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?" ........ ....

A

sa GlAO Due VA DAO TAO HA NOl

. . .

KS. NGUYEN TH~ THU

./ .....

GIAO_TRINH

,

KY THUAT GHEP KENH sO

(Dung trong cac truang THeN)

..... ,.,,; ? ...... .....

NHA XUAT BAN HA NOI - 2005

Ma so: 373 - 7.373

HN _ 05 62/407/05

Loi gilli thieu

NUGC ta dang bUGC vao thai ky cong nghi¢p hoa, hien dai hoa nhdm dua Vi¢t Nam trd thanh nuac cong nghiep van minh, hien dai.

Trong su nghiep each mang to Ian db, cong lac dao tao nhan luc luon gifi vai tro quan trong. Boo coo Chinh tri eua Ban Chap hanh Trung uang Ddng C¢llg sdn Vi¢t Nam tai Dai h(ii Dang loan qucc ldn thu IX dd chi rti: "Phat trien giao due va dao tao ia mot trong nhirng dong luc quan trong thuc day SI,f nghiep cong nghi¢p hoa, hien dai hoa, la dieu kien d~ phat trien nguon lire can nguci - yeu to co ban de phat trien xa hoi, tang tnrong kinh te nhanh va ben vfrng".

Quan triet chu truang, Nghi quyet cua Dang va Nha nuoc va nhan thuc dung dan ve' tdm quan trong cuo chuang trinh, gido trinh dOl vai viec nang cao chdt luang dan tao, thea de' nghi eua S6 Gido due va Dao (go Ha Noi, nga» 231912003, Uy ban nhdn dan thanh pho' Ha Noi dd to Quyet dinh so' 56201QD-UB eho phep sa Gido due va DaD tao thuc hien de' an bien soan chuang trinh, giao trinh trong cac truang Trung h9C chuyen nghiep (THCN) Ha Noi. Quyet dinh nay thl hien su quan tam sdu sac cLla Thanh uy, UBND thanh pho' trong viec nang eao chat luang dao tao va phdt trien ngu6n nhan IIfC Thu do.

Tren co sa chuang trinh khung cLla B() Gido due va Dao tao han hanh va nhiing kinh nghiem rut ra tu thuc tedao tao, sa Giao due va Duo tao dd chl dao cdc truang THCN td chia: bien soan chuang trinh, gido trinh mot each khoa h9C, h¢

3

thong va cap nhat nhilng kien thuc thuc tien phi; hap viii do'i tuong hoc sinh THeN Ha N¢i.

B¢ gido trinh nay la tai lieu gidng day va hoc tap trong cae truang THCN 0 Ha Noi, dong thai fa tai litu tham khdo haft fell cho cac truang co dao tao cac nganh ky thudt - nghiep vu va dong ddo ban doc quan tam dlll vdn de' huang nghiep, day ngh«.

Vife f/y' chuc bien soan b() chuang trinh, gido trinh nay fa mot trong nhieu hoat dong thiet thuc cua nganh guio due va dao {go Thu do de' ky niem "50 ndm gidi phong Thu dd ". "50 ndm thanh h!p nganh" va huang tai ky niem "1000 ndm Thong Long - Ha Noi".

Sa Giao due va Dao {go Ha Noi chan thanh cdm (In Thanh Tty, UBND, cae so, ball, nganli eua Thanh pha, VI.l Gido due chuyen nghiep B¢ Ciao due va Duo tao, cac nha khoa hoc, cac chuyen gia ddu nganh, cac gidng vien, cac nha qudn Iy, cae nha doanh nghiep do tao dieu kien giup diY, d6ng gop )' kiln, tham gia Hoi dong phdn bien, Hoi dong thdm dinh WI lloi dong nghiem thu cac chuang trinh, gido trinh.

Day fa fan ddu lien So Gido due va Duo tao Ha No! to' chuc bien soan chuang trinh, gido trinh. Du do he! SIfC co' gang nhung chdc chan khong tranl: khoi thieu sot, bat cap. Chung toi mong nhan duac nhiing y kier: dong gop cua ban doc detirng buac hoan thien bo gido trinh trong cac fan tdi bdn sau.

GIAM DOC so GIAo DVC v A DAo TAO

4

Lei noi d~u

a fluli dai each mang khoa h9C k_v tluuu ngay nay COli nguai pluii tiej) can va xii fy mot luang thong tin I(m l/t' cdc phuong tien c/la coug Ilglll! truyen thong. Truyen thong dien fa mot pliuong tifn truyen thong tin ('(Iy, tien fell va klulc phuc duac nhiing kll6 klu]n do nglly co khung hodng nang luang gay ra. C de cuoc hoi til do hien nay ph/in h/II ('() the' duac pluu trie'll duai hinh tlutc "H 91 thdo ll'r xa ". cac dicli V~I ban hang qua mang hay Call goi fa thuang mai dien Uf ... C6 the' trien khai nho cong ng!J¢ vien thong so'. CIIo'n sach IIdy fa co s6 nluim cung cap cho dQc gid mot lIie'll biet ddy dil ve' h¢ thong tin so. No cling Id tai Ii¢u tham khdo bd ich e6 tinh tlnrc tibz ve' cac kluli lIi¢/11 co belli 1"(/ nguyen Iy ky 111lI{lt C/ta h¢ truye'n thong s6:

N rJi dung cuon sdch g()m cac phdn cJul yell sail:

Chuang 1. Tdng quan ve' h¢ tbang thong till S(J:

Chuang 2. Truyen ddn Sft cdc fill hieu tuang tu Chuang 3. Die'II chesov« giai di/II clur s(/. Chuang 4. Cdc phuong pluip glu!p kellh s/f Chuang 5. M(I nh] pluin va mil dtamg truyen

Chuang 6. Ky thuat ghep kellh thea buac sling (WDM)

Trang khi bien SO(}II gido trill II nay, tac gid do co rdt "hit'll c{/ gdng song ciing kIll) trdnh klloi sai sot, cluing tai rat mong nhan dur«: y kiell dong g(Jp Clia doc gid.

Nluin dip II cly , cluing toi xi" chan tlutnh ctim 011 cac chuyen gia kltoa hoc chuyen ngauh nhu Thac sf Chu Cong Cdn giallg vien tntang Dai hoc Giao thong V(/II ttii, Thac SI Nguyen Manti Hi¢p gidng vien HQc vien Ky thuat qudn .W cung cac 1111(/ khoa h9C khac dii gitlP df! cluing toi holm thanh giao trinh nay.

TACGIA

5

Chuang 1

Chuong nay nharn gioi thicu chung ve he truycn th6ng, de phan nr co han Irong he truyen thong. Trong qua khii, tin tire duoc rruyen di nho nguoi chay bo, chirn bo cau, tieng trcng va anh lira. Cac phuong thirc nay phu h0P voi khoang each va nhu cau truycn tin hie bay gia. Ngay nay, a hrtu het moi noi trcn the gioi, cac kieu truycn thong nay dii diroc thay the bang cac he rruycn thong dien (khcng k~ dich VLJ buu chfnh) cho phep truyen tin hieu a cac cu ly dai han (tham chi giUa cac hanh tinh va thien ha) voi van roc xap xi van toe anh sang.

Truyen thong dien tin cay va kinh te, viec nghicn ciru cac phan ll'r va cau thanh he thong thong tin la nhiem VLJ cua chuang nay.

I. cAe PHAN TUTHONG TIN SO

1. Lich Slr phat trie;'n cong ngh~ vi~n thong di~n tlr

Trang suet lich sir phat trien loai ngiroi, vice phat minh fa ngon ngii 1.1 cuoc each mang truyen thong Ian nhat, Sau d6 it Iau, khi con nguui phat rninh fa lira, mot cuoc each mang thong tin khac nira lai ra doi, D6 la viec con ngiroi biet erich ghi lai Y nghi va ur luang cua minh bang each dung chir viet.

TLr cuoi the ky XVI1T den the ky XIX cong nghe phat thanh va truyen thong bat Mill pluit trien va bat (Htu duoc dung rong rai, Nam 1939, dich Vl,1 phat song truycn hinh tlurong xuycn diroc bat dau lao dfiu tien trang ljch sU. Vao nam 1930, Claude Schannon cua phong thi nghiern Bell, eta thanh cong trang viec d~lt ra h9C thuyet thong tin dung d~ xac dinh IUQ'ng thong tin toi da ma mot he thong vien thong co the xiI Iy vao m¢t thai di6rn da dinh, H9C thuyct nay d:l dlCQ'C' pluit tricn thanh hoc thuyct truyen thong so. Vao nam 1939, RCA d:l phong thanh cong v¢ tinh nhan tao vao kh6ng lrung va Laser dung trong rruycn thong'

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quang hoc drr diroc phat minh. Cac he thong do hoa, truyen anh qua v(;. tinh, t6ng dai so da diroc dua ra.

Cong nghe vien thong dien til tiep tuc tien bo nhanh chong. Ngay nay, he thong vien thong dien til diroc xcm nhir phuong rien kinh 16 nhat. Cac thiet bi trong he thong eo the diroc cau thanh thea cac each khac nhau va co cac rrurc d¢ khac nhau thea yeu du cua ngiroi sil dung nhung vc co ban chung diroc rna ta nhu sau:

2. Mo hinh h~ thong truyen thong

Tin hieu Tin hieu

vao phat

Tin hieu thu

Tfn heu dau fa

Tin nrc Dau vao " May ~L ~r May ~L Dau fa Tin nrc
may phat I-'L- phat Kenh -'- thu may
phat

Suy hao
va nhieu Hinh J. J: M6 hinh mot h¢ rluJllg fruyi/II flu)lIg

Cac thanh phan co ban cua h¢ thong truyen thong la:

* Ngu/in: Nai phat sinh fa tin nrc nhu tieng noi, hinh anh hoac dfr lieu. Nell dfr lieu do khong phai la dicn (tieng n6i, hinh anh truyen hlnh dfr lieu) thi n6 phai nho mot bien ti'! vao diroc bien ddi thanh dang s6ng dien va diroc coi Iii tin hieu bang g6c.

* B~J phat: Bien ddi tin hieu bang goc d6 viec truyen thong co hieu qua (B¢ phar - May phat gam mot hoac mot so thanh phan Iii: tien khuech dai; lay mau: hrong ttl hoa: rna hoa va dicu chc), Tirong nr may thu e6 the gom pharr tu giai dieu che, giui rna, IQc.

* Kenh: La moi tnrong nhtr day dong, cap dong true, ong dan song, soi quang hoac dirong rruycn vo tuyen rna qua d6 tin hieu dau ra cua may phat duoc rruyen di.

8

- May thu xi'r Iy tin hieu toi nr kenh, thirc hicn chirc nang bien d6i lai tin hicu da duoc be) phar va kenh lam thay deH. Tin hieu ra cua may thu dua den bien ti'r ra, a do tin hieu duoc bien d6i thanh dang ban dau cua no la tin nrc.

- Noi nhan la dan vi rna tin Ilk duoc rruyen toi,

Kenh phan nao co vai tro nhu mot mach IQc lam suy giam tin hieu va lam mco dang song. DO dai cua kcnh lam tang suy giam thay d6i nr mot vai phan tram, (1 khoang each ngan, toi co kha krn, d6i voi cac cuoc lien lac hanh tinh. Dang song bi mco la do nhirng tong s6 khac nhau ve su suy hao va lcch pha cua cac thanh phan tan so khac nhau cua cac tin hicu tao nen. Vi nhir xung vuong bi lam tron hoac keo dai ra do la do qua trinh do. Loai mco nay con diroc goi la mea tuyen tinh co the sira diroc mot phan a may thu bang mot bo bu co dac tnrng ve dO khuech dai va pha ngiroc voi cac dac trirng cua kenh.

Kcnh cGng co the gay ra meo phi tuyen khi do suy giam thay d6i thea bien do cua t.in so. Loai mea nay cGng co the ducc sua mot phan nho mot bo bu tai may thu.

Tin hieu khong chi bi meo do kenh rna con bi nhieu boi cac tin hieu khong muon tren duong truyen diroc gop lai bang mot ten chung 121. "nhieu". Nhieu la nhfrng tin hicu ngau nhien khong doan tnroc diroc do cac nguyen nhan ben trong va ben ngoai. Ngoai nhieu do su can thiep ella cac tin hieu phat a noi gan kcnh, nhieu do ngirci tao ra nen phat ra tir cac tiep diem xau cua cac thiet bi dien, tit birc xa cua bugi 0 to, den huynh quang va nhieu nr nhien tu chop, bao dien tu, birc xa mat troi, vfl tru, Voi su cham soc d~c bier, nhieu ngoai co the giam toi rmrc t6i thieu, tham chi co the diroc loai trir, Nhieu trong do chuyen dong nhiet cua cac phan til trong cac chat dan dien, si! phat ngau nhien, sl! khuech tan hoac tai hop cua de phan til mang dien trong cac bo phan dien. Su cham soc dac bier do co the giam cac anh huang cua nhieu trong nhung khong bao gia co the loai trir no. Nhieu la mot trong s6 nhirng nhan t6 co ban lam han che toe do tru yen thong.

Ty so tin hieu tren tap am SIN (Signal-to-noise-ratio) diroc djnh nghia la ty s6 cua cong suar tin hieu tren cong suat tap am. Kenh lam meo tin hieu va nhieu tich luy lai tren doc dirong truyen, T¢ hem nira, cuong dO tin hieu giam trong khi mire nhieu tang len theo. Khoang each tir bo phat, VI vay rna SIN giam khong ngirng theo kenh, Khuech dai tin hicu thu duoc de bu trir sl! suy

9

hao se la vo Ich V~I nhieu ciing diroc khuech dai cung mot ty It; va SIN tot nhat la giiI nguyen khong d{ji.

3. Tin nrc so va h/dng tv

Tin nrc co th6 la tin hieu so hoac tin hieu nrong tu,

Tfn hicu s6 la tin hicu roi rae cii ve m~t thoi gian va bien do. Tin hieu wong nr la tin hicu lien tuc theo thai gian va bien do.

Tin IUC so cau true boi mot so hiru han cac k)1 hieu, VI du ngon ngu· van ban gam 26 chir, 10 sa. I gian each va mQI s6 drill ngat c[1U. VI vay, m01 him lin so cau true lir khoang 50 ky hieu. Cau noi cua nguoi cung la mot tin IUC s6 VI no g6m mot s6 tir vung giai noi trong mot ngon ngu- (ta de cap 0 day I~I noi rrcn van ban chii khong phai thong qua phat am). Tf n hicu tir M icro la tf n h i¢u nrong nr. Tin nrc wang tu dac trung bang cac dfr lieu co gia trj thay d6i lien tuc Irong mot pham vi cho trtroc. Thi du nhu nhict c:h) va up suat khf quyen a mC)1 mil nao do co the thay deli trong mot pharn vi lien tuc va co the' giii I hi6t la cac gia Irj co the HI vo cimg. Tucng nr nhu vay, dang s6ng ella 100i noi co bien dl) thay doi trong mot pham vi lien tuc, Trong mot khoiing thoi ginn eho tnroc co vo so' c.ic dang song khac dang nhau cua loi n6i t6n tai, ngiroc voi chi mot s6 gi6i noi co the etta tin nrc :0.6.

Tin nrc s6 diroc rruyen di bang each dung mot rap hop gicri noi cac dang song dien, Thi du: trong rna Mooc X(I. dau cham co the dL1(_)'C truycn di bang xung co bien d¢ A/2 va dau gach co the duoc truyen di boi xung co bien dO - A/2. Trong tnrong hop co s6 M. ngiroi ta Slr dung M xung (hoac dang song) phan bier. Moi xung dien dai dien cho M ky hicu kha di. Nhicm vu ella m.iy thu iii nit ra tin tire til' nlurng tin hieu bi nhieu va mea 0 loi ra ella kcnh. Viec rut ra tin nrc til' nhirng tin hieu s6 thuong de han so voi tin hicu tuong HI. XCi twang hop ea so 2 hai ky hieu da diroc lap rna cac xung chir nhat co bien d() A/2 va - A/2. Viec quyet dinh duy nhat a may thu Ii'I. lira chon giira hai xung kha di nhan diroc chu khong phai Iii. nhirng chi tier cua dang xung, quyct dinh do co the de dang lam duoc voi mot so diem x.ic dinh hop Iy nao do ngay ca khi xung bi mea va e6 nhieu (hinh 1.2). VI vay, h~ truyen thong s6 co the truycn cac tin nrc voi d¢ chinh xac I6n hem M truyen thong luang nr khi bi rneo va nhieu,

10

A/2 _n_n R
(a)
_j U I
-A/2

(\f\/\ (b)
~ (c)

(d)

Hill" J.2: Dang lin hieu Q. Till hifll phat

b. Tin lIi~1l mea thu {khong' co nhieu;

c. Till hieu meo (eli nhieu)

d. Tin hi¢u phat la! (hi Ire)

Kha nang dung may phat lap IiI mot UU diem nira cua he truyen thong so.

Tram phat lap tach cac xung chuan, do do chong lai viec tfeh luy mco va nhieu nen co kha nang truyen dan thong tin 0 khoang each xa han voi d¢ chinh xac 100 han.

Ngiroc voi tin nrc s6, dang song trong tin nrc nrong tv la quan trong va ngay d. chi mea di mot chiit it hoac co nhicu ve dang song la co th~ gay sai sot trong tin hieu thu. Mot kho khan nita la bo I~p khong co kha nang ap dung eho tin hieu wang tv, vi mea hay nhieu, du nho the nao di nira ciing kh6ng IQc hoan toan diroc.

Kei qua Ia meo va nhieu tfeh luy tren suot dirong truyen. Kct hop voi kho khan la tin hieu tat dan lien tuc doc thea duong truyen lam eho khi khoang each lang

II

len, tfn hieu tro nen yeu han, meo va nhieu manh len. Ket qua tin hieu bi meo va nhieu xam Ian se yeu di. Viec sir dung khuech dai rat it tac dung VI no khuech dai tin hieu va nhieu voi cung ty I~. H~ qua la khoang each rna tin hieu urong nr eo th6 truycn di bi gi6i han boi cong suat may phat. Xu huang hien nay ta thay he truyen thong nrong tu bang he truyen thong so la tat yeu VI he s6 rat kinh te eho chi phi vice che tao mach so nho va do cac tinh chat virot troi cua he so,

II. CAU TRUe M~NG TH()NG TIN s6 1. 51! khimg nhieu ella tin hi~u so

Mot un hieu co s6 2 bi mea dien hinh khi thu qua kenh co nhieu dtroc the hien trong hlnh J.2. Neu A du 100 so voi bien d¢ nhieu dien hlnh may thu con co the phan bi~t chinh xac giiia hai xung. Bien d¢ xung vao khoang co tir 5 den 10 Ian gia tri can quan phuong cua bien d¢ nhieu, Voi ty so SIN cao nhir vay, xac suat mac loi 0' may thu it han 10-6, co nghia lit tfnh trung blnh, may thu mac J(')i it han I Hin trong 106 xung, anh huang cua nhicu kenh ngau nhicn va meo, do d6 thirc te bi loai trir, Vi vay, khi tin hieu wang nr duoc chuyen d6i thanh tin hieu s6 va truycn di, lui duy nhat trong tin hieu thu chi eo the do luong nr hoa. Bang each tang s6 mire luong nr, ta co the giam lui nay.

Cung voi kha nang dung may phat lap ta co the truyen tin hieu qua khoang each dai hem khoang each rna tin hieu luang II! co the truyen diroc. Gia tri cua he thong s6 la Ion song h¢ nay se lam tang d¢ rong dai truyen,

Ngay nay. h¢ truyen thong so dff diroc Hip d~t va dua vao sir dung rong rai, mang hroi rruyen thong so e6 nhfrng tru diem la: khi Slr dung he thong tong dai nrong II! va dirong rruyen dan so, bo rna hoa va bo giAi rna diroc Slr dung cho cac dich vu rhoai de bien d6i cac tin hieu ngiroc lai thanh tieng n6i tai thai diem chuyen mach: khi su dung h¢ thong so va dirong truyen dan s6 chi can co mot thief bi dau cuoi voi kha nang thuc hien chtrc nang dan gian VI cac tin hieu s6 da diroc dau noi (1 mire ghep kcnh. M0t uu diem khac cua viec sir dung he tong dai so 18. no lam tang chat luong truyen dan. Trong mang hroi dien thoai so, cac lin hieu dff duoc rna hoa tai t6ng dai chu goi duoc giai rna, sau d6 diroc rna hoa tai tong dai trung chuyen va cuoi cung diroc gill den tcing dai bi goi.

Theo d6, bang each Slr dung phuong phap nay, co the tranh diroc vice tang hrong tieng on phat ra khi chuyen cac tfn hieu nrong tu thanh cac tin hieu s6. Ngoai ra, do dtrong truyen dan s6 trai qua it thay dcii ve mire han lit dirong truyen urong nr, hien tirong mat dtrong truyen se co th~ d~t nho han. De tlurc

12

hien muc dfch nay, neu Slr dung mot dirong truyen s6 gitta hai rong dai thi sl! mat dirong truyen co th~ diroc giam bot tu lOdB xuong con 6dB. Dong thai. trong mang dien thoai s6, doi voi mot dirong dien thoai 64Kb/s diroc dung nhu t6e de) bit co sa, cac so lieu, Fax va thong tin video co toe de) nho han mire bit nay co th~ diroc giri di mot each tirong d6i r6 rang thong qua mang dien thoai s6. Cac thier bi eo the dUQ'C chia se theo cac yeu cau dich VI:I va vi the eo the diroc Slr dung mot each linh hoar de (tog dung cho cac dich vu vien thong dang ton tai cling nhir cac dich vu moi.

2. Tien trinh so hoa

H¢ Duong
thong truyen
chuyc"n - kh6ng
mach so dong
t iron g ur h¢

Dirong Thl.fC Duong
vao he - hien lien [-
thong t6 ket so cling cap
hqp day du 64 Kb/s
H¢ thong mang
H¢ thong t6 hop so
..
chuytin r-
mach Mang t6 hop s6
..
Mang s6 ..

Mang wong II!
...._
~ Hinh 1.3: Tten trinh sahod

Ngay nay, chung ta dang c6 gang hoan rhien mang truyen thong so, tien bo drroc thuc hien rrong cong nghe s6 duoc mo ta trong hinh 1.3. Mot duang truyen so diroc sir dung giira 2 Icing dai trong mang hroi tich hop s6 diroc mo phong thea sa d6. Dong thai mang s6 da dich vu tich hop (ISDN - Intcrgrated Services Digital Network) ding diroc phat tricn trong do cac dich vu tich hop diroc cung cap voi cac thiet bi dau eu6i duoc s6 hoa, Ngoai ra, do cac dich vu

13

vien thong dtroc dua ra ngay cang tro nen phong phti. mot pham vi rong Ian cac thiet bi dau cuoi, mot trong ba phdn quan trong cua mang lucri vien thong, chu yeu 1& cac thiet bi dau cuoi, duong truyen dan. cac thiet ·bi t6ng dai, hien nay diroc Slr dung rong rai, Hau het cac thiet bi dau cuci cong cong hien nay deu diroc rhier kc de van hanh cang de cang tot. tuy nhien mot so thiet bi dau cuoi nay goi la cac rhiet bi di.lu cuoi rich hop, diroc trang bi voi cac tinh nang tien tien duoc dung eho cac dich VIJ. dac biet. Tu· do, viec sir dung rruyen thong sc tro nen da dang hoa han va viec rhuc hien muc lieu phat trien cong nghe se diroc rhuc hien.

3. Thiet I~p thiet b] truyen tai thue bao trong manq ISDN

Thier bi H¢ thong
T
truycn ehuyen
tai thue mach
baa ISDN Duong day thue baa

s

Giao dien U

Hinh /.4: Thief igp thief hi truyen tdi {hue boo Clio mang

Thong tin e6 th6 duoc truyen di dtroi dang hai day hoac bon day, thiet bi truyen tai hai day duoc noi vai mang tuong til, thiet bi truyen tai bon day diroc noi voi mang s6.

Nlnr dJ. diroc chi 1"6 trang hinh ve, thier bi truyen tai so diroc ndi voi he thong chuyen mach thong qua duong truyen 4 day. Toe d(> truyen dan cua giao dien U hie nay urong Lrng voi ghep noi dan kenh so cap hay dung hrong thong tin trung binh. Cac giao dien S, T, U e6 the diroc dung nhu cac giao dien ve phi thue baa cua cac thiet bi truyen d[m. Dit~u d6 c6 nghia TE (Terniral EquipmentThier bi dau cuoi) e6 the diroc ghep nci true tiep qua giao dien S va TE co the

14

diroc ghcp noi true tiep sau khi NT2 (diem cuoi mang) duoc ket noi qua giao dicn T. Them vao do, cac thue baa tir xa rna giao dien T khong the dieu tiet dtroc thl c6 the ghep neli thong qua giao dien T bang each dung giao dien U.

