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do luong cam bien

do luong cam bien

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NGUYEN VAN HOA (Chu bi~n

)

BUI -DANG THANH - HOANG 5Y H6NG

GIAo TRINH

Do LUONG OlEN vaCAM BIEN DO LUONG

(SACH DUNG CHO SINH VltN o« TRUONG CAO DANG)

~ NHAxUATBANGIAoDI)C

NGUvtN V AN HOA (Chu bien)

BiH nANG THANH - HoANG SY H6NG

CIAo TRiNH

1)0 LUONG I)IEN vA

? A' "

CAM BIEN 1)0 LUONG

(Bien soan thea chirong trinh khung mon hoc Do lliang di~n va Cam bien do lu'ang

do BQ giao due va Dao tao ban hanh)

NHA XUA': BAN GIAO Dl)C

Mif dAU

Giao trlnh do hrong dien va cam bien do hrong diroc bien soan thee chuang trinh khung mon hoc "Do luang dien" va "Cam bien do lirong" do B9 Giao due va dao tao ban hanh vci tinh than ngan gon, de hieu, Cac kien thirc trong roan bo giao trtnh co rnoi lien he 10 gfc chat che, Tuy vay, giao trlnh cling chi la mot phan trong noi dung cua chuyen nganh dao 1<;10 cho nen nguai day, ngiroi h9C can tham khao them cac giao trlnh eo lien quan d6i voi nganh h9C de viec sit dung giao trlnh co hieu qua han.

Khi bien soan giao trlnh, cluing toi dil co' gang cap nhat nhirng kien thrrc moi co lien quan den men hoc va phil hop voi doi nrong sit dung ding nhu co' gang gAn nlurng noi dung ly thuyet voi nhilng van de thuc te thirong gap trong san xuat, dai song de giao trinh co tinh ling dung eao.

N9i dung ella giao trlnh gom 2 phan :

Phan I. Do luang dai lirong dien va thiet bi do (30 ner), Phan II. Thiet bi cam bien va irng dung (45 tiet).

Trong giao trinh, chung toi khong de ra noi dung thirc t~p cua tirng chuang, VI trong thier bi phuc vu cho thuc t~p cua cac tnrong kh6ng dong nhat, VI vay, can err vao trang thiet bi dil co cua tirng tnrong va kha nang to chirc eho hoc sinh thirc tap b cac XI nghiep ben ngoai rna tnrong xay dung thai lirong va noi dung thuc tap ClJ. the - Thoi hrong thirc tap toi thieu noi chung ciing kh6ng It han thoi lirong hocly thuyet cua moi m6n.

Giao trinh dircc bien soan cho do'i urong lasinh vien Cao d~ng ky thuat cling nhu Ky thuat vien dang lam viec a cac co sa kinh te cua nhieu Iinh vue khac nhau.

Mac du dil co gang, nlnrng chac chan kh6ng tranh khoi het khiern khuyet. RAt mong nhan duoc y kien dong gop cua ngiroi sit dung de hin tai ban sau diroc hoan chinh hem. M9i gop y xin diroc glri ve Ban bien tap sach Dai h9C - D'.lY nghe, 25 Han Thuyen, Hit Noi.

Tole gia

3

DO LUONG OAI LUONG OlEN

. '. .

. vA THIET BI DO

CHUONGI

,. "" ? ft.' ......

KHAI NI~M co BAN VE £)0 LUONG

1-1. Khai ni~m chung vi! do Ilfang va thiet b] do

I-I-I. D~ IUOng: La mot qua trlnh danh gia dinh hrong ve dai Itrong can do de: co duoc ket qua bang so so voi dan vi.

Ket qua do dtroc bitu dien dtroi dang:

A = ~ ~ ta co X = AXo.

Xo

(1-1 )

x - dai hrong do: Xo - dan vi do: A - Con so ket qua do \_;i du: U = 300V; U - dien ap, 300 - Con so

V - dan vi do

1-1-2. Tin hieu do: La tin hicu mang thong tin ve gia tri ella dai hrong do.

1-1-3. Dal Iuong do: La thong so xac dinh qua trinh vat 1y cua tin hieu do.

Do qua trinh vat Iy co the co nhieu thong so nhirng trong moi tnrong hop c~ the: ta chi quan tam den mot thong so nhat dinh, do la dai hrong vat ly,

Thong thuong dai IUQ'ng do diroc phan thanh:

+ D~li luang do {;t,l dinh: La dai lirong do du bier tnroc qui luat thay doi theo thai gian.

+ Dai h((llIg do ngdll nhien: lit dai IUQ'ng do thay d6i theo thai gian khong thco mot guy luat nhal dinh.

+ Theo each bien doi. dai hrong do chia thanh dai hrong do lien tuc (Analog) va dai II1Q'ng do roi rae (Digital) V.v ...

1-1-4. Thier b! do:· La thiet bi ky thuat dung de gia cong tin hicu mang thong tin do thanh dang tien loi cho nguoi quan sat.

7

Thier bi do la su the: hien phuong phap do bang cac khau clurc nang cu tM. Thiel bi do duoc chia thanh nhieu loai tuy thea chirc nang cua no, thong thirong gam co: mau, dung Cl) do. dm bien do luong va h¢ thong thong tin do luong.

a) Mchf: la thiet bi do de khoi phuc mot dai lirong v~t ly nhat dinh, Thiet bi mau phai co d~ chinh xac cao tll 0.00 1 % -;- 0.1 % tuy thea tung cap tirng 10<;1i.

b) DI.lIlg cu do: la thiet bi de gia cong cac thong tin do luong va the hien ket qua do duoi dang con s6 hoac do thi. bang so.

Tuy thea each bien d6i tin hieu va chi thi, dung cu do duoc chia thanh dung cu do nrong tu (Analog) va dung cu do chi thi so (Digital).

c) Cam bien do (U(/ng: la thiet bi dung de bien ddi tin hieu do '0 dau vao thanh tin hieu fa thuan loi han de bien ddi tiep theo. hoac truyen dat, gia cong. luu gifr nlurng kh6ng quan sat duoc.

d) H(' rhrfng thong tin do III/tng: la 16 hop cac thief bi do va nhirng thiet bi phu de II! dong thu thap so lieu, truyen cac so lieu thco kenh lien lac va chuycn no vc mot dang thuan tien eho viec do va dieu khien,

1-1-5. Phmmg phap do

Qua trinh do diroc tien hanh thong qua cac thao lac eo ban nhu sau: - Thao hie xac dinh mau va thanh l~p mau

- Thao hie so sanh.

- Thao tac bien d6i

- Thao tac the hien ket qua hay ehi thi ..

Thu tuc phoi hop cac thao rae co ban trcn HI. phirong ph ap.do, Phuong phap do diroc phan thanh hai loai,

a) Plll({tng phdp do bien d(/i 'hdng

Lit phtrong phap do eo diu true theo kicu bien ddi thang, khong co khau phan hoi (hinh I-I).

-

Bf) - B6 bien il5i

AJD - B6 bien d5i tlJdng nr - so ss - B9 so sanh

-

Hlnh 1-1

8

Dai lirong do dira qua cac khau bien dcii (BD) khau AID (Analog/ Digital) de bien thanh cac so N,. No. sau do dua qua bo so sanh (SS).

Qua trinh diroc thirc hien bang phep chi a N JNo Ket qua do the hien bang bieu thirc duai dang

X=~x

No n

(1-2)

b) Phuong p//(ip do kh·j, so sdnh

Lit phuong phap do co cau true mach vong (hinh 1-2) CT

BEl - 86 bien d6i

AlD· 86 Win d6i Illang tv - 56 S5 - 86 so sanh

DIA - 89 bien doi so - tlfang tu

CT - chi thi ket qua

Hinh 1-2

TIn hieu do X diroc so sanh voi mot tin hieu Xk Iy l~ vai dai ltrong mau Xo' Qua b¢ so sinh ta co

Tuy thuoc vao each so sinh ta co.

: So sinh can bang: la phep so sanh rna dai hrong can do X va dai lirong mau X~ sao eho ~X = 0 va

x - X, = 0 ~ X ::: Xk ::: NkXo

trong do: Xo - dan vi do; X, Iii. dai luong thay doi.

- So sanh khong can bang: voi Xk lit dai lirong khong doi va ta co

(1-3)

x - Xj.; = 6X X = Xj.; + 6X

( 1-4)

Ker qua phep do dtroc danh gia qua ~X voi Xk 1a dai lirong bier trtroc,

9

1-2. Dan vi do, chuin va mfiu

1-2-1. Khai niem ehung

Dan vi do la gia tri don vi tieu chuan ve mot dai hrong do nao d6 duoc quae tf qui dinh rna moi quae gia deu ph iii tuan thu. Tren the' gioi nguoi ta da che tao fa nhirng don vi lieu chuan duoc goi la cac chuan, Vi du: Chuan "Om quae te": chuan "Ampe".

1-2-2. H~ thong dun vi bao gum hai nhom

a) Dan vi ('(I bdn: Diroc the: hien bang cac don vi chuan voi do chinh xac eao nhat rna khoa hoc ky thuat hien dai c6 the thuc hien duoc.

h) Dan ri keo theo: la dan vi co lien quan den cac don vi eo ban the hien qua cac bieu thirc.

Ngay nay he thong don vi thong nhat thuong diroc sir dung la h¢ thong don vi quoc te SI dli duoc thong qua 6 hoi nghi quae te nam 1960.

Trong do co bay don vi co ban la: meum) (chieu dai): Kilogarn (kg) (khoi hrong): Thai gian tinh bang giay (5); Ampe (A) (cirong do dong dicn); Nhiet dq (K); Mol (don V! sa luong vat chat); Cd (cuong do anh sang).

Ngoai bang don vi co ban tren con co cac don vi keo theo trong cac linh vue co, dien. tir va quang,

Bang I-I gioi thieu cac don vi do co ban va keo theo trong cac linh vue co, dien, tir va quang hoc,

1-2-3. Chuan cap 1 quoc gia ella cac don vi eo ban h¢ thong SI

Chuan cap 1 la chuan darn bao tao ra nhirng dai lirong c6 don vi chinh xac nhat ella mot quoc gia.

a) Chudn dan vi d(j dai

Don vi d¢ dai (m). Met la quang dtrong anh sang di diroc trong chan khong trong khoang thai gian:

1/29979258 giay (CGMpJ Ian thir 17 nam 1983)

I CGP~'l ten viet tat tieng Phap ella dai h9i can (10 qu6e re,

10

Bang 1·1.

cee dai hJd~ Ten don vi Ky hieu
1. Cac aai Ilfdng eo blm
Do dai mel m
Kh6i Iu'(;lng k.ilogam k.g
Thoi gian giay s
D6ng dien ampe A
Nhiet ee Kelvin K
. Solu'qng vat chat men mol
CU'Clng d6 anh sang Candela Cd
2. Cac Ii?i Ilfdng co roc
Toe d9 met trem gi3Y mls
Gia toc met trim gi3Y binh phu'c1ng mJ/
Ni:ing lu'qng va col1'g Jun J
Lyc Niuldn N
Cong suat Watt W
Nang lu'qng Wall gi§y Ws
3. Cae G?i /I.k)ng lii~n C
Ll1I;mg di~n Culong V
8i~n ap, the di$n d9n9 Von Vim
ClJ'i:lng d9 dien tnronq V6n tren met F
Di~n dung Fara n
Diem Ird 6m n,m
£)i$n Ird rieng om mel F/m
He s6 dien mol tuyel dol fara Iren met
4. Cac dai /ut;lng tif
Tulhong Vebe Wb
Cam U'ng Ill' Tesla T
Cu'ong d9 w trlfong Ampe Iran mel Alm
£)i$n cam Henri H
He soWtham Henri Irem mel HIm
5. Cac d?i /I.k)ng quang
Luong anh sang Lumen 1m
ClJ'i:lng d9 sang rieng Candela ITEm met vuong Cd/m 2
86 chleu sang Lux lx 11

h) C '1IIei'1I dan l'f klt/j/' h((fng

Kilogam (kg) - la dan vi khoi luong ella mau kilogam quae te d~t tai trung tam mau va can quae te b Pari.

c) CI/lUIlI drill vi (Iuri gian

Dan vi thai gian - gia y (s) la khoang thai g ian c ua 9192631 770 e h u kl phat xa, nrong irng voi thai gian chuyen giira hai mire gan nhat (j trang thai eel ban ella nguyen tiI xc - si 133.

d) Chudn chili vi (h)lIg di~;11

Ampe (A) la dong dien khong dui khi chay trong hai day dan thang, song song. dai vo han, tiet dien tron nho khong dang ke, d~t each nhau 1 met trong chan khong, sc gay ra tren moi met dai ella day mot hrc 2.10.7 niuton (CGPM lan thu 9, 1948)

e) Chudn dan \'j nhiet do

Dan vi nhiet d¢ 18. Kelvin (K) - do 18. nhiet d¢ co gia tri bang 1/273,16 phan nhiet d¢ dong cua diem thu ba ella mroc (la diem can bang cua ba trang thai ran, long va hoi),

11 C hudn dan 1'1 Cl((rllg d(J dnh .wing

Don vi cuong do anh sang 18. Candela' (Cd) la cirong do anh sang theo mot phuong xac dinh cua mot nguon phat ra birc xa dan sac eo tan sa 540 x 1012 hec va eo cuong d¢ theo phuong do 18. 1/683 oat tren steradian (CGPM Ian thu 16, 1979).

g) Don vi sd lU(mg \'()1 chdt

D<1I1 vj s6 hrong v~t chat (mol) - ia sa hrong v~t chat co so phan tir (hay nguyen nr, cac hat) bang so nguyen tu clnra iJ trong 12C voi khci hrong la 0,012 kg (CGPM Ian thir 14, 1971).

1-3, Cau true cc ban ella dl:lng el:l do 1-3-1. Phan loai dung CI;I do

D1J.ng cu do duoc phan loai nhu sau:

(J) Thea ctul: hie;,1 ddi co llu! phan flit/nil

- Dung cu do bien d6i thing la dung cu do rna dai luong can do X duoc bien d6i thanh hrong ra Y thea mot duong thang khong co khau phan h6i.

12

- Dung cu do kieu bien doi bu la loai dung cy co mach phan hoi voi cac chuyen doi nguoc bien doi dai hrong ra Y thanh dai lirong bu Xk de bu voi lin hieu do X. Mach do lil mach khep kin.

h) Theo plll((fflg plltip so s(/IIII ductc phun ,'/(illh

- Dung cu do danh gia tnrc tiep: la dung cu duoc khac dQ theo dan vi ella dai hrong do Ill' tnroc. Khi do. dai luong do duoc so sanh voi no de eho ra ket qua do.

- Dung cu do kieu so sanh: lit dung cu do diroc tlurc hien vice so sanh qua moi Ian do. &1 (10 do lit sc do kieu bien d6i bu.

e J Thco plt/((t/lg phap dtta ra tlu J/lg tin do dlf{fC chia thuu]:

- Dung cu do nrong II!. la dung cu co so chi ht mot ham lien tuc ella dai luong do.

Dung cu do urong II! gem: Dung el:! do kieu kim chi. dung cu do ur ghi (Ket qua do duoc ghi lai diroi dang duong cong phu thuoc thai gian),

- Dung cu do chi thi so: lil dung cu trong do dai luong do lien tuc dtroc bien d6i thanh roi rae \'a ker qua do the' hien duoi dang so.

d J Thco d\li /t((tllg do:

Cac dung cu dtroc, mang ten dai hrong do nhu Vonmet, Ampcmct, Oatmet s \'. \' ...

II) S( t <i() ("(III trtu chung.

M6i dung cu do thuong co ba khau chinh do la: chuycn doi so cap, mach do va co cau chi thi (hlnh 1-3)

1--_.,.1 CT

I

CDSC . Chuy~n deli SCI cap

MD ~ Mach do

CT • Chi.thi ket qua

Hinh 1-3

- Chuyen doi so cap lam nhiem vu bien doi cue dai hrong do thanh tin hieu dicn. Do la khau quan trong nhat ella thiet bi do.

- Mach do Iii khau gia cong thong tin do sau chuyen ddi so cap lam nhiern vu tinh toan va thuc hien tren ~o do mach, Mach do thuong lil. cac mach dien, dien ur, cac b¢ vi xu li de nang cao dac tinh ella dung cu do.

13

~ Co cau chi thi 13. khau cu6i cung cua dung cu do the hien ket qua duoi

dang con s6 so voi dan vi.

Co ba each the hien ket qua do: + Chi thi bang kim chi

+ Chi thi bang thiet bi tu ghi + Chi thi diroi dang con s6.

b) So de) edll true Clio dung ql do bien drii tl/{1ng

Dung cu do bien d6i thing c6 So' do nhu hlnh 1 ~4. Viec bien d6i thong tin do chi dien ra tren mot duong thing, khong co khau phan hoi.

_x-....-j·l CD, 1 y 1 ~ CD .; I. Y 1 .. - - - - -

Hinh 1-4. So do cau true dung C1,l do bien d6i th~mg.

Theo sa do nay, dai hrong do X duoc dua qua cac khau chuyen doi CDl (chuyen doi sa cap), CD) '" CDn de bien thanh dai hrong Y n tien cho viec quan sat va chi thi, Cac dai hrong Y!, Y 2'" Y n la cac dai hrong trung gian,

e) So d() cdu tnic uta dung ql do ~ir!/f so sdnh,

Dung CI,l do kieu so sanh co sa do nhu hinh 1-5.

Do la dung CI,1 co mach phan hoi vci cac bo chuyen doi ngiroc (CDN) de tao ra tin hieu Xk so sanh vci tin hieu do X. Mach do III mot mach khep kin. Sau bo so sanh ta co tin hieu Ll.X = X - Xk• Khi Ll.X = 0 ta c6 dung C1,1 so sanh can bang. Voi Ll.X khac 0 la dung CI,1 so sanh khong can bang,

x.

