P. 1
Teach Yourself Turkish

Teach Yourself Turkish


|Views: 476|Likes:
Published by cali

More info:

Published by: cali on Oct 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Thls ls u complete course III spoh .... n und wrnreu'lurklsh. If }~)Il lmve 11C\'-r1' learned Turid:-;h 1.

:~rOIT, Dr if vuu r Turktsh needs bl'l~Jlillg; up, '/"mr1t lowseifTurid:-ol1 Is tor Wl1,

David Pollunl nnd .. usuman CdtC1I l'nllnrd huvc created II juncucnl course that ts ~':dJI fun Ilrl{l ensy to wuck

1.11 rflll,gh_ l"h.ry 1~1o!pl~lill c ..... 't:J":! .. Lh 111~ Illml,!.! tile w"r und gtvc )'011 Ilk!II)' of cppcrtunutcs to pmctkc what )"11\1 h~l\'\: lcnmed. [he. COlU''Se strucmrc means that rOll can work at r01l1' 11\\'11 pace, CllTall!=]:iu,~ ynnr kill'Jli[~ to sun rom needs.

'Iuc course OOlllJLirlH

• a L"ilLlgC a-fb!:l-;:Idcd Ulli(s of dlnlogucs, cnluu'e I"IQIL.:tI, gnululllIl' Mil


• a step-by-step bIt1i1i;:. \(1 prcnunclntfon

• II 'lurkiah-Engllsh vocnbulurv

Dr HI';: C1J[llJf~-lle COLlJ8e y"Qu'1l1A: uhlc In 11:111"': wlthu whllk rlul~' or sil~lnl;Jons and pru'lrcipnte jilll~· and confidently ln TllrI~j",11 III~'

J5] '1' E A C'" v 00 U R. ~ E. 1. F

U,l"lt-l"OlIJ'A'[¢.1..g iflr N.lll'ImWli ... ~ ~= fur US $14.9S/C/ll'j $11i 1I"j

1I1~!~~~~!,~,IG::~ .I~~~J~i~1 ~Iilill


Asuman Celen Pollard and David Pollard

:£ORTSMOUTK PUBLlC'l18RARY 1210 G.~lll" ST.



for UK order qL"ElrDes: pease contact [!Cl0kJ'[Jil1ll.1.d. 3;)0 Mil1-7J Parll;. AtJ.Ing.:fon, oxen OX1.::1 .::ITO. T~'dcl;tll;II~'; (44) 01) 12:35 ~1}{1.u..,. ra:c (-'I~) 01235 .::101)454. Lil\(!~ (Ir~' QP81lo fr-om fi-JJ0-6.00, McndE'l]l to S;!1LI;"d~', ..... iII' e 24 1'Io:J~lr·ln~'GSiI.'ile an'Me.1llg ~c!i"'~. I!rlla~ 'lddro~~; or.jG.I"G@b-ookpolm.oo..(Jk

For U.S.A .a. canada DJdCI (ll~riJX;; pleaso ccnmo I"HC"'C~tamjX:(;:II)' PI!t11h,hin!]. ~200 west Tcuny A'IiIOU'e, Lln::o;n .... 'Cod, Uir1l)i!; 0060W - 197!i, U,S,A, Teleph ... 'll'h": ~8'17i 679 5~0, Fax: (1I47J (;73- ~494,

L~l!)·lBrtO' ... nee as 11)03 aun'oraenvo source k:r' !:r.U"'~\Jidl;d IO"1fnrl~ - ',~il.t1 rmre U1Eln. JO rr.illt::ln ecpee !:Dlcl l\uh:l~!i:h1 ~ the T-F,l(:\'~ Yowsflli eenee ir.do~dc-!: ncer 2M ~k!!Jo in. Ih~ liijh:l~ or r,1n!Jl.!'<Ig8S, crofts, ncrerce, ~PD~I~, .."J1'1-:1 {.tilm rctsure OOllyj~89.

li!ri.!k;t,I r..ibf.Q1}' Cs!EilD:;uing If., Pilti.r~L'af, &Jr,J

:.. ea1111ogl1'!! reeonr tdr t.11i!: lill,! i!:;; ;!\'<lil,ll;lo fnJrn lhi1 BrilJstJ library

IJlJrrlryol CCf!gress Caro!lfClg CSJ"d M...Y)lr!!Y:~m fil~,

r:ir.:;1 rneuaneo in uic UI% b"y t-coder H;!!;Y.Jiil'li!' R\;:, :)Ja t;u~n Roi.1.O. tcnecn t.J\'/I JSH.

t-.~1 pliblit.I'I~tJ In US 1991l Ll"!o' mCiCOl1.\ilrnporary P\Jbli~l"ii"ig, ,t255 We-i.1 T(!uhy A'~!tY.IO, l.in~o:nw!X:d (Chba~o), 111111019 60645 - 1 !il75 USA

'RIa 'T&af:1I. YOut~!I[, r't::tl'v.! 'Ifld lUg:) <Irljl'-liiO!;;l03roo eeoe mar!o;s of l+.xldcI & SIOtyjhl[1n Ltd,

Copyr;:glll ~ ':I'!!9B DiI.'lid r()(l'fj(d ~I'Y.~ /,!_;IJII1;)I1 (=Gfen F'ol'<~1fIj

.fr:1 U,\; ttll righ1s reserved. No cart or uue puencencc I'~;:ry b(oo 1('!pl':J~ll)(:ij(l or nanamnteo In .at1111X1ll or l:t\".:lr"ty menus, (,!hx:lrQIi(: or mecnancal, l~dUdi1g pll(Jt(rlXti~', !'(!tctdil't"j, (.'t' ,1nl' inh'TT1"liCL~ storaqe BOO rol!{~ey2l' eystern, wilhtx.l=ptJlTJli~GiOtlin, ... -.:itin(Jf.rom ire euanener cr lrldClt licf!r"I!:IlFrotntho COP'lllight Lb''''1.sln!} .logoocy LimilQd. Further d(!t.:lil~; 01 ~~h iceeces itO!' feprOQI"8pt"iic rop(o~cljan} Ir"~y uo g!)"'ljn~d Ir-vrn!he COj)}'figl,1 Li::1!I'l9ing. IvJC!l'J(;~' LilrlillXl o:t 00 roneenem COLli1: noao, 'wnOOr"t W1P 91iE.

In US'.' All ri{flt-:. r~f!Ii:-:L N", p;J11 [ir II~~ bO:JOk ma:r' be recronoeo. ercreo iii 8 rc(~£t~81 t.y!:lf3in, or Ir;)II!jn:jtlo~ in iJTl:f iMT1'. or by :m~' rreans .. ~l!tfdl1~:, Irlu.;;h;:niC<IJ.(".ITIOloCOf'J~lnl1' .. or-outer ... fs.a,"'lillY.lUtplimPQlr'I~$!!ii:JnOr t.JTCo'ConI£tJllpCtra.:y ruL~igtlilig C"'fr"tfi<tly!/.

Typ(!:;.ot~, Tran~t It<l. CCI'I'6n.lry

Printed In Gre3t Brilain 10: Hoodt:!l a. ~U~l~l Edu~i.'lliQlla!, a dw1910fl oi HOOde( Headf(lJ) Pki, ;J;)!). ~I,J!,;\gl~ Rr.ov.d. I.moon r~W1 J13H by COx & \'/)".fl\.flri LId, RnoJjioJ!].BerJo;lihlre,

Imp.mg!li(n'l'lIIn-lb~" 10 o (I i E) 5 -1 :l

"r'OtJr 20:}2 20D1 20001999 rsae 1!W'I"




494 P

Pollerd, Agnni3:fi Celen Tmlrish


Introduction '0 the Turkish Jauguuge

'f'he aJpllabet and I_ll"OIu1nclution 10

Pronunciation pructlce - eurvivnl guide 1.1

1 'H-kllll':!-l( l'fir'nIl? III th(J~ (my brrod? 18

2 tuljilb misiniz.? ... irr. j'(l~ Elig~1d 29

II Deha .k0.1.muYlnt listfenl No 1IT(;Ir~} plt!o.~,r 13

4 ~aka yal":5·on;unu.zt YOl,r.l"ejQki.rlg! 59

(!ok beltl,ediniil: mi? lJ()l~ YOlt b(~,n lI.:'Qiting /on.g? 75

Yarm erleeu kulkacaw,m 1"1IJ,1jJ1 rqJ ml'ly tomorrow B(}

Yardun edcr mi.s.iniz.? Wmild ;:tva Ju~lp n1(J? 106

Nereye W,dcl1m? Nc ynpabilirit!

W'J.f!i"(;" -fJ"/~U rot gu? lfhn:1 {'..on Wi! ao r 120

fj Ne.le:r 3'npma}'l seviyorsunuz? W'~/. do you Uhf! d()jng'? 131 Hl ~t"Cr gC\'!mm.r!6E!, ila'!; verirfm

Ii it dUl!~-n'l get ~ttJJ,l~ I'll gioe J'O.!I 800lf: mcdicinf! 1.03

1 I Siaee ~ok sakln bh- ye~'mi..fl

Y(lll ~aid it was a l,."eJJ' quid plu.('e~' l6'7

12 Aradl:C'.LIUZ numara yaIJJ.~h.r

r'4J lwmb'.!r YQ[.!.lto.-lI't;: diattuJ is I"nr:f!r·j·&.t 1 i~

13 Ne olciutrUiu unlatar mlSUlI.'2;?

C(lUld ,}'Qu kll me [.[J11l'l~ nap{# .. 'm!d? 1 !l3

14 Gii.ldurme be.n.i! Doll't m,plf: fli'~ laugh! 20~

15 nul's..'1] ue ZfliIl.im lnea edilmj,f? Whe!! wa.!t 1M.,S plat{: built? 218 16 Fiyatbl'1. -bdlscydlm oralia yemcadfk If 1 had 'lJiUwrr

a.oout lilt [J1"iC~:J wo!! lI..'(mldlr'~ hl'.l~i." t:ati!ll tht!lYJ. 23-1

K-ey to the- excrcfsue 2.f7

A(lpoel1dix 254-

'l'ul'k:ish-Engliah c-.I.ossttry Index to grammar pulnte

About the authors

Asuman Celeu P<lllaro wee horn in northern Turkey and ::;PIl[L~ her childhood in lzmir. She apent man}' years in 'bWnbul l.i3l:tciung beth English and 'turkish aa a f'flir<!ign laTIf,'1.LU..!:IL1. Since 1992 she haa taught 'l'l.lrki_~h at the Centre for Byzantine and Ottoman Studies at the Onh'ersity of Birmingham and at. the Brasshcusc Language Centre.

David Pollard WM born in nOlihel'n England and !lpent. his childhood in the Sl'I.JJJ30 ;)t the ctnema. Ailel' teaching 'English ali a foro4,'U language ill Swib:erland. Bulgaria and Turkey, he baCWUB a computer ,ml)l'y!:lt-p-rogrammer. Smce 1009 he h:::JS produced educational software and i~ now ABtlID Uni .... Br.!lity's computerassisted 1e.'l1'ninga{l8ciali~t.



'1'~h YOU/'sBlf -Tur1li511 is .!J. complete course for IJeglnnel'.ll in epokcu find written Turkish. It iii auitable for those who w[9h to acquire a small amount of I.JllJlwlgll~'1! tn get the ml),!lt out Or;) visit 00 'fllrkC"J, It is also ideal Icr I.Jli:J.::i1J who require .II. deeper kn(lov"led~e of the lnnguagc in order ·[0 ccuununicuee atTl?1I!t.iw!ly in :1. l'f.m~ (If evel'W;;JY sl.tnat.ion!i-. The .'luthoi'6 ba v e iOCllSSOO on Turkish as apckun In Iutunlrul at the rum (Irt,he "2J et century.

We eaaume no previous knowledge of Jbraign laogULlgEl learning and ;(1\'01d gra:mm;[ltic;rtl terminologywhere possible. W1UMB such terma are unavoidable, we esplci» them ill plainlay Engfish. Completing this bonk will give j'(IoU an intermediatc-Ic .. ·cl kn6wl(odgc of both spoken and written '11.1n';sh. YQU will be able: to communlcnte at a level equivalent til the Counc.il of Europe's Wayst:agc guidelines.

We have designed tLis book for self-tuition and so it ill whoUy ~lfcontained. [t is, hOWC\+Cf, 1.'1100 idtal f(ll" :..Ludy with .II. teacher. 'There are 16 c ..are(lIUy graded and inLcrlotkiog unite. Each unit introduces new language struemres finnly embedded in a functional canted. ThL~ means yml emeentrate on the WiCS to which you can put the language. We tntrodnee the bl'i{ks "lid mortar of Turkish in small, d.ige!ltible chunks as and when U~ey arc csscnl.lnl 00 ullow YUU to communicate further.

AOOve all else, lrock Yuw"Scl{7wk:i..sh uses Iun~Wlbra which i~ fJ:1MIJiJtg{W., Euuh unit stares wi~h an (J~niR,l!; di:1llDgUf. accompnnicd by simple ecmprehcnslon qucstlcna Lind ruJiL>.!I abl~u.t the lengunge 00' 'turkish culture, Then Q small number of' l~m6"U!1.1!;1!o ·pl~inb;. are f!-xpbin.oo, using-

- 1 -


ptl\lit.y (If examples to illustrate them, The euercisee which follow are un essential pari {If each umr. ope ... -ended qUB!lt:1UUS haec been uvoidcd so Y-I)l.I do not need f~dback from a teachur - yon can complete i1'1 the exeruisea UI).:i.llg just the ItLlRWE:!T key. Each nn.it e"d5 ... .ith a second, shorter dialogue whiche hnked to the cpenmg one,

F(IT 5elf·:>lm1~' we stmngly rOCOOILD(Md that you IlF,E! the. ccmpanicn cussettc CClllt(lirlin8" cbe pronunciation guide and all the dlulcgucs.

How best to Jearn using this book

Turn (Iff" the ten)" pour a large drink and find U oomly ch.niY. Take a piece of'pnper and draw three columna (In it. In the Iirst cohrmn, write down three reaecns Iar w.o.ut:iJ)g to learn 'Inckish. Ha\'C -il drtn k. Tn fba eel1tTI! column write three: thinR"!'i in j'{lIUT life th;),~ ro(.I!.ht, PrP.'iBDt )""(IU from learning Turkish, If your .g1.!L.-=:!I is ampty llOW. g(i and refill it. III the lost oalamn, nOlV w .. rue down t.he ebrea W~'~ in which you will tackle the items in the centre column. ''''1IWl .}~li''1.r: oempleted this taak, pjn the paper 1)11 the wnll somewhere prominent.

Isefcre sh.IJ"l..itl . .g unit I, rend the Introduericn to-the Turkish b.lll1:'Uagc .. It tellE- you what there is in SOOTf.:! when ;;.'0-.. le<lm 'Turkish. Do nut ~rJ' to memorise it - unee you 'VB read it ~,'ou can refer back tc it. jf Y<lU nero it! Now move on bu the section OLl the ulphubct and pronuucintiuur baten til th8 'phrase bMk' .{I. few timaa, uuclr rime [Jayblg aetanticn 00 a diffenmt latter.

'Then go on W UlC fir;3t unit; FOT each unit, you cnn chceee whether you read U)Cl dialogue (KQn%ma) fir.:;t U1' listen 00 it "not (IT do beth tr.rgethl"l". ,Vb.iclicver WCly you de it, listen to and read it a number of tieuee. Dcn't 9.'orry jf Y'"'U du not understand -e\'erj'l;bing. DOI1't go crazy with the rewind button of the ceaselde p].ny-el' trying to catch a elngle ..... crd - YOllY underaeending will Improve aa tisne b"OOS on. Likewise. d&)}'t, try to team aU tJ)C'it.cIl.lS in the ,·ocaoulmy box 0[[ by heart - the vocabulary DlIX will still be there tomnrrow! LI)I).k t:bings up us }'C1u need them and e)[~(let W look them up more than once ttl ~1U! Iuturc. H::;.'O'inf lucked Lhi[~tS up ODOO, th~ uaxt lim", )'I)U read the dialogue you win remember roughly what's ppin!!: on i)1L(1 migfl¢ be able to work out the meaning of unknown pieces of langul)gc from the ccotcxt, In 1~3] life, people do !lut learn IL,t!; of "Ql:aoull)I")' - they are simply e:q:.o~ed 1;(1 wards ever and over Again in ::.J context w~lich the~' know, and in ttu:. end (with n l~~tlc: loclcing-up 00" .u..!iki.Jlg) thlugt3 stick.

- 2 -


SQ - expese YOU1'-5cU', then copy. 'I'all.~ along with the dialogues as you get to knQW them end imitate: wh~t;Nu hear, Don't 00 afrnid to ID8ke: mistckea ~ tile more: ro.'"nr,et'j)te-d your huitatlon of what yrm "car, the: better you'Ilha dciug, Hell)x nnd enjoy youeself

Af1..ur checking Y'JUI" understanding of the dialogue by answering three Or four comprchensleu questions (Sorular), sit. back (refill your glass if Ilecc£;s;ur.)'! and rend the language points (Dl1bilg:isi.), Take the irm_gu8gc paints sl<l)wlJ, Il~ alter reading we ((of the paints YOu Iccl you've had enough, go back tc the dialogue or to L.I previous unit. Thc examples pl'~)\'idc<l W[Ul these csptenouons nrc well worth stu.dykag _ (10 a second tending you might: skip the es.p!~nJ.tion aod t"l.'Y to remember what the gramme .. point "'.'<I.S jl.lst by lacking at the examples.

The exercises (Ah~t.rr.malnr) arc where Y<ll( have fun nnd gr-LI1C:>, They're not tests - refer back to the t a nguagc point esplanations or crib the OJ)SWOrs fruJli the key if tou Ji.l.ll:>l! \Vh(~ver possible, we've made it ncecsscrg for i'QLL to undc .. rstand lJ1Q mcnning of t.he language involved in order to complete the tosks set. So tJiey'il get ~'Ou tilin.li.:ijlg and wiL.hout ynur kl1ffiTi.Llg it. - ll?ll.~n"i.uR". 1.1" you want re ~'rI'it¥. the nnewere in the bonk, do SD in pencil. Then j"I)U have the option af rubbing them out later and testing your wits again in the future. When you have completed a couple of units, go !:w.ck to the. exercises in earlier units -[tIs very .!:iatls.fying to find them lI!.!.I.si8T 00 do thun the. fir~~ thnc areund. TIm "':tarcil>1!s an" an ueaentiul PI:lT~ of the b;luk ·'I'1tere is n-o taek associated with the dO!linG dialogue of eeeb unit (Konu~ma 2.l. Read it and listen to it more than unce. Thi!l dialogue acmetimes rounds off the opening dialogue, Incladee some or the language you ... 'a learned in the unit and sumerimea gives a gentle hi.llt of ..... hut's tl) come in the ne:d unit.

As well aa the key f;(I the exercises at. the back cr tbe bock, there ts CI Ij.hl)l'l; grnmmar referesee (Ap~nrlix), a 'ful'ki$h-)!;n(:"liijh gIQ!!Ba-f}' and an index tl) the RJ"SID-m:lr p(lin~.

So ~ in Jaugunge ll!:!i1IT1ing L~ there aucb.n tJling ;;'.6 gntn 1t'ilhtm~ pain'? The: answer is yes, tr you PUt itl the effort. Putting in ejfbrt. need DO¢ be p.._'l.tuil,ll.& menrinned above, if you find S(lmeth.i1)g .a bit dHfjclJlt~ dW(lt (no-ose will know)! You !e!lrn better when you are relaxed, so lIdjl.ls.t yo~n' study 00 lit juur schedule anrl - most tmpm:t.n.l.\t,ly - }'OtU' f1toonE;j,:m span. Two half-hour F.of!J'lSiOT1;!j may 00 (If more benefit thnn .IJ.

- 3 -

;;IDHd hour's toil. If you rcnnr want ~ ge~ nn, however, be. SJ.'~l..ClWltiC. in putting time aside and ll!lillg it. If Y,",UT turl:!;i.I:~ is 11) spend [OUt hours .u ..... 1$C.\k (roll Turkish, k-cep a lCl~ of the tieue Jim de spend and thdn reward }'4·lm.c:'f for h[Will:g achleved it.

1}:rn'~ E!x~d everything to stick Uhc Ilrst ftma you hear Dr read j, - mnke rmo in every ~hITC sessions <J. r(!vi6ion aesefcn, liKlkirrg buek cr' I:'!:::rTHE:!T eeeelcua ruther ,hall :pl.(Il.1g!l.i.nS" ahead.

Fin,'l[ly, if YOLLtve TIE:!VIi:!r 'li".mmoo a fbreign Iacguaga before, prepare yourself for' the thrill of the firM WJM ;_f(r'i.l netuntly U5'!:! what you've le.tl'n~ - when you understand a street sign ur a snippet. (If ecnvetaatlcn or mukc yourself understood ill a s11(1p.

How to s<lpplementTeach Yourself Turkish

'Iulk to TlliJ>.i~11 people. Luten, make mistakes, laugh, cl1,jol}Y it, Fr!iliog tlmt, watch TU:r'k..ir;.h tclcvtaicn. 'l'elevieten is great. fUT pl.ileiiiil: lmLgL1U~8 in oonU':x1.... Y-ou carr. watch an action film in llll}' ICLllgLli n gc and .LI.lwo.ys undcrarand wbut'e gillng unl TIIl~ liu.!<l£l!.j),J$ ycn. bearwh.i~~t. w.LI.ochl!1~ i!3- invaluable (!xp<JSLU"{':, Il'ycu dol) Dot Jive tn Turkey, !ICC if ~'1.1 can ;!lIT.B!jF.. Turkish saecllitc wir.:.tr.o\lt brc:)king the bank. If M4 OOJ'I'(Wl videos from Turkish Ieicnds. Wo.1cl"1 whi15t. l'E!l.'n:ing; }'DU can even I-{!I!'lVl!! the televielcn (ron In the the l.)a(:kgro~LTId when you're d(!oing ~ornething elee. It aH rubs .ail",

Thudt YCI.U1'f,df T'l..t.mish dDl!&'[i't exis~ in ~'o'ile!.l'l.!.rui l~'s not the only Lcxtboi1k Icr ll!<l."!'tTing '1ln-ki..!rh. If you arc [L really serious learner, :!i~rt ro work ycur W8Y through -!J. dllfbrcnt I..C..flhook during !)TIl:'! or Y-0111· revlaion sessions, DnOI!I you have go~ purl. w.Llly through TOOr.lL Ytn...r.::c-l{iPrmlish.

All:hdu~h the 'Iurkish-Bngllsh plceeery .ut the baek of the book CTJ .. talus r:.H 111.~ words within this book! we sug_gC'.3t you buy a dlctionury, A good one for fhe desktop is the Lwrg(m.:)C"h(!idt Su.mdnrd. 'Iulsc tlmc 1..0 Iamiliartae y'olJoufS4:!lf with its nbbrcciatious, and if YOLL urc ever U"~l1~11! .<Lbon~ the- oarrect. meaning uf a ...... crd, took. it ~I[lo both weys 00 that yeu will D.i! able, for example, ro 9J)1)t the difference be:~W«:1l tue 4dowrr' with which ycu s~uIT pillows [mel the 'down' iiO·~.:Lch is tI1,~ cppostte ofup'.

''1hrlrl. plo.r::t.n.in.g a trip to TUT'ke}', :!J. phrase book may I.."Ic a handy eumpn n dcu to l'cuch YorD'.6df Turkish. Becgisu RoM'S BBC Phl'(L~

- .11 -

IN:r 1'10 ou CTfON

BOOh (SHa, UJfJ5) is cmcfae, uaebls imd I:'! .... -on rendnble! Keep it in your pock-et and dip intol) it dLlt'"lnij qniet moments.

]]!O;rt~' ou In your srcdice Iind aomcthiog reo.l to rend, nu eh es 'I'urkieh magnancs. ~OillLCS 01'" IlCWSPQPC~S, If you have access ~i) the tntemet, s:pe:rrd a taw momenta seal'ching fur ital)S in 'Iurkish - you m.<r:y rum up .aaytbitrg Ircm c?llocti(!OI!s of ~l\r.r~l::::u poems to the life !3.tory of AJ.o.tl)rk to a tour of E6t.<LUI,)~.Ll.

J\s filly rl1r.r:tgu.o.ge is best undcrstcod wii.J1in its ccutce, so is a g-ood knowledge {Iof Turkish ijlC8.I:ric:.::r.bll.' linked '.iiJth a lmcw ledge of ilic counrrics in wWch i~ Is S(XII&I:Il, To complement 7ta.ch Yt}'!-I'1-:relP'l,.!I'kith.., we recommend M~' [otIIL of readillg about 'l'udtisb. peepte and places, or numerous guide books. we c(ljolJoyc:d The &ri{Jh G~ by Itcefe ~liile! M.arc. 'U·Libin end John G;)wi.Jlrop UWtlgfi Guides, 19'9.j.). CuJ.W1-e SIWcM 'J.'u"'~e:I by Al'JJJ. Bnyrakt .. :rrottu (R'upel';)l'(i, 1 [lH6) ts an eurstandtng introducnen to medeni '1'1.1l'ltisl'l culture. J etemy &all.!j travel 'book A F'& or ~h(!: H.wl·l rl'tccdor, 1005) is also :)!1 eutartamfng read wHh n~~cf1, insight,

Life after this book

On-ce you have completed th.i.!! I>ook, y(l1.I 'Will be able to!) communicnte in ;IJ. 1/;)ri.e.ty of everyday sttuations ,11.l1d bave ~ sound 'knowledge (If the mejor grammar points of 'lurlceb. But. what then~ Like Tmch Yorl;J'sd/ 'Jbmish, most text.brJ.lJh 8l'1:'! aimed nt beqfnneee, so they may not. be of tntarest to you. Y(l-TJ might tT'}' BrIDk Th."N!1:'! or Tii.rh;~ OMnii)'tll'YZ, otherwise known :lI5- Tlil'ki6Ch Ahii1J, 'by M ehmet Hengtnnen and NUT'o{!-tt~n ~ CEngin, ] 9fm). I~ ES designed f(fT d::;iB'lI"'(iORT nee rather than ~e~f-atudj' but if:. at roughly the ~M [evel. A.!l a gt':5immaT' reference, WI:'! recommend G. L_ Lewis's Tu.r:kinJt Gmrmi"J.(,!j' (O:'l:rorr:l, W[l']j which i~ Vi!irY l"E!waruing if you're 'lnrppy to grapple with gTiLmrnatiCILt terms. Moonwhill3, coneantrute an nmr.li.rr.g real 'Iurldeh with the aid (lora dleelcnury.

Y(!ou.r most rewneding cowse of [lC;tLI)11 may be to enrol in an intermediate 1)1' advnneed C(lm~ in 'Iurldsh. Details are available Jrom the en]l' {Centre for' InmrnaE:IDn an Langtl8.b'1!l TElH:Mil1:g and Research) in London cr Anhl'S. Uni~'f!l'S"ity'Q. TOI!.f8R (Turkicrh 'Iaaehing CentN!-) which h:ilF.. branches throllilfhm..:rt Turkey.

- . -


Why learn Turkish?

L~m mcderu 'Iurldsh and vou will he nhle to communicate 'willi

• 60 million in~mbilaoli;. I}l"furkey:

• u ft.w llllllLl}J) people t't1llEiP;f!-T'l0L18 to NUTLhem C~"'rn.J.;::;. Bul.g8rln, RclJn.o.nlo nnd other pam of the Balkans;

... e lew roilU()n member .. ef rEll .. ~ntly Icundcd 'Iurkish cotn}tlUnitio:!H- in Australia, 13~If3ilJm, Britain, Germany, HolL.iJ.11d aud other western countries.

YI)u will else 00 abte to get by in TLI:rki~h wit.h over 100 million apeakera (If clo~(;ly related 'I'urkic languages which art spoken in tbe J.1'e.'L!:I shaded blncl;: in the map below.


Features of Turkish

We have aetna goliad newa aud 'lome bad nc .. vo Iar }'UU. 'Ihe bad uewa is lIU related to the filet that 'Iurkish is simp!:)- difl"e:Nrlt from western Burcpeen ian..!:,'llil,gf!8. Let'slock o:t tile bad news first;:

• 'I'ur)..;!j.h uses "VO'l'!C( ha:rmoflj" - a feature unknown to gn,gli;!h speekera.

Where Eng-lid) uses ~J ecparatc werd, Turkish oRen adds an ending to an exi.so_l)& word,

• The word m'der appears odd.

• Turkish veeahnlnry ta mo:::tty unrelated to western languagea.

The Jfl)Ild news is mote: unpcrtant. It tells }'DU that nnce you adjust to tIm t:~ct th at Turkish docs Ult[J . .gS diff(:!nmtJy, it ia n \'0;)11' regular and l~I~~~lllingrL::.ge:

• N()Utt9. do net have diffarant gendeee - YoI}U do net hnve to remember whether .!L thing is masculine or feminine like ycu do iu l'"'ren..::h {If GO:::fJMll_

• 'l"\I:rlti.."'lb granunar is ,"Cry nlb"1lhrr -li.."ll.1"n it rule, nnd there me: uauully 11(1 exceptions.

.. Once yuu know it litt.le voeabulmy and a fell.' rules fibu.ut '1tio:::1.l.bulmy J.:,llildin~, then gtl-e-s~;'__g at the !1l.OfU:UJlg'-J (If [lew words is a plueu uf~!lkil!_

The way In which 'Turkish works is <tl;.s(;llllt8.ly fascinating, The more you know, the mere j'OlJ ;)I"(! surprised bS its s:illlpli-cit)'.


Where English uses ;) ntJt1_)ber or wards, Turkish often uses onl~' one. For example, the phrase )'f.J'U r/Jilt 1.M ubi.: to come. is the single word g-alobileceliBin.

Whf.-Te Eillgh;!h adds meaning 10 LJj8 verb come by placing other words in front or it, Turkish adds meaning it) the verb gel by t~gging endings onto it: gel (col'!w) ·e.bil (be {full! to}, -m . .:cm {will}, -sin IjlO[/).

It'he teehnteul word for this way cf dJJtn.~ things ta QlWJWiMltcnt, whleh means 'sliekillg hits tl}:_;reth&'. Turki.!lh ia an ;JWUti."uaWJlg l~!lgl];flge.


Vowel harmony

When Y(lI.1 nggluelnate in Turkish, rLIM~ of tJle: eudtnga uannlly have 1;.;1 rhyme, >1)1' hntmcnlae, WiLJl [he word you're .ndcliRlJ dhem to. In order to 00 obte to Thyme like LJ~i~, the endings hese a number of different form!';,

There [Ire two types of ending.

• 'e' {~ld.ingS whicll contain the letter e. They have two possible fbnns. Fer example, the ending -le can be elther -lc or -lc.

• 'i.' cndlngs which contafn the Ierter i. '1'h~'y ~L1.wC: four possible forms. FOL' ceample, thl;! ending ·ifur ('-.U1l be -Iycr, ~~yor, ·Oyo:r (lr·u;)"CJol:'".

The knack lies in knowing wlneb (If the two, or Ieur. Iermu [J) uJ!;C, This knacl, it, c~pl n Ined In Unit ] and in the gntlll.tnllr reference (ApPI!J!diilwl page 2M,


The basic word order in Turkish is: lJu~ WWltwt tiJJ'] 00011 mast, The eubject (the person Dr thing perfcnning lJ)C nct)ooJ cernes nil'll-., the verb (tJ)e action word) comes at the c.OO, and tJ)e object. (fhe person or Hd.ng hnvilJ{l" the action done to it) comes ii' 'between. So the basic erder I::. 'subject- objeet-. verb'. Fl)r axumplc:

Rodin IDtLl.lll okndu ..

Word urtler is dcscrjbed jn more detail in the grammar reference (ApPl3mlix) on page 256. For Dim', it is enough to 00 nwcro 1J)(~t you need to do a bit ofjuggJ;ng to work out. the Eoglj:ili cqeicalent of ;m}'tlLi.ng ill Turkish,

Vocabulary building

Gul":!i~ing the meanings or WoIJo:rd!'> is gDlld fun .. Gaectc means rW~6"puper, and gM.eteci means jmmlalist. Eili weans old, and esklet IUt:UJlSrug'Wld,l!o1te m(ln.


Qutstion: If dllmiz means sea, whet's the 'Iurldsh word for 8flil{)r? (Tbe answer is in the key on page 247,)

- 9 -


TIm bud ne ..... S;

• Tbere are u few cxrm Icttcra which En~H;:.h dccs M1 have.

• ~ few of the lcucrs Ylillch "~nlJli~h hay. stand rill" dillcrcnt sounds

in TUTlLi~h,

.. "rVb.CtC YO~l pl;;1~ thn atreea in .:J. werd b (l_i rtereo L [(OLD il:nglis_h.

The 6'DOO Jl8\ ... ..,;

• YQn,pmll!.)lmce Tu~kisb in exactly the sumo ..... a:y [IS ~'OIJ spell it.

• E:t~h 'Iurklsh teuer stands f(iJ' 8 ;!Ii06:rl13 sound.