Phuong phap truycn dan hai day khac voi phirong phap truyen dan 4 day b cho cac tin hieu duoc truycn nhan thong qua cung mot dirong day. Do d6, phucng phap tach tin hicu truyen/nhan 6 dau thu Iii can thiet. Cac phuong phap nay co th~ Iii. FDM (ghcp kenh phan 'chia tan so - Frequecey Division Multiplex), TMC (Time Compression Multiplex - ghcp kenh nen thai gian) dell dung rheo phuong phap nay. Trong tnrong hop dung phirong phap nrong tift hl PO M I a k y th uiilt dieu chc tin h ieu tru yen nhan theo cac tan so khac nhau sao cho cac tin hieu truycn nhan (1 giili tan khac, Sau do, cluing duoc 1'-.10 fa hang ITI¢t bo IQC co dai IhCJIlg phu hop. Tuy nhicn , phuong phap nay k hong diroc sir dung rong rai VI cac phan nr cao tall co trcn dirong day rna Cal' mach call thiet c6 the che tao mot each de dang thanh mach rich hop cO 16n a pham vi n)ng.

TCM Iii. phuong phap phan chia thai gian de nen th6ng tin se duoc chuycn di thea tung don vi thai gian va sau do gui cac thong tin da nen di trong ITI¢t khoang thai gian ngan IHjO dan vi gio va cuoi cung phan bo th(':ii gian con lai cho phfa d6i dien d6 phfa nay co the: truyen thong tin str dung trong kho.ing thai gian d6. Dieu d6 co nghia Ia dung hrong thong tin sc diroc chuyen tit phia kCI cuoi duong day va ket cuci mang urong irng la R trong m91 don vi thai gian T. Phia kct cuoi dirong day co the truyen di tat cii cac thong tin rna no chua trong thai gian T/3 chi hang each tang luong thong tin sc diroc chuycn di trcn mot duong day. Phia ket cu6i mang voi khoang thai gian HI 2T/3 truyen thong tin cua phia NT (ker cuoi mang) trang thai gian T/3 va thai gian con lai T/3 diroc dung nhu thai gian ln~ truyen dan va bao v¢ tren duong day. Thea do, tren dtrong day thue baa, thong tin phat/thu van con ton tai cimg luc doi voi tirng khoi va su rruycn dan mot huang diroc tien hanh rren dirong day vao mot thai di6m bat kyo Dieu do co nghia Iii phia ket cuci duong day chuyen thanh trang thai nhan khi phia ket cuci rnang dang 0 trang thai phat. Voi cac dac di~rn neu tren nen TCM doi khi con duqc goi Iii truyen dan 6 che' d¢ gian doan hay ki~u truyen dan qua lai (Ping - Pong).

4. Xu hU'Cfng phat tri~n ella eong ngh~

Cac thue bao trorig mang thong tin so da dich vu tich hop bang hep (ISDN - Irucrgrated Services Digital Network) duoc phuc VI,I voi cac dir lieu so voi toe

15

d¢ cham hoac trung blnh nhir thoai, fax, va thong tin dO' lieu .... VI cac dirong day thue bao kim loai dtroc s6 hoa, Ben canh nhirng dich VI,l k6 tren, cac thue bao con yeu cau cac dich vu co bang tin rong han nhu truyen hinh hoi nghi may tinh ho: nghi .....

Truycn dan Slr dung truyen dan cap kim loai hien co chi co the tao dtroc mot lirong thong tin han che 6 cap d¢ co sa 144Kb/s. Neu dung phirong phap rruyen dan 4 day thi hrong thong tin toi da tM tren cap kim loai la 2Mb/s. Ma cac dich VI,l hoi nghi lai eo dung hrong thong tin rat Ian nen dirong day thue baa tren khong the dap ling diroc, Vi vay, xu huang U. trien khai mang 8-ISDN (mang so da dich vu tich hop bang rong) va phuong tien rruycn dan baa gom cap quang va cap dong true. Va xu huang chuyen sang marig truycn dan quang hoa hoan roan de dap rrng nhu cau thong tin tuang lai.

Bai t~p chucnq 1

1. Neu khai niern tin hieu tLldng tll va tin hieu s6?

Phan tich cac LfU diem va nhiroc diem cua tin hieu s6?

2. Ve SCI do tong quan h$ thong thong tin s6.

Phan tich xu hL10ng phat trien cua h~ th6ng tin so.

3. Nell khai niern ISDN.

Cho biet dieu ki~n trien khai ISDN tal Vi$t Nam?

16

Chuong 2

TRUYEN DAN 56 cAc TiN HIEU TVONG TV

. .

C6 the bien deli mot tin hieu wong nr thanh dang tin hieu so mot each gan dung. Dieu nay thirc hien boi mot bo rna hoa nguon, n6 se xu Iy mot tin hicu tuong ru nhan diroc (1 dau vao va cho ra mot tin hieu so 0 dau ra dai dien cho tin hicu wang tu ,'1 dau vao. Cac tin hieu wang tt! ticu bi6u (cac mau) OU{iC chia den dau vao h{) rna hoa, cac tin hieu nay e6 the la tieng noi, hinh anh am thanh, vdi mot he thong so, cac lin hieu wang II! thoat tien OU{.1e bien d6i thea dang s6 gam mot day cac tin hieu nhi phan 0 va I. Qua trinh bien deli hoan roan mot tin hieu urong nr thanh mot day xung nhi phan diroc thuc hien nho ky thuat chuyen deli tit Analog sang Digital.

Chuang nay gioi thieu cac ky thuat sau:

I. Ky thuat dieu che xung rna PCM (Pulse ~ Code ~ Modulation)

2. Ky thuat dieu ch€ xung rna vi sai DPCM va vi sai tv thich nghi.

3. Ky thuat dieu che delta,

I. DIEU XUNG MA peM

Day la mot ky thuat chuyen d6i AID quan trong nhat va chiem uu the rrcn mang. Ky thuat nay c6 iru diem Ian va no diroc d~c trung boi 3 qua trinh do la: lay mau, luong tiI hoa va rna hoa.

1. Lay mau

* Dinh nghia: Lay mau la trien khai c6 chu ky tin hieu wang tv de thu duoc bien d9 e6 rae dong tire thai. Gioi han cua tan so lay mau duoc xac dinh thea dinh Iy Nyquist. Day chinh Iii cac mau dac tnrng eho tin hieu nrong tu dau vao.

Sau day chung ta se nghien ciru nguyen ly Iffy mau mot tin hieu luang tu.

17

2.GTKTG-A

f(t)

F(t)

o (t-nTJ

~IL
t F(t) :::::L: f(t).o (t-nTJ

Htnli 2.1: Lay mall till hi¢u tuong t~{

Cac tri s6 lay mau khong duoc virot qua nira chu ky cua dn s6 cao nhat cua tin hieu hoac noi mot each khac tan s6 lay mau khong diroc nho han 2 Ian t~n s6 cao nhat cua tin hieu diroc lay mau (tin hieu dau VaG wang nr), Nghia la:

T,max ::::: Tal2 ::::: 1/2fa (1)

Tsmax : Chu ky lay mau 16n nhat

T, : Chu ky tin hieu wong tu d~u vao

fa : Tan 56 tin hieu wang tir dau vao

( 1) : Co the nrong dirong f,min ::::: 2fa

enin : Tan salay mau nho nhat.

Tsma~ : GQi la khoang each Nyquist va Ia khoang thai gian dai nhar diroc dung de lay mau tin hieu co bang tan han eh€ va chinh Ia de kh6i phuc tin hieu nhung kh6ng bi meo,

Mco do chu ky lay mau IOn han khoang Nyquist goi la mea xep chong va ngu y noi den cac bang ben co mot phan trung nhau nhu hmh 2.2 sau.

Xung lay mau 8KHz

o 0.3

3.4 4 4.6 7.7

8.3

11.4 12

f(KHz)

a) Cac bang ben khong chdng nhau

18

4KHL

o I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14

f(KHJ

b) Cac bung bell trung nhau llinh 2.2: Phd ctia tin hi¢u fay mdu

Nhir cluing ta da bier, bang tan tieng n6i gioi han tir 0,3 - 3,4 KHz, kenh am tan co d¢ rong KHz thl UtO s6 lay mau bang 8.000 xung/s hoac tan so lay mau bang il nhat 2 Ian Ian so cao nhat cua tin hieu can H1Y mau (4 KHz). Do d6, bo lay mall se lay mau tin hieu vao tai cac thai diem each nhau I 25J.ls rat nhieu (thuong lay khoang 0,9 den 1 us), Qua trinh lay mall chfnh li't qua trinh dieu che bien d¢ xllng (PAM) va c6 the duoc d~c trung bbi rich cua tin hieu vao f(t) va XllOg dirac 8 (I - nTs). Tin hieu d~u ra bo lay mall HI tdng cua cac tich tai thai diem lay mall nTs, trong do n ;:::: 0; ± I; ± 2 ... Co the bieu dien theo phtrong trlnh:

'"

Y(t) = f(l) IJ (t -nTs)

Yu): Tin hieu da lay rnau fu): Tin hieu can lay mall.

Hlnh 2.2 lit pho tan cua tin hieu lay mau co dai bang tan tren va bang tan diroi Ii'! 4 KHz nam d6i xirng voi vach pho cua xung lay mall (8 KHz.) (hinh a).

Tan so lay mall 8 KHz diroc str dung trong thuc te VI bang tan tieng n6i chi han che den 3,4 KHz, do d6 se tao mot khoang phong ve giira cac bang ben. Khoang phong v¢ nay se tranh duoc meo tin hieu do chong bang gay ra.

Hinh b IS. vi du ve tin hieu lay rnau bi chong bang co Hin so lay mall kh6ng thoa man lieu chuan dinh luat lay mall dan tm cac bang ben bi chong nhau gay meo tin hieu,

Mach dien thuc hien qua trlnh lay rnau tlurong IS. lay mau va duy tri, trong do g6m 1 Tranzitor hoat dong d6ng vai tro nhu mot khoa dong ngat theo SI! dieu

19

khien c ua x ung lay mau, M tIC tin hieu dJ lay mau duoc tfeh lai tren mot tu d ien va duoc dira den bo khuech dai dern co tro khang cao truce hie tiep tuc xu 19, su dune tro khan" cao d6 nsan naira tfeh dien cua tu dien tir cac don" ro trong

.0 t: e b • .. e

khoang thai gian giu-a cac xung Hfy mau, Ta xct sa do dicn hinh cua mach lay

mau nhu sau:

j_

I

Tin hicu da >---~--

lay mau

_/\_

Khuech dai co tro khang cao

T~to xung

H ill II 2.3: M (H'I! III{(V 11/(111 fill lIi¢u tuong (If

Trai voi rnrong hop tin hieu bang tan thap da thao I uan trcn day, khi tin hieu vira han chc tren va diroi thi tfin so lay mall tinh nlur sau: Ncu d9 rong hang uin Ii W, tun so cao nhat la fa thi tin hieu nrong nr x(t) diroc d~c trung boi cac gia tr] nrc thai x(nTJ, neu ran so lay mall Ia 2fa/P trong do P Ii so nguyen Ion nhat nhung khong Ian han fJW.

Khi f)W > 1 thl tun so Iay mall nho nhat xap xi 2W. Day la ket qua qllan trong VI (ir d6 ta thay rang nell tin hicu nrong II! FM co bang tan III 48 KHz thuoc hi? thong ghep kenh thea tan so FOM, tan so cao nhat lu 1.052 KHz, vi vay f)W = 1.052/48 = 21,9; --+ chon p = 21. Tan so lay miiu nho nhat bang 2fJf = 100,2KHz V~I khong phai bang 2 Ian ran so cao nhat (2.104) nhu tnrong hop bang tan thap neu tren, Lay mau tin hieu urong tu con eho phep cac tin hieu lay mau diroc ghcp tach theo thai gian. Vice lay mau phan t Ich CJ trcn Iii. buoc dau t icn t hue hicn qua I rl nh d ieu c he X ung m J (reM). Sau day cluing ta tiep tuc nghien ciiu qua trlnh hrong til" hoa tin hicu wang II! da lay mau.

2. LLf<;lng ttl hoa

'" KIi{ii niem wi iIf{illg fir fwd: La qua trinh thay the mot tin hieu tuang tu da lay mau bang mot qp hiru h'.111 cua cac rmrc bien dq, nrc 1& qua trlnh bien d6i tin hicu lien tuc thea thai gian rhanh tin hicu bien dQ rei f9.C,

20

- Tin hieu luong tu hoa tnroc khi truyen dan thirong da: diroc Iffy mau thuc hicn IU<Jng tii hoa, sau khi lay mau co uu diem la giam duoc anh huang cua tap am trong h~ thong, No con han che' so hrong cac mire cho phep cua tin hieu da lay va chuan hi eho buoc chuyen rtr tin hieu wang t1,f sang tin hieu so, Ncu s1,f phan bier ciic rrurc hrong Ill' kin han V(1i s1,f r6i loan do tap am gay ra thi may thu de dans xac dinh diroc mire ricnu da duoc phat. Khons the tans de) phan bict

t- " 0, t- e, ,

qua rrurc neu muon nhan duoc dap {(fig hop ly ella tin hicu, Tin hieu dJ lay mau

voi bien d() luang tu chuycn d6i rhanh tin hicu s6 la de tin hieu roi rae sau khi di qua qua trinh Iuong Ilf hoa, Khi chi thi bien dc) cua ticng noi lien I~C voi so IUGnn han che no duae dac tnrris voi dana sons xap xi cua buoc, Tap am hrons

,e, ,,0 ,0 e ,,0

lir N, = Q - S ton tai giCra dang song ban duu (S) va dang song (1ft luong nr (Q); neu buoc nho tap am hrong tt'r duoc giam di nhirng so lirong biroc can thiet eho hrong Ill' toan bo giiii tin hicu d:iu vao tro nen rong han, Vi the. so hrong cac day so rna hoa tang len.

Rude Iuong IU noa

Dang song han dau

Dang song da IUCJng nr

Buaeluangti'r

'llJ,;rOh

I ,

, , , I I I I I I I I I , ,

T.W am luong tjr N, = Q- S a) Truong hop bien d¢

tin hicu dflu vao Ian

N, = Q - S

b) Khi bien do tin hieu

, ,

vao nho

- Tap am H,lO ra khi bien d¢ cua cac tin hieu d&u vao vuot qua day hrong IU goi lit H,lP am qua tai hay tap am bao hoa, SINq la thong so danh gui nhirng uu

21

diem va nhuoc diem cua phuong phap PCM. Xern hinh 2.5 thay r6. khi so hrong cac day so rna hoa tren moi mau tang len I bit, SINq se diroc rna rong them 6dB.

8 bit (255)

-:

7 bit (!27)

6 bit (63)

50

10

-10 -20 -30 -40 -50

Hinh 2.5: Cdc d~1c tinh SINq tlieo S(ftWfIIg hi, nui hod

Lirong tir hoa e6 hai plnrong phap co ban d6 la hrong nr hoa tuyen tinh hay con goi la hrong tu hoa d~u va hrong lit hoa phi tuyen (Itrong ti'r hoa khong dcu).

';' Llf</lIg rt'( hoa deu: Cho phep cac mire luong nr each dcu nhau. Khoang each gifra cac rmrc diroc xac dinh tir cac mire cue dai va eire ti~u cho phep va so hrong khoang each. Khi phuc hoi tin hieu wang tu tir cac xung Iuong Ill' a may thu sc e6 sg chenh lech gitra tin hieu khoi phuc va tin hicu goc da phil di tai diem bat kY. S,! chenh lech nay da duoc de cap a mot phan truce va diroc goi la mea lirong nr hoac sai sc lircng IU. C6ng suar tap am giam 6dB khi them VaG IU rna I bit. D6i voi lin hieu co ham mar de) xac suar deu thi ti so tin hicu tren tap am cang Ion khi s6 Iuong cac mire hrong III cang Ion. Khi mire lin hieu dau ra co dinh, s6 hrong III lang dan den giarn mea hrong tir, vi da trinh bay 6 tren, sui s6 hrong nr gifra tri s6 mau thuc dau vao va chi s6 hrong nr chi bang ho~c nho han mot nira biroc hrong tir,

Nhtrng cac buoc IU~1ng nr xep d~t sat nhau han va tap am nhiet cung voi cac loai am khac a dau V~IO se gay ra chon nham cac bmrc Iuong IU.

Can phai tim slf dung hoa ve mat ky thuat vi neu rmrc luong nr each xa nhau qua thi vice phuc hoi tin hicu goc se khong thirc hien diroc do meo hrong tit qua 16n. Ngoai anh huang mea luong IU con xuat hien anh hirong khac di thfmg VaG ky thuat lirong IU hoa deu, Doi voi cac tfn hieu VaG mire ral thap nam

22

giira mire quyet dinh nrong trung va rrurc ben canh phia trcn hoac phia dtroi se khong lam thay d6i rrang thai so nhi phan VI vay meo lirong nr doi voi cac tin hieu mire thap co the' kh6ng chap nhan diroc, Irong khi do voi tin hieu rmrc cao hoan loan e6 the chap nhan duoc, Neu khoang each giira cac gia tri quyct dinh ella cac tin hieu rmrc thap diroc giam b6t va lang len voi cac tin hieu rrnic can thl e6 the giam bot anh huong ella mea luong tu doi voi tin hicu mire thap tao ra hieu qua chap nhan diroc tren gi<ii thong ella tin hieu vao. C6 cac phirong phap sau de' thuc hien y do trcn d6 la:

- Sir dung bo lurrng ur deu d~t sau bo nen.

- Sir dung be) luong IU phi tuyen co biroc hrong nr nho doi voi tin hieu van

mire thirc.

- Su- dung he) hrong nr deu e6 khoang each gura cac biroc quyer dinh giam nho, Chung ta nghien CUll phuong phap thu nhar la su- dung bo nen inroc khi hrong nr hoa deu, Day thuc chat la bien phap de dar diroc chc d9 iuqng Ill' hoa phi tuyeri hay luong tu hoa khong dell.

'i' Luong tir hOG k/U)llg deu: Luat hrong nr Logarit diroc Slr dung (rang nen va gram trong d6 bien x dau vao duoc chuyen thanh bien y theo quan h¢ Y = log x va quan he ngiroc lai diroc Slr dung khi khoi phuc bien dall vao 11;1-; d.iu ra cua h¢ thong nh(\ bo dan.

Moi quan he nay eho phep lang vung tin hieu ITIVC thap va rna rong buoc luong tlr ty I¢ voi mire lang cua tin hicu vao. Ket qua 1a nen bien d¢ tin hicu thoai lam giam vi dong va I<_tO ra Ii so cong suat tin hieu trung binh, tap am hrong nr can han so voi h0 lirong nr deu doi vci tin hicu vao Gauss, Dieu kh6 khan phai tinh den trong qua trinh dan ra la duy tri m01 each ehinh xac dac tinh ncn bu (no doi xung voi d<;i.e tfnh bo ncn) do ITI01 trong cac diode thay deli va st.-f phu thuoc cac dac tinh cua chiing vao nhiet d<).

Hai luat ncn thong dung I~l luat A dung cho he thong chau Au rna Vi~t Narn dang si'r dung va luat nen )J. dung eho he thong cua Ric My va Nh~1 B1'tn.

- Luat nen A: Luat nen nay co phircng trinh nhu sau:

y=

A(II / x",,,,j I + /11 A

1 + /11 (Ax / x",,,_,) I + III A

23

A thirong chon bang 87,6

Luat nen u: Luat nen ).l th~ hien nhu phirong trinh sau

y=

In (jJ (x I x",,,_.-J] 1 + In A

In 1(1 = f-IXX I x"'''_,) lLn (1 + u)

Trang d6 Xmax la dien ap cue dai cua tin hieu vao, ).lla tham s6 thirong chon bang 100 hoac 255.

Y la tin hieu dau ra bo nen di den bo hrong til' deu. No c6 chi so eire dai Ylllax khi ).l = a kh6ng ne.i va tin hieu ra lien he tnrc tiep voi tin hieu vao,

Ca hai tham s6 A va ).l diroc xac dinh nghiem ngat voi d0.c tfnh nen tri s6 cua cluing cang Ian thi hieu qua nen cang cao. Viec su dung diode d6 tao ra dac tinh ncn - dan nay sinh giUa van de phoi hop, gitra d~e tfnh nen va gian s6 nho viec gan dung hoa dac tfnh logarit thanh lap cac dtrong gay khuc. Van de nay dlIqcthaoJu~nlhern.

3. Ma hoa

Trong cac he thong PCM thtrc te thl bo hrong tU hoa va rna hoa phoi hop mot each co hieu qua trong bo bien d6i AID (Analog! Digital).

* Chuyen drJ'j luang tl.flso'

Ma hoa la mot qua trinh so cac gia tri roi rae nhan diroc boi qua trlnh hrong tiI hoa vci cac xung rna. Thong thirong, cac rna nhi phan diroc su dung trong viec rna hoa la cac rna nhi phan tlf nhien cac rna Gray (rna nhi phan phan xa) va cac rna nhi phan kep, Phan Ion cac rna so sanh cac tin hieu vao voi dien up chuan d~ danh gia xern c6 cac tin hieu nao kh6ng. Nhir vay, mot bo chuyen d6i AID hoac bo giai rna lit can thiet cho viec tao ra mot dien ap chuan. Trong truyen thong cong cong peM. Tieng n6i duoc bieu dien boi 8 bit. Tuy nhien, trong twang hop luat I-L: cac nr PCM diroc lap len nlur sau (8 bit).

Bir phan eire = {O,11

Bit phan dean = {OOO,OO 1. 111 J

Bit phan blIOC = {0000,0001 11111

24

128

~=255

112 15 phfm da<_ln

BUGC

u 'D :::l

.D 64 1- ___

1'0 U

Tin hicu

3

2

Hillh 2.6: MJ IU)(J fill liieu PCM * MIre va-o am thanh (vaolmax)

Tir dean thtr nhat ella tin hieu + va tin hieu - Ia cac dircng thang e6 15 phan doan, Cue + ella dang s6ng tin hieu nrong ung voi bit phan eire 0 va eire - voi "1".

Viec baa hieu diroc thuc hien sau khi thay deli "0" ella tu PCM sang "1" va "I" sang "0" va VI the, mot s6 IUQ'ng 100 s6 1 da diroc thu thap xung quanh mire 0 va Sl/ tach rei cac tin hieu thoi gian trang khi thu nhan eo th~ de dang thuc hien. B, ia bit thir 8 ella PCM doi khi duoc dung nhir la mot bit baa hieu B, (hoac ~) chuycn d6i sang 1 khi moi tu ella PCM ilt 0 lien tuc luon luon it hon 16. Mat khac, khi Slr dung phuong phap Hae My, bit B, ella moi kenh duoc thay d6i thanh 0 nharn chuyen thong tin canh baa cho d6i plnrong. 0 Nhat Ban, btl "S" d6 Hi mot phan ella khung cac bit chi dinh diroc dung thay the cho muc dich nay. Cac ttr PCM nhan duoc chuyen d6i thanh cac tin hieu PAM hOi b¢ giai rna. 0 phia thu,

25

cac xung nrong ling voi moi kenh dtroc chon loc t11 cac day xung ghep kenh d~ tao ra cac tin hicu PAM, roi cluing duoc phuc hoi nho bo loc thong thap,

4. £)9 r9ng bang tan

Dinh Iy Nyquist vc bang tan rruyen dan cue tieu chi ro kha nang truyen ra cac ky hieu doc lap {rang I giay. khong co giao thoa giira cac tin hieu di qua bo loc thong thap 1y wang co bang thong W = rJ2.nghia la:

D¢ rong bang tan W 2': (toe d¢ truyen cac kS' hieu rJ/2.

Trong mot h¢ thong PCM, toe o¢ cac ky hicu bang s6 luong bit trong mot (Lt rna throe tao ra tit xung luong nr nhan voi tan SO Ifly mau fs.

r, :;: so bit cua t11 rna x uin s6 lay rnau r,.

