,2) ~P I 1 ) tV ( I ) * I RU11 ( I I +U ( t I II DEN D(1,3)=P(I)fW(I)*IRL~(II+U(I)I/DEN ONU=RL0(I)+U(I)
DNU=DNU*DNU D(2,2)=P(I)*(DNU+WII)~WIII)/OEN
D (.2,3) =P ( I ) *V I I ) *W I I ) IDEN
D I 3.,3) =P I I ) * ( DNU+V ( I J * V I I J ) I DEN DI;1,1)~D(1,2)
D(3,1)=D(1,3)
0(3,2)=0(2,3)
RETURN
END (10e)
c                                    
SUSROUTINE MADDIN,M,A,B,C)
C
C THIS SUBROUTlNE ADDS MATRICES AINXM) AND BINX~l) .AND PUTS THE RESULT
C IN MATRIX C
C~
DIMENSION AI N,~l) ,BIN ,M I, e(N. M)
00 10 I~l,t, 00 10 J=l,M
10 CII,~)=A(I.J)+B(I.J)
RETUI'<N END
C  ~  .           .                     
SUBROUTINE MMULT(N,M,L,A,B,C)
c.~
C THIS SUBROUTINE ~IULTIPLIES MATRIX AINX~l) TO 81MXLI AND PUTS THE RESULT
C IN MATRIX CINXL)
c
DIMENSION AIN,M),8(M,L),C(N,L)
DO 10 l=l,N DO 1111 J~l,L C(l,J)=i2I.1II DO 1111 K=I, M
10 C ( I , J ) =C ( I ,J J +A I I , K) * B I K, J )
RETURN END
c
SUBROUTINE MTRAN(N,M,A,B)
C.:.
C THIS SUBROUTINE TRANSPOSES A MATRIX A(NXM) AND PUTS THE RESULT IN B(MXN
c
DIMENSION A(N,M),B(M,N)
68
COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR 3DIMENSIONAl CABLE 'TRUCT RES
DO 10 l~l,N DO 10 J~l,M 10 B(J,I}~A(I,J)
RETURN END
C
SUBROUTINE MSMULT(N,M,A,B)
C
C THIS SUBROUTINE MULTIPLIES A MATRIX A(NXM) BY A SCALAR AND PUTS
C THE RESULT IN A(NIM)
C·
DIMENSION A(N,M)
DO 1111 I~l,N DO 1121 ,1~1, M
10 AII,J)~BIA(I.J)
RETURN END
C
SUBROUTINE GEIN,A,B,X) (13)
c::.···
C THIS SUBROUTINE IS USED TO SOLVE LINEAR SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
C A.~b USING GAUSS ELIMINATION METHOD
C·····
DIMENSION A(N,N),BIN),XINI
C FOWARD ELIMINATION
DO 3111 1<~1,N1
CALL SPIV(A,B,N,KI DO 221 I=K+1~N Z=A(I,K)
DO 10 J=K,N
111l A(I,J)~A(I,J)A(K,JI*Z 20 B(I)=B(I)B(K)*Z
31'1 CONTINUE
C BACK5UBSTITUTIoN
XIN)=EI(N)/A(N,N) DO 5iZl L=l~Nl ~>NL.
5UM~BIK)
DO 40 J·'K+l,N
40 5UM=SUMXIJ)*A( ,J) Sill X (I() ~SUM
RETURN END .
C
SUBROUTINE 5PIV(~,y,N,K)
C~
C THIS SUBROUTINE IS USED FOR TOTAL PIVOTING OF A,,~b
C
DIMENSION A(N,N),Y(NI
IF(~.GE.N) RETURN
ABSMX=0.0 IMAX=K
DO Hl I=K,N
ABSA=ABS( A( I ,K) ) IFIABSA.GT.ABSMX) THEN .ABSMX=ABSA
IMAX~I
END IF
10 CONTINUE
C SWITCH ROWS
DO 2(1) J=l,N TEMP=AIK,J) AIK,J)=A(IMAX,J)
69
THE ANAl.YSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STHUCIURES
21!1 AI IMAX "J) =TEMP TEMP=Y(K) YIK)=Y,IMAX) YIIMAX)=TEMP
c SCALE ROW ~
Z=AO~,K)
PO 4111 J=K,N
4111 A(K,J)=A(K,J)/Z YO:)=Y(K)IZ
RE<TURN
END (13)
c
70
Appendix 2
Numerical example of twodimensional structure (vertical 2D truss)
A2.1. General
In this appendix, a twodimensional vertical cable truss is analysed for two interesting load cases using the twodimensional program 'cabJe2.x', which is included in the accompanying diskette. This structural model was previously included in the paper by Poskirt.' The results which were given previously included vertical displacements of the nodes and change in hanger tension forces. Horizontal displacements were not previously reported. The results produced by the program 'cablez.x give both vertical and horizontal displacements of the nodes, together with final tension forces in each cable segment (and the change in cable forces).