The aJpha.bet

Hsre ia UU!! Turkish alph;))x!t:

Aa, Rb, C~, (:0;, Dd, ·EC':, rr, Cg, Ct. lIn, IL: n, Jj, Kk) L1. Mm, NrL, 00,00, !'p, fu, So,:;;', n, Uu, O~, VV, Yy, Z,

1 V,'lILch Bngltsb letters am miss.Lug':'

2: Wbich letters {JOB.~ TuTki~11 have wh~cl'! RnG'ti~h dues 1Li)~'f 3 HiJ~ many vowels am there'?

The mi~'4(!IT arc in the key on puge 247.


An of the TLlrki.!lh vowele ara 'Shl)r~', Th~~ is, ::f(I'U ,proruJUm8 the 'Iurlsish U ;),9 ill nm-thern English ~L!pptr, 1k'h' us in ,!l1J[.!"'J'. Ycu ..... ill



n(!~_~ec 'Turks lllClki(Lg Lf]i~bk'l!::; when they 'l:lpik~ Engli.'1b because rhev iflllkc:, all thclr vowels short. T~L13 rome beppena in T-avel'~o:! - '[~:rI'ki!J.h Yl)WcU! are etlcn made 1.00 IAmg by 'Eengeeleeeh' epeekeral

IIt!ro ::.llU :!Il)D1(:! nutM on how to pmanunce each v cwel. Beer in mind tho £rilovi!l comments ahrut -e owel length.

WB hnve the following VI)15(!Js in ]tnglisn:

~\ ;n, as th~ (I: tn ~ p~011O\U\Cc-d by' a northern En_gli::.h person; (IT

the: U In cup pronounced b.'l' a Londoner or Austrullun.

I.'i '0 ee ~hceill(,!tl.

t i na the i in e.

o I[) .'l~ theoj"~.

U u .'l"!j the fl in prill.

WQ clo!J.'i have these 0!r.C~

I 1 aa l.:hc.1 Lo."::f.lL!li'm Dr tim er in Imllr.-I'.

~J .u aa I..hr:; German 0 1)J" !IS the en in ehe Fterteh word ck1~, or ;)S


(f 'Il ns ~he Germnn i~ or .r:u; bhe 11, in tho French word: en.

I~or tb09C of J,'Ou who knew no French cr Germeu, i..i: u; a sound halfWily between the ~t1tlisllc and the .E.ngl.i~ rt,

NoMoi) I..hc diJII1rC(LOO between t 01" i with :!J rurt und I (II' I wtthouf (J clot. ln i!:lrgli::;b we do nut always rmnOLlTIOC- e~m vowel. 1"0-"- example, we dAJ LIOL prtmeunce the (J an the end of the Th-rgli;:::h word tJ(.I..(.c. 'Iurkish is II i ITt!rrlllt - you ulweye prenounee r!1I the letters no ID8iAC"t' what, th@' ~r:-Wti.tJll. Sr;. you pruneunee the Tmi ... dsh v .. erd.bnle ;)6 ooleh,


"''[il!J1.. il'f elm 'Iurklsh cunaonunta eeund ehe aama 88 they do in English. Vrm pnmounoe fhree (If them clifferently:

o 00 ;)90 ¢hejillJ&H~,

III J :)90 thejil\ th{! F-~~cJl ..... 'otdJL!cqi1e$t cr es the s inpkl2sL!re. V v n scuud half-way between I..he EnglLsh w and .J.. ••

f)'he1lll . nrc also three COUS&nfiDt-::. whk:h wn dun't have in English:

C -c (IS ~ho .elr: in ..::hiM.

~ .J :;JllothedLin!f1Lo.u.'.

G g thiF; letter has nil eonndt

'111e: letter g ie culled YUDIU.,Uli: g, "which means ~"IJ{t g. It .O.1I"(l~'t; COruC9 ;)ftel' a vowel und ~'1.ml:l til", vwtl into a lung sound. You mjgbt think of it aa doubling the vowel before it. Thus, Ul.illk of s.tlt as StU!: or t:llink of ijgle Moot!!, '1'he-1"(,; m-e IlU werds bcgill.J.ii.ug "",iU.i. g.

III English we do (IO~ always pronounce SOOIiC conscnante, ExaDlple!i of this are the hut thCj;.tfut(Jfw()rdi; Orr nCthe end of words. Turkish is dillcrcat - you ulwuys prcnconcc aU the'lel..ler8.


Accents ura difficult to ~o?t l'iJ!:ht in any language - even your own! [1 is unlikE!I}' ~hllt you could imiertte many English accents well without apeelaliac trF.lininl) m' e:r;:lJP.n~h'e I!)lo!]l~~!re te the accent.

• You aheuld not WI)1'I1' 000 m ncb. about. ;)cqULriag 1he perfect 'I'urkiuh i1IT.l!:nt. An :':II.":(,lP.:Ut. goflod f!nr..ll~ tn hE! lmdC!r~rol'J(_I will doil Fm- most !If!("J. ple. Hewevur, when proneunelng words, d~In'~ be afraid Ii tmltating 'Iurldah uccente y~u hear - yuu will not mulre u feel (If yourself und no one ..... ill think.you arc: mruung Iun M [he I~n.glill&~_ Th:!11:1X and ~()py!


When listening to Turkish }'()U m.3.Y t16t. ;)t.,.;'~Y'"S notice where .1 word IJJ stressed, (l!j. stresses are ,re';"li:IJht in 'l'l.n'ki!Jh.

AB a crude rule of UlUmb, von stress the last .syll;)blc of a word. Bsoapticea W this rule are giVCD. in ilia grammar reference (Appendix) OIi pflge 256,


When we 'li~.erll ti) enmenne apeak, we don't just listen to the words 00 understand the meaning; we else liaten to the rh_vthm. '('UJ:kish rhythm le diffEfrf!nt from ThngHlib rhythm.

- 12-

If n 'lurk h..'1,.9 not mastered Engli.:>h rhythm, we find it dimwIt tl) nnderatand them when the:! speak English. 'fbio cnn happen even ~hQllgh they pronounce each SJ'lh:thI.c cf'each wcrd correctly. OUl' ears flxpect the English rhythm, and We have [0 ccncentrate in erdee tD ~I(UU-~t t6 speech whic.h Jltl:m'~ got. it. Similar problema occur in reverse I r IV<! lISC OUl' English rhythm when 'life speak Turkish.

(~(il!stion: How can :'ou geL the rhythm?

Anllw.er: Listen, listen, listen and cepy, COP}', copy.

Ith:y\l1J1l i-ll not something which ts easy to get right by OO))SClOUS 11ft'1.11, Yon need exposure to it, If:YOIl cannot spend time in tJ)C compa- 11,)' ()f'l'urki.!ib speukars, you can ~ espoaure by listen.i1)1r time and jllll"lin to the. audle cassette which aoeompanles this book. Play it in t il(l baelrground when you're nat really listening tA) it. Irrespective of whether 01' ll.O~ ,1(Iu underseend the \'fttrdH, }'DU will still hear the 1 I)j'UUll. Better ::.tin, use satellite television (II" vtdeca fi;-n}roed by 11ukl8h f r lends ill the same wuy.

- 13-


ml ~r~V;~u'l~ ~~~~~~~~~~i~~ur~!~~~~u~~~:~~., ~~~~:~~w;~

itCJl19 below w hilsl, 10fl0li.ing nt; how Umy me. ::,pI31t.. Ri!l]JBUt the 'IIf(lT(lH nlcud an J'I}l~ hear WW[tJ.




sag ohm merhaba h",!~ak"lm tli1_Stl.sDIlZ'! iy:iyhn P.<lni01\



ple~m!: th.aR.kJl!Ju Irdlo goodby.e. hf).!l}a.reyou.? I'm {rrle e-.:relf..SCllI€


nulndrm eutamadun tek~·J).1;" y8va~

ne demek'l' i.ngili.n::e TiirkQf!RI ne?


I d(,m't uIJdeH;larul. U{j(rir~


what, dotS il'nrord Etl{r/.i.sh

wnW is il 1ft 7'adti.sI~?

- 14-


Shopping kfl,QP,of1fr tl(11l~







ImltornnSUl1Z! n,.vIL~ l.if'_lte~i IltlHIl)1

~~I" fomog;


111;rude? ,o1



1N,1'~ k:Uom.etn::?


,H, ~~~mntl'! h"niP otbbiis'! Ilk


Mit'll hm'(i,dn hH)()flltvnl"


hh'.Idliili blr~f!oo

1lt,W.., m;:wh (1fW{l.t~J~? clLl)tlp


there is ~'(i(t"w rht!~i!#!'I.(Oi.r Btamp

to.lJ.!n !(il' esc VHf public tdcphOJlP'

W(1i~I'.I(!;rC~St)m.c! prir:e.lisr





1'0Jd sl~0JdM

how iflwzy !liWml!.trl!~?

when? whichbu:;? {i1'Sl




f.!fJ£mt tOb~I.r.)U~/(jff

.ml)"pen::01, mU!"IJigILI

'5 -

sicnk su devumh su kah,,·u.ib dahll

Times dahl,", sani gUn h.u.fhi ontt: elmdl scnra dun bug(ul yarm


., ""k btr


nil; dji['~ bee yuz bin milycn milyl'lr


tu:\'ruct pcstanc cceane utobl'fil' j8kele bok[",\


hr)~ o!(.'{J:l(;"j' ,!(Jr~Tsrop«.'lttu bn:uk(ast ineimkd



UI(!(!k c..'w'UeJ'tr:rgoll'



}'tSt.;-I'.iay Mdily WJt:J.t;li"I'tlW

litll§! [.!.I~


two three (Mf'"

fi~-e IWIi4I'e1:l Uw.usana mUU'dIL /.JUlitJIL

to.i.Ut po.stW/ice dlt'!nti~t'~ OY-SslatJoJl j(!t!:j, fur,), 8tap ,8';l'(lr.r.rJ8sllop

- 16-



'1IIdnt! ).!l'W

IIrll~ lAl[' ",11, Il}'lp!

help:' acddfmt d(J~tt:Jr

shame on YOI1:' (use U,tS 00 repel unwanted ::lrlvilnce,!l)

j I~Mt(ln to the above words u number I)f time5, each time Cotu::C:.nLmL_ing , .. , ~I rlilierent.lcUer, Pay particular attention, to;

• thu lmtcrs c, -r;, g, J, 1, j, 0, ~ and 0;

.. Ill[]w the words ~1113 atreasad,

• ~hD flLt:~ ll:uH yeu pronounce f!,~ry letter of every word.

- 17-



In this unit you will/earn how to

• ex{!lumge gn'!E!tinw.- and ferewelle

• 88k for pcode in dU1op..~

.. ;;IRk simple questions end muke simple 9l~IjC:ffi(illts

~ --- Konu~ma (Dialogue)

lEI fC:l'ren is 011 holiday. She glJB!i into the local grocer's to buy some feed b!1 make breakfast. S"OO',!I keen to usc the Iurklsh she's learned,

Karen Mel'haoo

B.ak.k.nl Gtln3vdm efendim. Haren \;lknu;k var nn'~ Bl)kknl var.

xc-e» Btr ekmek lntfen. (points at a :ia!f:itJl,'ftl Bu ne? Salam m.(!

Bnl{lml (the grocer trdsl Salem d~gil, sucuk.

Kar-en Giizet m~?

Bekkal GDk b>U7.l:J,

Karen Yiiz gram aueuk liitfrm. Bakkal Tabii o:Jfaodim.

Karen Ye~il zl:IyHn var Ull? Bakkal Yeliil zBy(:jn yak. Siy"h 'fur. Karen Peld. tki yiiz gram lutlcn,

- 15-

~utalk f}iJlh\';,sillJ.5.8gEl gijz,el tlil;(,l

vok '/dry

yD.z J;-ur1(~ud arem g"lli'ilYtlf.' lnbll cerraF!~'y Y'C~II gtBeI'l zcytln (J"i\re ycIk firOr{lism ~y:ih ~cA; pi!:kl O{(

Ikl nsc

gonl\l'thn ~mo.rru:ng blli~lenl ~

,rf.ltICllr'!i "'MrLilm (or S1'r) .lIm(Jk Ilr:e.gt]'

't.nr rh1?l61's

v.nrml7 js'll:-6fll'?

til' !WI

lel"",n p,'eass

0\.1 .'Jr.l:;

M I'IfNl!

llIllIoil'l !l*.I~imi ulllllmwu? !l';':'.i:mli? Ulllllmd'8(jtl i1Oj~.'j_tilmi

Sorular (Questions)

t~'I,d the d_jaIIlgLiC: and answer the .fCll1(1wing C(I.l.esHO!LS wi lh var 1)1' yok. I r'lk"mc.k'lLu-rnt'?

~ !ilnloJfI,,':u.r nu?

I 'i-l!~U Z%rl.~1L "ill" un?

I Sbort'" zeyttn var rnl?

r'l'hunnswera ~I'C On p,:igi) 247.)

ID Notlar (Notes)

A little goes a long way

I hili (onveJ·.~flti4)n, although mcnoeyllabte, is quite nalurul. You can It Il"lte n long wtly in Tu.rkcy usi.ng the WQrd.'J var, yvk. nc and mil


In IJ'titkoy it, is quite polite to say IW simply by mung body I."!lunge. To do I..hili, raise ymlr eyebrows mid gj"8 a single t,ntting llind


N 1141 hj}l,~' you drintt need ~hc words U (I, ie in the sentence Salam doH~n, sncnk, Th II. new Iearucr this .DIll}' feel inD:lmplelA!, a little Iiloa II, 7'["jj·.i$fUl', }'.DIl Jam. It. is, however, quite nnrmul in Turklab,

- 19-


~ -- Dilbilgisi (Language points)

1 Greetings and farewells

giinaydlll iyiak!?amlar

good TOOmiff(f

good e~""tllil'lg Iused from late llfl.cmOOI\ onwards)



meehabe eelam

'Itte easiest of these to learn is mcehaba, ..... hieh ynu ellil lIS(: at (my tfme ofdey.

jyi gunler good day

jyi :iI.q."'mh.l~' gewd p.1Jp.11irJg

iy( gceeler geJ()a II igllt

ho~ kahn bye bJl~

Tlrc easiest and snlest of thnae is b{lo~ kahn" which ynu can uau ;~t anytdnte.

2 Plurals


Wnrd~ which name thing:;. (ubjcetf;., ideas, people or pleeesl .pl.'e eahed nouns. In Bngllsh. we make IIIJlU1:!i plural Jzy .addine an -s on the end In Turkish, you add (,jt.her -ler Or ·1;)[" instead,

giin aksam gee. h!ltn'iz)'on

gfmler ltl$tmlor gccl.'kr t.cle·'~,riz.)'onlul"'

Question: H(I-W do you decide whethe-r to add -ler or 4uJ' to a ..... ord? Answee: Choose which one rhyme", best wit;h thl3last ... ·!)1,~~1 in that. word.

-ler nermontaeebeet with i, e, 0, ii

-lar lmrmonises best wltb I., n, 0, U

'Ibis is one. of the fU]C9 of vowel hnrroouy, The ~le]'" enving ta ::Jill '.t:-!:j·pliWl.di.Dg,

- 20-

11.1"9 them

"urkieh semcthnea uses phrral (01'11:16 where ErLg'Ji::.h useH. F.;ing1.l1<31'

rurm~ lcr example; .


1)'Il(unler {food d6J'

,J"Ui Iud.

Iyl f4nslirrf good lucid

1\1 other times, 'T'IlT'kj,sh usee a singular firrm where b'Dglish uses a jl1itlill Thill eceurs when there is it number before the (L1>lU)) fur .1111\1,10;

tkl g~in IJQpi.let l'OI!~.lIm

~Wf.l d(lYf; tlm:..e1ic-kR.t~·

WIt: hl..mdrr.d 8"'(.[mn,jC$

~ MI? mi? mu? ormii?

'Y~lll {11m tum n alruplc !1tflt.el'ltC:.!:l~ into I.lI qaoadon by nrkli rig en I, mil III1I {If mil 00 .. he end ~ff the statement. These ura fcur versions {Iof ilie uunwcrd.

quI' .. Won: How do j'm] decrde wilier. version to IJ8s1

AIIIlWf!-r: ChOD.!lB which (Inc rbyrocs best with the l('L~t vc .... -el in tile:

WI(ll ['mfo'r:ll!.[I;.

In Ih'lI followi.ng- ex(m)pJe.'.1. the ~WQ rhyming letters are shown ill Italics.

fll1t09ynh rut! (ls he) soot-ash?

I'IU';]II mi7 (Is it) P(fJ'isl

IlItnnhul m.u'! (18 it) T$wnbitl~

Il'n~k mu.? a8 fU!.) 1lil'k~hr

nHI 1'I11(j~'c examples sm quite str:)ip,b,t;OO)"1. ... ard aa the twa vowels Ilkh need to thj'illD fire elilldly the same. Sometimes, however, the II'" rowe) &1' the preceding worn nut}' not be jt I, U 0'- 11, but may be 11'1 ij, or 0, In such COlIIJ.!I you usa the fonn wh;c:h sounds the closest,



J I~"i) mi'l' "r~~t()v-izyo:u :m..u'l' ~oW'1llIl1


M.(!'~ T~lc~'isiul'1.? DI'wt::"r~

- 21 ~


From these exnmplee )'OU can He8 th8~: lD.J11I).llIC!.9 nllcr n a

mi ccmee «ncrf, if)

mu {:O!J.lCS alter n, 0

tllu corucsan:erii,ij

ThJ:; is one of tbc nail's M vowel hartucuy, 'Ibc word mi is an '1-t,YPI~' ending.

Do not try to learn the rules of vowel hflnn(H11 by heart, WhCiLcve.you hear 1)1' read Turkish you will come across them and you, wi II ceme to know which endings I..(J usc in;;;tinew\iclj'. Meanwhile, <IS u beginner and a r~Jlllignar there is little W 'll/UlTj' C'loout, 1(,)' e v eu if ~'OLI do not alweys hnnnenlae your vowels correctly, it. will 1\1)1 il(Ject the' actual m8~llljJlg (If what. ;Y(Iu arc ~aylilg! Bvcrrcoe makes tpistll kes. 'They era un intagml and Important part of Jcamtng.

4 Adjectives

Adjoctj'l,les tHY.! words which deeerihe I'.'h.:it t.hing!:- nra lilra. HE:!r13 are scmn emmplcs in 'J\L1'kish=

guacl bcyaz

1Ltc(!Jl.t~mtir.lll whiM







{reP., I?'mpty, vat:!ant. diffierll.i



D_ICln.l,u,UI slco.k sot"" ·bUvO. JJ1i~iik bo~

'0< kola}'

5 Var andyok

You will use theee W{JriI;<I frequently. Val' means tiJeru k or Ihe.~ ore, nnd yclc means tll.(!rc L~rl't 6T' eiaere an!l1'L F(IT example:

P['(IobJe:m vnr. 'fhem'/; f,i probll?'m.

~:[Iy,..m·nll'! 161!J~.f!mLj'te.7.?

- 22-


l-lkmek yok ll!U? Problem YoOkl

l~lL't th~l~ (m~' lm.\U(U Nopr{.lOkm!'

I, Oellil

II IIrdor to JM.!L~ a almple statement ncgutive, }'DU plnce degil after II MUll Ill' !lJj8~t;ive which you wish to muke neqative.

~Idnm dogil, It's not ~l'I1l'I.mi.

1111\'11 sacalc dei,oil. The w~tJilt.~/' if/ti'! h,w.

U. i{U rnl? can be tagged Onto any statement to ask isn't it? 0(' m'tm't ,I

111~ tluollk. guzcl, dci,1jJ mi? '(hif; [JUdie ruusagl! ia nlrA!, i.wr~ it?

I'j'.'lder, degil mi? Tiic;fre Turks, aren't tluzy?

III Qll rli.'" is like n'e8t.·c.!! pa.II? inFTI~I'L(;h,

, Counting up to ten

- 23-


dud bc~ illb )fedi ~ki1. dokw. 01.'

8 Pleasantries

If I Turkish there nrc set pleasantries fol'" meat occasions. Les!l1'11 a few such phrases and you 1Ilig],t get through the day S{lying little elsel Here arc three to get you g~ing:

When tc use It

AllyC'Ol!iUI"lI I:lInl~o~a@lkl KOI;;lY'JeIsJ'n1

t 10 SOI"YIOOi'Ie \ ... rc I~ ea11~J cr bas lust flnlshed e-afrtg 10 soneone who has made you a. meal

[ 10 ~..MlP.Oneworking

]1'01"' int~T'(!F,.t'F.. aake, e.fiYf!.t uleun literally means may tkere bf! l7.ppr.tik., elinize!Hlghk mauna 'r~aWi If:! JOL!.J" 'U1.11 d, und kolay gebin rneaua mfol)' it-com-IJ ms}'. Fer DO ..... , don't wQrTY abfmilbcillg able to translate t;be~ phruaee directly intu English,

L!,j -- Ahl?tlrmalar (Exercises)

The key to these exercises ts 001'1 p"ge 241,

1 Reorder the sentences below to fo-nn a. mc;)ni.JlgCw dialogue, (fl) - Biro vur lUi?

(b) - Bcyarun, iki. !}i~ bira. ~) - iki I'}i~e lutfen.

(d} - h.j akeemler efendlm. (j,o) -Me ... hnba.

([! - T{~wili.urlor.

(g) -V:o.r.

- 24-

I blm beer

bllYUn.J11 f1f!f8YOUs"(r)

Fill in the paps in the sentences below using mr, mt, me Or mu, (a) Istanbul __ l

(b) Blls~.lam.d<:gil __ ? (e) "91.l a~;;.m __ ?

(d) A.lb __ ,!

(e) TUl'k "}

m KU~:;ld:t!'lIWl~ __ '1 (g) Dl)rt __ ~

(h) Be eda b"'l __ '!

lA1(1k at, the photograph (If the feat-feed stand nud 9Uy whether the statements rue dogrll (.!:ntr.) or yan h~ fI~lsc),

(a) Blravar. (b) Viaki var.

(c) SLcak.ru~rubllt; ~ar. (d) S~u.kLil~rubl:lt val'. (r.) Ye-m~kY1l'k,

!If "Iskl LMkilty IBaIf:rublrt ddn/({nC(Jl'lj "u wW'or

1H111It6 potl-li'o

QOIIIs 66!1IS8gfI IOOfII) I'J~SlI'bs,y Y<ll"TI(Ik food

- 25-


'l'he tonm'itng dialeguu takes plate at "- hotel reeepdnn. Fill ill the g;:tps u!)ing the phrases on the right.

--. _(.I_-·

-1)'i ak~~IDkl1' efendim.

-~(bl __

- Bir gcce i~in mi?

- __ Id __

-l.ki gece ._. evet v ar. Paeuport ltufbu.

- __ 101 __

-'1'e~ekk!irl@l·. Buyurun, enalnnr.

Dl5rt numarn.

- __ «1_-

(i) iki.

(ii) Bo~ ode vnr mi? (iii) Buyurun.

(io;) [yt aksnntler. ( .... ) Tesekkurler,

bllvunm hllro'}'P{r<l1tl' lr;1n (or

enehter Jroy

1i.1.l1I'l8J'8 IltIJ1lb8r ods lOam tal}flklUlrlllf than/(s

PLlt eteee numbers in the! t:ill"rcJCi(u-Je:l', ;!lekh fin dart iki UlI- ~ biT'

yol!di all! dckuz

(a) rmahtar
(b) lnennau
(c} klw(i.r
(d) sucuk
lei geee
If) PI}Jjs
Ig) 1~ri<
(/I) tete:vi:lytJJ'J Ii"."",,, ,.;,,,,,,,-"",,,, t;ulloro, fwif(/ff~(!1'

Auswer the following questions with cvct Or II. sentence containing tlegil, The t)l'st (lone hal> been done Ior ynu,

(11) ImL:.ii.rkl...ik..:'t sicak 1:m?

Sicals dcgll.

1M Istanbul bUyUk ",W'

- 26-

(I:) Denla bejaz mr?

(rl) Kulru kola Amedknn rm? h:) Paris kut,;uk mii'?

({) Atal..urk TUrk mii?

Ccrnplete this table, which iildiea[.(::;. how lind when you can use various phT.Il..qa~.


I (B.) gJnayull'l (1.;0) h"::l~k~llt1o

(-c) 'i'!,'lakeamllll' ~ 'iyigJX:cl(lr

([0) iYlg~lef (I' liil~h[\b.:1

'11);(\I(': ura olli~hL 'Iuekiah adjeor.t.i~s hidden in this square. One has becn Ieund Ieerou.

., ~11- LI~ p ~ ·iJ
9 -I-'-
0 n , g 0 ~ S
~ a ~g o , • 1 ,
~"!:'_i__ ~ ~ 6 9 c
~ 0 1 a y U ~ a
~ • i s 0 9 1I k
~ ~ z , u 9 i) 0
a m c r 1 k a " -- Konusrna 2 (Dialogue 2)

Karen is still at the grocer's.

I\nron Yarnn litre sut Iutfcn. Bl1kkal BU}'Ul:'Ull. l3ir k'u~;uk kutu slit,

ICnron Bu ;!'IHt tnae mi. uzun (ifuilrlii UJu?

BIIk.1rn1 '['.uU!rle~l.

- 27-


IlliroR 'Iuee :.ut yok mu? D~ikkn1 Maalesef

Illil'en 'Iumam.

Bfikkul Buske?

Ifur{ln Yok, tasekkurler. Hepsi He kadar? Bakknl U". yuz bin lira.

KiJI'Cn Bururun.

Dakkal 'Icsckkurlcr.

Kurcn hl'i gunter.

Bakkal lyi gunlcr clcndhu.

g y;}rlm IJij{f

like Mrt'!

ern ro.l'k ltJJ'U~c.!II'1'arJ.,Jtn teza f/~5f1. l.ll:un8mtlrl('j l«1g.JiJe m[ki]r..c5l:l1 j'm sfmid WJt

Inmam OK

bil~k:o:I ~tli(1, (~ru it In~,,-m~

SrlJ!l'llir;.gel!i(.·?) neper C'Io"dry1fl.1:!lg

ne eeuer iW;1.'mllCJt'? ~n .IfKi[J8SfH1

rlra NriJ.(i"ur.~l8hocLlrl€lrt::y)

- 28-


iNGiLiz MisiNiz?

In this unit you will learn how to .. nddreae people

.. request and give pcraouul dotaila .. (.'mlTlt

.. IlAa the TLlTKjE:l1 fm- f.!m, m~ and is

AI.fLt1 h.._'L~ spent ID;)ll$' pre ... ious hollduys in Turkey. 'l'hi.;j year he is I)['L .1 liner (nlL~ine in the Mediterranean. The ship hns doc-ked in Turkey f'lr the first time, and us he disembarks a 'lurkfsh official checks hie IIlI5$Pl)rl .•

MelnUl' Alnn MClnnt' Alnn Momur Alnn M0nl,Ur j\lnn M0mur j\hm MDmu['

iyi gunlcr.

iyl gunlcr [Demur bey. Ahr Tiirk~[ilz c;ok iyi. Sll!!:olun,

~W)j~rctiniz lie? Ahnan mi?

(mists his c,}wrow:; (21ul tUJR) 11810'11'.

ttlogiliz:m.isill.lz7 .


Qoket.~.el, Pusupcrtunus lutfan. (lumat1" .o.t.'tr ,I-t.s [lfj$sp(Jrl) Buyerun. Tf!~kldJJ'l!;!r-. Ammz ne1

- 29-


..\1;:11). Memur Al!:in 'MoP-mul"


'Iutnam. (s-wmps pa.S"'Spor~ and n:!1~'I·11-:) it) H~ gcldiniz. BCt'1 bulduk. bi gunter!


memur fJff.'CJaJ

Ttir~1) Tw/i,\rh Tlirk'il~:rllz )'{II)J"TI)r:':~·.'i ~[]k ..... )ry

mllll~1 {19.!.i~·r1.[ffl"y' ffillll\U!II[i1.! y.::.1 .... I;oaL':},-l~Ily'

Alman eeme. 'r,lEII:;.;JFlorruI1UZ }'(Iu.rfJS"88f}iJft

JMI I1Ll.1i':1i]

aCIni; )'(lI)I"n.;ImQ h[]:;;g~ldjnlz. wcIcomo

:ho~ bulduk l!IJp{!y ~ 1m IIOI~


No .... , unawar the follow"iJlg questions llU,:'lUt the dialogue, 1 Alan Tngt1i 7. rni?

:2 Merom Tiirk rnu? :3 Aduuz ne?

4. l'lil·kJ;cuiz~kiyiilli{!

(Tfle ;)"~WCt:3. arc on p~c 247,)

mI Notlar

n's ~asy to Imprf!!S$

J.l1!;!~U&e A lOll eetd a tew words of rl'urki~"'. WlC humigrnucn olflccr W8~ tmp:l~~i}d. 'fhis is a OIJrnm1)J"l reaction 00 ti)reilf[\;C:l:~ who speak .:l. littl8'Pllrkish.

Sizand sen

Litre a uumbcr or OUlC.1" luugnagcs, Turkish has twc words for yo[,!.. SiO!; is used when tL:llki.ng to mere 1h.iJ.11 OM person Or illIdr~sing .0. :Jllg]8 pcreou with Y! hem YQlL are bcJng fOnMI. SCh la used when L:::Jlkiog to a cloee tricud Of a cllild, If in doubt .LI.b(lu~ which 'I} use! PW;~' safe .!L.nd usc sia.


Buyurun .ie a word! you hull. all th~ time in Turkey. I~ ia 8 multi-

- 30-

AilE vov E1'(lI.JSH?

1IIII'IiOS'C" way of p:rompt.in:g SI)TnI!;!O~_ In this dL81r:rgu!i! ~t manna /J{;!r'f! j'ltlt r1', !rut ll, ('.<1.1\ ;J 100 mean go (lhcl'ld, f&.1 fr.r.r. or- r-l!"ltf.!t r.-al'l- I dd fm' Jf.i[,!.?


I Addressing people

tlfloone: p~ov'Ldjng Y-I}"I) wllih 0 eo-tee may address yun in one or the I II 1(I'A'I.I)!rwLij's,:

hi))'cfen.d.i iLl-IllJ.mele.ndi arOlidim

Si.r M{fo([mf~

either Sir or M.udwn. or beth

11it'll']'u.r-kiBh equivulenta (lfM.r: Mrs: 01" Mis.::; ~ro Dey and Haaun. Yeu 111~ ,11I1m wi Lh the flrut. !I!.I.IILl'I ruther LJlWl with U~ surname. Thus, fOI" r~11111 und Lucille Smith 1..111) follm~·il1g arc ~C]ui'f~ICI1I.S;

.John Dey Mt Smith

l.u.dUe Hanna Mis Sm.ith

't1~1I ~ii"L ulso use DC)' .o.11J Haunn alter scmconc's joQob tille:, This is a INlrL.imln.riy Turhish w~ of addressing pccplc whieh cnn -bc tL~l1.dy rl r, ILIlL1lILg.!:i~ (;ILJlr.:: .. Lhi.a.gf;, .:l.Ltn~t:[.j!ig the .;)JLc.I1LJI)(L cf bus drlvcra in a 1~,lilAl WlJj when It Is YOUI· atcpl

Illt.QJ'boyl Illllmu['ooy dokw[,OOf

V!lU cnn use the w-rmi memur for any publi~ uffielnl, including p.!1~::;I~JrL eonteollers OJ' policemen. C811 them mennrebey (they ere uauully U11 III nnri yffil should get. on tim right aide nf them from the .!Ih1rt!

2 You, he, she ...

'nLiIH8 weeds aru culled perscnul prcucuns.

&lnSUI;:lr Plural
I bon 11)1:;: ~"Ve
non }"QI:1(lnfQrm(Ll) '" )'Q'J
n 1"I{l,~e,lt cnler t~y
31 - Remember to ueo s1:r. os the singular J'Q.I~ L[L fbnnul aituationa.

3 The verb to be

Act-loll. worda such "~gu, ~·u Or I.J~ ere culled verbs. Am., f.!J.'::: anri i;;- .UL'! ::Llt different. parts of the E.r:Jglish verb (0 be.

The endings

'l'hc Turkish equivalents of the dLm~!""f![1t. "p~"jJ1!3- or the vo!}xh ra ee are U)C endings ~jDL; -sln, -iz, -iilni~ und -ler. H-I!'Te nre some examples:

oon.in!llizJl'l ~nln!~li~~ln (lr.lgii.

t'1mag.1Jsn Illzil'{iiliZll.

you -!1("9 ffl.g.'isn eta i"n~jlZ:Slnl:z

J7.5:.t.~8 Is EngNsh erner ·lngl~z{~t'J

ll'f!am~rt;Ii.~IJ YOiJ.fllBB;o;:)liSJ) t.'1eyai~Ei¥!)\·sI'l

YOu should HI)i;e th8~ there is 06 ending on tlw II) form. NOlA! also U1.i."lt IJIC: .]er (:ndl!Jg i~ uhcwn in hrruili.ct.B, This is bcceuac ~CiU IlSl.L!l.LLy 11!;!;;IVJ:;!it,(Il.1t.