Vi du: Toe d(:l tuycn ky hieu PCM trong thoai Ia:

r, = 8 bit x 8.000 (xung/s) = 64(kh/s)

VI s6 bit trong tlr ma phu thuoc VaG so lirong ur tp nhu da n6i 6 trcn nen ta co:

SO hit nhi phan trong tu rna PCM :;: log,,{p

Tir cac xac lap nhu tren nen d¢ rong bang tan cua tan s6 peM si't dung ma nhi phan nhu sau:

WPCM 2': (fj2). loga<r (KHz) Trang do: fs la dn ~o lay rnau dan vi KHz

Khi {fin so lay mau f, = 8KHz, he thong e6 256 rrurc thl bang ttin eire tieu J(\ 32KHz si't dung de truyen tin hieu mot kcnh thoai. So voi cac phuong phap wang til de truycn mot phan bang am thoai bang 3,1 KHz thi bang tan cua kcnh bang 4 KHz, nhtr vay phirong phap SO co bang (fin Ion xfip xi 10 Wn. D0 giam ben bang tan tnroc khi truyen tren kenh phai thay cac xung nhi phan hang day xung M

M: Mire xung

b: S6 hit cua ttr rna

Nhtr tren cluing ta da rhao luan nguyen Iy thirc hien dieu xung rna rCM day 1.1 ky thuat chuyen d6i A/D chiern nhicu tru the va quan trong dang duoc si't dung trcn rnang. Ky thuat rCM e6 bang tan la Ion, trong ky thuat chuyen d6i A/D, d~ giam d¢ r(Jng bang ttin nguoi ta con dua ra phtrong thiic khac nira rna cluing ta se nghien cuu sau day:

26

II. DIEU XUNG MA VI SAl DPCM (DIFFIRENTIAL PULSE CODE MODULATION)

1. Khai ni~m DPCM

Tir bieu thirc xac dinh d¢ rong bang tan nhu cong thirc 1 neu tren ta Ih[iy do rong tang tan se phu thuoc vao b (so bit cua tir rna); t6e do lay mau, s6 mire hrong til. Ta thay d¢ rong W co the duoc giam di khi sO bit rna hoa, toe do Jay rnau giam, mot phurmg phap lam giam d¢ rong bang tan di mot rura d6 la giam so bit h ella tit rna di mot mra. Muon vay can sit dung ky thuat DPCM, trong khi d6 chi truycn di d<) chenh lcch gifra cac mdu canh nhau tlurong nho hem bien d¢ xung I~ty mau ncn dac tnrng eho do chenh lech nay can s6 bit it hem. Dang rna hoa nay co th~ tao ru kc' qua tot neu cac xung lay rnau co bien d(:l xap xi wri nhau hoac c6 ct(l tirong quan cao nhat ghra cac mall. Dac biet dieu nay' xay fa trono cac tin hicu video trona do am

. . Co. Co

nen hoac cac tri s6 am thay d()i khong r6 ret hoac gifra cac thai diem lay mall. Chat

hrong thu tin hieu rruyen hinh den rrang 6 rmrc chap nhan duoc nho Slr dung IlC:M binh thuong co 256 mire Iuong tit va cac tit rna 8 bit. Khi Slr dung DPCM co cung chat luong nhir PCM bang each Slr dung 8 mire hrong nr va ttf rna 3 bit. Nhir vay, (1<) rong bang tan yeu <.:fiu giam chi bang 3/8 bang tan cua PCM blnh tlnrong. Khi cac mire hrong tir IOn han hoac bang 4 thl DIlC;M c6 the nhan diroc SIN cao han khi si'r dung PCM co d¢ dill bit nhu nhau. Tuy nhien, tin hieu nrong nr thay d6i rat nhanh lU mau nay sang mau khac, kh6ng co d(:l nrong quan nao va kh6ng dir doan tnroc mot each chinh xac va nhu vay khong the' thich nghi duoc voi DIlC:M VI sai s6 Iuong ur 16"n. Hinh 2.6 la sa do khoi may thu va may phar cua he thong DCPM dan gian.

2. Sd do khoi may phat va thu PCM

Sau khi qua b¢ 19C thong thap han che' bang tan tin hieu va bang mot nira hoac nho han mot nira Hin s6 lay mau fs, bo phat hrong ttt va mIT hoa lirong nr chenh lech giira xung Uiy mall nrong nr Xn va tin hieu dtr dean cua mau tiep theo co diroc nho ngoai suy tit p tri s6 mall tnroc do.

'" I'

Xn = L(/,"'(,,-,

,=1

Trang do a, la cac he so cua bo du doan diroc lira chon de cue tie'u h6a sai s6 gitra tri s6 lay mall va tri s6 du dean cua mau tiep theo. Dau VaG du dean c6 tri s6 X" dac tnrng co mau tin hieu x, duoc bien deli nho qua trinh luong tir. D(:I chcnh lcch giira xung lay rnau va tin hieu dau ra, du doan dIT hrong tir la sai s6 ell diroc xac dinh nhir sau:

27

Lay mall

Tin hi~ll nrong nr

'-------'

DPCM

Ma hoa

Bo dir dean

l---------I B¢ du doan 1-----.4

Hinh 2.7: Sa (16' etta may pluit WI may filii DPCM

DPCM

Giii.i rna

Tin hi~u urong ur

Dau ra bo lirong tu hoa la tri so lirong tu ella sai so nay. No duoc rna hoa thanh tir rna nhi phan va duoc truyen di. Neu tin hieu sai s6 hrong nr du bao en kh6ng noi den dau vao may phat rna thuc SI! chi noi d9 chenh lech giua hai rnau tlurc thi mot SI! sai lech bat ky cua tir rna tao thanh d~ truycn dan se khong chi tao ra loi gitra cac mau xuat hien a diu ra may thu rna con rna rong den roan bo tin hieu duoc khoi phuc lai. Sa di nhu vay la VI may thu giai rna dO chenh lech ella t in hieu oa giri di, tfeh phan lai va cong no voi tin hieu da duoc khoi phuc tnroc. Nhu vay, mot loi co the cong suet ca qua trinh phuc hoi C .. :tll true. Su chcnh Iech gitra xung lay mall va xung du doan tiep theo duoc rna hoa ncn sai s6 chi xuat hicn khi du doan sai. May thu co bo rich phan diroc (hay the bang mach du doan thl a may phat mach nay duoc lap lai trong mach phuc hoi tiep va VI the du doan a ca may thu va may phat nhu nhau, Viec su dung vong hoi tiep gitip cho bo hrong nr han che' diroc d¢ chenh lech giua sai s6 en va sai s6 oil duoc hrong tu en bang sai s6 hrong Itt C'I co nghia lit:

28

Cy :::::; en - cn :::::; xn - xn

Nhu da phan tfch tren, trong DPCM lirong til tfn hieu vao ding nhu trong PCM nhtrng xay ra kh6ng dai han VI dQ chenh lech diroc luong nr hoa. Ncu c6 sl! qua tai xay ra, trong PCM diroc d<}e rnrng boi cac 16i va chiing cling xay ra trong DPCM, nhung kh6ng phai qua rai bien do rna la qua tai siron. Qua tai suon xay ra trong truong hop duang bac thang kh6ng thea kip toe do thay doi ella tin hicu dau van nhtr minh hoa (''1 hinh 2.8.

Bien do

t

Hinh 2.8: Qua lui sa/III

Ket qua la lam bac thang X(t) cham tre so voi viec thay d6i nhanh chong ella tin hieu van xu). Trai lai, tap am hat xuat hien .khi sir thay d6i cua tin hieu vao la qua nho so vci kich rhiroc bac nho nhat cua h¢ luong nr,

Loai sai so nih trong DPCM xay ra khi rna hoa hinh anh. N6 xay ra khi rna hoa vung nrong phan thap, khi d6 dau ra bo luong tir xuat hien mot dang ngau nhien lay cac tri so chenh lech nho tit dirong nay toi dirong kia hoac tit khung nay toi khung kia. Sai so nay diroc goi Hl vung bi chicrn. Cac sai so do DPCM 1<.lO ra khac voi sai so do PYM tao ra va c6 the gay nen can tap am. R6i cac sai so nay kh6ng thich hop voi he thong PCM nen kh6ng c6 mat trong sai so trung blnh binh phuong xac dinh voi tap am trong PCM.

29

III. UlEU XUNG MA VI SAl TV THICH NGHI ADPCM 1. Khai ni~m ADPCM

(ADPCM - Adaptive Difirential Pulse Code Modulation)

Nhu phan rich a phan PCM, toe d¢ bit cua tin hieu peM diroc xac dinh la r, = b.f, nrc bang s6 bit trong mot tir rna nhan t6e d¢ lily mau va bang 8.8KHz = 64 KHz hay 64 Kb/s. Neu so ltrong bit cua tll rna giarn con mot mra (4 bit) nhtr trong DPCM thl toe d¢ bit giarn chi con 32Kb/s. C6 xu huang tieu chuan hoa toe d¢ 32Kh/s doi voi tin hieu tieng noi nho su dung ADPCM. Cac bo rna hoa trong PCM va DPCM diroc tinh toan tren co sa tin hieu vao dirng va dmrc rna hinh hoa d6i voi nguon tin hieu nra dirng, Neu bo hrong tir deu PCM diroc su dung thi tin hieu trung binh cua tap am hrong tu bang O. Phuong phap de thay d6i biroc hrong lU L\ Ia phirong tlurc hoat dong cua b¢ hrong tir tu thfch nghi. B¢ hrong tir hoa nr thfch nghi thay deli bmrc hrong tir cua no phu hop voi phirong sai cua cac xung My mau tin hieu di qua. Viec truyen cac he s6 dtroc dtr doan den may thu se lam tang s6 bit truyen va toe d¢ bit, bo d" doan thu tinh cac he s6 rieng cua rnlnh,

2. Phan loai h~ thong ADPCM

C6 hai h¢ thong nr thich nghi. Thtr nhat la he thong DPCM co ltrong tu nr thich nghi (thuong goi tat ]a DPCM - AQB). Loai thtr hai, ker hop ca bo hrong lU hoa tu, thieh nghi va bo du dean thieh nghi, loai nay goi la DPCM -APB- AQR

Danh gia thuan va ngiroc trong Iuong til nr thieh nghi AQF. AQB. Hinh 2.9 Iii so do hrong nr nr thich nghi, danh gii thuan va nguoc mire tin hieu vao, Cac danh gia rhuan cO' btroc va khong co rae dung noi tap am voi hrong nr va cac danh gia trong AQF la dang tin cay hon so v6i trong AQB. Cac diem can chu y den se duoc de cap sau.

Tin hieu Kenh Tin hi~
. _. Nho dem Mahoa
lay mAu ~ t-- Ma giai f-- :::;

luang t.
.j", A.
Danh gia mtrc u

IT

a) Danh gia thudn

30

Tin hicu .. Ma hoa Giai rna B¢19C thap Analog
da lay mau ...

J~ ~ AQB
Danh gia mtrc f+ 4-- Danh gia rmrc b) Danh gia ng/f(1C I1lI(e t[1I hi¢1I vao

Hinh 2.9: Luong tlf hOG W thich nghi.

3. Nguyen Iy ADPCM

Thong tin mire tin hieu drroc truycn den bo rna hoa a xa khi si't dung 5 - 6 bit eho mot xung lay rnau tren eo biroc. Cho phcp bao ve thong tin eo biroc a phia phat bang each them bit dtr. 80 trc danh gia diroc tao ra trong btroc rna hoa,

Yeu e~u chen cac mau vao "khong luong ti't hoa" ttl thfch nghi phoi hop ttl thich nghi dinh k:y~ nghia HI. eo biroc ~ ella no d6i moi moi Ian moi khoi va giU khong doi trong suet thai gian mot khoi cua N mau danh gia dtra tren co sa cac mau khong hrong tiro

AQB: thong tin ve co btroc ~ ella bo hrong tir hoa. Khong eo tre ella danh gia. Tap Am hrong ti'r lam giam dac tinh theo d6i mire va giam d~c tinh han nira do tang eo cua biroc. Day Ia h~ thong phi tuyen eo hoi tiep va eo the co van de 6n dinh va khong phoi hop.

Cac he thong AQF doi hoi cac khoi dern d~h tien eo cau true phtrc tap va cung gay ra tre, cac h~ thong DPCM it phirc tap thirong dung cac mach AQB nen e6 loi a eh6 khong can cac bit ngoai d~ eung cap thong tin ve co bircc. Hoat dong ella cac b¢ rna hoa DPCM - AQB tai tan so 32Kb/s duoc chap nhan truyen tieng n6i. Kel qua Ia khong tot nhu he thong PCM 7 bit sir dung plurong phap hrong ti't hoa Logarit rna chi so sanh voi he thong PCM 6 bit hrong til hoa Logarit, Ncu yeu cau c6 mot he thong DPCM 32Kb/s chat luong eao thi bo du roan thich nghi (APB) phai dua vao trong thict ke.

Danh gia thuan va danh gia nguoc cac h~ so ella bo du doan tu thich nghi.

Hinh 2.10 Ia sa do khoi ella du doan tu thich nghi thuan APF va du doan tu thich nghi APB cac h9 so ella bo du doan tl_! thich nghi. Cac bo rna hoa DPCM

31

sir dung du doan til thfch nghi phirc tap han so voi cac bo hrong tit hoa nr thich nghi nhirng hieu qua bit cao han. Cac bo rna hoa nay c6 chat IUQ'ng tieng n6i tot tai roc d¢ 32Kb/s. Khi xit ly hlnh anh c6 th~ dung cac bo rna hoa giira cac khung co toe dq bit rhap, DIl dean til thich nghi thuan APF.

Tin hi¢u vao wang ur

Dau vao wang til

32

De;m xung lay mau p va hi) danh

gia he; so

LuqngtLr

Den b¢ phar B9 phat

x"

B¢ dir doan

x"

a) D!( doan li/ thich ngh] thuan

Luong tit

Den bo phat

X" APB

B9 du doan

Thuat toan logic

Hinh 2.10: Sad/) kill)'; DPCM

- Nhu chi ra trong hinh 2.10(a) cac tri so dau vao p da duoc xu 19 dung de xac dinh mot rap hop cac h¢ so cua b¢ du doan, Nhirng diem can chii 9 ella bo du dean thich nghi loai nay la:

+ Co the xay ra mot hrong tre rna hoa dang ke.

+ Doi voi tfn hieu tieng noi, cac h¢ so can de tinh toan khoang 10.

+ D6i voi thoai s6 luong mau duy tri tai bat ky thai di~m nao d~ tinh cac he s6 khoang 128.

+ Thong tin ve d¢ d6c b6 sung su dung de tinh cac h¢ s6 cua bo dir dean a

may thu Jam tang dung hrong kenh. + Ycu cau dcm s6 lieu.

- Ky thuat thich nghi voi mang chuyen mach g6i:

Du doan tv thich nghi nguoc APB. Sa do kh6i tdng quat nhu hinh 2.1 Otb).

Cac diem can chii 9 la:

+ Khi thu duoc mot s6 bac tien dean APB so sinh voi APF rna khong can lip chon thong tin ben canh,

+ APB phu thuoc vao hieu qua luong tu hoa tai tee d9 bit thap, tai d6 APF

khong phong phu thuoc,

+ Uog dung cua AQB trong cac thiet ke, + So hrong cac he so du doan gao bang 6.

Tieu chuan lIT - T d6i voi ADPCM co chat luong tai 32Kb/s

Mu6n xay dung mach du doan thich nghi phai co mot Algorit eho phcp thirc hien ve mat vat 19 cua mot y do roan hoc. C6 2 loai Algorit su dung thea tieu chuan cua ITU - T eho ADPCM c6 chat luong tao 32Kb/s. Cac Algorit nay la AQB va APB va he thong DPCM - OPB -AQB co chat luong rai 31 Kb/s, hoac dan gian nhu ADPCM tai 32Kb/s. Hoar dong ella he thong nay phu thuoc rat nhicu vao tin hieu. Doi voi tieng noi, ty so tin hi~u/ tap am SIN khoang 25-30dB.

IV. nlfu CHE DELTA (DM)

1. Khai ni~m OM (Delta Modulation)

Dieu che Delta la mot loai dieu xung rna vi sai (DPCM) trong do m6i tir rna chi c6 mot bit nhi phan, V u diem cua dieu che delta so voi cac loai dieu eh€ ella cac he thong OCM khac la mach dan gian va de dang che tao cac CODEC bang cac mach tfch hop chip don, Dieu che delta la phuang phap

33

3.GTKTG·A

rna hoa dan gian nhat hien c6. VI lU rna chi c6 I bit nen tan s6 lilY mau va tan s6 hit nhu nhau. Tuy nhien, de ph6i hop cac he thong tir rna bit cao thong thuong phai tang dan tan s6 lay mau mot each dang kt~. HII/II 2.11 Iii sa do kh6i ella mot he thong dieu chc. delta va hinh 2.R la dang song dac Hung cua loai dieu chc nay.

2. Nguyen Iy OM

Trang may phat s6ng wang nr han che s6 bang d.n x(t) diroc lay m~au de H.lO ra tfn hieu PAM x,,, tin hieu nay dem so sanh voi tri s6 du doan X'I' dO chcnh lcch giGa chung en diroc hrong tu thanh mot trong hai tri s6 bien d¢ +.6. hay -.6.. Dau ra bo IU<_1ng ti't la b¢ rna hoa sir dung mot bit nhi phan cho mot xung lay mau, sau do chuyen den may thu. Tai may thu cac bit dircc hry mau va moi bien d¢ xung lay mau en la ±.6., sau do diroc cong vao gia tri du doan nrc thai 0 dau ra may thu. Tin hieu nay duoc han che bang d~ khoi phuc lai hlnh dang song gi6ng nhu dang song wang nr 6 dau vao may phat dieu che delta.

I Vaa wan

(a) M (j hinh f lu'ti gi all roi rae

Thu

luang nr

(b). Thie) hi thuc Ii'

Htnh 2.11: Hf thong dieu chedelta

34

Ham bac thang ella may phat x /I la dang s6ng xuat hien tai dall vao am cua bo khuech dai vi sai. Mach lre TJ'" nhu dJ. bier la bo du doan hac nhat, bo tich lu y hoac bo tich phan. Trong Hlnh 2.11 (b) la sa do thiet bi thuc te, trong d6 mach tn~ phan hoi duoc thay bang he) tfch phan don gian, dall vao ella n6 la day xung keo dai trong khoang thai gian n'! va nho e" ncn e6 bien d¢ ±6.. Hinh 1.8 chi r6 dang s6ng luang nr dau VaG (khong lay mau) xtt). S6ng nay so sanh voi s6ng bac thang X". Tin hieu chenh I~'ch en diroc Iucng nr hoa thanh 2 mire ±6. phu thuoc vao dau ella sl.r chenh lech va dau ra ella bo luong nr hoa hoac bo han che' hai trang thai. Tin hieu chenh lech dJ. luong nr hoa ell sau d6 duoc Illy mau d~ 110 r!,,- cac xung e6 bien d¢ ±6..

Ham bac thang XII (t) xap xi diroc tao ra bang each eho cac xung di qua bo tfch phan, n6 cong hoac trir mot buck e6 bien do 6. voi rrnrc Iirong tu diroc tao ra nho tfch phan xung lay mau mroc: nhitng van de nay e6 the xay ra trong may phar. Nhfrng van de nay la qua t{li siren. tap am hat hoac tim kiern. VI tan so lay mau trong he thong dicu che delta eao han nhicu so voi tan so lay mau PCM thea dinh IS' Nyquist, nen tap am hat phat sinh do su tim kiern hoac hanh trinh chay kh6ng quanh tin hieu x(t) bien d(1 kh6ng d6i de dang giam bot nho bo loc thap dau thu. Tuy nhicn, qua tai siren la mot v[tn de khong de dang khac phuc, Xem hinh 2.11 (a) khi x(t) dang thay doi, X" (t) di thea dang bac thang mien la cac mjiu lien tiep ell x,,(t) khong khac boi luong Ian han ea buoc L'l. Day kh6ng ph iii ia truong hop rna X" (t ) kh6ng the sinh ra.

Nhir oJ. trlnh bay tren day, loai qua titi nao khong xac dinh thea bien d(l cua tin hieu VaG rna xac djnh theo d¢ doc hoac toe d¢ thay d6i ella bien d¢ tin hieu vao thea thai gian. Nhir tren ta da biet, toe d¢ bit trong he thong PCM bang s6 hrong bit trong tu rna nhan voi tan salay mall. VI sc lirong bit trong mot tir rna ella dicu che delta Iii mot nen toe d¢ bit bang tan so lay mau:

Toe d¢ bit ella dieu che' delta rd= ran so lay mau (. Tir phtrcng trlnh nay eho thay, muon nhan diroc t6e d¢ bit thap hop IS' thi phai giam tan so lay mau. Tuy nhien, khi giam tan s6 lay mall sc tam tang rap am hat. Tap am nay tach diroc nho bo loc thap e6 uin so cat f\'/ /2. B¢ 19C loai nay tro nen cang It hieu qua han khi Hin so lay mau giam. Tuy nhien. giam tan s6 lay mau cho phep bo dieu che' thea kip SI! bien d6i ella d¢ doc tfn hieu VaG de dang han.

Can phai cue tieu hoa hai I01i meo e6 yeu cau trai nguoc nhau ve s,! lua chon a biroc L'l. Bien phap dung hoa de lua chon tri so L'l la lay gia tri cue ti0u cua tong gia tri s6 trung binh phuang ella hai loai mea nay.

35

Gia thief tan so hlnh sin eao nhat xuat hien trong tin hieu han che bang fm.

Chung ta c6 the xac dinh diroc tan so lay mau cao nhat fs truce khi xay ra mea do qua tai. Ncu tan s6 eao nhat trong bang tan bang fm thl song hlnh sin dac trung eho tan so nay Ia:

hoac de) doc

x(t) = X.sin (2iT flllt)

dx(l) _ 7.,,-1' v '/ .,,-I'

dt - _/:/ m .. 1. • cost _/:/ ,) )

Phuong trrnh nay c6 mot tri s6 eve ti6u 2iT.I".X. D~ tranh qua tai suon phai rhoa man dicu kien:

-.0.

-:r: '?_ 2;if,,,.X

Nhu vay, dieu kicn de ngan ngira qua tai siron HI. tan so lay mau r. = T1l,

h" h > - d'·' ki d' f 2 1: x

P ai t oa man leu len sau ay: .r" '?_ st, 11'-

• • III. J ~

T' do d' ~ ki A h . d' X X «( 1 ) r,

u 0 rut ra Jeu Iyn p <otm VI 9ng -: - ~~. -' -

[0. [0. 2 iT fill

Trong d6:

X: Bien de) dinh ella tin hicu vao eo tan so fm (KHz), tfnh bang vol. ~: La yeu cau ella bucc, tinh bang voL

r, : Tan s6 lay mau, KHz.

I,,: Tan so ella tin hieu dau V[\O dieu chc, KHz.

V i du, Cong suat ella tfn hieu tieng n6i tap trung trong vung 1<ln s6 thap, nghia la xung quanh 400Hz. Chii y pham vi dong co lien quan den cac 1<"in so thap han va bang pham vi dong ella he thong dieu che delta voi pharn vi dong ella h¢ thong PCM lirong tu den Sbit, xac dinh ti s6 tan sc lay mau va ran s6 dieu che eire dai ella he thong dieu che delta DM. So sanh n6 voi he thong PCM.

- Tan s6 eire dai fm~x cua tin hieu tieng noi tai d6 cong suat tin hicu nay t;:tp trung nhicu nhar lit 3.400Hz. Nang hrong ella tin hieu t~p chung quanh 400Hz,

I. , (fl, "J 1

1:" = ~ ta eo: . -. - = 2iT.256.- = 190

8,5 t-: 8,5

So sanh voi h¢ thong rCM:

36

Nhu vay, he thong dieu che' delta doi hoi ty so tan so lay mau cao d~ dat dtroc pharn vi dong nhir he th6ng PCM.

De khac phuc van de tan so lAy mau so voi tan so eire dai cua tin hieu lit qua cao phai chuycn deli tin hieu dieu che delta (ttr rna chi gom I bit) thanh tin hieu PCM (rna N bit). Doi voi tieng noi, chon tan so lay mau fs bang 8KHz, va

tIn so lay mau cua dieu che delta j'. duoc chon de dam bao ty so tin hieu/ tap

am luong tiI theo yeu cau. Tan so r'. cang cao thi chat IUQ'ng cua tin hieu tieng n6i sau khi khoi phuc ding tot. Theo lieu chuan so 32 cua ITU - T. V6i

he thong chau Au thl fl..._ = 200. Nhir vay, doi v6i he thong 32 kenh toe do lay

.. f .. .

. s

mau 13. 50 Mb/s. Van de qua tai siren trong cac he thong dieu che delta duoc giam bot nho bo 19C tin hieu d~ han che toe dq bien d6i eire dai co th~ xay ra, hoac nho tang co buoc hoac giam tan so lay mau, Tuy nhien, loc va tang co buoc chi giiip eho giam d¢ phan giai, tang Hin s6 lay mau dan den phai rna rong them bang Ian va d6i voi tin hicu han che bang Uln lam giam co bUGC va VI vay giam tap arn hat.

Ngoai cac van de nay, bo tich phan a dau thu gay ra tich Iuy sai so neu he thong bi can tap am. Van de nay co the giarn nho bang each eM tien dieu che delta thanh dieu che' Sigma - delta. Sau day chung ta s6 nghien cuu phuong phap nay:

Tin hieu tieng noi kh6ng co nrong quan cao gifra cac mau lien ticp, Nhiroc diem nay diroc phan anh true tiep trong cac tri s6 nrong iing cua tap am hrong tiI khi dieu che delta. SiI dung dieu che' delta de rna hoa tieng n6i cling nhu viec duy tri bat ky rmrc DC nao hoac duy tri dung hrong VLF, dau VaG b¢ dicu che diroc rich phan truce hie rna ho.i OM. Trong hinh 2.11 (b) b¢ tich phan co the diroc d<}t sau bo loc lay thap tai dau V[IO duong cua bo khuech dai vi sai. Dieu nay eho phcp cac thanh phan tan s6 thap cua tin hieu diroc tang cuong tnroc ncn tang nrong quan xung lay mau canh nhau.

Dau thu lin hieu diroc phan gi<li bang vi pharr, ket qua Hi bo giai rna chi la bo loc thong thap dan gian, D~ lam dan gian phan cung, bo tich phan, trong hinh 2.11 b co th6 thay bang mach dan gian va chuyen den Miu ra ella be) khuech dai vi phan, Dicu nay ciing loai trir duoc ycu cau b¢ tich phan mac a dau VaG duong cua bo khuech dai,

37

v.mrn CHf: DELTA TVTHICH NGHI (ADM) 1. Khiti ni~m ADM

Qua tai siren la mot van de can khac phuc trong ky thuar dieu che delta.

Giai phap cho van de nay la xac dinh dicu kien qua tai va tang tinh thich nghi ella co biroc. H¢ thong c6 co buoc phu thuoc vao tin hieu thoai lil h¢ thong dieu che delta It! thich nghi ADM (Adaptive Delta Modulation).

