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Изготовление чучел

Изготовление чучел

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Published by Yarik Botnar

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Published by: Yarik Botnar on Oct 30, 2010
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Cyrpofioa, B.IO.

C89 113roToB.1eHIIe ':!y':!eJI / B.lO. Cyrp060B. - M.: AKBAPllYM-

TIPHHT, 2007. - 46, [2] c: 11.'1.

ISBN 978-5-98435-171-3

H3fOTOBJTeHHe "IY"IeJI -3TO nceraa TBOpqeCKHrr npouecc, Hazro CTaTb nexrnoro XY,[(O)f(HIlKO:vf, He:vfHOfO CKYJIbnTopOM.

EcJIH BbI penJJlJIH cnenart, "IY"IeJIO (HeBa)f(HO, KaKOfO )f(IlBOTHOfO) - 3Ta KHHfa )J;JHI sac.

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Y,Ll.K 59 EEK28.6c

Oxpauaercs 3aKOHOM PeD 05 aBTOpCKml npase. BOCrrpOH3Be,rJ,eHMe sceii KHHIl1 lUM .1I06oM ee '1aCrM sanpeuiaerca 6e3 illlChMeHHom paspeuieuna M3,'lare.1H. flro6hle nonsrrxu HapyrneHMH 3aKoHa 6yil,yr npecneaosarscs B cY,'le5HOM ncpanxe.

© Cyrpooos B. 10., TeKeT, 2004

© EWTHHCKaH H. A, PIICYHKI1, 2004 ISBN 5-98435-171-4 © 000 «AKBapIIYM-npHHT», 2004

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Ta« 80m, sma xuuea nOC8JlU{aemC.R Mite.

B. /0. Cyepo606

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51 sauernn, qTO HH O.D,HH OXOTHHK He \fO)KeT aa CTO}IOM CHrters MO}Iqa. 065T3aTe}Il,HO OH QTO-HH6y.D,b BCTaBHT sraxoe, LIT06l,I BCe OKpf)KaJOlQHe nOH5TJIH, LITO OHH BH.D,51T nepert C060rI \ff)KeCTBeHHoro nenonexa, KOTOPl,It'I He 60HTC5I HH orracnsrx asepeti, HH 3}IOpa,IJ,CTBa rrororrsr, H Bo06lQe na HeM OUHOM ztep)KHTCH BC5T cejrssr, nOTo\1Y LITO OH scex onesaer B my6l,I, KOP:\1HT HCKTIIOQHTeJIl,HO ~rnCOM H no BCeM nOKa3aTen5TM HBnHeTCH UJIH )KeHbI )l,06bITQHKOM.

Ha 3TH YTBep)l(.D,eHH5T 06maTe}Il,HO HaiJueTC5I xaxon-rrn- 6yUl, HeUOBepLlHBl,lM Cy5beKT, KOTOPl,liJ CKa3aHeT B OTHOIlJeHIIH aanasanst KOPOTKYIO t!>pa3Y: «,r:(OKa)l(n!,> H anecr. HaIlJ OXOTHHK, nOCneIlJHO BCTaBa5T U3-3a crona, np06lIpaeTC5T B COCe.D,HIOfO KOMHaTY H C rop.D,blM Bl,lpa)l(eHUe\{ mrua TalQHT rocT5TM QenYID nasky crapsrx t!>OTOrpat!>lIit.

Ho roCTII H3p5l.D,HO Bl,lTIJ.-J]JU! l1 cpeznt nOUBl,lTIlIBIlJHX rocren 065T3aTeJTl,HO 05b5lBHTC5T (<3KCnepT'~, KOTOPl,lM, IlJYTKH pazm , 6pOClIT erne OUHY t!>pa3Y: «Ilonnenxa!» JI}]U (,OKOnO Llf)l(IIX rporpees II Mbl \fO)l(e\f crpororpadnrposarr.cn!» OXOTHIIK o6ecxypaxen. H OH yxe peuiaer crierars sa pf)Kl,e\f H HaHeCTH 06H,IJ,LlHKY nOCJle.D,HHM OTBeTHl,lM yrtap - rrpocrpernrrs eMY n5TTYID TOLIKY, LlT06l,l 60nl,IlJe TOT He cnnerr aa ero CTOJIOM II na era cryrre.

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5

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Ha urxadiv, na nOJIKax H aa TOM )Ke CTeHe, P5UlOM C cparorpacpneii JIlo611J.1oii reuia, BHCHT oxoruaxsu TPOcPeH B BH,!.(e qy':IeJI yrxn, HCTpe6a, 3,!.(eCb )Ke BHCHT [OJIOBbl JIOCH, xafiana, KOCYJII1. I1 nYCTb xsaprupa HanOJ.1HHaeT ':IeM-TO 300JIOrI1':IeCKllii J.1Y3eM, ee X03HHH He fipaxonsep. Y Ka./K,!.(OrO TpOcPeH CBOH HCTOpHH. [OCTH :3aBI1CTJIHBO rrOCMaTpl1BaIOT no CTOpOHaJ.1 H Y)Ke He 3a,!.(aIOT rnynux BonpOCOB, a TOJlbKO BOCXHlllaIOTCH H HI1KaK He naxnanxr CKPOMHO MOJI':IalllerO 06JIa'!'(aTeJIH TaKOM y,!.(l1BI1- TeJlbHOii KO}lJleKl.l,HI1. Y ropozicxoro )f(HTeJIH ,!.(a)f(e 06bIKHOBeHHaH K03a BbI3bIBaeT oueneneaae. A sneci,' <PaHTaCTI1Ka!

Bee npenxen-r roP,!.(OCTH OXOTHMKa na CBoeM MeCTe. OHI1 npexpacno anacanacs B unrepsep KBapTHpbL Y 3TllX npenxeTOB ecn, euie O,!.(HO Y,!.(HBI1TeJIbHOe Ka':IeCTBO - OHM nepenocar rocreii B ,!.(pyroM, 3a6blTblM HMH MI1P, na H casioro OXOTHMKa 3Tl1 rpodeu BOJIHYIOT TaK, ':ITO eMY XO':IeTCH 6pOCHTb see H yexannofisrcrpee 113 ropona,

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6

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y )..1eIDI see HY)KHble I1HCTpYMeHTbI XpaH5ITC5I B O,Il,HOM Mecre. Jl JII06JIIO pariorars na 'll1CTOM CTOJIe, He 3aBaJIeHH0)..1 rroCTOPOHHHMH, HeHy')KHbllv1H npenjaerasru.

CTOII nOJDKeH 6blTb OCBemeH, 11 CBeT nOJDKeH MeHUTb caoe itanpaaneuae B 3aBI1CI1\lOCH1 OT neooxonnuocra 11 >KenaHI1U pa60TaIOLUero.

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Hrax, Ba\1 MU paooru nOHano6uTC}I:

I. IIJTOCKory6ubI;

2. xpvraoryriiu«;

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3aIllHBaHIDI pan;

15. umpuu C TOHKOH llr.lOi1;

16. nara;

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19. Ha60p xpacox;

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• Ilepeaocnrs KpbmaTYIO ,!I.06bI'lY .lKeJIaTeJIbHO, nO.llBeCI1B ee aa HO[M, 'lT06bI He nonpemrn, onepeuae.

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CJTO>KeHHble KPblJTb}[, BblpoBHeHHble HOrl1, OCHOBHoe nOJTO>KeHVle uren VI XBOCTa.

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10

R CY':P0608. H3~Om08.'!eJiu.e "I!/,leA

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• OKpOBaBJIeHHhle nepsx nporupaior BaTOH, a ua KPOBOrouaume pausr HaKJTa,!:(hIBaKlT BaTY, npornrrauuyio JJ:eHaTypHpOBaHHhlM CIII1PTOM (ecnn OH HYleeTC5I).

• IIepeB035IT nepnartrx OqeHb OCTOPO)I(HO, y.T06bI He rrorayrs, He B3J:,epOIlIHTb H He rrOJIOMaTb nepsa.

• 3aBopa'-HIBaKlT TTTHQ TOJIbKO TTOCJTe OKOHqaTeJTbHOrO oxrra)l(JJ:eHIHI, '-IT06bI OIDI He Ha'-IaJIH TTOPTHTbCH. 1:fT06bI ,rt:H'-Ib He nOpTHJTaCb, ee nano 3a6JTarOBpe\{eHHO TTpOBeTpHBaTb H BO BpeMH nepexypa KJTaCTb Ha CTTHHK}', a He na JTKl6YKl ,rt:PyrYKl '-IaCTb Te~'la; He C~'leJJ:YeT JJ:H'-Ib, TTpe,rt:Ha3Ha'-IeHHYKl JJ:.,'lH H3rOTOBJTeHHH '-l}"-leJI, HOCHTb B\1eCTe C npyrort JJ:H'-IbKl, xnacrr, B QeJIrrorpaaoasre naxersr, ceTKH.

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K npenapuposaamo npucrynaior TOJIhKO nocne roro , KaK TyIlIKa OKOHy.aTeJIhHO OCThIHeT.

no TTpHe3JJ:e JJ:OMOtt HeJTb3H xnacrt, ,rt:11'-lh B \WP03HJlbHHK - TOJTbKO Ha HI1)I(HKlKl nOJIK}' XO~'lOJJ:I1JlhHHKa. C oxoveaeamen TYIIIKI1 OqeHh TPYJJ:HO CHI1MaTh KO)l(}', a OTTaHBiliaH 'ryunca npnofiperaer aetoeapnsrtt, \10KPhltt BllJJ:, QTO O'-leHh aarpyzmaet JJ:aJIbHei1IlIYKl pa60TY.

IIIKYPY C fionsuroro )l(I1BOTHOro Ha,!:(O CHJ1\faTh cpasy nocne orcrpena.

Ilepeaosnrr, «MOKpj'lO'> IIIKYPY cnezryer, cBepHYB ee B PYJTOH II npeJJ:BapIITeJThHO IIPOJIQ)KllB 6-7 -caHTHMeTpOBbIM CJTOeM cyxoro cena. Hano H36eraTh CKJTa,rt:hIBaHI15I IlIKJ'PhI KOHBepTOM: na MeCTe crnfia 06Pa3YKlTC5I nponneunrnsr.

• He COBeTYIO CHID-taTh IIIKypy l1Jll1 JJ:eJIaTh nonsrncy 113roTOBI1Tb y.yy.eJI0 113 nasumx 11 K.aKoe-TO BpeM}[ nponexaaurnx )Kl1BOTHhL,(. )]JI5I sauiero 3,rt:OPOBh5!3TO onacuo.

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H3rOTOBJIEHHE qyqEJI nTIIQ

51 IIOCTapaIOCh osem, IIonpo6HO OIUICaTh necr, IIpOueCC 113- rOTOBJIeHlUI 'IyqeJI IITI1U. IITaK, BHlHIaHl1e!

• H3Mepl1B JIl1HeiliWM IIpO).1ephI IITl1UhI, cnenyer 3aIIl1CaTb: ,!I,JIl1Hy 11 TO}IllI,I1HY TeJIa; nJII1HY kpsmsen, lllel1 11 HOr.