In the original problem, as previously presented. Imperial units were adopted, and these have been converted to metric units in the present example. The previous results were given in graphical form only, hence it was difficult to make an accurate comparison with the results from the present program. A comparison is made between results contained in the previous paper and the present results in both the vertical displacements and the change in hanger tension forces.
The structure is shown in Fig. A2.1. It consists of an upper and a lower cable, and 14 vertical hangers with various axial stiffnesses. The span of the structure is 3·03 In, ana the depth at the supports is 081 rn. Vertical hangers are equally spaced along the span. A more complete description of the problem is provided in reference (1).
71
THE ANALY IS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRucrURES
Node numbering
Fig. A2.1 Cable truss, joint and element numbering
A2.2. Results
A summary of the results for [he two more interesting load cases i provided. Results for both the linear and nonlinear solutions are included.
Casel
In (his loading case, a ingle point vertical load of 115·41 is suspended from the lower node of [he 5th hanger from (he left support, as shown in Fig. A2.2.
y
z
Fig A2.2. Load case 1 (cable truss)
72
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE OF TWODIMENS[ONAL STRUClURE
Results for displacements are given in Table A2.1 and Fig. A2.3.
Linear Solution Nonlinear Solution
Node vertical horizontal vertical horizontal
(1) displacement displacement displacement. displacement
(metres) (metres) (metres) (metres)
(2) (3) (4) (5)
3 0·00082 0·000021 0·00076 0·00024
6 0·00328 0·00089 0·00307 0·00074
7 0·00725 0·00183 0·00679 0·00178
11 0·01960 0·00397 0·01840 0·00368
12 0·01950 0·00395 0·01840 0·00369
17 000069 0·00255 0·00050 0·00216
20 0·00432 0·00269 0·00383 0·00267
22 000692 000286 0·00626 0·00280
25 0·00770 0·00283 0·00707 0·00253
26 0·00770 000283 000704 000269
TableA2.1. Displacements at selected points for load case 1 (cable truss) 0·020
0·004
c
'"
E
'"
~
Ci 0·000
'"
'6
s
e
~ 0010 .
:[
0·002 C
Q)
E:
~
g. 0000 ~
i
.§ 0·002
I
:[ 0·010
0.004 L'_L'_.l...._'_J...._'
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Hanger number Hanger number
 lower
 upper
Fig. A 2,3. Vertical and horizontal displacements of upper and louier chords/or load case 1 (cable truss)
73
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUcrURES
Results of the changes in hanger forces are given in Table A2.2 and Fig. A2.4.
17 20 2.3 25 27
Linear Solution Nonlinear Solution
Hanger Change 111 Hanger Change in
force force force force
(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN)
(2) (3) (4) (5)
0·0397 0·00126 0·0406 0·00219
0170 0·124 0·0112 0·0669
00969 0·0473 0·0522 0·00252
00820 0·0345 0·0500 0·00250
0050 0·0139 0·0378 0·00170 Member
(or hanger no.) (1)
Table A 2.2 Change in tension forces in selected hangers for load case 1 (cable truss)
80
70
60
Z
Q) 50
'"
co
Q)
U
.s 40
Q)
0
.2
Qj 30
Cl
c
co
I
20
10
0 2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Hanger nurnber
Fig. A2.4 Plot oj increase in hanger force Jor Load case 1 (cable truss) (Newtons)
74
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE OF TWODIMENSIONAL SmUCTURE
ease 2
This loading case consists of a point load of 40·5 N applied vertically downwards at nodes 3, 6, 11, 12, 21, 26, and 29 and a point load of 40 ·05 N applied vertically upwards at nodes 5, 13, and 25, as shown in FIg. A2.5.
z
'" z
6 z '"
... '" 6
a ...
e z z z
'" Ln en Z Z
Z 6 a 6 en
Z '" ... 6 "" a en
'"' a v a 6
a 6 "" ...