Ten goi day du cua ADM la dieu che delta e6 d¢ doc thay d6i lien tuc (CYSDM), phirong thirc dieu che delta tu thich nghi ADM cai thien dtroc d~e tinh yeu kern cua b{) dicu che delta co si'.1 nho thay doi dong h~ so khuech dai cua bo tfeh phan phil hop voi mire cong sufit trung blnh cua tin hicu vao. Sau day la sa do khoi cua he thong dieu che ADM:

fin hi¢u ~cl

Wong IU L..-_----'

Tich phan

Hinh 2.12: H~; thong dieu clu[ delta II_( thich IIXIl;

ADM

Co biroc thay d6i nho dieu kicn he so khuech dai cua bo rich phan thong qua mach loc thong thap RC va kh6i blnh phirong. Khi tin hieu vao la hang s6 hoac thay d6i cham thea thai gian thl bo dieu che' delta se tim kiern va dira ra mot day xung c6 loai eire tinh xcn ke. Mach RC lay trung bmh day xung nay va dua ra tri trung binh hang 0 (ve mat Iy thuyet). Dieu nay co nghia la tfn hieu dieu khi6n lam h¢ so khuech dai cua b¢ khuech dai thay dOi rfit it. Dau ra bo khuech dai e6 binrc tl kfch thuoc nho, Khi tfn hieu vao co suon doc thi ham bac thang diroc tao ra de thea kip d9 doc cua tin hieu vao. Luc do, sc tao ra mot 101-).t toan xung duang hoac roan xung am, mach RC lay trung binh 101-).1 xung nay va dira ra dien ap dieu khien Ion. Nhu vay, co cua biroc tang len nho mach

38

blnh phuong nen dien ap dieu khien bo khuech dai luon luon duong, bat luan eire tinh cua xung nhir the nao.

2. Vu di~m cua ADM

B9 dicu che delta tlJ thich nghi eo kha nang giam mea do qua taj suon va tap am hat. B9 giai dieu che eo mach dieu khien he s6 khuech dai IlJ thich nghi gi6ng nhtr trong bo dicu che.

VI. SO SANH GIUA cAc H~ TH(jNG KHAc NHAU 1. Tinh tap am nhiet eho h~ thong PCM va DM

1.1. T<:J.p am luqng tu cho he thong DM

Chung ta chi xcm xet twang hop khong eo qua tai siren xung. Sai s6 luong tiI en la mire chcnh lech giira tin hicu van xtt) va tfn hicu bac thang X" (t), Nghia la:

Dau fa bo giai dieu che III tong cua tin hieu khoi phuc gia thiet bang tin hieu vao x(t) cong sai s6 truyen dan no(t) cong tap am hrong ttl n"U)tlrC la: dau ra bo giai dieu che:

Ylll = XII) + no (I) + ng (I) (l)

Trang d6: n g (t) la dap ung dau ra bo IC)c thap giai dieu che d6i voi sai 56

Iuong tiI ell (I) . Gia thiet pdf > 2~ VI vay, sai s6 trung binh blnh plurong hoac tong cong suat tap am hrong Ifr trung binh bang:

1 +,\ /'12

E[e,,(1)2]=- Je,,(t)2de,,(t)=- (2)

21'1 _,\ 3

Nhu vay, cong suar dau ra be) IQC giai dieu chc c6 cong thirc:

N = £[/1 (l)2]= !J.2 ,,[~: (3)

t] (J ...... J,

.) _I

Trong do, f,'la tan s6 lay mau va I" la tan s6 cua mot bo loc thong rhap thang dung va bang tan s6 hinh sin 6 dau vao,

TiT phirong rrinh dJ. tinh toan:

39

x Imr s ;;: 21r.jm·-;;

Thay rang, mu6n rranh qua tai siren thi bien d¢ dinh eve dai ella t~o so cao nhat la X va diroc xac dinh nhu sau:

X ~C~}(~J.~(4)

Nhu vay, cong suar trung blnh ella tin hi~u nay la ~2 , ty 56 tin hieu/rneo hrong til' diroc xac dinh tir phuong trinh (3) va (4):

(~J = (--; 1{/,!)3 = 3010g(/,,' 1-14,2dB (4')

N'I 8;r) r. I; )

:. cua he thong dieu che delta khong t6t bang h~ thong peM trong do d¢

'I

r¢ng bang U\n so ella hai he thong gia thiet bang nhau.

1.2. Tinh tap am nhiet cho h¢ thong PCM va DM 1.2.1. Tq.p tim kenh PCM

Khi tap am rrang den d~u vao ella mach giai rna thu sc gay ra sai so trong mach tach, mach nay xac dinh trang thai logic I hoac 0 dJ diroc phat di, Tap am nhiet diroc dac tnrng boi phan bo Gauss. Day la ham diroc sir dung de mo ta h¢ thong vo tuyen vi co dac tnrng day dil ella tap am nhiet sinh ra do chuyen dong ngjlu nhien cua cac dien tir, N6 diroc dac tnrng boi phtrong trmh:

j') I [(X-J1)~] ,.

(x = r::::= exp - , ven - 00 < x < + 00

-v 2;ra1 2a-

Trong do u la gia tri trung blnh va 8 la phirong sai ella bien ngau nhien lien tuc rex). D€ r6 ve fl va 0 cac ban tharn khao them tai lieu vc 15' thuyet xac suat va thong ke roan,

821ft phuong sai va co th~ bang cong suat trung blnh NII(t) ella mot rnftu tap am no(t). Neu trong d6 d¢ dai ella mot bit dien ap tin hieu vao cua bo hrong ttr trung binh 2.1 dat mire - x thl tai thai diem lay mau bien d¢ cua xung lay mau la - xtt.), trong khi d6 bien d¢ cua tap am 13. no(1'_). Neu no(TJ dirong va IOn han x(TJ thi tong dien up lay mau XII(TJ se dirong.

Dien up mau duang nay se gay ra mot loi vi bo giai rna thu pham phai loi neu bit thong tin co eire nguoc lai,

40

Cac he thong PCM hoat dong e6 xac suat loi dir nho nen gia thiet rang chi eo loi bit don xay fa trong tll' rna. Gia thiet tir rna e6 b bit nhi phan, voi s6 nhi phan nho nhat wang ling voi mtrc am nhat va s6 nhi phan eao nhat nrong trng voi dien ap dirong nhat cua bo hrong ttr deu, MQt loi xay fa trong bit quan trong nhar cua tir rna Wong ling voi sai s6 6. hoac mire lirong nr rieng biet. Bit quan trong thu 2 wang trng voi 26.. Dieu nay riep tuc cho den trang thai cao nhat cua mot sai so nhan voi Ll.

Neu Pe Iii xac suat loi cua I bit. vay do tach biet trung binh gifra cac 16i lit I/Pe. VI trong mot tir rna co b bit ncn dQ tach bier trung binh giira cac IU rna co 16i lit I/b.Pe va VI V(IY cac tir rna diroc phan bier thea thai gian boi khoang lay mau (chu ky !try rnau Thong tin), thai gian trung blnh gili'a cac ky ella tir rna Tw xac dinh nhir sau:

Tw = Thong tin/(b.Pc)

Mat dQ pho cong suat cua day xung 16i do rap am nhict cho boi phuong trinh sau:

Tw = Thong tin/tb.Pe) 1.2.2. Tap tim kenb DM

Doi voi tap Am kenh PCM, bo kich phan trong mach rhu h6i doi khi gay ra loi khi xac dinh qJ'C tinh cua tin hieu phat do su xuar hien xung tap am phai co tri 56 gap d6i va ngiroc voi bit tin moi gay meo. H~ thong nay bao g6m bo 19C lay bang co tiln 56 cat tren bang fm va tfin s6 ca.t diroi f. Neu si'r dung bo loc thap hoan thien thi cong suat tap am bang vo cung tai fl ----? 0, do do mat dQ pho rap trung quanh g6e toa do. Khi irng dung cho bang tan tieng noi thi khong co van de gi, vi bang tan tieng noi narn trong khoang 300 -:- 3400Hz va b9 loc bang si'r dung eo hieu qua.

Ditm quan trong can nhan manh b day 1a cong suat tap am nhiet dau ra he th6ng dieu che delta phu thuoc vao tan 56 eM ben diroi cua h~ 19C thu, tan so cal cao nen t6t han trong cac he thong PCM va DM.

1.3. Tinh toan ty s6 SIN iJ dau ra h¢ thong peM va DM

Dc xac dinh h~ so tin hieu/tap am A/N can phai tim cong suat lin hieu dau ra ElxlI(tn cung voi cong sU11t tap am tong, Cong SUitt ella t",IP am tclng se lit tclng cua e6ng suat tap am hrong tiI N, hoac E[nit)2] va cong suar tap am kenh No hoac E [XIl(t)2] nrc Hl:

SINo= E[xo(OY ') =E[xo(I)2]

E(no(t)2 + E[n" (1)2]- N'I + no

(6)

41

1.3.1. Ti sotin hieu (tap am SIN) ddu ra h¢ thong PCM

Nhu dfi phan rich 6 tren, cOng suat tin hieu Sa dau ra bo hrong nr deu diroc xac dinh Hi:

S = (<p2 - 1 ).~2/l2

Mat khac, cluing ta cung xac dinh duoc cong suat tap am ltrong tll (E(e2q) a diiu ra bo hrong ti'r ~2/12, Ca hai phuong trinhnay da duoc thay d6i khi cho qua b¢19C thap ly Wong c6 tan so cat bang hai tan so lay mau. VI vay:

E [XO(t)2] == S{f2, = (<p2 - 1 )(~2/12) (1{f2J E[nit/] = E [e4(t)2] IT2, = (~2/12) (JJT2J

E[n (t)"] = q/ .D.,Pe

o 31'2

v

Dodo:

1 1 221> -1

(S I N)u = qr ~ = ---:-c-

. 1 + 4<p- .Pe 1 + 4Pe.22/,

Trong do <p = 2b = so mire lirong tii trong b(l luong nr deu 1.3.2. So' bit nhi phan trong tit mil PCM

- Ty so tin hi~ul tap am (SIN) dau ra h~ thong DM

Tir phircng trinh 3, 4 va phtrong trinh 6 ta xac dinh diroc ty so tin hicu tren

I<;lP am nhu sau:

(SIN) == (3f'~ .. t;) (6')

. 0 8 2 I: 1:-' 48P I"" 1:2

J[ -. i>, iii + e .. S·. III

Trong d6, fi• fill: Tan so cat duoi va tren cua bo 19C thu (Hz)

fm: Tan so lay rnau ella ky thuat dieu che delta (khac I, lit tan so lay mau trang he th6ng PCM).

Pe: La xac suat loi bit thiet lap rir phuong phap truyen s6 lieu qua kenh.

Chii y rang, tan so lay rnau f", khong nhat thiet eo tri so nhu nhau cho PCM

va dieu che delta, Va thirong la khac nhau: f", > f,.

Ta se xet mot SO vi du cu the d~ xac dinh (S/N)II trong DM va rCM. Thi du J:

Xac suat loi Pe ella h¢ thong M trang thai PSK (M PSK) - "(Dieu chc khoa dich tan s6 M mire se nghien CUll a chuong riep sau) duoc xac dinh grin dung la:

42

Pe = exp [SIN) sin 180/M]. Gia thiet a day M = 8 nrc dieu che 8 PSK va e6 ty so song rnang/tap am (C/N) tai dau vao may thu trung binh bang 20dB, gia tr! trung binh (S/N)o a dau ra kenh thoai bang baa nhien neu su dung h¢ thong rCM 8 bit?

Gidi:

Khi C/N = 20dB thl he so e/N = 100, vi vay Pe cua he thong 8PSK bang 4.1 0-7• H~ thong PCM 8 bit co b = 8 va tir phuong trinh tinh (SIN)o cua he thong PCM ta tinh duoc (S/N)llrcIH = 47,7dB. Ket qua dang chu y cua vi du nay lit b cho khi Pe nho rhi SIN = 6b dB

rt« du 2:

Neu (S/Ng)(l cua he thong dieu chc delta kenh am dn bang 18dB va (S/Ng) bang 22dB, khi uin so lay mau bang 80KHz thi Pe bang baa nhieu?

Ciefi:

Tir phtrong trlnh tinh (S/N)() cua he thong dicu che delta va ur phuong trinh

(4') tim dtroc (S/N,,). Do do:

( S') ( S ) - _ 101 1 + 6reI': B

- - - dB- og d

N~ dB No 1f.fI·j;"

Doi voi kenh ran fl = 300Hz; fm = 3400Hz; f' ,= 80.000Hz, vay Pe = 4.10-4. 2. So sanh PCM va tltdng tll

Tir cac nghien ciru 0 tren ta se tien hanh thong ke Uti diem va nluroc diem cua he thong dieu che xung rna v6i he thong wong tu. PCM hien nay dang eo nhieu uu diem va diroc su dung rong raj trong th6ng tin vien thong, tuy nhien no cung khong ph iii la vinh Clm thea thai gian boi sir phat trien cua cong nghe, Song su ra dai cua PCM so voi ky thuat wong nr tnroc day la mot thanh cong dang k~.

2.1. lfu ditim cua peM

VI reM ia ky thuat chuyen doi A/D (Analog/Digital - wang W/so) mot tin hieu wang tu dau vao chang han nhu thoai, se duoc chuyen hoa thanh mot tu rna nhi phan chira cac bft logic 0 va 1 nen viec khoi phuc hoac tai tao bit tin c6 trang thai thap hoac eao van Hi van de kh6ng kho. Kha nang tai tao tin hieu goc hoan hao hoac thuc hien tach va ghep thea thai gian cac tfn hieu thanh phan Ia uu diem cua cac h¢ thong e6 nhieu tram lap, Dieu nay da tranh duoc tich luy tap am doc thea he thong dien thoai cir Iy dai va cac he thong nhu vay tro nen hap dan. Trang rna hinh hrrrng IU deu, bien d¢ cua tap am khi tai tao hoan hila nho han mot nira hieu giira cac rmrc hrong til'. dieu

43

nay la dii phan tfch 0 phan tren. Cac tram lap si'r dung ky thuat tuong nr chang han nhu ghep kenh theo tan sO' (FDM - Frequency Devision Multiplex) c6 the cong them tap am vao he thong, neu tin hieu cao tan RF (Radio Frequency) chuyen xuong am tan,

H~ th6ng PCM thict kc de truyen tin hieu luang tu c6 the dap irng cho cac tin hieu sO' lieu. Dieu nay tao ra vice su dung he thong mot each linh hoat, dac biet trong lap ke' hoach cac nhu cau chua bier trong nrong lai.

Trang cac he thong truyen dan bang g6c PCM ky thuat rna hoa co the dU0C su dung de giam bot anh huang ella tap am va dam baa an toano

PCM tao ra phuong tien hru giii tin hicu thoai hoac thong tin s6 lieu de phuc vu viec truyen dan thea thai gian ao hoac cho cac mach xU- Iy khac.

Khi ly so tin hicu/tap am dau vao thap thi ty sO' tin hi~u/l<~p am dau ra cua cac h¢ th6ng PCM t6t han so voi cac he thong Wang tu.

Khi eho truce ty sO' d¢ rong bang tan truyen dan - d¢ rong bang tan tin hieu (ty sO' nen hoac dan do rong bang tan) voi Pe nho han 10.4 thi PCM vuot moi dang dicu xung khac, Day la mot nhan to' quan trong dirng tren g6c d() tach ghcp kcnh thea thai gian.

Khi bang tan truyen dan lang thl phai giam cong suat thu. Su thay doi nay ella bang tan rruycn dan thea cong suat de dang tlurc hien trong cac he thong PCM. Nhirnu can chu y' rflno cong suat lin hieu kh6ng the tans vo han dinh rna

b C' • o. .

chi toi mot ngirong, nguong nay khong cai thien duoc ty sO' tin hieu/tap am dau

fa va giam mot it hang tan.

2.2. Nhuoc diem elm PCM

- Mach dien cua h¢ thong PCM phirc tap han so voi cac h¢ thong su- dung ky thuat dieu che khac, nhirng khong thay d6i khi sO' IU0ng kenh tang. Nhu vay, tinh phirc I<;iP nay phil hop khi yeu cau sO' kcnh Ion, boi vi a cac dang dieu che khac, tinh plnrc tap tang khi so hrong kenh tang.

- H¢ thong PCM co nhiroc diem rieng Iii de gay tre va tnrot tin hieu,

- D¢ rong bang tan 160 han cac he thong nrong nr,

Quan sat hinh 2.13, tin hieu dilll vao may thu Iy nrong c6 bang tan BI va ly so tin hieu/tap am (SIN), dung hrong kenh dau vao thea phuong trinh:

Cr = Btlog2 [I +(sIN)]

Tai dau ra may thu eo bang tan B va ty sO' tin hieu/tap am (S/N)o dung IUQ'ng thong tin thea 1y thuyct bang:

44

(SIN) :; S.lOgFlT

..

May thu ly tuemg

..

Hinh 2.13: May 1/111 h¢ l/U)llg truyen ddn If tudng

Cong suat t9.P am dau vao may thu bang mat d9 ph6 dau vao r; (W /Hz) nhan voi bang tan gr. Vi vay a dau fa may thu cong suat tap am bang mat do phd cong suat don bien '} nhan voi bang tan don bien cua may thu B, nghia Ii'!.

cong suat tap am dau fa may thu 19 nrong :; nil ::: '7 - B .

T ic di h d Si

a xae 111 iroc: r:::-

. . 'l.B

Trang do f3 li't ty s6 nen hoac dan bang tan :::BjB.

Bang I.' Mr)l sa'lo{}i h¢ t/J()'ng tlu)llg till vd tap am nlli¢f 110(/(' ti' si/ IiI! hieu

H¢ th6ng (S/N)o Ty so dan bang tan n
Lytuang (y I !3)P fJ
AM yl3 2
SSB r 1
DSB r 2
FM bang rong 38!3~ 18 2(4f, 1.(,,, + 1)
OeM M~/I logmQ
DPM r fJ'! 16 >1 Hai tham s6 nay dung de so sanh loai h~ thong truyen dan khac nhau, neu moi h~ thong da xac dinh duoc 1y so (S/N)o, anh huang ella tap am nhiet hoac tap am cong cua kenh kh6ng dira vao trong tinh loan (S/N)(l ella h¢ thong nay, VI ty s6 nay dung de so sanh cac d~e tinh hoat dong rieng ella cac he thong thong lin khac. Nhu bang I ttll thong ke mot so loai he thong thong tin khac nhau va tap am nhiet hoac ty so tin hieu - tap am giao thea tu ben ngoai lien quan den ty so dan bang tan fJ va ty so cong suat tin hieu dau vao - e6ng suat

45

tap am dau ra y ella h~ thong. Cac s-O lieu trong bang 1 diroc sit dung d~ tinh (S/N)() ella tat ca cac he thong trir trirong hop PCM.

Doi voi cac he thong PCM, tri so r can thiet d~ tao ra (S!N)o bang SOdB diroc tfnh tir nguong cua PCM. Trong cac U'U diem cua PCM dii neu tren, trong d6 l1U diem thir 6 dii noi r6 khi Pe nho hem 10-4 thl PCM VUQ1 tat ca cac dang dieu xung khac, Lay Pe nho han 10-4 nhu _Itt ngirong cua PCM va SLr dung phuong trinh doi voi he thong PCM bang gee H mire duoc xac dinh nhir sau:

2(M -J)

~=----------------I

[ 3y ]"

MF---- 2 --- ------

(M -1)log", Q

(6")

Trang do M: so mile hrong nr hoa

F(. .. ) la ham phan bo xac suat tich luy Gauss eho boi plnrong trlnh:

1; ,

F (z) = -,}2; _!eXp(-z-/2)dZ

exp: ham c mii Khi Pe < 10-4;

1

F( 3y )-2 (M.1O-4)

(m2 -I) log", Q < 2(M -I)

Neu Zl2 diroc xac dinh Ill' F(Z,) < m.1O-4/2(m-l) thl ZJ2 = ) 3r

(m: -1)log", Q

Z2

Vi vay: r ~ [em" -1) log", QJ-I

3

Bang 2 se thong ke cac tri so cua Zl' y, va j3, khi tri so M khac nhau, co Pc < 10-4 va (S!N)o =: SOdE.

Bdng 2: y va fJ kh] cae tri 56' khac nhau cua hf thlJ'ng PCM In 1111((":

M > F(z).1O-4Z, ZI2 (m" -1)UogJ/J Ql~ r KdB b:::::; lo_glllQ
2 1 3,7 13,69 8,3038 113,67 50,56 8,3048
4 0,666 3,82 14,7595 20,7595 302,93 24,89 4,1519
8 0,5714 3,86 14,8996 58,1265 866,06 29,38 2,7679
16 0,533 3,875 15,0156 176,4553 2649,6 34,23 2,0759
64 0,5079 3,89 15,134 4349,837 4348,387 48,18 1,3840 46

T6m lai, he thong rCM xet ve cac phirong dien truyen thong Ja e6 the han h~n va quan trong so voi ky thuat Wong nr tnroc day. Vi vay, vice narn r6 nguyen Iy cua no da diroc cluing ta pharr rich kyo Voi PCM va cac ky thuat dieu che khac nhu dieu che delta hoac dieu che xung rna vi sai OPCM thi cluing e6 cac dac diem uu the gi, sau day ta se xcm xet h¢ thong PCM va OM dua tren nguyen Iy ella chung nhu da trinh bay a phan tren.

3. So sanh peM va DM 3.t. Cac tieu chi so sanh

D~ so sanh he thong PCM va OM ta lay tnrong hop d¢ rong bang tan ella hai he thong lit nhu nhau. Dieu nay duoc sir dung d~ xac dinh ro do rong xung cua moi he thong. D6i voi he thong peM trong mot chu ky lay mau Ts co mot tlr rna b bit. Co nghia In moi bit chiern mot quang thai gian bang Ts/b. Tan s6 lay mau bang I, = l/Thong tin. tan s6 cat phia tren cu bq 19C thong thap la 340Hz, fm = 2C ncn do rong moi bit bang:

T,,(',\, = 1/2/;".h; T/JM = Ilf' (7)

Trong do Ii 1& tan s6 lay mau cua dieu chc delta, T DM lit khoang thai gian rna moi xung dieu chc delta (OM) chiem, phirong trlnh (7) c6 Iht duoc viet diroi dang khac lit: fJfm = 2b (8).

Thay ty s6 nay vao phuong trlnh (6') xac dinh diroc ty so tin hicu/Tap am dau ra he thong OM:

(9)

Phuong trlnh (9) co th~ so sanh voi phircng trmh (6) xac dinh ty so rin hi~u/t<:tp am dau ra h¢ thong PCM:

( s ) = _i'lo -:-:--::-

N 1 + Pe.22b+2

OJ'( 'M

(9 ') Khi 2211;::: I

Moi he thong co the truyen true ticp bang g6e hoac sit dung cac ky rhuat dieu che s6 vi nhir si'r dung PSK co th~ xac dinh Pe nho phirong trlnh (6"), lrong do m = 2 khi truyen rna nhi phan, VI the, Pe trong ca hai twang phirong rrinh (9) va (9') diroc xac dinh:

. .

47

Trong do F lit ham mat d0 xac suat tich luy Gauss nhu dil phan tich i'J tren, Khi rmrc tin hieu thu tang len thi r Ian hon va Pe se nho hem. Vi the khi Pe rat be hoac cac tri s6 ella rrurc tin hieu VaG nam tren nguong ella moi h~ thong thi phuong trinh (9) va (9') diroc rut gon nhir sau:

(S'/H) -"b-'I 2 '(S'!~/) _72h

, IV 1111.\1 - _) J[ va , n 1)1'(-'\/ --

Nhir vay thi:

(SIN)(!I!.\' =5,2+6h-30Iogh (dB) (II).

(S / N)()J'('",

Phuong trinh nay chi r6 uu diem cua h~ thong PCM a cho s6 tin hieu/tap am (S/N)oI'CM cua he thong vuot ty so (S/Nb'CM nnh bang dB khi d. hai he thong eo mire tin hieu thu cao han mire nguong.

Ngircng co the xac dinh diroc dua thea cac tinh toan,

Hoat dong ella h¢ dieu eh€ delta co the dUQ'C cai thien khi si'r dung dieu chc delta ur thfch nghi (ADM) toe dO bit reM la 64Kb/s. Mu6n lam dtroc chat hrong nhu nhau thi ran so lay mau, cling chinh la toe d0 bit cua OM phai bang IOOKb/s. Tuy nhien, vice stt dung ADM co toc d0 32Kb/s se dua den ket qua PCM 8 bit. Nhtrng iru diem nay lam DM dang diroc quan tam va DM e6 tht de dang cau true theo dang mach tfch hop don gian.