3TO Oy.eHb BillKHhlM MOMeHT. ECJIl1 He CIDlTh npensap 11- TeJIhHO npouepsi )1,11'111, TO nOCJIe npenapupoaauas IITl1Ubl cnerrars 3TO C-'lO)KHO. ECJIl1 I1CKYCCTBeHHail ryunca OKa)KeTCiI BeJII1Ka, qyy.e_'lO 6Y,.!leT l1MeTb YBe_'ll1qeHHble pasjrepst, 'ITO CKa)KeTCiI ua BHeWHeM Bl1..!le qyqe_'la 11 kasecrae o6pa6oTKl1 TyWKl1. 'Iepes pacruayryio KO)KY IIpOCTyIIl1T UBeT XlH1l1qeCKOrO npenapara: TaK, npu oopaoorxe Me,!I,HbiM xynopocoja UBeT KO)Kl1 CTaHeT 3e_'leHOBaThIM, HCKYCCTBeHHYlO ryuixy }lyqWe cnenars He!v1HOrO MeHhwero paaxrepa, qeM 60JIbWerO,

• B KIOBeTT<y IITHUY KJIa)I,eTe Ha CIIHH)', ITO,IJ: PYKotJ ,IJ:OJI)KHhJ 6bJTb TpHIIO'lKa H sara ,IJ:JIH BbITHpaHHH KPOBH,

• Ha rpYJlH IITHUbJ pasasnraere nepsn H lllHpOKHM CKaJIbIIerrev ,IJ:eJIaeTe nanpes OT OCHOBaHHH men ,IJ:O anarrsnoro oTBepcTHH. MO)KHO He 60HTbCH C,IJ:eJIaTb my60KHH aaztpes. Hac mrrepecyer TOJIbKO KO)Ka, a He caua TYWKa, O,IJ:HaKO OH He nOJI)KeH 6bITb HaCTOJIbKO my60KH'.f, 'lT06bJ BbJBaJIHCb BH)'TpeHHOCTH nTHUbJ.

• TOHKl1M CKaJIbIIeJIe)"1 ornenxere K02KY nrnust BMeCTe C neph5!M 11 , OT M5!Ca, 06pe3aB COe,.!lI1Hl1TeJIhHhle BOJIOKHa, orneJI5!eTe )..lbIWUbI H IIO,.!lK02KHYlO II-'leHOy.KY.

,IJ:anee TaKCI1,IJ:epMI1CT nOJI)KeH npJ1nep)KHBaTbCH TOIJbKO OLJ;Horo rrpasnrra: CTO pas nO)l)'MaTh, OLl.UH paa orpesars.

KO)Ka nerxo CHJ1MaeTC5I nO'lTI1 co scea T)'lllKI1 nTI1UhI, aa J1CKHIOqeHI1eM KPhlJIbeB, nor 11 rOJIOBhl,

13

KOf,LIa Bbl nO'IYBCTByeTe, 'ITO ,LIaJIee npenapnponars ryuiky HeB03MO)KH0, ecna He orpeaars eII..J;e 'ITO-TO 60JIee CYII..J;eCTseunoe, Ha'I11HaTb Ha,LIO C HOf,

JTaJIbuaMII CHIIMaeTe KO)K)' C nor )J:O rOJIeHOCTonHoro CYCTaBa,

rOJIeHOCTOnHblH CYCTaB ITepeKYCblBaeTC5J KycaQKa\1H II ~lepe3 6PfOlliHOti paspea trory oCB06Q)](,LIaeTe.

• TaK)I(e OCB060)l(,LlaeTe H BTOpyJO HOI)',

JTPH BblT5JrMBaHHII HOrM nepes paspea B 6PfOlliHOti ITOJIOCTH KO)l(a Horn CBopa~lHBaeTC5J B rap\10111KY, ~ITO cauo ITO ce6e He crpannro.

Ha uesxe Y 60JIblllHHCTBa nT11U KO)l(Y He 3aBOpa'IIIBafOT. l1cKHfO'IeHIIe COCTaBJI}[fOT 6epKYT, 4>H)U1H, \lOXHOHOfHH KaHJOK 11 uexoropsre npyrue nTIIUbI C <<JIOXMaTbl\1l1» Hora!>1I1,

• Korna o6e Horn ocB06mK,lJ,eHbI, orpesaere XBOCT H paspes nenaere nsrure KPellJIeHH5I XBOCTOBblX nepsea K T)'lIIKe. )(sOCT orpesaere TaK, 'lT06bl XBOCTOBbIe nepss ,lJ,ep)KaJIHCb na TOM xrecre, OTKY,lJ,a OHM pacryr, TO ecrt, na KOII'lHKOBOH )l(eJIe3e.

• JToCJIe TOro KaK Horn II XBOCT OCBo6o)](JleHbl, KO)[(a co CITHHbI H C 60KOB CHHMeTC5J JIerKO.

HeC:\-IOTPH na JIe[KOCTb sceii «cnepauun», rrpOBO,LII1Tb ee HMO OCTOPO)KHO, ,LIeHCTBYH nansuasia, f,LIe-TO HO)KHI1Ua\1l1, [,LIe-TO cxansnenev, TywKY cnenyer npovoxars, nepecunars kpaxxansHOM, \1)KOH, nurapars xannu KpOBH, 'IT06bI OHl1 He I1Cna'IKaJIl1

Puc. 1. OCBo6o:HCOeHUe eOAmWCmOmWi?D cucmaea

14

onepemre. IIpH nonpeaamm MeCT, OTKYna paC1YT nept,a, nano coomozrars oc06)'IO OCTopmKHOCTh, naase nepss BbIIIanYT.

• )lOHn5I no KphIJIheB, OCB060)K,l1,aeTe OT KO)l(11 ace nocrynHble ~eCTa npennne-u,a. B OCHOBHOM patiorars rrp11XO,ll11TC5I 60JIbIlI11M 11 yxaaarensnstx nansuaxur.

OrOJI5IeTe npemme-n.e H nepepesaere JIOKTeBOH CYCTaB.

Y rrTHU BeJIHqHHOH C xyponarxy H 60JIbille KO)l(Y npeztrmeass paapesaror rro arrvrpennen CTopOHe KpbIJIa, Me)KJl.Y JIyqeBoH H JIOKTeBot'1 KOCT5IMH. B 3TOYl cnysae nepsa OCTaIOTC5I npaxpennearrsnrn K KOCT5IM H He BbIIIanalOT.

Y MeJIKHX IlTIHI KO)l(Y C npenrorem,s 3aBOpaQlIBalOT lI)lJIKO~l H YlbliliUbI BMeCTe C CYX0.JKHJIH5IMH astpesaror.

Haao 065I3aTe}lhHO 3aIl0~HI1Tb, 'ITO BhI ,llOJDKHbi rro B03MO)l(HOCTI1 OCB060,llI1Tb OT M5Ica KOCTO'!KH 11 Y'IaCTKl1 KO)l(I1. L{ej,l MeHbille M5ICa OCTaHeTC5I aa «O,lle)K,l1,e» 'IY'Ie}la, Tej,l }IY'!IlIe.

• C nren 11 fOJIOBbI KO.JKY CHHMaeTe ,!)'JIKOYl, C)1,BHfa5I ee nansuawa snepen. Ko.JKY He paCT5IfHBaeTe, a nonpesaere B rex YlecTax, me OHa nptrxperrxena K uree,

II onpesaere KO)K)' B MeCTax coemraennn C Mblmua\fH - B CJIYXOBhIX rrpoxonax H soxpyr rJIa3. Ko)K)' C rOJIOBbJ CHH\faere )1,0 OCHOBaHH5I KJIIOBa.

Y rycen, vrox, neoenen, nanens 11 ,ll5ITJIOB rOJIOBa He rrpoXO,llI1T sepes Y3KHH ysacrox men, 1l03TO.MY rrp11XOnHTC5I paspesart, mero C sepxaea CTOPOHbI)1,O 3aTbIJIKa. OroJIeHHbII1 Qeperr oTpe:3aIOT OT TymKI1, ynaJI5IIOT rnasa, 5I3bIK, MbImUbI, a Qepe3 3aTbIJIO'IHYIO KOCTh - M03r.

• «O)1,e)KJl.a» nJI5I 6ynymefo Qy'!eJIa rorosa. Teneps nano ee 06pa60TaTb.

CH5IT)'lO C rrTUUbJ KO)K)' onnutaere OT rtpnpesea 1>mca 11 )KUpa. )l(UPHYIO KO)J(Y \fHOrOKpaTHo IlpOMOKaeTe 6YMa)J(HOH CaJl<peTKOH, rrpornpaere BaToH H rrpncsmaere KpaXMaJIO\f. 3arraqKaHHbJe nepsn OTMbJBaeTe TerrJIOH sonott C MbIJIOM 11 rtpocyumsaere, rrOCbIIIa5I 11 rrpOT11pa5I HX KpaXMaJIO\f. 3a)Kupemrsre nepsn npensaparensao orvsraaere 6eH3UHOM, 3¢>Upov UJIW aueronou, rrO\fH5J 0 Mepax 6e30llacHocTw.

IIocJIe TaKoM 06pa60TKl1 KO)l(Y nporpaanneaere paCTBOpOM ~bIIlIb5IKOB11CToro HaTp115I HJIH pacrsopou Me,llHOrO xynopoca. Me,llHhIM kynopocov crapajrrecs cxtaaars TOJIbKO KO)l(Y, a 11Ha'!e onepenue, ocofieuuo nyx, H3MeHl1T CBOM UBeT ua 3eJIeHhIM. Hano nporpaanuaars TaK)Ke -iepen. 51 onYCKaJI ero B paCTBOp j,le,llHOrO xynopoca aa naruaauars Ml1H)'T, a xorna

15

BHneJT, qTO He rrOJTHOCTbJO OCB060)1,HJT ero OT OCTaTKOB ~Hca, rrpoaaprrsan ~HHYTbJ nse B KHnHIII,eH BO)1,e, a rrOTO~ onYCKaJJ B paCTBOp ~e.llHoro xyrropoca.

Bonee .aayx !>.-1l1HYT napuru 'leperr He Ha.D.O. Paaaapeaasre CB5!3Kl1 pacnanaiorca, 11 OH repaer CBOIO CPOP'\lY.

C \lenHbl\1 KynopOCO\1 naao 06pawaTbCSI OlleHb OCTOPO)f(HO U B pe3HHOBblX nep-iarxax. ECJlH na PYKax ecn. uaparnrHbl, He patiorairre.

Pacrsop Me,UHoro xynopoca urnpauov BBOMT B KO)KY uenKl1 nrnusr, a eC.Il11 He06xo,Ul.f!>..10, TO 11 B MhlillUhl lllllOCHhI roneHaCThlX nruu TaK11X KaK uanns , )KypaBJlh.

B L'Ta3HHllbJ BCTaBJTHJOT KO~OqKH rrJTaCTHJll·JHa. HcxycCTBeHHbJe L'Ta3a nO)1,6HpaJOT rro trsery, rronxoasmnre naHHOfJ )1,fJqH. ECJTH BbJ XOTHTe B 6YnytIle~ naxperrtco saxpernrrs rOJTOBy rra OCHOBaIDIH -rynerra, TO BMeCTO TTJTaCTHJTHHa BCTaBbTe rnrtc, npHrOTOBJTHJOT ero sa HeCKOJTbKO MHHYT no Ha)1,eBaHHH «onexmr» rrrmrsr rra HcryccTBeHHYJO TyrrIry.

B\leCTO noxyrnrux UCKYCCTBeHHblX rnas \fQ)f(HO UcnOJlb30- BaTb rtvrosxusr, noaxonnume no UBeTY, wm sapanee H3rOTOBHTb rnasa U3 UBeTHOfO oprcrexna.