Vowel harmony

AJJ or these cndlngu (C;HGpt .the ale), f~~Tm) 'behave exnctjy like 1111, nri, ren and iflU (see: P<4,"t: 21). That ls, L.lmy huve [OUl:" dlf'f8rent veratona and the~r [oJ..W.l;;.' LJlC rules 1l-1' i-eypc vowel lmrn1Un.T

-rm ccmcs ufber i.e

-im oamcs ulber i. IJ

-nm ccmcs ultcr u.o


ThE! Hley farm 113l~ only [;wo d[ffi;!l'I!;!nt vetsicns because it [(10]]0\1.'::; Lh8 rule (If -I}-i.}'V"-! ..... -cwel harrtneny;



Heee is a table w\fu examples of .all L.lie crl.ditLgs in all ~i!" veraiens:

- 32 -

nen.: sckratenm ' Turl~um Almamm
... s~lt:r(jt8f::;in Turl~::;lin Almansm
u .. SCk((j18~ Turk Alman
Irll,. sekreWi.l; i(lrl.:ia: AlmL'lflli:
~, sekretersfnfa iOrk~vrl(i::t AlmL'ln::;mrz
unlnr sekrelen;ler} TCrrk(~r") Ah~~j)I~(I<rr) menaumsun

memnunsunua rnerllllurt(laT)

I ttl iiGroM! pronoun e

~~~~:~~l ~!~~J);~ ~:;gJ~ to ":~ ~:J~I~1~~::~ t~~{z ~:i~' (l:t~~)~

N 1M Prwtish... Howa .... ~',;:t'{I~ dol} need w US(;: OO1WI" \\'hW:L you S::II}' thf!Y.

'1111 uaunl w<I'j 00 s"J a~:r Ill"!? Tudl..i.8.h ls cnlar Tiirk. When Y(IoU U50e III~r ])l:l'8onal pronoun culnr t y.a u don't need Ur use LJl(,! ending -ler-,

r.:I ueettcne with to be

TIl lum tn~lli?'!3"[n;?. U-.:r(llll~ etl.i:Jlhh} inl..u ,I q!)~WIJJ1t, fulkl ..... i.lL"1.!::.G ::;L8:p~:




~ral.e she 10 be ending fr-om lhc ncun cr adlecuve.

t~1J1 rn.1 in lront cllhe o::i1""Idin9_

In.gilizsinl2 Ingilizmlsini:z'?

I!llgll_g.,h statement Qtr(;'"Stioll
IrlmtJ&r.1urilul, Guaeljm. G:rl4elml:;lm1
'r"oll.rob.(((ld". K.C-P.;UTi. K6rmO!;:('Jn'7
1J'${1Wicwl, zor. Zer mu?
Wtl'rorO\.wy. H:1Z:trlZ. HazlrmlYl'2'7
Yo.u"roopC'o. AJ;!lkSlnl:Z_ AO;:I:kml!;:lnl:;;:?
TlIO:)'r((i TufMifj, OrllarTurk. OrtiarTOrkmi)'jI NDLi) thnt you msc .... u .y. between m.i ami -im 01" -iz, Rend (In to ftud B'iltwby.

- 33-

4 Keeping vowels apart!

There is 0. rule in Turkish th.at YO~l do l1.(Jt put t,wo vowels next ~I 1.3U.~h ether within u word. rUI,i.~ betps to keep pcenunciajicm simple, Whc[1 you place Mdings en WO~(I.6, if the W{1m ends in a vo w o:!l unrl L:h", 8LLdil\g aturta with a vowel, you've !JOt p1'(lobllf!rn.=l! The solntiun: ilL~8.rt It C()IHOt1ilJ1t between them.

The word mij"'im in Ingttta miyi_tilt is made tl'(lm rut and im canting together. The roaultmg m.iim is not allowed, eo ran (Iut a -y- in between I..U make utiyjm~ Tills makes the word mere prcneuneeuble. 'Ihc -y- acra <IS a IHl1J.~r which SWP9< th~ tW() vowels dltlilling. L8~Ll2r~ inserted like [his arc cahcd bn ffcr 'CQn:;:;l)[l;IU1t~_ Later you will dieccvcr that tile: letter ·11- 15 (".IJM! used as n, buffer eoneonnnt,

Sometlmcs, he ..... ever, JUl! will acrueuy see two 'I.'(I\\'d$ ned te each other. This occurs In a smell number (If words which 'Turkish 'has adapted Irum ether languages. Maalesef ia such a word (see 'p3~ 28),

5 Counting beyond ten


bin milyon mitym-

)'irmi ctuz


ellJ .:dtriil!j yetmi~ aeksen doksan

8l1ll' yarun bil;"bul{uk jJ_cj bD~uk


1,000 1,000,(j{J(J 1.OOO,(I{)(J,OO(J













To fbrm mere numbers, jU9t pl_lt thoe unea j'ou know together, for cxamplcc



olJsekl~ hindo-kll_:mUZ oubir 1_llilyon Ikiytlup,k"",


19QQ IJ,()(}(),ooO 215

Nl)lLI: 11-. English we suy rjr.l-e hUll4n:d Or o/l.e UW-!tStw.a, lJ1 "Iurkiah YOu Nl\VjusLy'"U:ZOl'bll1.

- 35-

6 Bu,'j'u ando

Whcro English R:)S two worde fa!" tlWi. unrl I hu.lt 'Iurldsh nos three.

bLL ~u


/bnt (I:"ef~:rrinl; to mmi!thing ri3lul.:.i.vdy ncarbvl l,fiW f!'~r(!rrin;; to Sikm~thiDg further fL1.,.o.j")

EoXIt~tly whuec ynu dra .... , the line between hu. and ~m Dr l:.mLw8tn fLL and o is unclear, I"Io'i1C1.'cit1 :wruetWng held ~f1 Jim. hand is -dr.£I[LiLcly hu. .u. tlJ!I:J18 en UL~ ocher aide of tf1.e room ts lllmifS~ certainly referred t11 :'1::: ~u., and a w"1X: on me n1)ri'1:OTI ts certninly u,

7 Question words


ne.' nerede.? JICzam8.ll'? nilsd"!

.Jr_;LI,~ t:)JJe? IlC~~d;:I.1"'I'

Wlw? wlw.l? wht'!P'(!"?

wJU!n? Qil.J1rilll,y refil.!l t.illr~n Ju.J1[)?


Jww mucld Uil.CI<l.J~y r~!IJ(l1 (!Xlo'J/t_I~)

When put OJ) the II;!-nd or nouns, t.h8 ending ~iw CL\1l mean mJ' end -i_ni7.. (:;)(1. illeaD:_roW', 'They [oUnw the l-typc vowel hcrruccy. Foe exnecple:

CckeU.ni~:flvnh. Y"-"L!J" jadl~1 i.s btu&k.

AlImLZ ue? - 'What'~ YOL!J" 1Ui!l1wl

BlLl.zvJjI!Z bu. TIl iii [5 ]"()UJ" bWuS-~.

So.ti.l1;!:ii~s~"k. Y(Jurmilfi. isoold,

CeJ;;ethu gUzel My JatJ~1 is flict..

Adlm~li_ M:)IlTUIi'~i!:l..:tti,

Bu pnsapoetum. This l.:i: 110' flfl~Sp.cn'1.

K1J3WJ'"um iyi. M;)' ha.i.rdJ~jI" ts good.

When thcne endings we added to words which and ilL 0. vowel, you add oojy-m er-urs,

- 36 -

.... es: YOU G:NGUSfl?

'l"tirl;:lj:e.iI! Imnlm.llJZ"

r.r1.J'l'arhrsh J'O.!~I· Ixmlt

N'ltlot!· bCM' tihi::. is unether way iii WhLcll Turkish uvcids ~·o ..... ct ctaeaeo - I L simply lilliv8.!I I}Ut. oms of l..h8 vuwclsl

9 a and the

III "l\LrkL~h, for l1U).!lt ill tha time ycu do. oot usc the: e:qu.Lo;;·illcn~ of our ..... nnle a and thf'!. Ibls 1!W.} rolliill Tu ... k.i.sh sound u bit. like u pigeon III f'I~I.LI.l:.r(! ut .I1r::'4 huu ,)'{)L1'11 ~OI1: get used 1.0 illic [;:I.et that etten 11Ie58 'l'll'lmll!l oro !limpl}' natnecessary illUl! SI) rucn'r unedl

KIII~m Yf!;;;il Tlll.:! p~11 is gr1!l!.11.

Hnlem var. Tlll.:!fI! i~ apf!n,

Ji.'n~lL bUy-Uk, Tlll..' ta&b:: is big,

11[)W~r,.f(i1J. ..... 'ill acmetimes see tit4:! 'WCIn~ hit" userl to menn «.fbr example:

Il u bit kalcm. This is a pen.

nit kruem var. thc1'(:: is ~ [.Ie-fl_

t"ftL-l] I'~y w these: csoretses is (IoJ'.! page 247.

I MIIIXh dtc folll)'l,~·lag qucsctons m:td unswcrs.

(I'l) 0 Hollandnh mt? Ill Adsm Burke ... t,

(Il) Ad~ ne? (ill Dart kiiilYiz..

(co) Siz polleelnis, ik!gilllLt? (iii) ·E~jm Asuman.

(rll Milli.Y4!'ti!tiz. no? Ii ... } 'H~~'I"', dcktorum.

((!) Yo,gurt vur DIt! (t') HL"'I~'J') .'j~ .. im Jusa.

f.{} Saelanrua uzuu .CluJ (t'i) Hnyir, q\i.~k,

Cg) Bqinu kim? (,~.i.i) Vi.'lr~.affia hue d~il,

{h) Otclinis n.:l..Stl1 (,'"'ill) TurkiJ.lIl.

W Kri~ 1ci~s.i.al:i:1 (00 GiJzcl nma p.<I.h.ltt.

l-IoJl[II~[lh ()I)tr;iI ycgur1 W(}h.rd IUZWl ,\:)riO

i!l1l llusbsildorMJe(spooSEi)

cbL." ill,.roJ

ko:iO IIr)wmilflY

~Q=l pi9.1roll

k1B:11 8l1oft

- 37-


l a:i1'1I11 0liI

I Nil

Fill in the J:!::~p.a below wlth personal pmnmms. {(t} __ Almonsuuz.

~~] ==f~~~:~~-'

(di __ memnunuz, !<) __ kll;:1fl;J'~l~t1,

Match the foUowmg odjccuves to their opposites.

(a} iyi (i) ~~k

(I,i} Jj,u~lik (ii) bU_'r'uk

Icl .k;:')pau (iii) fCJifJ.

(4) pahah (i~'f) lwl('J~'

(.c) 60r (If) ucus

I 'k",,, =d ~It; fJP6I!

01 lJ.'ling nne item from each or the ~111'ee oabnnna below, make Jour sentences.

Vi,lhich onea in the [ollol)W:ing WI)lJPS ofwl)J.'(3s ere the odd ones 0'L1~?

((.I.) ~;)~, knlrce, owen, aalep

(h) [l}'l'f.m,. biro. somp, en

(r;) 11.;;, (mfJltL. 00:;:, deknz, cuycdi, yirmibir (('1) Ita lya, Polonyn, r~1,llg..'1,]'ist.<Ln, 'f(}kso k) polls, eurtat, mernnr, kuafdr

ilIYHin S&lll6d')/':lgfitmWli'lk :;:alIBI] al1or8€!lOOllfl.9cm1k

~".i:ip w»M ~IQnva l'"'.:.1(;md

- 36-

Millw sentences ~nt yourself by eetcctrng one or lhc alternnllves in brackets below. ".i'he ana w er key provides sample ncutenees tor' (lone of tbe i.lllthoo'.'j :)s a guid"J,

I,) g'I'''' i'k!,.}u,"n/YOO:j,

10) Bvim ~kIIJ")'i'l<Iycil<),

(Ii} A'rill.)<U!) (F·ordl ..... I~~w..'NkJ. ta) llj~m (TO;l;'klj'sk.('j~Y<ih/j'okJ

(c) Wl'~en .. (iyil.'l71j'l)k)_

r.n r~im (ilgin..;1!l-lh;;llyok),

Bitfi Ih:llr 'II'" I';IcmB nflll!;m ,[:'.;Ir IJ:r. A'IJf,<;-

I:~ 'H-'(If.I{

11!J1nv imsre-sflflg ~Ikll~ 00rir1g

'7 l..ol}k ;),t this li!lt or ueefel telephone numbers. who would you be t~epll(lnLn.!J i r you (:CLII.r.d the fonow~(Ifj: !1o~','J'1

Luzumlu Telelonlar

DliIlI~(r1 Ka'1m:i.:.:.«lo;jl (2m5,1692~ T. \'ai9ILl; 18a"'"~l!1 i21215EOO;rO]
~~kll~1Jj ~)';1rl~ S_uJr,ll (112~ S~2 02 O~ OUr<' ~m~ ~I, ,!,Ir~Ir.. 121~~ ~I Og r.~
~~~!'~ffl6I:I'(>]rl! ~j., ':11~)~~3 ID~3 ~lTI,lF~.Llll5i 12121w.:;aoO;'
w...lkirl?','I~ !~ll,S!';)51 57 ~lzll,1ll~IIJslll~SI 12mS.!04~0'
~~II~('f1 :tI,nl:!: ~i~~st. \?I~)~:U77,~1 nl!ITIJ~~]jIIi]WI;J 1~12t~~OO~
I!;;!J.Jlfil'/ ~m~,a Mnlliji ~m) 511 61 7'i 11:i 'o\:1~li"'5: K1i'li4i 1212~ 5!9 3B a~
~lloJrt :11';I.1tll%'_F~ (;>1;>'1 ~~~ $3 II Hr. I~I~~~·IOO'
~;~)l133~€i[llI."T1 l~I",,~~a322 ~1~1.,L'tr. 15~
,I,Izj(;Jrl.'lI~;I~ ~21<')S~l1n .... ~H;I~I;lm uc
~[~[O i~~l"'~5!J~C~ [llllll~~.j1~ ta
Al.nU11 1J~~i 12i2j5f,1lUiEO T~l:!fu~J,;Ln. in
.iJjj~I.~m.!;l I~~?,)~!:t,'i~'i~ GI: ...... .za lar
1~'Il:iI!-i 1212)~&).f,1 01 S~J"..n tas
~IUI~ 1\1""" w-um ~I 12~;?'j~~~;).!.i' c':" ua
ile;'l~~!''!'lliJm~, 12'ZI~!j'jI~ 1~ Dl."~~~ 5[01 T~~E~ (21Z'5~Ola2 0) ytlzclhbe.'j

(b) ~L~llidolJoktl7.. ecksenuc, ,!lJfjrdo,d (c) ,[I,l1.JytI~;)ltrI}J~";:,(it~l'i:.B11!.f'':lIjJr

(d) blrn'ih~ lbdokuv, trll'kij";' aekscnyedi (d yuzyirmibir

if'! blWj'ih;AlI;nu~, yeE;mi~iki, d,(lk~;)!lbir

- 39-



W ould you addteaa the fClHr..wing people with sen tJ-T slz? {a) unncniz

(b) ::refini:.!.

(d birbakknl (tt) kuarori.i.nut

(c) ku.r;tik bit' bo~'1I_(:l if) bir pclis

i.g) c~mjz

9 There nrc ten Turkish numbers bidden in thta aquere, One bee becnfbund [or Y()U·

0 n Ii ~ b e ~ 'i
in 5 , F , r ii '"
; a , d I ·0 9 I
k k b a y ·U z I
i ; Y b I ~ v y
.! z ~ z r i r a
y e r I m e I ,
k I r k ; ~ I " 10 Look at the completed hotel regislnl.UoIl form opposite then complete one with your Own details.

bav mee ooyan ISJ1mfs sOY<1d SLlm<lme ~o.'rlh

tmlb da,e

1Tl~I.ek j~,p!{;fc:;s.i,;;n 4j4;Il~ .~mir.iJ

gldl;; .:k.·;:-'~rJi.l!'e

- 4Q-

BilY/Bapn A.;1:

S6)'ad:_ DojjIlJI1111Iil"IL:

Millj~,~[: ............•.• , p-..J.~II(l'1nmJ[)1;1fIls::.: .

M~~I~k:: ._, •.• , " ...........•......... , •.•.• ,_, .....

{i(;li~ l:lti!li:



Whilst in KutlfLdaSl, Alan and a fellow traveller, Murgm-et, walk tnto a Itchnp91 (kebab ns;taUJ'Qlll). Margaret abo knows u few words of Turkish,

(':I'r~()n iyi eksamlar. Buyurun.

Alan Merhabe. n(l!} ycr vur uu?

GIU'AC:m Var. Buynrnn, (sfWltJ.5 ~hli!1n to ~.tah.k)

Ail," (siU7."ng) Sag OIUfL, Ada.n.a kehap "Ij.';;U' nuj

I11U'NOn Maal(!~t!f_ Adana kcbap yak

~fm'J:Bl"et Nc WIT?

(1lxlilrin DOner var, Jekendcr var, k.a1tP. var, pil~ var;

;'hm Dnncr kE!O:!lP lutfen.

thlrl:um Bir ddncr. (lunlS to j\fargarol!.t) nUYUJ:'I,111 il[UlllU'I!ft!nnL

- 41-

~largnrot !lYILL. Gerson lki dnnar.

Alan Avrun 'iL1T JlLLf

Gal'!>OD V~. nti tano uti?

Margun:t. E"d, iki rune.

Garson TMW.llI, tki dacer kebap, ilti J.j'r<Ul, Tc~ckkUt cdcriro.

g;a~(Jll sese-

AcIas~ kebap 5J..\v;Y911J.'&d mir.-D!imeal

dl)n9r liebllp fJfl.\~d (amb fi.l'ros iskcmdGJ" Irobilp dOnvr ka.,h,_lb o:t (;I,'"C'.ld\""tf1:r"O!-Jf.v.'1'iV1dl"olr.urv:';.~);'I;"I")

k6fte meatt<a.\\!l pl1lv cnbJfen aym theSamB"

Ildt,1nQ I""NQ,ll~;:<iiXf:':; (bt~f1JJ1'"Q!jl\;l~;)


- 42-



//1 this unit you will Jearn Ilow to

41 erdee a manl

41 ~oU ecmccue wliut to do 41 W\lcsJiJ1plediroolimu;

Konusrna ------

\11 und J\Y";:'1l emcr a restaurant. (hll·Jl.OIl Buvurun.

,\11 Thi-k.i:,.-i.li.k bir masa lutfeu.

(hnmll Bu maaa 835111

I\y~if~ iyi dcgil. !Wl;i.ede_ Karanhk. {i~J(Ii,C(llr:s <"I rob!.: ~fl Jlw ll(f1tre

v{ the. mom) ~u maaa b~ mu?

OIU'1K)1l Bo:}, Buyurun efendim.

n~l)' walk over to the table, sit down, and UiC waiter brings u menu. I III'HOn DUYl11'nn, Mda11.

,\11 Tesekkm- ederim. occe so~uk lnr ~~ beyaz em-ap ve mME!


111U'.HOn Tnhii efendtm. 9<ll'ap bliyil.k a1i.i, 'ku'!ili.k mil"?

AU nuylik, lHtfe.n_

A III inuteo later tile wrutcr ectuma with the wlae .Illld a l.'1.rge my nlll ,t "lIL1'leL'.~.

- 43-

Gal'S-O)l Ay~" G,a,,~on

A}'~a Gzm~tl Ali Ay~a

III uu kl~lIik far IWI) ptJ(J~~'tJ (Iilor.ml:,r

lLl'(J-?i(.'l~~e) meee liJtJJq


k~de /(llil1"!r.omrN lrojlr<rnllK a$fK

monu ml?JltJ tt:ipk['lrod9Jlm rl."mi.-you o.)(:t:! iirsW

'I'll' ell);}

m.cll';C stan""

I~t.[!o n(lrels-(II!Jo!Il!IifjilTo;llli!n.1 of lK!.i'lJ

~, r-~n~h)

J~ki dlinl(lllco.tlo.\'C) lr;::kf.llIZ }'Q.ltrdririk blraz .:l"A·iJ(o


a Notlar

t:UJ~ co

nemee t;tm/.gJ"ilelL·dy

U811r I.!ri'l'iJ

it;JIo'LID (H,tlh,

nem a 8{1if.y.\iIi.7.IWf(llterally sp.i;;y)

1;..,I<lla S.9hlfJ

I;i:lG'lk CI}C!.o\'.i:-btymf1Ml\'C;y%""'''!J"1

t:tJrl.:lc:;; pJBLm

pstloo;;Jn OlLto""gl'tt)

mld>"8 It~S4i~

t.1\1~ fded

I\l:IloIlm",r .sqlii!!

yl!!te.r 1'h#.sSWL'91'J

clali;ii mQre

t;(j'll'~iru.l'rn domtj'Jl.IJ '§lil'Ji!'re (:I'G'ClS'

~b;! i~kit1i& .... c iIll3~.ol!I~'.1t;r;{l1e::Jcf~ar.uplbil':)Z eicak. Bue var 1m'!

Bue V.!I.l' etcndim. (tU1'n8 to ,}'(.lIMIg f1.1iH.Jstrml d().fli~r) Me.hmd - hemen buz gctlr, (t[,!,.I.!.~ lNrck 1(.1 tile gllC6"lS {md begil1S to piau. diilhes [rQm tlr~ imy on Ihe table) Sojtuk meselee kuvun, acth, J,'c~il aalete, cacds, hurides, pnthcun. Slc<1k maealer: midyc tava, kalamnt , , ,

'Iuuum. Yeter, Daha koym:ij'm, lutfeu,

Tl'Lii hammefcndi. Afiyet Dl~ut\.

(wAJ~ar h.(Jldvig up IJUJglafi.~) ~e.rofe.



Anljwer the [[)Uo"."ing questions 800m!; the dialogue. :1 $rlr.!l.p kmmzt nu?

2. Cut~k ~1g,lk mese li~i? -3 Mceclcr eok mil"!

~ &l..i-.l.U:kmDlZlIljJ"

(Thu answers are (roll page 2--J8),

- 44-

ao cons. PLEASE!

ihe meze tray

W~"m ron am in a J~SL.fiumnt. ill Turkey I you 1Il1l}' find Uml; the waiter 11nngri- ~ huge troy jull ~f starters ~ the table anrl proceeds to u ... !ood 1IIIiJll withcu L your 'haVLcg t:ol'.a?too them. The custom Is ti) ~t.(lp him, ~t~~: ;~: ~~~,:.ant and sendthe rust back. A ueeful word (or doing

I~ostaurnnr language

l'he jolko vr jn..~ phmsee mayprcvu ueeful La restaurants. Fot"' t1m~'t dim't w(lrry alxrul; their exact meanings.



Wuit"".rt (lioo!'L"l!ly lVmM J~ll(Jokl) ThebjJI.

J(!:ffptfJe.cliwlge. rmarmg,r.t(:l.t1L!fi'.

Whril {ooa h(J~"":OJ'Qi~giJl ll.'ith(JtUm~a't?

Ufik~Lr ffil6lll1Z! Hcsap. i)l!ItUkal~l:n. I'Jtyemiyo1"ll,lli.

F.tsiz }'emek nc var?'

WQrd order

In the dialogue ebcvc }'DU will have eettccd l!t~~ Turkish uses a differ-nt. ..... I}]'d order to Bngllsh. Now haw the "(iTO ormes at the. end (If 8 entenee, for exmnplc:

~iCili·.u[[}' ice brirJC (urirJg8tJmeic4 literally mor"(!" dt.tn't pIll. (d(m'l put {lit,}' o'7W.r~

dn.ba kovmayin

V(lU should now hew a word which t.elJs you mort ilbout auctber word ~')I)\CS. befbre tt .. In the esample below, white tens you more nbcut. the wlno und crdd tells you mere ablru~ the IKttt.lof! of wine.

Mloguk bit ~i.$e beya~ ~lU'llp literally f"XIld a Imllk white. J"IJiltc

(a: mld bolll"" of r~hU8 Wi11f!") 1\lrki.~h. word order is enmethiug you will quickly get used to. ~hmnwhile, road OOI1W!i.CE!H riffht. W the. end 'before tryili.,g tf> find til)

- 45-


Engliah equl v alent, 'l,.Vhen speaking, on the other hand, do Dot wort:! too mneh abOLL~ ~~ting things in th"J correct order, .LL~ t:l)O~.t (If the rime th-e. meaning \,;,ill net be o.{f~t~d!.

~ Dilbilgisi

1 Commands


J uat 88 there are t w c wa~ oI)f llay:inii }'tIU (SCIl and s~) ill 'Iurkish. there ::JTI! alae t: w o W8}'1j. or tellill.JJ; people what to (10 - OM formal, «oo f:UDm~r_

Here is ebc fatuflnr way:

Gcl! KCJoy! Ynp[ GUll

Ccmr~i Prill fJo' Smil(J.r

'l'e make a fonnal eommond, add-In-to the cod orthc Iamiliur form:

Gcl:in.! KClo)'UU! nl,)m~~ GU.!..1lltl

'l'hc -in ending uecs l-Lype ';'D ..... el huemcny. (..'1e1::! page 251).

There is ulso :=J very formal form of commnud, whi,ch you will eee en .... -eming :Jgrul and »ffictal notices:

G~lini:!l KO}'1t1HtZ[ Yap!lj~zt Ciiliil!ii..:!:l

'Inc .i.nj;J! en4:1to8" ;)'1:90 uses L·type"'l)"~cl h.o.riJ.)otl:y,


To eell pecpla not it) do thio.g..'l, add -me to the end or an inform» 1


umund, [ill.' cecmptc (;I~lml!:!l




Do11'1 C{Wt(!".r DI'l1!'1r;JI1U Thm'ldci Thm't~m.ile!

~liI'I Mdirl;g -mo UF.e~ e-type ""oW(!1 bnnncny.

'Ilf f,(lrn],!)1 uegartve cconnncde, add ·w or -jjjlz LD Um infbrmal Itl~li v e, ror' example





I n theee fbrmal .LlQgClf..ivt. ccmmende, you tnuat Insert a buffer ~y. to • III ~\"C! vowels clashing,

, ·de,·e and -den

111'11'(1 nrc seine examples: fi,1[i1!l(L!ln O~tU',

Bet.Jd.i:il.ln gil, Btuikildili:J.lJnkk.:uh.l ,~t.

Si1.::tt th(!"t(.t./Jl~, G(ttod~g.l'OC(!'j"s.

Gil from th(!' lxml. to tl~e grcct,)s,

- 47-


You C;JI'I translate -de M (jfl., (i/ ot in, depending en the context, Pm example:

Kilitl) n .. ~s._'Ula. Alimas;)da. Ko~ooe mnsn var,

The bOllR. i~ on the table. ... 41i is-at tlil! tcble.

There is 11 t{Jbl~ in.lilf.J comer.

3 DIrect objects

III Turkish it is tmportant. 00 be: uhlc 00 spot the dheet object ore wrrt.,. Them.'! commands do not have -diruct objccte

Cit! Gol

t)tUl'! Sit!

These eemrcande do hcvc direct objects:

Eurhm op~ Kiss #w. 1,t.'o:"t1~al'J...

KolemJ Hnjcnn'a TI!ll't GiLI~ lilt! p.i!1l to naluJlt,

Mfl.$ndnn k:tlwf!yi all nrlu till!. rn{fre {min Iht wblr;-.

QUCilti-GD: ""'h;;.t an! the things that are 00 he ldsaed. given or ta ken? Ans ..... ce ':r'he wemau, the pen nnd ehe coffee.

Ibaao three thillg<l are the direct objects of the cemmeude. cl1)(1j' m'e the thlngs upon whlch the actions (kissinG", gl"ing; Wid takillg) .'1I'f! curried Olit.

4 The equivalent oflhe

'In Vllie 2 Y{ltL learned hew, ill amne simple sentences, TLll'.ltish does ucl. cl.imillgut~h ihr.-tween a and tile, In the caan (If HI.(! dirccl. object (If:) \'03ru, however, Turkish d(Je:r make a d.isti"m:ti.(ln.

Fm- direct ebjecta, the 'Iurklah equivalent of the is the: ondiriv, -i (or-yi "ftlle MlIll ende ln u vo ..... el), 1'he equivale:llt.ofa is either bil" OT JlOl:hillg, l"Or example.

l\'fR~dun knlem al. l\'Jalilld1tn kalemi al. Kahvci-;:.

Knhvcyj b;::.

Ray ttl. bl"1l."Z gty_

T~ 0: pClt from tht? table. TaJ~1! Ihc PCllP'{)1n the fable. HalJ~li~cc". D,.i.r~ll~~eoffcr:·

Wcn.r a whi~ bloo~t?

- 48-

I~!')'nl: hluzu Jfiy. Arul1!llrnllan. Arub-IlYL kullan. 111m nel'ret~

I Hmi !I~yret.

lVoor IIw whilt? bluuse. l.T.seO(:at.

Use the car.

lhdCha trl"" W(rIcAlhc/iim.

!LIIC' liuJ" ln EllglisJl 1..0 talk about IjtJf!ci,fTc itA!Jt'L1L Likewise in .MI, ,:.mIL use the ~i ending if [.ho direct objoc~ is a I:)tJf!Ci/Ic item,

, Endings and personal prounouas

(tl~' Add the endmge .i~ .. de,·e and-den il11t.o personal pruneuns. I nre some eanmples:

nil bunJ. ta« me.

"'!!Ide para vnr rnl? Is ~IJoi!rY)" flit}' m.(t!tcJ' on J'j)r~~

nuudcn slac, FlY.llt~ me to }'.(tu.

.lllllil'l.mu~(lYU koy, Pur thWl orJ lhf. W/;Jle_

, i IL pursnnal pecheun ts the dtrect o!Jbj"Jct or n t'ctb, vcu give it un 11rI11nR. TOOs ia bccnusc personal pronouns stand [Dr ftflt"!f':i(r.r; t,hiD!J!l__ Ipl(l,

, ill u tuble of pe.rronal pronourtB with the,iT diff.e-N:!nt ET'lCljng.s:

nI}!fI\at' -c -ce -den
bGni bana benda henoon
sent eende eenden
cnu 0", cnda cedan
blzl 01", bizoda I biz,,",
,W slze """'" atsden
cnlen onraru oncron onlardan Ihm: Which it.cniJi ill this leble are strange? "'tlr.'l'tte follQwing are oddities.

• VIfII Jil.lgilt. Bxpoct ben plue fbe ending -e to make bene. However, 11 lJl.buru:.Jnf>U!ud!

• l,illcWIOCl, sen plus tJ~B ending -e ia aana,

• WliUli you udd eudlngs to u, you DE!I!d an -n- between the of) end III~I oUruliJlgB.

- 49-


Question: Is the ·n· after 0 ading like a buller cOllS(JItLmt'?

Ans.wer: Fur tbe -i ;)00 ·e endings, yea. However, you ulac need tt ..,.ri1 h the -dc and -den endings, oven bhcugh there would be no vowel ~1;l:'";lj wlLJiCiutiH

6 Proper nouns

Naruca cl uctunl places {for eanmple, Tok20'O, the Aill~~n, P~kiat:tn) nr P(01)lc (frn- J!ommple, Anc, JCJbJ]~()n, Fred} are called proper neuma.

In Turkish, when YOu add endin~ 00 proper ncnna, you P\ll,. ;'111 apostrophe before the c[[{lillog, For example:

Ttil:"lriye'de, Iatenbul'dnu i:&mir'e,

Ii~ 7'm.-kl!}'_

FroM i~'k1.llblIl toft i2mil',

7 Consonant changes

d-~ t

When YOu odd the endings -de Or -den to nouns, ~Oructltt](:!l; the d in these endings becomes t. l,'or example:

l:n.ll~'iJ. at the ii"!tJlooll makll

d(lillpta in thI1Cup/)(.Ifmi

snat.beeea f.!t/icl.I'.o"cl()cli:

SGk.llit.u ifL tlLt!l'{J(t{l

..ana on the i'illd{

QU~_l:itiun: v,'hl)t do the words mae, dolap, bc~, sckak and I';)_f have ill C()][LnL-LJon [:13 I!'JLU;:::C: this Ch~1JIJ!:8?

Answer: Th.-I!-Y all end ill a 'whispery" {unvoiood) ccnsonunt (-II(, -p. ,~, .1( and -0, The d in the coding becomes t ill order LI) 00 wh.iRrery toe. 'Ihis i:: similar to vowel harmony, but with OOt1.;!I)Uilli.ti;!


Wllb::.b DUt fer nouns which IIDd in :k and 1t1A~'8 a vowel before till: 1;., When you Rive then", fin ending wbleh begins wlth (Dr i..',) n vowel, you change the"k to g, Foe example:

- 50-

kuwk IiJl~{I~'i giy! Itl,L~trnk ~llltfat:Rgjt! 1I1)-c.\IJ~ IiLlolI~ye! Molmk I!ok'jj'nb"kl

11I'l0l 101}};: nt tbis example: rtu-kn b'it1 ,

""" Putthf!{XI(J.t(m,

Jlitdum. G(Jrothf!R.itr.Jum! garlic fNlWtll,giJ

Etrl ~f1e. ga.rlic WMagc{ ~Im!t

£0011, o.t thf'! ~tn~-(!t!