SS - 89 50 sanh

CD - Chuy~n d6i Ihuan CDN • Chuy~n d6i ngl1~C

Hinh 1-5. So do cau true cua d1,lng cl,l do ki~u 50 sanh

14

1-4. Cae d~e tinh eCS ban cua dl:lng cu do

1-4-1. Sai so ella dung cu do

Nguyen nhan gay ra sai so ella dung cu do co nhieu 10<).i khae nhau nhirng co th~ philo thanh 2 loai:

a) Sui s()' h{; rluJ/lg: la sai s6 co ban rna gia tri cua no khong doi hoac thay deli c6 qui luat. Sai s6 he thong co ba 10<).i: sai s6 cua dung cu, sai s6 do moi tnrong va sai s6 do quan sat (thi sai).

Cac sai s6 nay ve nguyen tac co the khac phuc duoc.

b) Sui .wf ngall nhien: La sai s6 rna gia tri cua no thay doi rat ngau nhien do su thay doi cua moi tnrong ben ngoai (ap suat, nhiet do, d¢ am, tu truong. dien truong v.v ... ). Sai s6 nay goi la sai so phu,

c) Ngoa! ('(Ie sui .w;' tren, di,ltillh gill sai .wi' ella dung C(I khi do mot dai Ilf{Jllg nao d{j nguisi fa con pluin /0411:

* Sai s6 tuyet doi: la hieu giira gia tri dai hrong do Xli va gia tri thirc Xth (la gia tri cua dai luong duoc xac dinh voi d¢ chlnh xac nao do nho cac dung cu mau).

(1-5 )

* Sai s6 urong d6i cua phep do 't-. diroc danh gia bang phan tram cua ty s6 sai s6 tuyet doi va gia tri thuc:

tlX ~X

Y %=-.100%:::::-100%

'Xlh x,

( 1-6)

(Khi Xth::::: X)

* D¢ chinh xac nrong img diroc tinh theo bieu thirc

A::::: 1- X1h -Xd

X1h

(1-7)

.* 89 chinh xac tinh theo phan tram diroc bieu dien dUai dang:

a = A x 100%

(1-8) (1-9)

ho~c

a = 100% - ¥x%

15

Vi dl} I: Dien ap roi tren mot dien tro phu tili Iii. SOY. Nhirng khi do bang

mot vonmer, so chi cua von met Iii. 79V, tinh: - Sai so tuyet doi cua phep do:

- Sai so luang doi y,,%;

- D9 chinh xac urong trng A

- D9 ehinh xac tfnh theo phan tram (a).

Bdi gidi:

Sai so tuyet doi cua phep do

~U = U1h - Uti = 80 - 79 = 1 V

Sai so wang d6i cua phep do

y/lo = V,1o - U<1 100% = 80-79100 = 1,25%

U,,, 80

Do ehinh xac luang irng cua phep do

A = I _ U 'h - U ,1 = 1_180 - 791

U,h 80

A = 1-_1 = 79 =0,9875. 80 80

D¢ chinh xac tinh theo phan tram

a = 100 x A = 100 x 0.9875 = 98.75%.

Hoac a = 100% - y/'Io = 100% - 1.25% = 98,75%.

* Tinh chfnh xac Iii. d¢ chac chan cua thiet bi vci gia tri dai hrong ra khi dua mot dai hrong d dau vao.

Tinh chinh xac duoc bieu dien brri bieu tlurc

P=I_Xn-Xn Xn

(1-10)

trong do: X, - gia t.ri do Ian thu n; Xn - gia tri trung binh.

16

Vi du 2: Bang 1-2 eho gia tri nhan diroc cua 10 Ian do Tinh 51! chinh xac cua Ian do thii 6.

Bang 1·2.

Solan do

Gia tr] do dU'f,1c Xo.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

98 101 102 97 101 100 103 98 106 99

Gia tri trung binh cua 10 tan do duoc tinh nhu sau:

X, = t6ng gia tei eua 10 Ifin do 10

= 1005 = lOG,5.

10

Til' bieu thirc (1·10) ta co.

DQ chinh xac cua Ian do thu 6 dat diroc

P = I ~1100-100.51 = I_~ = 100 = 0,995

100,5 100,5 100,5

DQ chinh xac cua mot phep do va tinh chinh xac phu thuoc vao rat nhieu yeu t6 nhir chat hrong cua thiet bi do, nguoi si'r dung de thiet bi do va yeu t6 moi tnrong v.v ...

* Cap chinh xac ella dung cu do: la gia tri sai s6 cue dai rna dung ClJ do mac phai, Ngiroi ta qui dinh cap ehinh xac ella dung ClJ. do dung bang sai s6 tirong d6i qui d6i cua dung cu do va duoc nha mroc qui dinh cu th~.

6X

Y qdx % = X m 100%

m

(1-11)

2·GTElLVCBElL-A

17

trong do: ~Xm - sai s6 tuyet doi IOn nhat Xm - gia tri IOn nhat ella thang do

1-4-2. D(l nhay

D¢ nhay ella dung cu do tinh bang: s= dY dX

( 1-8)

trong do Y - dai luong ra: X - dai luong vao: va C = i la hang so cua dung cu do.

Neu mot dung cu do gam nhieu khau bien doi, moi khau co d¢ nhay rieng thi do nhay ella toan dung cu:

n

S=Sj.S2···Sn = OS,

._1

(1-12)

1·4·3. Ili~n tra cua dung cu do va cong suat tieu thu

a) Di¢n frtf J'(IO: la dien tro' a dau vao ella dung cu. Dien tro dau vao ella dung cu do phai phu hop voi dien trodau ra ella khau tnroc do (chuyen d6i sa cap) de khong bi anh huang den d¢ chinh xac cua phep do.

Vi du: Khi do dien ap ella nguon dien hoac dien ap roi tren phu tai, dien tra ella Vonrnet cang 100 cang tot. Nguoc lai khi do dong dien qua phu tai yeu cau dien tro cua Ampernet cang nho lai cang t6t de giam sai s6 cua phep do.

b) Dien fra ra CIia dung cu do xac dinh cong suat co the' truyen tai cho khau tiep theo. Dien tra ra cang nho thi cong suat cang 100.

1-4-4.IlQ tac dong nhanh

£)9 tac dong nhanh: La thai gian de dung cu xac lap ket qua do tren chi thi.

D6i voi dung cu tirong tu, thai gian nay khoang 4 giay.

D6i voi dung cu so eo the do duoc hang nghln diem do' trong I giay.

18

1-4-5. DQ tin cay

09 tin cay cua dung cu do phu thuoc nhieu yeu t6: - DQ tin cay cua cac linhkien sir dung,

- Ket cau cua dung CI,I khong qua phirc tap

- Oieu kien lam viec

D¢ tin cay diroc xac dinh bai thai gian lam viec tin cay trong dieu kien cho phep co phu hop VOl thai gian qui dinh khong.

D9 tin cay lam viec la mot dac tinh rat quan trong cua dung cu do.

cAu H61 ON TAp

1. The nao la tln hi$:u do va d~i Itt~ng do.

Phan biet su khac nhau va g;6ng nhau ve Un hi$:u do va dal IUQng do.

2. Thiet bi do la gi? Pnan lo~i thiet b! do.

3. Don vi do la gi? The nao 103 don v[ tieu ehu~n?

C6 may nh6m ddn vi chuan

4. Dunq cu do 103 91? PhE.IO loai dl,mg cu do va neu cau true cua chunq,

5. Neu cac d~c Hnh co ban cua mot dl,lng cu do.

Cap chtnn xac cua dl,lng cu do la gl?

Phan bi$:t sa; s6 cua phep do va cap chinh xac cua dl,lng cu khac nhau 0 chb nao?

19

CHUCJNG II

, ",'"

CAC CO CAU CHI TH~

2-1. Cd eauehi th! cua dyng cu do tU'dng tv 2-1-1. Khai niem chung

Dung cu do tuong tu (Analog) Ia loai dung cu co sO' chi la dai hrong lien tuc thee thai gian.

Chi thi trong cac dung cu do tuong tl,l' la chi thi codien voi tin hieu vao 111 dong dien va tin hieu ra la goc quay cua kim chi hoac d¢ di chuyen cua but ghi tren bang giay (dung cu tt! ghi),

Cac co cau chi thi tren duoc str dung trong cac dung cu do cac dai luong dien nhu dien lip, tan so, goc pha, cong suat, dong xoay chien va mot chieu tan sO' cong nghiep,

Nguyen ly lam viec cua cac chi thi co dien dua tren tac dong cua ttl twang len phan dong cua co cau chi th; khi co dong dien chay qua va tao ra mot momen quay (Mq).

D¢ 1&1 cua momen ty 1¢ voi d¢ Ian cua dong dien dua vao co cau chi thi, Momen quay Mq duoc xac dinh thee bieu thirc:

M ::::dWc

<.j da'

(2-1)

trong do We - nang hrong dien tlr

a - goc quay cua phan dong.

Neu ta dat van true cua phan dong mot 10 xo can, khi phan dong quay, 16 xo bi xoan lai va tao ra mot momen can M~.

(2-2)

D - he so phu thuoc vao kfch thiroc va vat lieu che tao 10 xo (hoac day treo).

20

Tai thai diem can bAng (Mq :::0 MJ

, dW~ D

taco: --= a

da

va

1 dWe

a=---

o da

(2-3)

Day lu phtrong trinh dac tinh thang do cua chi thi co dien.

2-1-2. Co diu chi thi tu dien

. Co cau chi thi tir dien gam co hai phan co ban: Phan tinh va phan dong (hlnh 2~ 1)

- Phan tinh gam Nam cham vinh ciru, eire tu, loi thep va gia da khong do1n tir, Giua cue tu va 16i thep co khe h6 kh6ng khi.

- Phan dong lit 1 khung day dtroc quan bang day dong c6 dirong kinh <P = 0,03 -:- 0,07 mm.

Khung day gall vao true c6 the quay trang khe ho kh6ng khi.

Nam cham ch€ tao bang cac hop kim Vonfram, Alnico, hop kim Cram v. v ... c6 tri so ttr cam CO 0,1 -:- 0.12 Tesla hoac til 02 -:- 0,3 Tesla.

Hinh 2-1. Co diu chi th] tlt di$n

1. Nam cham

2. Mach W

3. Khe hd kh6ng khi

4. L6i thep

5. Khung day

Khi co dong dien chay qua khung day, diroi tac dong cua tir tnrong nam cham vinh ctru, khung day lech khoi vi 1f1 ban dau mot goc a. Momen quay duoc tinh theo bieu thuc:

21

M =dWc

q do.

trong do:

(2-4)

$ - tit thong trong khe hb khong khi,

$::: BWSu.

(2-5)

B - d¢ tu earn cua nam cham; S - tiet dien khung day;

W - so vong cua khung day;

0. - goc lech ella khung khoi vi tri ban dau.

Tir (2 - 4) thay vao (2-1) ta dtroc:

M = d($I) ::: d(BWSuI) = BWSI

q do. do.

(j vi tri can bang voi M ::: M ta co:

. q c' .

BWSI = Do. va 0. = _!_BWSI = SI1 D

(2-7)

SI - dt) nhay cua co cau theo dong.

Co cau chi thi tir dien chi co the do dong dien mot chieu, thang do tuyen tfnh va dung de che 1<;t0 ampernet. vonmet, emmet voi do chinh xac cao (dip 0,1-:-0,5).

2-1-3. Co cau chi th] di~n tu

Co cau chi thi dien tir gam co phan tinh la mot cuon day va mot mach tir khep kin (hlnh 2-2).

Ben trong b6 trf hi kim loai co dinh va la kim loai di chuyen diroc gan voi true quay.

Khi co dong dien chay trong cuon day se xuat hien tir tnrong va tu hoa cac tarn kim loai tinh va dong de tao thanh nam cham. Giira cac tarn kim loai hlnh thanh hrc day Ian nhau va tao nen momen quay (Mq).

Taco: M = dWc

~ do.

trong do:

22

(2-8)

L - dicn earn ella cuon day,

I - dong dien chay trong cuon day, do d6:

(LI2 )

M = d :2 - = _!_ LI 2 dL

q da 2 do'

(2-9)

1. Cuon day

2. La thep co dinh

3. La thep d¢ng

Hinh 2-2. Co cau chi thi di$n tV

Khi 6' vi trf can bang: Mq = M~.

1 ., dL , 1., dL -1- -=.Da va a =-1--

2 da 2D da

(2-10)

Co cau chi thi dicn Ill" duoc dung d~ che tao von met, ampernet trong mach dien xoay chieu uin s6 cong nghiep.

Thang do cua chi thi khong deu, tieu thu cong suat 16'n va d¢ chinh xac khong cao (do chinh xac cfrp 1 -;- 2)

2-1-4. CO' call chi th] dien dong

Co cau chi th: dien dong gom cU<)11 day tinh diroc chia thanh hat phan noi tiep nhau d~ tao ra tir truong dell khi c6 dong dien chay qua.

23

Phan dong la mot khung day

d~t ben trong cuon day tinh va gan 11

tren true quay (hlnh 2-3). ca phan

dong va tinh thuong duoc boc kin

bang man chan tir de tranh anh huang cua tir tnrong ngoai den SI! lam viec cua co cau,

Nguyen ly lam viec dua tren SI! lac dong ella dien tir tnrong khi cho dong dien di qua cac cuon day va tao nen rnomen quay him cho khung day quay di mot goc c.

Hlnh 2-3. Cd cau chllh! di~n d9n9 1. Cu(m day linh; 2. Cu6n day d9n9

M =dWc

q do

We = M121112• M 12 - He cam giila hai cuon day;

1 I' 12 - dong dien chay trong cuon day tinh va dong.

taco: M = dWe = dMI2 1112,

q do; do.

o vi tri can bang M, =: Me

dM

I I __ 1_2 = Do :

1 2 de '

a = _!__I I dM'2 P 12 do

(2-11)

Khi cuon day tinh Va cuon day dong mac n6i tiep nhau I I = 12 =: I. Tir (2-11) ta co

(2-12)

Co cau chi thi dien dong dung de ch€' tao ampernet, von met va oatmet dong dien mot chieu va xoay chieu tan s6 cong nghiep.

Thang do cua chi thi khong deu, d¢ chinh xac cao (dat cap 1 +- 0,5)

24

2-2. Chi thj so

2-2-1. Nguyen Iy cua chi thl so

Hinh 2-4 la so do khoi cua h¢ chi thi so. Dai IUQl1g do lien We x(t) diroc dira qua bo bien doi xung AID (Analog/Digital). S6 xung N ty l~ voi gia tri xtt) duoc dua den bo rna hoa (MH), bo giai rna (OM) va den hien 56.

Cac khau rna hoa, giai rna va den hien s6 tao thanh bo chi thi s6.

r - - -- - -- - -- ----- -- - - ---,

B6 chi thi so

~

I BElX

L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~

Hinh 2·4. Sd do kh6i ella chi th! 56

2-2-2. Ma s6

Ma s6la nhfrng ky hieu ve mot tap hop SQ. tu t6 hop cac ky hieu do ta eo

the doc duoc bat ky s6 nao. co cac loai rna s6 sau:

- Ma eo' s6 10, do la he dern thap phan co 10 ky tu ttl 0, 1,2, ... 9.

- Ma eo' 562 (rna nhi phan) la loai rna eo 2 trang thai duoc ky hieu 0 va 1.

- Ma 2-10 (rna BCD) la su lien he giG:a rna co' s6 2 va rna eo s6 1O de co

the quan sat va d9C duoc, Khi thirc hien rna s6 ngiroi ta dung cac bo trigo, Hinh 2-5 la so do cua mot trigo gam 2 dau van S va R va 1 diu vao

chung T. Hai dau fa Q va Q voi tin hieu ra Yo va Yl'

X D

...... _.,3

a)

b)

Hinh 2-5. a) Tri go; b) Tin hi$u vao, ra ella Tri gd.

25

Co nhieu loai mach dern khac nhau nhu mach dem thang rntroi sau, mach dern thang 10 v.v .... Trong thirc te nguoi ta thirong dung mach dem thang muoi d~ ticn quan sat va de dQC. Mach dern thang 10 g6m 4 trigo noi tiep nhau nhtr hinh 2-6.

a)

Y1Q Yl1 Y20 Y21 Y30 Y31 Y40 Y41 Yr.
I
1 2 3 4
Ph;;
S R S R S R S R
Xv y IY IY i'( b)

Hinh 2-6. a) So do logic cua b¢ dem phan: b) Bi~u do thai gian cac dau ra

Do mac 4 trigc noi tiep, neu thuc hi~~ dem binh thirong e6 the: tai ]6 so, M dern vai 10 so nglIoi ta them khau phan hoi, khi dern den 9 xung, tat d cac rrigo deu chuyen ve trang thai 1 va iJ xung thu 10. cac trigo tro ve O.

Bang 2-1 cho thay trang thai a dau ra cua cac trigo voi mach dern rhang 10.

26

Bang 2·1

so 1 --
Trang thai triqo
-.-Q_~~,.-_ --,-_ ..... _---
IrA 1r.3 tr.2 tr.1
0 0 1 1 0
-- --.-.
0 1 , 1 1
1 .-L_
r--- .~- I
2 1 0 0 0
_ ..
3 1 0 0 1 .
4 1 0 1 0
-- r'
5 1 0 1 1
6 1 1 0 0 I
---. -
!
7 1 1 0 1._._ .. _~
I 8 1 1 1 0
9 1 1 1 1
10 0 0 0 0
0 0 I 1 1 0 2-2-4. Be) hien so

a) If i{'11 .W)" 1)(1 II g diot plUff ql/UlIg (LED)

Khi co W tai hop cac phan nr mang dien xuat hicn tai lop tier xuc p-n dinh thien thuan (nhu cac dien nr tir n sang tai hop voi 16 trong p). Chung se phat ra nang hrong duoi dang nhiet va anh sang. Neu vat lieu ban dan trong suet thi anh sang duoc phatra va lop tiep xuc la ngu6n sang (goi Ia diot phat quang LED).

Hinh 2-7a la m~t cat cua LED thong thirong va hlnh 2-7b la each bo tri

bo hicn s6 LED bay thanh.

Uu diem cua diot phat quang (LED) la:

- Kfch thinrc nho co the ghep toi vai nghin den tren mot met vuong.

- Cuong de) sang phu thuoc van dong dicn di qua do do co th~ dieu khien

diroc de) sang thich hop,

- Mau sic cua anh sang la rnau do, vang, xanh. Tuy thuoc vao loai vat lieu: + Vat lieu la Asenit Gali (GaAs) den co anh sang do.