Teua H3rOTOB.JleHHH rJTa3 Ol.JeHb 'rperterrrasr. TIYCTb ~eJTO rrrnusr rrOJTYqHTCH OlllHrraHHhJ~ HJTH KaKH~-TO ypO)1,JIHBhJM, ero ~O)KHO 6yneT rrOTO~ «nOn)TO)KfJTb» K 60JTee y)1,al.JHOMY ~l.Je}TY XHIII,HHKa H rrperrormecrn KaK «)KepTBY eCTeCTBeHHoro orfiopa» , HO L'Ta3a y -rysen )1,OJT)KHbJ 6bITh )1,ettcTBHTeJTbHO «HaCTOHIII,HMH».

ECTh HeCKOJThKO cnocofios 113nnOB.lleH115! fJIa3. BOT 0,Ul1H 113 HliX.

H3 cnmrua OTJTHBaeTe xpyrnyro -rynrxy nnaverpov 8--10 C~, TOJlIIl,HHOH 2-3 C~.

B HeM npo.aannnaaere nonyctpepuxecxue JlyHKl1. ,LlJT5! 3TOro nomuanuaxa pasusix paasiepon B611BaeTe B CBl1Heu.

J1YHKI1 ,UuaMeTpO\1 4 \IM - ,UIHI rnas 6eKacoB U nepeneJlOB; 8--10 M\1 - ,UIHI rnas YTOK, JlYHei1, HCTpe6a-TeTepeB$lTHHka; 20-22 \IM - JlJlH rnas KOCYJlb H Ka6aHoB; 33-35 \IM - n.'1S1 rnas noceii, O.'1eHei1.

11'1$1 Ka)f(.lloti JlYHKH noncnpaere nyaacoau - \leTa.'1JlWlecKHe Wapl1KU nHa\leTpOM MeHbwe na ,UBe TOJlWUHbl oprcrexna, rtpnaapenuue K xretann WleCKU\1 CTep)f(HH M.

Tloztfinpaere OprCTeJ(}lO pasnon TOJTlllHHhJ. LJ.JTH H3rOTOBJTeHHH L'Ta3 nHaMeTpO~)1,O I 0 ~M - oprCTeKJJO TOJTIII,HHOfJ I 111m;

20-25 M!>.-1 - oprCTeKHO 2 '\lM; 30 '\IM 11 60Jlee - oprCTeKHO TOJIllJ,11HOM 2,5-3 .\lM.

Oprcrexno .uOJDKHO 6bITb 6eCUBeTHoe.

Oprcrexno narpesaere Ha,J1. caesori lUl11 raaosori rOpeJlIWM 11 napesaere nOJlOCaMI1. 11111p11Ha nOJlOCbI .uOJDKHa 6bITb 60Jlbwe .uI1aMerpa JIYHK11 aa 1-2 M!>.-1, a .uJUl xpynusix fJIa3 - ua 3-4 M'\L Ha nOJlOCe nanpesaere xsanpar , OH nepxnrcu TOJlbKO ua TOHKO.\1 «BOJlOCKe». Iloxa oprcrekno rennoe, YfJlbI xsanpara oxpyrnaere 11, npI1.!lO)KI1B K JlYHKe, B.uaBJlI1BaeTe B aee. nyancouosi, nepxure .uBe-TpI1 MI1Hy'TbI, noxa oprcrexJlO OCTbIHeT. 3palloK pncyere llepHbThl UBeTO.\I; pa.uY)KHYlO 060JIOllKY Pa3PI1COBbIBaeTe xpackaxrn J11160 paaxaasmaere no Hell nHaCTllH11H nonxoaauiero UBeTa.

Mst OCTaBwm aaury TYWKY noxa 6e3 «onexnu».

• OCHOBY ,ll.mJ 6y.uywero qyqeJTa Ka)K,ll.bJH If3H1TOBJureT rro CBoe~ YCMOTpeH11lO.

Ho Ha,J1.0 C06JllO.uaTb nepaonaaansusre paasiepsr, llT06bI 113 p1l611I1Ka He nonysunca rnyxaps,

KTo-TO If3roTORJUJeT OCHOBY If3 rnrrca, KTO-TO rro pasuepy TYJlOBHlua BbJTTmTHBaeT .uepeBHHHYIO 60JTBaHKY, a 3aTeM 06- BH3bIBaeT ee 611HTaMll HJlJJ rtpyrmr rrorrxortsnmrv varepna- 110M. Hexoropsre rterraror xapxac 113 rrpOBo}IOK11. ,Il,JlH fiexaCOB, COPOK 11 HM noztoomrx rrTHU rrpnronaa MHrKaH rrpOBOJTOtea ,llIfaMeTpoM 1,2-1,5 \1".f; J1,JTH c1Ja3aHoB H 'rerepesoa - 2,0-2,5 1\1M; ,ll.JHJ rnyxapeit If rycelt- 3,0--3,5 MM.

• Ilenaere OCHOBHOi1 crepxeiu., paBHbIM .u.H11He TyJlOB11wa, uren C rO}lOBOi1, - C 3anaCO.\1 10-15 M!>.-1. Ilonepexuue npOBOJlOK11 .uJlll xpsutsea 11 nor .uOJDKHbI 6bITb C 3anaCO.\1 ua Ka)K.uml KOHue no 10 .\lM.

Ha ypoarre raaofienpemroro If rtnesreaoro cycraaos rrposoJToKY ctcperrrrnere Ko}TeqKaM11, tra Hee HaMaTbJBaeTe rraxmo no TOJTIUIfHbI, pasnon 06"be1vry 'ryurxn.

lJTo6bl naKJHI He paauarsmanaci., o6MoTai1Te ee KpenKI1- \H1 HUTKaMI1.

• Flepenmra xoneu ueHTp3JTbHOrO CTep)KHH rrpOTllIXIDJTe B rrepen TTTHUbI, rrpOKOJTOB ero. npOBo}lOKY rrpocynsre BMeCTe C naxnen B IUelO. Crepxerrs, 06MOTaHHbrn naxnen, B rrepene .uOJT)KeH ,ll.ep)KaTbCH xpenxo.

HanlHI1Te KO)f(Y na uieto I1 rpy.ub OCHOBbl, npensapnTeJlbHO BOTKHYB npOB011OKY B KPbJ)lbSl.

• IlPOBOJIOKY HeMHOrO cormrre If. npOCYHhTe B Horn, ripenBapHTeJIbHO C.!leJIaB B Hl1X IllHJIOM OTBepCTIUl.

• HOraM rrpmtanre eCTeCTBefIHOe nOJIOJKeHl1e; eCJIl1 neooXU.D,IlMO, saxpernrre COelI,HHeHIHI npOBOJIOK noxperrre 11 nonCYHhTe naKJIIO .B MeCTa, OTKY.D,a Y.D,aJIeHhI MblIllUbI.

n POBOAO'lHGJl OCHOBQ. 06M.OmanHQR m.ICGHblO

Puc .. 2. n P080AO'f.HaR OCH08G ''f.Y'l.e.A

Puc. 3. l.fyrteJlOaomo8o. Ocmasoc» mOAblCO 3atuumb paape3bl

18

Koxy saurerrre, rrrnue npnnaare H)0KHYJO rr03Y, nepsn rtpnsemrre B nOpq,IJ:OK. fOTOBOe ~JY"JeJTO yCa,IJ:JJTe Ha serxy.

CTOHT 3Ty OrrepaUJ1IO np0,IJ:eJTaTb HeCKOJIbKO paa, H BbI naJIOB'!HTeCb ,IJ:eJIaTh -rysena 6bICTpO.

YT06bI KPbIJTbll BO speua CyWKH He npOBl1CaJIIl MIl He BbIKPY'!I1BaJIIlCb, 11X g:,HKCHPYJOT. Hexoropsre ~taCTepa BCTaB}l}IJOT L'Ja3a B KOHl.I,e aceri pa60TbI, cne,IJ:5I sa TeM, '!To6bI OHH pacnonaranucs non BeKaMH, no ueirrpy rnaaunuu, cxiorpenu snepezi, a He B pasnsre CTOPOHbI.

BOT H see, Ila, 3a6bIJT!

TYWKY rrTHl.I,bl nonoxnre B KacTpJOJlJO H sapnre ,IJ:O Taro MmleHTa, noxa OHa He 6Y,IJ:eT rOTOBa K ynoTpe6JleHI1JO. IlpnHTHOro annerirral BOT 'reneps Bee.

M3rOTOBJIEHME qyqF.JI 3BEPEU

TTpe)J(JJ:e qe\1 rrpncryrnrrs K H3rOTOBJIeHHlO qyqeJIa, peUHUe. JJ:JIH cefin, ~lTO Bbl XOTJITe. CJJ:eJIaTb ~l~IeJIO H3 BCerO 3BepH HJIH TOJIbKO H3 rOJIOBbI. MO)J(eT 6bITb, BaC YCTPOHT rrOJJ:eJlKJI JI3 KJlbIKOB 3BepH, H3 POroB, JI3 KOrrbIT. 3TO H K TO\1y, 'ITO, OTJJ:aB npearrovrenne OJJ:HO\1Y JI3 3TJIX rrpeJJ:\1eTOB, Bbl, MO)J(eT 6bITb, HaBCerJJ:a }IJIIlIJITeCb JJ:pyrHX. Hy, rOJIOBa C KOBPHKO\1 KaK-TO COB\1eIlIaIOTCH. A BOT rOJIOBa OTJJ:eJlbHO? OTpe3aB rOJIOBY, BbI HJIKorJJ:a He rrOJI~IJITe q~IeJIO B rrOJlHYIO semmmry. OTo6paB y xatiana KTIbIKJI, KaK onem, rraMHTHbIH rporpen, BbI HHKOrna ~e He CMO)J(eTe JI3 rOJIOBbI CJJ:eJIaTb HHqerO rryrnoro, pa3YMeeTCH, KpOMe XOrroztua.

TIo ce6e snato - BbI60p TJDKeJI, I1 3TO XOqeTC}[, 11 TO XOserca. A eCJII1 HeT n06JlH30CTI1 Mac Tepa , TO MO)KHO 11 IIOTeP}[Tb MeqTY, l1nI1Te OT fionsurero K \1eHbIlIe\1Y, ECJII1 rOJIOsa He nOJIYQI1TC}[, KJlbIKl1 scerna OCTaHYTC}[, a He Ha060poT.

TTOTpeHHpOBaBiliJICb na rrrnue, Bbl Y)J(e snaere, ~ITO H KaK MbI 6yne\1 JJ:eJIaTb.

HaQI1HaTb JlYQIlIe C MaJIeHbKI1X )KI1BOTHbIX - 6eJIOK, aaiiuen, XOpbKOB, B KOHue KOHUOB, C KpbIC, eCJII1 OHI1 BaM HpaB}[TC}[, TIOTO\1 \10)KeTe nepexonars ua JlI1C, BOJIKOB, JIOceil 11 MenBeneii, Cauoe rnanuoe , nOJI)KeH 6bITb non pyxon HY)KHblil \1aTepI1a.n, 3TO ocofieuao KaCaeTC}[ qyqeJI 60JIbIlII1X )KI1BOTHbIX, Kapxac nOJI)KeH .aep.xart- sec qyqeJIa, He 6yne\1 cenxac aararuanart., xaxoe qYQeJIO I13rOTOBI1M B 6ynYIlIeM, HaqHeM C Ma.neHbKI1X )KI1BOTHbIX,

20

B. CY<!P0608. H32(JmOfJJfeHIJI! 14y .. e.JI

'-lyqe.llo OeJIKH

C.uemLJIH aaxepsr 6eJIKI1. )]OCTaeM CKaJIbneJIb H nenaext npO.uO)IbHbIH paapes - OT rpynn LlO KOPJ-lli XBOCTa.