'4'l1~'M!.i0t1~ Why does tho kin park nnt bOC1:JoIne ~? ~1'~WI~j": Becnnae the IdL.CT b8_filo~ the k is Jl(J' a vo ..... el,

II The dictionary form of verbs

In 'Ill rldah, ]'floU givu inlermul commands by u~ing the !l.h!'lTte~t form M 111(1 verb. 'Ibe el'ortcei fbrm is culled the stem. ,"'irhen an Bne-lish ,,(:]"1;. ~Pljlj'I'l'tl ill II rlictil)ruJ.L"j', it, .[IPPCLtl'S tIS the atam. somcthnus wtth /{"t in tpllt ofJt.1'h-c dictionary form ol Turkiah verbs is tJ)C stem plus th .. 'Inng ~nu~.k, This dlctinnalj' form if; called the tnfinttive.

111ln-! lUI) acme lnformal connuunds :=Jt1 rl ,1hcir oorL"l?.'I[X1ndinff It'I~njti.'I,'os:

link loo4! hakmali lolooh
dur stop.! dUYlU_3k fostop
"I J.(I~o/"lmr! almek 1(Jw.kiJ.OJ'ov,}'
vcr gi.rle! vermek tughoe.
I ... dl'ill.kot'"sJIt~,r i~~m.(!!lr to drum Ill' a-nL~ke
yo rut! yemek """I
,iITrket. park:' park ei:rnelt [.Q parr.. (a cm:i 'nU! key to these cxereleea is on page 249_

1 Bcmdcr 'he :::.t!'TJt~Il~60 overleaf tL:l Ierm a meaningful dilliug!l,;:!_

- 51-

Po rts moul h Pu b I ic Libra 1)1

((1) - Borek n9E.ll?

(b) - Bfi,Tek, ,latah'S tave, llli,uye 1I.W("I, knlamar. (c) - Steak mezu tL'I!> var?

(d} - Tumnm efeudim.

k) -QDkI!:UzBl.

<n - nil" bDwl. 'Ie bir kalmlillr,

I bOn..~ f.tl~},

Fi!1 in the Il:n~ in WlC sentences below with the endings given in hruckcts. [I.olukc the chcnges ~qnin<l fa. vowel Dr OOI~30JI£Ljl' ILI.mMnj, nud i[)S(!-ri butler loCtt~r~ nr upoatrcphes where IL(!CCSso,c;_.',

((,I) Bu tran Paris __ .. Ill? (·dI!JJ)

(b) DBl1 __ par;) var. (-de}

(e) Ceck __ tuz vru. (-de:i

(tf> GUn(J~ __ dumlaJ'lll! (-de)

(e) Ue::.tl.)nlll._ crkcn gitroc. (-(!) m PUlL3iyon_ pl<Jj.;) _gi,~. (-cl~n) fg) Izmir- __ Rlt.(-El)

(/~) i'.'L.'tS<1 __ k.:W!(-B)

Ii) V" h.n_J{-e!

fJJ Ilu kart siz __ mi?t-de:.u}

durnLoilk IDst()P crt:.en .e.!I(,Iy seu eea

penerpon Glle.:1,D JjlIl"OSt k(:o.;rw

[).or" mQ,r.I{l'l

Iflh:~J Qt;mr..'i rue f_;ili'/

Match the eommunds to the situations where you would RlQ:=;t likely 'lee or bear them,

(a) B-Ll.I!:JT.I,;Jllm! 10) Baua bnkl

(c) 'mi'I;:tye'~'I:;! ~nL1! (a) Jeton atan!

(t!) Perk etmevin! if) SjlJ'lr.ni~f!yln!

m Sign Ot-I ~ l,~~'--pbl).ill:l.

(ii) Child spc-;:ili.in_g 10 mntlier. (i.ii) Dcctor spcakicg tc patienc. (i,,} Sign (Ill u garage door.

(v) CarJ)(!ttclJc-r5_f.e"'-tngwtouri."It.. (vD Tourist boar-d poster.

- 52- .,- cj ,'I

Leek at this picture of Ali Bey and Giil Hamm, then answer the questions.

~b~ ~?~~~~~:1

(0 KOOii"ic:rOOO? (d.) Ralta nc vnr?

(e) Reahude kim var? if) Bu ~11<: mudu mu?

kedl COl1

ril.f i:J;-,jJf r~lrn r)'\::;JI!I(_1

(a} N.'t!l!t?

(b) Ne kadnr? (c) Ne zamen? (d") Neredesiniz? (e) Okim?

((! Bu mesuda na var?

(;) AlL

(ii} Istanbul'dayim. (iii) Haman.

fivl Cok gu.zel.

('P') Bir.l;iGJy<.Ik

( v ,) Biroz,

Study this tOVL'1l plan, then answer the queecicma below. Whicn ptaee will you be laoking at if YOu fellow these drrecticna'

0) Bukkaldan meydana git.. _[J,'klfcl.L1Jld~ ecla dbn. Plejda .liag.u dim. S,~a 00k.

(b) H;)j{.k~ldan mcydene gjt, Meyda.udo. s.u.gli. d.i:lil, Cauudcn sclu dii:o... Bcln bak,

(-Il) Paneiycndnn sr.jtL git,

- 53-

SCI@. dsn. Mcydana gil. 1Ie:yd~lld.u du~ glt. Pluidn sola den, Solalw.lL

(d) Panslyendnn Sl~~ git. S,1~L dun. Mcvdana git, MOJo'daOOll sela den. &10. bak.

(e) Lekantadan sola git, Sola dun. MC!J(lalla git. Mcydanda Ju.t git. Oomidc sola don. Sola bak.

mcydiJn t(l~n, or ~iH.'7g(J SQtl<1((1 ~QI (err

donm~k_ roi'r)rll

~iJ9 liyJJl

(;i_\lIIi mt'sql.'I6"

d;Q; sr'i:li,;ht lok.,nlol rC:;,',iltll<mf

MaCA:h lJ}C:.9C: set phrases [.{J the situnticns .... -hcrc ,Y(Iu would use them.

(a) Afi.'r"4!t oleun! (i) To someone l311tiOg their lunch.

(6) Buvueun. (li) To HlrD(1)OO :::~udyinl!: hurd

(oe) E:.lbli:oc .':ifl~hk! (ill) To sumaone who's j ust wclccmed J·I.)U.

(tl) Hes Dlliduld (iv) Til} the hcet. who IWI> cocked ~'OUI dinner.

(c) Kclay ~I~in! (v) (f't) the .pC:1'.!l()1l to whom y(ln're p:;'Eo."'JilljJ

the salt,

Referring 00 the dismnee cb~rt below, .;J,QSWcr the foliowLlJg queettcne gi""tlg the ligures in lUll.

557 E::;kiif!hir
1037 1662 isaa K.",
:j.t)6 690 .'l33 IHj;2
'7-18 001 .." 718 -04-



(.1'1) lWIJ.[ill'dan Kanya'ya kn.y ki!oalctre7 (~) Edi:ro.oi!, Raritan ne kadar tlZilk?

(-0) Sumeun'dun Adana'ya lm~ kilomcl.rcl (.(l) Samsuu, Edirne'den ne kadar uzak'! (-II) EslU~(l~Li .... , Kara'l;an k~.y ki]QJ))cw'e'f

I twlk r~(.zi~y

It Place each or these coaeceanta in one of the two columns. (voiced Itr un\'oicoo) below. at may help VQ~l 00 decide if Vo:JU make the JJ",utld? which lJ1C letters stand fm; whil~,t fueling t1:W side cf your Achmrs apple. ,"VMfi. you make ::l voiced sound, you will feel '11h-rati{ms, Whc •• you muke an unvcteed sound there will be no vihra.tj.IJ·n.)

b c c d l'ghj Jr.1 m n p 1: S'j t ... yz



W New make pnfra of COJ1S1lo11£uHs - find the voiced partners or chase 1I n ve ken consonants. The: lira O.DI.:! h.u~ bE!l!-T:I done for yQU.

(.1 1 -
1,1 I -
(,I f -
(dl k -
(,I p -
(/I e -
Ig) t - Once you've oomplr3tt!d thi~ exeretae, try s,,-,"'ing 1.;lru puin> whtlst feeling your Adam's apple. Can you feel the diffrdnmr.;! between the voiced and unvcicad aounda?


pj' lekstll t~"lim labrlt:BI l;.<Jewry htllt: ~Gt.lre,'t().IJi.'

- 56-

"0' I;.:IQIlE, Pl..flASl!!

(a) Whic.h wonts have an -e ending? (b) 'WbstdQe;3 the sign mtan?

I""'" "","",(00",,1 yaya pede!;tri;)n

~ 57-


Konu~ma 2


lUi iJ!oo A'flJ! have reached the dessert (.'1JtI!r~e (1.£ thA:!ir teste « urm .. t JIL{'-,lL

Ali Bu. dcndurmu super. Bakla .... a n;:3Sl! comm?

Ay~a Fenu d~ ~jll"tdl kahve lsttyorum.

AU Ben cl8h o ,!)8ru,P istiyorum.

A~ Dnha i~kl i~mcr Hlr lsahve i~

A1i ATl);) concc, ~~(; drum ~ar.:J.p V:U' .

Ay~ (to .!t-,{!:iler) Baker 11l11:mL<!.l

Garson Buyunm.

Ay'iI}U TId kn hva liJtJ..::n,

Gaescn Sekerlt m_i~ sckcrsis ml?

,\),-;u Bane hiT' ~;:1_M, vc cstmc bir ~tu!Tli.

:.ui Vo:!hE!I;-l1.{I1tltfe._1)_

GiLrSOn ITE!RlE!n erendn». Allyct. clsunl

1'1 ,--,,-,,-,-""-.-"'-,,-_-----,-,-,,-"'-.-#h-_--'-------,

~pcr g_rp${ ~~'~r~l~ WIl'.'1oL't 6(Jg.!I(

b~J;;I~ ...... .LJ ........ "Ol7liNls·1ly !;;MIc p.'wn

"::Sr'lIr'l1 d(JrAYI!l li.e9:.iip f).i'/

181i}IOt'ufll I w.;:i(lf nemen ~1;,~i!i.l;t<7W,:'!I

-liIeker ,stJ,g3t

-.5:8 -



II' Itlis unit you will teem how to

• "I\)' what is h[lll'p~ins

• IYi Ix ooont j'(IolJl"' rlnily l'Outiru!-

• ~II~ what Villi happen 8oori.1S

• ~I'i)' what.belongs 1..0 whom

• 1I1l)' wbnt you Ql8"C and wlill~ you wane


114IflJ,'" Atf.:.::l~TIim, a SWM~ who n:l!I- been work! ng in tzmi.- 'fifT :j couple t flla~, has just h:rone into .u. .::lLrp.;:!t shop there. H a wants a euepee. IIILdml~ not ..... !mtto::.l..iJ.}' kro kmg.

1'01.11·10.1 BUY1)nm.OtLlI'HTI.

IHIII~ rem .. nina ~'~ncli"g, looki.1:lg "l the crupets. 'I'I1Ll~1 (rifT~rilig u ~a.roL:lkl i~.iy(u· IUuSLlnu:::.f'

Ih'll(." (INIIi) Td:;.a[ill.i"ll· cdcrim. Sigarr- kullannuycrum. tlliJ "I ~j}k lyL Ball de bunkmalc lstiycrum. ea:..·1

IImlg( (1~~I:i) 'rc~kkih cdcrim. lGILffilctc bakmak istiycrum. tll1lL-ci 'Iubii clcndiru, Buyurun, oturun.

I ~Inhrt. remains ::.L!:md.ing, ll)\J'k1ng ut Lhl'l mrp(!~_

1'11'1 L;lm 1):, Y4JU s[10.:;Ik English?



.8cng~ lngilfz dl..gilim. Isveeliyim.

&~lCl l.!j",'e~ti.;liob:! Vallahi, Isveece bilmlvorum. (:ok iyi Tjjl'k~C'


Swg( s.'Lg otcn. Acelem Vat'. i~im(,! .b';'.di~'(Il'um. Sahe. 'l'amam ahl, Kilim mi. huh rm i8tIyorrmnuz'! Sengi KiHm.

Sabc.l H::Jngi l'tllk? (lto[d~ np a rug) Bu mnvi killm o;tIk guzcl Bengt Gueel, A.IDa bon }'~i1 istiycrurn.

&.tJ.Cl (pull6" Wi. I:tgl"l!f!1J rrl.lO Bu JJtiJolifn:;'Sll?

Thengt. Su mot;iJ' ~ok {,>uze.l. (,..(10k iyi, uma kiliru. ~ok bu),lk, Sabel Bir dakika. Dalia kii~m{ islij'or.!lunm, , , •

The aaleeruan sorts e.bmu1;h 8, poiJc uf rugs end finds a smaller veraten. Sahel i~tc! Heinen bemcn nym, ve daha ku.c;lik.

Bcnl.ol. Bvct, ~"(Ik gw.L'!t Nc Jrnd:lT?

SilhoCl Bu lulim eok t)7.e)~ 4(ok hulltelt.

Bcngt Ka'i (lara?

Salim '[{u'kroilYDn_

Bcng~ AI!;)!1.r'LIML. Sake ya'pL,),ill';!IUU1Il1;, Yinnl rnilYQli?

Sat.lta Hrrk mil)'!,)J, ofeudim. P3,~1tWt y:lplmyotuz. ba du.kk.audfL

~l~ICI .s-aJ&!'o},Io:,IP.AlJ]

otl.lrmak !i)..m,w~

l~mr;k too 8.'1"~{((l QJ".tD &I'flk i~iyo;rmLlBufllll'.£? drJyatI,snJt:lKt:l? Icullun:rn<lk louse

slg3r.s lu,lIlIInmlVOlum 10000l


de .!IisV • .wo

blrekm;!tk 1()~,g.WUP 1ij."Ityofum 'wlmt

• .;Illm rog, ~l"i('(l

i~h\e>t;:IJ 3'.1o"t;1(\'.".JI (.n;;lliCf18i1lyj

"ull~hll goOd(p'M.NJ

i:!llA.'fttrC SJl.~(htrl!JU<l!Je) Illlmr!rk 1~Io:IiOW

blrmlforu:m ldafl'l"/({low' 'IroIltlfiliBilk losp&aJc ju;mu:IjIIJY0r'!iunul',; ya.:teptliJtr

.-:rO(lr.o r'lUfry'

o:Ir:::(llcm'tar /'{rr;'fIOlr',aurry

-gltll),cl'Ul11 I'mgo,vlf} abl 'h.igbrottliN'

nan C,ol'fjJ(.If

m.il ... 1 tw,~

motr1 degit,l'r, ~,r..em dllkl~a mil\\:JfI') 1:oNvor.sunu:t yo.IllI.'l1f.1r ~c!III11r;:1{ /.CJA'I/t:}o:iri::m;o

dIIh~ki;ior(i1< SI"rI[JilfIo'

hemen bemon .!I~nMf

o!:I-lE!1 ~(Jr;ftJ)

kBrJ~1 r/-IliIO'(Y(adJt!'Cliv(~)

~1~ para? riOl"" much lIlom:wl AII11hAllsrll ~rxJtla<l\id.f.o.!:t Q~k.il j.ake

l'''plV'QrBUnUl WI) <lIB mek"Lr¥1 p3ZlUlrit YElplnak r{J baryah, tlil9!J.1c

p::U:rloTlrk "!I.nI!fTlIVOtUI: ~ dan'l"


dOk.k:!ni ~hop

- 60-




Wl1r ll1iJ!l rDlloW"ing quculicas aI:W;IU~ the dw.I~l.lc, I ~klnf.rt sigaraknllamycr mu?

MI\lI~L te~'r!Wc:b-.iJig(trmll? 11~'ngt n.j} rcnk kilim .iswym"?

• KulLIll k~~ lit';) i.sti}'ol"?



II. ,g1l09

, Ill'll rI~killJJ prices fur such items as carpets unrl leather goods, 1",dRily ln bazaars and helidny resorts, WiulJlI}' allow plenty of room , r11'lJ()ti~ti{\on,

All/and ab'a

_II muds you will ellen heal' in 'l'l1l'kc~' nrc ubi and its fCiLLLI.lc IlJj"lden~ abln. Literally, 11m)" mean big br(JIi1(!r ur bEg Ril::Mr_ 'l'hey ~ llSl!d il!! It thelldls end respectful way (Ii" addrolil>ing people older 1.1 yourself Listen (Jut far one. or tbem when a ~h~hine bo~r IIII rrmchea }""(It!.

Nt] fJumk"you

Wl~llll ae.ngt is offered ;!I ci~ret~. JlC refuaea by ilt1ylllg tCfC.kk:ur .. ,I.,rim.ln this uitueucn. tJumk .)'tlu i.;; taken to mean no auuth you_ "il~ can lead to misundererandfngs (and ... cq: hungry fotetgncrull LU.u Tmkt.!lh dinner table. Ti) accept \;111 cflcr, LI~ lfitfen.


I htl salesman eays hen de, Illculli.ng me tOfl. i'fb.e (l,"On{s de and till 'IH'IUL too (IT a./;;o. Do not, confuse them 'With .the e1utiflg{> -dc 8IJd -da which moon irt, on 01" ago

- 61-


m Here tire some negattve HH-I1l.S ol'the .iyol' present tease:



1 The -Iyo r present tense What's happening

T(] say what is hap»Cning right nnw, you usc the "1)'0[" praeent tense. T(] make this Icrm you tulsa the followtng etepe


Takoe ll1e stem of a verb Add -Ivar 10 IJliJ end

Add the rele'IiaT11 Pt\rt of the verb to be.


ir;;ly(;lr ~yOiUI-'-1

Alt,hQ~lJl;1\ :r.1I)~ stJ'ktly ecerect, For the moment you could -thlnlc (If -iyer ;'H an equfvalent 1)[ tlre EU6:r1kh ending -ino 'lhus, vou J1Ljgh~ IHEinilllj' tl'<lJ1SIMI) ii;:.iyorum all foUows:

i~ drink.

-iyor ·tug

-um l{jm

Here Are some mere examples,
English vern stem -in-.g am,:I.I'"O, etc.
1 am roming '9131 "",0' -um
~am,5emJlg sat .""" -eon III
sfleis driving Sur -uyor
'I'l&ilrBwriting )"" -rvor -uz
yau are blJy,;ng ot -rver -~Ul'lU2:
IJiG}'.Elferurm.ing kO~ -uycr -I['IF N(JW that ~iyo.r has four Isrma because L~ ioll1}\73 i-typc vowel harmnny. Note that -um, ·!i;UII, -"HZ and -lar all hawuonisc with l.hl": u in -irOl·_

Grammar becks call this tense the present conunucua tenee.

What's nor happening

Tht.~ negatfve forms of 'I'urldsh vcrla [f]WIlIJ,'E hnve -me- ojtcr UICl verb

- 62 ~


rngll:ah Verb Men' 0"' -Inl) am, ere. ctc.
flrl 1'101 c.om,;n{} gCl ..;yor -um
,01"(9 not se!JiI1g sal -iyor -sun
"""sflotdriviflg Su~ .frym
... fftlrrorgrnng g\1 -m -iy01 -uz
~r'r'lI oot smiling glil -m -l1yor· -surusz
IfWrl-",enolrunniIlg kO~ -uyor -lar II

(II LI~C: -iytJ[' begine with a vowel, and -me ends in one, you a v oid a ! II of vowels by removing the e fi:4}Dl -me-

Whnt's happf:!ning?

tl rm ~eliyj)r.5111\U~ JILw O! queetlnn, follsw these steps:



Iflllkl[) trra- prasarn form of the verc. geliyor?ul1tJ.':

JIftII' tM woltl in lwo. The second word

III IhO part oJ the verb to bt"!. geJiyor 8UI"1IJ7,

11tf)IOCC !tie seoond 'tIOH.I \'';1h Its question form. g~iyor mu!;;umv,'I'


fll';lOf!;lJr"I U!!ll~or ~lIIrlyoriJ~ ~ors-LJnIj2 L'.I~lyoflar

bakiyor muyum? S(1rliyOrrmI~UTl? o·elly.orn'lu7 ~'et1~o-.rmu)'IjZ? g(i.loy-ormu::;unuz? k{J©I.JY·Ot1~(""il?

11111 that the aWJ' Ionn differs from all tho 1'(1::;1. by ~utt.:ing mi ri~t ~t.

I I' ~ll1d rather than in the middle.

- 63-



bnknuycrum 1ILlMlUyQrS"lJO galml\l'<lf vemIlYQl'I_J::t giJlmuYoOf$lIni,J!:! koemuycnar

'b:::lkrTIlyormuYlJi'll'? S-OrmuY(.IrmlJsurr'!" gelmiyormu? vermiyor ml_JyU~? gulmUyGI m~Js.tmu!?:'~ '~muyorhu rnr?


When ,sa.viag the pusifive [OITl1 1)1':). vecb. all parts {or syllables} 0[1.1' Ihu w{)lxi ha v c an equal stress. In the neg(l1i~'e. vcu strru!i [he .syll~tb!{t imrllooiatel,l' before the -ma. In the table below, the stressed a}'lIah'~~~ are in cnpitnls.


gel I YQf urn

o-lu(-ll-yor - urn BI-I-Yor piQ:-ir-I-Y(ll

GEL ml ycr \lIn

0- ruR -mu - )'O~-'lJI,l AL-ml-yor piq-iR-mi-yor

WElIJlinif- Vi."be.tl epc;ilkillg, lI:nng LiLi..9 etresa Ur jent ea bnpertnut. .as addtng the ne~;,:tt>ive (!l1ding.

2 Using the -iyor present tense

You UH(,! the present cenrinuous tense fur:




htllJP8nlrrg (Io-tl FullX:oI (~p'lI.rr:_:orI'\I, Jhe}<"re playing fatl!.tJ.!lN.

i.lt<lung en l!f1ch8ngklg

fact Sig:1:m 1,:ull;_,nnllYQrum I '*'t1't Mi'Oke.


c- "'iJ[)Il>:JtErd EI.C1Ir:fI S,k Slk plaia gj.;JiyOI1JIlI, I dran go OCr' IJrEI OOlICo'I.


Avoiding vowel dashes

I bl\1/e seen 'bow l\rrki!lh avoids vowel clashes by uaing the buffer wmnte .y. ond-n-, \Vhe:il m.a.killg tha peasant cmtinuoua form of ;1), y6tl C.'lD avoid vowel clushcsiu uuather Wll~' - by mJl]a~'ing cue

IIHI cnwels!

~l()I"t'r of the verb buslamak is ha..,Ia. When fr:orrnin_g the present fl of U.is verb, Plittit\g basla tOh'et.ku:!. with ·iY(l[' ~:::I1I~e!j. a dash (if "M., To .avoid tills dash you knock the a offbn~la.

IN.t'lrmnk tfJstn:rt

lrui'1y'trl'Um. ['m $t(tr--ting.

I!I m~ two ather verbs wit;h .!jimit;,l' problema;

,"",ljJm~k 1f;'hIIY°r!;U.llUZ, ,..,lIlok


YlJlln~ r~taitiltg. to eat !I€'Ri!aUI1,q.

tilt'! uegutive ferm of the pl~~nt oantinuoua tense, tne S[.(!JlUi cf'thc 1'toI' verba uru nDL followed hy n vowel, but me 00]10'&00 b.1f -JJI • .IJl I 111.HIl :YDU leave the stems .jnt;;ru;t:

1fo1l.,lannYQrum. U"klemi},or'.'iunuz. ~ mlycr.

Flltrwtstart.irlg. ~lt'(!'re-fwJ,W«UiTlg, H(!'~ rUll ("(rling.

4 Possessives

n,o possessor ending -in

I l'llli\'B.V the idea that something O'Vl1ij ilOmething etse, you {dace n >"\l!l'11iIOT BDding on the thing doing the possessing, In Bnglish, the lII"l'1lHDr fbrm ill:}'mt is ymn' and or Jolm i!30 JoJin'~,

1 ~ lfurtdsh, the .pl);.'j~e~l'jr)'t' re-nmJlt fe -ba, (or -n11-1 .;),Re!' u nnun unding I!A II vc .... -al). Here are some examples:

- 65-

r- r"_Ar·_'5_H ~,'lr

Singular PllJt.;)1

krzm the gkl's K.tzI'ann

annenm m()m~r's ;)i'lnBlerin

riludjjrtin ifl.e. dkeclo.r~ lfIudurleon

tlrmenm too firm's urmalunn

1./10 {)kls'

tho mOl/Mm;' tho (Ji~o.cl(Jrs' tlJ(J/iftYJf;'

The .possessae ending -i or -si

In EngJigh, III the phrase l.!w dlX.'.Mr!:J Iwu.se, we only add an cmling M1 tbc pD.!ilW8~O(, - the doctor. In 'Turkish you also fi1.lt ;)8 ending on t.hl! thlngwhich is praeeseed - the house,

'Thn 'pOeBI!'S~eJ' endit)g is -t, {or -!:it .u.f'b!!T the nco» ct"Lding in a V(1w.r.I), Fot' e~mnple:

dQl{tOl'fr.u e~i lO:zl..'U'JllfLllncsi fh-uwmll m~~tlilri! futbolcun wi hI,bn",J

me doolOr's iWUlll! thcl]ids'mJJtiu!J tlt.i)/h'm'.:::dir~t()r the.IOOtIJ(i!lj-~r'1; lather

The word su is an esecpucnIts pesaeaeed ending is -yu rather thnn -au (pl'8Aumably because susn would euanri a bit d"n:), For t);llrnpk



~ Possessives and personal pronouns

rue possessor ending

'1'1"1 een add the possessor d!Lt.iing -in m personal prunouns:

tl>Unim ",(min onUJ1 bhl:'iru IIII:.':io nnlann


J'cllr/YfJurs (in.tbnnaJ) hi.:;


)'(JU{'/"J'mIf'N (fermnn their/llurin,;

illb~ how bell and biz are !Jlie-htly odd - their ending is dm ratherIhnn -tn. Nete 1I1S(J the buffo!)r' ~n· in OALin.

rho possessed ~nding

nl41 j)M;S4!S8E·d endtug has diffanmt forms to maeeh the personal 1~~lMlIIU;;

I tiounendlfl9 in 01 consonant

uentm e\lirn my home

.nolo e'I.Ilrt your nome

nnun evt his!tJer.·1tsJ)Offl()

hl.r.lm evlmlz oor hoo18

Illln I!Ivln.rz J'"IJ[f( home

cnrsnn evr /hoirnams

".gun ending In a .... owr;1

00n11l1 annern my mO'/hBr

scrnn ~nne.1'1' ~"m"rh9{

cnun E1nnE!sl IIL'M:wr;iU; rooto'1sr

bidm. annemlz 1I1)r mother

a;1:r;lnanJlEll1iz yo.:,tr'mO'lfJ8r

onlrmnilnDi!'1!iI1 tltal'(mutf.lBr

\'I)(J met the -tm and -Inla endtngs in UlliL 2 (page 38),

W1u!on a noun hns a possessed cndill..!:, you can llSU('1JJ~' !8ll\'8 out, the 1.,nton~J pronouns. H(Jwo{!-,rerI1~ is prchubly heat trvoo don't leave out I •• dnrm. "rh~9 \;.·ill.IJ.~·otd confusion between hiff and Clwit.

6 Saying what you've got

III "fly the eqnivnlcnt of 1'1J~ go~ a daughter, in T'urkish you say Theref.II '11)' di;l.l~ehler. Here are some examples:

){J.o.rn. VEiJ'. l'J,,,(! ffJl ~ m:nrl1lltBr.

,ll.1".nban VUl'. l'f.lu'L-egal {I. cw.

- 67 -

Odanm bimJ'oliu "Dl' nu? D~'nmuz yok.

KibJ'itini..z yok mu? Onlnrm unl008l yok.

7 -Ii and -siz


HflS the .I'oomgot (t Wat? We /l(t.wn't got (I: sJWWC'I·. HfJ1I(f.l2.!l yrm (Jalli meiUI~? They 'uu~!t. got (! cor.

'Ibc cndings-ll and -siz mean with and withow

balkonlu !;il.!kGl'"siz l:iu,tlii yags..:r.

wi.Jha ba.looilJ·

wUfwut sugm-, sugur"{rcc w.u:hmUk

w.t.tlwul (lit, ruv{tIX

You've already seen words eouarructcd usin.g LJjC~(; cndlngs:

wena .ulll'itriu. ltJ11g-life. mb:!:rally with km.r.liM

etsl~ wiJluw.t m..eI1~

Note hu ..... -ll Icllo ..... !> i-lype vowel hr-:.ntlo!1rL}·. These words eudiug ill ·1L ;'Lr'ld ~i.y. urc ~ldj'iJcli~·l'S.

Yon ca» add-Ii onto tb£J nmlLi.'I of.u ceunlry t{) give the m.i.tii)TIs.lit.y_

K~'LIlii.dlll Cin Irak

CmJ(1ri(l China Imq

Note th .. nt not all nationalities are ronoed in U.i5 w~'. Here nrc some esceprloce:

.JallOn:),3 JOpM

Mac3l'is.tan Hillloary

UURya R.w;si.u

lt~:ma.iI~.h CatloUlhm

Qinli C.lti1l.t'!S(!

Irakh 'J'(t.!]ut

Jupon O}lucu[" Ru.

Japam!SI! IillfJgadan Ru;;sian

Loadrah lstfUlbu.llu ne.r<:lfr

You can also ndd-H cute the end uf'tawn names:


a P(:,I'SQJl {rom 151(J.IUm!

wltf.!g n(il.iOIJ:(ilio/? ll;lt(!1'C' {1'fJmt


- , r ~ .. "", --. ....... ¥",~ ~-~- ..


.r;ul<OI...ATALI .kARA,MaLI

·KAYMAKU -cuecu

"SAKlZU 'Kiv1lt

:~;{i~~l :~~~lI.(NLJ

• ... MONLU "TUn! ruRint

fJ istemek

'1"(111 C~lJi use t11(: vurb Jstemcls \~'LI)h u noun or III pernlnrnJ prcncun, f(loJ' I'lllllllploP,:

lli'r kilo dcmates Istlvorum. f Wf.!:t1t fl Mlq O{f(J'IHf)wes.

$c.niistiyoro._iIl. 1 want}4lli.

Yall uun also use [t wleb the infinitive of a verb, for example.

Gitmek istiyo['urn.

&'ni g'onnek li.-tiyorum_

1 ~~ruil lOgo.

1 ~oI)tiljll(lSCC;1o'(lI"


~'he keytc these exercises is on pli.,bte 24.s.

Rena this postcard from Istanbul. Pill in the gaps lJ!Jillg the: wards listed here,

;!,.rt!~i}'~T gidiYm1lRl tetyorum istiyorum

oturuycrum ylllZlyol'Um

- S'IJ-


Sevgili Knte,

Sttna ISUmb[Jl'diw ~ (a) _" .$imtli Bogil,Z;cJ~1 bir /QhWltldll ~(b)_ VC" k,1JH'C __ (c)_" Deniz, maUZl/ItI ve Ilava fok g(hcl. 1':11;1 gilzeJ __ (dJ_-

Y,mn izmir'e _(e) Q.f}dll bir Iwfw kalm{tk

isriyolwll. Ef(;s 'e de gitsnek __ (f) __ .

S e lfgi 'eric, Asuman

~'"'9ltl Qe.fJI

&g~ the B04Num).'; Il'UIZ;lIill ~"I'8w, pliYt(.IJi)ma

)'atln «:Y1Jo01l1:WI !:I~Ti~k ro pess .li(ll/9lh!rlll! LWlhlD1If!

2. The eenrcnccu below describe ;!I t.ypWiLl day for Pmer. 'l'l\(lY are, bowwer, j~uilbled U]). Place Ihem in the correct crdur.

(aj Aki}.'\!ll y-L"ll1~ yt(tr.

tb} SMt ycdide kahvalu }'apl}'Or,

k) OglooC:.l1.'ioo.r.:J. ktlWpJmo.i!ae dcrs <;alllilYOt. un Pmar crkon kan."yof, VI'.:! d't!j yapryor.

(I!) Snet bcste eve dbuuycr.

it) S .. u~t onbirde yatl~TO'-"

(g) Snnt cnikidc bufede aa(Lihrio;;}'iyor,

(A) Sant, sckrldo':l MaTl"ll<"lI"U On:i\'ersiU;si'ne _gioiyur. (i) Sebnh derslerine IJlriy()or.

tl~Ellmvelll1'.igl lf~f.dVtlr.uiJg ,,""

d~rs ie.sst\l1

d('I"~; oIit:llJljmot: 1(.1 ~:I'I:~ (!.oJ" a


il!fJ~.tln::.J)lUa af(mllQ{lt1 kDtliphflnE:: t'itvaJ}' kIIl1m'llflk IQf}61LP

(f.u<\i Npn1Bk 1(.1 fi..um.so sM~vt,'J S!I;!I! 11(}ll{

eeet b~tl) 81 (,",-"Ii Q'.[:Cxk li".;]tl1l3k ffJ'go.IDbtirJ;.NQGtwtl) .liil"dvl~ ;";ilflOl.'1krI ~J",lvel'"!:ll~ .:ml'val~}'

glrmek ({}Cflt6(,.lDgtlinr dfinme!o; Wr(.1I'Wi'l1ooW!(1

~ 70-

'fOU'J:rE JOKIU(l1

.. Build meentngtul sentences tLtki.ng cue item from l!!(1.ctL (If LltEI tJuoo eolunma.