... ... Fig. A2.5. Load case 2 (cable truss)
Results for displacements are given in Table A2.3 and in Fig. A2.6 below.
Linear Solution Nonlinear Solution
Node vertical horizontal vertical horizontal
(1) displacement displacement displacement displacement
(metres) (metres) (metres) (metres)
(2) (3) (4) (5)
3 0·00237 0·00082 0·00235 0·00080
6 0·00107 0·000317 0·00119 0·00034
7 0·000724 0·000145 0·00075 0·00016
11 0·000351 0·000495 0·00352 0·00052
12 0·00348 0·000492 0·00349 0·00047
17 0·00437 0·000017 0·00035 0·00002
20 0·00104 0·000175 0·00109 0·0001S1
22 0·00344 0·00048 0·00344 0·000478
25 0·00070 0·00014 0·000130 0·00000
26 o·oomn 0·00(116 0·00130 ()'OOO28
Tahle A 2.3: Displacements at selected pointsfor load case 2 (cable truss) 75
THE ANAlYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCtURES
 O· 004 L'''''_''_...L...
o 2 4 6 B 10 12 14
Hanger number
0·0010
I ~
E
Q) o ttl
0.
'"
'6
~
N
§ 0·0005 ::c
0,0010 L''_'L._J...._''L
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Hanger number
<> lower cable
 upper cable
Fig. A2.6. Plots cf uertical and horizontal dtsptacements for load case 2 (cable truss) (metres)
Results of the change in hanger forces are given in Table A2.4 and Fig. A2.7.
Linear Solution Nonlinear Solution
Hanger Change in Hanger Change in
force force force force
CkN) CkN) (kN) (kN)
(2) . (3) (4) (5)
0·000 0·0384 0·0384 0·0000
0·0665 0·0211 0·0654 0·0201
0·0498 0·00012 0·0500 0·0003
0·0686 0·0211 0·0703 0·0228
0·000 0·0361 0·0361 0·0000 Member
(or hanger no.) (1)
17 20 23 25 27
Table A2.4 Change in tension forces in selected hangers for load case 2 (cable truss)
76
NUMERICAL EXA/vU'LE OF T\X10DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE
~
"
'"
'"
l!'
o
.s
'"
o
.2
(u
[J)
c
'" 0
I _10~ __ L_ __ L __ L_ __ ~ __ ~ __ L __ L_ o
2
4
6
8
10 12 14
Hanger number
Fig. A2.7. Plot of "increase in hanger force for load case 2 (cable truss) (Newtons)
A2.3. Discussion
Even though this type of cable structure is relatively stiff, it is necessary to take into consideration the nonlinear effects, especially when the applied loading is irregular, as for load case 2. For example, if the vertical displacement of joint 26 is considered, It is seen that the solution from the nonlinear analysis is almost 610/0 higher than the result of linear analysis. Also it is not realistic to ignore the horizontal displacements; for example the horizontal displacement of joint 3 is equal to 34% of the vertical displacement of the same joint.
77
Appendix 3
Numerical example of threedirnensional structure (3D hypar roof)
A3.1. General
A 3D hypar roof structure presented in the paper by Krishna and Agarwal.' was analyzed using the threedimensional program 'cablej.x, which is given in Appendix 1, and is also available in the accompanying diskette. In this example the same system of units has been adopted as was used by the original authors.
In the previous paper, experimental and theoretical results were presented. In the previous formulations the authors considered vertical displacements only. The program 'cable3.x' gives results from linear and nonlinear analyses. Both horizontal and vertical displacements are taken into consideration.