+ Asenit Gali Photphit (GaAsP) den co anh sang db hoac vang. + Photphit Gali (GaP) den co anh sang mau do hoac xanh,

27

- Kha nang chuyen mach nhanh co Ins.

- Dien ap va dong dien cung cap eho LED voi dq sut ap tren den 1.2V;

dong dien thuan vo 20 rnA.

a)

Tai h9P cac phan lu mang diem

~--- Mang kim loai no; anat

t ", ""I'",t " /

<S:}i,~';~;;:;.;~;~:_;~<g;t,>~:-~:.:~ ~uE1iCh tan loai P

-

Loal n ~pitaxi

Mang vang no; kat6t

a

b

c

d

e

9

b) .

b) B¢ hi¢n .wr tin II thlldng (LCD)

Cac bo hien so bang tinh the long dtroc bo tri thee dang bay thanh gi6ng nhu den LED. M~t cat cua 0 tinh tht long kieu hieu irng trueng diroc bieu dien tren hinh 2-8a va bo hien so 7 thanh hinh 2-8b.

Tinh the long Ut mot trong cac hop chat htru co co tinh chat quang h9C.

Chung duoc d~t thanh lop giira cac Him kinh voi cac dien cue trong suet ket tua a mat trong.

Do bi kieh hoat, tinh the long khong xoan anh sang khi di qua cac bo loc quang do do lam cho cac 6 trong bo hien so bay thanh n6i len tren phong cua cluing.

Dong toan phan dung de kich hoat chay qua bon bo hien so bay thanh loai nho e8 300 IJ.A.

Ngu6n cung cap la nguon xoay chieu hinh sin hoac xung vuong co tan so 60 Hz va dien ap khoang 8V.

28

Tinh th~ long

Cac dlen Cl/C trong su6t

va b9 loc quang hoc phan cue

Moat ph6ng

Thuy tinh

Khoang tr6ng

Moat guong trong 6 phan xa

a)

b)

Hinh 2-8

c) Den hien s(f.

Cau tao cua mot den hien sO' nhu hinh 2-9a va ky hieu chung hinh 2-9b.

Trong do Anot la mot Him kim loai phang va rruroi catot tach rieng. M6i eat6t ling voi mot con s6 tll' 0 -:- 9. Cac dien cue diroc dat trong ong thuy tinh chua day khi tro vci cac chan noi duoi day.

Khi ga

Nhin ttl ben canh

Oiurl {;u'c dang ... ,ctur so

c· T T T T T T T T t T )

Cathoces

b)

a)

Hinh 2-9. Cau tao cua den hi$n s6 (a) va ky hi$u (b)

Khf tro thuong Hl khi neon phat fa anh sang mau da cam khi den bi kich hoat. Nguyen li hoat dong cua den dua tren hien tucng ion hoa chat khi do va cham khi d~t mot dien ap diJ Ian vao Anot va Cal6t. (lOOv -:- 200v). Trong qua trinh va cham va tai hop cua cac ion cluing phat fa anh sang do d6 co the: nhin dtroc cac chtr so.

Nhuoc diem ella den hien so la kich thuoc Ian. nguon eung cap can co dien ap cao.

29

.'0

<

2-2-5. B(> ghii rna

Cac mach giai rna thuc hien bien d6i ter rna co so 2 hoac rna 2-10 thanh rna co so 10. nghia lit. the hien ket qua duoi dang so thapphan, Ngay nay cac mach giai rna duoc ehe tao durri dang vi mach,

Vi ilu: Vi mach SN74247 (hinh 2-10) co cac dau ra he eire gop de dieu khien LED co chung Anot + 5V. Cac dien tro R, .... R7 han chc dong dot Anot (5 - 20 rrtA).

2J
f \ \ b
22 86 giai
ma7
21 thanh e \ 9 \ b
5n74247
?J d Hinh 2-10. 8(:1 giai rna 7 thanh

Trong cac h¢ hien thi bay thanh dung den LED nguoi ta mac theo hai each: N6i Anot chung hoac Catot chung (hinh 2-1 la, b) .

a ...... _..., a
Anode -...
b .... A b
" chung ....
c .... A C
d .... .... d
-... -....
e A A e
f _..., f
" Cathode "
g A chung ...... 9

a) b) Hinh 2-11. Sd do mllc b6 hi~n thi 7 thanh a) Anat chung; b) Cat6t chu·ng

Voi cac bo hien so co nhieu chir so duoc thirc hien theo sa d6 hlnh 2-12. D6 la he thong hien s6 (8 Digit) sir dung LED 7 thanh. Trong sa d6 gam co hai phan: Mach quet hin luot hicn thi cac den tll" D) ~ 0::; va mach giai rna hay thanh de hien so cho tirng den.

30

8,

Chuy€n mach Q, + Qs

...__.,.___

Mach CWel 0_, _a_

Hi€n thi _ 'I 9 Ib 0, + 08 el--Ie

=tr:

a

Den Ana! chunq

D~ D2...1!._
'I Ib 'I Ib
_9- ------ _9-
eI Ie el Ie
=tr: =tr: a

9

150

150n

Hinh 2-12. 89 hi~n so nhieu chir so

Dei voi mach hien so tinh the long LCD dung so do kich heat nhu hlnh 2-13. Trong do nguon cung cap (ac) I;) nguon dien ap xoay chieu mac thee kieu dien eire chung (h2 - 13a) Hoac voi tung thanh rieng re (h.2-13b). Cac dien tro R co tri so lOO (R > I MQ) de han che dong. Khi lam viec, b(_') giai rna dia chi dieu khien chuyen mach S dong hoac rna. Khi S dong dien ap Va..: d~t len thanh va dien eire chung kich hoat eho thanh do sang len.

a)

b)

Hlnh 2-13. So do kich hoat den hien so tinh tht§ long LCD; a) [li$n cue chung; b) TUng thanh rieng re

31

Cac thanh con lai dien ap giii'a chung va dien eire chung bang Zero. Ngoai ra hien thi s6 con sir dung bang rna tran diem rna moi den LED la mot vi tri diem,

Hinh 2-14 la sa do lap bang rna tran diem thuong gap voi dang 5 x 7 c6 anot chung trong d6 X - Y til cac dtrong noi cac diem cua rna tran,

Xl
" " Q • " x2
" " • • CI xJ
" • CI • "
" X ~
• CI • " 4
• • • • • X5
" a CI • c
" D " • " X6
X7
a) Hinh 2-14. So do rna tn)in di~rn 5 x 7 voi anDt chung Hinh 2-14

Hinh 2-15 mo ta he thong hien thi 3 digit voi rna tran diem 5x7.

B9

I Ban phfrn : : Chon day I



se e
d$m vao 1 T I I I ! I
Lj 1 }-1 2 l- II 3 f-

lU I I
IPhatxung
nhlp

~ 1 2345 678910 1112131415
vs«

I Eli~u kh iii n Ra + di~u

c6t ~ + khh~n
1111111I111111 ROM T hang
f-=-
-~
'--v--' ......__..._ ......_........
1 2 3
day LED ern vao 3

Hlnh 2-15. H$ thong hi/?n thi 3 digit val rna tr$n digm 5 x 7

32

csu H61 ON TAP CHlJ'ONG II

1. Cau tao, nguyen If heat d(,;mg va d~c di€lm cua co cau chl th] W di(!n, di$n W va di$n dl)ng.

2. Trinh bay cau tao, nguyen If hoet dl)ng va dac di~m cua chi th] s6. - The nao Iii ma s6? Thiet b! de thirc hien ma s6.

- Cau tao va nguyen Ii hoat d~ng cua be? dam thap phan

- Cau t9;O, nguyen If hoat dl)ng cua cac den hi$n s6.

- 81) giai rna, nguyen tac heat dl)ng.

3·GTElLVCSDL·A

33

CHVaNG III

£)0 £)n~N Ap VA DONG £)I~N

3-1. Ampemet

-'-1-1. Arnpemet mot chieu (DC)

Ampemet mot chieu duoc che' tao trcn co cau chi thi tir dien,

Dong dien cho phep qua co cau do tir + _-----<._-------, 10-1 _,._ 10-2 A, dien tro' cua co diu tir 20 0

-;. 20000.. Vi vay khi sir dung do dong 16"0 h(1O dong cho phep ta phai mac them mot dien tro sun noi song song voi co cau chi thi. So do cau tao ella Ampemet nhu hinh 3-1.

- [ 1

R,

u

trong do: Rei - dien tro cua co cau chi thi:

Hinh 3-1

Rs - dien tro sun: Is - dong dieu qua dien tro sun; In - dong dien qua chi thi: 1- Dong qua Ampcmet.

Dien tr6 sun duoc tinh then cong thuc:

R = ReT , n-I

(3-1)

n=-,

leT

(3-2 ).

"i du I: Mot miliampernet co dong Ion nhat di qua chi thi Icr = ImA, dien tro cua co cau chi thi Rcr = lOon. Tinh gia tri dien tro sun de do voi dong I = IOOmA. V oi leI":::: 1 m A: Rcr = 1000; I = 100mA. Ta co:

n = _1_ = lOOmA = 100 .

lcr lmA

34

3·GTElLVCBtlL·B

a)

ReT 100

R, == _"- == ---- == 1.01 Q. , n-I 100-\

+

R,

s

ReT

Cac dien tro' sun duoc chc 1",0 tu Manganin hoac constantan va co tri so

ntt nho, V;)_t lieu che 1(;\0 dicn tH1 sun can thoa man cac yeu cau sau: - H¢ so nhiet dQ thap va dong nhat,

- Dien tro khong thav (1(';i thea thai gian.

- Nhiet d¢ on dinh kIH"~'ll dong dien di qua.

Cac dien tro sun str dung vai dong di¢n nho duoc gan ben trong Ampcmet nhung vai cac dong Ian (200A). cac sun duoc ghep song song val nhau.

Arnpcmct co nhicu thang do co + the' mac cac dien tro sun theo hai each: cac dien tro mac song song hoac noi tiep, Hinh 3-2 la Ampemet nhieu thang do voi cac dien tro R \. R~. R, va R.+ duoc noi song song voi chi thi,

Cac dien tr6 R I -;. R.+ irng voi dong dien do duoc tinh thea cong thirc 0-1) va (3-2).

Hinh 3-2. Ampernet nhieu thang do

vdi cac dien tro mac song song

1 mA

+

100 mA 50 mA

R,
RJ +
t ReT
R2
R,
b) Hinh 3-3. Arnpemet nhieu thang do vdi cac di$n Iro mik noi tiep a, b

Nhuoc diem cua each mac tren la khi chuyen mach til vi trf nay sang vi trf khac toan bo dong do Sf' di qua chi thi dan den qua tai va gay nen hong hoc, VI vay khi thiet ke phai che tao b¢ chuyen mach sao cho co unh lien tuc.

35

chuyen mach phai d~ a vi tri dong 100 nhat tnroc khi do sau do giam dan. Cac dien tra yeu cau d¢ chinh xac cao nen gia thanh dolt. D~ lang d¢ nhay va khae phuc nhuoc diem cua SCi do tren ta co the mac cac dien tro' sun noi tiep nhau nhu hinh 3-3a.

Vi du 2.- Mot eo cau do nr dien (hinh 3-3b) co dong dinh mire qua chi thi 1(_.1' = 50 IlA dien tr6' cua co cau RCT = 1000. Tinh cac dien tr6' urong trng R I' R2, R3, R.J. voi cac thang do 0 .;.. 1 rnA, lOrnA, 50mA va 100rnA. Cach tinh nhu sau: RCT = 1000; In = 50~lA.

V oi II = 0 ..;- 1 rnA ta co:

__ 1_1 _ 1000llA _ 20

nl - - -

In 50~lA

R R ReT 100

SI =RI +R~ + 1 +R .. =--=--=5,260 (1)

-. nl -1 20-1

voi 12 = 10mA

n-, == ..!.L = IOOOOIlA = 200

- ICT 50llA

R + R + R == 100 + R4

I 2 3 200-1

(2)

voi 13 = 50mA

n3 =i= 50.000llA = 1000

ICT 50llA

R -R +R _100+R3+R4

S3 - 1 2 - 1000 _ 1

(3)

voi 14 = 100mA

n3 = l±_ = IOO.OOOIlA = 2000

Icr 50llA

R = R = 100 + R2 + R3 + R4

S4 1 2000-1

(4)

36

Ttr 4 phucmg trlnh (1); (2); (3) va (4) Giai ra duoc:

R. = 0,052630; R3::;: 0,4l470;

R2 ::;: 0,052630 R .. = 4.740.

3-1-2. Khi SI! dung Arnpemet can chu y

- Khong tao nen dien ap roi tai de moi noi.

- Khong duoc noi true tiep Ampemet voi ngu6n dien khi chua co nil do

dien tro sun co tr~ sO' nho se tao nen dong dien Ian gay hong thiet bi,

- Khi sU' dung Ampernet tnroc het phai M doi noi a vi trf dong dien Ion nhat sau do giam dan eho den khi thoa man dong can do.

3-1-3. Ampemet nhi~t dien

La dung cu ket hop gitra chi th] tll' dien va cap nhiet dien nhu hinh 3-4a.

Mili von ke

q.p nhiet

t u t 0

Tam dong dem

Tamd6ng d~m

a)

Day nung G6m

Day dan

Day dan

c)

Hinh 3·4. Arnpernet nhi$t dilm a} So do nguyen Ji; b) qp nhi$t d~t trong chan khong; c) Cap nhiet voi v~t dan nung phang

37

Cap nhiet dien gorn 2 thanh kim loai khac nhau duoc han voi nhau l<_ti mot dau goi la dau lam viec (t.), Hai dau kia dtroc noi vci milivon met goi la d[iu It! do (to).

M¢I so \'~I lieu duoc sir dung lam cap nhiet dien la sat ~ constantan, dong - constantan, crom - alumen va platin - platin R6di v.v ...

Khi dau lam viec (II) khac nhict d¢ dau 11,1' do (to), cap nhiet dien sinh ra mot sue dien dong:

(3-3)

voi 0(1 = II - to la hieu nhiet (h) g iiia 2dau 11 va to voi II) = o'c

Neu ta dot nang dau lam viec II bang dong dien I, thi quan h~ giira nhict d¢ eO va dong I, duoc bieu dien bang bieu thirc:

(3-4)

Til' (3-4) thay vao (3~3)ta duoc:

(3-5 )

kl' k1' k, - Hang so.

Sue dien dong E( duoc do bang milivon met hoac rniliampemet khi do goc quay a duoc bieu dien bang bieu thirc

(3-6)

Hinh 3-4 b,c ve diu tao ella hai loai cap nhiet dien khac nhau.

Hinh 3Ab la cap nhiet di;it trong mot ong chan kh6ng de bao v¢ moi noi khoi bi t6n hao nhiet.

Hinh 3-4e Ia cap nhiet voi vat dan nung phang, nho tam d6ng dern va each dien lam cho cap nhiet d¢ it bi anh huong do nhiet do cua rnoi tnrong.

Hinh 3-5 rn6 ta mot so cap nhiet va phuemg phap mac cluing vci dung cu do. 6 so d6 3-5a dong dien luan phien nhau di qua cap nhiet khong qua day dot. Nhiroc diem cua so d6 la chi th] tao thanh Sun ella cap nhiet.

So deS 3-5b e6 d¢ nhay thap hem 3-5a do chi c6 dau cap nhiet tiep xuc voi day dan. So do 3-5e cap nhiet diroc o~t gan day dan qua hat thuy tinh do d6 dung cu co quan tinh Ion va d¢ nhay kern.

38

Ammeter

Ammeter

,..-----1 11------.

a)

b)

Ammeter

+

+

c)

d)

Hinh 3-5, Cac phLJdng phap mac cap nhiet voi dung cu do

Sa d6 3-5d co dQ nhay cao giong so' d6 3-5a va tranh duoc hieu irng Sun cua micro Arnpemet.

Arnpemet nhiet dien co sai so Ian do tieu hao cong suat, kha nang qua tai kern nhung co th6 do duoc.

o dai tan rong (tir rnot chieu den Ian so MHz) rna cac Arnpcmet co dien khac khong do diroc.

3~ 1-4. Arnpemet dlen tIT: La dung CI;I do dong dien dua tren co cau chi thi dien Ilr, M6i co cau dien tu diroc chc tao voi so ampe vong nhat dinh (vi du: IW = 1007200 A - vong) do do khi met rong thang do chi can thay doi sao cho IW ia hang so bang each 'chia cuon day thanh nhieu doan bang nhau va thay doi each ghcp noi cac doan do nhu hinh 3-6. Ampernet dien tir c6 the do dong nr rnA -:- lOA voi hin so cong nghiep 50 Hz. Sai so khoang ± Y/cl -:- O.Sq"

3-1-5. Ampemet dien dt)ng

Tlurong Slr dung do dong dien tan so 50 Hz hoac cao hem (400 -:- 2000Hz) voi di? chinh xac cao (Cap 1 -:- 0,5). Tuy thea dong do. cuon day tinh va dong diroc mac noi tiep hoac song song.

39

a)

b)

c)

Hinh 3-6. PhU'ong phap thay doi thang do cua Arnpernet di~n Itt

Hlnh 3-7 cho ta thay each dau cuon day cua mot Ampernet dien dong thong thirong.

Hinh 3-7. each dau cuon day eua Arnpernet di~n d9n9

3-2. Vonmet va dong ho van n:lng (v~n nang ke) 3-2-1. Gi6i thieu chung

Cau true cua Vonmet va dong ho van nang dua tren cac co cau chi thi co dien nhu co cau chi thi tu dien, dien nr va dien dong ket hop voi cac dien trc, cac mach chinh hru, khuech dai IC v.v ... de: tao nen cac Vonmet, dong 1 chieu (DC), xoay chieu (AC), cac Ommet va dong ho van nang.

R~

V onmet mot chieu duoc che tao gorn co cau + _-c:=:J-----, chi thi tu dien nci tiep voi mot dien tra phu n, v I nhu hinh 3-8. Khac voi Ampernet, Vonmet dung de do dien ap roi tren phu tai hoac dien ap giira

--------'

hai dau cua mot mach dien, do do no luon mac

song song voi phu tiii can do.