(B) Ekll"1F.1K.;i killrnlari ~llyor,
(b) Kitilp~' kllaplilrl yOplYCr.
{el Hehor spur aaCIYor,
(<I, FiJlbo!cu e,kmoK sntryor.
101 MfuiS"l}'en pt)'tIrlO ptalnyor. ~l'fII~1: W piey (M l1.J.:)ft'1Jl1'1oS1'lr) pi~rTOOk (0 t'Jiffl{l, to cook

mOti!.yt."Jl .f1I1J8.~1a1t


t book al.. thE! town plan of Istanbul below and then answer tJlEI q~'{:6LLWl::'.

(") CurnhLl.l'iyCiL Caddeei G;)Ij)'~HLr.u.'y Hnmanu'nu ~rjdiYQt mUf (b) Hnngi YQl 'l'flksim'den ilk yardun hast.;l.nor;ine gidiY()1'1

(c) Hungi yot (:i~k Pesejmdan 'Iulcdm'e gid.i3"(tor?

(d} Cumhueyet Cadded Diean Oteli'nden bang] meydana gidiyur?

-71 -

~adde strY'!tlt. ;:Wr,!JlUl) namam T~'IKI~--II bM)r neatane OOSPiJ'.<Jt

Hky.ordlm fI'~tBld ncreocn fromwfll?l6

n01"01M I'D ~~+.I&e

Create m~d..Ili!L.gful aentencee using one i 0011) from c[!Jdl or ~J](" three columns,

bl;l~ken11 yrj{li:m !;:1;I~I;;Irl

dili tuvalef YCllwklon

(a) Burestcrarun (b) Finlandl!A!l'nm (e) Bu cocrun

(d) [sranbul'un

(e) KI:Zlmll~

(Fl Ame«:~8IJl!mn


b.1~k_cnt er."Jp/I.81city I[I~I:;O; t,lSt~

dil N)l1g(l!!f,I(;I, tc;nglJ.9

klrli (N!}'

sen yt.iflDo.~ ', h.Wx.i(l kalabilhk Cl.:iwrXuj

6- Study U"I.e [;\["Ilil_y eree ~II)W and then answer the queectnoe.

(a) Emin'in Ihab:U;!l] kim? (0) Didem kimin esi?

(co) EDli.o.'iJi kukardesi kim?

(dl Nccla'nm buyukbaha.;11 kim'? (Il) Pmnr'm kuzerri kim?

if) 'l'irnur'un lw", ~Dmgu "'811

(g) A..Vfi~ Nilgun'ilD enneunnesl mi?' (h) Su.lc:r·!Ll(~IL'1n kno:,: kuzeni v ar?

- 72-

unsra. HE!lsinki. ingilizce.

:kfrli. k.alabi.'llrk.

Ii) Pmar, T)idem'in teyzcsi wi? (j) A~lin.in erkek torunu kim?

bntJ8fB~ lin: Gt!Iu_ghte.r

oglJ'1 SOf1'

k~rd~ ~r(ll"s1stljr bliyuk:bilb" gq/ndl",1i6Bf(la11!.er's


kI1lc!lIrde-!ji f;.;f;J'f:"

unnearme gr.:mdf.lWi'II'fIF

(rII(lIJIOhmo1hBr) IUllKl"rll~r k(l;oo.ii ml.'.:;i"n

tey.leo .!lL .... It{fiWlh(ir·i;:ft;;lor) torun f].'andc/liit!


R~rll!mng t-l) the fm'l1ily tree: above, reed the fbllr)','P'inR" rttl;!ls.tl.!];e: 8.Dd nnawer the gllt;!~tiol))'l.

BUgUtl 'I\mul"un degum gUllU. 'I'imur alt;nu~ yaemda, flu eksam enun attest luks bit rcstcrana gidi}'nr. Emin gil:lnek jSUYOI·, ama hl)sti\. E.~i ve coculdan gidiyurlar. Sdleyman evde kahyor, ~rulkii eok ktl~k. Annesi restcruua 6:ridi~,-ur amn h::lOO91 evdc kallj.·orvc ~~Ll~ bakryor. 'l'iraur da restcrunu gidiy'"l:ll' tahii. Restcraun tum la~ 8-..i;:;:[ :vdjyor'~


l:iu8un Ir.rj;IY

dOgUl'rl gui~ii l:irfi-Io('/.:w Y8ilnd!ll J",p..il'I~~H tJCltlin 'IW)':}"S

olm.ak U;oOl?bbo9.Wi~

lUllS liI-grc,'[J~',hlrm~)5"' tmats 1~

Ij'oc:uj)a baklYtSk to klok ,1fk.'1 ,1cJilld

.[IIm RXlIi7IJy

" MaLch Lim cclaurs t .... the appropriate nouns.

tal Hutlii ~y (i) bt.lyaz

(b) ~irnen (ii) kl:'l1r.·orBDbrJ.

(cl 'Iurkiye'de deni5'; (ill) karmizt

(a) dornatee O.\') Jluwi

(1:1) gece (v) turuncu

m pcrbekul (vi) san

(g) muz (vjj) siyah

(Ii) mur~ (\lim yc~il

t;1mr.n !}r.:lS!S klilnorm!ngl brolM oif.umijl~iS Ir.o.'1"!.lltO ll.a~ .c;grroJ por1:8lU1l.-xsngtJ(iluil)

lUfUr'I[;!I o;1r._mij"O(cokH.!r·. en y"dlJ!)w

muz Dst1~..-t.!i

yo!ju:rt 'j<JgJtI1ft


There: LIl"(: LCJ1 Turkish items of [000 UT drink hidden i II ~1I1. eq narc. One has bGI1(L fQunJ! :W~ YDU.

[J .jj. e k m: e


~ ~ riSk a V' U fl ) -c a elk <I. m 0

I Pol}O } Q,U Z 0. I ~ rb ira { s u y s o L a pS"Tlic a n

.~ Konusma 2


'Ten mmutes rarer, the dlscunslcn ill the carpet ,!;hup between BE"!t1J.l:~ and the eeleemau ts still goi.l1g 0.11,

He!lgt Yirnnbcs miIY(lll.

Sahel Olmas, Brrkm, bi» L;j)y1.6ldlimleri yi rrni"b8..!l milyon;:t ;[1 hy(iT'"I)~ .. .Bengt Yil"l1lialw 0 mmuu.

Sahel 01.1.11. DaM UCI.l2 sutnnycrux. Rengt 0111 e do cck, ELl. sea [ty.uWlll:': mf1" Sahel l".i~ i~tLj'l}l" musunus?

Sengi j atcmiycrum.

Sahel Tii§-s:i~, yirmiaekia roiJ~'OI1, Bengt ''l\mULt11. Yinnisclti.z iyi, Sahel Oldu efendtm. Hilim sizin.

oCIlmilz rJQ, 1~::;(I~on bjjll"l~ M-;'OI'l'I~

'!I'irl!l1il.i~i"nlll'cn;:' fi:Kl~"J;Ir.1lY"~·1I(,I ma\\:.1o

an aon las;, t,rut 11\'E"it PlI'c:s

II:;;; ofr.'C.i"iI/Ar,ac:e.'(J; 11~~lz 'Wo:,'!;o~a~

aldu njlir,O/{,l!i'tlt;;sel.MJd

- 74-



rl,/s unit you will learn how to

I~' lntroductious and be: inlroduced I Ikilliout the pest

r I/lhAth.~!!.h:'lppf!nol!d IIItllQtim8

._ jill American engtnem- Wffl'king (in 8. new p~Qjcc~ in 'Iurkej, He 1~IWri tnto At-.k3r<i, bk-ell n e.,')"!ti to his betel, ;)00 alter freshening 14 III)\\' entering tho(!: h(itel bar. Hem he meets his 'Iurlrish dicuts: 1]11 a(W, whom he keowa, nnrl Mil fit. Hey whom he b8S 001. met rn, H~ ls nltttle lnte.


'tcsckknr ederiai. Qok iy-iy'@, Y a !li2.?

'l'e!}ekkdl' "Jd~M!l1, Fl~d. MUfit &~i '~lllfil..LJ1l'i'SU.I1II2;, d"Jeil ]l1j';' Toed Bey, M(H~t Bey,


Ben d~!,/!:II.;: memnnn oldum M1.Hit Bcs. .N8sLl~JJWt1

'['>:!~ekk1Ll' edenm. Hos ;;wlcliniz. ~

Hcr.=; bulduk, C~ knll.'hm. Affederaiuiz. \-ok bcklediuiz roi't On~mH dP.jtiL Buyurun. eturun.

YI)li::ulnk ruL.qllol?

- 75-

Ted ({Ilk iyjyili, <;abu..k gecti, Pilm seyrettim, l';)dyo di'i]J

dim, blraz de ujudum.

MUflt Bey Nereden gcliY(ll"SIJ..Ilm!,? Mil:lmi'den mi?

T13d Mlnau'rlen gcliycrum ~1lI11l, u~$rn Frankfurt'rn dlL~dll

Kul'im Iley Omdn ~k beltlcdiniz JIli"?

Tad QIlk beklemedik. BII'" soul. Iulun.

'Ihe wetter arrfves.

Garson Ker'iIIlBey MOfit&cy 'I'eel K·erim.8ey '('cel {{mm'Bey n~u'son

Buyuruc Beyler.

N(! i.,,:iY(Jruz: Sarap rm, rl;lkll'lu't Ben lcit. btl- eulo t~tij'fltTIJ1¥I. Bcnim icin de ruln lutfeu.

Tck mi, duble mil


{tv it:{itcr} iki k!k, bir duble rakr, ve ~re&, Hemau cfondirn.

)'r; !.11:.1:" ooa your (Silt phrBJ88) lillllm .. k lOJo:r.vLt·::;(ImIMIJ.e, wb<t ,1CQWI{f.lI"9l1H.·,'.!Jio

mamnun emum po'&l1;tld lei I)H:~'


ger;: 'killm<1k to M lars

g~k~h::r..m rW<IS",',1r9 affl!'iJ(".I"!i;lnlz Ibl~1'J)',8XC(f;io5"";Io!i" i:ll!'kf.etJinlzniI1 1!.jl1l(,lYOu~

L~?a:odYOOL"Yo'"!~? »nemn 1f1;p~m 6nlmllidEl~11 1'J::rIo~rr1LU:t:J' vo1!:tJ1uk fJL'fflf!}'

n:J:mk:h .~1' WilS" N'i' flow I't'aS ... Iylydi if "",IS aood

gt.~tI Jlp~;~'()'

~;lIbuk ~«C'k,QI/oI':oVr se'friMr'lli!-k IQ'w.;JI'(;1i lJ(l'frctllm 1H.i!lidi'ed dlnledlm IAm'le.;:} lIYudum 1~I(;(Jr ~:ak: ,"JP.~I<mQ dl.lrli'i:!lk: Jr)$,'I.'p dl.lrdu Jl!;r{Jr.1f<u!~ oreee rllS~

ooli:ll)merJ[k ~l"f! d,'dr)'j L,....l'.'j f.:;Ih:m rorJ.Qhoy, orso bc::nlml",ln forme

lek r:J~u iI sJi7g1'e r.ukl dub1~ mlu <Jk:J~rilkl

~:t: {1I1.If..W~ (t~:::allt rceetec nUll! ;J:lldd'lid<fxJ:X:)

rhrkkHh, the m(lst ccmrcon ru:::'piIoJJW tu how are :ycm~ is rumply There Is no ll.COO W :!Illy {inC! or rIlL rHf111 :;18 we do hl

~ _ IUC proud (If their nurkmal drink, m'b. -lt tastes or uuiaeed and mn'k mix-cd willi water, O.nIB.T a 1"810 tnrhc .. tncn au it:rJp(;orbL!d ~ II rid you will Impress EI. Turkish hoot.

I bow j1iu insert a y between iyi. and the e:ndi:lI.g -di in order to . preuunclution. This ta despite the futt Un1l there ia no clash (Iof II

I 'roo say::: radyu dinledim you would translate iL illOI listened I~" rodio, However, the word l"3.dyo does nolo have the .j ending II iu the 'Iurlsish equivalent (l-ftnc-. Tb..is is because [0 listen to tltl"! I hili .D. set phrase ill English - it dues net actu a ~ mean .Il. !;.]lBdfie:

I I. In rfurlrisb, y'(IU OJJly uaa the ·1 ending when you arc ro.fl1ITing , flpCtl1ie ulticct. illl fur :II!> the Turka are CCIItCC.nltd, T(1d wa~ ufng tac radic.

" Ituw l:his queutinn appears twice in the dialogue, The first time I ",ull! il. tiJo uak hr.l'Ilt! YDrl bett, «-'«iur.l/1 /rmg? The second time, II III BI)Y.Jl.!iks Did }'rm l.OOit long? T\J..:r.tru:h bus (W equivalent (If the

, IIII'll ImlJ.E ~IJ. tense, M YOLl use the paIl' tc(J.SC ineteud.

lf1r In this book }'()'IJ will discover "hut, in Borne apecifie c:asCS1 ,\111'<11 uses a present tense where we. usc haw done in English. "'1 iH an example of this in. the diulogue: yon would translate ~t'lldcn gElliyor'!mnllz? I)S wh(!1"C" hlnocYCJIf come (rom?


Yanh:;. 101, dQbrru mu? 1 Ted f;E!9 kaldl.

.2 Ted, Kerirn lien nunycr ama Miilli Beyi t.u.mml}'l)l'. .'l 'Ied'in npijl.a.lt:nu.":,l do.k:ikiJ. Ialen hltmmyn'da durdu. 4 Mufi~ alkol kullermuycr,

~l'hf) ::I!l9WoI!-l'S moe I)U page 248).

- 76-





1 The past tense

The past form of to be

You can 5J»t the past tense by' an endil'i£" which includes. -dl. Here i!l jhe paat fonu I)f 'he .... arb to ~,

I lnm 3113 some 1])0:1'(.': examples: g~ld;JJ..t






Iw.t11,.(! Yf.lu;<;'m.ilcd he lVokhcd 1.t.:'BWt!r.lt }'Orl atartw. they waited

lu mt'l].rJ) n past veeb negative, add -me ()noo the slam of the v erb. lIute arc some negative nod question ro-es.

Present Past
zartginim(lamfiCflj zangindlm (/ ~'f'il'.s rich) I mun'tcceoe Diflloi:t:lmIr. -,., Dld'n'tlcome., .1
zartqinaln zengindln !~ VlllfOOii'iril g!!ltlitt'llt'li1 ~'Dhm~dim ml"!
2:£lt'lgin <::£Ingrmll gIlimEtlliFl gUldUr!rlU)? '!lulll'M,ioinomi?
~r'lgmlz <:oengindlk 1000000medi Beyrolltli![li? ;S~yt(llt'I!odiml?
l:engl~lnlz zengin:dlnl~ IIltmed~ !):tlikt'lli? gilrf\lx_Hk;lI'Ii?
l!a1i1madlf'llZ lloa~ladkllz mr? ba~I1Hlf..hnl~ml?
Zi3'.J1ginJE!r zengindJler b!:HtJemelilar I:lekledih!(rni? bi!lt!elllr..:~I(lrmi?
m:z.engrIllerdl ltYl)u pur ULI:oaI!' endtngs one ward which 8n-U1> In.A vowel, add :!l·Y·;)9 well;foJ'8X.iLOlf~le:

tyiydinL I WI'L.': 8(IOd.

SfltiCJ.,;dl. ft. Wet;;- n -tll".lt(,S,_I:.IC-FSlIIL

You say was !WI by us-ing bbe word deogil wtili Hill above endings. Fl:or example:

M'utlu deglldim. S .. a-ultc.log-ildi. Ib~lf' dc,filJerdi,

IW,(J.S'II'llur.pp)'. ltU}(H'I~'lrulti '{'Iw,y W~I'l:!/l '( N!f.!d.l'.

The past rcrm of verbs

Ta nmke the simple paat I:.en~e of Li vern ~'(IU I:-O.ke LIm fol1.n'Wi.og Sl..Cp;:;:

Actl.ol"'i axampte

Taka tha stern of inc verb. gel

Add the past form 4)( lM, \Jarb to be. geJdim


NDk bow the tni! ttllw.!safi'f:'I' thj) personal endings.. Ccmpure i;ht_q with IILtJ queeelan {orrus of i..Im -iyo't" present tense described OJ1 (l'agtlo i3~.

- 79-


2 Using the past tense

Translating h;j.#: done

'Iurldab does not h;;J\'E! au equivalent {)of the Enl;lish tense ha~'I!. d'Jlle. Inaread, ~11 afteu 1Ji.lC: the past tC!J..!iC, for exaraple:

Hi..;: ralrlilj:Lullili? fJat'-e)i1U ~~ViJ{·drll.n.k mkt?

.r.ilirkiye'ye gitmcd.im. 1 hatJl!Il't l>Ct~f. [tj Turk!!}'.

Yemeg;nj~i bitirdini:t. mi1 lfaueJYm Ir,~r.slwdJ'Qu, mP.f.t.l?

Ttl some eases j-UU L1~ the Turkish ·iy(Jo"i" iX:nSC 1..0 lnm~l;!l1:;e rbc l!lllgbsh 1-I<U1'}i!" oonl.: WU.:!II!I. 'This i-!i a'([I.Jain~ (Ion ~C: 15-9.

Where English uses a present tense

Note. thaI; Turks aomettmes use the past tense where HnlJl:ish uses the present tense, In eonversaticn you are .[!wl.)' 1;.:. hear the foU(lwing;


Jltrl.:k. .... ~,jr".Id. JliKeIDi!;(}rIf.'.;,.~I,

00 yo!} Ul'l~'tIr!;("1r.\;n I'm.c.oo"ifflg,J'NI)I.~n!JhrllMre,'

uterar treneieuen

I wus Iii re.

1 ........ c4.usl'oad. INWI)(J.'f1i!,;.;I,'r)t,

G~ka:~h!i~. Anrenm.

Bunu ~ok se'ldilr"l Anlacfmarn(/ ~hjml

3 Telling the time

Tclli.ag the lime by the hcnr and half·hollr is easy. Yoo wiJJ learn the rimes In between in a later unit.


- Saat ii~.

lVhl'1t'8tllP.1ime~ Tll!"eeo'c1N;n.

mlXmlly T'~ 4rn{! t.s thn'{!_)


At l'JJ'~ o'doo~,

Roo.' man.y I!OI.lJ1i? Th''C"I':hotl.r.i,

It'j JwJfpa.Ht {<lUI'. A_lM'[J1IJ.~·tr(Jli.r_

. 1'b[ll" rmd a half lumf'6"_


-Saat uoIfte_

-"Ka.;: saat.?

- O~ saa&.

8m!L dOrl IJU~uk. D5:rt.lm~uktR. OOrt 1JU-1j:u.k: seat,

- 80-

neve "1'01,1 B~~" 'WAITING LCJUG?

I h .... rn ia Qnc oddity: holf,past twelve is simply ytlrlm.


Come at 'w.lf [J(£$I tu,t.\lo.:_

4 Compound nouns

hi l~ng1is.h yOu can describe u I!OWl 'u~ing unether noun (lor example, h(,fJS"e smkiwK'.h! mountain bi~> bo:~r garol!ll). When you USe 1:\0;.'0 IW)IJns together lib this, the result is called a compound tW1Ul_

111 'lueldsh, .",.h811 jrm make ccmpcnnd uenms, ¢hc second noun takes il~11 ncsscssed i.>ndin'l"·i m'.,1, For example:

IIIZZ:U evi [liu:a fl()t~

ulle selcnu {'twlil.}' rMm (found in

a restaurant (II' cafe)

yfilak oda.. .. J ~~droom

Ii udems im8illi!S"srlwl~

At.nliil'k Havalimmu ,:\tutill'k r.U.r,!:JOd.

OdOOn slnemasr the Odcrm .ctII.cIJW

tt.'rnemb~.r tl:UJJ the poaaeaaed form of ~u is euyu. For C!:fUJIPW:

mndcn b-UYU portakal suyu

mine-rot It;"tJ.ier OTflJlgejuiee

- 81-


5 Verbs which need·;, -e and-den

Leek .!I.~ these sentences:

~tele~ arnWJ'l gonlii. MeW}1 saw tlL~ car,

Melel~ nrabt\Yl uldL Mtl&1 OO!lgilt itflf)k Ow ccr.

Melel{ nmOOfl surdu, Melt,:}1 drooe the IXLI",

'The car is tha ~hinf;l which wns found, bOL1ght and driven. H i~ Hw obj oct (If LJiC: verba. AI) f{)U might expect, it hna the din:!u object eudlng ~i (in t:hi~ case -rl,

Nowleek at tbase sentences.

Mdek erabaya baku. Mr.:!le'k a1"8baya llfIh: cldc. MdUk erahayn bi.:odi.

Me.tck loolwi at th~r.(tr_ _i'ilek'i f.e.ll il~ [OLli!. with thC".c~!", MfJkll cot iliM HIt! car,

In these ;JClltCUOCi; tho car i~ again tbc object. of the ·.'el'b!!o, Howe v er. il, does not have I..ho direct objf!d el1ding -i, buu hua the to ending -c (in thla caea-m matend.

Questi[)n~ 'Why?

i"'r:~wer. Beenuae some verbs, including bakmak, u~lk ebnak ail...! btemck, inF.-il)t. on their j)bj~el~ taking the -e eadirig instead Qf the -i ending.

Now leek at tbenc scntcneeac

Melek crabndan blkt-L :ll.(eiek arabadan ind.i. M'el~ nrubadan nefret etti,

Mr!kh c& fed rip wWr Iho/l car. MI!MI go/, 011.1 Qf:lw cor, Mdd hai.r.d the- car.

In tJ)O~O sentences clre car is (lg[)ill ULI", u1jll!ci {lof the verba, Hm'iIM!J', il. has the from ol!1u:ling -den (i" this cess -dan) instead.

QU(J::;1it)D: l\rtJ~~?

Answer: Because SODIC: verbs, Including blkma.l(, iwn(lk and: nefret etmck, inelet un their cojects ~o:k.:ing the -den ending,

In the glossary ;lH tha end or this book; verbs which iTIR"i~t On their (lbj(:!cil:- f;nldn.IJ the ·e Or -dcn endings appear like thls:

hinmelt(~) inmek t-deu)

AsslJmo 1h-O.~ l:'lJl uthera use the ·1 cndlng.

- 82-

IJ For


St::nin i-vin aldrm. ()nrrni-~in

I t;.ltl manna fOr-Jar IhE .:;u.w ()f or becaus~ .of.

'Villll.i. i~in refers to a personal proueun, give tbe prcnoun a PO::Sl'S~ClI" ITilillitg:. For examplec


for (1\oC, ior rnJ' .:;11.00 llMugh~ .i~ /Or you,

for him! hr.{·, bC'('tru::It? ()f that, that'$why

b.)caf~.':t (If this, this hi wIry _ .

Wheo lljJin refers to a noun, you do JlO~ gi .... e LJllJ! noun an ending. For ~':t.Ult1plli!:

Tlli~ bw' Ie for AiUnP.t.

I bought a pmllent for tile ooby,

Bu him Ahmet i~in. Bebek i~in. b,edjye alden,

All [decl1l[lti~·c wCly (lor ,~aying for t!i- tl1 use- the ending -e. Here urn .ol)l{:I!".:!QmplQ.'l.;

Ru birn Ahmet'c. flehege bediye aMliu. Bene hir- bu-a.

Bp.~ bin liraya.

7 Question words


J b(JugJlt a prei1i!n~ f& Uu~ bflli;y, ,tbc.c.rforme.

For ;:Wf! tiwrl.!mml1ira.

Vou can add venous cl1diJ}g~ Or tho word ill;in onto question words auch as ne 1)1' kim . Hero arc SOJILC examples of the rE!~n~tiI1g me:::lnin.JJ-~=

-"" ~ an -I. I~
I'I!.<'; II~ n~~n tl(r'~i1 r""~I'1
'''''''' (II-f'i}') !"~'llIfe; (,..t~) lWII-Thl-l! fMl}~
Wr,-, ~j{(ji ~H:';:' klman klrW'! ~imifl ki'-lI~fI
~~J ( n (1 .... 1'1I}t0-. (Qr).".jlOH·;t (1I-1'lI;!fiwri) ~w.I'!l:::a) ~00I1t I'r.r)
L'h'.-j.0J) YflU could Jll'ol.);Jbty have guessed Ihc meanings or meet of these eombinatinua. Not.e" however, all the nltemutive wuys rJC'a!i-kin_g why?

- 63-


8 Word order

Yon place t.lla words rui end de (]['li!8nin,g also) dLroctly a{ffiJ' ue worde rheyrcler lu.

St,ody lJic.!ie sentences with mi.

Bana blra get.i ... Jyor musun? Am ),IJUbli'Uing me (l fJ(;crt

&llil rm hint ;et1dyo:r.sun? .4.m 1 ,J/tt p(!rron:} .... Jf'n~ gWil,1g (l.i:H?trfl.)r?

BlllLil bira ID.l get!t.iyort;un? Is i( bc~r In.at:}'.orl'J'f.gcUing 1m?

N(J.w study these sentences with de;

Balla ce blr bica geth'in. Bri.rl,g I"l bf;"fj"J' fOI" I1Jtl, 10[,1. (mt!anitl;JJ: 8S well (IS Iar myrrle.nd)

Bane biJ' binl d.fl getirin_ Brwig me a bee-I' (J.S w-t!ll.

[meaning as well as soma (1)11(1)

The key to these cxcrciaee is on page 248. 1 'M8tcn these qUE!:;UOll;'J aud ana ..... o:!J'6.

1"1 AdW]ZD(!-? 1;1 Yarun.
1&) Ne o~niYOl'"smmt't (ii) Dolmz;r1i2binliJ,(t
(e) KIl~3? (iii) Elckl.rik~,.
(4) Ml3..qlagi:ni~ ne? (i'l) GW'IG}'Afrik.'th,
{el Nerelisintz? (V:I .K(lof~~'a'd~l_
~l Ncrede.cturuyersunua? (vi) Trlj-.k~G.
i;rJ SL'lfltkao;:1 (vii') Didcm tbrik~iha§(iejtJ.,
Ihi Bu kim if;in? (vi,ii) Hokan'da.
«() Para kim(fe? (il:) Og-r"cllri:lf:kio:,:ln_
Vi (jawt!)}"i niye okuycrsunua? I,) t~iruit;lll_ :2 Fill in ebe {;filM below u9ing ~YGN16 from the Iist. in erder ec make meaningful compound nouns, Add or filter (:(ldingEi where ucccssm·y, The first one bas been done f(ll' you,

ecrba dernj; lsaset. kehce mukina otel

- 84-

(tT) 'Ifirk k511w~9i {b) domares __ (c) I·Iilt-r..n

«l) ooohijs

(P) fo'<w,f_ m miizjk

I dUr"..!!;; !,;rop

,t;>Orb~ !';C'o:IJ,I

1 Fill in the gaps with possessive ImdiD~TS, and remember to make .un}' necessary changes 10 the spellings of'bhe words.

(I'l) David __ kcrlisl geldl.

(b) Benfm ~'emc.k_ bi~Li_

((:) Mi.\f\cla_ brulkl!lltl Dubllo. (ti) Ali gelaiiycr. 1ir:u18_ haste. (.r.) Si7.il\ ,[I,'t';)ha_ go.h~]y(J1" mu?

ibo1tlllEik liJKfIIsll Irlanlja IfffllInd

All tha ultemntives listed below arc: grtllJun;utioL'a!t}' I!;florl'e(!t, but. which ones an :tE1T)1'(lopri8te Icr WlC given ;!Iitu.utilm? One (II' n_l(lrc !lIlly be suitable.

(a) You want to telJ someone you understand what. they are telling-you.

(i) Anhvcnun. Gil Aola&Ll1'l_ (iii) Biliyorum.

(b~ Your boss hall jul)'t, told ~II lhot. her husband. is very iII_ (i) C:rurdjJe.rirn_

(ii) Get,:rnil}r.olsun!

tim .A:ffudt!-~j_uiz.

(.c) A shopkeeper shews you OJ. dress. You dcn't.llke it; (i) Savmivornm.

(li) GiizBl·de~iI.

Gil_) Savmedim.

- 85-

((f) t\ ;S!:J.'!}pkeL>Plll· 11m; just. nuked a iiL_gh price Icr an uhj(:!ci... {i) Cok para.

(ii~ ~l)k pahah.

(iii) Pahah gcld!'

(c} YO~larc late lor U meeting, Whnt du },("JU say? (1) Purdon.

(ii} AffooE!l'.::Iiru:.:. Gii) O:.:urdilerillL.

if) Y~)l wB~~;~~~tl,!jt.;Sl)mlXlnB who is ~t!:lndill.g in lj(JUI" W!l.)', (ii} 'P<ll"uiJ'n.

(Iii} A1Itdt!~ln:i2 Bfe.ndJm,

Match the doers with their actions.

(al _o\rvit:II(::~ (u) S:)r]o

(.c) J\riSlofKolorub (d) Th~E(!D.ttP.$

(11) Titanik

f[} vledfm ir tlyiol,: Lenin



ftTl What ia the mmp::mnd·J)onJl'r

(b) lVhich werd ia the direct (lbjcc~ of tha vt!rh'i' M) Vlrhich letters are buffer eccscnents?

(d) Translate the sign inJo l!ngtish.

(i) Ame):ilm'}'1 kCQfetti

(ii) eck komik iilrole:r Y<l~)(.J (iii) denizde batn

tiv) 'kot)ru!lU!t bi)' p.:ilitika(;I,}'dl ( ... ) pop mUzi~ grubuydu

h.-i) Hnlii ~ij" mntl"tMtili.gi_'i·rli

batmlik to S1i'A~ kornllc IIH1I'W

ij-l1Il.;J f(.LI1'.lQ<JS'

gl"lIp grn.:(tI(popg."QI,'fJ)

FJ(I'ltlka.c·j ,:;o.QLi::.ilm IDcgf4llmL.k l'oO:~ ~;]rlo Cf'mrf'O' CMt;~\b

IcLilliJr {:1".~lIro bak3tlltk hilr'\~ry eree E/:o/l(!!;I;.~

rniiZe rm.c_;m.rn gli'l~ ~r:tlry

/uI.!iWl'r the toil{)Wlng qucsucus u::.ioI!: the figures shewn in brachete. The fiYI5t, one has boon done ulreedy.

(I'l) s...'1lJ;t k._'I,~t a .lru,lluy(rr7' (;3-.00)


(b) Hk"fn'e\3 ototee ne Z<LnIlUl ~reli)'Or? (7_:~O) (c) Ankll1'~'Y;) 1m.;: saat? (LOO)

(d) Film enat ka~t n bj)~b~'l)r? {9.00) (tl) ;Sirndi anat ka~'f (12·.,30)

0" -

- 87-

If) Film ne kad<l.rl.nuJ)'!{2.00) (g) Tokyc'da saat kac? (3,00)

((.I.) Halsan lrimi .liE!~'iym-? (/.I) Halsam klm aeviyer? (c) Nilgnu'e kim a!1lk'! (d) Nilgan kime Il!ilk'!

(4) Nilgful'dcnlcim 1~fu!t.e:li}Ur? rf) Yusul'khudcn lillln!ti!rH.ym<?!

10 y.,·Jlltd.l these questicus end answers.

(11) Ni~in agh~'I)l:'.!jlm'~ (j) QunkiJ ~Dk_'r'ffl'lJldll_

(hi Neden b::l~n}'or6'~lJl? (jj) Qunkii. cuzdanmu kaybeU..ifli

Cc) NI}'i! telefon etti'n't (iii) Qunkii. sizden korktuk.

Ctl) Noi~inerkenyab}'t)l'? (h') Qu.I'Lki.idinlern.iyonmn.

Cft) Nl.Jl"TJ gol!lmiyo:r? (~.) Qiliili:i.i onu seviycrum.

(f) Nlye bane sennadrms? ( i) K(lJlU~JIl.uk leln.

(g) Node» tlJ1:U i)ptiln'? ( ji) Qurili:ii mesgul ..

aOlaMak tDuy

b.@rmaII tQs.!lOvJ

r;ij:l;di.liflo JJIN'se,.waJle.! !ocrrn.;IIt;(<{l) W,lSK'SDmeGtl8

io;gnUljrnak I'Dta(l(,CCTlVi'ftr)

mlJ'!igul .Ixr.!i:),I, OOCL'I'iOO

kcrllmllok. {·dc:n) to be s!r81d of kirybcclm~ tDmE!

Cr:l Konusma 2


A couple of bouts Intel', Ted and Miilli are in the hotel restaurant, Karim 18 phonine- hjs wile, Bema, to my he'll be late.