Bo06111e-To, xorzta K B<L\1 nortaztaer KaImH-HH6y.ub snepex, Bb[ .uOJDKHb[ cavn BHHMaTeJIbHO rtocvorpert, H OueHHTb, KaK nysnue C Hero CH5ITb llIKYPKY, q'f06bI 3aTe:M ee ycnemno na.ueTb na HCKYCCTBeHHYJO ryurxy. K KIDK)lO:MY snepsxy HyxeH CBOH nozrxozt, HO OCHOBa scerna ozma - paspea OT rpvna )l0 XBOCTa, OCB060)KJleHHe nor H [oJIOBb[. Ilpyrax TPY)lHOCTeH HeT. Caxroe rJIaBHOe B TaKOH pariore - ztenart, KaK MO)[(HO :MeHbllIe )1HllIHHX Ha,Upe30B, npaBHJIbHO 06pa60TaTb llIKYPKY H 'lepen H npannnr.uo nOJl[OTOBHTb HCKYCCTBeHHyro rynrxy. IlTaK, paspes :Mb] C)leJIaJIH. 3a)lHHe H rrepenune nanxn , He paspesaa, BbIBOpa'lHBaeM )l0 OCHOBaHH5I nanr-nea, O'lHllIaeM OT :Mb]llIU H CyxO)[(HJ[HH, nepepeaaev na 3a,UHHX JIanKaX KOJIeHHb]H CYCTaB, a na nepeznnrx - JIOKTeBOH CYCTaB.

Bbl snaere, rne, y xoro, KaK H ~ITO paspesaercn, 3anOMHHaTb oc060 H He nano. Tyunca caua He )laCT OCB060)lHTb xaKOH-HH6YJlb CYCTaB npOCTO TaK. BbIXO)l Bbl HaH)],eTe H cavn, ecJIH norrpooyere npHMeHHTb TO O)lHH, TO )lpyrOH xreroz; Ha~IHHaTb «ocaoooxneane» nysnne caanana PYKOH. EC_'lH He BbIXO)],HT, nano rrpnoenryn, K rrovounr CKa'IbneJIH, a He Ha060pOT.

Ilanr.me. XBOCTOBble n03BOHKH 6eJIKH Bb])leprHBaeTe, He paapesas XBOCTa H He HaBOpa'lHBa51 KO)[(), na n03BOHKH. CHH:MaeTe rapuomxon. CHHMaeTe llIKYPKY co BCeH TYllIKH. C IIIeH llIKYP[(), aanopaaanaere na roJIOBY H noapesaere OCHOBaHH5I yrneH H CB5I3KH BOKpyT rnaa, KaK \(O)[(HO 6JIH)[(e K KOCT5I:M H L'la3HO\(Y 5I6JIOKY.

Hano nocraparsca He paapeaars BeKH H IIIKypKy Y fJIa3. fy6bl nonpesaere no rpanuue C .ueCHa.\1H. HOCOBble xpauut H nOLl60pOLlOK He nepepesaere. B .uaHHO~ CJIY'lae uncypxa xpenKO 6YLleT nepxarsca ua xepene; ero orpesaere OT TyllIKH.

H3 ~repenHOH Kop06KH rrepea 06pa30BaBIIIeeCH OTBepCTHe ynannere \103r, H3 HOCOBOH nOJIOCTH - rreperoponxn.

3aMeTKa ua 6y.uywee. EC)IH xepea 06pa30BaBllIeeCJl orsepcTHe Y apyrux 3BepbKOB B<L\l 6YLleT CJIO.IKHO ynamrn, M03f, TO MO.IKHO orpesan, HJllI OTm1JlHTb 3aTbL'l0'lHYlO KOCTb y 'lepena H Y.IKe xepea 60_'lee tuapoxoe OTBepCTHe YLlaJIHTb .\103f. llepen 06pa6aTbIBaeM, HanOJIHJle.\l JIl06bI~ nonxonxiuav MaTepHa_'l0~ (MO)KHO H He HanOJIHJlTb), a 3aTb1Jl0'lHYIO KOCTb B03Bpauraexr aa ~eCTO: JIH60 npuxnenaaew, JIH60 'leM-TO 3a\leH>.te~.

21

Ceirsac MHe Y,!l,06HO BBeCTH HYjJepaW110 ,!l,ei1cTBHi1. 11TaK, 6y,UejJ C'lI1TaTb, 'ITO see, '!TO _MI.I OnI1CMH, CT0I1T non HOMepOM 1,

2. l.Iepen H BCIO IllKYPKY, BKJIIO~Ia51 BHYTpeHHlO1O rrosepxHOCTb IIarrOK H XBOCTa, XOPOillO rtpornrrsrsaev HaCbIlI(eHHbI\f pacrsopou MbIIllb5lKOBHCTOro HaTpH5I ImH 3aCaJIHBae\f KHCJIOTHO-COJIeBotl cvecsro ImH MeJIKOH rrosapeaaon COJIblO. l.ho-~ITo, a )1)K COJIb ztocrynna Ka)J(,UoMY!

3. 113roTaBJIHBaeM rrpoBOJIQqHbIH xapxac. OH COCTOHT H3 OCHOBHoro cTep)J(H5I H ,UBYX nonepemrsrx crepxaen ):(.JI5I JIarrOK. 3aTa~IHBae\f nx Pasvepsr crepxaen 51 He YKa3bIBalO, OHH ):(OJI)J(HbI 6bITb HeMHoro 60JIbille ):(JIHHbl KOHe~IHOCTeH ssepsxa. Ha OCHOBHO\f CTep)J(He rterraev ,UBa KOJIeqKa: O):(HO - na \fecre nneseaoro CYCTaBa, ztpyrce - na MeCTe rasooezrpeanoro CYCTaBa. B KOJIeqKH BCTaBJI5le\f rronepemrsre CTep)J(HH, KOJIeqKH 3a)J(HMaeM, csoriomrue KOHIlPI rtortepe-rasrx CTep)J(HeH 3aKpysmsaeu Ha 1,5 ooopora BOKPyr OCHOBHOro cTep)J(H5I.

4, Ha nOJI)"l.HBIllHI1C}[ xapxac HaMaTbIBaeM rraKJIIO no pas~lepaM, COOTBeTCTBYIOIllHjJ TYIllKe, lITo6bI naxna He pa3MaTI.Iaanacs H He pacnaaanacs , 06jJaTbIBaeM ee HI1TKaMI1, J1I1IllHl1e 2 CjJ naKJII1 ,UO}DKHbI IVIOTHO BXO,UI1Tb B sepenayio Kopo6KY.

5. llJKYPKY, rrpOTpaBJIeHHYIO \fblIllb5lKO\f, MO)J(HO uartesart, rra HCKYccTBeHHYIO TymKY. TIpoCOJIeHHYIO IllKYPKY npensapnTeJIbHO Ha):(O rrpOrrOJIOCKaTb B qHCTOH sone, OT)J(aTb H, ssraepRYE \feXOM Hap)1)KY, B reseane naca npocynnrrs. TIoCJIe roro KaK nrxypxa BbICOXHeT, ee o6pa6aTbIBae\f paCTBOpO\f Me):(HOro xyrtopoca. OH ):(O}DKeH 6blTb cJIa6oBaTb1M, ~IT06bl He oxpaCHJI \fex 6 eJI KH .

6, 'Iepen ua HeCKOJIbKO jJHH)'T onycxaexr B paCTBOp Me,UHOfO xynopoca.

7, B r.rra3HJ.1L1,bl BKJIa,UblBaeM KO\lOl1KI1 naKJ1J.1, nJIOTHO CKaraaaue no paavepy rnasnoro 516JIOKa, nO)),KJIa)),blBaeM naKJ110 Ha He60, a ua MeCTa Y)),aJIeHHblX MbliliU HaKJ1a,UblBaeM nnacTI1JII1H, rune, r.ru1HY (Ha BbI6op).

8, BCTaBJHleM J.1CKyccTBeHHble rnasa, WKYPKY HaT5IfJ.1BaeM Ha -repen J.1 astsopas I1BaeM \1eXOM Hapy)Ky. MOP,UOlIKY pacnpaansev , KO)KY Ha rOJIOBe pa3rJJa)K~1Bae\1 I1 pacnpaansieu yWKI1. BBO)),~1M B -repertayio Kopo6KY OCHOBHO~1 crepxens ~1CKYCCTBeHHO~1 TyIllKI1,

TIPOKaJII.IBaeM seperuryro Kop06KY 11 sa rrO}[BI1BIllI1I1C}[ KOHell CTep)KH}[ BT}[fHBaeM rraKJIIO B 'lepenHylO Kop06KY,

22

OJI.HOBpeMCHHO IllKYPKY nararanaeu na utero Ii rpyaxy ncxvCCTBCHHOH rymxn.

9. KOHuaMl1 O,D.HOID rronepesnoro CTep)({HfI rrpOKaJIhIBaCM IIO,D.OIllBb[ nepennnx JIarrOK, a KOHuaMU npyroro ~ IIO,D.OIIlBbl sanHI1XJIanOK. KORen OCROBHOro CTCp)f(IDI npocoasraaev B XBOCT.

8To YAo6HO c)J,enaTb, ecnn lliKYPKY 6enKH COrHiTb rton He- 60JIblliMM yrJIOM B HanpaBJIeHUH CIIMHbI, a KOHUN HCKyccTBeHHoti: TYlliKH, TaK KaK OHa C)J,eJIaHa H3 npOBOJIOKU, TO)f(e corays nOA 3THM )((e yrJIOM, aarrpasrrn, B HY>KHOM HanpaBJIeHHH.

III ::t --=s
a ~ t:l1I,I
~ 0:: 4Il0.:::
~ I!.I 5~
~ 'Q
E 13' Qt:
ltI ca:a;
ca: C ~~
tI :c
1:1: l<! .._, ~:e
.._" .c:I 0 ot:l
tE :c a: O::E
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re r..... 0
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0 t::::: Puc. 4. OCHOBHbte 3manbL C03aaHuR 't!llleAa 6eAKu

23

10. KOCTO~[Kl1 nor rrpHBH3hlBaeM K CTep2KHHM.

11. Ilpanas nanxau ecTeCTBeHHOe rrOJIO)f(eHHe, 3amHBaeM IpKYPKY 6eJIIill, npoxansrsaz nrnoi1: Me3,[lpy.

12. Caxaexr l.IyqenO 6eJIoq~Kl! na cysox, rtpermapnrent.no npocaeprnm B HeM OTBepCTHH .LI)U[ KOWl.HKOB CTep)£(HeH. 3aKpennaeu, JInmHHe [(OHUb! cTepxmei1: OTKYChlBaeM KycaqKaMH. Bernce Moxmo«rrO,[lapHTh» WH1l1KY, HaCa,[lHB ee na CTep)KHH nepe,D,H11X nan 0 K.

13.l[epe3 He,[leJIH zrse, KOr,[la<[yqeJIO rrpOCOXHeT, yrOJIKH rnas MO)f(HO CMa3aTb 3nOKCH,[lHbIM KJIeeM, l.IT06b1 He OTOIIIJIH peCHHtUCH.

MOlliVl nepBl>LM.qyqenOM 6bIJIO qyqeno 6enKn. OHa nonynrnacr, He osem, xopomo, rroserreaena OT rrepeaacsnuemroro pacrsopa Me,D,Horo xyrropoca, canezra B HeeCTeCTBeHHOH ncse. Topaano nosxe a npHHopOBHlICH IT 60JIhme nO,[106HhIX onrasox Y1Ke He COBepmaJI.