Hinh 3-8

40

Dien tro phu eRp) diroc tinh theo cong thirc:

Rp = R,./m-l) U

m=--

Ucr

(3-7)

(3-8)

R, - dien tro phu: ReI' - dien tra cua co cau chi thi; U - dien ap can do; Un - dien ap roi tren co cau chi thi (Uer = In . Rcr)

Vi du J: Mot co Call chi thi tu dien co dong lech toan thang Icr = 501J.A.

Dien tra ella chi thi IeI' = 5000:.

Tinh dien tra phu de tao nen mot vonmet co thang do 0 +- 1 OV . Ta co: Rp = ReI' (m - 1)

Uer :: ItT' Rcr = 500 . 50 . 10-6 = 0,025U,

V 10

m=-=--=400

u., 0.025

Rp = Rcr (m - 1) = 500.3990::: 1995000::: 199.5kO:.

m mo rong nhieu thang do ta co th~ mac thee so do hlnh 3-9a hoac 3 - 9b.

R,
R, R~ R3 R.
R1 ~ I CT

V3
./ ReT
ReT + V. a)

b)

Hinh 3-9. PhU'dng phap rnd r9ng thang do ella V6met a) Danq n6i song song; b) Danq n6i tiep

V oi sa do hlnh 3-9a cac dien tro phu duoc noi qua bo chuyen mach (dang song song) va tfnh cac dien tra phu thuc hien theo cong thtrc (3-7) va (3-8).

Hinh 3-9b la sa do vonmet nhieu thang do rna cac dien tr6 diroc mac o6i tiep nhau. each tinh cac dien tr6' phu thuc hien nhu sau:

41

Vi du :2." De bien doi mot co cau ehi thi tiI dien nhu hinh 3·9b thanh mot vonmet, tinh R I' R). R,. R .. wang irng voi thang do 0 - IOV, 0 - 50V, 0 - IOOV va 0 - 250V biet rang dien tn1 ella co cau do Rcr == SOQ va dong lech toan thang Ie r == 2mA.

T a c6: . V oi thang 1 OV (V .. ): Dien tr6" toan thang do R(

R( = V" =~=SkQ

leT 2mA

do do R .. == R[ - Rer == 5k.n - 500 = 49S0Q.

· Voi thang SOV (U,)

. " U. SOY .

DH~n tro toan thang: R[ = _.' = -- = 25kO

· In 2mA

RJ = 25KO . (4950 + 50) == 2SkQ . Sk.n == 20kQ. · V6i thang do 100V (U2)

Dien tro loan thang do: R, == IOOY == 50000n = 50kQ

· O,002A

R2 == R[ ·(RJ + R .. + RCT) = 50kQ - (20kQ + 4,950 kQ + O,OSkO)

R2 == 50kQ - 25kQ == 2SkQ. · V6'i thang 250V (U .. )

D· ., R 250V 5k"

len tro (= = 12 ::..:: .

· 0.002A

. RI == R]· (R2 + Rl + R4 + R(T) == 125 - (25 + 20 + 4,950 + 0,05) == 125 - 50 = 75kO.

* D¢ nhay ella vonmet diroc tinh theo bieu thirc

S == _!_( o/v )

I,

(3·9)

I( - dong lech 10al1 thang do.

Vi dl.f 3: Tinh d¢ nhay ella mot vonmet co dong lech loan thang do II == 200 J..!A.

D6 nhay S = ..!._ = I = 5 Kol

'. I( 200~LA IV

* Til d¢ nhay (S) ta co the: tfnh dl.lt!e dien tro' phu (Rp) ella vonmet.

R, = (S xU) - ReT (3·10)

U . dien ap do; S . d¢ nhay (O/v); Rcr -dien tr6' cua co cau chi thi.

42

Dien tl"a phu (Rp) duoc tinh thea cong thuc:

R, == Rd(m-l) U

m=--

UCT

(3-7)

(3-8)

R, - dien tro phu: Rcr - dien tro cua C(1 cau chi thi; V - dien ap can do; Uer - dien ap roi tren C(J cau chi thi (Vcr ==:: In . Rc·T)

Vi du 1: Mor co cau chi thi tit dien co dong lech toan thang ler = 50llA, Dien tr6' cua chi thi ILl = 500.0.

Tfnh dien tro phu de tao nen mot vonrnet co thang do 0 ~ 1 OV. Ta co: R, == ReI' (rn - J)

Vcr == ler . ReI' = 500 . 50 , 10'6 = O,025U,

U 10

m = - === -- == 400 DCT 0,025

Rp == Rcr (m - I) = 500,399 n = 199500 Q = 199,5kQ.

De rna rong nhieu thang do ta co the mac theo So' d6 hinh 3-9a hoac 3 - 9b,

R,

R,

+-- ....

v,

a)

b)

Hinh 3-9, Phudng p"hap md r¢ng thang do ella V6mel a) O;;tng noi song song; b) D~ng noi tiep

Voi so do hinh 3-9a cac dien tra phu diroc noi qua bo chuyen mach (dang song song) va tinh cac dien tra phu thuc hien thea cong thuc (3-7) va (3-8).

Hinh 3-9b la sa do vonmet nhieu thang do rna cac dien tro duoc mac noi tiep nhau. each tinh cac dien tro phu thuc hien nhir sau:

41

,Of dEf -1-: Tinh dien tro' phu cua mot vonmet tu dien eo dien ap do U = SOY; dong IOn nhat lam lech loan thang It :::: 200I-lA; dien Ira cua chi thi ReT:::: 100.0.

TLr{3-9)lae6: S:::::_!_= I =5K.Q/V.

I, 200~lA

Tu (3-10): Rp::::: (5 x U: - Rer ::::: 5K x 50 - 100 = 250K - 100

= 249.9 K.Q.

De giam sai so do. dien tro ella vonmet cang Ion cang tot do khi mac song song voi dicn tro tai (Rt) dien tro nay nrong irng voi dien Ira Sun do do lam giam d¢ nhay ella dung cu va gay nen sai s6 trong khi do.

3-2-3. Vonmet dien ttT

Ngay nay cac vonmet dicn tu duoc su dung rong rai nho sL,i' phat trien ella cac mach dien Ilr nhir khuech dai tranzito, cac bo khuech dai IC - Opam.

Cac dung cu do duoc ket hop giira cac bo khuech dai voi cac chi thi co

dicn ncn da tang d¢ nhay, tang dien Ira dau vao, cau tao nho g9n. a)' ·(JJlmJr Tranzito:

Hinh 3-10 la sa do vonmet dan gian co mach ganh crnito,

Dau vao la mot Tranzito diroc cung cap bang nguon dien I chieu, Cue

dirong ella ngu6n noi voi Coleeta cua Tranzito,

+E [B

diu am noi voi chi thi va crnitto.

Dien Ira Rp va dien Ira R~t la dicn tro phu USE

va dien tro chi thi. Dien ap E(Cin do) mac vao

Raw (eire duong), dau am noi dat.

~---Q +

Gia sir dien <.ip do E = I OV.

Ta co UllL = O,7Y (tranziro silic) nhir chieu rnili ten. nguon cung cap Ud ~ 20v; Rp + Rn = 9JkO va In = lmA.

Ltic do dien the diu ra emitto ella Tranzito thap han the a bazo la 0. 7V.

UI: = E - ~HE = 1O\' - 0,7v::::: 9JY.

Dong di qua chi thi la dong ernitto (II') rna

Hinh 3-10. So do nguyen If cua vonmet dien III dune Tranzito

43

UE __ 9,3V --lmA

11,=------'-'"-

R1> + R(_1' 9,3kQ

I

Bier rang In ~ _E_; hE1: - he s6 khuech dai dong emitter chung

hEF

(hu.; = 50 -;- 200).

Gia Slr hEF = 100, ta co:

Dien 1[(1 vao cua mach ganh emito, hoac dien tro tai tren ngu6n lOY duoc tinh nhu sau,

Qua do thay rang dien tro cua von met khi dung mach ganh emitto duoc tang len dang ke.

Trong thuc te de tranh do sut tip U 1lI.~ cua Tranzito gay nen sai s6 6' vonmet va tang dien Ir6' dau vao ngtroi ta Slr dung mach nhu hlnh 3-11. r-----~--------------~r_--~--~ +vcc

+--~

G

E,

FET

Kllu€ich d~u vao

Khuyech d<;li diu can bang

Hinh 3·11. So do thl/c Ie cua vonrnet dj~n tV

- BQ suy giam dau vao (khong ve) thuc chat la mach phan ap thirc hien bang cac dien tro de' tao nen dien ap thieh hop,

44

- Tang vao la khuech dai tranzito tnrong (FET) de tang dien tro vao (Rv ~ IOMO)

- Vonrnet ganh cmitto: UI. khuech dai vi sai mac thea kieu cau can bang. tai ernitto voi colecto chung noi voi eire duong cua nguon U ce'

Hai tranzito QI' Q2 gi6ng nhau diroc cac dien tro dinh thien R1. R:i' R1- tao ncn dien the Bazo cua QI' Q2 la v I va V 2'

R2• R3 - dien tro ganh ernitto.

Khi dicn ap \'~1.O E. :::: 0 diCI1 the v :::: V . cau a lrang thai can bang dong

. \ . 1 2 .

dien di qua chi thi In :::: O.

Khi E, > 0 hie do dicn the 0 Raw cua tranzito Q1 (V I) tang len va V I > V 2: U 12 :::: V I - V 2 > 0 se xuat hien dong dien di qua chi thi (In> 0), dong dien nay ty It; voi dien ap do.

uu diem ella vonmet tren la dien tro vao lao, it troi diem zero rna cac khuech dai mot chien thuong g~p.

3-1-4. Vonrnet khuech dai dieu bien (microvolmetr)

Nhuoc diem IOn nhat cua cac vonmet dien It! mot chieu la bi troi diem zero do dac tinh cua cac linh kien thay doi khi nhiet dO moi tnrong thay dOi. dicu do lam han che viec do cac dien ap nho, De' khac phuc nhuoc diem tren ta eo the' dung vonmet khuech dai dieu bien. Hinh 3-12 la SO' do khoi cua vonmet noi tren,

T

Uo L9C
H~~
B9 Gii'li - thong
in hiE'!u dieu bien dieu bien thap ra khu
aothap Khuech dai dlili 1
way chieu
I
May phat
song J1JL

v

~ Hinh 3-12. So do kh6i cua vonrnet khuyech dai dieu bien.

45

Dien ap mot chien dua vao b¢ dieu bien tao thanh dien ap xoay chieu, sau do dua den khuech dai xoay chieu de tang do krn, Tin hieu nay qua hq giai dieu bien de bien doi Ira lai thanh dien ap mot chieu ty I¢ voi tin hicu ban dau.

Tin hicu vao co vai uv, sau khi qua b¢ dieu bien thanh xoay chieu vai tan so 100 .;- JOO Hz.

B¢ dieu bien co the thuc hicn bang co khi hoac dicn IU. Hinh 3-13a la sa do dan gian cua mot b¢ dieu bien dien nr,

R

v,

u,

chieu sang

Quang di$n Ira

a}

b)

Hinh 3-13. a} Nguyen Ii cd ban cua b9 dieu bien dililn Ill; b) S6ng dien ap ra

.

o day ngu6n sang dtroc thay doi nit nhanh tu eire dai den eire tieu chieu

vao quang dien tro lam eho dien trc cua no thay d6i lie Rma\ den RIllIll tao nen day xung lien tiep, Hlnh 3-I3b la bieu do thai gian cua cac xung do.

Hinh 3-14 m6 ta sa do nguyen Ii cua vonmet dieu bien irng dung nguyen Iy noi tren.

B¢ tao dao dong (may phat song) dieu khien hai den neon xcn ke nhau chieu sang vao cac quang dien tnl voi tan so 100Hz. Trang do moi den neon chieu sang 2 quang dien trrr, mot l1 dau vao cua khucch dai xoay chieu va mot 6 dau ra cua no. Hai quang dien Ira 1<;1-0 thanh bo dieu bien va giai dieu bien.

Khi co anh sang chien vao I quang dien tro, dien tro ella no bi giam xu6ng va quang dien tro kia dien tro tang len (do khong diroc chieu sang) cluing hoat dong gi6ng nhu b¢ chuyen mach dong me xen ke nhau dung voi tan s6 nhap nhay ella den.

46

Tin hi¢u vaothap

ra

Quang dien Ira

khuech dai mol chieu

Hinh 3-14. Vonrnet dieu bien

Tin hieu mot chieu qua bo dieu bien tao thanh cac xung vuong c6 bien d(l ty It? voi tin hieu dua vao va co tan .,,6 nrong trng voi tan s6 dao dong, Cac xung nay duoc dua qua khucch dai xoay chieu sau do qua bo giai dieu bien de tl"l1 lai thanh mot chieu. B() loc thong thap e6 nhicm \''-:1 loai 1.10 cac thanh phan xoay chicu, Uu diem cua vonmet dieu bien lit dien tro vao IOn (100 Mn), dai do rong (3~lY -i- kY) vai sai s6 ±2('/o toan thang do.

3-2-5. Vonmet mot chieu dung Ie - Opamp

IC - opamp la mot mach tich hop c6 2 dau vao va mot dau ra. Cac dau vao duoc phan biet la dfiu vao dao va dau khong dao,

Moi dau vao deu co dien tro- vao rat cao, dien tro ra thap voi he so khuech dai co 200.000. Dong dien vao khoang 0.2 flA. Nguon cung cap ±s Y ..;- ±22V (hinh 3-15a).

Hinh 3-15b lit so do cua mot vonrnet dien nr dung IC - opamp 741c.

Trong do bo phan ap drill vao co thang do tll 10mY ..;- 100Y. Hai Diot lam nhicm \''-:1 baa v¢ IC khi qua ap. RJ va R, lit dien tro dieu chinh thang do. Giira chan I va 5 duoc mac ITI¢t chiet ap 10k dung chinh offset, diem giua chiet up noi voi nguon -5V. Chi thi Iii. mot co cau tu dien (u Alco do lech loan thang tit 50 ..;- I OO~lA.

47

+Ucc

8 chan 2 hang

Vo kim lO?,i

£)au vao dao £)au vao kh6ng dao

£)au ra

~\

1 2

-u EE

Hinh 3-153. IC. Opamp va ky hi$u

100V

8,2 M

10V

820 k

820 k

0,1 !!F

tv

82 k

82 k

100k

100 mV

8,2 k

8,2 k

820n

10 mY

I ... PhAn ap -I.

..I

Hinh 3-15b

3-2-6. Do di~n ap bang phuong phap so sanh

Phuong phap so sanh Iii phuong phap do co do chinh xac cao, trong do dien ap can do duoc so sanh voi dien ap rei tren dien tro mau, Nguyen If cua

48

phuong ph up duoc mo III nhu hlnh 3-16. Di¢n ap Uk (dien up rnau) c6 d9 chinh

xac cao diroc tao boi dong Bien ap

dien I (6n dinh) qua bien tH1 do

mau Ro: Uk :::: I.Rk. Nguon

U:<. can <10 duoc mac xung dci voi nguon mau qua bien tro Ro. Chi thi "khong" hl.

Chi thi chi khang Bien trd

Nguon m§.u

Uk

Hinh 3-16. So do nguyen ll do di$n ap b§.ng phtronq phap 50 sarin

dien ke I chieu hoac xoay

chieu c6 do nhay cao dung d~ phat hien dQ chenh dien ap giita Uk va Ux: 6.U :::: U, - Uk' Khi 6U knac khong ta dieu chinh con chay cua bien tro sao eho ~U :::: a (kim chi ve "0").

Luc d6 ta co ~U :::: U" - Uk = 0 va U, ::::: Uk' Tren bien tro Ro duoc khac do gia tri dien ap, qua d6 xac dinh JUlie Ux'

Hinh 3-17 13 so d6 khci ella vonrnet xoay chieu tlnrc hien bang phuong phap so sanh. Dien ap xoay chieu can do dua vao bo suy giarn va khuech dai xoay chieu d~ tang d9 Ian sau do bien d6i thanh dien ap mot chieu. Dien ap nay mac xung <16i voi ngu6n ap mau I von qua bien tro va chi thi chi kh6ng.

66 Khuech Bien
u - 5uy dai xoay doi
v
giam chieu AC-> DC Hinh 3-17. So do kh6i cua Vonrnet xay chieu bEing phiJdng phap 50 santi

Khi do ta thay d6i con chay ella bien tro dechl thi ve khong qua vi tri bien tro xac dinh dien ap do.

Do dien ap 1 chien bang phuong phap so sanh co the dung vonmet vi sai nhu hinh 3- t 8.

Sa d6 g6m 2 phan: Dien ap mau cung cap tir mot ngu6n chuan 1 von, qua bo chia (thap phan), tin hieu duoc dua den mach khuech dai vi sai.

4-GTDLVCBDL-A

49

Mat khac tin hieu do dua vao bo phan ap va hai mach khuech dai (Khuech dai rrurc thap va khuecn dai co he so khuech cao).

Tin hieu fa sau mach khuech dai duoc phan hoi tro ve khuech dai muc thap. Mot phan tin hieu ra qua phan ap ra duoc dira vao khuech dai vi sai. 6 day tin hieu do va tin hieu chuan duoc so sanh qua chi thikhong.

Tin hieu do duoc quan sal tren phan ap co khac do gia tri dien ap,

Phan rnau

Phan khuach DC

khuech

1 chieu muc thap

vao

Phan ap phan hoi

Khuech he so cao

1000V

I •

phan ap ---+~ dau ra

Hinh 3-18. 80 di$n ap m9t chieu bang phuonq phap so sanh

3-2~7. Vonmet xoay chieu

1. V onmet tir dien chinh luu: La dung cu ph6i hop giira mach chinh luu va co cau chi thi nr dien,

Chinh luu co the thuc hien duoi dang rura chu ky hoac d. chu kl. Khi dinh thien thuan, diot silic tlurong co de? SI,It ap thuan Iii O,7V, diot Gecmani co do 51:1t ap co O,3V. Khi dinh thien nguoc dong dien ngtroc rat nho so vci dong thuan.