Herun AJI)']

- 88-

r fo'6~ .. 8

h~~ol"'i' "NI'L.1'l'!i rle~'it OOW ilrtl' "'tJ;l$~

II I~ f/fj& (1M set ~~J:(lrl~~ II) "'h;!lI>ltr'1)

.,"lIk totc.'r;pilr»'I&. (/)'866); ",,""1 Illtw

.... ,~II1.:Iilr;lnf1l .io~Bil'hOrJr's hirll,!'. foIIDQIJ'fI\i.k.1f'

"'.~mr;lk WIB6!~'.9{~lhillg~ ~jIO" dil.\'Ik

~rgu.fI ~yoo

nazar S!rr...:My rOlz:.ilrgOtlO 0fI&~1r::t;·:ty o.yli!!Ve-meo!j:l ,\:Irx*i ~orMak Wil:;K

geleC*k III) VI.i.IJ COOIl9 gE'llLoo jJl~I.I!ri:ltlfy, I iR/ntf urnrtml)k rl5torgst Sl}h,mllGyh!J B.!Iyl1Q1.1{;o h",dl jl\;lUOJ<

'Ii ~[1 &Brim. Ne llrulE!r?

lyillk. Ncrcden m'ty<lThLll','! • , . .

'kd'in ctclinden. Geo;: kuldun, lriliyurutn, nma '1Qk kAtnu~tul.{. TILUW .. L1L. Ne zamnn geliyorsl.Jl'l?

"J1tlDL bjhaiyl)l,'I1ID. Bir saat rilnn l'.(1:rmlL y'ak~W"liZD1i'!

Blras Iljtilt

Arabayl (Itelrle lnrak, Ta.l(.Biye bin, li.'lt.fen .. Ytlk yok, 61lrhOl} de.lj;ilim. A7, i~tim,

Pcki. Ted nm!ll'?

1{1.ll-g-LlU runa iyi

Puaar g(1ll'il blzu o~le ;:r-c:m-egi icin ~I)li.vor ron'? Senuadim. Gelecek gnfiba.

;300." Unutma .. Boeden selarc ~6y!C. III 'ThnUIl)). Hedi, b~a :1;.;)'!I'll,hl.

- 89-



In this unit you will/earn how to

• talk .'1.bol,1t the: fUVlIrC

• mnke fi.lI~e;:::t.iotJ.s

• S:~)' wh-f!<J'(! t,htt1!]:S n It: in rolntdon tc E'!:tdlo nthnr

Berknm Sarah nork:mt Saruli

Bl'rkant Sarah Bcrkant

13U[1k\:CIID ru:!,)o'::Jpi}'OrAlm?

Bt Imi,~j"l.lru. Nil1io. I:J:Jru}'f)I'.~m\'~

lkt "rkLI.d~~lfL lokuutayn gkltyaruz. Bjz.i..IlLl(o;gol!l~8K-I!_ Tesekknr cdcruu, hayrr. Qe~ yatmak istumlyorum ~'j!rlld~ jnrm i~e crkcn ,gf.:llec8b,iim. Snat eekizdc dcrsirn sur.

Fark etanez. Hadi, !:lot bizimle.

DilmiY(I!'Ml . Bruin dl\!gilim_

Hadt. vann bell de crken kalk::u:aj1llll. Sebeh crken bl>nil1l de dersrm var, Gc~ d6[Lmtlyt!ce~z, '>';;tU;Jlli,

AiI'kad.,~lm'n ttimle.-"

Cenk ve Hens, CCiLk'j tamyorauu. Hems cnun Altll.lU1 urhu o:l.u.!!l. 'filT'kiYo!J"'de tnul ~.uPLYl>'I". tr~ dtk~ [tin Buisa'dn hnkh, }'EITln Pnmu kk.~lc'J.'C gld~k. [1m;; bir ~ocuk.


J'a G.fT UP fYt'll..Y 70'\iOh!RO'l't

HSIlg:i lclmntayn r,idiyorsunuzr , , , . •

Ditmit'oHIlU Cenk biliyer. Ama JyJ bir yere gJdel:egiz. "I'ama;n, bet; de geJeeetim. Benl arabeylo \IJ<:Ie.'lk rTI1sm1 Amhu),lu girmeyecegtz. Arabam bczuk.

o zaman ncrcrle hulm;;a{!a~z?

Cenk ve Hans'la seat eekizde ctcgurda hlllu!}o"(!:l~z. Sam). yulnu, de;?jl m;'~ (lrndan dclmusfn gidcceffi .... ·

lyi. Otcqann neteelnde?

Ulu Caddnstnde turizm damsmn burosu VlU" ya? OI'l UI. u.nWlOO,

A.llJod.nt\, Go!irjj~rnek deere. H,¢\kai.

Il4!rkflilt ve ark"lda~lan bu aksnm ae ,Y;'tPl)'I)I'la.? ~r~rrl.h nicjn gjtuwk h;~.lili)"{io!·i'

~/llmntL1ya neyle gtdecekler?

• Nm'oo.e bulusacaldur?

l'II!.rul~\\'CrB.rn"eCJI:I paHX"~ 2,m.)

bo:z:uk tu~n

bulliiftlt'lk 10 ,'IN'.i~r, JQ l(ir~~Ivwg bu.IUIj=IICB9IZ It"(j',V/r.ll."(!r

ne w,11h

ttBns'la ~~\WI H;lr.o.:; -oto!J;Jr b!:J.lj;')lj?!\:}{I '1.,kln r~i~

erauan Irom ~rQ dolmuiili:ll lrl.:;h.;Jrt:~/I;JXi

noreaj '1I1!mr{],lt!.:J1JI'S"

g'l;Ig;;mnm:m!!fl.11.JJe-7 Llne .. S13OOtll's

in/!r(Ji:u::;1!:?!\::':(l'? c;adde- !:JfOO(, B"8I"l1.'B" U1u C~ddE!81 lAI:! AVl?I7(I6' drirll!1ma adlX9

cure oit,'oo

ys'i' you.iroD',"'?

onun cnundc ill "':'Jrll om EIIf'IIlOOlm I llt.'dl?im:ml'J;. s eee

giJni:!;mi!-,ki.L:!:ll>:r.fr ~1?9}"oo

r:c Konusma


Sarah i~ an Ell&"JisL Iffi'1gufigc tt>ache.- working in tho tUWIl of Burllll Berlamt L~ DOE! ef'her Jurklsh ooliBlt!;,ut!!'.-. 'They meet in the: corridor I lhe lungunge ~ffif).')l where t.hcy work.

- 91-



S:3 Notlar

Sayfng no

It is dimcuJl 00 eum dewn n Turkish offbr. Saying no ~~ l!."IU!~I~· Lli ~ I 1.1;::: m.i!J811~[].g glJ 00, ta.U:. .f.'l.t! ulto it. If Y-CHl really mean 11.0 you can tl) mying vallnhl d. cminim U'm .sUfi!), lJ.'he:.' may wm'k . _ .


IIiCElk iQE!ce-:k

11I1ouo"TiLlrk.iahequi'l'81e-ntofthBvemrotJe_ lcecekelnla


'fhi:;:, is another 'WOn] you wilt hear IJ..'I~ almost oa O[liCn ["1::' b1l.j'1.u'lIll 11, means rom Po 011 or go .oJ? (101' .f1.[right tnf!:IL 'Ilh~n in Turkey try ki!'olJp. ing a Lally of the number of times yDIl hE!!:IJ' It j!\ n J;zy!

11dlll,u -eeelc has tw'!) Icnnn r-ceclr und -acnkl us it follows , "-1lWC1 b;))"'Jt"I_(II1_Y, Here are S9IDoi".: examples:

Iwillrum~ Jail wiUSi!.fl ~·hf! wil.l drive w8wi.Uwri.lf! yUI~ wiJl huy t.MywiUumit

1'11(1 .u. future vceb (LoC!gLlti ~·13, udd -mc- onto the etem ~~f ehe verb:

The future

N ote how the speakers in' thiR c1i:ll(lg!.le s ..... jlch between usir"li; ttl pL"-L'0I!-nt caneiuuous tense with :iI future mcanlng and ebc 'r-ultf fueure t.-e-n;:;.r.- which ceneulna she if!ncling -cccls. Oft80 the two ~i"~ i(Li.J::!n:h:m_ge.,')bJc,

'Stuffed I taxis

Dclmuslar me shared taxis. TIm)' run a long .::;ct routes :mn dl.;lril'll Ilxcd fUD::!::: but do Mt, Icllow [.jllL8La1~8. nercrc sctung off, they wnl L until they are [ull (benec their name which menus Sluffe.d or [.!I'lc.kt'r/~ th-llil dru[J "'[[ .u.[l(~ ri-ck up PLi~SW1b"tn:; al(mg the way.



1 The future


YI)U can spot .LI. future tcoee 'by she presence M -C-CF.!k. To make i..IL-Il Iueure, fullow ebeec steps:

!::Iel"II.e~e(:1i!0illl safmevaeakein ~~rme~k yaznt8J'~I2. BlmaY·F.II:::Bkslnl:Z beklemey~f!-~I:€'r



~111hO woro in two. 'fhe· second word is the

I!ilul v nlont ti'! 1M verb to ~. ge18C:8k ainiz

"lllriOO 1M second word wilh us question form. gelac8k miainiz?

~ 92 -

- 93-

Ham are SOIil~ examples:

1 Informal suggestions



E.:tflfrn::.!tdrm 5urece{<sln gete.ook 'ItIr8ce\':il~ {1li1l3cegl~ M~acFlklS1


bakacak mryrrn? ~iJf8C€1:.; misir1? geleook mi"/ vcrecak mlyl'2:1 glil8'Gak mislni:.:? ~aceklartl'lI?

N I}t8 that WjCl thp:y ["fm differa from all the l"{::;;l by putting nlll'i.ehi. ~It (.118 enrl rather than in the nridd le,

Here arc scme negntfvc examples:

Ballm.ll}';D:(:ak :UU1l!m'~ Sfu-ro£lyeeek m.isin':l Gclmoye~clt mi? Ve.t·wc.J'iI!'oCek: '"iy~ Qfiltrl~y~'(lk mil9i:t.llz·r Hoamayacakler 1ll1'?


~.j/o::tll 'I [ look? WO(l'J YOI1 di't(..~? wo.rt'thP:r...;Ilile? WOI('/['['''eCLr!tH Won't ,'Ou smjJ~! WOII'1tht\l'nm?


You elm use the verl, olmnk [!I; the future form (lj' [I) bt!, VJ)l:' cr rGk. Fer example:

Ml,ltlll'lllr'n. iyiml5f11?

BugOn Hasan buradli. BugOI'l< Ankara'd~'y)<!., HestaooQil:sinf:z. Ar}l;Bdat;-li)l'TIn bUIadi.'l, venf erabumvar. Suyok"


Mu~'u oILlcilgm,_ ryrala.:::aJo:IHlam'i'

Venn uakan blflP.;,i('lOlilcak. Yenn AnK.. .. mrda ol;;tC8g1Z. Hast-a oimayacekeuuz. Ark:ad~~llm burada ofucaklar. Yeni eraucm al'acak_

Su olmayac<ll(.

- 94-


,Id -eeee or -seniee to lho stern of a verb W- get the equivalent or Iry drm1t )'(IU .

I,tIIOfPf(lrm ereenet l'l1k8!8nsJ


slzfOrm Gelscnlze! l;ioJo;samza! Ats.rll1lza!

English DOCQfflCI

Wtly (!.oil'! yo.IJ f.ookl ComeOll,IfJfGlI\"il!

nlll!1I6 phrases could be iJ:ilindly Sl.lggCSliOD1'l (101' an expressjou o.e unputience depcndlng on jour cme crvcdcc,

3 ile

nul wClrld He m8111n.Q rl~Uh. YilJU C~t1 shorten it .tn the: eliding -Je. Fer , ~lIIlDple:

I{nrde¢mle: ~"'t.. Go wilh!lf}, fm:&uJr,

A:r-ublfj'la !_!idi)'ol'1.l:m. I'mgoiltg b)' (l:iter;)ily wml) cal'.

I)cmct.'le clmak ist-iYOI'UJjl_ I WI'l:rU W Of! with Demrrl.

WIlL'll i~ is shortened to an ending" -le fellows the e-type ~·01vt..ll:w.~mooy. ~Iru use the word fie- 11) t(lltl(:! places whom WoP. nee WI({, In English. Fur nnmple.:

IJ'l.l1tU" ile Didem gcli:1f{]-l"l.'t~,_ Pmm' Q.fui. Di.rlf!m ere (.ttmifl'g_

J!anilii He PT~l'r"il1 uraamdc, Betwl~lm UIoC fXWJI and tlVJ pwl o,rJ[~c.

Wrum .'/'Uu UQe -le with personal pronouns, Lim prLillQUllS need the p!IIISOfIBur endjne- (except Fm- th(! tfwy farm). F'(lr example:

Bcnlmle gel. tome willi me.

Senlnle beuha ararmzdn. BcUol!~en""l.1U .:aul me,

Dnunla gitSCIlC. Why dwt;t you rN II~ith her.

l31zim1e: kat Stay with mi.

Sjzirull! olm;J,j_~ Jslil"(]rum, 11.r1(m~ ta hi! with yO[~

Onlada geleeek. He'll com.: with them,

- 95-


~Ie and -ti

QucHion: W(w.t's tile di.fferen~ between the -Ic and -11 endi.llgs".!'

Ans ..... ar; vcu unb' use -ll to JYWke odjed.ive:=;, Exumplcs are si.H;lu !trle! meyvr.:1i. You use He or -Ie on all other oecaslcna.

Note lhat:

.. -li followl> I-ryl)!) vowel ']lllrm(lt"l,)' und has four variants: -11, .11, -lu und-I ....

• -Ic follows i-type \'(Iwel harnwn_y and has two variants: -le and .la.

4 Onto, on top of, off

ti1;t Wi!

1l1flS.Q11lU i.i.l.i:ii Ow ta'Jl(:'~ top

N ole the tJ.llIT~T -n_ alter USLli.

llir kedl masanm usHine athyoc.

Ontwt'8jllmplltg';/Llo 1M table,

See Pllgc 12!l for the rule about when IJ.I use -y- and ..... hen to usa -II. na u builar I:"On!lO!WJJt.

- 98-

I'l.~ cer UP EIIRl. Y TOlldOfLM'OW

nil;" kcdi nmsunm useLinde O,l.(! w(~ sitting on Ulp

otm-lI.Y01". ofth(! luble.

Uhjlr kedi mnsumn ti!;hi.nde..o l1I1ntlt.(!l'cat'sjJlmpingof{

athyur. thf! 1f1bie,

6 Prepositions of place

nil!! words {tIt rop .;f and /J(!nind. teh us whel'e something is in telaticn ..., Dthcr tb.in_gll" They am preposltfona (If plnec. Till! 'lurldsh IIliui';'rde::n.t (If on (l,}P {jf if is (J11 it:; top. 'lbc Turk"i;:::b equivalent. of "'rM/til il is at its o(foC"k.

IA)ok al-l-he fOlloi}wing'l\U'kiah MlijU:

Mil/om {r(mt ,,,,,h. sido m.iddk

NI~v..' look at. th~ aame worda when you lI6{~ them with possessives a11d the -de cndlng:

-ra ult.md~ .il1.uufulde -in ttrkuflllJd'l .inynmnda -in OrUuimd"

Wtdtl· ilt/'lTmJof b~hind be.itidr:

in thl}' Iliiddl~ (If

Kt..-di masunm altmdun gcldi. KOOi tetevizyonun elanda. :r..I.iU:l1il't.1U eetesma koy. Bukkalm onlinde.


Al-abnnm arkaemda.

'Fhf! cal. eome [rom Imdoi!l· thf"! ur.Dk, 'Ihe t..'O.t'fi w,dl!r thr~ table.

Pul (it) flL the mldiU(J of the table, 'n front (If the firot:r~I"'S &Wp. ht/im1.taime,


or In thf': back of th~ WT, l1(Jhim{"'ro'{JJ.L

Com!!.' b~side m.e,

11(J!:) S-iUillg nl1;:r:~ lu me. Delli-rid what?

n~8i4t wham?

A:rkitDl:W-i). YalUmageL. t:munda otUnl},Ol'". Neyin arkasmda? RiJ.U.in yanllltln'l'

- 97-



exterior -ln dl:imda OOfSi(/O

gap, inte.nl81 ". iIO '" -in araemda OOf1!/OCf1 .•. and ._

-surroun.iirJg(s) -ln ctralmua ~ml)nd

.side- -ln 0rJ[lrld.a ()l"I ••• ·sf;id&

opposite. -m Kilr.:iISlnda ()f){XJ$11C'

P'I'T'nin km:~Slndii. Otel tle P l~i'I!J nrasuide. Hutunun dramda BIl, iI;indemi'?

Dtellmbdn etnunda ~()k bar .... ar.

Ar.uml;,o;da bu- ~y Y(lj[.


ll'.tiWlJtm Iht lrOkI':l'IId thi! N!OJi.!IJ.

le it (m/.$irje Or .inside the oox? TlJert'. (t7'l]"a [t)lOroof""8(}.1YJ1IJ1d olJliJOIe.i.

Thr!re's JHJI J~j.rlg (guirlg on) beIWm:;'.t11,tS",

WIW~""l? side art! ~"fJU (m?

6 Telling the time accurately

To the hour


t.rterar fransletlon

seennre be!,; var. Ti)rwJ are ({lI.9/£J 1')00 (I't,'Oi.,:k, Irs (,Il.oB toone.

~ o~ on var. TiK."~ are (at"! ((I tilree l'J'd(.l()k, Iff> (B1'I to Ihree.

Dortle ~rek: \I";,'I~. TiNlffl te <:1 q!}8lter to {('J(N. It's a quarrar to touc.

A1~lyaljrrnj var, Tf.v,,'{(;J are lwa.'i'1y TO six. It!,; M'61Ily to six.

Onilti:y& ylnn~ ... ar. T.I;.o,'O" aro lW&iIy-IiJ.ii? ,'D ~iVcIlIC_ W!,; M'B1'Iiy-five r(.lJ~~lw.

Note the -c ending fin the hours number.

- S8-

P'ast the hour

I'a GET u~ EM'll, or TO,UORROW



Sast blrl bes g(l~'(II', FiV8 is psssktg OilO ()'c.IXk,

$.38t it,.:u on g~il"¢f'_ Ton is pssslng (Itl"(l(l o'r;·,'Q{:k..

DOO:!Li ~rek ~i'Jo'or,' A quarfElr js p1.l£\.o;,'(Ig 101:.rt'.

Altl~1 vlrml -ge.;:I!f01'- TIW;.Ylly is pass1f1g !:I'x_

Onikiyl )'Irmlbe~ TI~'(1f1ly-f,,.'8 Is p£lssir1g 11l'(li\'o.


If's five p.'t.<;.1 (0'1'1(1', !f'si8'i'pa.<;."ltt(lO, If's B QT.n!Irl.f.l.r' pr.1;5((OO{_

Its M;;;nl'ypa~ .~-x:. /t'~M'a(tJy·/i've

past twelve

At, ..

Nnta the -i ofln(Ullg {til.t direct (lhjoct euding) on bhe hOLrr's number. (·N(Joo 81~Ci bo w the' in dijrt chances to d to hell) prcnunelaticn.)

Lneret translation

W118r} live rettJEti.'! 10 cnc o'dod'\oV;~n /ilt'€t pass Dl1e f}'(,"ff;it-},;,

U~:r:eJ yeu u::;.!! ehe word kala Instead (If .... ::r .. , and gl2>lJe inatead of geeiycr.


- 00-


I.!J AII~tlrmalar

The .key if) thew exercises is on pugc 2019,

1 wok et thia picture of a beach scene, then answer the qllestLrms below.

((.I.) GG.n(~!;i- kremi kcvamn idnde mi'l (u) Oazete, kltubw attmde rm?

(c) Mf!§mbatllll" ~M\!3iyen.in altmda 1m'! (d) :I(itap, kova ile kremin araamda nu? {c) 'Pop, kalcnln Y;)]'JmG::" IDl?

ro Gi.inBfi gi.)z!Ql(ll nerade?

(8) T~~p ]]rjSi'l m',~a8mda?

(ILl Bini, kcla j!e knlerdn urusmda tm? (l) Krem ncytn ynnmdu?

(j) KilL'IP nelcrtn ar8!:JntJa;

k11k1 (:~$:lrl) !;;l,.IfTI ~,,~.'ld top f),:I!T

giXz:lUk 9fssscs, !.:.p(I(,·:fjrSP.!J

'9iitli!~ !JlJI1" kO\':lI otx:..liet

g:l!bete nel'.\5P<1_!;I{."-

f8m:slyo 111"llt.v!iffil", plJfBS(Jt kltap ():x1k

2. The fL"lUO\'ll.ojJ dialogue takes plnce between ~'{!.'o u(:i;::hbollTS. Fill lu the gaps U5ing the phrases 1)11 tho? right,


J'tL Gi:J' UP F.ARI,. Y TOIt:IOll170W

-11e.l'lUIr,H1. ~Jj_ Oezcnrcne neredevdin?

- __ ._(<<) (ii)

- Sehl rni? Amn sen ycni t a tilt mn

gitmedin mi.?

- a~) (h')

- Huurludun, Ell defa 1l1!L'e\1"(:

gil..tin? •

- (0) __ -

- A,"nL (Jti!'ld",-~ ml kaldm?

- Idl_

(i) HJI)'ll'. ·K~IJ:·dc~.irliin yeunda kaldnn.


Ever. ueeco ay FeUii,'fc')'tl gitttm.

YinA! Ji'ethiyel~re.

8811il'lli? ,-I}<I,\'y?

"teIli l~ritf)w,,(r(.·{.""lr,Y dofo1 OC'C.!IsioO,LvrH:· hetmemek r{j'6rl"!'{jrilf~~

bu det-... 1fli5 N;r.oJ yAt yJl~)j

vlne S'p8.'lt

(12-) KiOIL[I:

(0) Klmlc kcnusuyorum? tel MeydQJ11n ncreslnde? {d) Nel'clisiJli:l!

(e:) Ne;I'e'''c'!

(fJ Neyjn tinilil.dr'.l1 (g) Neyle gldiJ·oru:::.? (h) Neden gclmooi,,?

m Neredeu gcli;Ydrsun?

(i) Bcnim degll.

(ill Be:1JLi Avrupa'ya. (iii) Ankruahyun. (h,) Hcvkclin

(\.) !'>'lridu.rle.·

(vi) ("ok j~itJl vurdr. Ivii} Ortnmnda. h'iii) Bnukndan.

(i-x} Otcbuslc.

OOVl<:eol .~[';'"o-ll.!{:'

l11{ic:loiJl dir:f:'(;J(!J",p',YI(:ip<lf

'I hknur ta a busy businesswoman. She is married t.o Fikt'et. Study he. dial'Y (on ptl.gt aO-2) f-or next week, then decide whether the Et.u.teroel1ts made <,oout her art! true or false.

(cr) Pazartcsi saat on bueukta topjanu olneah.

(b) Sutt ycdiyi (In gol!Ce Anknra'dan donccak.

((:0) Peraembc ~8 gltmeyecek COnk11 e:,!}ini:n degum [linil. (dJ Cumatteai :::.tlICtt aekize ~Bj1'ek knln tiyatradu olacak. ((!') Paear anncainin evine a~E! :!.'el1leWnc gldccck.


Portsmouth Public Library



Fik.rll!II'A .lc&UItr\.;J";'tL~·

~ -/fJ-~ ;:24.."

6'0,_,: ''i-;" ":IJ'"" "I)

~ .J:l""'-''''h~ .(4-.oa-f"'.0<;I-54:hct.rlG~

denu:;; l(;f~1TTI prc~ f!lctfr.d ~1)[:IIBntl mfIfJil'rJg

OOd~'Ye presem

Izln f.'lIITI1L~:;km. hQ,\\':I$'ym;.n1


'Iranslutc thoi! [I)ll(lwjn_g inti) 'Iurldsh. (a) It's k~1 pa~t thrr.l':.

(b) tltt.wfmiy·{itoet.G0J11':.

(.(') tlt 0: Q'IWrl.er pas/' WN e lue, (d) It'~ a qtlart!?r to (our.

(f!) tlt a ([I/arter pae/, midnight. In It'~ (we to sis,

(g) Ilt lit,'Y! pa.ut- ;;Iwcn,

(fr) It':; a qtl<rrler past eleoen, Ij) It':. tWf!frty-{ivc pad tWl?lue. IJ) III lWClltypu.:;t i1l>YJ.

Ham is ill:!xt Sunday's viewing guide f(l-1' a '1\11'Kil;:11. eetenue tete ... ·i· sien chunnal. Study it, then nnawar the questtcns below.

(a) Kru; fi.lm o}'n.'l..'i:tr.~k?

(b) Kru;: snet muxlk (lla('~'l.K?

(c) Saheh H:!I1lt 98kiz ile (In araamda oI(OCU~ prcgramlnn V'.[1' llU'! (d} "Inrba" eaar kHl~tn Im!}llt}'8etLkt

("1..1. G'ET UP E:AFi'1. Y rOI..tOfjf:rQW

IWROSHOW - 19 Kasun P",,,I'

08.00 Sllp~ Arkndnslnr

08.30 ZOrrO

09.00 BII~s Bunny

10.00 Slneuc "Dloczoner"

11.:30 ilk On

12 .. 1.0 Tcrba

12.50 Stneme "H:IY:l.l Kurusu"

14 . .:15 Turk S~Jje[[}"~1 "Defiler Alrnanyu'de'

16.10 Smcmu ..... KndmJandannnlar"

17 . .::15 M;WO(IIJ

1 S,(;(I G3II.-i.Il:J.Sllf:J.}' - An~i1r:l8-U.c(1

20.00 Habcrler

21l.25 9J~d.8~ Y~II'II~I.:LT:t Aduu Arhm

21.1.0 Sinercu ·'Ki:f.JJ ... \Ii~~'.

22.-40 Muuxzcz Ahll.cL Koo;'i,Cri

23 AD S mema "':H;[I~k.:r"

{l1l.55 T;uh Riiy;).lar

(11.20 Huberter

(e) ""'(l.l'b,,~ :$;).;11. kacta bitt!~k! (() Kce eaat spcr clacak?

(g) Turk sincmasi sect kiil1la b~h)'Dr? (II) Habedcr sant ~lil b~ln.)'IlC.!lk? \f) .(fi,'Ia~ Oon' ~"t kattil baqIQY<lcak?

hiJlx.'t' m:w.:;

4;8g:d8.!j Yru-II'lI~r."l Adlm Ad.m

do~un'l!!nli1ry pfOyr;lr'lill'lf~ illZll rea

iiI'at 008r. re.mp6(.9It1.i'e t.;lth sweet

rUII'.1 ~.:ur,I

bltmtlk 11[.<C{lai03r(J'.!lo'161'1a:, rll r.YII~;1!

Brk'm!Q\lItJ'e.'d dlnozor ct'f1or.Hi1if'

Ilkon thl;l'f(JptQi1'fX'(JcfLs:lL

Lorb;i 'b;)!J1·(rn;,I.£I;;I~ir-ll1

p r Co'!} r ;) .. 117It( ~) 1)B'yal imfJ[j.vlf.J(.Y:Jri nen m.!I((.crszy keom ~i-'(I,'I'1.!If1

J s .nunrme i'TdiIYBty(:.-o»c.e rni;II;:-.j)n[:l (Jre-ros/i:.hwo§."ftlWfItl



J'tl. 6ET LIP EMU_ v rO.wOR,tIOW

·7 Er"CII and hill- dn.ughter Conca arc writing tJ:.e!r Ne1.'>' Year's rcsoluNOilS, Whieh of tbe f()UI)'I. ... itlg wcrt: written by &1'(11, and which by Gcncu?

(aJ Duba yavIl:!j .'tl':)b o eureeegtm,

(b) HeT ak~m ders 1(Llh~cD~m.

(a-) On ldlD vereeegtm. (a) C.;Jk talevizyon seyrl3rot-l!'yeeegim. (e) Ktlru(.'~'iimle kevgn ct.[ijGyGl.!~.

f[) ~~ocutU.unmlD daha ~k I;)~'nrt}'acuktm.

~g) Okulo _gt~ kahnaya-


(/I) Qocukhmn jin'ind~ Inlttll'CI.J]L~cagi.m. (i) Di$le:ril'fLi,he.rb,cjjn ft~lrt}'8e"fi1m,

(;) Daha erken eye (li,ii\O(;{!gill.l.. (k) SiglllfllYl lurakacagim.

Y,l'I-il~ sAnI,', smw.ly !>iinn~k (D'dfW€!

,k;]"'9'''(l~mek KJfjgtlt, ID81gt'Jil kilo ~mck to lose ~·teI'9'lI

It1Jlare-!~ /i}$W{t.;l' 61:; worn

flJ'l;--ilI<lmak t{JDrUElI

_[J,'ht~h bhe auggesttons to the ruclplaote,

(aj To n child rclusing her dinner. {il i'\.r.:G[1!! etsene.

(b) 'To ecmeoncprauling on. (m Dikkat etsentse.

(c) To someone treading em ytnrr heels. (iii) Sussnnu.

(d) To someone w-ill..ehing youl>t.mggle. (jv) $ikaj'(o,~ eteenize. (I?) Th amneene who SUj'.!i they're tired. M Yo.rcUm etaene. if) TD sememe who's laggi.ng- behind. (vi) Yatsana.

(g) T[) someone W)lO ~s their (,'ii) Yescnc.

naighbom- is noisy.

I.EiOLoJLo.":''1n1f;!1.; whill1'y ~11c~l!ltl!ltml!lk toc:om{JiQ.'ft


I) Fill in the gaps in the text. below u.:!ling -Ii nr -Ie endings.

Homember tn USB the caned type (J-[ vcwallmnmmy,

Kn:rde<lL'm_(al_ .l,.I].nd.!·,u'.;[(. tubil y:trm(![l.b~- U~k_(b)_ gidecegia. xordestuun Lcndra., _ _{.cl_ bil' :)1".k;)do~1 vnr. Onnn_(d)_ bereber ilr.lba_f.t!}_lngi]ter~1yi g~eeeID~, lttflallah ])11"'8 J::I!trJml"_({)_ elmayneuh, Di.:zim_Vrl_ gefmek iMi.yor muaun?

10 P];:JCI:) the words bole ..... in the oorl'e.r.t. order, beginning with


Konusma 2

~']Imh is wait.in_g et. the bus !:;I;UWOIt. Berkant and Cenk nrrieo. It is ,8,20, and she has been W;)irulg since 8 o'clock.

&rllh Vn .fU!f'hotl.,) Sclceo,

lJerk:(in~ Selam Sneab. eed Selam. Ne ha~r'?

Sm:,ah. iyilik, Neredealala? O~ geldi..a..U:.

Dcriulilt. Afihd02rstn. Hn.ni'a iyi yolC.\lfl.l.klar diledik. OnuTI t~jn e-e~ gcldik,

Hems gnlmeyeeek mi?

Bu rui.~am pkml}'DI'. RI'ken y(\oyoo:, AllfNeticn?

Yanu Pnmukkule'ye gid~k_ ErkCJ1 kalbncak. l'urk ctmca, Yann biz de o!!rketJ k;)llUy'::I1'I.l2.1 fl,iJiy()l'lurI, runa Ilana 9"'k }'omldl.l,

Hadi, dclmus bakllvor.


Sm·nh C(!nk SAmh Cenk S111'all lJ.Hrkrmt Sarah Conk


ylkmak l'agfJi"t:Y)Jr).!1{;,;n' oy\'91h H:~IIWgt:l!XI'.gfit!fJ' bi;l~Yn ~,l'KIit1

yiiru!lMl1o; :01l1Sl'II:,run

yorulm(l:ll to be biBd;. to ,QJel'W' ti(f.o(j

IHIrtll:JeBEl'Ill.'1 whaftllmL"Qyo.:r

oo6 .... r?{IIb:ir:alI!f~'..r:r.em.!lmyo.:(?) 11'1 voloo1ukaar bon VI:l,Ysge dllernc:k fo ~m.h

ontm lii!ln limt's ~,"y (lilerally 1(}f .tI'mr/eJ..'l'':';':;-;-1)




In this unit you will learn how to

• make requests

• eteee lutenrion nnd wilHngnl;!96

• flP.1I stories «nd jchea

~ Konusrna


Ilamtde Hanuu is an elderly lady PrOtO Anknra who h:iI' been visiting relata .. 'e..'j ill 'trabzon. After her visit, <:Ike has taken a stroll around the city c*n!;]'{!:. "It is new dmc fur her t.o catch her plena back to An kera She is IMe, ac .!lhe: 8:ilifl. L'I y(lUn~ mnu fo1' help.

Hnmfde Hnuim

Parden. Kusura l)l.'Iknmym. Lutfen yardnn 00(11" rnieiniz, acabn?

'Iuhii efenriirn.

Havullmanme eik!~ck i.!;l';iYl)ruro. Omyo gidan otobus var nn?

Maalaeef yok teyae.

l)o.]][:IU:;' v ar rm .'):caoo?

V('tL Dunik Tak!:liro'e yukJtl.

Peki yavrum, Tr:Lb7.(Jn'd8 vabancivim. Yfl-]U gf,Is· terir mislnis aeaba?