3.2. ·Dit~u che PCM va DM

Ky thuat dieu eh€ delta nhu dil de cap 0 tren mang thong tin khong phai ve mau ella tin hieu rna ve str khac nhau ella cac rnau lien riep, trong PCM thong tin cua moi mau dil duoc hrong ttt hoa truyen di bang mot til mil gam n xung, eon OM thi thong tin ve su khac nhau giua cac mau lien tiep diroc truyen di bang 1 xung. VI the, ta co the nghi rtmg, se co sai so luong nr Ion trong dicu ch€ delta. May man thay dieu do khong dung VI trong ky thuat nay dJ. co mot ty so bu trir, d6 la foe d0 lay mau Ian han khoang 4 Jan so v6'i PCM. MQt kieu bien deli ella DM gam k xung thay eho 1 xung dt truyen di su khac nhau gifra cac mau lien tiep, day ehfnh Ja ky thuat OPCM. Ngiroi ta cluing minh rang voi lin hieu thoai DPCM co chat hrong tot han ca PCM Ian DM nhtrng qua trmh hrong nr hoa lam DPCM lai rat phirc tap, Su dan gian cua ky thuat dieu chc delta ia uu diem n6i troi, Phuong thirc DPCM dil duoc sir dung trong thong tin

48

dien thoai hinh (Picture phone) van giu nguyen de) n)ng gi~ii. T6c d<) xung doi hoi chi 6,312Mb/s, trong khi do toe do x ung thi tan TV dung PCM phai ea 92Mb/s.

Co the khang djnh rang voi da so tin hieu trong thuc te DM co rat nhieu uu diem. vi ten hieu OM Ia tfn hieu so nen co moi iru diem cua h¢ so vi du nhu dung may phat lap va cac uu di~rn khac du no~ a tren. Neu noi toi sui so tach xung OM khang nhieu veri loai nay hem reM, trong d6 s6 cua sai s6 tach xung phu thuoc vao vi trf cua so, chang han nhu b = 8 th 1 sai so tlur I gap 12H Ian sui so trong s6 cuoi. Ngiroc lai, voi OM, rn6i so co tam quan trong nhir nhau. Thuc nghicrn clurng to xac suat sai khi tach xung van co 10·] se khong gfly nen anh huong nhicu voi tin hieu, tieng noi trong DM, trong khi xac sufi! sai khi tach xuns thap van khoans 10.4 co the' (Jay ra 16i nahicrn tronu Iron" m!lr0n" cua

~ ~ ~ e .0 ~~ .. t»

peM. Tuy nhien, trtrong hop ghep nhieu kenh len DM phai c6 bo rna hoa va gi;'ti

rna thco tung kenh, lrong khi d6 peM chi can 1 bo rna hoa va giai rna cho tat ca cac kcnh. Hien nhien vci cac bo rna h6a, giai rna rieng cho phcp linh hoat han nhicu trong DM. Tren dirong giita cac thier bi cuoi de dang bo di mot vai kenh hoac them vao cac kenh moi den, voi PCM dieu nay chi thrrc hien dtroc a thiet bi eu6i. Dieu nay ral hap dan cho thong tin nang thon voi mat de) dan cu thap va la noi dan so khong ngirng tang. Bo rna hoa va giai rna ricng can tranh diroc xuycn am, lam nhe di cac yell cau nghiern ng~t vc thiet kc trong mach ghcp kenh PCM. Xet tat d. cac yeu to tren thi DM e6 the manh han hem PCM, dac biet trong khoang dirong thong tin ngan, That vay, Cong ty dien thoai va vo tuyen vien thong cua Phap (TRT) da khai trien he ghep kenh dung ADM, da duoc thir van nam 1968 va khong he co true trac nao, nen hien nay n6 duoc tiep tuc rna rong. Mat khac DM cho kha nang chong nhieu tot nen chfnh phu Phap dJ. lira chon cac thiet bi OM cho thong tin vo tuyen thong luu va cac thiet hi dinh vj cho TRT che I~O dung eho du an kiem soat thong hru qua Dai Tay Duong bang v¢ tinh,

Nhtr vay, ky thuat DM ve co ban c6 nhicu uu diem han so voi rCM, hicn nay no dang diroc dua vao hoar dong a mot so mroc tren the gioi rna van chua pho bien rong rai cho viec truyen thoai VI mot Iy do dan gian la ky thuar PCM ra doi va dJ. duoc Slr dung truce OM.

De gnip cac ban hieu situ han ve ky thuar PCM, chung ta nghicn ciru bo rna hoa va gi,-'ti rna ADPCM thuc te. XC! so do khoi bo rna hoa,

49

4.GTKTG-A

B¢luqng tu thich nghi

DAU vao PCM Bien d6i Vao

64Kb/s thanh

PCM luat A hoac )...t '----- __ -'

Tin hieu danh ia

Dl! doan thfch nghi

Tin hieu sai phan . dilluqngttl

llinh 2./3(a): 89 mil hoa

Dau ra 32Kb s

Luong ttl thich nghi dao

Tin hieu dau vao PCM luat A h01C luat ~ diroc bien d6i thanh tin hicu peM giong nhau, mot tin hieu dtroc hlnh thanh do ket qua tir tin hieu vao va tin hieu danh gia.80 hrong nr thich nghi 16 mire dung d~ chuycn 4 bit nhi phan thanh gia rri sai phan dE truyen den b¢ giai mil. M¢t bo hrong IU thfch nghi nghich dao tao ra tin hieu sai phan da hrong tir tir chinh 4 bft nhi phan nay. Danh gia cua tin hieu cong voi tin hieu sai phan cua hrong nr nay d~ khoi phuc lai tin hieu vao, Tin hieu khoi phuc va tin hieu sai phan da hrong tir hoat dong dira VaG b(l du doan III thfch nghi, bO dlJ doan nr thich nghi tao ra danh gia tin hieu VaG thong qua mach hoi tiep,

B(> giai rna gom mot cau true giong nhu ph an h6i tiep cua bo rna hoa, cung voi h¢ bien d6i PCM deu thea IU~I A hoac luat )...t va dieu chinh rna h6a dong b¢. B¢ dicu chinh rna hoa dong bo ngan ngira meo rich luy xay ra trong rna chuyen tiep dong b¢, khi h¢ thong ADPCM va PCM kh6ng c6 loi va kh6ng bi can tap am hoi cac thiet b] xu 19 tin hieu so. Dieu chinh rna dong bo diroc thirc hien qua su dieu chinh rna PCM dau ra d6 giai han hrong tu trong giai dean rna hoa ADPCM tiep theo. Trang dieu kien truyen dan kh6ng co loi, chat hrong cam thu tieng n6i tren tuyen ADPCM 32Kb/s chi thap han chut it so vai tuyen PCM 64Kb/s. Giam chat luong tieng n6i chi c6 y nghia khi s6 lirong cac tuyen nhir vay diroc si'r dung lam chuyen tiep va kh6ng si'r dung tuyen don. Neu ty s6 loi truyen dan cao han 10-4 thl chat lirong cam thu tieng noi tren tuyen ADPCM 32Kb/s t6( hon tuyen PCM 64Kb/s. Khang dinh rang truyen so lieu bang am ([in den 2400b/s sil dung modem thea khuyen nghj V21, V22 cua ITU-T kh6ng

50

4_GTKTG-B

lam giam uim quan trong cua cac tuyen ADPCM 32Kb/s, mien sao s6 hrong cac tuyen kh6ng VUQ1 qua gioi han da kien nghi ella ITU-T. Gl13.

D

j
au vao Kb/s Luqngtutl!
.. thich nghi
,.
dao

~fn hieu sai phan Bien d6i Dieu
d11 luang tu Tin hieu thanh PCM chinh rna
. _ .. ____..,. _..
.. kh6iphl,lC .. luat A d6ng h(>
J hoac fl
Tin hieu danh gia ..

DI! roan
.. nr thich
,. nghi Hinh 2./3(b): B9 gidi mil

Bai t~p chlldng 2

1. Trang ky thuat dieu che xung rna vi sai tuyen tlnh sa dl:mg tlt ma KM Bblt, xac

djnh ty so tin hj~u/t9-p am tin hi(lu t9-i dau ra b¢ llf<;1ng ta. 2. Sa dunq phUOng trinh nen A va !l V€!:

- f)9C tfnh nen ella !l = 100.

- f)9c tfnh dan cua !l = 100

- f)ge tinh nen cua A = 87,6.

- f)~e tfnh dan ella A= 87,6

3. Xac djnh toc d¢ bit cua tin hieu am tan ma hoa thanh tln hi(l:u PCM, trong do qua trinh ma hoa sa dl,lng W ma 12 bit.

4. Giai thfch eo sa Lrng dl,lng ky thuat PCM trong thOng tin vien thong? Cho biet cac : 11U va nhiroc diem ella PCM so vbi OM.

5. Xac djnh bien phap CO ban de khac phuc nhiroc diem cua dieu che delta? Cho biet kha nang Lrng dl,lng cua OM.

51

Chuang 3

~ K A.~.... ? ,;: A' A.~

DIEU CHE SO V A GIAI DIED CHE SO

I. f)[EU CHE s6

Chung 1<1 dii bier ve mot he thong thong tin so bang g6c, trong do tin hicu diroc truycn tnrc tiep khong c6 dich tan cua tfn hieu, Do tfn hieu bang goc co cong suat kha 16n (j tan thap, cluing thich hop cho viec truyen qua mot cap day dong hay cap dong true. Tin hieu bang goc kh6ng the truyen qua dirong vo tuyen VI khong the co anten du Ian de phat tfn hieu tan thap. VI V~lY, voi nhtrng muc dich do pho ella tin hicu phai diroc dich len dai tan eao. Vice dich len dai tan cao la can thiet de truycn dong thai nhieu ban tin bang each chia dQ rong dai cua moi trtrong truyen (FDM). Ph6 cua tin hieu c6 the dich chuyen len cao bang phirong phap dieu che tfn hieu hlnh sin cao dn dung bang goc, C6 cac dang dieu che co ban IA dicu che bien d¢ va dieu ch€ g6c.

1. Dieu che hoa dich bien (ASK) - Amplitude - Shift - Keying 1.1. Sa do dleu che

1;;1--;;r-~--~-------.

___ ~~v.: __ ~~ ~. T

o 1

---- ---- --- --r---,-- --- ---- --

I ,

I I

M

Sin vi

ASK

Data ~ ~ ~ ~ d(t)

o __j 1 LJLJ I UL

-, --Jl!>l T, t4- Hinh 3.J : M 6 Mull che'dt) die'u che' ASK

52

1.2. Nguyen Iy

Mot tin hieu hlnh sin co bien d¢ la: U", duoc phat di khi tin hieu so co logic: I.

Con khi mire logic 0; song mang kh6ng duoc phat, Trang dieu ch€ bien d¢, bien d¢ song mung thay d6i ty I¢ voi tin hicu dieu che, ta co song mang da dieu chc (tin hieu bang gee),

Khi bien d¢ song mang thay d6i ty I¢ voi tin hieu dicu chc, ta co s6ng mang dtl dieu che. Tin hieu dIT dieu chc 13 tfn hicu dong rna. Sa do dieu che nay rruyen dir lieu ca sO' 2 diroc goi 13 khoa dong rna (on - off - keying: OOK) hay khoa dich bien d¢ (Amplitude - Shift - Keying: ASK).

Sa d6 mach dieu bien co iru diem la dan gian, song n6 kh6ng diroc dung pho bien vi: Cong suat song mang ducc su dung khong c6 hicu qua. Voi mot s6 lieu ngau nhien song mang chi diroc hoat dong trong mot nira thai gian.

Tfnh chong nhieu tin hieu khi dieu bien thap, Chinh VI v~y rna ngay nay, phuong phap dieu che bien do it diroc Slr dung rienz re rna n6 tlurcnc sii dun"

C> .••• e b. b

ket hop vci dieu pha.

2. Dieu che khoa dich tan (FSK) - Sa d6 khoi dieu che

l/2Tp

F[= Fe - nF

F2=Fc + nF

Hinlt 3.2.' Sa (M klu)/ diflu che' FSK

Tp: D¢ rong bit;

~F: Do Iech tan

- Dau vao bo FSK Ii'! tin hieu s6 10 10; iing vai moi mot bit, dau ra b¢ FSK co cac tan s6 khac nhau:

+ D6i vai bit 1, tan s6 song mang Ill: F<: + ~F = F2 + D6i voi bit 1, tan s6 s6ng mang la: F<: - ~F = FI F2> FI

53

J~
1 0 I 0 1
_... t

u.

t

Hinh 3.3: Dang song lin hieu FSK

- D9 rong bang tan khi di611 che FSK diroc tfnh HI.: 21f

BW = F2 + ------T; -(F; -21fITp)

BW ::: F2 - FI + 2ffp = 2(L'lp +!fp) BW: Band Width - d¢ rong bang tan.

- Bieu d6 ve d¢ rong bang tan co the m6 ta nhtr sau:

S4

u

F2 + l(fp

BW

Hinh 3.4: Bie'u dd ve" d(j rong hang Ian

Nhan set: Do rong bang Uin khi dieu che khoa dich tan (FSK) phu thuoc vao (}() dich tan ~ nrc khoang each giira hai tan so FI va F2 va d() rong cua bit so lieu dau vao can dieu che (tin hieu dieu che): Tl'; nen do dich dn cang Ian thl d¢ rong bang tan cang cao. T, cang nho d¢ rong bang tan cang Ian .

Nhtr vay, khi dO' lieu duoc truyen di bang su thay d6i tan so, ta c6 tnrong hop dieu che khoa dich tan (PSK - Frequency - Shift - Keying), so 0 duoc truycn di bang xung voi Ifin so PI va 1 duoc truyen di bang xung voi tan so F2• Thong tin vc dfr lieu truycn nam 6 Uin s6 mango

Tin hicu FSK c6 the! xem la t6ng cua hai tin hieu ASK xen nhau, mot c6 tan s6 Fl' con tfn hieu rhil 2 c6 Ian s6 F2• Vi vay, pho cua FSK la pho cua 2 ASK tai cac tan s6 FI va F2• Nhir vay, d¢ rong dai cua FSK la Ian han ASK.

Cos r «(Po - ~(p)t + <.p 1

d(t)

FSK

Cos [( (Po + ~<p)t + <p]

Hinh 3.5: Sf! (M kluJ'i b~) {go fin hifll FSK

Tit sa d6 kh6i ta thay: Hai s6ng mung c6 tan s6 (<Po + ~<p) va (<Po - ~<r) dira vao hai b¢ tron MI va M2, 6 hai bo tron mire logic I se khoa s6ng mang (<Po + ~<p) va mire logic 0 se khoa song mang (<Po - ~<p). Dau ra cong hai tin hicu chung ta duoc tin hieu FSK.

- FSK e6 cac Uti diem la:

+ Mft hoa dan gian va khong t6n kern.

+ FSK lit ky thuat dieu chc khoa dich tan nen tai may thu co th~ khuech dai tin hieu thu rna khong din AGe.

55

+ Tinh chong nhieu cua FSK Ion han ASK. - Nhiroc diem:

Nhir dil phan tfch tren FSK co phd tin hieu rong, do d6 yeu cau dai thong cua thiet bi phai Ion ncn khi su- dung tin hieu FSK se lang phi bang tfin dan den hieu suat su- dung duong truyen thap, VI v~IY n6 thtrong diroc SLr dung (1 he thong co dunn luona nho.

b . b

3. E>ieu che khoa djch pha (PSK)

Dieu eh€ khoa dich pha hicn nay dtroc si'r dung rong rai a cac he thong thong tin quan sir, thirong mai, cac he thong vi ba so .... Phuong thtrc dieu eh€ nay eel the xern fa mot phirong thtrc dieu che dO" lieu hicu qua cho die ling dung truyen tin bang v6 tuyen, VI n6 dam baa xac suat loi thap nhat doi voi mot rmrc tin hicu thu dJ dinh khi do tren mot chu ky ky hieu. Trong dicu che pha (PSK) thl cac xung rna nhi phdn dau vao lam dich pha song mang dau ra mot hrong Iii. 4. Ben canh phuong thirc PSK thl QAM la phuong thirc duoc su- dung pho bien.

3.1. Bieu tlurc tong quat ella tin hieu dleu che PSK Tin hieu dieu ehc pha e6 the bicu dien diroi dang sau:

[OJ 1+ 21[(; --1) 'J U (I) ::::: Um.Sin II M

Urn: Gi{t rri bien d9 (1)(1: Tan so' goc

i ::::: 1,2 ..... m: Thtr tu trang thai

M ::::: 2": So' Iirong cac trang thai pha eho phcp,

N: So' cac bit s6li¢u can dt dinh 1"0 rrang thai pha: M

Trang thong tin so, tfn hieu can truyen la cac bit 0 va I. Do vay, sci trang thai it nhat can co khi dieu che phai l?t 2.

3.2. Dieu che pha hai trang thai (2PSK - llPSK)

Cac tin hieu can truyen trong thong tin so la cac bit 0 va I. 6 dieu chc pha 2 trang thai, moi bit nrong trng voi ITlQt trang thai pha cua song mang, tuy nhien d6 de dang tach lay tin hicu (I dau ra bo giai dieu che phia may thu lech pha gifra hai ky nr phai dat cue dai, nghia 1£\:

+ Doi voi bit 0: Tuong irng voi g6e pha s6ng mang la 0'1.

+ Doi voi bit I: TU(1ng img vaj goc pha song mang la 18011• Bieu thirc toan hoc cua song mang bay gio se Ia:

56

UIl(t) :::: Urn cos (coo +Oll +CP() U I(t) :::: Urn cos (coo + ISOo +CP()

D~ rna hoa tfn hieu co s6 2 nguoi ta dung rna NRZ. 6 day rna nay, bft 0 (fng voi rrurc -I vii bit I ling v6i + I . Ta bieu dien bicu do vecta 2PSK nhu sau:

(I)

(0)

Hinh 3.0: Bic'1f d6 vecta 2P5K, ({J(j :::: 0

3.3. So do bl) dieu che 2PSK

,~

Uv

... t

+1

Delta .. ~ Mixer ~ Bo loc
... 8q so (bo tron) f-
101 sanh k~nh

I
LO ..

-I

Ur

t

+u

-u

H in II 3.7: So' (/(] klu)'i b(j dieu che' 2P5K

57

Tin hieu vao a dang NRZ dan eire, truck khi dua tai dau vao bo tron, diroc chuyen d6i sang rna NRZ lirong eire (-1 wang ung bit 0, + 1 wang irng bit 1) dira vao b¢ tron con c6 tin hieu s6ng mang lay tir bo tao dao dong noi LO (Local Oscillator) rna NRZ luang eire co 2 trang thai dien up +V va - U se tao ra hai trang thai pha cho dao dong s6ng mang la 0° va 180°. Dau ra h¢ tron ta thu duoc song da dieu che 2PSK. Tir dang s6ng nhu sa do rren ta nhan thay g6c lech pha gitra 2 bit 1ft 180°. Ung voi moi thai diem chuycn pha luon kern thea chuyen d6i bien d(> trong mot thai gian ngan hay dieu nay con diroc goi la dicu khien ky sinh, dieu nay yeu cau thief bj vi ba so phai tninh duoc mea pha.

Ngoai ra, trong ky thuat PSK con e6 cac phtrong thtrc dieu che 4PSK. 8PSK I b PSK.", Trong phirong thtrc dicu che 4PSK nguoi ta xem xct moi nrong quan giO'a cac nhorn ky tu C(1 so 2 voi mot trang thai pha cua s6ng mango Dc him duoc dicu nay, ngiroi ta ehia luong so dau vao thanh 2 luang nho bo chuyen d6i n6i ticp/song song, Dau fa ta thu diroc hai luong so, moi luang so c6 toe d¢ bit giarn mot rnra (ctic ban II! ve giai del pha cho tnrong hop nay).

Dicu che pha 4PSK duoc dung nil ph6 bien 0 cac thict bi vi ba so hien nay VI n6 co nhicu IJU di~rn, Cac thiet bi dang khai thac tren rn,~ng nhu RMD - 150 I, FHD - 22234, OM - 3007 .. '. deu si'r dung loai dieu che nay,

3.4. Dieu che pha 8 trang thai - 8PSK

D6 g iarn hang thong ella thief bi, xu huang nguai ta tang trang thai pha.

Sau ctieu che' 4PSK la 8PSK. Trang phirong thirc dieu che' nay, mor luong s6 Set) duoc chia thanh 3 luong A, B V~I C a h¢ bien doi noi riep thanh song song. Toe de) bit cac lu6ng so 0 dau ru giarn di 3 Ian. Sa d6 khoi h¢ bien ddi SIP nhu sau:

0 0 0 0 1
A
S(t) SIP B
0 0 1 0 0
C 0 1 I 0 0 1 I 0
+ .. .. + + .. • •
n/s 3n!S 5n/8 7n/8 9n/s 11 n/S 13n/8 15n/8
IIll1b 3,8: S(/d() klu)I' hq SIP 58

* Sa (M kho/' die'll clu{ 8PSK nhu sau:

Fb ---110-

Fb/3 A Bien doi a [)(
; m tIC 2 ~4 f------to-
't. .• t.
Fb/3c "
I LO ~
B9 chia 3 ~ 8PSK
.. L:
...
...
90°
.. ,..
.. ,,.
Fb/3 B Bien d6i [)(
~ ~
.... rmrc 2~4 Hinh 3.9: Sa do dieu che' 8PSK

all

110

III

100

101

Hinh 3.10: Gian do pha 8PSK

59

Luong so dau vao F, duoc dua qua d() chia 3, dau ra e6 3 luang tin hieu toe d<) bit giam 1/3 do la Fb/3A; Fb/3B: Fb/3C, sau d6 no duoc dira qua b<) chuyen doi 2 mire thanh 4 rrurc, cac mire tin hieu nay dtroc dira qua bo chuyen doi 2 mire thanh 4 mire. cac mire tfn hieu nay duoc dua vao bo nhan voi tin hieu dira vao nr bo dao doug noi LO, dau fa cluing duoc cong lai va dira toi bo loc bang giai ta thu diroc tin hieu 8PSK.

Nhan xet: Khi so trang thai pha tang cao, toe d¢ bit giam xuong. Dicu nay c6 mot y nghia quan trong, n6 se lam giam hang thong ella he thong, tier kiem diroc duong truyen dan, cho phep thuc hien thong tin nhieu kenh, Tuy nhicn, ben canh uu diem trcn thl khi so trans thai pha tans cac to hap bft ngay cang

. . 0 0' . 0

gan nhau han, kha nang mac loi se tang. Neu cu tiep tuc tang so trang thai pha

len nira thi kha nang mac loi sc tang len nhanh han. VI 19 do nay, khi truyen thong tin so toe d¢ cao, s6 trang thai pha nhieu, de giam kha nang nay khi cac s6 trang thai pha Et 16, 32 ... thl ngiroi ta da Slr dung phuong th uc khac, do la ky rhuat dicu che bien d¢ cau phtrcng QAM. Sau nay chung ta sc nghien ciru ky thuat nay.

4. £lieu che bien de? cau phLtdng QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)

4.1. Khai niem

Dieu che' bien d¢ cau phirong la phuong phap dieu che ket hop giira dieu che bien do ASK va dieu che pha PSK. Trong phirong thirc dieu che nay, ngiroi ta rhuong thirc hien dieu che bien d¢ nhieu mire hai s6ng rnang va cac song mang nay diroc dich pha 1 goc 90°: Mot song rnang 13. Sinco.r va mot song khac la Cosco.,t. S6 trang thai pha goc dicu che nay ia L 2 (L: s6 mire bien d¢ cua moi song mang vuong g6c). Tin hieu cua tong hai song mang nay co dang song ket hop giira dieu bien va dieu pha.

S5

S_~(t) = a(t).Sin[wot+ crl(t)] SJI) = b(t).Cos[wot+ <P2(t)]

Set) la tong hai rhanh phan Ss(t) V~l S,.(I)

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----t -. ---+

Set) = S, (t) + S c: (t)

= a(t).Sin[wot+ crl(l)] + b(t).Cos[wot+ 4'2(t)] set) :::: A(t).Cos[wot+ 4'(t)]

set) co bien do va goe pha lan hrot la:

- Bien do: A(t) = ~a2 (t) + b1 (t)

- Goc pha: <pCt) = Arctg S~(t)/ScCt).

Tin hicu tong vim c6 bien do, vira co g6e pha bien thien theo thai gian nen no la lin hieu vira diroc dieu bien. vira duoc dieu pha (song QAM).

De dap irng yeu cau thong tin s6 t6e d¢ cao, nguoi ta phai tang s6 trang thai pha dao dong cua song mango De co s6 trang thai pha nhieu rna khoang each gifra cac trang thai pha Ion, ngiroi ta lang so mire bien d¢ cua s6 lieu tnroc khi dua vao bo dieu che de r6 van de nay ta nghien ciru ky thuat dieu che 4 mire (I6QAM).

Trong phuong thirc nay luang so Set) a dau VaG se duoc ehia fa Him 4 luang nho bo SIP dong thai toe dO bit dau fa giam 4 Ian. So do nay co th~ mo ta nhir sau:

4.2. Kg thuat dieu ch€ QAM bon rmrc

S3 S4

B4

B3

Al

set)

SIP SI

A2

S2

A3 B2

Bl

-t rmrc

4 rmrc bien d¢

61

Al A2

o

y

t

Hinh 3.11: D~mg snllg QAM

Tit hlnh vc tren ta rhay nho co bien dl.) thay d6i rna cac trang thai pha cua song mang (:Hi each xa nhau, kha nang mae lai sc giam. Do lit iru diem co ban ella QAM.