Puc .. 5. 3aKIUQ'lUmeJl.bHblU sman 6 U3l!Om08J1eHUU'lY'teJlQ: 6eJl.lw

24

LlyqeJIO rOJIOBbl KOCYJIH

Cnenart, 3TO qy'-JeJTO HaM HHTepeCHO no TOM OCHOBHOM rrpn'[nme, l.ITO Y KOCYJTH ecrt, pmKKH. Kate COXpaHHTb 3TH pmKKH, KaT<:: C)1,eJTan, rOJTOBY KOCYJTH, QT06bJ OHa 6bJJTa KaK HaCTOHIII,aH - BOT 3a,1laQH, KOTOpbJe HaM npenCTOHT pennrrs, QT06bJ 3TH 3HaHHH rrprrvemrrs nJTH H3rOTOBJTem-IH qyqeJT H3 )1,pyrnx «porarsrx- )l(HBOTHbJX.

MTaK, BaM rne-ro Eor nOCJl(UI xocyiuo ... Bu ornenana uieio KOC)!}l11 OT TYJlOBl1111a 11, nOCOBeTOBaBWl1Ch C ,llPY3hJlMl1, peuiuJUt cnenars 113 scero srorc l(Yl(e.'lo. Baunr ,llei1cTBl1Jl raxne.

• Canvaere nrtcypy C rOJTOBbJ KOCYJTH, CneJTaB T -06pa3HhTH paapes Me)l(,ll,y porasm, BOKPyr poroa Y cauoro sepxa KOPOHKH H no BepXHeH CTopOHe men )1,0 aarpnatca.

• CHHB mKYPY no ynreit, rrepepesaere XPHlllH yunrsrx npoXO)1,OB H CBH3KH BOKPyr rJTa3, craparrcs 3TO cnenars 6JTH)I(e K xocrmr -reperta H K rnaaaovy H6JTOKY. Crapaarecs He npope- 3aTh KO)l(Y BeK H mKYPY Y rJTa3.

• ry6b1 noapesaere no rpaanue e ,lleCHa\fl1. Flepepesaere XPHWU H03,llpei1 I1 \fOllKI1 noca, C ry6 Ha)1,O cpesars Bee \1bIWUbI I1 eOe,llI1HI1TeJlbHYIO TKaHb - C )lmpOBblX OTJlO>KeHl1ti.

Puc. 6. Paspes 11a GO.1OSe u Wee:1fC;U8r:n11.H.blX.

U.AtefO~UX pow

25

B ymax OT)],eJUfeTe OT XPJrlUa MeXOBYIO HapYiKHYIO III KYP KY. Illxypxa nayrpeaaeti sacra yxa ornenserca nnoxo, ee MOiKHO OCTaBHTb na xpxme.

·qepen 6e3 POroB nsiaapusaere 11 OTJleJU!eTe MbUlJIi,bI H rrrasa. 'Iepert joraaere B XOJIO)],HYIO BO;n;y, .a He B ropasyio. ECJIH nOJ!OiKHTb sepen B ropssyto BO;D,Y, 6eJIKOBble BeIIleCTBa (ans- 6yMMHbI) CBepHyTCJr 11 saxynopar ncpsr, xepea xoropsre BbIXOJlHT OCTaJlbHbIe 6eJiKOBbIe BelUeCTBa H COJII1. Baptrrs HMO JlO roro MOMeHTa, KaK Ha'lR)'T .cB060)],HO OTJleJHtTbC5I Bee OCTaTKH MbllIIU, I1PH JlOJIrOM BapeHH.H oCJla6JJ5IIOTcJr KOCTHbIe CBJr3H H lIIBbI, asrrraaaror 3y6bl. )J.JIH BapKH nOJl6MpaeTCH nocyna no asrcore lJepena (6e3 poros). ECJIM nocyaa 60J!bllIe, sepen naLlO nOBeCHTb sa po.)KKM na nano-ncy.

He scerrta MOiKRa HattTH nocyny COaTBefCTBYIOlUero paaMepa, ocooeaao i'VIH 6aJTblUl1X<JepenaB- noca, xariatra, )J.aJTro MyqafICb, H HalUeJT upyraH BblXa)]', KaK a'UICtHTb 'lepen, ecJIM Her Kacrp!OJT.H TIOUXO)],511Uero passrepa. B 06bIKHOBeHHoe Be)],po MJIH Ta3H£< HaJtl1BaJt BO)],y H I<JHl.}] rynaueperr )KHBOTHaro, 3a6hlB a HeM aa HeCKaJII)KO .llHett, M51CO aa qepene nopraJTOCI), orBaJtHB8JIOCI), II Kama paancxeaae M5fCa nOUXOJll1.JlO K KOHUY, BeCI) qepen MOiKHO 6bVIO cnoxcano IT JTerKO o 'lHCTHTb, ;ua)l(e B rpY;UHO.QocTynHbrx Mecrax CHJlhHOtt crpyea HO,[(I)i.

• OTTIHJIHBaeTe 3aTblJIOqHyIO KOCTb. l.Iepe3 orsepcrtre, 06- paaonannreecx nocne OTnl1JIHBaHHJr 3aTblJIo<JHOH KOCTM, y;D,aJJ5Iere M03r, )J.J!H 3TOfO MOiKHO TIOJIb30BaTbCH TIHHUeToM., CHJIbHOif crpyea BOUbL

Puc. 7. BbUJapu6UH.Ue «epena It cnacoti eta t/JuKCal{UU

26

• lllKYPY KOCYJIH KOHCepB11pyeTe KI1CJI0THO-COJleBOM cxiecsro. 'Iepes O)l,11H-,UBa )l,WI ee -"1e3)l,pHTe, nporpaannaaere MhllllhHKO-"1 H OT-"1HHaeTe. ECJ1l1 iuxypa 6hma ofipafioraua TOJIhKO nosapenHOM COJlhfO, ee npononacxnaaere B 'lllCTOH sone, ODKHMaeTe H npocyunraaere B reseuae xaca. 3aTe-"1 lllKYPY co CTOPOHhl -"1e3,Upsi csraauaaere paCTBOpOM Me,LI,HOrO kynopoca, CJIe)l,H aa Te-"1, 'fT06hI paCTBOp He nonan aa urepcrs. Me,LI,HhL\f xynopocov nponarsiaaere XPHW BHYTPH yxa 11 BHYTPeHHfOlO CTOPOHY WKypKH yxa. 'Iepes nonxaca WKypKY -"1e3)l,p11Te H OTMHHaeTe.

• LI.JHI H3rOTOBJleHH5J roJIOBbI xocymr Ha,LI,O CBHTb B,UBOHHe no ztnnae wen MenlJIJJH~IecKHtf rtpyr H3 npOBOJIOKH zmaverpov 4--4,5 'f\f. Csooonasre KOHUbl rtpyra 3aBHBaeTe B KOJIeqKH. O)l,HY rrapy KQ}Ie~IeK rtpnxpennnere urypyrraun K ,UOCKe C rretensxott, ,UpyrYIO rrapy KOJle~IeK - K ,UepeB5JHHOM srypxe, KOTOPYIO 3aKJHfHHBaeTe B ~IepenHoH xopofixe na xrecre 3aTbIJIOqHOM KOCTH.

• MeTaJUTHqeCKO'fY npYTY npnnaere H3rH6 6Y'uYIUetf wen, a srepen rroaopanusaere TaK, qTo6bI ero nQ}JO)f(eHHe 6bVTO ecTeCTBeHHbHf.

Ha npyr HaMaTbIBaeTe rrarono HJIH rasery n nee 3TO nposno npnxarraaaere HHTKaMn.

• B ma3H11UhI xepena BCTaBJIHeTe KOMO'fKII naxnn. HocoByfO nOJI0CTb 3arrOJIHHeTe IL'laCT11JI11HOM, fJI11HOii HJIH fHrrCO-"1, npunan eii npanam.uyio rpOPMY. Ha He60 noruoianuaaere naxmo 11 npueaausaere HIDKHfOlO 'feJIfOCTb. Ha CKYJIbi H uieKII, ua ~leCTa yaaaeuusrx -"1hIWU raxxe uaxnansrsaere naxrno HJIH Ha~ta3blBaeTe llJIaCTl1JIHH, DI11HY HJIH rune,

• Y ursypsr anmsaere B pOT BMecTO ry6 6Q}Thwoe npOBOJJO~IHoe KOJlbUO. LI.JHI KOCYJIh npnroznta npoaonoxa )l,na).feTpo)'{ 3 M).f (c n30JHlunet'1 - 5 M)'{); ,UJHI OJIeH5J, xafiana - rrposonoxa rmaverpo v 4 M).f (c H30JHlunet'1 - 7 M).f).

3aKpemI5JeTe KOJIhUO rrocepemnre, B yrOJIKaX pra, a sarev cnmsaere no scejry rrepmrerpy no rpaamie C ry6aMH. Flpn CWHBaHHH OrOJIeHHYfO sracrt, ry6 nozraoparrnaaere.

no cpopMe YIIIeM asrpesaere KapTOH H BCTaBJHleTe B YUIH.

KapTOH ,UOJDKeH nMeTb «rrpoztonxenne» .unHHOH 5-7 nI, qTO- 6hI, noztornyn ero H pa3MeCTHB non IIIKYPOH aa qepene, rtpn)l,aTh ywaM crosnee ncnoxeane. Kapron npaxnennaere K ywaM rax, qTo6hI He 6hL'Ia BH,UHa 'Ie3'upa.

• nO)l,rOTOBJIeHH)lO TaKHM 06pa30M wK)'PY HaT5IrHBaeTe na qepen. I'nasa ,UOJl)l(HbI coananars C ma3HbIMH OTBepCTH5I'fH,

27

~ ..

t)- •• '

Puc. 80. /(penex '4epena ICOCYAU

Puc. 86. H3~u6 6!1a!l~elJ UlU.

28

useu n4ICAeil

Puc. 88. Yll'4e,IO nO'4mu zamORO

Puc. 9. KOH6'4HNU peJY.'tbrn(Jm U3zomOBAt?HUJI: 'fY'4e.1Q lCotYAU

29

yura - npuaars caoe ncnoxeaae: 6blTb cnerxa HaKJIOHeHHbL\1l1 Ii pa3Be,L(eHHbDHl B CTOPOHbI.

• lllKYPY CIlII1BaeTe, ,L(eJIa}[ CT}[)KKI1 ua Me3,L(pe.

• CBo6o,L(Ha5I nacrt, urxypst )l,OJl)KHa cosrranart, C OBa'lOM ,L(OCKH, rra xoropon rtepxnrcn BC5I rOJIOBa; IlIKYPY HeMHoro naT5Irl1BaeTe H npnfinaaere fB03)l,l1KaMH K TOPUY nOCKH. TIpaKTwreCKH cryqeJIO fOTOBO. OCTaJIOCb ero TOJIbKO nprrcecars.

• Korna qycreJIO He1'vmOfO rrOnCOXHeT, clepe3 nna-rpn nR5I yrOJIKH rnas, ry6bI nomotennaere 3nOKCl1,L(HbIM KJIeeM.

Hekoropsie CrreUl1aJI11CTbl 3allI11BafOT pOT KOCYJI11 P030BbiM MaTepl1aJIO~, nepen CK}}eI1BaH11e~ ry6 CH11MafOT llIBbl, expertJ1}[fOI.I..J;l1e I)16bl C npOBOJIOqHhl~ KOJIhUO~, yllIl1 saxpennaior aa rrpOBOJIOKY. KmK,II,bIH crreUI1,VIl1CT BO}leH Bbl6l1paTb csou cnoco6 cp11KCaUl1l1 pra, yiueil, rnas 11 Ka)K)1,hli1, rro CBoeMY )Ke}laHl1fO, nonoupaer TOT MaTepl1a}l, KOTOPhlH Cy.I1TaeT HY)KHbIM.