Iubii. ~ijy11!o gldtn. Bu yoluu sonundau ::;u.~.'l d{l.nOn, Meyd.ar:w. kadar ~rlin. 'l\itk Ham Yullal1'nm

GP.-l1t;'1 erkelr Hamlde Henun

Gem;erkek Hamide Hauun Gsn~ if!'l"kek Hamide Hamm


Hamlde Hamm Gt::u~~l'kel{ Hamlde Henna Gcnvcrkt.'k Hmaide Ilanun Gcn~e.r1:ek Hnmhlc Ilamm Gen.yerkck RamJde Ilbmm GCllj,1 urkck Hamide Humm


ofieinden sola ~a'pm. Orll.!j] GL'I.ll Pi_iiI! Caddesi. Ondun acnm Isrunbul H:l'>'8 Ycllan'nm cnetnc kadar gidiu. Oradun .!Ia:'f.t S;)PUl_ Blraa ileridc durug:t gDl'eeehiru~"

Cck mu U7.~k?

Ba)"~g. uzak.

YUrUye.r-.ek kaIJ dnkika surer .:1.-1:800.1 Bihnem. Denim t~i.n on dekika, Pcki1UoknlTFJlll!lillllllfl.lmz?

ll~kl[l. ti.-IY7.E!, _~i~,iJ'.dc gclirlrn, yclu gnatceirirn. \~k w:}ekkur!e:1' yavrum.


(~anUuJLL ti:liilT mraunz ~ca1u.? 'l'~bii, tasinm. S"l\olunyu\'lllm.

a; ~aJW b."li;jjH~vm ex"Cl~;(l 1116' ysrrJlln I:!d~ ml&inlz? ~·tfJIiI'rj yQ.V


:lleIJ~ J'il-"l:md, .. r

Iloi'o'illlrn<l11i 81,'P0I1 01'.&)';1 t-=-t~~ grdetl rF-;-irJg

"rel[!glm 1.i:S=(jV<II"IJIrJT.r.'lOZM vavrum (j,!).~"

Yilb<lnCI S1f.ltly.:."f,/Ore.\:JfI!?T gc~tcrT11llll< ro-ill':..:w

gjj~tGrl. ml8rnlZ'i' .,.'(;1-".1 Ya:t

.:;I!{l'. ... ;;t

~[j)'11:! Nlw this., ~ ~'.!Iy -ekiKhlr ?.s{aras

11Irk HUva Yollilln Tu6<i'SlI/w,Vrws 5!IIpmBlk rofmn

Or3i!sl .If."!I1"6', ifiarpiDCf.' GBI2:IPtl~c.,1i;1d(lsl GBZlP(J;;iJ "",,"r

i.s1::mb~1 Hfr¥£1 Y"!:ln~1'I ist.,flOL~


oraean lrom ~~ lrenue Ilmilwon bBlya~1 ~Ih:,'l~

yUr~ver8 l:y w;rNilnf) (Dl"I/{Jor) ~i.i;rmElk fa 1.'l~, I ... u.k8

~u~ .. (I.r~

bjlmr.rn lL1o:tYkl~"'·

81'1r;;:.lm,11( roe.'ifJfflM

gelirili:1 l'J/{:o,'l1<9'

!J~leflrlm t'lj;;hflW

ta~lf mt1!mlz? 1'"Q.:(o'd jI(Io c·,gtry? teemm I'/Ic,~rry


tDl)~ru mil, y:mh:;:·JIU'f

1 Hnmide Hanuueok aoru ecruycr.

2 Dolmus (lu:l'<$il>l:<mbul Havn Yollan'um oftsine yuktn. S G1!n~ erkek iki kerc yalu anlahYIk,

.. Ilumide J{:t.t11111 gcru,: E!TkeJtin myzcsi.

(ThE! answers am un page 249.)



sa Nollar

YavrUm and teyzc

Like ebt and ablu, tho::!~e forma (Iof address are a common way {;If shm .. - i.ag: friendliness tc strangers. to usc tither or these tenns, however', there bas tc be a recognlaeble age di.fI'erftnl:€ between the speakers. Keep an car epen Icr sham when :'1(111 nrc "L-i.'=X~ in TUl'ke}'.


ThiS ward ~"(I/.:l[Jn~ f LI.'<.'J~dt!r Of by WI)' dlmJ~_ .J to rookcs 0: rlXfU!:!Ji.t rnm~ f'<Ilire.. Haruide Hanrm can't SCQP Sl1),jng it!

!§.'i Dilbilgisi

1 The -r present tense

There :11.'0 two PCL'SL"Dt tenses in Turkish. You use them for different purposes. YOu have srlready learned the -iyur tense. 'I'be::re is also she -r- p.-eAent tense. YOu Iunn it like this:

Actlcn E]{3l'1'1pk 1 Exampfe 2
Take he stern of tho verb. 001 "'" I
Add-r,-II"{If~r. gOlir ge.o;er
Add the relevant par! cl Lhi3 verb to be. 'Jolin'" geo:;erlm Remember; -Ir follows i-bype vowel 'b;:U·IIlQny and -er iollQ"i.'1S r.H.}'pe vowel barmeny.

Que.st:i.cnl: He ..... do you know whether lJ) add -I", -rr (II" .m-·f

Answer: Verb iiWIIlR e[ldin& in a vowel ~URf; take -r. FOi: stems Bllding in a eenscnant:

• meet with (J[I-i!' eylleble take -cr,

• those. with one syllable ending in -r or -.1 teke -Ir;

• these with mora than occ syllable take -b-.



(ben) (scm) (") (biz) (liiz) (untilI')

soylerim bcklcrstn t_

llah.rl!U'1.z clne-snnue i.seeder

Here ae some one-syllable examples with -E!I':

(beu) geeertm

(sell) tut.a1'!Sln

(0) edet-

(bi~) B!;'arlZ

(!'iiz) 'ickeJ'~njl::

(on"[;).r) ku~J'I:U'

Here fire lO(mu~ iIDc-syliable examples with -ir:

(ben) (sen) (0) (biz) (5iz) (onla~')

k;)lrrun aln-sm


g'l3lbiz gQritr.'i:iinQ~ 'biLine:1'

Here ru:t some multi-syllable examples with -fr:

(boon) tnanzrrm

(sen.) gotikul"1i:un

(0) kullam.r

(bl..z) ctureruz

(sb.:) oiii,tren1rsiniz

(onlill") kollu~m-l.i.tr

You should note LJmL . .6'TI1mUliU books o:"'_:tlI. ,thl1l lanse the simple present, or the acrlse tense.

2 Negative forms of the -I present tense

You een spot a negative -l' prc:mnt tense 'by the p1'eSCJ)OO I)r -mez or -maz. You mnke the Ileg.'l:ti.vc Icnn like this;



Exam.ple 2

Take- the stem ctihe verb.


A-dd -z (except f-or 1tJe 1 ami we f-orms). A-dd the reilB'lYlt part of the verb 10 06'.

9"1 golmc goh~~ goh\*,m


gelme gelmez gelmez5111


ITem ara some examples:

(!.>en) ;:Jl1~li1f'11

(sen) I;)i[I'Ilctsill

(o} gOjlnc~

(btz) bIJ~m~yIZ

(sl~) (ikum82SLnl~

(onl(:lr) isl.elUozlC~


almaz ml','lm"1 bilmezmlstn? gorme.zml? bulmaz mlYlz'? okumaz mlSlnlZ? isteme..zierml'?

3 Using the -r present tense

You should JlI)[~ l](JW the hen end hiz forms do IWl have u -z when t.be~' are statements, but th-LlyQO have unn when the~r arc questions.

PLlI'Ji':I~ £l:~mplr. TI.firl'Sla.ltUi
J;ILlkin9Jlromi~;r.~ Sflfl". oonoorrna allfl!'l), f'lJ blI'f flV ,lIrJ !ClJ<C!f);Jm.
1Ia."'r'l:~ vtu'n! wili'l!j"foi:! 'Yj)m:mOOtlr.rn, flJl'!I(E}.
co soine.~lliHG
Sll)'ii'(l ~~uil'll~l:d I .... V;mn'!lldirirn. (l';XIf.ile..I:JJtiwR)J1,·
f{I~osUnQromEo:loe.ffi Kllpl~lliJj:ar Inl~nnl!'i' L·~ you rJPM 1M dIXN1
cIIofh~ ~Cfil~tJlJ"(I ca~ i;Bi m~r;ii:? V,'iJI.l'd}>l.1L',1"f(9(ldd.1itiO
t!I ~tlfTlc.;oe ~00l(l tlJ..'l7
·;r.tphr;}!;~~<lS TeltrkEo:letnl Ca·lgqrfl.I\7.'.Vp;.,
tc¥-ltlI:iirc~rln~ (JaIr.!jI".7Wt:!rtQ'.
IL~linlilsb:rri~mIQh:oo O..,el\!akbalBglr(lfl!lf .. _ Ti'.I'1:1:!omfl!jlllriltOllpu.'J ... -110-

L':4~dr..,]pog8iL~lily 9elklgtllit.


oifL"'.5CriJin!l1<!.1"I Ul'ICliar"l~inGt Su (t"(::sllllxladnr~Jr_


(]HCril:in~ ,11"1 hliltJlluaJ .$Ik ~III: pla}Et. gi:Jmim.


Here are acme esn u nplee of the ."1" pmaent used to expreas uncertainty nnd hcpe:

Y.up.:ll" he:rh.nldtl_ Umanm, gltulcz!:iinh.

SJu/llpi'ootIbJ'ydo it_ T hflPf: )'(I.(~ WQn,'t gll.

I hr;Jpej.·l'}u'n: notJ.rtJing.

I f1JIPPOSC .they wott'r like il~ I /"t!f')IQ"- tile.' don't lil1e il. Ma}·be. t}j€,l"ii JU:J/p_

Mayb.e tiwy'n!' helpirll].

4 -en adjectives

El.'":!I.mine the foU()wi:ng~ ko~nitdam

l/w l"filtrJirl,!J mur~,

HJJ:: mall who's !"arming !he Ltanbul1Iuil~,

tJlfl £mill,{NirJjJ to i:;talliJltl lit-I]" Vil!lma lmir~,

au:: Imin coming {rom T,·'i.emw ~/w child ~Utillp' a.t tile table,

thf: child who:~ sillhl/1 af lM_ fable

GiilClll!:awn kim? WhO':I" all:: Wf.lm(Ir~ wJw'!3 smiling?

rrhe Italicised TUl'ki911 w'(trul> are ndjecrlves made from .... crbe. 'l'hts is hnw yon make them:



Take the stem of the verb. Add-en.

vel ge1en


YOu oCM usually trncalate the -en end.illg into English ea ~iTl/J, li"o~ example:.:

M.asutla cturan erkek yalo.!p.lrh_ 'rlJji! malt (rI:,'ho is) tfiUilig at t1i<! table. is handsome.

Ku;uuJtllronll~llJl Qe'begi VlU". ;,,~, Jauch {(!1"'S go{ a talkiJ14 d(J/I.

You ahnuld nOW lhut },J}U can only ose -en ndjecrtves tn describe the !),ubject oi 0. sentence (the one perlorrning the ar.tilm).

You (::)1'1 1]EA! -cn IIIdjool.h'u::. .... oiUlonl. a noun. 111 tbjs case they 3Ict like llOl1D6 tbem~e~'iL>a.u.ad ~hcy IIL(".!J.l1lhc ... ili'gOil~, 1"0)" example:

~Iasndn oturan guzc1di. The olle sill-i..FIi! ~ IJI~ la.b.tc

1(,'(1:> pn:~Uy,

Uk g.,J-p.n1el' Smithlel' o]m.!uk. Tt: ~~s1~~1.::J:~'/w OOfl1-C ~dlf

o ~~ede !cigaru Iccnlcr TUl'k. TJ;:~lt~l/~e~~~~~::: ;~~~~;f

O:rOOll bira lcenler Ingllle, Tll~ b( .. cr drlr-lkers rftterally bnr.i'" dri.tlking OJO'W w't! J!.II8Uedt.

, Note how you I!Wl mnkc iJ1C·CD udjectfves £.I'hl1'111 by ;'Iddin,g -ler.

Grammer books call an -cn mljccli"'e Uic subject particlple ct a verb.

5 -erek

The ending -erek is the Turkish equivalent of oJ' , .. ·iIt8" Y01.l add it o:)Dro verb sterna. Leek lilt HLB Icllewing csamplcs:

Y\~i.ijteJ'.f:'h geldim. Tele{()11 edereh hebervereCt'!S1m.

G.;U;et:e-ye ba'karal: buldnm.

I ear.M 00 flXll !1ikatill}' I{y r..r.alJdJl{lj. I'll inform (IMm) by tt:lepl.icme {lit..crttllylzypliouillg), Ifrmml.uuJ'l(J()/lill{ja.t

a,w "~w~JNJIH!r,

B;}' worMfig 24 hours o d(i'}' he malt.agiJd it,

GliUde 24 seat ~al~fITak oocerm.

.eeou Ci)f1 alae mean juet -iII,;;!'" For emmplec

GUJereh gitti, SIli!.Ie{t ~m.i.li"g.

Bi:w lll.,kul'tlli. ··)lc)'luiba" deiii..Looking at us., IIfll! Raid "'Hello"'.

Bilereh ,- ... l ynptrmz? Did you da it knowingly



1.1'-OULD YCJU HE.!.P ~E?

I'he -eruk fbnn oftllc verb olmuk ia ;!'Ipe~ti)I.1t. means ali. For example:

PI'(lgt"n:tl1c.J. oJf~ak lOml~lyol'um. I wudi· ali a pr.:wl'am.m~, Tul'ii'lt oL.{lmk rm, iii Icin mi? .4$ a IOllFillt.or on hlL'Jinessl Arkad~n otorak kcnueuyorum, J'ln laihing ca you/' fl'UJItd.

Inaan olereu nasd? How i.i; fJ}u~ as a PI?I'SDJ'l.~ (W',I'l'ut.'s lu!r per.~I'JILali(l' WIC'~)

Ilediye ola:ra]_[ aldun, 1 bOl/gM W) as a present.

Meze 01a1"3 k no vnr? lV1wl is lhere. as' a s/.artl]'r?

(Qi"hal Mrld of~larlen arf-11t(!roi)

Bu kutuyu mnsu olur!'Lk I wre litiS' /J()J; ~ a labk.


6 Verbs with -e, -den, -ire

Here are some mora verbs whose objects need the -.e f}D.dlng~

c;i~ck1cre bastam. Allmlm~ acrdum.

Ona Yiu·dJ.m -ettim. Gana haber ccrmcdm. Mel'c:e.cles'e vnrdu.

lsq'U()shcd Ui-C /lower8. Iwrkeilm.,},otoUl-tl'r.

I help,~rJ. her.

Yoo didn't {I!ll me. ff~ hiJ (I Mercedes.

g ·Ell:la91110k J'Qtl'Q.i;ltfon,.6QL'.!Isfl -e ecnnee 1(j.,'J$k

-e1.ar<l'Jmetii'1~1t: r(Jfl(J,'(I

-c bnbar vormak /..Dit)Jr).(lrJ,.~Y

-e ... urmnk hJh.1t

Heee ere some more verba whose o'i;!joc~ need the -deu enditlg:

Yemc.k.ttn ho~huuyorum, I Uhf! food,llilte C4.il~rJg,

Qn:hnceklerfiof!'n korkuYQY. He's afraid of spidtrs.

K6ll:t"Ci(lciJ gc~tik, WoIl'L'e paSBi!d (l~I(!I' 'he hridge.

.s=tVIl~(Il', beh8C.!m-E!yilll [1jn't mentimL t1J~ ww!

I -tiel'! Ilo!}I.mm.,k IOsnjay ·del'lkorklll;)k tofeiJT,lotJe lIlr.!lk}c{

-dell g~mek to I-\'Jf;f; (JII(I;.d~n bi!Jl:setml!'k 10 i~.I8'ltiQ.'l, rc ccscuss

Hare is a verb whose oiJobjuct needs He!

nil' ele.ktr.lk~i.yls evleneeek. Sht"s bl'dng m f.liW'l)' an el~rjrit.'itrn.



II' 1III}I}'lIIcnmOlt.

7 -dir

In Unite 1 and 2 ,'(JU learned that there W36 n-o i;({UiV<llent (If the Eoglilih word ie. This is the case in everyday lipeP.ch; I·TDw~''er, when people want to sound very formal, they uae th~ endm~ -d1l: te n~e~l\ is. You will set! -dlr all around you OD official notices, m offietal docameeta 8.Dd in newspaper articles. Here are aome examples:


WOLltiJ '(OIJ HELP "'~E1



Match the requests in the fil'!!t ooh.l.l1iu bu the moot li.kcly place you'll heal' them spoken.

ta) Baker Iii.lfiulLZ? (il Derate.

(b) Bir kilo dub.a verir misi.njz'! Iiil Dolu bir otobuste.

(c) Cevaplan yazar nusmrg? (iii) Lokentada.

1Ji} ~HL~<w:dc OOCr ruiainiz? (iv) I\'lauJlvda.

(I?) Sapkaruar ~:LkarI.JT nnarmz? (,,) Sinemnrla.

~""lp answer

lI1u!;:hiid~ cdc .. mlslnlZ? w::xJ!ri yo!} mf!K;I? (1"""'7~r;;8 171"', -&C. flCllu tlJli, (!<J~.kJ:,,j

!ilapka IttJt

'i!1~11f11Rl'l tow,~{)(Jff m.1n.;J'I .Qroong.li1~

You mi8"ht set: lAm rol.lowing _~lf!"ll(;. in 'Iurkeg, :fi..tn.ltc. them more [()ol·JMl by ullin,g in tbc gap!i ll.'Iing-dn·, -dir, -dui- or duro

(a) nuyalk.1pob_.

(It) tll,:ki i9mel~y;)m_. (co) n(l~ yer yok_,

(d) Amenknn Eksprcs g~~rli_. (d Gl~rnj qtkl!}l_,

ro 'Iuvalectmls !:iO:!.llk____.. fel Coeuklar i~in. degjJ_.

gE!~t11 Vi_lli!} ylkli dirt'/

b~llk Oli! or wi/t'lr y;;a~.;J14; forlJ.tkkm

Match items no» WIC two columns below W make cte most meaningful sentences.

ia} <;C1C1.ltUro--<'

(b} nir stitJu lmhvc tel Elilili

(d) FiYIL~ Hstesiui (0;1) IUi.plJ1

(f) ~::.pkmll:7.)

(i) yapar mmuu2.: (ii) cuter ml_m'lli! (iiL) llliparmL91DJZ'! (iv) gulirir mlatrdz? (v) eder ml~inb:? (vi) bl)k.urm]SL'I:'II~,?


(e) Y81'dUD (k) Atcan

(l'jil ClJOfU"l..Ur.i1JSJJli:::'? (viiil incr misiniz?

lutm:lk ,~fll:li'r) k.i:i~n-l;3k IClt1lli:.(!

1;31 JiOr!lf'

kapt csor; gli"J=:o

Place these parts of !:1 joke in the C"OITect order. Add capital teucrs, lull steps and speech marks where necessary,

lnittm gece sabahe kudar pratik yaptam

lnr uy doktcr onu mneyene ederek

bugua ol;:J;.ilrugwluz eok iyi der

huatu bar "Y doktoru gider

hnatu .!;!i.)yk CI,:,"Vup verir

Labii iyi clur doldor rba}'

!;Ii)ti)n whofJJ

pr.;ItlkY.1PJ111i!I!: Wl'JmcrU;B

mu .. sene I;ltmc'k_ to fJlmmimJ

r!lt;s!h(lI.; .rough

11,1St:1 jJJthe('J3Sf1hY~o.r;o) cl}Vtllr,;"'lJ:rrnok W.!I1'I51?C'/

Ml,ML ileme from t~le I;1.m o:t]umru below to make the tl1(J5t. lueoningftJJs(:Ilt.en..::es,

(~) A~~JllL kupayarak 10) Ayill\YU bu.",.,",

(I:) Konu:}Url'lk \'C ckuyaruh (d) ll<LL'<\'i'L s.uJ'ar~k

((!) Plnjda yatamk

f.{) Ynzel'<:k

(j) ceblna koydu.

(.ii) 'Iurkee prutik yap. (iii) spcr yapur.

0,,) mukyftj y.upf.a.

(v) tutiliml gc~i.rlrirn. I,j) ,..,1

I ~._ r;; l7I~ftfl ;rynil rr,.w'f)1

slI'Ylook to OOMt mtl~y"l ffl5/(BUJ)

Fill in the gaJles with the appropriate endings. ,t\)f.(!r the word llr;;furT:l U)B gnp as necessary.

(f.!) A11.'lht:'lT_ tut.

(h) Belkl-bu mU~jk_ hl1'!hmmF,lz. (c) Gen~ bir O;!fkek_ i!I~tk oldum. (d) Ilir ptilis_ seraana.

(p.) Lusfen, vurma koilpek_!

if) AllaL laamyce musunua? 1,,) C"''"'---- hakl

(h 1 MWitup_ gl!lti!"_


(i) Ooooos_illoccl;,

{i) Knrmcn bosun en?

{hl TIumib;iL dinlcuiek ledyerum. (l) Bu yemek_ blktu:u.

(fill Pen~re_ kopar ffLL-SJJllZ: (fl.) GE!mi~ bindik,

(e} Hlebir lley~ KQ\'.IUt:l.lAz,

I-I!- In;Jn_mOl). to beNeve In .l1:8r'1l1l:"-.II ,:mf

geml tos.t

Itlt;:blr ~cy nofl'1tng

Ma~h the ~csts to the pBl)pla makinS" them,

(f.!.) BiT' kilo vcrir m.l:::iniz'.? (j) Scru auran ednm.

(b) Ell mektujm chur mU8uDU7:? (ij} Korknn ~ol!-uk.

fc} Cevap verir miainis? (iii) l'tUtuphrtlledol!o ~a.nl:1dam,

(Lv) GC~Ill(\ki.Mte}'Llll adam,

(v) Ginla~li.ilmjoo:w.tl;nd;flm.. (vi) AuJamay,(m r!:I~1\(!J1C:i

(vii) Ah!;W"P-l't!}}rapoJ) n dam.

(dj Elimj t u car rfn.'imu:? (e) 1fH~;!t,!_lIde edcr misiuis? (fJ Susur mIami?

(g) Tckmr unlubr rmauuz?

Complete this table w))jcb indicueee the purposes li:J.l" which }'OU can usu the present tunaca ill Turkish. 'l'he £h'.~t {1[1(1 h.Ul:i bean dcac fbr yoc.


ra)Sllll:lnginl~ tM de:selibrrliah!lili!

X /

ie) c'esclibhgSilii3!!tITg ~lIeni'l!lIlftN

I (i) maklngpromees,



9 Match the descriptions t{) the prcfeealone below. ((,) Ocaetcac ~'aZlUL k.i:;:i. (j) g;)TOO)") (/.I) Restcrnuda yetuek ptstren kl~i. (H) l'('Jisi1or

(d ~''ihl) yi'lpan ki~;i. (iii) o!jorar

(d) Apartmana bake» ki:;;i. (hr) ku~mJ:'

(e) Me)'vc ve sebse ear .. an ki~i. (V) i~t):j

!j) Lokantadn servie yapan kil}i. (vi) a~l

f.s) D(jtmll~ !lli.1'lm kil';li. (vi.f! knpua

(II) Fnbrikadn (,:.'Lli'lan ~-t,i. (....-iH) gaaetect

(i) Bali keeen J..;lfi. Ox)

I epertm an "",""lrl'~ rnoyve mW.

1%1---- 12!1

Konu!i.lma 2

Harrdde Henrm hn."'I T-I!-Jl{!hBO the dolmW;i ebap. She iF.- nmo; 8itling in the dolmu~, w.u.itin..!l: Fm it tr.r fill IIp. Time iF.; gol!-tE;inJ;:" on end ahe is ~DDOI:!TDt:!O 8u.:mL mi~;;.ing bar flight. Thera is [ust IIDIJ empty seat left,

Hamlde Hanun ~ofl:k bey, gidelim mi ~rhk"?

~(Itf61'" %k nbln, MM dclu deijiliz.

Hamidi.'! Hanun Acelem Y:'3T. Havalimarana kn.lF lira?

~ofiir Yetmi~~bin

Hamide Hanun Tamer». Ben lJ~3tjJml kaearmek isternjyerum. Ben

iki 'ki~i iqi.n bderim

~olor Peld efendlm.

'l'he (!"I'i~er starts the engine and they move off.

H u I,oide H:UiW1 !;'oltir bC~f, penccrcuizi knputu- cuamu ,",cCI.bt1'r '10k


The driver winds the window half "iJmy up.

e.nror YeOOTmi"'?

Hamide Hamm YeOOT. Teeekknder.

$oWl' nil' ~y d~ri.l.

':I'he d r fver Wm9 tmc.. ~dLO en.


Hamid..::: Ilumm GofOt Ix:.yl ~oror ·I::jcndirl..i,

Hamldc ITarum ~:~:~UD aeaini bi:ra:r: lnsar nueamz acaba? Cok

The driver hJ.1"ns the rndio off.

~ofOr liifJ.roo8ticall.y) Yctcr mi?

Hemlde lJ.<I'DUll T~ekkUrlel'.

~of(ir Rica ederim.

III' gl(jollll1ml"? e.f1.:lIYIt"Og.:J? llrtll!; r:wtl..

hr.ld ~Bt

1t:.l!t'lrm,,1i: to osee

Ctt:.h:. .. nL'i<; l'ot7tlY

vetrn~.k (c;1,"'>3"5i1lX(QR

bIT ~'"V d(!gU YOL"re 'M"d(CWl'I~' kl~fn~k Iorod.uc8, Icwll?!;

WfI'ldrJlllrI Illik8l!'K h'giJ,/Uur1

rtce euenm Y(I(J'ro ~Vl],'VofJ~

liJ"pSltltllllK tr:>c,i&.;,v





In this unit you will learn how to

.. make ex.:::l.oml)ti(]nA .. esprees pCtSaihilif;y

• ro.:)k(!'e1.lIJIJe;s~i"ruI

• cfler 00 do sumullling

• cempurc.tlrings


l1etin rmd Defue are Hitting at heme lute one Srdurdny ;)fl:el.'l1(1(1n.


i\lctill Defile t.lellD Defne Met!» De:f.t_l.(!.Men.n Defne .Metin Defne Metin Uefne Melin

Q1koIUl) n)1 btl ~kf,l:tm?

Radi, ~kllitm. '('elevi:zyolldan biknm. Ncrc,1e gidclim.'!

D~;;:~-:!~~~i~~~yon gibL Bll~.]w ne ~'apabilir\~'?

Merkel. '1l}'atro..Qll'nda i}i bir O}'UIl var.

DoWn. Ama berhalda btl aaauc bile!.. bulanmyiz. SOl':tniliriz.. 'Pelefcc edeyim l1Li"l

H:)IYlI'. Beske hir soy yupalun.


Bfhoem. vin resteranura gidcbiliriz. Hs.nRlH-iol!l? T.uksim'de:li..iILc .ruj'/

H:!Ly:JT. DlilflW'Bl3ook'l.r.l.ki Thksim'dcldDdol},n daha guael. Dl}'';rru.. Amft Bebek, Takaim'dcn ~ok dnhn usnk.


WH':RJ; SftAI..J.. tv~ 1301' WHAT CAN WE DO'?

Uerne Furlr etmes.

t'Io1etiil Fad;. eder, Ar.'tb;),yla gidclwyonn, 1)l1 3k.'j(1])1, Unnuun mil?

ArahaJl k:LrJ:le~i!1le oi)dOO4f veriyorum.

Heme Aft uuuttum. 0 zaman Irordc~ill bi.7.i nraya gtlHt~cmo:1. mi? [\ole-tin Yck camm. 0 Ye.=jilk~y'e giducuk. 'I'era }'one gidiycr. Defne "Iamam. Taks.im'dekjne gidrdim.

III ~lkaJfm lul'~ gtJ (.l{.Il Jlof6'J'4l"gidelii'li? w.'1{r>"t:'s.'t5"'l~ego? glctcbUlrlz W6Cllrl(¥J

a.ynt oJtno.'

gibl i&e,StmIiaF

I:i:llQlm nr,. Y{lpablilriZ"1 ~·rf.I.!Il <.\'-!;(~ o:.":.!lrl I~"(l (M;:'

Met~j!o.i: Tiy.ulm:;.~.. me Ge.,trBJ


-oyun ptsy

l'IIIrilllide- oorl,~rr.JJy blllRnlBVU WJ9f."llr)'lf«Jd ii[]r;lblllrli!: weG.!Ij)£(~:

1!!h:!!ron oolW'im m~ s/I;W! p.1~rj[1" VR.I}Onm tore oo

~lf1I Cnill.!J,Clf~

l~rlgi;ii.~1 W I'lhich O!te?

lienee in my Of}irlfon

Elebek."t.eh:i tllf] Q.I78 h SalMi< Elebek'teh:i T;:,k!l;lm'deldnden cane

gt)zel me <l".\'tf) .'1'1 Bab8(f's l'II'csf mal'lllle 000 !it T,ak.')irn

B~bcI;. 'reseim'een ..;:o}; d.,h;l uzak

BQ.l}6f'f$ o!llol turf/ler rMm T-!l'k.Im r.flrk I'.:!tml;ik W ffl5'li'df gld~llliya"llI ~~"8 C81'l'l'go

MOn,.. ve .. mek W IMd

-g~tIJtlw.ik /.() 100ff03, t~, callY D.Izi~Ot u 'tlIo(;Z.r.ni'l' c.:'r,1YMta~Ui;l"? vck cemm .rumrlt)f1i(.1

1.etil;.,.un ()PPVIS!~ dJhw,!.1;:}(J


Thlgru mu, }'3.l1h~ :m(';"

1 Defae He :r..f.etill cvdc kalmak Jetemiycriar. 2 Menu tiy;)tro~'<l. tclefbn ooiyor_

3 Dir tek yin rcstornm var.

" 'Iukaim, Bebek.'IlCJ} duha yakin,

(The answers (1]"(1 on page 2-Hl . J

BB Notlar

Foreign restaurants

There are few -1{..l'tig·n reeteuranta tn 'l'urlroy. You will find thcia in big dt;iE'!1j.like Istanbul end Ankara, bu b neeo III smuller places.


Yml hear csclumuticna such as nr bel uud yok Cf).uun! all tli!l! t.ime.



FE!eling expressed

They H.rB dillicult to translate, but. when rcu heal' them it. is olton clear whut C:JlW1iOD they express bccuuac of the sneaker's Iacc und tone of 'ffiic(!~ Here 8J'(! n foe", morn:

Rough trfll1!.ll()Uon

being fad up

eurprfae .leurprfaa ennovancc exespesauon triump» being fed ~IP

osoeuer and annoyance tli~lJ~t

Ohoo! W61'I/rrGvt.'fl on:

Rigflr, /tt.1UJi G[)OOgfiCI/

GOi.Ct1<lf ftJf)hl then! Oft r10,r Come off it! ComeoNW

, Poo/1I U9f1!

Ghildrt'1l':O comies <11'"e full of .sucll ''fOrds.


1 Can andean'!

Dilbilgisi ------


YOu can s,pnt. the 'Iurkish cqujvaleut of oon or be able hy the inclusion of -ebit in 11 verb form. This ending slota into ill!,}' tense (If a verb just uller the atam. Ttl! USl': il. tallow these steps:

Take tile full tcnn otme verb. Add .C!)il after the verb slam.

se1e~~lm gelebUec€'Qim


-cbjl uses e-typevewcl hL'il·!'Oony.

"·Vbr:::.a l.:il1k.ing about. the present, you usually me tb(j .[' JU1Js®.t tense WiUl -ebll, Here are soma IJXllIiJplCS:


SfmpJe present form


jJlderlm vaparsm yiblk koyal'IZ .s&ylelSli1!:l. verirler

gidehlr'frlm yapahlllraln yurliye-hlllr koyabHir!z s(i.yleyebilir!'linl7. varebilirter

Yon should uote bow the to 00 Il!mlinf:,'E nra acrnefimes diJle)'Cllt In Ihe twu columns above.

Q~Lt..'St:.ioa: Why?

Arrsv. ... en J1'I the Jirat. cchrmn, the preceding vowel LS the 1~1l.~ %1'((101 in the stem of me verb. In the second column, the preceding vowel ill. the i in -ebtt Of -abll.

Mah..illg questions with the C.(UI form is c~sy enough:



gldebllhtm yapahlllrsin yuru~ehiIir knyahiliriz sD\I'lay~bili~IJllz verabitirlar

gidebilir ml~m1' yapabair mJsh? yuruyabili.rmi? koyabilir miyiz.'? wy[eyebilir rnletnlz? verahihrlar mi?

HarB are some examples in the futuro und lha pH.~t. tenses:

Yapai;dfX:eginl. I'll btl r".Ibk 10 d(l riO.

Gl'!IE!oilece.kmUi.i.u'r WiU}'-Olt b(!"wl(!"I(tcr;rrli'~~

Oyn3}'abildi mi_"! Wa.~ hl'c I S,~! (lbw to phzy?

Yaedim edcbildiDiz. YO!I WP.Jl? able to ltd)).


¥j}1I CJll [;_j)UL l..h~ Turkish equi'ilal(!nt of oo,,'t nr llJ)t abJe h.'; the ineleetcn cl -e· alter the stem of a verb form. 'ro use this ending. follow

tbese atcps: .