Dang song 16QAM nhu sau se diroc bieu hien qua bieu do vecto:

1001 •

1000 •

• 1100

• lOll

0001 •

0000 •

• 0011

• 0010

1101 •

1110 •

• 1111

• 1010

0111 •

0100 •

• 0101

• 0110

Hinh 3.12: Bieil do pha 16QAM ,"

Nluin xet: Tir bieu do vecto ta thay, a QAM cac 16 hop bit nrong irng voi cac trang thai pha eo bien d¢ khac nhau, s6ng mang e6 16 trang thai pha, cac

62

trang thai pha deu phai d~t trai deu tren m~ll phang pha, moi trang thai pha wang ling voi mot bien dO cua song mang khac nhau. do v;;ty khoang each giua cac t6 hop bit xa nhau han. kha nang bi 16i it han. Tin hieu 16QAM DUqC sl1 dung a thiet hi 16i it han. Tin hieu 16QAM DUqC su dung a thiet bi vi ba so DRS - 140/4700 cua Siemens.

Bicu do pha la tircng doi phirc tap vi vay khi thier ke bo dieu che la nrong doi kh6 khan, do d6 n6 chi duoc sir dung a truong hop thong tin so co toe dO bit cao.

* So (M kh/;'i h() dhfll chi" loQAM trong thiet hi vi ha .'Ill bang 1'9ng DRS- 1401] 700 ctia Siemens.

I~~~~li~~

16QAM

BB

-~----'~ DSP

140Mb]S

DSP: Digital Signal Processing (XiX ly tfn hieu so) BB: Base Band (Bang tan co sa)

Yeo: Voltage controled oscilator (hO dao dong dieu khicn dicn ap) SA W: Surface acoustic wave (song am thanh be mat)

H inh 3.13,' Dieu che' QAM trong may phdt vi ba s()' DRS l401l700

Tin hieu IU bang ttin co sa phat (TxBB - Transmittion Base Band) co toe d(l 140Mb/s diroc dua vao bo xu Iy lin hieu so, tai day no duoc ngau nhien hoa, rna hoa vi sai, luu giir dan hoi roi chia ra lam 4 dirong d6 tao 4 rrurc bien dO, sau do chung lai diroc nhap thanh 2 day so tin hieu va diroc dira vao 2 bo rron tan M, va M:;" Tai hai bo rron nay co dao dong trung Ian voi tan so 140MHz dua roi, tan so trung tan voi b¢ tron M I diroc xoay pha + 45° con dua toi M2

63

diroc xaay pha - 45° ca hai dau ra bo tron M, va M2 diroc dira vao b¢ Icing va ta diroc tin hieu 16QAM. Tin hieu nay diroc dua qua bo IQc song am thanh be mat SAK d~ xac dinh pho tfn hieu s6 diroc khuech dai va dua toi tang sau voi tan s6 trung tan 140MHz.

Tren day, ta dii nghicn ciru cac ky thuat dieu ch€ pha da trang thai, khi sci trang thai pha tang, bang thong cua h¢ thong yeu call se giam.

Vay khi Slt dung ky thuat dieu ch€ pha nhieu mire co cac iru va khuyet diem Iii:

- Uu diem: d¢ rong bang d.n ty I~ nghich voi s6 trang thai pha cua .song mang, do vay khi co s6 trang thai pha tang, toe d¢ luang bit dira vao be dicu chc giam, d¢ rong bang tfln yeu call thap, Slt dung co hieu suat dirong truyen.

- Khuyet diem:

+ Ty so loi bit BER tang nell ty so tfn hieu/nhieu (SIN) gifr nguyen.

+ De nhay earn hem voi cac dac tuyen 19C, mea xuyen kenh tang men phi tuyen tang va thict bj phirc tap.

II. GIAI DIEU CHE S(j

1. Giai dieu che ASK, FSK. PSK 1.1. Giai dieu che ASK

Giai dieu ch€ co th6 dieu pha hoac khong dieu pha, a dau mach wang doi phirc tap han nhung lai hieu qua han nham chong nhieu, bo tach song nhan tin hieu ASK nho song mang diroc khoi phuc ngay Ilk d6. 0 tnrong hop thu hai thirong Slt dung nhieu han 1, duong baa cua tin hieu ASK diroc tach song hoi diode. Trang d. hai tnrong hop nay b¢ 19C dtroc d~t ngay sau bo tach song de gat be nhirng thanh phan song mang con dir, mot mach dinh dang xung nham dinh dang dung nhirng tin hieu dfr lieu.

Qua trlnh giai dieu ch€ ASK co the mo ta nhu sau:

64

AS

K B¢tach ,.,(.;
.. song S
... -[)t- f""o..J

.. T,ii tao
,... song mang ASK

Tach song

D1nh d~ngl xung

Hinh 3.14: Gidi dieu chi ASK

1.2. Giai dieu ch€ FSK

Song mang dieu che tan s6 FSK diroc dira vao bQ loc bang khong vdi cac dai bang thong khac nhau. B¢ tach song vong se chi th] cong suat t6ng va bo so sanh se dap irng cho cong suat 16'n nhat, Ky rhuar tach song FSK nay goi la tach song khong nhat quan (Non - Coherent). Xac suar 16i a bo s6ng nay co the biet.

Pe = 1/2 exp(-E/2No)

6 day E/2No la ty so nang hrong rren tap am rren moi bit, moi Hz elm do rong hang.

Sa do khoi bo giii dieu chc ufn s6 dan gian nhat, eho a hinh ve:

65

5.GTKTG-A

Tach song Yang

Lay mau tai +

Tach song Yang

Hinh 3.15: S(}d6 kilo/" b(J gidi dil;'u c//(/FSK

Sau day ta se nghien ciru ky thuat giai dieu chc FSK thea phuong rhirc nhat quan (Coherent).

FSK

Ra nhi phan

Cos( 1110 + /1111 )t Hinh 3.16: Gidi dieu che'FSK Coherent

6 hinh vc nay song FSK duoc dua vao hai bo tron, 6 hai b¢ tron nay co dao dong song mang Cos(WIl- l!w)t va Cos(wo+ l!w)t dua toi, Dao dong nay phai eo pha chinh xac voi pha ella tin hieu thu. Dau ra bo tron (itn tin hieu dua qua b¢ IQc thong thap dau fa fa diroc tin hieu dau vao.

Xac suat loi ella bo tach song FSK eho boi c6ng thirc:

Pe = eyeJEbl No

1.3. Giai dieu che PSK

D~ giai dieu che pha, ngiroi ta lay song mang thu diroc thirong Ia 0 IF (lntemcdate Frequency - Trung tan) so sanh voi tan s6 cua bo tao dao dong noi YCO cua may thu d~ dong b¢ hai tan so do v6i nhau. Khi song mang da diroc dong bo va khoi phuc chinh xac ngiroi ta thuc hien giai dieu che tin hieu,

66

* Qua trinh gidi die'II che' pha g()m cac bu/rc:

Khoi phuc song mang Giai dieu che,

Khoi phuc song mang

Sl (1)

S2 (I)

Hinh 3.17: So do b/) gidi (lii'li che'

* K.v 111I1(1r khoi phuc song mang co 3 phuong phap: - Khoi phuc song mang bang yang nhan M.

- Khoi phuc song mang bang mach yang COSTAS.

- Khoi phuc song mang bang mach giai dieu che,

Trong thirc t€ ngiroi ta thirong str dung mach yang COSTAS. Mach vong COSTAS va mot he thong phan hoi nham muc dich I<;tO fa song mang giai dieu ch€ lin hieu, Ta xet truong hop giai dieu ch€ 4 PSK bang yang COSTAS.

Ml

M3

Loc vong

Bang tan co sa phu

Hinh 3.18: Sa do klui'i mach dieu che' 4 PSK vong COSTAS

67

* Nguyen /"y lam viec cua /l() nhu sau:

Tin hieu trung tan vao diroc dua toi hai bo tron M, va M2, tai do dao dong song mang da duoc khoi phuc dua toi g6c Iech pha 90°. Dau ra hai bo tron tin hieu dtroc 19C va tron cheo mot hin nib, ket qua nhan diroc se trir nhau d€ co mot gia rri duy nhat, gia tri nay ty I¢ voi hrong dich pha gifra song mang duoc khoi phuc voi lan so trung tan IF 0 dau vao. Ket thiic mach COSTAS la mot bo Ioc vong va mot be) dao dong noi yeo. Nho c6 mach nay ngiroi ta i<iy ra diroc so lieu da dicu che va de bang tan co sO phu ..

2. Giai dieu che QAM

2: I. Sa do kh6i b(J giai dh~u ch€ Q AM m trang thai

Kh6i phuc djnh thoi

B6 dieu che' can bang

Khoi S(5licll xu ly 4--.--1 tin

ra hieu

B9 chuyen obi rnoi

ma vi sai

BQ chuyen obi moi

Kh6i phuc song mang

Hinh 3.19: 8(} gidi md QAM m trang thai

2.2. Nguyen ly

Tfn hieu cao lfin RF (Radio Frequency) sau khi d6i tan thanh tin hieu trung Ian IF di vao bo giai dieu che QAM, 0 d6 tin hieu re thanh hai nhanh di VaG cac bo dieu che can bang J va Q (I: dong pha - Inphase; Q: Quadrature: vuong pha). B¢ dao d(mg noi La cua nhirng hop giai dieu che nay diroc dicu khien tir tin hieu vao dung mach khoi phuc song mang VI tat ca cac bo dicu che lam vice thea kitu mach ket hop, Sau d6, tin hieu ra ttr giai dieu che di vao be) loc thong

68

thap d6 tao dang pho trtroc khi vao bo chuyen doi 4/2 mire. Mach khoi phuc thai gian dung d~ cau true lai tin hieu s6 nr cac tin hieu 4 mire dfr chuyen d6i va dam bao khoang each gitra tin hieu thu dfr sai lech voi tin hieu phat da chuan co gia tr] nho nhat. Hai luang bit nhi phan sau d6 di vao bo giM rna vi sai va khoi xu 19 tin hicu thu, Khoi nay tach ra cac bit rna dau va ket hop hai luang bit vao I va Q thanh tin hieu ra.

Bili t~p chuang 3

1. Neu khai ni~m dieu che s6? Ke ten It nhat 5 h$ thong di~u che s6.

2. Giai thich nguyen Iy dieu che so: - Khoa dich bien (ASK)

- Khoa dich tan (FSK)

~ Khoa dich pha (2PSK)

~ Bien d9 cau phudng (QAM)

3. Ve danq tin hieu dieu che: ASK, FSK, BPSK ling vbi day du n~u;

69

Chuang 4

CACPHVONGPHApGHEPKENHS6

I. T(")NG QUAN CHUNG

o chirong 2, chung ta da nghicn viec xu Iy tin hieu tieng n6i thong qua viec chuyen doi tieng n6i nrong tu thanh tin hieu so voi cac ky thuat nhtr ky thuat dieu xung rna PCM, ky thuat dieu Kung rna vi sai DPCM, ky rhuar dieu che delta va dieu che delta thich rrng, Trang chuang nay chung ta se nghien ciru ky rhuat lien ket cac luong so tir cac ngu6n khac nhau nhc phirong tien xu ly ghep kcnh so. Chung ta xet mo hlnh chung mot hi? thong thong tin s6:

FDM

Dieu che so

Ngu6n so 1---------1

Bang goc

Kenh thong tin

Ngu6n s6 ....._-------'

Hinh 4.1." M6 hlnh ctia mot /if thong s{/

70

Ta thay rang rhier hj ghep kenh so (b¢ ghep kenh so) MUX thirc hien chirc nang t~.p hop cac luang bit so lieu tu cac nguon khac nhau hoac tir nguon xu Iy PCM wang nr .

Cac Iuong bit s6 tir cac be) CODEC, cac nguon s6 va cac mach PCM mang tfn hieu am thanh wang nr diroc ghep hop Iai va dtroc xu Iy trong thiet bi ghep kenh 56, tin hieu e6 bang Ui.n co sa dua ra duoc xu 19 ticp de chuan hi truyen qua kenh thong tin cua he thong vo ruyen so. Sau khi ticp nhan va giai dieu che nho thiet bi vo tuyen s6, tin hieu bang co sa diroc dira den thier bi ghep kenh 56, sau khi duoc phan kenh de luang so diroc chuyen den cac thiet bi tai khac nhau de truyen ve tin hieu g6c nhir a dau phat. Thict bi PCM c6 th6 bao gam ca thiet bi ghep, do vay, cac am Uin a dang wang nr co the dai dien cho lin hieu vao true tiep cua thi€! bi ghep dau eu6i de xu Iy thanh lin hieu PAM va ghcp voi tin hieu PAM cua cac kcnh am tan khac tnroc khi bien d6i rhanh luang bit PCM. Tai day, ngu6n so la luang bit tin hieu PCM e6 t6e dO 64Kb/s bar ngu6n IU tieng noi, thiet bj ghep kenh riep nhan cac luang so lieu nay va xu Iy chung, ghep rnrc tiep nhu hlnh 4.1. Muon truyen nhieu nguon tren mot kenh dn phai quan tam den tfn hicu ghep d6 tao thuan loi, de e6 the tach kenh 1'0 rang. Chung ta sc nghicn ctru ky rhuar nay thong qua co sa ghep kenh rheo thai gian TDM (Time Dcvision Multiplex).

II. CO SO GH'EP KENH THEO TH<n GIAN (TDM)

C6 the thirc hien ghep kenh thea thai gian tin hieu PAM hoac tin hieu rCM (tfn hieu PAM - Tuong nr va tin hieu so). Khi e6 hai luang tin hieu luang tu Ira len dtroc rruyen dan tren mot kenh thong tin thi ta goi Ja ky thu(tt ghcp kenh, thirong Slr dung mot trong hai sa do e6 dien de lien ker hai tin hieu nay.

1. Cae so do ghep TOM

Sa do thi! nhat, a d6 cac tin hieu diroc xu 151 d~ chiern cac khoang tfin s6 ricng trong dai tan nhung deu diroc truyen trong cung mot thai gian. N6i each khac, tin hieu duoc truyen di dong thai nhung Hin s6 da chuyen doi. Day chinh Ia ky rhuat ghep kenh thea tan so. Sa do c6 dien thtr hai, tal ca cac tin hieu deu co cung tan so nhirng chiem khoang thai gian khac nhau trong dai thai gian. Trong tnrong hop nay moi bang tan chang han nhu tieng noi deu nhu nhau nlurng truyen tren kenh thong tin va 11i thai di~m khac nhau. D6 thirc hicn viec nay, moi tin hicu wang tu duoc lay mau tai cac thai diem khac nhau vii xung lay mau mang thong tin ve bien d() cua moi thong tin rieng diroc phar len dtrong day. Ket qua Iii mot day xung PAM dtroc ghcp lai, trong d6 m6i xung dieu bien

71

trong chu trinh bat nguon tu mot tin hieu khac nhau. Dieu nay co the thuc hien nho vi d¢ rong xung lay mau cua tin hieu ngan hon nhieu so v6i thoi gian troi qua eho den khi tfn hieu diroc lay mau Ian nira. Xem cac hinh 4.2(a) va 4.2(b). Xet hlnh 4.2(a) ta thay, cac tin hieu nrong nr tir cac dirong day khac nhau di den khoa chuyen mach kieu quay tron co toe d¢ co dinh, khoa nay diroc goi ia bo gop. Duong day thli' nam co dien ap chir V 100 han gia tri eire dai cua bat eli' tin hieu nao rrong 4 tin hieu dang song eo ket qua nhir hinh 4.2(b). Xung 100 nhat F goi la xung dong bo khung va diroc si'r dung d~ xac rlinh mot khung hoac mot tap cac tin hicu trang mot Yang quay. Nh6m 5 xung trong VI du nay diroc goi ia I khung. Cac he thong trong thirc te viec tao thanh mot khung co s6 xung rat Ian.

Tuang III ,../...;

f".I

Tach dong bo khung

(a): Hi thdng TDM 4 kenh

Chuy~n mach quang dong bo

H¢ thong truyen dAn

Xung dong bo khung

Analog

_.,.Analog 3

Analog

4

J
F F F
r 2
4 4
2 2 1
1 , 1 3
r-r- 3
_..
... 72

t

..,.._ Khung____"" (b): Dong S()I/g TDM

Tin hieu urong ttr

Kh6i B9

giai

B9 chuyen mach

Tach kenh

(c): H¢ thdng glu?p kenh TDMIPCM 4 kenh

Hinh 4.2: Ghep tach kenh theo thai gian TDM

2. Nguyen Iy

Neu moi tin hieu nrong tlJ c6 bang tan Iii B(Hz) dtroc xac dinh boi bo loc thong thap thi ran so lay mau thap nhar phai bang 2 BHz. Van de nay dif diroc de cap trong phan tnroc (thea dinh 19 lay mau Nyquist). Khi e6 n tin hieu PAM ghep thea thai gian thl toe d¢ truyen xung bang 2Bn xung/s. Dieu nay c6 nghia Ia bang tan cua bo IQc thap 19 nrong la nB. Trang thirc te no rong hem, VI khong c6 kha nang che tao bo IQe nhtr vay va rong han d€ ngan ngira xuyen tap am gifra die tin hieu hoac xuyen tap am gifra cac xung canh nhau,

o phia thu, cac xung lay mau tir cac kenh rieng bi¢t diroc tach ra va diroc phan phoi nho mot b¢ chuyen mach ki€u quay rrong va goi la b¢ phan phoi,

Sau do, cac xung lay mau cua moi kenh diroc IQe d~ tach tin hieu nrong nr nguyen thuy. B¢ chuyen mach 6 may phat va may thu diroc dong bo mot each chat che. Dong bo Ia chi tieu thir nhar cua qua trinh ghep kenh thea thai gian (TDM). Hai dang dong bo trong TDM Ia dong bo khung can thiet d~ xac dinh diem bat dau cua mot khung va dong bo bit can thiet d~ xac dinh mot each chinh xac cac xung mau trong moi khung,

Qua trlnh dong h¢ eho phep dong bo thiet bi dau eu6i phat va thu cac tfn hicu thai gian trong hai thier bi dau cu6i c6 cung toe d¢ trung blnh. Trang thier

73

bi dau cu6i phat dong ho tao ra cac xung thai gian yeu cau d~ dicu khien cac chirc nang khac nhau va dieu khien t6c d¢ bit tin hieu s6 cho muc dich truyen dan, trong nhieu tnrong h91> se khong hoat dong cung toe d¢ nhir dong ho tao ra trong thier bi duu cuoi ra. De khac phuc su khac nhau cua tan s6 dong ho, thiet bi dau cuoi thu thirong nhan su dinh thai til luong bit s6 thu diroc. Dieu nay dam bao cho hai thiet bi dftu cu6i lien quan den luang bit rieng, hoar dong o cung toe d¢ trung blnh va c6 th~ xem nhu da dong bo. Nhir vay, thiet bi dau cuoi thu phu thuoc vao -thiet bi dau cuoi phat, Dong h6 phat trong thi€l bi dau cu6i cung phu thuoc vao mach thu tao ra su dong bo giira dau phat va dau thu cua hai thict bi dau cu6i tro len mang luang bit nay. Thier bi dau cu6i thu tach thong tin thai gian tir lu6ng bit so dira den nho cac mach khoi phuc dong bo s6, cac mach nay hoar dong dira vao cling mot nguyen 1y nhu cac bo lap. Trong cac he thong TOM co S0 cac xung PAM ghep e6 the diroc hrong tu d6 xii Iy tiep tnroc khi truycn din bang PCM hoac co th6 diroc xu Iy thong qua luong tir va PCM d~ truycn true tiep bang co sa. Hinh 4.2 (c) 13. h¢ thong TDM/pCM, dau ra bo rna hoa 1a tfn hieu s6 nhi phan TCM moi tir rna thay ttl xung lay mau. Sa do nay goi la sa do ghep theo til rna hay ghep theo tin hieu, Cac tir rna dtroc gop lai voi cac bit bao hieu va cac bit dong bo khung, cac bit dong bo khung dtroc sap xcp sao cho cluing tao thanh mot cau true lap hay til rna dong bo khung cho phcp thiet bi dau cuoi nhan dang ehinh xac rnoi bft hay khe thai gian va phan chia luang tin hieu 56 den thanh cac tin hieu thanh phan. Cac tfn hieu thanh phan sau do di den kenh ra Wang trng, moi loai ella tin hieu phat diroc hinh thanh til bci til rna dong b¢ khung va cac bit tin hieu goi Ia mot khung. Neu thier bi dau cuoi thu phat hien diroc tir rna dong bo khung tai vi trf da :'iet truce, nrc la co d6nefb¢ va no tiep tuc lam viec ache d¢ dong. Ncu sau vi trf do, qua nhieu khe thai gian khong phat hien dtroc tir rna dong b¢ thi thict bi dau eu6i cho rang da mat dong bo khung.

Khi g~p tnrong h91> nhu vay thiet bi dau cuoi khoi xurrng qua trlnh tlm kiem tir dong bo bang each tnrot tung khe thai gian eho den khi phat hien dtroc tir mii d6. Dua vao su phat hien nay, thiet bi dau cuoi chuyen sang plurong thirc kiem tra d~ khang dinh tir rna xuat hicn VJ.i Ian a dung vi tri mong muon tnroc khi sang phuong thirc dong. D~ khang dinh ding viec tim diroc tu rna dong bo str thirc la mot fir rna tin cay clnr khong phai Ia mot day ngau nhien cua luang bit tin thi diu true ella til rna dtroc hra chon phai eo X3.C suat ngau nhien thap ella mot day bit tin. Khac voi ghep tir rna, bo ghep kenh eo th6 phan ehia cho rnoi tin hieu hoac mot khe thai gian bang 1 bft va Sl! sap xep nhu vay goi Ia ghep theo bit.

74

III. GHEP KENH THEO THin GIAN DIEU XUNG MA(TDM/PCM) 1. MQt so di;ic di~m ve ghep k€mh

Trong thuc te, cac khai niem co ban cua TDM nhtr du trinh bay a phan tren van gifr nguyen. Thier bi ghep bao gam khong chi thiet bi xu Iy tfn hieu Wong nr dau van rhanh dang PAM va ghep cac xung d6 rna con c6 eric thiet bi de chuycn d6i luang bit hop thanh mot luang peM co t6e d¢ bit so lieu nhat dinh ITU - T an dinh toe dt) bit phu hop voi so luong kenh am tan trong mot he thong. C6 cac bit sau day:

+ Doi vui bo ghep PCM 30 kenh, c6 rcc d(> bit bang 2048Kb/s. + Dei voi bo ghep PCM 120 kenh c6 toe d(> bft bang 8448Kb/s + D6i voi bo ghep PCM 24 kenh c6 t6c d¢ bit bang 1544Kb/s. + D6i voi be) ghep PCM 96 kenh c6 toe d¢ bit bang 6312Kb/s.

D6i voi he thong I 544Kb/s la nhu nhau, d6i voi phan cap cua My va Nhat Ran co 24 kenh thoai PCM 64Kb/s he thong nay sau khi ghcp tr(1 thanh DS-I he thong 63 12Kb/s Ja mire DS. Ca hai h¢ thong 24 va 30 kenh diroc mo ta diroi day trong thuc te hien nay deu quan trong nhir nhau, Viet Nam Slr dung h¢ thong theo tieu chuan chau Au la 30 kenh thoai, 2 kenh bao hieu va dong bo voi t6e d9 Hi 2048Kb/s.

Viec thirc hien ghep mot so kenh thoai thanh mot luong bft s6 nhu diroc trlnh bay trong hinh 4.3. D6 la sa d6 khoi b¢ ghep PCM dau cuoi dien hinh. Mach 2 day n6i den bo hon hop hoac bo sai dong cua tong dai dien thoai hoac dau eu6i PCM, bo sai dong nay tach tieng n6i thanh mach phar va mach thu. 6 mach phat, rnroc het han che bang tan den 3400Hz nho bo loc thap, dau ra b¢ loc noi den mach lay mau. Cac nh6m kenh thoai 24 hoac 30,96 hoac 120 phu thuoc vao he thong sir dung, dieu da duoc bien dcii thanh dang xung PAM dtroc drra Ian hrot vao tuyen ghep hoac Bus PAM dum Sl! dieu khien cua dong ho phat, dong ho nay tao ra xung lay mau cho tin hieu PAM va dieu khien thong tin vao Bus PAM. Dau van cua bo rna hoa tai bat ky thai diem cling chi c6 mot tin hieu PAM rir bo dieu che PAM diroi sir dieu khien cua he thong hay dong ho phat, hrong ur hoa xung nay va tao ra tir rna thfch hop, Dau ra bo rna hoa la luang bit c6 toe d¢ bit cua h¢ thong do. Xung dong bo khung diroc ghep vao khe thoi gian nrong ling, d tin nrc bao hieu cilng diroc ghep va nhu vay, loan bo g6i tin (khung tin) xuat hien tai dau ca. Neu d6 la h¢ thong 24 kenh thl mot trong 24 tin hieu thoai duoc lay rnliu trong tirng quang thai gian 125~s (tan salay mau la 8KHz). Khoang

75

phan each gifra cac xung lay mau lien tiep la 5,18)..1s, VI the moi xung lay milu ella he thong 24 kenh diroc danh 5,18)..15 tren Bus ehung

A

PAD l j fl.lii hoa l peM Ra
~ MOD I JIl- I J BUS Ghep xung ..
khung ....
i.
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nalog "] '
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- Dong ho phat

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24
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I BUS I BUS Tach d6ng ho
W PAM.DEMOD I Giai ma
I PAM I I PAM khung Vao
PAM BUS

Hinh 4.3: Thiel hi ddu cuoi ghep PCM die'fl hinh

B9 rna hoa luat )..1 doan chuyen d6i moi xung PAM rhanh nr rna PCM 8 bit trang mot khe thai gian 518)..1S, a cuci khe thai gian tlur 24, mach dong bo dua vao mot xung nira sir dung lam bit dong bo khung. VI vay, 56 bit trong mot khung bang 8 x 24 + 1 bang 193 xung, cac xung nay diroc sap xep trong khung 121)..1s trong he t hong nay, ctr 12 kh u ng lien ti ep tao thanh da khung 1,511s. Trang tha i cua cac xung dong bo khung cho phep nhan dang khung va da khung. Dicu nay se dtroc de cap ky hem khi xern xet he thong PCM 24 kenh va 30 kcnh. Phia sau cua bo ghep peM tiep nhan so lieu d6, tai tao tin hieu nay va tach thong tin dong bo trong tin hieu do. Dong ho thu Slr dung thong tin dong bo nay eho cac buoc ella qua trlnh tach kenh, gia thiet rang toe d¢ cua n6 phil hop voi t<'in so trung blnh cua dau cuoi gia phat. B9 dong bo khung va tach xung kiem tra tin hicu thu va xac

76

nhan su co mat cua tin hieu dong bo khung rai khoang thoi gian chinh xac, B¢ giai rna diroi su dieu khien cua dong ho thu giai rna cac ttt rna luang ling cua tirng kenh cua tin hieu PAM va dira den Bus PAM d~ phan thee thir nr chinh xac cho cac bo 19C bang wang img. Dau ra b¢ 19C hinh thanh tin hieu nrong tu nguyen thuy, Cac xung cong tir dong ho thu cung cho phep tach cac bit bao hieu ttr tin hieu va phan phoi cho cac khoi bao hieu kenh wang irng nam trong mach sai dong d~ nhan duoc mot dong rae phil hop, chang han nhir rung chuang may dien thoai, Cac tin hieu dong bo bit va dong bo khung co vai tro rat quan trong trong ky thuat ghcp kenh/tach kenh, sau day chung ta sf> nghien ciru ky han ve cac IO,!-i tin hieu nay.