• l:fycreJIO seuraere na CTeHY, na TOM MeCTe, me BaM OHO HpaBl1TCH.

U3rOTOBJIEHUE qyqEJI :lKHBOTHbIX B nOJIHbIH rocr

113roToBHTh qyqeJIO 3Bep5I B rrOJIHhIH POCT He TaK rrpOCTO.

Tpe6yeTC5I TeprreHHe, fiorrsure xrarepnaxa. C xpvrmsrx .lKHBOTHhIX 6e3 POroB .uJI5I H3roTOBJIeHH5I qyqeJIa IIIKYPY CHH:MalOT rrJIaCTO:M (KOBpOM): TaK 3TO .ueJIaeTC5I Y Me)'lBe.u5I, 6apcyxa M rtp.

Puc. 10. Cesmue Ul,I'CYPbl C :NCUf3OmHOeO nAaCmOM (I(OSPOAJ)

31

Y 60}H,IlIHX porarsrx )l(HBOTHbIX nerraev paapes rro 6PfOllIHoil JIHHHH OT OCHOBaHrH! XBOCTa ):(0 rpy):(l1HbI. Ilansure pa3- peaaev sepxmoto qaCTb men ):(0 nortepesmoro paspesa Me)I(JJ:y poravu. TaK 'fbI CHH\faJIH llIKYPY C ronoasr kocymr.

KaK H3rOTOBHTb qyqeJIO .lKHBOTHOro B nomnra POCT, MbI H paCC:MOTpH:M na rrpnvepa Orr5ITb-TaKH KOCYJIH.

• 113Mep5leTe ryury KOCY}U1, paCCT05lHl1e Me)K,!ly Ta306e.upeHHbI:M 11 IDIelJeBbiM CYCTaBa:Ml1.

(fTYHKTHPO\f noxasaxsr paapessr 'ryunt KOCY}1H ):(JI5I CHmH5I llIK)'pbI. IIJKypa C roJIOBb! CHH,meTC5I TaK, KaK rrOKa3aHO na pnc. 6.)

• EC}Il1 Bbi 06}1a,UaeTe cnocofiuocrsio cxynsrrropa, TO 113- [OTaB}lHBaeTe 113 runca I1J[11 rJIl1Hbi TOlJHYlO KOllHlO )Kl1BOTHOroo Ilpencrasnaere, CKOJIbKO BaM norpeoyerca runca! ECJIH TaKa5! lPHrypa ,UJI5! sac C}U1llIKO:M T5!)KeJIa, CKY}lbllTYPY MHO[OC}lOHHO 06KJIel1BaeTe 6YMarOH, nanse-uatue 11, xorna see BbICOXHeT, 6YMa.lKHbIii C}lOH paspeaaere 11 CHl1MaeTe. 3aTeM Bee lJaCTl1 coennusere ua kapxace 113 CT,VlbHblX npyrses 11 CKHel1BaeTe.

Puc. J La. I1JMepeH.ul! paCCmORHlJ.51 .Me:JIC0y ma306eiJpelilibl.M.

U r1Ae'leB!JlM cycmaBoM

B. CIji:P060B. H3i:OmOBAeH.Ue 'lg'U:A

Puc. 116. Elmo see paccmosnue coxpasnemcs MeJIC.ay MemaJlJ!UlteCKUMU mpy60!{,KaMU Ha UCK.yccm8eHH.OU ocnoee

Y MeIDl 6bIJIa H)J,e5I HaKJIel1BaTb 6y~ary 11 narrse-uanre rrp5IMO na rvtny KOCYJII1. l.lTo 113 sroro MO)KeT nOJI)"!HTbC}[, He 3Ha1O. He np060BaJI.

• MO)[(HO H He JIenHTb CKYJlbnT)'PY. 3arracHTecb 20-10 ~eTpaxru M51rKoii (UI1O~I1Hl1eBoi1 rrpOBO)IOKH ,LIHaMeTpOM 3-4 M~ 11 20-10 MeTpaMI1 raxon )Ke npOBO)IOKH 'ul1aMeTpo~ 2 M~. BaM eI.I.J;e nOTpe6Y1OTC5! MeT<L'lJIl1qeCKHe npyrsa 'ul1aMeTpo~ 8 ~M - qyTb 60JIbllle ,LI)IHHbI nor KOCYJll1, BaM rroHa,Uo611TC5! ,UOCKa TOJIlllHHOii 20-30 M~, no cpop~e COBna,Ua1OI.I.J;a5! C JIHHH5!j,1l1 cnuasr, 3a,LJ;Heii H nepenueit QaCTl1 TYJIOBI1I.I.J;a KOCY)IH,

• Ha ,LIOCKY C ooeax CTOPOH B MeCTa:< KpeIIJIeHH5! nor npn- 6HBaeTe cxofisr HJlH npuxpennsere Tpy60QKl1, B xoropsie [l}10THO B,UB11raeTe KOHLI,hl crepxueii nor,

K nepenueii QaCTI1 ,LIOCKH npuxpennxere cxpyseuaue ~eTaJI)IHQeCK11e CTep)KH11, aa KOTOPhIX xperurrca Qepen )KI1- BOTHOro,

• ,l.I.JI5I nor llCnOJIb3)TIOTC}[ MeTalVIHQeCK11e npyrsa ,Ul1aMeTPOM 8 :MM,

KOHeLl, onuoro npyra aaruoaere non np5!j,thnt ymoM ,LI)l5! paajreiueuun ero B rpytio-ixe.

• ITpyrES[\{ npnztaere <pap\fY rrepeznnrx CTOPOH nor, OCTaBJI}[5J BHll3Y urrsrps ,U.JI5J xpennemrn cryqerra K nOIT)' tum TIO,UCTaBKe.

• 3a,Umo1O CTOPOlIY Ka)K)J;oi1 HOTI1 OKaHTOBbIBaeTe, HCrrOJIb- 3y5I GOJIee JrnrK)'lO 11 TOHK)'lO rrpOBOJIOK)'.

MO)KHO 11 3a,LIH101O CTOPOHY nor C,LIeJlaTb 113 TOJICToii nposo)10Kl1, nosropnu eCTecTBeHHYIO CPOPMY Hom KOCYJII1, MO>KHO

33

PMC, 116, llPOBOJIOQru,rl1 xapxac 6y:n;ymero qyqeJIa KOCYJ1H

naxe H3 nenoro rrpyra, cornyroro nOIIOJIaM, BOCC03,llaTb mrenrH1lH BH,ll nor KOCYJIH, TOJIbKO [Hyrb rrpOBOJIOKY, QerKO llOBTOPHB see H3rn6&1, He TaK-TO nerxo.

• l.Iepe3 K3)I(,llble 5 CM crepxua cnneraere IIOJ1y:n;yraMH, nosropaa CPOPMY MbIllIU Hom KOCYJIH, TOHKOM npOBOJIOKOM, roxe sepes L(U)f(,llble 5 CM, ,llyrlf nepenneraere csepxy BH113, coxpanaa KOHTYP Hom [(Qcymf. O,llHUM CJIOBOM, 1f3 npOB0J10- KH nenaere pemersarstk xapxac nor )[(JiIBOTHOro.

• Taxmt xe cnocofiov aarorosnsere H rYJIOBnme )[(HBOrnoro. Hs 4-MHJInH,V[eTpOBOM npOBOJIOKH saroraanuaaere 10-12 OKPY)[(HOcTei1, pasaux no ofixaary rpy,lll1 H 6p ioxa , Ex csotionasre KOHUb! aaxperrzrsere ua ,llepeBSfHHoi1:('CnHHe~ qyqeJ1a H orrneraere 3TH O[(P~OCTH 60JIee M5Im.:o:i1 rrposonoKoit OKPY)f(HOCTff cyxaere B MeCTaX xpennerraa nor.

• Fcrosue nposonovaste xapxacst MHOroCJIOHHO 06KJ[eHBaere raeeraoa 6YMarOH, Kneacrep Ha.D:O BapHTb aa KpaJoCMaJIe WlHi\f)'Ke C :n;o6aBJIeHHeM nacsnneaaoro pacrsopa Me,llHOrO

34

B. CYZp0606. H320m0B.4e1tUe lIy .. eA

xynopoca, Ha TaKOM KJIeHCTepe He 3aBOllHTC5I nneceirs H JIll'l3HKll MY'lHbIX )l{YKOB. Ha Mblillell 3TH «sanpersr» He pacnpoCTpilHHIOTC5I. IICKYCCTBeHHble Hom BCTaBJllIeTe B HCKYCCTBeHHoe rYJ10Bllrue .

• Ha roroaun H YCTaHOBJIeHHbIH aa nOllCTaBKY xopnyc KOcyml aarurusaere BbI)J,eJIaHHYIO, nporpaaneanyro H. OTMJrTYIO urxypy. KOIIb[Ta, orneneauue OT nor, ofipafiartaaaere paCTBOPOM Me)J,Horo xyrtopoca, B HHX IIpOCBepJIHBaeTe OTBepCTlHI ,D,JUI npyrsea, Caasana aarnmsaere UIKYPY Ha f0J10BY (KaK 3TO )J,eJIaeTC5I, Mbl Y)l(e 3HaeM), nanee - na mero, rpyns, nepeznnre H 3a,UHHe Hom. IIJKYPY sanmsaere. l.Iyqe,lJo rbTOBO.

Puc. 118. /(OH.t1iiH.bla peaYAbmam

IIAMHTHbIM TPO<l> EM qEPEU )KUBOTHOro

He 3HaIO, aanoenaer JIH OXOTH11KY 113rOTaBJIHBaTb 1fY1feJIa B nOJIHOM 11X xpace, HO TOJlbKO ecn, JIlo6HTeJIH OXOTbI, KOTOpsie B Ka1feCTBe TPO¢leeB seuiaior ua CTeHY sepena )KI1BOTHhlX. OlU1 WOKI1PYlOT OKpY2KalOllU1X He xyxce 1fY1feJI.

Pausure 60JlbWOH. nonYJUl.pHOCTblO B Ka1feCTBe yxpaureauii .uJUI. OXOTH111fblLX unrepsepoa rrOJlb30BaJI11Cb xepena ~le.uBe.ueH., BOJIKOB l1JlH 3K30TH1feCKI1X 2K11BOTHbIX: uocoporon, KPOKO.uHJIOB, CJIOHOB. B HaWH .uHH TaKHe TPo¢le11 rrpe.uCTaBJUIlOT eiue H uaysnyto, OXOTHIl1fblO l.I,eHHOCTb.

Esmarcr CJlY1faH, xorna [OJIOBa 2KHBOTHOro HaCTOJIbKO nospex.aena. -rro Ca\lblH J]ycIWI1~1 BbIXO.u - He 1'\,lycH1TbOl, a ocTaHOBUTbCtl TOJlbKO aa O)J.HO\f qepene.

ECJII1 rrpaB11)IbHO oopatioran, sepen, KpaC11BO ero pasnecTI1Th ua .ueKOpaTI1BHOii noncraaxe, Ka~1He, CfIIlJIe nepena, TO raxoa npezorer yKpaC11T CTeHY He TOJIbKO OXOTHHy.bero .um1Hxa, HO 11 creuy C Ha~eKO~ aa eapopexoar - B JI1060H roponCKOH ksaprupe. 0 TPe60BaHWIX, KOTOPbl~ .uOJI2KHa oraesart, noncraaxa, ~bl nOrOBOpl1~ .ua)Ihwe.