50

4·GT£)LVCS£)L·B

Hinh 3-19a la sa do cua I vonmet chinh hill nira chu ky va hlnh 3-19b la vonrnet chinh luu d. chu ky mac kieu cau voi dien ap ra nhu hmh ve.

Dac diem ella vonrnet chinh Iuu Ia d¢ chinh xac khong eao (cap ehinh xac ur I + 1.5), thang do khong deu do dac tinh phi tuyen cua diot, cac vonrnet chinh Iuu diroc che tao do dien lip dang hinh sin voi he so hlnh dang khd::::: 1,1 do vay khi do voi cac tin hieu khac sin se gay nen sai s6 do.

Dai tan lam vice cua dung cu 10+ 20 KHz.

a)

'm

CT

Hinh 3·19. V6nmel chinh luu: a) Nlra chu ki; b) Ca chu ki

b)

Ngoai ra co the rna rong thang do nlur hinh 3-20. Nguyen Ii lam viec nhu sau: 6 ehu ki dirong dong dien di gua diot DI va qua chi thi, vci chu ki am dong dien se di qua D2• Cac dien tro RI, R], R3, R" va R) diroc tinh toan luang ling voi cac dien ap 1000V. 250V, SOy, IOV va 2.5V. Rs ia dien tro sun mac song song voi chi thi de tang su hoat dong cua cac di ot.

R, R, R3 R4 R, 0,
750 k 200 k 40 k 7,5 k
50V
250V 0,
10 V
1000 V
2,5 V
"""0' Rs I ReT

Hinh 3·20. Vonrnet cnlnh 1l1U rna n?ng Ihang do

2. V (j n mer dien flf xoa.v ehie'u do dien lip trung binh

Hirth 3-21 mo ta sa do nguyen Iy cua vonmer xoay chieu chinh hru dung IC-opamp do dien lip trung binh. Tin hieu vao diroc dua qua kh6i tu dien de 10~i bo thanh phan mot chieu sau do qua b¢ khuech dai co do 6n dinh cao.

51

qua chinh luu va chi thi. Do mac cac tu dien trong mach cau nen dien ap ra qua chi thi chi gia tri trung binh, thang do co d¢ tuyen tinh cao. Khuech dai co d¢ phan hoi am sau dam bao d¢ 6n dinh cua mach, tang duoc giai tan khi dien tra mach thay d6i va do dac tinh phi tuyen cua diot. Cac tu cua mach hoat dong giong nhu bo IQC va bo chuyen mach,

Hinh 3-21. Vonrnet xoay chieu do di$n ap trung binh

Khi tin hieu vao khong phai hinh sin hoac bi mea do nhieu va 6n se gay nen sai so trong dung C1,l.

3. V onmet do dien thedlnh

SlJ khac nhau co ban giila vonrnet do dien the dinh va dien ap trung blnh 6 cho sir dung tu dien diroi hinh thirc nao. TI,l duoc n<;Lp dien tich qua diot den dien the dinh va chi-thi chi dien ap do.

Hlnh 3-22 Ut sa d6 cua 2 101;\i vonmet do dien the dinh thuong dung.

C1

Khoitl:l

u·r

Khuech DC

C1

a)

52

Khuech 6n dinh

Khuech DC

b)

Hinh 3-22. Vonrnet di$n the dinh

Hlnh 3-22a eho thay dien ap mot chieu tao thanh sau diot duoc so voi dat VI vay chi thi khac d¢ dien ap mot chieu nrong ling vci dien ap do xoay chieu,

Hinh 3-22h la loai vonmet dinh xoay chieu co 11,l dien noi truce diot, Cii hai so do tren, 51! ph6ng dien ella 1l:I dien ra rat cham do dien tro vao ella khuech dai mot chieu c6 tri s6 nit cao tao eho tI,I nap diroc den dien the' dinh. Nhtroc diem ella vonrnet dien the' dinh la d¢ meo ella dang s6ng vao gay sai s6 va SI,I' khong hoan hao ella diot lam han cbe do nhay ella dung cu.

4. V()nmit dien tu: La dung cu dung de do dien ap xoay chien tan s6 cong nghiep, CUQn day tinh e6 s6 vong 16'n tu 1000 +- 6000 vong, D~ rna c

rong thang do ta mac n6i tiep voi cuon day cac dien tro phu nhu hinh 3- 23. T1,l C dung d~ btl tan s6 khi do a tan s6 eao hon tan s6 cong nghiep,

Giai do ella dung C1,l tir mV + * 600V; giai tan f = 50Hz +- kHz va sai

u,

so eo ± 1 +- 2%. Hinh 3-23. Vornet di~n t(J

5. Vonmit di¢n dong

Cau tao ella vonmet dien dong khac vci Arnpemet a eho s6 vong cuon day tinh I6'n hon va tiet dien day nho hem nhu hlnh 3-24, trang d6 cuon day tinh va dong n6i tiep nhau. Dac di~m ella vonmet dien dong til dQ chinh xac cao, sai s6 ±O,5 +- 1 %. Giai do tir mV +- 600V khi mac them cac dien tr6 phu, giai tan f = 50Hz +- kHz.

150V

R,

2

300V

K

K

A,

-0 K 2

c

c

u

Von mel di~n dQng

Hlnh 3-24. B - Cu~>n day d9n9; A1 - A2 - CU9n day co dlnh

53

3-2-8. Om met

Om met la dung cu do dien tro voi nguon cung cap ta pin va cac dien tro

. - u '

chuan, Xuat phat tir dinh luat Om R = -, neu ta gifr eho dien ap U khong

.. I .

doi thi dong dien I qua mach do se thay d6i khi dien tro thay d6i. DL,(a tren nguyen li do ta che tao cac om met do dien tro, Hinh 3-25 la SO' do om met thong thuong trong do.

RI

B

u

,xU

on

a)

b)

Hinh 3-25. 6m mel R1 - di$n Ira han che dong; R2 - di$n Ira chinh zero; U - ngu6n eung cap; ReT - diim Ird cua chi thi (mili Arnpernet W di$n); Rx- di$n Ira do.

Til SO' d6 hlnh 3-25 ta c6:

R)( = 0 thl RId = R I + R2 II ReI' = R] + R 2 .Rcr ; R2 + Rcr

RId - dien trc ella toan mach do.

1=1 = max R

lei

U

Khi R, = 00, I = Imin = O.

Thang do ella om met duoc bo tri ngiroc voi Ampernet va vonrnet (hlnh 3 - 25b)

Hlnh 3-26 lit SO' d6 om met nhieu thang do voi cac dien tro sun duoc thiet ke cho cac he so R] = R x 1. R2 = R x 10; RJ = R x 100.

Dien tro R, co th~ mac song song vci chi thi nhu hinh 3-27 va goi la om met loai sun. V oi SO' do tren R I la dien tro' han che dong, d6i noi thuc hien ngat dien khi khong su dung thiet bi,

54

R,,,= 2k

R,
tim A
Rm I
-=- V' R,
l___; B Rx1 R 1

v = 1.5V

Hinh 3-26. Om met nhieu thang do

Hinh 3-27. Om ke loai Sun

3-2-9. Van nang ke'

Trong thirc Ie nguoi ta thuong ch€ tao dung CI,l ket hop do dong dicn, dien ap (xoay chieu, mot chieu) va do dien Ir6. Dung CI,l nhu vay goi la van nang ke.

Hinh 3-28 Ina ta mot van nang ke hoat dong nhu trcn. 175 ~lA-500 n

'------4 II r----- ...

x y

R,

1000V
1
:::>
.~~
.<:
U
:0-
E
D.
'0)
0
Q
j I 3V ~

250flA 1 M 10 k 10 mA

250 mA Cue chung

Hinh 3-28. Van nang ke

55

Trang d6 gorn cac khoi:

- Micro ampcrnet, (hlnh 3-29a); DC ampcmet (Hlnh 3-29b)

~------+~/~-------'

250~A

Ctrc chung

a)

Hinh 3·29. a) Micro ampemet,

r-------+~/~-------,

250llA

10 mA 250 mA Cl!c chung

b)

b) Arnpemet 1 chieu

- Vonrnet mot chieu (DC vonrnet) hlnh 3-30a

- Vonrnet xoay chieu (AC vonrnet) hlnh 3-30b

ClfC chung

a)

~-+-i 11-·---..,

ClfC chung

b)

Hinh 3·30 a) Vonrnet 1 chieu: b) Vonrnet may chieu

- Omrnet duoc bit!u dien theo hinh 3 - 3 I a, voi 2 thang do 1 MQ (SCi del luang dirong hinh 3-31b),thang do lOkQ (SCi del tuong duong hinh 3-3Jc).

56

9.2 k

15400

530 2,20

1020

1 M 10 k 10 mA a)

ClfC chung

Hinh 3-31. a) Khoi emmet

3-3. Von met so

5000

2,2n

9,2k

5000

0,8k

10 k

loon c)

b)

b) f)i~n trCl tlldng dlldng thang 1 MO. c) Thang do 10K

3.3.1. GiOi thieu chung

V onrnet s6 Iii thiet bi do, bien d6i dien ap tirong u! thanh cac tin hieu roi rae va the hien ket qua do dudi dang con s6 bang cac den hien thi.

Uu diem cua vonmet s6 til tfn hieu vao da diroc chuan hoa duoi dang mot chieu ty l¢ vdi dai hrong do do do nit thuan loi khi do cac dai hrong khac nhau nhu dien the mot chieu, xoay chieu, nhiet do, ap suat, dien tro v.v ...

V onrnet s6 co the thao tac 11! dong, co chuang trinh dinh tnroc va t6e d¢ nhanh, tin hieu ra a dang s6 rat thich hop cho cac qua trlnh xu If va truyen tin. V6i 5t! phat trien cua vi mach Ie nen kieh thuoc, gia thanh va tieu thu nang lirong cua thiet N deu giarn.

Dac diem ella vonmet s6 Iii:

- Dai do tu 0 -i- 1 OOOV, co the: chon thang tt! dong va bao ve diroc qua 1ai

khi do.

- D¢ ehinh xac tuyet d6i cao: ±0,005%.

- v 6i thang do I V co the dQC hoac do diroc III V (tinh ehinh xac co

1 1000000 )

57

- Dien tro vao eft lOMQ, dien dung vao 40pF ..

- C6 the do duoc ty s6 dong dien, dien ap va dien tro.

3-3-2. Vonmet so bien doi thOi gian

Nguyen II hoat dong ella vonrnet bien doi thO'i gian la do khoang thoi gian rna de? doc ella xung rang eva thay d6i tU mire bang dien the cua tin hicu vao den mere dien the oat. Khoang th0i gian do duoc do bang dern xung, so xung dern diroc t)1 I~ voi dien ap do va hien thi bang so.

Hinh 3-32a va 3-32h mo ta nguyen li hoat dong va sa do khoi cua loai vonmet tren.

D(l doc ella xung rang eva co the thea chieu tang hoac giarn. Sl1 d6 3-32a cho thay de) doc ella xung theo chieu giam.

Khi rna may xung khoi dong tac dong len may phat xung rang eva (hinh 3-32b).

+12V

u,

May phat J1S1. xung

chUi~n

May phat

Xung chufln

Hinh 3·32 a} Bi4u do thai gian. b) So d6 kh6i vonrnet bi~n d6i thai gian

Dien ap ella xung rang eva dtroc dua vao bo so sanh I va b¢ so sanh 2.

Tai b¢ so sanh 1 dien ap rang cua va dien ap do U, so sanh vci nhau, Khi d. hai dien ap (rang cua va dien ap do) co tri so bang nhau tai thai diem t I' bo so sanh 1 phat xung dieu khien rna cong (G). Sau d6 xung rang eva tiep We giam, dien ap xung duoc so sanh voi dien the' dat a b¢ so sanh 2. Khi dien ap rang eva bang zero (hoac bang dien the dat), b¢ so sanh 2 phat xung dieu

58

khien dong cong (G) tai thai diem 1). Trang thai gian cong (G) mb (thai gian I), may phat xung chuan dua cac xung chuan co ehu ki To (tan so fol qua cong (G) vao bo dern. SO xung dcrn dtroc Iy le voi dicn ap do.

Neu goi 1 la thai gian cong ma va To la chu ki ella xung chuan.

S6 xung dern duoc N := _1- := Lt~) .

To

N - so xung dern duoc: 1 - thai gian cong rna t = t] - 11

T6c d¢ chuycn trang thai ella da hai xac dinh toe d() ella chu ky do. Loai dicn hlnh Iii. 5 chu ki do tren I giay voi d¢ chinh xac ± 0.005%. Moi 10<.1i vonmet so eo ehu ky goc tuan II! khac nhau lien quan den vice lay mau va hien thi.

3-3-3. Vonmet so tich phan 2 nhip

Nhuoc diem ella vonmet bien dcii thoi gian la sai so IOn. Khac phuc yeu diem ella vonmet trcn ngiroi ta Slt dung vonmet tich phan 2 nhip, Hinh 3.33b W. bieu do thoi gian cho ta thay dien ap do U, khi duoc tieh phan co do doc lang ty le voi dien ap U~. Sau khoang thoi gian t l' dien ap U x duoc ngat khoi mach va luc do dien ap chuan - Uk noi voi bo .tich phan. Do - Uk nguoc dau voi Ux' tu C phong dien, d9 doc xuong a diu ra ella tich phan ty I¢ voi - Uk' Hinh 3-33a bieu dien sa do khoi cua vonrnet tich phan 2 nhip,

t v 86d6c

1 lilh(Ji

u,

)

86 dOc 1,1" va; -u,

b)

Hinh 3-33. a) Vonmet so tich ohan hai nhip

b) Bi~u do Ihdi gian

59

Nguyen Ii hoat &jng nhu sau.

Khi bat dliu do, xung khoi dong reset b¢ demo Dau ra cua mach flip - flop (F/F) diroc d~t a mire logic "0". DOi nOi SI dong va Sz rna. Tl;I C bat dau nap, Rat nhanh tin hieu ra cua mach tich phan vuot qua zer6, dien ap fa cua be? so sanh thay d6i trang thai va rna e6ng (G) d~ cac Kung chuan tir may phat xung eung cap eho bo dem (Khi dien the doc bat dau tang, b(l so sanh chuyen sang trang thai 1, e6ng G rna cac xung chuan tir may phat xung chuan dua vao b¢ dern), Khi be? dem tang den s616'o nhat vci s6 9999 (trong khoang thai gian t I) vcri 1 xung tiep theo toan bo den hi~n thi tra ve 0000, be? dern tac dong len mach flip-flop deehuytn ve trang thai logic 1, hie nay SI duoc rna va Sz dong n6i dien ap - Uk vcri bo tich phan. Do - Uk nguoc chieu voi Ux tu C phong, Tin hieu ra cua bo tich phan giam tuyen tinh den '0' von. B¢ so sanh chuyen trang thai va e6ng G kh6a.

Thoi gian phong t2 ty l¢ v6i dien ap vao - Uk' BQ dem xung duoc dern trong khoang thai gian t2 eho den khi Vo tien den zero. Cac xung dern dtroc trong khoang thai gian ~ co quan he true tiep voi dien ap vao Ux'

Trong khoang thai gian nap (t.), dien ap tich phan diroc tinh:

U = __ 1_ r'dt = _ Uxt! (3-11)

o RC 1) RC

Trong khoang thai gian phong cua tu (t2):

U = _1_. r, -U .dt = _ Uk.t2

o RC 1) k RC

Tir 3-11 va 3-12 ta nhan diroc:

-UJ! = Ukt2 ---1- U = U .~

RC RC x .k t

I

GQi T la ehu kl cua cac xung chuan rna:

n -!L I-

T

nl - s6 xung dem trong thai gian tl va:

t2

n2=-

T

n2 - s6 xung dern trong thai gian t2

60

(3-13)

(3-14)

(3-15)

Til (3-14), (3-15) thay vao (3-13) ta co:

U == U n2T

x k T

nl

(3-16)

V" 'U I' h" i d do K U, K . ,

Ol n I va k a ang so 0 0 1 = - , I - hang so, nen

nl

(3-17)

Tir cong thtrc (3-13) ta thay rang do ehinh xac cua dien ap do U, phu thuoc vao thai gian tich phan tl va t2 rna tl• t2 diroc do bang b9 dem voi nl va n2' Trong khi do T la ehu kl phat xung chuanon dinh va Uk' nl khong thay doi tir bieu thuc (3-17) cho thay phep do co d¢ chinh xac cao.

3-3-4. V onmet s6 bien doi tan s6

Nguyen ly hoat dong ella vonmet duoc rna ta nhir hlnh 3-34.

Dien ap do duoc dua vito bo tich phan d~ tao diroc dien ap Uo, dirong dac tinh ella Uo ty l¢ voi dien ap do U, khi Uo tien toi mot gia tri dinh tnroc Uk (U (I = Uk) no duoc phong dien den 0 va chu ki tiep theo lai bat dau, Tan

so cua song tin hieu ra t)l l¢ voi dien ap do.

Hinh 3-34e la so d6 khoi ella vonrnet tren.

Di¢n ap vao Ux qua dien tro RI tao nen dong dien n<;ip ix = '~' va nap 1

eho tu Cella bo tich phan, Dien ap Uo sau bo tfch phan tang dan eho den khi eo tri so bang dien ap chuan Uk luc do bo so sanh chuyen trang thai.

TI,! bat dau phong dien va may phat xung tao ra 1Tl¢1 xung co d¢ rong (12) bang thai gian phong ella tu.

Qua trinh phong, nap cua tu dien dien ra lien tuc va tin hieu ra co tan so t)l 1¢ voi dien ap.