2. £)ong bQ bit va khung

Nhu dJ. phan tich tren day dong bo m¢l tuyen so diroc thirc hien nho tach thong tin tir luong bit so, thong tin nay 13. thong tin kep, TIU! nhar cho dong b() bit, o day tan so dong bo co sO diroc tach ra va tlui hai d~ cho cac mach dong b¢ khung tach thong tin chi thi thai dem bat dau cua mot khung len moi khe thai gian chua trong khung diroc nhan dang chinh xac. Thong tin dong bo co the diroc tach ra thee hai loai mach khac, Cac mach nay co th~ rna ta mot each tong quat la IO,!-i heat dong tnroc va sau. Loai thu nhat, gom cac mach thu dong dan gian, nhir cac mach, cac he so pham chat cao, b¢ 19C va thiet bi tao dang song. Cac mach nhu vay duoc Slr dung trong cac tram i~p. Loai thtr hai hoac 10,!-i hoar dong sau la cac mach bao gam mach vong khoa pha va cac mach lien quan phirc tap han. Cac mach nay diroc su dung d~ tach dong bo khung va khoi phuc dong bo bit lrong cac thiet bi ghcp dau cuoi. Loai hoar dong tnroc duoc sir dung khi mot day rnau bier tnroc nho mot day mau xac dinh va cho phep khoi phuc de dang khi Slr dung cac mach logic. Mach dong bQ diroc khoi dong khi day so dong bo khung den, sau kh6i d(mg mach thai gian tao ra cac xung thai gian d~ thu day tin. Cac mach hoar dong sau gem eo cac mach xung mau va bo dem khung. BQ dern khung tien mot buoc cho moi khung thu va dieu chinh mach xung rnau cho phu hop voi mau va tiep theo. Dau ra loai mach nay cung cap toan bo thong tin thai gian eho may thu,

Muon cho thier bi dau cuoi co the tach chfnh xac luang bit den thanh cac kenh, can phai nhan dang chinh xac moi khe thai gian den. Khong c6 van de gl ton tai neu kh6ng co su truyen dan lam hong luang bit. Tuy nhien, cung co luc luang bit co sl! co va lam mat tir rna dong b¢ khung. Dong bo khung xem nhu mat di khi co ba hoac 4 tfn hieu dong bo khung thu co mot loi,

Viec khoi phuc cac dong b¢ khung bang cac thiet bi nr dong Ia mot bo phan quan trong cua thiet ke' mach hoac thiet ke he thong, d~ dam bao chac chan dong bo khung dtroc khoi phuc sau mot tin hieu dong bo khung hop each co the thirc

77

hien trong thiet bi dau eu6i thu. Mot van d~ dang quan tam khac xay fa va phai tlnh den khi thiet ke mach hoac thie] k€ he thong Iii xay fa mot 10'!-t 8 bit kh6ng trong lu6ng bit s6. Quang dai cac trang thai kh6ng gay ra mat dinh thai cho cac mach khoi phuc d6ng ho, D~ tranh hien nrong nay, mot s6 m~ng khir di cac hien tirong nay, chang han e6 Sl! sap xep khac eho b¢ rna hoa d~ tao fa 1U rna e6 cac bit d6i dau xen ke. Do do, day cac bit khong d6i thanh 10101010 va s6 nhi phan 106, nrc la 10101010 d6i thanh day toan bit 0 va ngtrcc lai la a cho s6 nhi phan 106 xay fa rat hiern, chi khi cac kenh roi hoac khong su dung, dieu nay c6 th~ xay fa kha thirong xuycn, se truyen cac day s6 o. Nhu vay, dong bo bit va dong bo khung la rflt can thiet, n6 giiip cho ky thuat ghep/tach kenh thirc hien diroc, tach cac hien nrong tr6i va tnrot gay mat dong bo phat va thu.

IV. GHEP KENH co so PCM 30 1. [)~c die;m

Ghep kenh co so PCM 30 va PCM 24 la cac he thong ghep kcnh PCM thuc
t6 eho cac luang bit s6 cap I thea tieu chuan chau Au va Bac My - Nhat Ban
voi t6e d¢ co sa PCM 30 la 2048Kb/s va 1544Kb/s.
2,048Mb/s 1,544Mb/s
TV "'1 Video hoi nghi "I V ideo h¢i nghi 1 ,
... ... :
,
Tho<,li I
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B¢ ghepPCM
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Tong dai s6 ... A' .. :
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31 Ccfp I 23 Cap I:
Hinh 4.4: Phdn cdp ghep cdp 1 cua Il'U'T 78

Hinh 4.4 chi fa cac nguon khac nhau duoc ghep thanh cac cap ella luang bit nay. Clni y rang trong cac khoi nay moi khoi dac trung eho mot thiet bi giao tiep hoac xu Iy deu dua vao khuycn nghi cua ITU-T dt tu van eho xu Iy hoac giao tiep nay. Phan tich day du cua he thong ghep kenh eo sa PCM 30 chung ta se nghien ciru kyo

2. Cau true khung va da khung PCM 30

C<ic khung 256 bit

Da khung 16 khung - T=2s

Cac khc thai gian (kcnh) 256 bit

1 khung 32 kcnh - 125~s I khung
31
0 1 1 1 4 ~ e 1 8 9 10 11 11 13 14 15 1
..
lololololx ylXIX ~ 4 Sl I 0 I 0 11 11 I 0 11 11 I ~

x= 1 neu khong sir dung tin hieu dong bo y chi thi mat, dong bo = 1 da khung

I SIll I A I sis I sis I s I Kh6ng phai tin hieu dong be khung Ie

Dong bo khung ella khung 0 va khung chan

~ Kenh danh cho baa hieu

Hillh 4.5: /if thong glu?p khung va da khung PCM 30

79

Thier bi ghep PCM 30 ella ITU - T hoar dong voi toe d9 2,048Mb/s. Ma hoa Slr dung la luat A 13 dean voi A = 87,6, so mire hrong nr Iii 256. Thea hinh 4.5 moi da khung co 16 khung dai 2ms, danh so Ian hrot tir 0 den IS. M6i khung dai 125j..ls duoc ehia lam 32 khe thai gian danh so Iil 0 den 31 va moi kenh (moi khe thai gian) diii 3,9j..ls gam 1 til rna 8 bit, hoac thai gian bit dai 488ns. Toe d9 bit cua mot khung bang toe d¢ lay mau x so khe thai gian nhan 8000 x 32 = 2,048Mb/s. Tin hieu dinh thai phat HlY tir nguon ben trong hoac ben ngoai tir tin hicu so thu. Trong moi khung, khe thai gian tu 16 duoc danh cho bao hieu, khe thai gian nay eung cap mot kenh ban hieu 64Kb/s va eel the Slr dung cho cac baa hieu kenh chung, Doi voi bao hieu kenh ket hop, nodai dien cho hai kenh bao hieu 30Kb/s ngoai tin hieu d6ng b9 da khung duoc Slr dung nlur mot chuan mire bit J den bit 4 va bit 5 den bit 8 cua khe thai gian 16 diroc ky hieu la a, b, e va d. Ncu cac bit b, e va d khong Slr dung thi b ~ 1, e = 0 va d = 1.

- Thier bi PCM can phat hen cac dang 51! eo sau: + Mat ngu6n eung cap.

+ Hong 1 mach CODEC. + Ma: dong be) khung.

+ Ty I¢ Ibi Ian han 10''/

+ Mat tin hieu vao 64Kb/s ella kenh khong danh eho baa hieu kenh ker hop. Cac su co tren can dtroc xu ly de thiet bi heat dong tiep theo.

3. £)ong be? khung va da khung PCM 30

Trong PCM 30 6 dong b¢ da khung, khi bao hieu kenh ket hop thl tir rna dong bo da khung 0000 va ghep vao khoang bit 1 den bit 4 cua khe thai gian rhti 16 ella khung O. Dieu nay co nghia Iii err 16 khung thi tir rna xuar hien dtroi dang cum. Cac vi trf con lai ttr bit 5 den bit 8 ella khe thai gian thu 16 khung 0 gam cac bit rieng bier 5,7 va 8 la t~p bit 1 neu khong sir dung va bit 6 siX dung eho chi th] khi mat d6ng bo da khung hang 1.

Dong b() da khung xem nhu mat khi thu hai tfn hieu dong bo da khung lien tiep e6 mot lui va khi trong chu ky 1 hoac 2 da khung tat d. cac bit trong khe thu 16 deu Ct trang thai O. Dieu kien thu hai nay tranh diroc phuc hoi ngay khi tin hicu dang bo da khung ehfnh xac d:iu tien diroc phat hien va khi ft nhar mor bit rrong khe thai gian 16 co mire logic dung tnnrc tfn hieu d6ng bt) da khung diroc phat hien Ian dau.

80

Dong bo khung trong PCM 30 chiem khc thai gian 0 cua cac khung chan, g6m ca khung 0, nghia la cac khung 0, 2, 4, .... 30. 0 khe thai gian 0, bit 2 va bit 8 dirng dau va cuoi tir rna dong b¢ khung, Bit 1 khong nam trong tit rna dong bo khung rna eho sir dung quoc teo Mot ling dung trong viec kiem tra d¢ dir ehu trlnh dircc thirc hien trong he thong d~ de phong sir sang tao ella tin hieu dong bo khung hoac co nhu du tang cirong kha nang giam sa,t loi. Doi vai cac khung U~ khong e6 tin hicu dong bQ khung tit 2 den bit 8. Bit 1 diroc SIT dung nhu mot bo phan de kiern tra do du chu trinh neu can, hoac danh cho Slr dung quoc tc. Neu khong Slr dung thi bit I ella khe thai gian 0 trong cac khung chan va Ie khac an dinh la I, bit 2 luon co dinh bang 1 d~ e1C phong 51! phong tao dong bo khung. Bit he thong thir 3 chi thi canh bao xa. Trang trang thai blnh thtrong, bit nay bang O. Trai Iai, a trang thai canh bao n6 chuyen thanh 1. Cac bit 4 den 8 lit cac bit du tru cho sil dung quae gia va khong Slr dung tren cac mach qu6c teo Khi h~ thong Slr dung tren mach quoc te, bit 4 den bit 8 se bang 1, neu bit 1 khong duoc sir dung thl co the dung rren cac kenh quoc gia cung VOl bit 4 den bit 8 cho bat ky muc dieh gl. D6ng bo khung xern nhir bi mat khi thu ba hoac bon tin hieu dong bo khung lien tiep c6 loi. Dong bo khung xern nhu dii dtroc phuc hoi ngay khi tin hieu dong bo khung ehinh xac dtroc phat hien nhirng trong khung tiep thea, khung Ie vang mar no va diroc thong qua bit 2 trong khe thoi gian khong c6 logic 1 va khi trong khung tiep theo phat hien c6 tin hieu dong b¢ chinh xac,

4. Ghep tin hi~u 9Qi trong PCM 30

* Thill bi ghep kenh s({ foe dQ 2048Kbls:

H~ thong nay ker hop 31 nhanh hoac cac Iuong bit 64Kb/s d~ tao ra a dau ra cua no mot luang so c6 toe d¢ 2,048Mb/s. Cung nhu h¢ thong 1,544Mb/s luong s6 lieu 2,048Mb/s ciing diroc tach thanh cac lu6ng 64Mb/s. Cau true khung PCM 30 diroc rna ta a phan tnroc.

V.CACCAPs6

1. H~ thong chau Au 1.1. Cac cap s6

Dua tren khuyen nghi ella lTV - T thi cac cap ghep kenh so thea tieu chuan chau Au dua tren viec ghep cac luong s6 dip 1 c6 t6c de? bit 2048Kb/s bang viec ghcp cac kenh (khe thai gian 8 bit). Cap ghep nhu sau:

- Cap 1: La mot khung PCM gam 32 kenh (30 kenh thoai + 2 kenh baa hieu va dong b¢ e6 toe d¢ 2048Mb/s.

1<'1

6.GTKTr...1I.

- Cap 2: Thirc hien ghep 41u6ng dip 1, co t6c d¢ 8,448Mb/s.

- Cap 3: Thirc hien ghep 41u6ng cap 2, co t6c d¢ 34,368Mb/s.

- cap 4: Thirc hien ghep 41u6ng cap 3, co toe d¢ 139,264Mb/s.

- Cap 5: Thuc hien ghep 41u6ng cap 4, co t6c d¢ 565,128Mb/5.

C6 the rna ta nhir sau:

2,048

8,448

34,368

139,264

1 2 3 4

32

565,128 Cap S

Tlnrc te, cap ghep cao nhat hien nay dang diroc Slr dung ia cap ghep thir 4 co t6c d¢ 139,264Mb/s.

1.2. So d6 nguyen If ghep kenh cac cap

1 3

+ PCM
, r-----
,
, f-----


120 kenh .. Ghep s6 .. 8,
... ...
x4
"
480 kenh _.. Ghep s6 .. 3
. ... ...
x4
"
1920 kenh, Ghep 56 ..
.. ...
x4
,,.
7680 kCllh.. Ghep 56 ..
... ... 448Mb/s

4,368Mb/s

139,264Mb/s

Duong vi ba cap 5 (565,128/5)

82

6.GTKTG-B

Nhir vay, tai da hien nay co the ghep d6ng thoi 1920 kenh voi toc dq 565, 128Mb/s. Day Iii tieu chuan chung EU rna Viet Narn dang sir dung,

1.3. Phuong phap ghep

C6 th~ co 3 phirong phap ghep tin hieu 56 d6 la cac phuong phap: Ghep thea bit, ghep thea tir rna, ghep thea chu trinh.

1.3.1. Ghep theo bit

Viec ghep thea bit e6 the mieu ta thea .50 d6 ghep nhu sau: Truong hop ghep 4lu6ng cap 1 thanh 1 lu6ng cap 2 thea tieu chuan EU (xem hlnh 4.6)

Clack

t

t

t

t

t

I~

125 )..is

Hinh 4.6: Ghep thea bit 4 luang EJ thanh. 1 luang E2

Thir nr ghep duoc thuc hien nhir sau: Dau tien, thuc hien ghep xung dong bo, sau do ghep bit thu nhat cua lu6ng E] mu nhat, tiep den bit thu nhat cua cac

83

luang E, tiep thea (EI thtr hai, Elthu ba, EI thir ur), Sau d6 ghep bit thir hai cling thuc hien thea nguyen ly tren, Qua trinh ghep cll' tiep tuc thirc hien nhu vay cho den het thai gian 125)lS. Mot chu ky sau diroc tiep rue boi xung dang ha va qua trinh ghep bit lai diroc thuc hien urong nr nhir tren,

Chii y ding trong 125)ls phai ghcp het s6 xung trong chu trinh d6 cua cit 4 luang vao, nhu vay thl toe d¢ bit luang E2 moi bang 4 Ian toe d¢ bit luang EI. 1.3.2. Ghep theo tit md

Nguyen t~c ghep nhir sau: xet tnrong hop gia Slr til rna co 4 bft

Clock

ABCDEFGH

t

A' B' C' -D' E' F' G' H'

t

A" B" C" 0" E" F" G" H"

t

A'" B'" C'" D'" E'" F'" G'" H'"

t

t

n n ABC 0 A' B' C' 0' A" B"

D"

r=----- 125~s ____,

EFGHE' ..... E .. '

Hinh 4.7: GI1f!p ttl' mil 4 luong E,

Dau tien, ghep xung dang be, sau d6 ghep lU rna thii nhat cua luang thu nhat (ghep tat cac bit cua til rna) tiep sau den tit rna thd nhat cua luang vao thu

84

hai, tiep den luang tit rna tlur nhat ella luang E, thu ba, va den nr rna ella luang E, thrr ttl. Tir rna thir hai ella luang vao tlui nhat.. .. va eti' ghep eho het mot ehu trlnh 125 us roi moi ehu y~n sang ehu trinh khac,

Tuy theo so hrong bit trong tir rna, neu tir rna trong tnrong hop eo 4 bit thi can toi thieu 16 6 nho, eon trong rna hoa PCM 8 bit thi bo nho toi thieu phai eo 32 6 nho. Trong khi do, phucng phap ghep thee bit chi yeu cau rai thieu la 4 6 nho. Nhir vay, phuong phap ghep theo tit rna yeu cau phai Sll' dung bo nho co 6 nho nhieu han.

2. H~ thong Bac My va Nh~t 8lm 2.1. Sa do ghep he Bac My

2.1.1. Cac cap ghep nhu sau

- Cap 1: Ghep 24 kenh thoai thanh luang 56 SI c6 toe d¢ 1,544Mb/s

- Cap 2: Ghep 4 luang cap 1 thanh luong cap 2 Ia 6,312Mb/s

- Cap 3: Ghep 5 luang cap 2 thanh luang cap 3 Hi 32,064Mb/s

- Cap 4: Ghep 3 luang cap 3 thanh luang cap 41a 97,728Mb/s

- Cap 5: Ghep 4 luang cap 4 thanh luang cap 5 ta 400,352Mb/s

Cap ghep kenh cua Bac My va Nhat Ban co su thong nhat a cap ghep I va 2, cap ghep Bac My duqc hang AT va T su dung, Tuy nhien, cap ghep Bac My con eo hai cap nfra la cap ghep 4 va cap ghep 5, trong do. cap 5 eo the ghep toi 8064 kenh thoai PCM, la cap ghep kh6ng co trong tieu chuan cua ITU-T.

Trong phan cap so ella Nhat Ban co them mot cap so voi phan cap cua ITUT ta 5760 kenh thoai, tong dung hrong Ia 400,352Mb/s.

Chung ta nghien cuu So' do cap ghep h¢ Bac My va Nhat Ban.

32,064 x3 97,728 4 400,352 Nh~t
1 Mb/s Mb/s Mb/s
6.312
2 1,544 x4
Mb/s Mb/s
24
44,736 x9 405,000
Mb/s Mb/s Bac My
2.1.2. Giam sat va cdnh bdo Cac canh bao duoc phat sinh khi mat nguon b mot bo phan nao do cua he thong, hoac khi luang bit dua vao thiet bi ghep bi gian doan; khi mat dong bo khung, khi luang bit nhanh bi gian doan: hoac xuat hien trang thai

85

ty s6 16i vuot qua dinh rmrc, chang han ty s6 16i bit c6 nhieu han mot bit trong mot nghin bit. Trong mot trung Him ghep kenh c6 th~ t6n tai mot he thong rna nho d6 cac canh bao duoc phan loai phu hop voi tinh quan trong cua chung, Hien tuong mat nguon duoc xem nhu canh bao nhanh hoac khan cap, nguoc lai khi ty so 16i la 10.5 thi c6 canh bao cham hoac kh6ng khan dip, canh bao nay dua ra mot dieu can hru y truoc khi xuat hien su co x au han.

Trong mot s6 h9 thong tai dia diem d~t thier bi ghep co th~ kh6ng c6 nhan vien phuc vu va moi canh bao deu duoc chuyen tro lai cho trung tam dieu khien d~ giarn sat roan mang. Canh bao duoc dang ky tai trung tarn nay, sau d6 nhan vien tien hanh giai quyet cac su co, yeu cau phai bier chinh xac sl! co xay ra a dau. Cac h¢ thong c6 tai trong cao han d6i voi hru lirong va plurc tap can xay dung cac trung tam bao duong mang. Trong cac he thong so e6 the danh gia h¢ thong qua ty so 16i bit BER.

VI. KY THU~T SDH

Mang dien thoai til tnroc nhfrng nam 1970 chu yeu truyen tin hieu wong nr va ky thuat FDM (Frequency Division Multiplex), phuong tien truyen dan chu yeu la cap dong. Dau nhirng nam 1970 h~ thong so d1l tuong doi phat trien kern theo n6 ia ky thuat ghep kenh thea thoi gian voi cac cap ghep kenh khac nhau, thuc hien ghep nhieu luang so c6 toe d¢ thap thanh luang so c6 tee do cao. Ky thuat nay diroc goi la phan cap so can dong b¢ PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy). Cong nghe cang phat trien yeu cdu truyen dan tee do cao, tin cay Ion thi PDH chua phai la he thong t6i U'U, mot phan cap s6 ra doi d6 la ky thuat SDH (Siochronous Digital Hierarchy). Trong phan nay cluing ta sc nghien ciru cac cap ghep SDH.

1. NhLtQc di~m clia PDH

- Ngay nay, nhu cau sir dung cac dich vu phi thoai d1l bung len mot each pho bien va rong rai, Nghia la nguoi dieu hanh m<;tng mong muon c6 nhieu luang 2Mb/s d~ cho thue va c6 the: tach/ xen cac luang d6 mot each dan gian va de dang. Nhung PDH khong dap ling duoc cac yeu cau d6. Ching han khi mot tuyen truyen dan c6 toe d¢ 140Mb/s di qua mot diem nao d6 c6 nhu cau Slr dung cac luang 2Mb/s thl tai ~6 phai l~p d~t mot khoi hrong Ian thiet bi tach/xcn (xem hinh 4. 8). Tit hinh ve cho bict muon c6 cac luang 2Mb/s ph iii qua cap tach luang 140Mb/s thanh 4 luang 34Mb/s.

86

_. 140 34/ 34/ 140
f-- f--- r----
Mb/s 140 140 Mb/s
r- tS!

34/ t 34
..
8 r-- .--
'-- ~ ~ L-
8 8
- -
2 2
'---- L.-
,,- 2Mb/s

Hinh 4.8: Ghepltach cae luang so'

Tiep den phai tach mot luong 34Mb/s thanh 4 Iuong 8Mb/s. Biroc tiep thea phai tach mot luong 8Mb/s thanh 4 lu6ng 2Mb/s thl phai xen vao bay nhieu lu6ng 2Mb/s.

Vi phai qua nhieu cap tach/xen nhu vay nen ky thuat nrong doi phirc tap, h¢ thong cong kenh, gia thanh dich VI} tang len theo so cap tach/xcn, mat khac phirong thirc tren con giarn d¢ tin cay cua he thong. Day la mat han che' thir nhat cua PDH.

- Mi,H han che thii hai cua PDH la kha nang quan Iy va giarn sat mang kern. Boi trong khung tin hieu cua cac be} ghep PDH khong du cac byte nghiep VI,I de cung cap cho viec dieu khien, quan Iy giarn sat va bao du6ng he thong. Cu th~ la trong khung tin hieu cac bo ghep 2/8, 8/34, 34/140 va 140/565 co cac bit dong bo khung (10 bit), 1 bit canh bao dong b¢ khung, 1 bit nghiep VI} (BI2) va 12 bit dieu khien chen, con a cap ghep co sa 2Mb/s so hrong cac bit nghiep VI,I trong khung tin hieu cling rat han che,

- Mat han che thu 3 cua PDH la toe dO bit cao nhat diroc tieu chuan hoa la 140Mb/s VI vay tren cac tuyen vien thong quoc te khong the tao ra dtroc cac xa 19 thong tin. T6c d¢ bit trong mang vien thong quoc gia ciing chi dat 565Mb/s nen khong the dap rrng duoc viec gia tang cac nghiep VI,I bang rong nhu hoi thao nr xa, truyen hlnh do phan giai cao ....

- Mat han che thrr tu cua PDH la thiet bi cong kenh vi thiet bi ghcp kenh cap cao va thiet bi dAu cuoi quang tach biet v6i nhau. Ch~ng han nhu dau ra thiet hi ghep kenh ta rna HOB" con dau fa thiet bi dau cu6i Quang 1ft rna 58 6B.