Bees npouecc paoorsi C 1feperrOM COCTOHT 113 C)Ie.uYlOWI1X 3TanOB:

- CH5ITl1e WKYPbI, ynanenae MbIWl.I" xrosra H KpOBH 113 xe-

pena;

- BbIBap11BaHI1e, ynanenue CYX02K11JlHH. 11 3y60B;

- ynanenue 2K11pa, oT6e)IKa H ornenxa rrOBepXHOCTI1;

- apaH)J(I1pOBKa rporpen B OXOTHWlbe\f ntrtepsepe.

TpOrVeHHhIH qepen .uOJDKeH 6hITh 6e3 .uerVeKTOB II H3'b5lHOB.

IIIKYPY C qeperra Ha)J.O CHH\faTb, a \fbIIllIlbI 11 CYXQ)KI1JIl1tI -

36

B. Cy<!po6os. H3~OmOSA-eHUe ttg'fell

YllaJHlTb OCTOPO>KHO, 'lT06bl He noapennrs ero. WKYPY C roJIOBbl CHUMaeM nansuaujt; HO>KO\1 }mWb rtepepesaeu ureio, Y,IlaHHeM rnasa U MbIWUbI, M03r MO>KHO Y,IlMUTb xepea OTsepcrxe B 3aTbIJIKe cnnpanuo U3 npOBOJlOKU, aero OCTaTKU U \103rOBYIO nJleHKY - CUJlbHOH crpyeii sonu U nUHueTOM. Ec}m n03BOJHllOT YCJlOBWI, -repert O'lUmaeM OT KPOBU B npOTO'lHOH BO,Ile reuneparypoti 10---18 "C, Ec}m xepen OtH1111aIOT B CTOH'leH BO,Ile, B Hee ,Il06aBJl}IIOT nOBapeHHYIO cons, 'lT06bl nonytH1JlCH l-npoueuruua pacrsop. Pacrsop 'laCTO nO\leWUBaIOT U \leHHIOT,

Bsiaapusaior sepen TaK, KaK MhI y)[(e snaev , H KJlMeM era TOJlhKO B XOJIO.uHYlO, a He ropasyro BO,IlY. HlDKHlOlO sacrs poroa 06BH3hlBae~ 'll1CTOH TPHIIKOi1, 'lTo6hl 1136e)[(aTh B03,Ilei1- CTBHH Kl1rrHllleH BO,Ilhl H napa, - HHa'le eCTeCTBeHHhlH U;BeT 6JIe,IlHeeT. Ilpn KHIIeHHH BO,llh1 ofipasyerca neua, BCII)IhIBaeT rpaas - HX Ha,UO CHHTh.

Ilocne BapKH -repen norpyxaeu B 'lHCTYIO npOTO'lHYIO BO,IlY npnuepao aa 8 uacoa, 3aTe\1 BblHUMaeM U K)Ja,IleM B TeHb aa CKB03HHK ,IlJlH BbICblxaHUH. BblCOXWHH sepen OtIHWaeM OT >KUPOBbIX BemeCTB, xoropue asrcrynaior B BH,Ile TeMHblX nsTeH, J.1x Y,IlamleM IO-npoueHTHbI\1 paCTBOpO\1 aauiarupaoro crtnpra. B 3TOT pacrsop nepen rtoueutaev aa 24 uaca. O'leHb 3cj)(peKTUBHblMH 06e3>KHpUBalOmuMH Cpe,IlCTBa\H1 HB)lHIOTCH TaK>Ke XJlOPOcj)OP\1 (TpUXJlOpMeTaH) U 'leTblpeXXJlOpUCTbIH yr.nepoa (TeTpaXJlOpMeTaH), 6eH3HH U 3cj)Up. LI.ocTaTOtlHO nporeperi, UMU HeCKOJlbKO pas xepen, U OH sacsepxaer, ~<KaK HOBbIt],>.

l.Ieperr orfiermaaeu B TaKOH rrOCJle.uOBaTe}IhHOCTI1.

• Baron 3arrOJlHHeM see rrOJIOCTH ~Ieperra, 3aBOpaQHBaeM ero B BaTY H 06BH3hlBaeM nrrrararosr.

• 3aBepHYTblH xepen K)la)le~1 B 3aKpbITYIO ,Il)lH .nccryna CBeTa nocyny. J.1Hatle non ero ,IleHCTBUeM rtepexncs BO,IlOpO,Ila rtpespartrrcs B BO,IlY,

Hannsaeu B nocyny nepexucs sonopona ,IlO BhICOThl 1-2 C~. Bara snartaaaer ee B ceria. BpeMH oT6eJll1BaHHH - 15-20 'laCOB. Ilocyaa see BpeMH aaxpsrra.

l.Jepena \leJlKHX >KUBOTHblX \lO>KHO He saaopa-rasan, B BaTY, a nOJlHOCTblO norpystrn, B nepexncs BO,IlOpO,Ila. BpeMH OT- 6e)lHBaHUH TaKHX -repenoa COKpawaeTCH ,IlO 4-5 'laCOB.

OrrTH\1aJlhHaH KOHueHTpaUHH nepexncn soaoporta 7-10%, rrpn 3T0\1 BO.uOpO.n. BhlIUeJIaQHBalOT aMMHaKO \1. Ha

nOJ(}l.mHI)1.U mpo¢eu - I(epen :HCU80mHO~O

31

JII1TP nepexncn soaopona rpeoyerca 5 ~L'I 25-np0l.l,eHTHoro pacrsopa aMMl1aKa; OH YCKopHeT npouecc oT6e)II1BaHl15!,

l{T06bI nOCJIe scex 3Tl1X npouenyp sepen npuofipen l.I,BeT C)IOHOBOM KOCTl1, ero nO~elll,aeM B l-rrpol.l,eHTHbrM paCTBOp ¢occpoPHol1 Kl1CJIOTbi ua 3---{) CYTOK B 3aBl1CI1~OCTI1 OT paanepa sepena IL'II1 B Iu-npoueuruuji paCTBOp xnopaxuua ua 7 CYTOK,

Paasure seperta oT6eJIl1BaJIl1 B My]JaBeMHI1KaX, HO ~lYpassu ace )Ke Cl1JlbHO nospexztator nOBepXHOCTb 11 lleJIOCTHOCTb '!epena,

ITocJIe oT6eJIl1BaHI151 npncrynaev K OT)I,eJIKe '1epena.

JIaKo~ noxpstaarr, ero He peKO~eH)I,yeTC5I. Illepoxosaryio noBepXHOCTb -reperta nOJII1pyeM cxrecsro O)'lHOH '1aCTI1 «OTMY'IeHaoro» (oooranreaaoro rIurpaBJIH'IeCKI1M cnocooov) MeJIa 11 )l,BYX '1aCTeH H3BeCTI1. Cvect, HaHOCI1~ aa nonepxaocrr. -repena H nOJII1pyeM '111CTOH CYKOHKOtt llJIH nOJII1pOBKH raxxe ~O)KHO npl1MeH5ITb CMeCb «OT1vl)"IeHHOfO» MeJIa C ztenarypnpOBaHHbIM cnaprov, no rycrore HanOMI1HalOllI,y'lO cxreraay. ITOJII1PyeM He )l,JI5I 6JIeCKa '1epena, a ).VUI Cnla)KI1BaHH5I noBepXHOCTI1, aa KOTOPOti: saztepaoreaerca nbmb .

• qepen narnpaeu rraparpmroj« 11 nOJJHpyeM mrcron rpnnKOtt,

• BbIIIaBllIl1e 3y6bI 11 KOCTO'lKI1 soaapantaeu 06paTHO 11 npmcneneaesr.

Bees npouecc OTIllCaH MHOM TaK, KaK roro rpefiyer xnacCl1'!eCKa5! 06pa6oTKa '!epenoB, B )l,O~lallIHl1X YCJIOBl1HX Bbl, MO)KeT 6bITb, HaM).IeTe 60JIee npocroii 11 ).IOcTynHbIM cnoco6 06- pa60TKl1 '!epena, B KOHl.I,e KOHIlOB caxt '!epen, naxce He ofipa- 60TaHHbl11 Ha).l)Ie)KallIl1M 06pa30M, 11 6e3 roro ofipauiaer ua ce6H BHl1MaHl1e OKpY)KalOllI,l1X CBOl1M Bl1)I,O~l,

Teneps nepexozuur K cnocooaa 11 Tpe60BaHl1H~1 K paaxeuteunto '1epenOB ua ).IeKOpaTl1BHblX noncraakax. 5l Y)Ke rOBOpun, 'ITO nO)l,CTaBKl1 MOryT 6blTb )l,epeBHHHbIMl1, KaMeHHbIMl1 11 npyruxiu, JIlO60M CPOPMbl 11 na )l1060M BKyC, eCJIl1 OHI1 rap~OHl1pylOT C '!epenOM 11 C 06CTaHOBKOM B )l,mle,

qepena TOqHO TaK )J(e, KaK para 11 q~IeJIO roJIOBbI )KHBOTtroro, 3a\feQaTeJIbHO CO~IeTaIOTC5I C eCTeCTBeHHbIMH MaTepl1artavn, TaKI1\fH KaK KaMeHb, urxypa, Mex, xopa, xaxrsnn, ztepeBO C xopon fum 6e3 nee, JIbIKO.

ITO).lCTaBKY He cnenyer yxpaurarr- TaK, '1T06bI OHa npI1BJIexana 60JIbille BHI1MaHI151, '1eM caM rpotpen. Haao cneztars sa Te~, '!T06bI rpotpeu Bbl).leJI}[JlCH CBOl1M eCTeCTBeHHblM l.I,BeTO~:

38

6eJIhrH - aa 60Jlee TeMHOH rrOL(CraBKe, TeMHhrM - Ha 6e.JJort nOL(CraBKe,

Bor HeCKOJIbKO BHL(OB IIOL(CTaBOK L(JIH'IepenOB, pores 11. 'IYLleJI fOJIOB )KHBOTHhlX, xoropste MO)KHO H3fOTOBHTh H3 nepesa.

51 ysepea, LITO Bbl, noporoa Mort LlHTaTeJIb, - LleJIOBeK TBOP- 1.IeCKlfH H ofinanaere He TOJI.hKO H3b1CKaHHhIM BK)'COM, 11.0 II raKIIM xy,I(O%eCTBeHHhlM B3rJI5I)J,OM, KOTOPhrH CBOi1cTBeH nnnrs TaKHM JIIO)J,RM, RaK OXOTHlIKI1 - ¢aHaThl rteca 11 npnponsr. BaM 6Y)J,eT HeTPY)J,HO nonoopart, ry HJIH I1HYIO noncrasxy )J,JI5I csoero TpO¢eH,'ITo6hI oCYIlI,eCTBHTh 3a)J,Y1-1aHHoe.