B<) bien doi ap - tan gi6ng nhu phuong phap rich phan 2 nhip (hinh 3-33) va tit cong thirc (3-13) ta co:

61

u = U kt2

, t

I

t I - thai gian nap,

Tan so ra cua tin hieu ty l¢ voi dien ap Ux' Vonmet tren eo nhuoc diem la yeu cau de) doe cua tin hieu co di;ic tinh tuyen tinh cao.

u.

a)

Tai dau ra may phat xung

: (Theo true x)

Dang s6ng ra eua mach trch phan

b)

"

c

i"

u"

e)

Hinh 3-34. Vonmet s6 bien deli Ian s6 va biiiu do thoi gian

3-3-5. V<,lD Dang k€ s6 (A-V-O met)

Nhir ta da biet cac thiet bi do nrong tv co iru diem lit khong can nguon cung cap. it bj nhieu, Khong can doi hoi d¢ each dien cao, gia thanh re va

62

thao hie don gian. Nhung voi cac thiet bi do so C() nhirng iru diem rna cac dung eL.1 tirong II! khong co duoc nhu dl.) chinh xac cao, tong Ir(f vao krn, kieh thuoc nho, co the doc cac so de dang 0 khoang each xa va tin hieu ra lit tin hieu dicn.

Vi v~y cac van nang ke s6 hien nay duoc su dung kha rong rai de do dong dien, dien ap va dien tro mot chieu va xoay chieu.

Hinh 3<:;Sa la sa d6 kh6i ella mQI van nang kc chi thi s6. Dung cu co tht! do dien ap (ac \,~L de). do dong dien (de) va do dien Ira.

Nguyen lac hoar dong cua tan s6 k6 so Iii bien cac dai Iuong do nhu dong dien, dicn In) va dien ap xoay chieu thanh dien ap mQI chieu, chi thi so the hien ket qua duoi cac dang nrong irng v6'i lin hieu do.

Dc do dong ta thuc hien b<ltag mach bien d6i dong thanh ap khi eho dong dien qua mot dien Ira. dien ap roi tren dien Ira Iy I? voi dong do.

Khi do dien tro bang each nguoc L .. ri cho mot dong dicn co dinh qua dien Ira do. dien ap roi tren dien Irb 15' I~ v6'i gia tri dien IrQ- can 00.

Dicn ap xoay chicu qua chinh hru bien thanh dien ap mot chieu ty l¢ vai di¢R ap do xoay chieu,

Qua trlnh do diroc thuc hien qua bo d6i n6i (hinh 3-35a)

cao

69 chinh IU'U

89suy giam AC

ae

B9suy giam DC

de om

Bien doi

~~--~ ~--~~

RII

Mach giao dien

Mil BCD ra

Chu6:n ehinh xac

Hinh 3-35a. So do kh6i cua van n~ng ke so,

Hinh 3-35b iii sa do rno ti mot van nang ke s6 thong dung.

63

r- _ ..... _

I ,

dcV

B~ suy r------l

giam

demA

aeV

dcV aeV

de mA Ohms

S,.

1

Hinh 3-35b. Sd d6 van nting ke s6 thong dl,lng.

Nguyen Ii hoat dong nhu sau.

* Do dien ap mot chieu cac khoa d6i noi Sla; SIb; SIc dat 0 vi tn V(dc).

Dien ap do qua bo suy giiim dau vao dira den bo bien d6i AID va chi thi s6.

* V6'i dien ap xoay chieu doi noi Sla; Sib; Sic quay ve V! tn V(ac). Tin hieu do diroc dira den b¢ suy giam, chinh hru vii bien doi AID.

* Dong dien do mot chieu qua be bien doi dong thanh ap (IN) va AID den chi thi, .'

* De do dien tro nguoi ta si'r dung nguon dong de tao mot dong dien khong d6i cho qua dien tr6 do, dien ap roi diroc dua den AID va chi thi,

Hlnh 3-36 la thiet bi bien doi dong thanh ap thong dung.

10(1

[dO-

Hlnh 3-36. Sd d6 bQ bien doi dong di~n thanh ai$n ap

64

cAu H61 vA sAl TAP CHUaNG 3

I. Ly thuyet

1. Neu cau tao, nguyen If lam vi$c, d~c dh~m cua arnpernet m(Jt chieu va cac

phuong phap ma r¢ng thang do.

2. Trinh bay cau tao, nguyen Iy lam viec va d~c di~m cua arnpemet nhiet di~n

3. Neu cau tao cua vonmet m¢t chieu, phuong phap ma n;'ng thang do.

4. Trinh bay cau tao, nguyen Ii lam vi~c va d~c di~m cua venrnet ban dan tranzito, IC - opamp do di~n ap m9t chieu,

5. Trinh bay cau tao, nguyen ll lam vi~c va d~c diem cua vonmet xoay chieu voi co cau tCt di~n chinh h1U, vonmet di~n ttr, vonrnet di~n d9n9 .

. 6. Cau tao, nguyen Ii lam viec cua vonrnet xoay chieu do gia tri trung binh va gia tri dinh.

7. The nao la vonrnet dieu bien? Trinh bay cau tao, nguyen Ii lam vi~c va d~c diem.

8. Trinh bay nguyen tac do di~n ap bang phlfOng phap so sanh, ve sa do va neu

d~c diem.

9. Trinh bay nguyen If lam vi~c cua ommet va dl.:mg CI,J van nang ke.

10. Neu di;jc di~m cua vonrnet s6?

11. Trinh bay cau tao, nguyen Ii lam vj~c va d~c di~m cua vonmet so bien dOi thai gian va bien dOi tan s6.

II. Rai tap

1. M¢t co cau chi thl tu di~n co dong di~n dinh rmrc Idm = 500 flA (vai d9 I~ch toan thang) + vai sal s6 ±O ,5%.

- Tlnh giai han tren va duai cua dong can do va sai s6 phan tram khl do cac gia tri 11 = 500 )lA, 12 = 250!!A, 13 = 5)lA.

2. M¢t arnpemet co 4 thang do nhu hinh va (3- 37). Cac di~n tro R1 = 50; R2 = 10n, R3 = 20 n, R4 = 50 n. Dong di~n Ion nhat qua co cau chi th] ICT = 100)lA, di~n tro cua chi th] ReT = 1 KD:. Tfnh cac gia tr] 11, 12, 13, 14,

I,

R4
leT
R3
I
R. CT
R, Hinh 3-37

5..GTDLVCBDL-A

65

3. M9t Micro arnpernet co thang do 150 vach vOi gia tri d9 chia C1 = 2pA. £)i~n tra cua chi th] ReT = 1KQ.

Tinh cac gia tr] sun tLlong Ung d~ do + dong di~n vOi cac thang do: 0 ~ 100mA; o ~ 300 mA; 0 ~ 500mA: 0 + 1A.

M(H CCf cau do tu di$n co dong d!nh rrurc

R.

u.

4.

Idm = 5mA, d1$n tra cua co diu do ReT = 100 n. £)~ ma r9ng vOi cac thang do 0 ~ 10V; 0 ~ 100V; 0 ~ 250V va o ~ 600V.

Hinh 3-38

~ Tfnh cac d1~n.tra phu tU'dng ung (Hinh 3~38).

5. M9t co cau chi th! ur di~n c6 dong I$ch toan thang do 'cr = 50pA, £)1$n tra ReT = 500 Q. Chi th, tren dU<;Ic che tao thanh 1 vonrnet vOi thang do 100V.

a. Tfnh gia tr] di$n tra phu tUdng ung.

b. Tfnh d9 nhay cua vonrnet: S == -f- (o/v) cr

c. Neu do di~n ap rei tren di~n tra R2 tinh so chi cua vonrnet (hinh 3~39).

6. Co 2 vonrnet khac nhau dung d~ do d1~n ap roi tren di~n tra Rb nhtt hlnh ve (3~40) vonmet 1 c6: S = 1KQN: ReT =0,2KQ, giai do 0 - 10V.

Vonmet 2·c6: S = 20KON: ReT = 1,5KO, giai do 0 - 10V. Tfnh:

a) Gia tr] di~n ap roi tren di~n tra Rb khi chU'a mac vonrnet,

b) £)i~n ap rei tren Rb khi do bang vonmet 1.

c) £)i¢n ap rei tren Rb khi do bang vonmet 2.

d) Sai 56 a moi vonmet khi do.

7. Xac dinh so chi cua vonrnet va sai 56 % doi vOi moi thang do cua vonmet: hang 5V; thang 10V va thang 30V neu d9 nnay cua thiet b] S = 20KON khi vonmet mac tren di¢n tfa Rb nhir hinh ve (3~41).

10K

u = 50\1

10K

100V

U..=.. 30V

Hinh 3-39

Hinh 3-40

Hinh 3-41

66

5-GT£l LVCB ElL-B

CHlJONG IV

£)0 THONG 56 M~CH £)I~N

4-1. Do di~n tra

4-1-.1)0 R bAng vonmet va ampemet

Hinh 4-1 lit so d6 do dien tro R dua tren dinh luat Om.

R = ~ . Tuy theo each mac Ampemet va vonmet, gia tri R, do diroc c6

the khac nhau (hinh 4-1).

+

R,

I x

+

u

a)

Hinh 4-1. £)0 dii;ln tra bang vonmet va Ampernet

Tir hlnh 4-1 a ta co:

u U 1- ....

Rv

V oi hinh 4-1 b:

I,

R,

b)

(4-1 )

(4-2)

qua d6 co the xac dinh diroc sai s6 cua phep do tuy theo each mac cac dung cu.

67

- Sai s6 cua phep do thea so d6 a

~%= R'x~Rx 100% Rx

trong do

. U R =x I

(4-3)

(4-4)

la gia tri dien tra do thea von va Ampe met.

R' x = R, II Rv; R, - gia tri thuc

Neu R,.» R, til (4-1) va (4-4) ta tinh dtroc

R' ~R R

P% = x x 100% ::::;~_x 100%.

n, Rv

(4-5)

- Sai s6 theo SO' d6 b:

J3% = R'x~Rx 100% voi R', =Rx +RA = U

R, ' I,

ta co

P% = RA 100% Rx

(4-6)

Til bieu thirc (4-5) va (4-6) ta thay rang:

V oi dien trc nho co th~ sir dung sa do 4-1 a, khi dien tro 1611 nen dung sa d64-1b.

4-1~2~ Cau do di~n tro

Cau do dien tra thuong chia thanh 2 loai: Cau dan (Wheastone) va cau kep (Kelvin)

1. cs« dan (Wheastone)

+

Diu dan la thiet bi dung do dien tro - co dQ chfnh xac cao. Mach diu hlnh 4-2 g6m 2 dien tro co dinh R2, R3 dien tro dieu chinh duoc RJ va dien trb do Rx'

68

Hinh 40.2. C~u do di$n trd

Dien ke' chi khong (Cf) la mot uampe met tir dien c6 d¢ nhay cao. Cau diroc cung cap bang nguon dien mot chieu U Q' Cac dien trc R I' R2, R3 la dien tro manganin co d¢ chinh xac cao va rat 6n dinh.

D~ xac dinh R, ta dieu chinh dien tra RI sao cho dien ke chi zero. Luc d6 cau ache d¢ can bang nghia la dien the tai 2 diem Va = Vb ( U ab = 0) do II di qua RI; R2 va 12 qua R3, Rx'

Tac6:

,.

do R~ va R21a cac dien tro c6 dinh nen ty' s6 R3 = K; K - he s6 nhan .

• 1 •• R2 .

Neu thay d6i R3 bang mot s6 cac dien tro co tri s6 100 han nhau 10 Ian va giu nguyen R2 ta se c6 cac he s6 k khac nhau

va c6 th~ rna rong thang do nhu hlnh 4-3. +

Dien tro R'j (h4-3) dieu chinh d¢ nhay U"

cua chi thi,

Tnroc khi do kh6a K duoc rna ra d~ chinh tho (bao ve qua tai) sau do dong K d~ ehinh tinh.

D¢ chinh xac cua cau can bang phu thuoc vao d¢ nhay cua chi thi va dien ap

IJR2=12R3 IIRI = I2R;i:.

Chia (4-7) cho (4-8) ta diroc IJR2 = 12R3

. IJRJ 12R;<;

Hay

(4-7) (4-8)

(4-9)

(4-10)

Hinh 4-3. Cau h¢p do di~n Ira

69

nguon cung cap, do do yell cau chi thi "khong" can co d¢ nhay cao, nguon cung cap dam bao d~ dong qua chi thi kh6ng vuQ"t qua dong cho phep,

Giai do cua cau don khi do dien tro R = 50 -7- 1050.

Sai s6 ±O.05% "crj R = 105 -7- 1060 sai s6 ± 0,5%.

2. Call kep (Kelvin)

Cau kep la thiet bi do dien tro nho rna cac cau don trong .qua trinh do

khong thuan 19i va co sai s6100 do dien tra nci day va dien tra tiep xuc.

De tranh sai s6 do tiep xuc khi do cac dong dien 100 gay ra, cac dien tnr tren thuong diroc che tao 4 dau, hai dau dong va hai dau ap (hinh 4-4)

Dau dong nam a phia ngoai, cac dau ap nam phia trong, J?o dien tra do rat nho nen dien ap roi tren cac dien tre rat nho, dong dien a dau ap di

vao dung cu do co IlA -7- rnA nen tranh duoc sl! sut ap do tiep xuc,

Hinh 4-5a Iii sa do nguyen 19 cua cau kep,

Trong do Ro Iii dien trc mau co tri s6 nho, RI• R2• R3, R4 Iii nhtrng dien

miu dong diEm

R

Hinh 44. f)i~n tro 4 dau

tra nhanh cau,

R, R~

a)

b)

Hinh 4-5. Cliu kep do dj~n 1m nho a) Sci do nguyen II; b) Sci dd thltc Ie

Neu ty s6 R3/ R4 giong nhu R]/R2 thl sai s6 do d¢ 51,1t lip qua R diroc bo qua.

Gia sir chi thi chi rer6 (Icr = 0). dien ap roi tren chi thi Vcr = 0 ta co dong I] di qua R]. R2, dong 12 di qua R3• R4 va 1 - 12 qua R, mat khac dong dien 1 di qua dien tra R)( va Ro.

70

Til hlnh 4-5a ta co (theo luat Kirehhof):

IIR2 = I2R-J. + IRo IRo = II R2 - IzR1-

IR" ~ R, (I, - I, :; )

Mat khac ta cling co:

IIRI = 12R] + IRx

IR, ~ I I R I - I ,R) ~ R.( I I - 12 :: ) ta ehia (4-12) cho (4-11) ta duoc:

IR, R, (I, - I, ~: )

IRI' - R (I _ I !_{4)

2 I 2 R

2

(4-12)

,. d'" k' R3 R[ h R3 R4 h d

VOl leu len - = - oac - = - ta n an iroc:

. R4 R2 'R[ R2 . .

R oX = R I va R = R R I Ro R2 x 0 R2

Trong qua trlnh do cac dien tro R[, R2, R3, R4 lucri giii' duoc ty s6 R3 = R4 ,Khi do dien tro R~ diroc xac dinh thea bieu thirc (4-13),

RJ R2 . ~. .

Hinh 4-5b la sa do cau thong thuong Rx. Ro la cac dien tra 4 dau. Giai do cua cau kep khoang 10-6 -:- 100..

Tuy thuoc vao dO chinh xac cua linh kien sai s6 ella phep do co the dat

(4-13)

±O,2%.

4-1-3. Do dien tra IOn

1. Do dien trJ lim bang phuang phdp gidn tilp

Phuong phap gian tiep eo the do dien tra IOn 105 -;- 1060. nhu dien tro each dien, Trong qua trlnh do can loai trir dong dien £0 qua day dan hoac

71

qua each dien cua thiet bi, Muon tranh dong dien ro can phai sit dung man chan tinh dien hoac day dan boc kim.

Khi do dien tro Ion thuong xuat hien hai thanh phan dien tro: Dien tr6' kh6i va dien tr6' ro be mat, Trong thirc te dien tro khoi va dien tro be mat to hQ'P lai d6 hi dien tro hieu dung ella lap each dien. Tuy nhien trong mot so tnrong nop phai tach rieng 2 tnrong hop, D6 tach hai thanh phan dien tro nguoi ta dung cac dien cue do va cue phu hinh 4~6a va b.

Khi do dien tro each dien khoi cua mach do duoc b6 tri nhu hinh 4~6a.

Dien k€ G do dong xuyen qua khoi each dien (co IJ.A), dong dien ro tren be mat vat lieu qua dien cue phu noi da:t. Dien tr6 can do duoc xac dinh qua vonmet va dien k€ G (u.Arnpemet):

R=~

x Idk

Ngu6n cung cap cho mach khoang lkV, dien tra R, co IMQ. De do dien tro mat so do mach bo trf nhu hlnh 4-6b.

R .

R

2

2

+

+

3

-,

Hlnh 4-6. £)0 di$n tra Ion b~ng vonrnet va Ampernet a) £)0 di$n trb k.h6i; b) £)0 di$n trd be mat

1. Hal di~n eire do; 2. Cue phu: 3. ram cacn di~n

trong do dong dien ro diroc do bang dien k€ G, dong dien xuyen qua kh6i each dien noi qua eire ehinh xu6ng dat.

Trong thuc te khi do dien tra ella sci cap dien ta phai tinh dien t[(1 theo ea 2 sa do hinh 4-6a, b.

72

2. Megommer

Megorn met 13 dung CI,l xach tay dung de ki6m tra dien tro each dien cua cap dien, cac dong co, may phat va bien ap dien luc,

Dung cu gom co nguon cao R, ap cung cap til may phat dien quay lay, dien ap tir 5007 1000V.

Chi thi 13 mot logorn met til dien hinh 4-7 gom hai khung day, mot khung tao momen quay va mot

Hinh 4-7. Meg6m met W di$n

khung 1<.1.0 momen can. G6c quay

a cua co cau do ty l~ voi ty so cua hai dong dien 11 va 12 qua cuon day WI' W2, dien tro R2, n, va R3 hinh 4-7.

I = VII

I R, +T1

I = UII

2 R 1 + R x + T2 + R,

r I va r 2 - dien tro cua khung. Diroi tac dong cua lire dien til gifra til tnrong va cac dong dien qua khung t'.10 fa momen quay M, va M2.

Ta co

Niu ra noj dat hoac ap thap

Nam cham

r-------+---,---------------~~---------,

,

Dau ra dltdng day

Dau ra v6ng chan

May phat

..... _.,._, .: ,1... ••• = .. ,;_,.

'''~:.~~~ :.-..-1,. -. ~ •. ';

t'~.~ >~ ;';~:~::.~.

Tay quay

..