87

Mot han chc nira cua ky thuat PDH hi hien nay he thong van la he thong vien thong qu6c te ton tai hai loai phan cap truyen dAn khac nhau lit phan cap truyen dan thea tieu chuan chau Au va tieu chuan Bac My, dieu nay gay kho khan va phirc tap cho viec hoa mang va dong bo mang, Cac mat han che vira neu tren se diroc khac phuc nho ky thuat truyen dan dong bo SDH.

2. Khai ni~m SOH

SOH (Siochronous Digital Hierarchy) phan cap so dong bo la giai doan tiep thco cua giai doan phan cap truyen dan can dong bo,

Nam 1985 Vien tieu chuan quoc gia Hoa Ky ANSI (America National Standard Institute) orr dua ra mang thong tin quang dong h¢ SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) cho phep hoa mang thiet bi cua cac hang khac nhau tai rmrc quang.

3. Cap ghep SOH

3.1. Cac lieu chuan SONET

Ta xem xet cau true mang SONET

----------------------------~------------------------~-------------~----~

,

, ,

, , , , , , , ,

,

,

, ,

.. ..

~--~------~---------~---------

: line ;

,

, ,

• r----- -- --~---."

" Section :

, ,

, ,

.. ,....!- .. -~

: Duong (line)

, ,

-----------~------------~-----I

I

I

• I

I

~------ -- ---- -, I

: Section ,I

I ,

Doan

TM

OC-3

OC-3

hoac DCS

t Section ,

I I

• .J

REG

ADM

OC-3

REG

OC-3

TM

..

--, I I I I

I I I

• ,

I I I I I I

Tuyen (Path) ~...:

-------------------------------~~--~

• Section ,

, I

.... .J

line

Hinh 4.9: Cdu Ink mang cua SONEr

Trang rnang g6m cac loai thiet bi nhu: thiet bi dau cuoi doan, thiet bi dau cu6i duong, thiet bi dau cuoi tuyen, Thier bi dau cuoi dirong co th~ la bo ghep

88

dau TM, bo ghep/tach xen (ADM) hoac bo n6i ghep (DXC), thiet bi dau cu6i dean co th~ 13. tram 19c (REG) hoac la mot thiet bi cua dau cuoi duong. Thiet bi d:iu cu6i tuyen la bo ghep dau cuoi (TM). N6 gam bo ghep ket hop voi thiet bi dau cu6i quang.

Bang 3: Cdc cap truyen dan SONEI

Muc T6e d(J (Mb/s) Phan dip s6 SDH
OC-l 15,84 STS-l ---
OC-3 155,52 STS-3 STM-I
OC-9 466,56 STS-9 ---
OC-12 622,08 STS - 12 STM-4
OC-18 933,12 STS-18 ---
OC-24 1244.16 STS-24 ---
OC-36 1866,24 STS- 36 ---
OC-48 2488,32 STS - 48 STM -16 OC: Optical Canrier: SOng mang quang.

STS: (Synchronous Transport Signal): Tin hieu truyen dan dong bo. STM: (Synchronous Transport Module): Module truyen dan dong bo, Giira SDH va SONET chi co 3 rmrc toe d¢ giong nhau nhu bang tren.

Nam 1986, ITU- T d§. nghien ciru cac tieu chuan cua SONET. Thang 4/1988 ITU - T de nghi thay deli mot chut tieu chuan cua SONET d~ dung hoa cac dao dien 2Mb/s va 34Mb/s, va ANSY da dong y su thay deli nay.

Thang 11/1988 cac tieu chuan dau tien ve SDH dtroc phe chuan,

3.2. TieD chuan SDH

Xet tieu chuan ve mat toe do bit:

STM - 1: 155,52Mb/s STM - 4: 622,080Mb/s STM - 8: 1214,160Mb/s STM - 12: 1866,240Mb/s STM - 16: 2488,320Mb/s STM - 64: 9953,28Mb/s

89

3.3. Cac cap ghep SDH

Xet bo ghep dong bo nhu hinh 4.10.

44,735 Mb/s

x7

44,735 Mb/s

44,735 Mb/s

44,735 Mb/s

44,735 Mb/s

44,735 Mb/s

Hinh 4.10: Bf} ghep dong bQ

- Cac chit s6 trong hinh nay lien quan den toe d¢ truyen d{tn can dong bo

nhu sau:

+ 11: Tuong irng voi 1,544Mb/s + 12: Ttrong irng voi 2,048Mb/s + 21: Tirong frog vai 6,312Mb/s + 22: Tirong dog voi 8,448Mb/s + 31: TUO'og irng v6i 34,368Mb/s + 32: TUC1ng ung voi 44,763Mb/s + 4: TUC10g dog voi 139,264Mb/s

90

ChI so dau tren dai dien cho mire phan cap truyen dAn nhu quy dinh trong

khuyen nghi G702 cua ITU-T.

- VC-n la Conterner ao, C6 2 loai Conterncr ao: + Conterner ao CCi sa VC-n (n = 1,2):

Phan tu nay gom mot C-n (n= 1,2) dan cong them cac byte mang thong tin dieu khien va giam sat tuyen noi, hai VC - n nay goi la POH. (Path Over Head - mao dau duong)

+ Conterner ao bac cao han VC - n (n = 3,4):

Phan tu nay gorn mot C - n (n = 3,4) don va tap hop cua TU-3S cling voi cac byte mang thong tin dieu khien va giam sat tuyen noi, hai VC - n nay diroc goi la POH.

+ TU - n (n = 1 den 3) Iii khoi nhanh:

Phan tir-nay gom mot Conterner ao cong them mot con tro khoi nhanh. Con tro khoi nhanh chi thi su dong pha ella Conterner ao (VC - n), d6i voi POH cua Conterner co mire cao hon tiep theo. Con tro khoi nhanh c6 vi tri co dinh so voi POH mire cao hon.

Trang mot so ling dung VI du nhu khi sap xep dong b¢ cac kenh 64Kb/s thi Contcrner ao co sa co pha co dinh voi Conterner ao rmrc cao han. Trang tnrong hop nay, POH cua Contemer ao co sa VC - I va con tro TU-J khong con hieu lire.

- AU - 3S (S = 1 hoac 2) va AU -N (N::: 4): Phan tir nay gam I VC bac eao han cong can tro khoi quan 19. Can tro khoi quan Iy co vi tri c6 dinh trong khung SIM - 1 va th~ hien quan h¢ ve pha cua VC bac cao han trong khung STM - 1.

- TU G - 2S (S = 1 hoac 2) la nh6m cac khoi nhanh: Phan tir nay sap xep tin hieu cac khoi nhanh thanh luang so co toc do cao hen va chuyen den cac VC bac cao han.

- STM - 1 rna module chuyen tai dong b¢ mire co sa, phan tir nay chua mot hoc nhieu khung tin hieu elm VC bac cao han, can tr6 khoi quan 19 va cac byte thong tin dieu khien va giarn sat tuyen noi giO'a 2 STM -1. Cac byte nay k9 hieu la SOH (Section Over Head - mao duu doan),

- STM - N Ia module chuyen tai dong bo mire cao: Phan ti'r nay ghep thea byte N x STM-l de hlnh thanh luong so cua phan cap dong b¢ N.

- Tao thanh STM -1 tir AC 4

Tir hinh 4.10 thay ding, muon tao thanh AU-4 co the sir dung 1 trong 5 phucng phap, Phuong phap thii nhat si'r dung mot Conternor C4• Phuong phap

91

thir hai sir dung 4 phan tir TU - 31, phuong phap thii 3 sit dung 3 phan nr TV - 32, phircng phap thu 4 sir dung 21 phan tir TUG - 21 va phirong phap thu 5 sir dung 16 phan nr TUG - 22.

Chung ta xct twang hop tao thanh STM 1 tir C4• Hlnh 4.11 minh hoa tnrong hop su dung mot phan tu C -4 de tao thanh tin hieu STM - 1. Luong so can dong be) 139,264 Mb/s dua den phan tir C - 4 trong quang thai gian 125).1.S C4 tiep nhan 217 byte, moi byte co 8 bit va bo sung them 164 byte de dat roc dO dinh mire a dau ra la 2340 byte/ khung, Phan tir VC - 4 tiep nhan tM trong nay va be) sung them 9 byte VeA POH. Nhir vay, khung tfn hieu 125)ls cua VC-4 co 261 cot X 9 dong, chua 2.349 byte. Phan ti't AU-4 tiep nhan 2.349 byte nay va b6 sung them 9 byte con rro AU - 4 PTR vao vung A (dong 4, cot 1 den 9). Phan ti'r STM - 1 tiep nhan 2.358 byte do AU - 4 chuyen den va bo sung them 72 byte SOH de tao thanh khung tin hieu STM -1 co 270 cOt va 9 dong.

270

SOH

AU-4

SOH

261

VC4

C-4

..____--VC-4 POH

Hinh 4.11: T(1O thanh SIM -1 icc,

92

Tai trong VC - 4 khong co pha co dinh trong khung AU - 4. Vi vay, vi tri ell byte dau tien ella VC-4 trong khung AU-4 diroc chi thi nho can tro AU-4 PTR. Nhung tii trong ella AU-4 baa gom ca can tro AU --4PTR e6 vi tri e6 dinh trong khung STM -1

- Cap ghep STM-N:

Trong thiet bi SPH sir dung phuong phap ghep thea byte. Sa do the hien nguyen lac ghep cac mire truyen dan thap thanh rrurc truyen dan cao han nhir hinh 4.12. Trong sa do nay, dau VaG e6 STM-X, STM-Y, STM-Z, trong do X + Y + Z = 14.

STM-X

STM-Y

ED g-~MUX

STM-Z

o 0-

~-~-ED-8-1 X+Y+! 1-0

M=X+Y+Z

Hinlt 4.12: Nguyen if ghep theo nhom byte

Dau ra IS. STM-M: Truce het ghep mot day x byte cua h¢ th6ng X, tiep thea d6 lil ghep day Y byte ella h¢ th6ng Y va sau do la ghep day Z byte ella he thong Z. Qua trmh nhu vay dtroc lap lai, Til tnrong hop tong quat tren day e6 the ap dung eho tirng twang hop rieng khi cac rmic VaG gi6ng nhau can ghep lai de duoc mot mire fa eao han.

- Ghep 4 STM -1 thanh STM - 4:

STM-l

STM-l

STM-l

STM-l

AAAA .

STM-4

ABCDABCD .

BBBB .

MUX

cccc .

OOOD .

93

DAy lit nguyen 19 ghep thea byte, va diroc thirc hien thea nguyen tac la thirc hien ghep byte thu nhat ella STM 1 thll' nhat xong se ghep byte thll' nhat ella h¢ thong STM -1 thtr 2, tiep do den byte thu nhat ella he thong STM - thll' 3 va den byte thir nhat cua he thong STM 1 thir 1. Qua trlnh ell' nhu vay tiep dien,

- Ghep 16. STM 1 thanh STM 16. BQ ghep nay nhu sau:

MUX

STM-16

Cac chir s6 trong vong tron bieu thi cac byte, cac byte thuoc he th6ng SIM - 1 nao thl mang s6 thu tv cua h¢ thong do. Dau fa Ia kct qua ghep thea byte cac Iucng vao.

Ngoai viec ghep 16 h¢ thong STM - 1 de co diroc he thong STM - 16 con co th~ sir dung 4 h¢ thong STM - 4 d~ ghep rhanh mot he thong STM - 16, hie do viec ghep diroc thirc hien nhu sau:

STMA

MUX

STM-4 4

94

STM-16

4. Ung dl:lng SOH

Tnroc tlnh hlnh so luqng dich VI,! tren mang lucri va hru hrong dich vu tai cac tong dai va cac thiet hi ngay cang tang thi dieu quan trong la phai co mot phirong thirc quan 15' hieu qua, Viec quan 15' mang se thuan tien han neu cac thiet bi tren rnang dong nhat. Khi SDH dtroc trien khai thi cau tnic ty I¢ phan mem tang nen nguoi quan 15' mang co kha nang dieu khien thay d6i cau hlnh thiet hi, dira cac dich vu vao mang mot each di!: dang. Nhu vay, viec irng dung SDH Ia rAt hfru hieu cho mang thong tin s6 t6e do cao, yeu cau mire tin hieu linh hoat, vice xu 15' va theo d6i thong tin dan gian, giup cho viec khai thac mang co hieu qua han.

Bai t~p chtronq 4

1. Ve cau true khung va da khung PCM 30 Tfnh d9 bit baa hieu trang PCM 30.

2. Neu khal niem POH? Giai thieh nguyen Iy heat 69n9 cua h$ thong ghep kenh can dong b9 POH?

3. Neu khai ni$m SOH, ve eau true be? ghep SOH va giai thieh cac bLfoe tao khung Ifn hi$u truyen dan dong be? STM - 1.

4. Tfnh toe de? cua cac be? ghep STM - 1; STM - 4; va STM - 16.

5. Neu nguyen tlk dong bQ khung va da khung trong PCM 30.

95

Chuang 5

MA. NHI PHAN V A MA DUaNG TRUYEN

Mac du mot phan dang kti ella he thong truyen thong ngay nay con a dang tuong U!, nhirng dang diroc thay the bang he thong tniyen thong 56. Trong khoang mot hoac hai chuc narn nira, phan Ian he th6ng thong tin se duoc 56 hoa, trong do he truyen thong tuong tu se dong vai tro phu,

H¢ truyen thong so c6 mot s6 uu diem so voi h¢ wang II! nhu sau:

1. H¢ truyen thong so virng chac han xet ve mat an toan d6i voi meo va nhieu cua kenh.

2. Cac b¢ phat l~p doc theo dirong truyen co the tach cac tfn hieu s6 va truycn lai nhtrng tin hieu moi, khong c6 nhieu, Cac may phat lap Iai nganduoc viec rich luy nhieu doc theo dtrong, Dieu nay he nrong II! khong th~ Him ducc.

3. Viec HIp d~t phan cling cua h~ so linh hoar han, cho phcp dung cac bo vi xu ly, chuyen mach s6 va mach tich hop co Ion.

4. Tin hieu 56 c6 tht dircc rna hoa dti co ti s6 loi bit thap, d¢ trung tlurc cao va bao mat t6t.

5. D~ dang va hieu qua trong vice ghcp nhieu tin hieu 56.

6. H¢ truyen thong s6 rhuc hien viec trao d6i ti s6 tin hieu nhieu va d¢ rong giai hieu qua han.

L6i vao ella he s6 la dang chuoi cac s6. L6i vao nay phai lay tir lei ra cua he du lieu, may tfnh, tin hieu tieng n6i s6 hoa (PCM), JV hay Fax 56 hoa, dfr lieu do dac xa ... Da so phan gi6i thieu a chuang nay la cho tin hieu nhi phan (co' so a), co nghia la so do chi dung hai ki hieu 0 va I. Truong hop tong quat han, truyen thong co' so M da nghien CUu trong chuang 3 . Mot s6 nhi phan diroc goi la bit.

Tin hieu tir mot nguon so co the dung phirong phap xcn ke d€ 16 hop lai bang cac bo ghep kenh so. L6i ra cua bo ghep kenh so, cac tin hieu diroc rna hoa thanh cac xung dien d~ truyen qua mot tuycn duong so hoa. Co nhieu each

96

dt lam dieu nay, noi mot each co tinh chat khai niem thi viec truyen dan hoac rna dirong (line code) dan gian nha: la su d6ng rna (on - off), trang d6 "I" duoc truyen di bang mot xung, "0" rrng voi khong co xung rruyen, mot loai rna dirong thtrong duoc Slt dung khac la rna d6i eire (Polav - rna phan cue) trang do "I" truyen di bang xung duong, "0" truyen di bang xung am. Voi mor cong s011t truyen cho tnrcc, day la rna hieu qua nhat VI no khang nhicu t6t nhat. MOt loai rna dirong khac _la rna luang cue hay rna giit co s6 ba. Mil. nay co tru di~rn la de phar hien Ioi dan. Chung ta se Ian luot nghien ciru cac IO,!-i rna dirong. Vay tai sao lai Slr dung rna dirong d6 la van de rna ta se giai guy€! trong chuang nay.

I. D!\C DIEM

1. NhLfQC di~m tin hi~u bang goc

Xu Iy tin hieu hang goc la yeu cau doi voi cac kenh thong tin rruyen trcn cap dong true, nhtrng no cling can thiet dai voi cac phtrong phap truyen dan dicu ch€ cao tan, noi rna tin hieu cung duoc dira xu6ng bang g6c tai cac tram lap, Trang mot he thong thong tin s6, a thiet bi lap can co bo 19C can hang va lui sinh. Tuy nhien, d~ truyen dan chiing can phai bien dbi cac tin hicu nhi phan rir thiet hi ghep kenh thanh rna duong d~ giam loi cho kenh truyen dan. Ly do chinh d6 rna hoa s61a:

- Dtra van d9 du bang each rna hoa cac tir s6 li¢u nhi phan thanh nhirng til dai hon, Cac til dai hem nay se co nhieu t6 hop hon do tang s6 bit. Chung ta co the chon nhirng t6 hop xac dinh co cau true theo mot quy luat til rna hop thanh, cho phep tach thong tin dinh thai mot each de dang han va giam d9 chenhlech gWa nhfrng con s6 "1-" va nhtrng s6 "0" .xuat hien trong mot tir rna, do Ia giam sl! chenh lech. Viec gi.im nay sc giam thanh phan mot chieu nen d¢ chenh lech nay giarn den khong d6i voi tat ca t~p hop til rna thi thanh phan I chieu ciia chung cling giam den khong. Dieu nay la can thiet VI khong tM truyen thanh phan mor chieu cua tin hieu s6 di duoc. Co th~ sir dung viec xuar hi¢n elk til b6 sung do rna du d~ truyen so lieu lucng phu nhu truyen bit chan le trong rna phat hien loi. Tuy nhien, viec tang d¢ dai ttr rna nhi phan se lam tang toe d¢ bit va do do lang d¢ rong bang tan.

- Mfi hoa tin hieu nhi phan thanh nhieu mire dt giam do rong bang tan, d~ tao pho tin hieu nham ling dung cho nhtmg muc dich d~e biet nhu dong b¢ thanh phan, giam bien dO tan s6 den 0 hoac giam cac thanh phan tan s6 cao va thap tnroc khi IQc. Co thC dua nhirng so 0 di}c biet ve phfa cac luang s6 rna

97

7.GTKTG·A

luang eire hac cao bi chen vii. cac luang s6 hi chen. Trong qua trinh rna ho.i PCM nhu da thao luan (1 chuang 2 , tat Cit cac hit thong tin diroc ngarn gi,,'1 thiet It I rna nhi pharr don cue. Gi .. l thict n~IY III hop Iy mien la cac bit thong lin eta duoc x.ic dinh trong mot cong doan nh{lt dinh n210 do cuu thict hi xir Iy va day noi khong duoc dai qua vai mel. Ve1i nhirng dirong day noi wang d6i dai, duc1ng cap xoan hai d .. ly co man hao chc hoac cap dong true thi khong nen str dung luring bit nhi phan. Me)! If do lam cho d() dai cua c.ic d .. ay noi g.iCl"a cac he) phan nay voi bo phan khac cua thict bi dai hon hai met lu:

- Thier bi ghep kcnh PCM sa cap duoc bo trf 6 nhirng vi tri kh.ic so voi thiet bj ghcp kcnh bac hai hO(IC cuo hon co the dU·{.1C n6i den thiet bi truycn dan de xir Iy' ticp tuc tin hicu tnroc hie iruycn len kcnh thong tin.

- Trong thong tin PCM so c[111 hoac thong tin ghep hac hai tl"('1 len co the dtroc truycn tnrc til.Yp qua cap hai <by co m{\I1 ban chc, hO(IC cap dong true den d.iu cuoi xa.

Dll Ii do gl thi, mot tin hicu nhi phan clan cue phai bien thanh dang rna kh.ic trtroc hie rruycn qua de t1Lrerng truyen nhir da noi trcn vi:

? ?

2. Ly do chuyen doi nh] phan thanh rna dLfang

- No c6 chua thanh phtin mor chieu,

- N6 co thanh ph.in ttin so thap nurc cao.

- Khi truyen mot day "0" lien tiep thi khong co diem chuycn ticp tin hieu,

N oU!'jl t a s tr dun" cac bien ap de' n o[m chan don" DC doi voi c.ic th iel hi

e . eo. e • .

1(lp trung gian, no dtroc su dung de noi cac dfiu vao va dau fa cua thict bi xu If

elm hicu nhi phan dan eire co thanh phan mot chieu, VI vay khong thfch hop de truyen 4ua bien iip. Ngoai ra, VI trong un hieu nhi phan dan eire co chua nang luong cao Irong pho tan thap han ncn khi truyen qua bien ap co chuan ITIl!c thuc t6 sc bi mco dang xung va nhir vay n6 se tao them loi truyen dan. VI may thu ctin phai tach thong tin dinh thai gian ra khoi dong hit thu dirrrc. vice xuat hicn me)! day "0" lien tuc trong tin hieu nh] phan don eire sc nhieu loan qua trinh tach thoi gian va lien toi mat dong bo.

II. MA RZ vA NRZ

Trong thict bi xu 11' co hat dang tin hieu nhi phan dan cue. D6 Iii. rna RZ (Return In Zcrn}quay tn'j ve 0 va khong tro ve 0 (Non - Return to Zero). Neu su dung true ticp cluing de' truycn eGo th] sc g~p phai mot Sel kh6 khan nhu eta ncu trcn.

98

T

1. D<;Ing s6ng NRZ va RZ

Dang song cua hai lin hicu nay co Iht hi~u dien nhu sau:

o

o

1

o

1

NRZ

RZ

flillll 5.1: Mel NRZ WI RZ

Tir dang song nhu tren ta thay: rmrc cua tin hieu RZ bicu thi gia tri bit 1, no chi (1 mire eao trong mot nira dfiu lien ella khoang thoi gian bit, trong mot mra khoang thai gian bit con lai lin hieu quay Ir('1 ve O. U"U diem cua tin hieu RZ lil m(11 de) chuycn iiep lin hieu cua no IOn hem so voi NRZ. De khoi phuc van de con ton tai irong tin hieu nhi phan don cue thi ngu(\i ta de xuat ra mii dirong. Mil dtrong khone co thanh phan mot chieu dono thai dina khons co hien uronu nans hrona

t:: .' 0 00 .. 00.0

pho cua n6 tap trung a vimg tan so thap, Doi khi co mot so mii duong co them lIU

diem la tronu cau true ella n6 khonz co mot day dai nhirnu so "0" hoac nhirnu so

eo eo. eo . 0

"I" dicu do lam viec tach thong tin dinh (hoi gian sc de dang hem.

2. NhCrng yeu cau cua rna dllong

Nhirng ycu cau ella rna ducng can phai c6 de' bien dui tfn hicu nhi phan

thanh mot dang thfch hop hem dt truyen tren kenh thong tin la:

- Phai phoi hop dac tinh phei ella tin hieu vci cac dac tinh ella kenh.

- Dam bao lit cac day bit phai doc lap thong ke voi nhau d6 giam tnrot,

- Darn bao de dang tach dong bo va lai sinh tin hieu,

- Giam thanh phan DC cua tin hieu den O.

- Giam cac thanh phan tan so thap de giam xuyen am.

III. cAe MA f)u'(lNG TRuvf:N

1. Ma AMI - Ma dao dau luan phien - Alternative Mark Inversion Bang each rna ho.i tin hieu nhj phan don eire thanh mot rna c6 mot so mire

tnroc khi truycn dan e6 the loai be duoc thanh phan mot chieu va giam diroc

99

cac tharih phan tin s6 thap cua tin hieu dil rna hoa, do d6 se duy tri duoc mot kich thuoc hop ly cua cac thanh phan cau kien trong hie thiet ke cac bo can bang cua tram lap. Viec rna hoa nay khong rna rong bang tan rruycn dan can thiet, ve nguyen Iy co th~ giarn bang tan rruycn dan can thiet khi sir dung bien d6i rna nhi phan thanh n phan. Ma 3 rmrc - con goi la rna tam phan, trong do mire giira cua tin hieu duoc ling dung rong rai la dien ap O. VI mire dien rip khong ph iii Iii mot mire Iigre thirc nen rna diroc goi Iii rna gia tam phan. Cac bo rna hoa co th6 d~ dang tao ra cac dien rip diiu ra can bang +A va -A , d6 eho thuan loi ta ki hieu Ia "+" vii "_" va rmrc dicn up 0, wang iing voi mire dat cua h¢ thong. Nguoi ta goi rna tam phan nay Iii rna dao dau luan phien - AMI, noi mot each khac la rna luang eire, Day rna thu dtroc bang each khi khong co xung thl rna la cac so 0, eon khi xuat hien 1 trong tin hieu nhi phan rhl n6 lay cai xung dirong va am mot each luan phien, SI! luan phien nay xuar hien bat chap s6 con so ° giita 'chung. Sau day Ia hlnh minh hoa 51! bien dOi tiI rna RZ sang rna AMI.

NRZ

AMI

eMI

100

,

o 1 0 1 1 0 1: 1

,

, ,

I I

RZ

, ,

I I I I ,

, ,

I I

.J J-JUlLIlil

I ~ I I J I I

LJl' 'j_Jll "ii I

I , I

I , ,

, , I

::,~" ,

, I I

, , I

, I ,

I , I

I I, ,

, I , ,

I----~

Hinh 5.2: M(I hod cu. va AM!

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