The structure is 12 x 12 feet square in plan (3·65 m x 3·65 m). Two opposite corners of the diagonal are elevated by 9 inches (0·228 m) from the origin which is located at the centre of the roof surface. The remaining two comers are depressed by 9 inches (0·228 m) from the same origin. In this way, a saddle shape is achieved for the resulting cable net, which is anchored along the straight rigid beams represented by the sides of the square, as shown in Fig. A3.1
A3.2. Results
Four different load cases were analysed. Results obtained from the program 'cable3x' include both linear and nonlinear solutions. The analyses provide global vertical displacements, (Z), and the global horizontal displacements, (X and Y), in two orthogonal directions for each Joint, as well as final tension force and the change from initial pretension force in each cable segment. In order to make comparisons,
79
ruE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
z
General arrangement
53 54 55 56
37 40 41 42 43 44
27 28 29 30 31 3.2
18 19 20 21 2.2
17
10
Node numberinq 17 feet (5·18 m)
Plan
~ ~.._,/,
17 feet (518 m) 0·75 feet (0'228 m)
Elevation
z
t 0 75 feet (0·228 m)
1crr~ 1 ~
Fig A3.1. +D hypar roof
80
NUMERlCAL EXAMPLE OF THRF.EDlMENS[Ol\AL STR crURE
results from the paper by Krishna and Agarwal are also given in this appendix. Only two loading cases are summarized in [his appendix, but results for all four loading cases are included in the accompanying diskette.
Casel
The first load case considered is for a single vertical load of 022 kips (0·98 kN) applied at node 7, as shown in Fig. A3.2.
r
/ ~
/ ~
/ ,
/ .
/ ,
/ ,
, /
, 7
, l7
. 7 /
'" / • Load
, / x
ed node
Fig. A3.2. Load case 1 (3D bypar roof)
81
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
Results of the displacements for the first load case are given in Table
A3.1.
Results from ref (2) Linear Solution Nonlinear Solution
Node
No. Theor Exper. X y Z X Y Z
(1) Z Z (inches) Cinches) (inches) (inches) (inches) (inches)
Cinches) (inches) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
(2) (3)
3 0·218 0·198 0·000 0030 0·213 0·000 0034 0241
6 0·237 0·217 0·000 0·030 0·234 0·007 0·035 0·258
7 0·000 0·125 0·961 0·000 0139 0·965
13 0·415 0·285 0·000 0·055 0'310 0·000 0·079 0'333
15 0·029 0·028 0·001 0·003 0·029 0·001 0·003 0·031
22 0061 0·058 0·000 0013 0·060 0·001 0016 0·062
31 0·010 0·010 (l·()00 0·028 0009 (l·000 0·047 0·007
43 0·028 0·031 0·(l00 ()·024 0027 0·000 0041 0051
44 0015 0000 0008 0015 0·000 0011 (J(J2R
46 0000 0·000 0000 0·000 0·001 0000 0·001
56 0027 0030 0000 0007 0027 0000 0010 0041
59 0001 0·000 0·000 0·000 0·001 0·001 0·000 0·002
65 0·047 0·000 0·018 0·045 0·000 0·031 0·071
67 0·011 0·010 0·000 0·001 0·011 0·000 0·002 0·016
79 0·035 0·035 0·000 0·011 0·032 0·000 0·018 0·051
Table A3.1. Displacements for vertical load of O· 22 kips (098 kN) at node 7,
load case 1 (3D bypar roof) HZ
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE OF THREEf)UVJENSIONAL STRUCTURE
ease 2
This load case represents distributed load applied on half of the cahle net, while the remaining half is free from loading. The distributed load is represented by nodal loads (0.022 kips) as shown in Fig. A3.3.
r
/ r.
/ t,
/ I~
/ <,
/ t,
/ 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 ~
, 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 /
. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
, 11 12 13 14 15 V
• Loade
, 6 7 6 '/
, 3
: V x
d node
Fig. A33. Load case 2 (3D hypar 1'Oq()
H3
THE ANALYSIS OF CABLE AND CATENARY STRUCTURES
Results of the displacements corresponding to the second load case are
given in Table A3.2.