Hinh 4-8. So dci cau tao cua meg6mmet W di$n

73

Tai thai diem can bang M I = M2 ta co:

a = F(_!!_) = F( R2 + R 3 + r2 + R ,\ )

12 R2 + rl

do RI, R2, R3, rl va r2 la hang s6 nen g6c quay a ty I¢ voi R, va khong phu thuoc van dien ap nguon cung cap.

Hinh 4-8 la sa do cua Megomet thong thuong.

4-2. Cau xoay chieu

4-2-1. Cau do dong xoay chien

Cau dong xoay chieu la loai dira tren cau dan dung de do dien cam. dien dung, goc t6n hao tg& va he so pham chat Q cua cuon day, Ngu6n cung cap cho mach cau

a r----i la ngu6n xoay chieu c6 tan so 50Hz hoac

tan so am tan va cao Hin lay tiI may phat tan so. Chi thi khong la mot dung CI,I xoay chieu nhu di¢n k€ dien nr, may hien song v.v ... Voi cau xoay chieu, dieu kien can bang phai dat diroc hai thanh phan la can

Hinh 4-9. Cau xoay chieu

+

bang ve bien do va can bang v~ pha.

Mach tong quat cua cau dong xoay chien ve tren hinh 4-9 trong do ZI' Zz, Z3' Z4 13 cac tong tro,

Khi cau can bang ta co Ut, = U," ; Uz, = U'4

Dodo:

IIZI =12Zz IIZ3 = 12Z2

Chia (4-15) cho (4-16) ta diroc

i.z, 12Z2 ,ZI Z2

--=-- va-=-

IIZ3 I2Z4 Z3 Z4

Do Z = R + jX nen cau can bang phai dat dieu kien

74

(4-15) (4-16)

(4-17)

R I R4 :::: R2R 0\ (R - thanh phan thuc) XIX4:::: X2XO\ (X - thanh phan ao),

(4-18) (4-19)

4-2-2. Dung CI;l chi khong dung cho cau xoay chieu

Dung CI,I chi khong eho call xoay chieu co the thuc hien bang mot dien ke ttl dien ehinh luu (u Ampemet) nhu hlnh 4-10.

.r-:»:

a)

b)

Hinh 4·10. chi th] chi kh6ng xoay chieu

Trong do hlnh 4-lOa la dien ke tir dien ehinh luu va hinh 4-lOb su dung them bo khuech dai de tang dQ nhay, giai han tan s6 cho phep cua mach cau ttr 20 Hz 7 I MHz.

V6'i giai tan rong nhu tren t6t nhat ta co the' su dung may hien song dien tli de chi kh6ng vi co the' quan sat diroc chfnh xac,

4-3. £)0 di~n dung va gee tan hao tv di~n 4-3-1. Khai niem ve di~n dung va g6c t6n hao

TI,I dien ly ttnmg III tu khong tieu thu e6ng suat (dong dien mot chieu kh6ng di qua tu), nhirng trong thuc te do co lop dien moi nen van co dong dien nho di qua tir cue nay den eire kia vi vi!ly trong tu co t6n hao cong suat.

SI,I' t6n hao cong suat lit rat nho va de danh gia SJ! t6n hao do ngiroi ta do goc t6n hao tgo.

75

Tu dien diroc bieu dien diroi dang mot tu ly nrong noi tiep voi mot dien tra (tu ton hao it hinh 4-1 1 a) hoac noi song song voi dien tro (tu t6n hao nhieu hinh 4-11 b).

V oi tu dien t6n hao nho, dua vao bieu dQ vecto ta xac dinh ~qe goc ton hao.

Ta co UR = IR;

U =_1_ c wC

U IR

tgo = _R = -- :::> tgo = RwC

u, IiwC

(4-20)

8 - goc t60 hao.

Voi tu co t6n hao nhieu ta co:

U

I =_. I =UwC 'R R' C

s:. If{ ,U/R -,

tgu=-=-- va

Ie uoc

1 tg8=--

RwC

(4-21)

u

_~_c ___,Jm ...... I ... R----I:

I. Uc .1

_. L I~ I. u, .1. u" .1

U

u

a)

b)

Hinh 4-11

a) TI,I di$n c6 tein hao nho;

b) TI,l diijln c6 tein hao Ion.

76

4-3-2. Cau xoay chieu do dien dung

a) Cot! do tu dien co tiin hao nho, Hinh 4-12 la sa do cau do tu dien co t6n hao nho.

Cau gom 4 nhanh trong do R I' R2 la thuan tro, cac nhanh con lai C, R, va Rm, Cm la dien tra mau, dien dung rnau co th~ dieu chinh duoc. Dien k€ G xoay chieu lil dl,lng CI,I chi kh6ng. cau duqc cung cap bing nguon xoay chieu Uz. Khi cau can bang ta co mol quan h~:

c,

Hinh 4-12. Cau xoay chieu do tu ai~n t6n hao nho

Can bang phan thuc va khang ta duoc

(4-22)

(4-23)

(4-24)

tg8 = roRxCx = roRmCm. b) Cdu do tu di¢n Cf) to'n hao lim Hinh 4-13 la sa do mach cau do tu dien co t6n hao Ian, trong do R [, R2 thuan tro. Rm mac song song voi Cm (dien tra va diendung mau), Rx, C, - dien dung do.

Khi cau can bang ta co:

(4-25)

Hlnh 4-13. Cau xoay chieu do tu aiijln lein hao [(In

77

74=----I Rm + jwCrn

Tir (4-25) ta duoc:

1

Ro' =R1·-----

1 'R 'C 1 'R +' C

- , ,+ j(l), III j(l) I))

( 4-26)

(4-27)

Gin bang phan thirc va phan ao ta co:

R2 =~=>R =R ,.&.

R R x m R"

rn X _

(4-28)

R2 . jeoCm = R 1 • jroC~.

C =&C

x RI m

(4-29)

(4-30)

c) Cdu Schering do dien dung.

Hmh 4-14 la so do mach cau Schering dung do dien dung.

TLr so do ta co:

ZI =----- 1, RI + jwCj

I

Z2 = R2: Zl =--'

. j(l)C3'

Z R I

x= x+-.-jWCx

Khi cau can bang:

ZI . Z; = Z3 ,Z2'

1 .[ R x + -. _1_J = R 2' _. _I -

LR 1 + jro C 1 jWC x jWC 3

Hinh 4·14. c€iu Shering do

dilj!n dung

78

(RX +-._I_)jWC3 = R2 + R2jwCJ

JWC\ R1

. R C C R, . R C

JW . , + -' = -- + JW , I'

"c R .

~ I

Can bang phan thirc va phan ao ta duoc RJ CX=C3"R1

CJ R =R2.-

x C

3

(4-31 )

( 4-32)

4·4. Cau do di~1"! cam va h~ so phfim chat cuen day 4-4-1. Khai nlem chung

CUQn cam ly nrong Hi cuon day chi c6 thanh phan khang (XL = oil.) hoac thuan khiet dien cam, nhung trong thirc t6 cac cuon day ngoai thanh phan khang XL con c6 dien tro cuon day RL" Dien tro RL cang IOn dQ pham chat cuon day cang kern. Neu goi Q la do pham chat ella cuon day thi Q diroc dac tnrng boi ty s6 gifra dien khang XL va dien tro cua cuon day do.

Q= XL RL

D~ do XI. va RL.' Q ta dung cau xoay chieu,

4-4-2. Cac mach call do thong so cam mau

(1) Cdu xoay chilli dung dien cdm mall Hinh 4-15 la sa d6 mach cau do dien cam trong do Rm' Lm lit dien cam rnau; Lx. R~ 13 dien cam can do; R1 R2

thuan tro, d che do can bang ta Co: 'V

ZjZ3 = Z2Z4 (4-34)

trong do

Zj = Rm + jwLm Zz=Rx + jrol., Z3::;: R2 Z4=R1•

(4-33)

Hinh 4-15. Cau do diim cam

t

79

Til (4~34) ta co:

(Rm + jwLm) (R[)::;: (Rx + jOJLx) R2· Can bang phan thuc va ao ta diroc:

R Rm·R[ = Rx·R2:::::;> R, = Rm' R~

jOJR[Lm = jOJR2Lx :::::;> L, ::;: Lm' RJ R2

(4~35)

b) call dien cam Maxwel!

Cau maxwell diroc mo ta nhu hlnh 4~16. Trong do CJ la tu mau, R[, R4• R3 ia cac dien tro dieu chinh diroc.

Khi call can bang ta co:

ZIZ4::;: ZzZ3 Ma Z[ =R[

Z4 = R4·

Til phuong trinh dill bang cau ta duoc:

Z ' " 3 "

Hinh 4·16. c<1u di$n cam Maxwell

RJ .R4 = (R, + jOJL.,.) 1 .,' .

)/i~_ 3 + JOJC3

Rj . C R a, + jOJLx a, jroLx

-+ JOJ 3' 1= =-+--

R3 R4 R4 R4

can bang phdn thuc va ito ta co:

Rj = Rx :::::;> R, = R4. Rj

R3 R4 R3

. C R jroLx L R

JOJ 3 I =R.:::::;> x =C3· J.R4

Call maxwell chi thich hop khi do cac cuon cam c6 he s6 pham chit Q thap (OJLx khong 100 han nhieu Rx)'

80

c) Gill dicn cam. Hav.

Hiuh 4-17 mo !~\ cau dien earn hay

. -

do dien cum cuon day. Trong do /.1::::: R]

1.2 = ---j- --~~-

Rx j(l)Lx

Z, _::_ Rl + _!_-

. - j(')C,

/_.::::R_..

Hinh 4-17. Cau di$n cam Hay

Vh ta co:

hay

( 1 1 'J R_ + t.' C

" / JO)1

R . -_ .. +"-- = '

I R 'wL R

\ J x I

va ta co:

Can king phan thirc va ao ta duoc:

_!_{_-+_ = Rj => R = Rl R-I Rx RI x R,l

R.). 1

==.~ ~ L x ::;: C 3 R I·R-i

j(ne 3R I

j(!) L x

Cau dicn cam Hay diroc str dung do cuon day co d0 pham chat cao.

<: U i)

(4-39)

4-5. Cau do R - L - C (cau Skeleton) 4-5-1. Giai thieu chung

Trong thuc te eIe thuan loi va de SLr dung trong cac phong thi nghiem eilng nhu ngoai hien tnrong khi do R, L. C nguoi ta dung loai dung CL,l goi la cau do R-C-L (cau Skeleton).

6-GTDl VCBDL·~

81

truth 4-18a la sa do nguyen ll cua mach cau trong do dien tro' Rb la ~QP dien tro mau g6m co 3 decade (x 1 O~ x 100 va xl 000). Cac decade diroc n6i tiep nhau va qua cac chu yen mach (h4-18b) tao thanh mot nh~nh cau. Cac nhanh con lai lit cac dien tro, dien dung va cac thong so can do Rx. L, va ex dircc mac vao cac cue 1-2; 3-4; 7-8; 9-10 va 11-12.

Chi thi chi khong va ngu6n cung cap duqc nol voi cac cue 5-6 va 13-14. Cau nay co the dung cho ea dong mot chieu va xoay chieu, Ngu6n cung PlP

J, diiu V80 13&14

0,

7

4

Eli~n Ira mau 1

£liEm Ira mau 2

CT

6 10

9

78A.11 12

13 14

~-----. Ucc._------~

Hinh 4-18a. So do nguyen Ii cau do R-L-C (Skeleton)

8

9

10

11

12

t Xl

Di~n dung mau

Hinh 4~18b .. H¢p di~n tra mau

82

Bien Ira 4

6·GTDLVCBDL·B

De do cac thong so khac nhau e6 the thuc hien each mae nhu sau:

- Hlnh 4-19a la dangcau Wheaston dung do cac dien tro (ac va de),

- Hlnh 4-19b - mach cau do dien dung C.

- Hlnh 4-19c - C&U Maxwell do dien cam L.

Giai do cua cau Skeleton:

• Do dien tro til 10'30 + 11,11 IJ..o: - Do dien dung til IpF + 1111 ~lF,

- Do dien cam til 1 ulI + 111 ,1H.

R,

12

13 14

~----_. Ucc._------~

R,

12

13 14

~~--_. Uc~·.---------~

b)

a)

12

13 14

Ucc.-~~~~~

c)

Hinh 4-19. a) Cau do di~n ttil

b) Cau do di~n dung

c) Cau ~a)(well do di~n cam

83

Cac thiet bi phu kern thea gorn co: - Hai hop dien tra mau:

Hop 1 co cac dien tro 10 - 100 - 1000 O.

Hop 2 la cac dien tro 1 - 10 - 100 - 1000 - 1040

- Mot hop dien dung mau voi cac tri s6: 0,001 - 0,01 - O,lj..lF.

- Bon bien tro mau c6 tri s6 100- lK - 10K - lOOK.

Ngu6n cung cap la dong mot chieu (de) co dien ap 1,5 ..;. 7,5V noi vai eire I3 - 14.

Chi thi chi khong (50 - a - 50 hoac 100 - a - 100 JlA mot chieu) noi voi cue 5-6.

D~ do dong xoay chieu cua R, L, C ngiroi ta sir dung mot may phat voi Hill s6 1 KHz va cilng noi voi eire 13 - 14.

Chi thi chi kh6ng IS. mot dien ke xoay chieu hoac tai nghe noi voi cue 5-6.

4-5-2. Cac phmmg phap do R-L-C v6i can Skeleton

J. Do dien fro

- Noi dien tro mau R1 (10000) voi cue 1 - 2

- N6i R2 (10) voi eire 3 - 4

- Dien tro R, noi voi cue 11 - 12

- Bien tro 1 Rb( dieu chinh tho) noi cue 7 - 8

- Cue 9 - 10 de: h6'

- Nguon cung cap diroc noi voi cue 13 - 14 (chi thi Ia Micro Arnpemet 1

chieu dung voi nguon 1 chieu, khi ngu6n cung cap la dien tip xoay chieu dung chi thi chi khong xoay chieu).

- Dieu chinh cac dien tro Rb, R J, R2 v. v ... sao cho chi thi chi khong (cau can bang)

- Khi cau can bang ta c6.

R ==R R2

x b R

I

Bang 4-1 cho biet giai do R, ling voi cac dien tr6' R 1 va R2

84

Bang 4·1:
£li~n Iro 1 (0) £lien Iro 2 (0) Thang do (0)
1000 0.001-;.11.11
1000 10 0.01-;.111.1t
1000 100 0.1 + 1111
1000 1000 1 ~ 11110
1000 10000 10-;.111100
100 10000 100-;.1111000
10 10000 1000 -;. 11110000 2. Do dien dung

- Dien tro R1 (lkO) n6i voi cue 1 - 2.

- Noi dien dung mau e (0,001 J-lF) voi cue 11 - 12

- TIJ. C:<._ voi cue 3 - 4

- Cue 9-10 d~ h6'

- Bien tro R, 1000 n6i cue 7 -8.

- Ngu6n cung cap xoay chieu n6i voi eire 13 - 14 va tai nghc

(headphone) hoac chi thi khong xoay chieu noi voi cue 5-6.

- Dieu chinh cacdien tro va W dien sao cho chi thi chi zero (cau can bang) Khi cau can bang ta c6:

e = c. Rh (IIF)

, R r

I

Rb, R1 la 0; e tinh thea )IF .

. Bang 4-2 la giai do ex ling voi R1 va tu mau e.

Bang 4-2.
Dien Iro 1 (0) Bien Iro 2 (0)
1000 0.001
1000 0.01
100 0.01
1000 1.00
100 1.00
10 1.00 Thang do (0)

~11.110 10 -;. 0.1111 100 + 1.1111 0.001 -i- 11.11 0,01 -;. 111.1 0.1 -;.1111

85

3. Do dien cam

- N6i 1\1 dien chuan C (0,01 )IF) vci cue 9-10

- Dien tra R2 (100 n) noi voi cue 3A

- Bien trO' RblOO n noi voi cue 11-12

- N gan mach cue 7-8

- CU9n cam L, noi voi cue 1-2

- Ngu6n cung cap xoay chieu n6i voi cue 13-14 va chi thi khong voi cue

5-6.

- Dieu chinh Rb, R2, C va bien tra de cau can bang va ta co L, ::: CR~2(H); trong do: R2, Rb tinh bang 0; C - (F).

Giai do dien cam L, cho tren bang 4-3 (mg vci R2 va tu C.

Bang 4-3
£)i~n trd £)i~n dung mau (F) Thang do
100n 0.Q1 1j.lH +- 11.11mH
1000n 0.01 1OI-lH +- 11.11mH
10kn 0.01 100l-lH + 1.111H
10kn 1.0 10j.lH +- 1.111H 4-6. 00 R-l-C bIng dl:ln9 cu so

Nguyen Ii hoat dong cua phtrong phap s6 la bien d6i cac dien trc, dien cam va dien dung thanh dien ap tnroc khi do sau do dua VaG vonmet 56. Thang do cua dung cu diroc khac d¢ voi cac gia tri tuong irng, Hlnh 4-20 minh hoa phuong phap tren.

Trong hlnh;4-20a mot dien tip xoay chieu duoc dua vao dau kh6ng dio ella opamp. Dong dien ra cua opamp qua cuon cam L va dien tro R[ co tri 56 I ::: U Rl JR[ va sut lip tren cuon cam UL::: IXL.

Gia suo voi I::: DR JR! ::: l,592V = l,592mA; f ::: 1kHz, RJ = 1kQ va

t 1kQ

L::: 100 ml-i, Ta co UL = I. roL::: 1,592. 2n. 1kHz. lOOmH = 1 V.

Khi L = 200mH; UL::: I.roL::: 1,592mA . 2n. 1kHz. 200mH::: IV. Khi L = 300mH thi UL = 3V ...

86

Dien ap roi tren L ty l~ voi tr!·s6 cua XL

Dien ap V L duoc dira qua chinh JU).i nhay pha sau do dua vao dung _CI,I.