HeCKOJ1bKO crpox 0 porax, ECJIH OXOTHHK MHoro BpeMeHH rrpOBOJl.HT B necy, aa OXOTe, TO Y Hero nOSlB.J1HIOTCH pora, 5I CeHlJaC IUvtelO B BHJl.Y OXOTHWIUi1 rpocPeti. KmKL(b1H YBmKa- 1OIIQti1 cefisr OXOTHHK crpevarca K O».HOMY - coxpaaars sry KpaCOTY KaK MO)KflO L(O.JJhwe H rroxsacrarscs nepen L(PY3bHMH, Pora MOI)'T 6b11b He TOJIbKO «rroopaasr» Y 3BepH, HO H

Puc. 12. BUiJbl nodcmaeo« nod poi!.a u ~ylle/taeOAOB :NCuaomH.t1lx

Puc. 18. Bui}bi rWOCma8QIC noi} «epena 3fCIUWmH.b£X

39

rrpOCTO Hati):(eHbr. CJle):(OBaTeJIbHO, pora 6blBalOT He TOJlbKO Tpo<!JeiIHbl\fH, HO H copomemnraa.

Tporpemrsre pora \fOryr 6blTb C ~laCTblO neperra, 6e3 ~leperra, ):(a)](e He see pora, a TOJIbKO HX <!JparMeHTbl. B JI1060\f cnynae )J(eJIaTeJIbHO, ~lT06bl pora He 6blJIH noapexnensr: c6porneHHbD.1H poravn JI1065JT nO):(KOp\fHTbC5J rpstsynst, a TaK)J(e 3atiQbr. OCHOBaHH5J pores ):(OJI)J(Hbl 6blTh KpenKHMH ):(Jl5J KpenJIeHH5J urypyrravn K rrO):(CTaBKe HJlH CTeHe. ECJIH BHernHHti BH):( pores He):(OCTaTO~IHO cnvrtartrten, HX rronxpaWHBalOT H noxpsrsator JIaKOM. JJ:JI5J aopvam.noro M~HKa, yveioutero nepxa'rs B pyxax OTBepTKY HJIH \fOJIOTOK, npnxpemrn, pora K rrO):(CTaBKe HJIH K CTeHe He npe):(CTaBJI5JeT HHKaxon CJIO)](HOCTH. fJIaBHOe, qT06bl 6b])]O KpaCHBO H Ha.ue)](Ho.

U3rOTOBJIEHUE qyqEJI PbI]) II 3MEH

113roTOBJ1eUHe qytIeJ1 PbI6

TaK KaK TeMa ::Hoii KHl1[H - 113[OTOBJIeHl1e y.yy.eJI, TO HeJIb-

351. 060i1TH H3[OTOBJIeHl1}1 y.yy.eJI JU060H «)KJ1BHOCTll}>, a l1MeHHO - PbJ6. 3TH 3HaHl1}1 rrOKa.lKYTC}I Oy.eHb Ba.lKHbnm, ocooeuHO 3a51,UJIOMY pbJ6aKY. DbJBaeT, Y.TO XOPOlllJ1H OXOTHliK O,UHOBpeMeHHO H Oy.eHb xopounni psifia«.

~IyqeJIo PbI6hI H3[OTOB.THIIOT CJle):(YIOIIIJH:l 06Pa30M.

• Ko.lKY paapesaior C HlDKHeH CTOPOHbI TYJIOBl1I.U,a OT XBOCTa ):(0 OCHOB<'lHlf}I fOJIOBbI. Ko.lKY He 3aBOpay.l1BaIOT 11 He CKJIa):(blBaIOT, TaK KaK seurys ):(ep)KJ1TC}I oxeiu, cJJa60. Ilpn npenapaposauaa na):(0 nOCTO}]HHO rtonaepxnsan- BJlaJKHOCTb B KIOBeTKe, rne npOXO):(I1T ):(aHHa}] «ortepaunn», HHalle ssrcoxuran lleWYSI npnnnnaer.

• Ilpnpesn MQCa l1 )l(l1pa cocKa6mIBaIOT C KO)l(l1 Ha rnaztKOrt nOBepXHOCTl1, B nartpaaneaaa OT XBOCTa l1 CIIHHbI K 60KaM. 113HYTPl1 POTOBOH IIOJlOCT11 BCKpblBaIOT y.epeIIHYIO KOP06KY 11 Y,UaJJ51IOT M03[.

OCH.OOo, O.llR ftylte..;t:a pbl6KU KOH.eru{.b{U pe3y./1~tnam

PU(;. /4. Hseomoesenue Ity'te.lla ptll61<:U

4]

• 113 rOJIOBbI ynanator )Ka6pbl, rnasa H ),.1}(CHCTOe OCHOBaHHe }[3bIKa. Y)].'VI}[IOT 11 YlbillIUbI ua utexax,

• fO}JOBY H KO)l(Y 06pa6aThJBaIOT 'fe)].HhJM KYllOPOCOM.

• no pasvepav phJ6hJ BhJpe3aIOT H3 neHOnJTaCTa l1JTH nepesa HCKYCCTBeHHYIO TynIKY. Ee 'W)I(HO BhUJenHTh H3 rJTHHhJ, nIJaCTHJTHHa, rnnca. TynIKY 3aTeM MHOrOCJTOHHO 06KJTeJ1BalOT 6Y'faro H. n OC}J e BhJChJXaHII5I 6y\mry CHH'falOT, 6YMa)l(HYlO TynIKY CllIHBalOT H CKTJeHBalOT.

• nO)].CTaBKY)l)1}[ PbI6bI )I)1l1HOH 25-30 CM npoue scero cnenars 113 amoMHHl1eBOH npoBQlIOKH )I)1aMeTpOYl 3 MYl H )J.J1l1HOH 75 CM. L.I;r}[ 3Toro H3 rrpOBOJIOKH 3am6mOT OKpy)KHOCTb )].l1a\1eIpOM 10 CM TaK, y.T06bI ocrasuraaca O)l)1H KOHeu 6bIJI B,U,BOe )l,.HHHHee )].pyroro. Ha Mecre nepeceneaua l1X cxpysaearor B)1,Boe ua orpesxe 5 CM H pa3BO,!UlT KOHUbI B npOTHBOnOJIO)KHble CTOPOHbI non He60JIblUHM yrJIOM K IL'lOCKOCTI1 xpyra, 06pa30BaHHoro OKPY)KHOCTbIO.

• LJ:JTHHHhIM KOHUOM npOHH3hIBalOT HaCKB03h (B)].OJTh) neHOIIJTaCTOBYJO IIJTI1 6YMalKHYlO ryurxy 11 aarnfiator KOHUhI, YKpertrras OCHOBY roJTOBhI II XBOCTa.

• Ha TTo)].roTOBJIeHHYJO TyllIKy narnrttaator llIKYPKY II 3a-

1lII1BafOT.

• Fonose TTpH,[(aIOT eCTeCTBeHHoe TTOJIO)f(eHHe, TTJTOTHO npn)f(HMaIOT )f(a6phJ, a B TTPHOTKPhIThJH pOT 3aIIHBaIOT rnnc, ane- 6aCTp l1JTH npyron 6hJCTpOTBep,[(eIOUJ,HH pacrsop.

BCTawHIlOT rnasa, paCrrpaBJHIIOT nnaBHI1KH 11 XBOCT, npl1KaJThIBa51 HJII1 npnxneaaaa HX K KapTOHKalv1.

• CTaB51T y.yy.eJTo na rtpocyutxy.

• ~Iepe3 HeCKOJIhKO llHeIf[ y.yy.eJIo pU6hI noxpsrnator 6ecUBeTHhiM JIaKOM. A TaK KaKIlIKypKa OT Me)J.Horo xyrtopoca 3eneueer, y.y"Y.eJIO PhI6hI aesnroro TIOllKpaIlII1BaIOT.

H3rOTOBJIeHHe ·IY·leJ1 3Meu

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42

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44

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I10CJIe 0'lMCTKl1 CJII1IIWYIOClI iuxypy paCrrpaBJIlIIOT, 11 OHa npnooperaer ecrecrseaaua 6JleCK.

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TeOpeTHl.TeCKH rronKOBaBIIIHCb, a \10)KeT, H rrpaKTWTeCKH nonpotiosaa, BbT )'IKe H1TOBbT K TO\1Y, l.ITO srraere, KaK H B xaKOt'T rrocrreztoaarensnocm 6yneTe rtenart, l.yY'Te}IO. «A3bT» BbT snaere. Haroroanemre ~Ten - 3TO scerna TBOpl.TeCKHH rrpouecc. Hano CTaTb He\1Horo xynmKHHKOM, He\1HOrO cxymrrropojr.

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11 TaK \10)KeT 6bITb C JTT06bTM IKHBOTHbT\1, xoropoe MHe He rrpaxonnnocs paastne scrpenars.

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46

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Y MeIDl ecrs TaJIMCMaH U3 JIOCffilbIX 3y60B, U3 (,KJIbIKa», npOHCXO)[(,lleHHe xoroporo HI1KTO He MO)KeT 06"bRCHHTb, a 3TO npOCTO nervnnnraa UIIIopa, rtcnapeanaa OJlHHM osem, XOpOmHM qenOBeKOM, ECTI, Y MeIDl erne MHoro sero anrepecaoro H Heo6bNHoro, OJlHO BpeM5l 51. YBneKaJICH lf3rOTOMeHHeM IIO.LI.enOK 113 nepena, OHM .llorrOJIHHJIH OXOTffiPffiH .rpotpea, a 're B CBOlO o-repem, YKpaCMnM CTeHY Moero OXOTHHtIberO JlOII.[lIKa. B MoeM <,Tae)KHOM yrny» reneps rro-oxormena HHTepeCHO 11 nO-\}eJIOBeqecKH YIOTHO. Tax 'ITO zrepaaare H Y'lIUeCb!

MO)KeT 6blTb, cnenyer nposrrrars erne HeCKOJIbKO noysnTeJIbHbIX KHHr aa 3a)J;aHHYIO TeMY, 51 MCKpeHHe CQUTalO,qTO CaMblll JlyqlllliH U BepHbrn zrpyr - 3TO MY)J;paH If HY)f(Ha$I KHUra. Cnasa BceM II ncarertnx, !<TO .LI.eJIMTCR C HaMH CB0I1MH 3HaHIUIMM, KTO )J;YMaeT M 3a60THTCR 0 uameu npocsemeaaul

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C YO(J.;)ICeItUeM, aemop,

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[epa-CUM-OB 10. A. CnpaOQ{IHHK ereps, 1988. C/JOpM03013 A. H. CnYTKHKc.neJlOnbIT<l. 1990.

rpUH'l.eItKO A. 5. nOJleBoill cnpenemrrens OXOTHFlKa, 1998. O.n.fDM M. M .. l/JUUlI(UH. H . .5, O.xOl'HHlJbf PYlKbe, 1983. C.n.el'lbJX B. B. Coapeaeunaa PyccKaR OXO,3, 2000. JleQH.nlbee 8'. 8'. OX01'8. 2001.

r;POKUH. C. 10., llJUWUZWi A, r. 3HUMKJIOneJl,HH - OXOTa.

pbt6.amta. 2003,

PocKonf/J 11 .. OXOTHH4bl{ 1'pmpeH H H3AenlIHI, 1984, K.upcaHo8 M. H. OXiOTaH 3.110pOBbe" 1990. D.ya3uHcKuf1. B. Ilepuaras .n.HlJb, 1979.

PyoeHKo r;P. A .• CeMQUU(O B. 10., '-IepeHKoB C, E., MamlO-

HUH M. M. 3HUHIUl'OneJl,HR OXOTIUtK3. 1995. T, L Pyc,aH.08 9. C. B01l0nJlafl81OllIl.aH lHll.Jb, 1987, KOPWm,UH C, A. np'HMat!lKH 3SepOJIOB.8, 1998, Mameee8 A. C. OXOTa, 2000.

PacH.ep A, r. Oxera H8 BOJlOITJlU31OWYlO AHlfb. 2003.

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