Results from ref. (2) Linear Solution Nonlinear Solution
ode
No_ Theor Exper. X Y Z X Y Z
(1) Z Z (inches) (inches) (inches) Cinches) Cinches) (inches)
Cinches) Cinches) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
(2) (3)
3 0118 0126 0000 0014 0116 0000 0015 0·122
6 0·186 0188 0·004 0019 0·184 0003 0·021 0190
7 0000 0027 0254 0·000 0029 0·264
13 0·364 0'382 0000 0034 0·361 0·000 0036 0·370
15 0192 0248 0007 0015 0·191 0007 0·016 0·192
22 0391 0·357 0007 0·029 0·389 0·007 0·030 0·390
31 0·410 0452 0000 0029 0·415 0·000 0029 0409
43 0·325 0·366 0·000 0023 0·325 0·000 0·023 0316
44 0315 0350 0006 0018 0313 0006 0·019 0303
46 0·240 0240 0013 0·005 0238 0·013 0005 0·230
56 0102 0089 0002 0·017 0101 0·002 0·018 0·102
59 0043 0047 0·004 0·001 0·044 0004 0·001 0·044
65 0004 0004 0000 0·022 0·004 0000 0·023 0·001
67 0012 0·013 0000 0·009 0·000 0000 0·010 0·003
79 0051 0·046 0000 0·016 0050 0000 0·017 0·049
Table A 3.2. Displacementsfor vertical load, 0/0 022 eips (0098 kN) applied to
each node over balfof tbe cable net, load case 2 (JD bypar roof) A3.3. Discussion
When results of linear and nonlinear analyses are compared, it is observed that for the distributed load applied over half of the cable net (Case 2), there is little difference between the linear and nonlinear results (between 2% and 6%) for the vertical displacements, However, if the case of single point load applied at node 7 is considered (Case 1), then it is observed that for some nodes the difference between the linear and nonlinear solution is quite significant. For example, the vertical displacement of node 45 is 0027 inches (0·000685 m) from the
'linear analysis and 0051 inches (0001 29 m) from the nonlinear analysis, representing a change of about 89% Also, if the vertical displacement of node 31 is considered, it is observed that while the result from linear analysis gives a downward displacement of 0009 inches (0000228 m), the nonlinear solution gives an upward displacement of 0007 inches COOOO 178 m),
84
NUMERlCAL EXAMPLE OF TIlREEDIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE
In addition, the horizontal displacements are seen to be quite significant relative to the vertical displacements at certain node locations. For instance, for load case 1 of single point load applied at node 7, the horizontal displacement at node 31 is almost 670% larger than the respective vertical displacement.
These results indicate quite clearly that for these types of structures, it is important when performing the analysis to incorporate nonlinear effect') due to changes in geometry. Also, it is important that the horizontal displacements are included within the theoretical formulation.
85
Appendix 4
Contents of the diskette and user guide
A4.1. Contents of the diskette
The accompanying diskette contains two directories. The first directory, named TWOD, contains a source code for a program for 2dimensional analysis of cable structures (CABLE2.FOR), an executable program file (CABLE2.EXE), three example input data files (CB2IIN, CB22IN and CB23IN) and their corresponding output files which contain the results (OUT21, OUT22 and OUT23).
The results reported in Appendix 2 have been obtained from input files CB2IIN and CB22IN, and output files OUT2l and OUT22, respectively. The input file CB23IN contains the information for the same cable truss as in Appendix 2, where in the latter case the load case represents downward vertical point loads with magnitude of 0·138 kN each applied at all the nodes on the bottom cable.
The second directory is named TIfREED and contains a source code for a program for analysis of threedimensional cable structures (CABLE3·.FOR), and an executable program file (CABLE3.EXE), together with four example input files (CB3IIN, CB32IN, CB33IN and CB34IN) and their corresponding output files which contain the results (OUT3I, OUT32, OUT33 and OUT34).
The results reported in Appendix 3 have been obtained from input files CB31IN and CB32IN, and output files OUT31 and OUT32, respectively .. The input files CB33IN and CB34IN contain the information for the same hypar roof as in Appendix 3, except that the loading case for input file CB33IN consists of a load of 0·22 kips applied vertically downwards at node 21, while load case for input file CB34IN consists of a load of 0·?2 kips applied vertically downward at the central node 43. The corresponding results are in output files OUT33 and OUT34, respectively.
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A4.2 User guide
In order to run the programs in the accompanying diskette, type program name CABLE2 or CABLE3, respectively, specifying the required path as necessary. The program will prompt for an input filename which has to be entered by the user. This file must be prepared beforehand as described in Appendix 1, section A1.2 for threedimensional problems. An input file for twodimensional problems has a similar format, except that in their case all quantities related to the third coordinate axis are left out.
Immediately after entering an input filename and pressing the RETURN key, a prompt requesting an output filename will appear. The user will enter an output filename of his or her choice which will contain the results of the analysis.
The source code provided can be modified as desired by the user.
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