Hlnh 4-20. 80 di~n cam (a) va di~n dung (b) b~mg dunq cu so

Hlnh 4-20b ta sa do mach do dien dung ciia tu dien tuang ur nhu phirong phap do dien cam. a day dien ap do la d¢ sut ap tren dien tra RI. Trong tnrong hop nay ta co:

1= U/xc vaUR =LR,

Neu U c = l.S92V, f = I kHz; R I ;::; lkQ; C = OJj.lF

1= V/X" = U,(coC) = 1,592V . 21t. 1kHz. 0,1 )IF = ImA va UR = IRI = ImA . lkQ = IV. V6i C = 0.2 j.lF. VR;::; 2V; khi C = 0,3 )IF thl U, = 3V ...

Dien ap tren ty l~ voi dung khang, duoc dua qua chinh luu nhay pha va dua vao dung cu do.

87

· Chi thi duoc khac ell) de thang do R. 1.. C rieng r0 v(1i de nul dicu khicn hoac II! d(lOg.

(li.ii do dicn In) It[ 2U + 2t-.10; Llil'll cam ICT 200 J-lH ~. lOOt!: dicn dung li:t 20(1 pF -:- 200()f1F Y(1i dQ chinh xac f, 1.(1.2)1)(' + (1 + fl.002R. L houc C chir ... ().

CAU HOI vA sAl TAP

I. Lj: thuyet

1. Neu pruronq phap do dien Ira bang vonmet va ampernet, linh sa; so va ve so d6.

Voi R == 1kU, di$n tro cua Arnpernet RA == 1D, vonmet co Rv z: 20K!'1. Tinh sai

so thea hai cacn mac

2. Phan loa; cau do va dac diem cua tUng 10aL

3, De do.dien tro vo; gio; han do R == 1n:· MD va R == 10-5 (} ~ H2.

Chon mach cau do tironq Ltng. V~ so do va no; nguyen Ii lam viec, 4, Trinh bay cac phironq phap do dien Ira Ian (R 2 MD) va so d6.

5, Trinh bay cau t90 va nguyen Ii hoatd(mg cua cau do dong xoay chieu, Ling dvng do di$n dung va diEm cam ve so do.

6. Trinh bay nguyen If lam viec cua dl,lng cu van nang lliong 11,1 va so do R-L -C.

1, NgU'C1i ta sl't dunq 1 mach cau Maxwell nrur hinh 4-21 de do di$n cam cua 1 cuon day. Biel fang C1 = 0,01 ~tF, R1 = 4701<0; R2 = 5,1 kO va R3 == 1001<0. Xac d\nh t6ng trd cua cuon day I<hi cau can

b~lng ""\,.;

2, Hinh 4-22 120 mach c3U Hay do t6ng Ira cua mot cuon day dien cam. Tlnh Rx va Lx I<hi cau a tranq thai can bang. Biel rang R1 == 21<0:

R2 = 10kn; R3 == 1 k12 tu C 1 = 1 ~F va III = 3000 rad/s.

II. Hai tap

88

Hinh 4·21

3. Hinh'4.23 13 mach cau Schering do dien dung cua 1 tl,J di~n. xac dinh gia tr\ Rx va Cx khi cau can bang.

Biet rang:

C1 ::: Q.5pF; R1 ::: 1kO R2 ::: 2kD

C3 ::: 0,5 ~lF

F::::; 1kHz

Hinh 4·22

Hinh 4-23

89

CHLfONG V

£)0 CQNG 5uAr vA £)I~N NANG

5-1. Khai ni~m chung

Cong suat va nang hrong la cac dai hrong co ban cua he thong dien, Cac dai luong nay co lien quan nhieu den nen kinh te quae dan, vi vay viec xac dinh cong suat va nang hrong HI. nhiern VI;! rat quan trong.

Trong thuc te cong suat diroc phan thanh cac loai: - Cong suat thirc (cong suat hiru cong): P.

- Cong suat phan khang (cong suat vo cong): Q.

- Cong suat bieu kien (cong suat danh dinh): S.·

Giai do cong suat IU LO-6 -7 IOIOW va giai tan tu 0 -7 109 Hz.

- Doi voi cong suat cua mach dien mot chieu va thuan tn1 dtroc tinh theo bieu tlurc:

u2 p= U. I; p= fR; p=-.

R

(5-1)

- V 6i mach xoay chieu I pha:

I 'I' I 'f .

P = - J pdt = - I uidt

TIT I

p, u, i-lit cac gia tri tue thai.

Neu dong dien va dien ap co dang hinh sin thi

P = UI coso

(5-3)

U, I - gia tri hieu dung; cosqi - he so cong suat. - Khi tlnh cong suat phan khang ta co:

Q = Ulsino

(5-4)

90

Ngoai do cong suat cua mach dien ta can phai do dien nang tieu thu cua tai trong mot khoang thai gian (W)

W:::: f' Pdt x: r Ulcosodt

, ,

(5-5)

tl -:- t2 - khoang thai gian lieu thu cong suat P,

5·2. £)0 cong suat trong mach mC)t pha 5-2-1. 1)0 cong suat mot chieu

Phuong phap dung vonrnet va Ampemet

Ta da bier cong suat tieu thu cua tai trong mach mot chieu va thuan tro

P = UI. do do co the Slr dung vonrnet va Ampemet de do. So'do thirc hicn nhu hlnh 5-1. Tuy thee each mac. sai so cua phep do co the khac nhau.

I,

I,

u

u

R,

R,

a)

b)

Hinh 5-1. So do do c6ng suat bimg vonrnet va Amp~met

- Voi hinh 5-1a ta co:

...

PdlJ = PA + PI = eRA + t2RI = I2(RA + RI)

PI = I2Rl

(5-6) (5-7)

Sai so % cua phep do:

(5-8)

91

- Tir hinh 5-1 b:

u' U2 P,lo::::;P1,+p( =-+-

Rv R,

U2 p=-

I R

I

(5-10)

(5-11 )

y % = [~, + ~, -~,) 100% = R, 100%

r L R[ Rv

Tir cong thirc (5-9) va (5-12) ta thay rang voi tai c6 dien tro Ian nen mac thco sa d6 5-1 a, khi tai c6 dien tro nho nen Slr dung sa d6 5-1 b.

(5-12)

5-2-2. Oatmet dien d(mg

Nhu tiet 2-1-4 dii gioi thieu co cau chi thi dien dong, trong do goc quay a cua chi thi theo bieu thtrc (2-11). Ta co:

_ I I 'I dM 12 a-- I'}

D - da

Neu tinh toan va thiet k€ sao cho II = k.I; 12 = k2U (k.. k2 - M s6 va U, I - dien ap roi tren tai va dong dien qua, tai)

Tir bieu tlurc tren ta dUQ'C:

(5-13)

goc quay a cua co cau chi thi dien dong ty l¢ voi cong suat raj tren phu tai, Tir co cau chi thi tren ta che tao thanh Oatmct dien dong do. cong SUitt P.

Sa d6 cua dung cu duoc rna la nhtr hlnh 5-2.

Giang nhir phuong phap von - ampe do. cong suat, Tuy theo each mae cac cuon dong va ap rna ta co sai s6 khac nhau.

92

Khi co dien ap v d~t len cuon day phan dong va dong dien di qua phu tai, duoi rae dong cua tnrong dien tu kim cua oatmct lech di mot goc ct. Til (5 -13) voi mach mot chie u va th uan tro ta co

- 1 I I dMl2 a-- 12--

D da

a::: kUI = kP

k - he so

r -- -- --- -- ----,

, ,

R

, ,

A:

u-

L ~~ ~ J

a)

u

b)

Hinh 5-2. a) Oatrnet di¢r. d9n9; b) Bieu do vee 10

(5-14)

¢II

Khi dong dien la xoay chieu di qua cuon day dong va cuon day tinh cua co cau chi thi, ta co momen quay nrc thci Mljl

il• i2 -rlong dien qua cuon day tinh va dong. Mornen quay trung binh trong 1 chu ky diroc tinh:

neu i I = I I mcol; i2 = 12m sine col - e). tir (5-15) va (5-16) la co:

M 1 ITI I . . ( dMp ~

=- I' smtot sm cot-<p) - t

<I" Tim z m dt

(5-15)

(5-16)

93

(5-17)

<p - goc Iech giUa I I va 12; I I' 12 - gia tri hieu dung.

o dieu kien can bang Mq = Me: Me = Do. (Momen can). ta duoc:

dM

II 12 ~_1_2 coscp:::: Do.

, da

1 dMI2

a = --~III2 coso D do.

(5-18)

D - he s6 can; a - goc quay cua cuon day dong

Neu II = k.I (dong qua phu tai va cuon day tinh); [2 = k2U(di~n ap roi tren phu tai), ta co:

a = kUI coso = kP

(5-19)

kl.,k2, k - he 56.

Tu (3-19) ta thay rang co cau chi thi dien dong cGng co the sir dung lam oat met do cong suat cua phu tai xoay chieu VI goc quay a, ty 1¢ voi cong suat lieu thy tren phu tai,

Oatrnet dien'dong co dai do voi dong 1 = 5 + 20A, do ap voi V = 220V + 380V. tan s6 50Hz -;- KHz va sai so±O.5 + 1 %.

5-3. Do cong suit tai 3 pha

5-3-1. Nguyen Ii chung :

Trong cac mach dien ~ pha, phu tai thirong duoc mac thee hai each: mac phu tai hlnh sao va hinh tam giac (h5-3)

Cong suat thirc trong mach dien 3 pha duoc tinh:

1 T

PlY = T I ~'f = UI; If, COSCPI + Vr, If, eos<!'2 + Ur,lf, COS(,p,l

(5-20)

If. U f - dong dien va dien ap pha.

94

Neu tii holm toan d6i xtrng ta co:

p,] ::::3UjIfcos(p=.J)UdIJcos<p

(5-21 )

Iii' Utt - dong dien va dien ap day; <p - goc lech giira U va I (LUI)

Tuy nhien trong thirc te cac phu tui trong he thong dien thirong khong d6i xtmg. De thuc hien do cong suat trong mach 3 pha ta hay xet tnrong hill' chung, do lit mach 3 pha noi tai hlnh sao khong CO day trung tfnh voi phu tai bat ky hinh 5-3.

trong do:

U,\!3' UBC' UCA - dien ap day UAN• UBN, UCN- dien ap pha lA' lB' Ie - dong dien pha

a)

b)

Hinh 5-3. Sci do mfil Oatrnet !rang mach di~n 3 pha a) Tai hinh sao; b) Tai hinh tam giac

T<:ti nut N:

IA + IB + Ie = 0

P3f:= UANIA + UBNIB + UcNIC Tu (5-22) ta co I, = -1;\ - lB'

Thay vao (5-23) ta diroc:

(5-22) (5-23)

= (U,\N - UeN)I.\ + (UBN - UeN)lB P3f;: UAcIA + UBcIB

(5-24) 95

5-3-2. Cac phuong phap do cong suat mach 3 pha

J. Plllf(lng phtip J oatmet

- Neu mach 3 pha e6 phu lui hinh sao d6i xirng (hinh 5-3a) ta chi can ttl) cong suat mot pha sau do nhan 3.

- Vai mach 3 pha phu tai tam giac dcii xirng (hinh 5-3b) ta cling do l'()ng suat 1 pha va nhan voi he sci 3 duoc cong suat tong.

- Truong hop khi mach dien n6i tam giac hoac hinh sao knong co diem trung tinh ta co the tao trung tinh gill (hinh 5-4a) bang cac dien tro phu R 2 vil RJ vci dieu kien R2:::;: R~:::;: RI. (R, - dicn tro mach song song cua Outmct i.

Hlnh 5-5b la bieu d6 vee to dong va ap ella mach 3 pha n6i tam gi<ic.

A

8 f/f---t- ...... ---.,

N

a)

b)

Taco:

Hinh 5-4. a) £)0 c6ng suat mach 3 pha trung tinh gia; b) Sci do vecto

I, = I.\B + I,\C

P" = U"I'<I,\ cos(UAN't) = U.\NI" coso

U UAI3 t:

Do AN = J3 ; IA:::;: v3lAB

nen ta tinh duoc: P" = UABI"cos<p.

96

(5-26)

(5-27)

2. Phuong phap 2 90afmet:

Phuong phap nay co the str d I,lng trong mach 3 pha dua tren cong thuc (5-25) Hinh 5-5 cho thay kha nang mac 2 Oatmet d~ do cong suat trong mach 3

pha voi phu tai mac tam giac hoac hinh sao.

, * ,

,

,

Hinh 5-5. So do mile 2 oatrnet do cang suat mach 3 pha

3. PItU(!f1g phap 3 oatmet .

A Trong trirong hop khi mach 3

pha co phu tai hlnh sao voi day trung tinh de do cong suat tong ta

B phai Slr dung 3 Oatmet va cong

suat P3f bang tong cong suat cua mach mot pha,

Sa do mac nhir hinh 5-6, va ta

c

B

co

P,j' = Pf + PI' + PI'

. ABC

5·4. £)0 cong suit phim khang

Hinh 5-6. Phuong phap 3 oatrnst do cong suat mach 3 pha

Cong suat phan khang la cong suat vo congo do mat mar nang luong dien trong dirong day tai dien, trong cac may phat, bien ap va dong co dien lam anh huang den gia thanh cua dan V! cong suat dien,

Cong suat pharr khang duoc tinh theo bieu thirc:

97

Q = UI sirup.

5.4.1. Do cong suat phan khang trong mach 1 pha

Khac voi cong suat tac dung, cong suat phan khang ty l~ voi simp. De: t<:LO duoc goc sirup phai thuc hien duoc goc lech y = nl2 gitra vee tel dong va ap sao cho cos(y - <p) = cos(nl2 - rp) = simp,

Mu6n vay ta co the' su- dung co cau ehi thi dien dong de che tao oatmet phan khang bang each mac them dien tro R I song song voi cuon ap (tai 2 diem a. b) va noi tiep cuon day dien cam L2 va dien tro R2 nhu hlnh (5-7a).

• a

R,

z

I,

u

u.-._..

, .

a)

b)

Hinh 5-7. a) Oat-net do cong sua! phan khanq: b) Bi€!u do vecto

Do each mac nhu tren da tao ra diroc goc Iech pha gifra dien ap U va dong dien I,. di qua cuon ap gee y = nl2 (hinh 5-7b) bang each chon cac thong s6 thich hop, Tir bieu thirc (5~ 19)

Ta co: a = kl, leos (n12 - <p)

a = k.~.l sin o = SQ Zv

(5-28)

S k d:' h . , , h" kha

= -Z - Q n ay cua oatrnet p an ang.

v

5-4-2. Do cong suit phan khang trong mach 3 pha :'~"y.::'C6ng suat phang khang trong mach 3 pha dtr(1c· tinh

98

7·GTDLVCBDL·B

Q3t = Qf! + Qr2 + Qr.'

:: UI- If sinrp, +Uf If sin<PB+U,Ir sinrp;

,~ r B H L" \"

(5-29)

I. Khi hii dt)i X/(lIg

Q'1 == 3U IIr sin <P:: J3U)J sin <P

(5-30)

De do cong suat phan khang cua mach 3 pha d6i xtrng, ta co th~ Slr dung oatrnct do cong suat thuc nhung mac thea sa do (hlnh 5-8). Trang do cuon dong cua O<:t!mCI mac noi tier veri pha A, cuon ap noi voi pha B va C (hinh 5-8a).

Ta co Q:: U[w[" cos(l.\Uue_-):: UdIdcas{Tr/2 - <p} Q :: U(!idsin(p

TLr bieu do vec· to (hinh 5-Sb) goc ["UBC = Tr/2 - <p. Do do c6ng swil phan khang trong mach 3 pha doi xtrng diroc tinh

Qq == fiQ = J3U}J sin o

(5:-31 )

Hinh 5·8. a. Cong suat phim khanq 1 oat met; b. BiE~u do vecto

2. Phuong phdp 2 odtmet:

Do cong suat phang khang trong mach 3 pha voi 2 oatmet co th~ mac nhu hinh 5-9.

Ta co p[ + P2:: UUCII\ casp[ + UABle COS~2· Ta dii biet P 1 :: P2 == Tr/2 - cp.

99

Do do PI + P2 = 2 UdIll simp.

D~ nhan diroc gia tri thuc A

cua cong suat phan khang trong mach 3 pha ta chi can nhan them

B .-_-t---,

,. he A' J3 , d

VOl e so - va ta uoc

. 2 .

o '"

:::J

Q 31" = (PI + P2 ) ~ Qif = J3uJId sin o

(5-32)

Hinh 5·9. Phuonq phap 2 oatrnet do conq sua! phan khang trang mach 3 pha

3. Phuong phap 3 oatmet

K hi ph 1,1 tai khong d6i x ling ta phai s lr d ung 3 oat met nh u hlnh s~ lOa.

P3f = PI + Pz + P3 = UBcIAcosYI + UC\IBeosY2 + DABlc--cosy'1.

N~------------------~

a)

b)

Hinh 5·10. PhlfClng phap 3 oatrnet do cong suat phan khanq

TiI bieu do vee to (hinh (5 -IOb) ta co

YI ~ rr/2 - CPJ ; Y2 = nl2 - <P2 ; Y3 = nl2 - <1'3· GiJ. srr DAB = UB(_" = Uc\ thi

PI + P 2 +. P -' = U4i .(1 A sin<p 1 + I Bsin<l'a + ~:sin<p 3)

100

Va c6ng suat tong:

5-5. Do c6ng suat trong mach di~n cao ap

(5-33 )

Do cong suat trong mach cao ap ngiroi ta sir dung them cac bien dong va bien ap do hrong.

Khi mac bien dong va bien ap do luang can chu y.

- Dong trong mach dung Cl,l do cling huang voi dong dien khi khong co bien ap,

- Cac dau cua bien ap va bien dong phai diroc danh dau

Hinh 5·11. £)0 c6ng SUll! 3 pha trong mach di$n cao ap

Phu tai

bat ky

- Ngan mach thu cap cua bien dong va ho mach tlnr cap bien ap khi khong su dung

- N6i dit mach thir cap bien ap va bien dong de dam bao an toan khi do Ket qua do duoc cua dung cu nhan voi he so bien dong va bien ap.

P == k.k, VI cosrp k., k, - he so bien dong va bien ap.

Hlnh 5-11 mo ta each mac oatmet trong mach 3 pha cao ap .'Iii dung 2

oatrnet.

(5-34 )

101

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