Ti.\kO uic nUQl'ltiv(t rcrm 01 WI>O verb. gClrYlcyccek Ado .c;.. oucr inc '0'011:1 S1CrYI. gCICfflC)'C>C:eK

Nctc that U1C -(1 follow:> e-typc vowel harmony. Here are some examplcs ill the -r present I,crISC;

I don't

I can't

gelrTi8fT1 yapmazam yurUriii3z KoyFnaylZ WyIcjrlCWt~il vcrrnezfcr

g81e1rrem yaparnuzam yilr['r~elTl8.Z k:oy;:rJrraYlz W'yloy.erYIr¥.!:siniz vcrcrnezfer

Here LIft some C&1Jl1p[-e:s in vruicuu I'.t-Jl~CS;

GidemeyecejfJ:rtJfl 1 !.L~(m'~ ~ .u!)W oW go.

Yapamadlm_ 1 cord(lll'l Jo U,

Qll'lmazl /f,Cf,ifl.·'lb.c!

Celemedn~. W~ cor~ldtl'l WYlU:,

2 Might


To say what might happen, you :;J15(l1JSC UIIj -ebil- ending. f'Of example:

'Bil'ttZ sonra i-~(!hi1irim, Paza}' gcl~bUirim.

I mig'lt '1LI{!t! e dh(~,h a little later. I might rome on SunrJ.ay.

Whether the above sentences I1if!W) con or m.i~JIIl will be clear from the context,


1'1,1:1 negnrive form (If might is different Ircm tJ)8 ueeative Icnn of mfr. You make th-e- ncguuvc farm of miglu b.)' ph"tciDg -me nft:e.T' the: vcrli stern.

Yapab"Hh"lru, y'apmaynbili~'i.rI1, I migfJj dfJ it ami 1 mighl rJo!i't.

Ilikknt, Sc"'l/JlwyebilirJer. B~ f:O.H!frd. TJuJ.Y might twt.likf!' it.

Note WIt: dillorunee ,1)!!-m'(!C;l) might 11,w lind mlL1?o:;Il:

Si.nC:t:!tRy" gldcmem. 1 wn't go to the ciueme.

Sinll;!-maya gitmeyehili['im. I might 1101Jf) to Iltt cinema ..

Sinemnya gjdemey(!ce~m. lltwfl't Of! ablr. 1{) go {(J thf! .cirJerna ..

YoI)U can combine mig/d, and CWi., For example:

Sinc:mnya ntdemercbturtm. I migh~ lWt be able ttl 80 to lh(!cim!ltUl.

3 Comparing things

In order to say I'm clelltrcr t}IQIl yon, in 'Iurkish you SoIL)' Tm m.ore de!,Y!r{rlJfn}'Du ..


Send.en daha nkilJJ~lm.


1'It,cftlIf!r, J'1tj.dr:t;f!r~rtfJ(mJ'()ll,

HeTI! ue some more examples:

vent Ze1nndnt Tu:rklye'd.e.u. Nl!.w Zr.olml.oli is S1rwUf!'r than

dnJH1. kiif"fik, Tr~{'ke}'.

'lUrkiye,.·1ugillA"OO'den dnhn ueca, Tm-kej' i;t dJWJJtr Ihm~ Erlgland.


Th~ ffj.(J{;e boollti{lIl plf.!~p. orL ~CIrlh. PUW..T is [jIC best sill~r

~~~~.~::;C;igg~Bi eu)' ls/sta.nbu$.

Di.Wyada en gih:el yel'. 1\1ckiye1de en iyi ¥,l'kH.':l Purur.

Tti.r~iye·llin E!U huy-uk .!jChci tst<Ulbul.

Ell bUyilk (;aJ.ata!mrnyl

Gala.ki;S(t1'(J:)' (the football team} ate lite grwte .. ~J.!

4 The lei forms of verbs

LOI)k at. the fL)ll(ll'.rjnr; exemplas l[).Calling let,

~d(.'Yim iet m~ g(J;Iif!.rt, rlllJC

~dclim ld'sgiJ

git~n ll!~ him go; he shorild;J~

g_ij,9in l(,:r wi them. r,o; I hrn,' Sl1fJ1dd go

Add -eyjm. onto the steeo of 1.I verb 00 gicc the: me;_ming !Jut!., ld me , y I)Il use it !(r.J:' off"el'iug hell~ 01" IMk.ing suggestions, For example:

Paltcnu nlayim, L~t IRe" Ur1i.e J'O!,'1' roC/t_

Yu.nhm cdeyim. 1I~n!! h;l me help_

Gidcyimnrl" Shl111IlJo~

YUl"dun edeyini roi'? Shall [hctp?-

Add -elim onto the stce of a verb t(J give the meaning W',s. Ycu use it foe making Inlggosti()J\s. fOl' example:

Gidelim, [..ells go.

Kalkahm. ~l8 get up. (ifyuu'cc in someoue'e hOUEe this means 1i!'t'sgQ}

Yapahm DIl? Slllll'I WI? do (jOt

Eve ddnelim mi" Shall we go /~~

Add -sfn to the verb abam if) S[l~r ·,",'hat someone ell:.e (n(r~ the person you're t:;llkiI1g tc} ahculd de. Also use it ro expreea a hope that sometillng willhappen.


there! uenelaucn Moon.iD9



to liM flim Jo go oome; eo s/lOOId go zome.

I tropo il (/Oes.n'1 ri.rin_ K('"'Cp ftt6 tl1tmgs.

IlwPO your' l1'01k goes 'ViSit God()(O!:(}(VO (I!;, G::xJfcxb'd!. lJon<tpp6liL

YagmurY-dgmaS.JD. Ustuilaisin.

K<Mry gelsin.

Allah korcsun. Ali},ctOl.sun

Le! it nos min.

Lei the ('llsnge st8f, Lei it came easify. Let God protect.

Le! good health ne.

The plural form 01 -sfn 15 -stnler-

Yarm gelstnler. T~lltJuml tOI;omef..oJnorI'(JW,

5 ok;

'luhe .!l. noun which .'11riAW.,y has a -dc (:[Ldin.g (fL;.r example, .. d:,e"lde), Yeu can muke an adjecf .... e cut 01)1" ie, '1'1) do ~(I, udd tho anding -ki (fol)<1' example, uteldeki).

New look :tf, the following examples:




O'ie:~LJar lhein-1.he-froi.eJbiJr Ir'IOW(llfll:XtJs)uJ.lhe1it.Jt'eJ

'k_O¥!deld mase /he vJ-Jni>'-cotner i:)1;I,'C 1/'1(.1 I@'eln.!hs CQm~

.Nmanya'dakiTurkier .!.f:IeilrJ-GOOJiW'1Y TuoliS IJ)(.! ftl1kSJn t>eJmarry

masaoekt gi;:ekler 100 Ort-the-m5.!S I(Oll'Cl'S /J;i(! ikii·/Cr"S on 1h~ t8b.~

Note hQW -ki does nllt chauga because o( vowel harmony,

Ifi~ is cbvlons \'i'hat. YOU'N) talking about, }"<1U can use -W wi1lw,u~ the noun to me,Ullh~(,m) which ie ill fat Ifill. Fer example:

oteld.(:ki kU~Gd(ilti Almunyn'd,lkiler raasudakiler

tll.e. one (which iE) f.rI- Me }w[e.1 tllP,.01l.ein ~11E.Cl!mei'"

the tl1lo1!a- in G~rmmw

thi! tlIl~;i' on tlu~ t{rbl~

If tt ia obvious wlm~ ytJu'ru talking about, you C;)1'I put -ki an a poaeeeaer to moan till! DHI? wil ich i~' J"W::r.dlli~ etc, Fer example:

QteHn'ld Ilr~ WI":; which is alo(! hW£lJ, thf"!I,-",~l'8mJe

(thf"! OJ'U:' whidl is) misie, ffl;}' (){fC thdl"B, thf!irQ-rr~

bt:wlllhi -oillannid scnmlnlcr onbu'u.dillcJ."

6 -ce

j.'our8,:}'ow·orre::; thdl"l:J, their ones

Often, you add -ce to a nationality or people. to gi~'u the rela ted langtA;)gc. for eX(1mple:


TUm 'Hint i:;pmryOi Kurt Errnoni Amp Yunan

Hrrk99 Hlntl?9 ,1!;;j)ElnYDk:B Kurto:;:e Errrsanica ArBpQB Yunanca


Note h"· ... , -cc fbllowe e-type vowel bartucny, and ho ..... tlm c becomes 9 after a voieeleee consonant,

Sometimes you add -ee tc the came of a ('VlIlitry to give the related IfUlguage. For example:



Is v e~ Hollands Portakiz

Qince i.svES~a Hollendaca Pcrteluece

Y~JU can udd -ea onto the eud of pcraenul prunoune tfio menn llr';(;tJ)"ding to ... , Ier exnmple:

benee illm:}'opini01l

81;,0;(:(0: il~ yuw ().lfirli.O"1

You cuu edd -Cl?l)nl;.r) adjectives to mean /"ailler._., for example:

lyic-e rather ,gfJod, q1;tile gMd

hi:iY"tik~ mille!' hie, r{l.tile big

8 Buffery, n ars?

You use!j, as a b~I_(Jcr-;

• tor possessed endings;

• with compound nouns. You USi} n ua a buffer

• for possessor endings;

• with a word whi-ch ;(1 lready has a pcseeseed ending;

• with the pereonel pri)TIOI.lJ)S bu, su runl OJ

• with the -ki ending.

Otherwtse yon usc y us a buffer,



Siluadon E;t;amplC Meaning
0. pcecocseo enl:Jlng I ¥3-ntafiol .It,WO~WU
a compocou ecun E!1¥3-nl:.3.S<l 1iW'II1tiLIg
u pcsessor Cndirl9 All'nln AJi's
auer a pocesseo ending 9antaslol tut. rto ... 'dfliSl1)C~J)<lg,
wilh uu, ~t"I aM a Bunu seviyorum. 11iJrB1fliS.
wiWI tIlO·lei Crlclrtg Seninkini erdnn. J IOakYOLII'S,
<:lflorrn<tldi((:clObj,ec1 i\!lYI:!le\'iy.nrum .. 1 Jiif13 Ali.
enormul tc OOjClC1 9~IYEIgit. Golalh8ma.rk.o1'.. t!.I ----- AIIl?tlrmalar

The key 00 these exercises is on p.!Ibl'(! 249,

Read the diatl}'<>'1lE:! end ltwn answer the qneatjone below.

·il;:a~dil konuliahiliyar.::un? Dikt..

Qnk iyi. Ingillzce ok(;lDu~!iliiliyot mUSlJ1'!'~ Mnr.tB!lsf lcmuenruycrum.

Peld, hangi dlllcri bilij·.Qoi'.:lUt(!

Almenea, EnM(UOO, blraz Fmnaizca Vol! '1''ilrk~ tabii, Hepeinl iyi kOUll:;.o.bi~I· musun?

Almanenm \'tlli. Iyi, Ermeniceyt aunemden oWenrl.im. Ocunla Ji.Oll~ilbiJi~'o(,llJ)' .{tm~ yazamtyorum. FrunSLZCIlfL ckulde okuduro.

Fm[I1iL<!.C[UUfl .LlC kadanui hanrhvcesen?

Eu,Y'iI.gL hnhrhycrutu. Okny(:lbili~rum VI!! ~'l:lZllbili.'{(Inml O:lIJfI kom.LJ;jaIDl_YiJmm,

«(t) Filiz tnbril.h:re kunul;j::Willy-or illU'!

(b) Filiz anneslyle hang! djli kOilU~UYOl'?

{d ~imdi Filiz Fransuca k(jJ1U.i~bjljYOl' R1U'?

Sel_m:a "~iljl'i Sem)"3 f'iliz Senn·a !t1-iliz Semra Filiz

Semee Fili.z


2: Match items Irom the. two mJml1_lJs belc w 00 form true sentences,

(a) Avuatralvahlar ill Almencn kouu~uy(j>tla r,

(II) A~·lt~tU1'j:~'r1a ot.m"Cln


{.c} Bclelkahlar

{d) Brceilvu'dald tnsanlar (~) Suuclt·Arabiatawll1l1·

nn ~\r.upq.n k.:JOl1'jIJ.YiJd;:U',

(ill) Franmaca kcuusuycrle r,

(iv) tngilizce kcnusuyertnr.

(t') Pcrteklece kenusuyorlar.

Read this brochure extract about different types 01' ncccmmodation and then answer the qucsticne below.

OSM/\,NU (JTELi -C;INAR orer.i 1'~'b'roIs:jYON DE.RLIN

2U!od3 15(}(I(i1l 20.:x1;]
2restomn t(;,IY'II\.reSI(lruDl Dt\':lmh~,c;lk !iIJ
KJiJt1a.l1 odulnr Kluuubcdaiar ame
14 snnt od.~ scrvfsl AII~"I~Ij~ 111..:rlczi ~1'li:f...::ll)DI]1
Tunla korm KU:l~6r B:l~
2il~k,bil~"'.I;':' Delli .... sma yuulle Oyun salcou
Sntmll ve S;!gllJ~ i:liibil Tllrk haruunu
Tcplnun vo hlllfe':I~ A~lkl:vilfefe~l(frJ.m
K.iJilrdr\o.c,gli:llelli,k Bnrtnr
C;-.nr~1 lJ,~lk huvn diskcsu
DeI)iZCSlill' DeoizeWltl fa) Cm:u Oteb'nde Pan::lyoll Berlln'den daha eok bar- var nu? (b) Qm:lr Otelf'ndcki .yuzm9 havusu n~511'?

(oC} Osmanh Oeeu denise emili' Otell'nden dana nu ".il-".m"1 {d) ED ~k Ylldl'1:lt otcllKlllgrisl? ? • (.e) En kueuk yer .bangtsj'f

lfJ Bn ucuz hang). yer?

(g) Ell eok hang:[ ctelde oda var? (M Hang! otelin bamanu Vat,?

(j) Haogi ctelleede j~ki i~cbllJrsin:iz? ij) HELDgiotellet,neytlzc:bmrsl.ni:.:? (N,) NoroM LlI11;!;I ... eda Hp._'lbilirsinJz?


(l) Ncrcdc duns OOObilil'Sini:l.';l vn) Nercniu srumesi ,,'M'I

(n) Osmunli Otcll'ndc haugi SPOtl;:U1 yap8.bili.rsi.IJj:(? (0) Si:occillUlgisicl'iyi:

'iI,;'kh<WUl; QI(l.'1>'lirS}CX;1 !;\Jghk h(.'i;IIVfl

yiiZi.ofllk bl~'3IJ!y

~3ttl =:,110;.)'.1I1900(1116,II15Ili"l'f 1i1'lna afr-oonditlofl,v:g

yiizme ls;;.yLlZU f;w.Yrilr:Wtg p(X1/ haiil3r'-l TW.\?~lt l!2!t.i

ceeemn oom:tant OOllfl'nL'(I1J.S oyun salontl y.!ime.s: rool'l1

yrldrz srar .

Iu tbe jifflt cohrmn below is a li_~t or offers. Tn the aeeond oalumn is. [I description orpeople in need of help. M::lb:h the offers tutb(l~~ who need them.

([,!.) Mtk~llbu okny.:Wlffi Jlli't (b) iL.oyiru,

(co) Buna knhvc yupnyun.

(d} Bcnisu koJeruimi v ercyim. k) (lnt!:llj;:ulK!ntuto.y:Jmml? (j) Peneereyl ueavim,

li) Jjebeti U1.:~ty:)tl anne. (ti) Kbrl))jJ.Dki~.

(iii) Boauk nrabada cturnn ktsi. (iv) [sten Wo!J gelen ~!i'illi7..

(v) Terleyen nrlam.

(vl) Y uemuk iH(::yt!ll udam.

!i 'lhese three ..'IiRfL~ me 811 on shaw in the S:..1rn8 ear park! PI~lY :s.u.fl~ and assume an three ~E!t~ of restrictlone apply. R8ferrlag to them, answer the qm:ostion1'[ below.


(a) PI.'IZllr go!!~~j SMt cnbirde arahnnu park edebtllr miyirn".? (IJ) Cumurtest sabnlu melnaikletieui IJal:'k udobilir miyim? (.c:) Paaartesi ~letl: kMl,yI)UUlflU park etlemcz. LDi~':im~

W) Curoe 6"linti l:il!leden ~O[LrIl urabarm park cdebillr ml}'im?

In the th~t OOJU:rull below t~ a Ii.!lt ?J' compfulnts wbteh migh~ be made by the person you ure with. Match each one with cue the sug~e!:.tion yuu would muke in ('errt}'.

(a) AyakJm'llil agn)'l)L {() Bir yere ~Ik<lhm rlll'!

(b) G~ kelrlik. (Ii) Birahaueye gil'clim.

(c) Susaden. (iii) Eve donalim.

id) Slktldlln. (h') Dalla lnzh yi)rOyelim,

(d Yatmak istiyorum. (\') Biral; oturehm.

Sg:rlil1lik ro~ BU~Sl'IliiIk lD!JI3tllik<J.y, WOOJtNIf;ly

I;olkllmak fa l.;'Vlt .b;:rOO, fi3d up blr.1hmllB 1u?d(II~(~Y'

hlzll rw.'ck,qliii':i<.y

'7 D.ctgru mu, f:l:nb~ mr.1

(12.) Antrr{~':). Lcndra'den del-a aicalr,

(IJ) TU.l'ki~de: bir fincan cay boil' bardalc ~a..vdi!Ul rlaba kU"iUK.



(.c) Owbu~, dolm u uno dnhn ucnz. (d) Guruw,; en pnhuli metal,

(eo) Jflplill,)·llt NijCl'ya'ilim dah« ~,(!"gi". (f) "'liJJl.tKf) di.i.uyrmm e.n k(l~Cik Iilkeai. (g) TiirkLyc'dc en yOl0Jek dag- Uludng. (jl) :;:fU<ll), rnkidnn daba kuvverlt.

(i) Bittck kij1teden <1::1h3 pehah.

(j) Jstnnbl.ll dt)nynum en bli}iik sebrt

flnc:.ln (;!.J},tr.r.l9 bill"dilk g(;t;o;.:; 9jjmii~ f;,i'wJr d;~ rill'lli'l'Jra'll blltt.'t: SI'i\!lW

yiik.!:;~k. liig.'l

kuwetli po'Io'arlil.', .strong IiEful Cly}' ~911f11r of I = ~chrl) d(lnya ~/odd

Slud.y this telephone d.i.nI{lHue between a berrussed secretary ~mLl her jg'J"I.lILl.j)Y bose In the efftce next dooT'. Fill in the ~::"Ip~ using 8£1Ch.£lol'ilicwf}1-dslLstedbelo' ....

uruam baltlcu,iJll(!r gctirejun {(i demsm gii.f.,in gitainter nlmnsm

Sclrrctcr 13-.u1 l';}~ltm _~i)l.i eriynr.

~cr .L~im var. (_~ledE:!n f.,oI'l'nrn tekrur _(a)_.

Sckrcter Peld. BI)~r v c Bayan Oaer R"'2ldL

~cl _Io)_!

Scln'eh~A .Bekl(jmeye~kler guliba.

ser 0 snman _(r:)_.

Sek.~'ete..1" Pekt. S8:1t onfktde Tnksirn'dB toplentaus vnr.

~e.f Ben _(d:I_. Yerime Ahmet _(d~

Sekreter ,!ay _<n_ mi?

fjef (letir. Soi,~k _<i>_.

Penny bus been piann.ing a two-week taur (}f Turkey. She has marked all the places .~h~ wanta to see on tho map D.'r"l:;rieilf. She docs net knew whether- she will have time for all {If WIGEn, sc .Bhe has placed .l\ quest-ion mark next to these which abe might. skip. fu:J.crtJllg to her plan, So'lj' whether the t:.tat8IDIIDt!; below are t.1"I.l0 4lo1' false.

Do~ru IILLl, yauh:} ttrll

(oa) Ponn}" keelnlllde laennbul'u gdrccck. (h) 'KD.oyn'yu ~Lt;mQ}'cbi]i r..


(c) ~(!rg.uOUI·J1 gdrmeycbilir.

(d) Izmlrde ke:;inlik"le durmayacuk. (.c) SCI~Llk'U giVrehilil;'.

rn HeLkj Bursu'du durur.

(g) Doorlllt1'dadu.r.muyubilil'_

(It) Penny t;)r'iht ~'C .. la r; i hi\: g.IJ.rmeycl)llir,

1"""""O.dfliillltaIy latlhl 1!;..;.rm«;,1t

10 ifry guessing the rneanil\g -of these pleeea and nationalities.

{(t) Amcrika Birlesik ne~lcU~rl (AnD) Amcrikah

(h) Asya AS,}lah

(c) S03M Bosnak

(d) Bulgaristan Bulger

(~) (}iJ) \:mJi

(I) C;)ller Gl1lli

(g) C(lncW Afrika Gllil(!~' Afrik~h

(fJ) Htndistnn Bjntli

(I} Kl bns Kl brrsh

(i) Yen.t Zclnnda Yern Zcl.o.ndall




Dclue aud .Me~in hnve made it to the C~Li;nt!~;IJ rcsteumut, Thc~' have just been shown t() ~ table.

Dcfne No yi~'clim:

flrlcllI.l BilmeID.l~jy{lt Ii,stesini tsteyeltm enoe.

Dc{uc l~ki i9CJill1 mi'~ Bu ekaam ieebiliriz I;uoku. urubaylu


1Iolctil1 Ivi tim', Eve takstyle giclp-biHr miyiz?

Dclue 'l~[ibjj. '.

~Ietin kelnn 0 znrnen. Bir kii'l;iik ;;;It!;!!:! rule isteyeyirn mi".? Defile ~\D yemeklertyle raln gider mi?

Mell!! H.(I;Kl~'1 her ~f!f,iit vemekle j~ebiHr!;in.

Defue Qin yemeklerlyle de ml?

MeUu SaJlolrLm tebtt.

Defile- H,1(1j, iste bnknhm.

Konu~ma 2

lil-1.em"ilk WHI.!I1'lf1l18rarotWli"lor:) '9ln yemckkrllfll~ rlitH '!;Ilt'lf:o_r iJ:11?

DiJ~'.~ m.~1 go ~'lill'.I CJtioo..::e /(JOO'?

her 1?C~1_1. ~rnI~k dVOJy i'Y.fl1') f)/ food eenmm tebn I nlcio"OI"1 sa ISt.l!-bat:IIII[M 90(11"1, i»5.-l.;"ft;;f/l



In this unit you will/earn how to

.. O!!l:llil'w,!l cbliguticn

.. talk ahout likcs nnd dislikes • glve advtee

~ Konu~ma

I!J Y.l.lgo_rntn i;:: {l 'l'nrkish pop elapee. She is ooilL~ interviewed 011 a tullr shew.

Sunueu Yascmin, hepimia ~rkllamLL.zl tamyorua <11'110. sizi ki;;;li clurak Lanu:nr}'r.il'nl':, B(I§ sumenlenmzdn nelcr :rt'pl~·{)r· s"o_n'Uz_. neler yapmajt S(:Viy6!'SUDUl.':?

Y.illi€lmill Colt. bit.sil. !;IB.yl~I'" l3enim Boguz'da bir daircm var.

Oralarda. denls kenannda yurilfoeyi severtm, slncmeya gttmcyi severim, a:l'kadil:;;W.rlu beraber clmaktan h(i~t...'\ruy(lruID"." bu kadar.

StUIUCU SPOfO scvivor musunuz?

Yascmln Pek sevmiycrum. Iliraz rent. 'Iunis seyretmeyi ecviycrum arna OJrl<!.j<louYDrurn_

Bunucn Futbol scyrcdiyor muannua?

YuSCmin Hayn! Kculnlikle hayn-. .i?lltbol wyretm1!-_kten )"lerro' -erliy(lr1.lru - fu~blJ[ eevenlerden O:.::fu' dilarim emu ~ sevmtyanmi,

Snuucu Peki, btraz da isinlzden bnhaedelini mi? MU2-ik yapmnk kolay 111) aisin i~[[l1

-136- -137-


y aeendn K(ll~y dc~'il - 10m teeai. t;ok eabsryorum. DB.~I her eurlmo, her kcnscrim k~L~'_lr-su:7.. olmah. Bunun L,\:m oak oak cnh:}lm~lIl. g(':u:ki.Y<ll'.

Sunm:u ~w:r~li\rlll.l~l n crede ynayoraunuz? Dog.uz'd.u.LU evinisdc mi?

Yasemin Yok.. Evdc y~7 .... 'llm}'()l'um. latanbul'dayken yazIlHI)'i"I ValtijiliJ)'ortllt.\, J)t~§i)nmeek tdn aeasiz bir ytrde clmam lazuu. YoJmz olmam gerek, Akclimiz'de: 0<:01 ve sakiu bit ycrim \'\U', $tll'lolanml yazmaya oruy a gidiycrum.

eesn :,;im,.'71'Q

:;;~Jntlr.1J r.QJTJ,!Nlra, .I:oM hr.-plmjz ,~(foJO!l

cr.:Jl;:ud;!J .!I(.o':.md I),e.re, thSre.!lDOO1'8

kensr edge, siX:fe

uu xauer V;',lr:S'II, thar'.G "N pek ~1'JI,B,'or p8KwvmiyonJIIJ'I lLk:n'r~','w!1


Y[Ionl ~lfJ>\',IrJw,lrl

lulball>il ... L'If t()i:-.lINI~ tover C-den)arllJdllmr::1o; lo ... .slf


f-dcn)b .. hrjllJlmck W(.ll!:Co!fS!;,.


~1t!;ur~aJZ MI~'/.'t1SS, pdr1t:1c.t

neire .l/ilr,.5p~1lI cnneu mosr bo

Dllnllni",in Op-=<i~.J!;()rJ.rlJlis !3orJ;:laT1l~k I'C" I.JQ ~r.f.'~:~ry 'imJI~nlOJm 8~rt!'."krl'0r t {llli"S.! W(lr,il:" (lilJ)1'tI1I1r)ly~~ts,r;eG9SS"o:lry) -kCl"I w}"i/lslbdiDd ia'3I'1b'IJ1'{]~\I'Ken '.MMlrlfut,lnJ::1.!l1' t-B)yollr;:M8k rowOJIo;-Et,.]"(:It0'rQ dllij-6"nmoOk k>lr..'nl:

Il12lm r.G1ro.s;~ary

eeeeu q!iier J)1r"ll:llIlIIaZIlIl r rneur ze ~t!'I"ek 1'1ec6""".:-5.iW ourem gcr-ck J ml~ 1m

V<lZJT1i:lY-il ir.o{:,--,x:,-taw!iitJ:


J:>r.it1'i1 mu, yanh~ lUi?

1 YOSCJni..u OOfl-i;sl;en nefret. ediyor.

2 Yascunu miicik; yapm.ak iein ("'Hk r;ali.l;!I}'or. 3 Yascmiu ~m:kll\m taeenburda yazamiyur. 4 Yascmm'in iki evi vnr


o Notlar


In his firo~ questlan, thl!;!- hnst U.SoI!8 nelee- rather than ne, because hoi} is CXj)OCWll_g ])l-I}J'(! t.h;JI1l >l}np. Item 81> the IUL!;Wtl.




Yneemin repeats thee word ~Qk in order to stress it. Repco.tiltg words in this way ie very common in 'Iurkieh Ieee the explanation of how you make udverbe on [I1Ige 2l2),


You pronounce the word lazam a s if it w~a spelled JanZIDL Tills was. originally an Arable word, and the a in it, is longer and 'softer" than a normal '1'll.rkish one. U used 00 be spelled 1.a~lIll W show that the a ..... as different, bnt modern spelling dnea not use the circumllex accent (th8 'ban One or two oilier Ambit:! words m-e, however, still spelled \\'ith EI cireumflea. vee may have noticed haI:i ill the dialogue on page 118- - it. is still !>pelle~ with the hate to di!>tinS'uisil it. from unulher Turkish word, hula (which I1.l.C'wS r:.!-!t{] f ... n j"tlW' {aihr:r's silk),

TurkiSh television

'Iurktah television is. fuli of'" ~I.'!tl?brit:.'l intcrvic ..... s. W lJiochi.T.ljIl; .'lny TllIki!l-h 'I'V shew will do wunduru i~J1" yuur Ttrrklah, no inaner how much (lf.o. beginner }"\I)U arc. U Y1J'"t1 de not live in '1111'kejo' ruid hava III) neecsa 10 "Iurldsh eetelltte cbaunclu, L1::J. I'urlrieh friends 00 mnko video recordings of favml"rite .=::i.1(1)W':;, Leaving the TV on in the back[J'OIJl.l.d is recommended - 81;1'e:::91 rhytlnu and the odd word will rub off on ycu C~'C[l when }'DU are net p.ayillg anentlon.



Using infinitives as nouns

YOu can 1..1..513 the inllnithre Iorms of verbs :IS it they \'1(,:1"(:' nouns. Bemctimas you use the 'f"uJJ' inliuitive form (If the verb for this PUq)O~8~ and sometimes vuu usc a shortened form of it.

'Full' Infinitive

You use the rull infi.i1itivc: farm witb adiectlves, Icr cx.umplt!:


·-1.1i1·k~e iJ.jp:f})JJl).-ek kola},. GiY.tll,ek. YIIs(!k ..

Lcwtdt.!C 'f'tuldsh is" easy. Btll!)' ((!rUCMII.g) isf()1Diddtlt-.

YoOu ulsa usc the: full iufinitivc farm with isliyorum and iA;in, ftli" example:

Gynamuk i~in geldim.

IWI')!t?i-nol-dt?!'tIJpif1.J_ (literally (.oJ. plet'ymg)

I isant ta [Qlk.

/lOOflt to Ri!.f!P l:lill!l1t. (literally /100nt 110.1 to talk)

Kcnusmak istiyorum. KonufmUmnk ii;l:iyurum.

'Short' infinitive

If you k mock the lc o(f the end of the infinitive, Y011 have u 'shorr infinitive. MfIffi. of the tjme, when you use ~el'b~ aa DOllDS y(llJ use this ahnrt fbrm.

Here are some O(UJ-ll.:3 wb:i-cb MC! short infinitives:

'IJ~rb Nl;llln
k.ol1U~rnilk we,'k ucnuema lXiIi'l6rsiWo.,
snr.o~l'llslt: 1.(.'I.:lgrPD ;-ml~\!iIE1~ ;;og.-t:'drll~"""
OOlt'lU11t: I-il'btifl.>·.~. s~f1rxJ dorJI'I;!i ~ltJffilrril(IDIMir)..7(l
OOl'ldUrIDot: I{) 1i-;e.!!2'eso.lt:odtfu);-g ocnuurma ~CfMm Here are aomu examplea where you nse ahert intinit.h·e..~ :lEi the firal, half af a compound noun:

yuzme havusu oturme odasi ieme suyu boyame kitabl

slj~i.mm.il.!.8 ptJm s#tingf't)Qm drinldngw~7' painting bODk .


Do not confuse the shod infinitive with negative commands, Icmc suyu can either mean ddnhiltg I.ttrMr Ot don't dri.Jdt Ihe waled In speech, you can tell the difference through the C{ifit.c:!l:t and the atrcaa (in. Cl1pitl)ls belcwk Por emmple:

jl}-:MESU)'U ir;.mes u yul

dri{1h.i.ngwaJ.Er .D.:JI1'Idri.{1.l!tl~wal~,..i


lro-l11l, • .MAKa.-Nll~·1)Jlll


WWC"fSalwn lJon'lUrlh-!

Remember t.b..ut in nl!'gati~'e tones of varbs, YDU F,.t.n!fI~ t.he syllable in nll)"At of tJ1C -mc ending.

(' ! D! OTOMOTlv yru::t1. SAH.1IC1TD.




TIOLS8953 84

2 Adding endings to infinitives as nouns

When j'DU 115e Infinitives us nouns, they net like (Uly other nouns. Just like other nOLUJ'i. YOu Can give them mncus endings,

U~DlnktaJE. kol'kuYOJ:'III.n. p¥rm(lktc:'ll biknm.


When j'Ou need to add -den onto the infinitive form nfa vetb, YOu use thefuU infinitive. For example:

I'm afmid of flying. I'm fed rIp olcooliill{J .

-/j -c

W'bJ3L1 yon need 00. add -j nr -'13 endirtg.s ento l:hc infi]litiv~ fort» cr o '{(!ru, you use the short illfiJliti. ';'13. FOT E'Xo'lmpJ.c:

-141 -

Pi~rmp.yi I_H)".l).I_rh .. Bula~lk ytkami)jl' planltYQ1.'Un_lA nula~lk ytkamalna.l'~ planbyorum. KOJimaj'a h1l!;dndl_

Balasik }'Ilmlnn}lu yardim eel

He. !cltoppro. .cookJng_ Fm. plannin.g to d£, the WG:ihillgllp.

FIn pfanning nol to do the washinc up.

H~ b~gan to ,1111.

H~'p woo tlll~ 1ro.~hil1g rII}/

eceeessed endings

,"Vitlt the peescsucd (~~r::; you USB the 1#10rt infitlith'e term, For example:




Bcnlm Turk Qll1lIlffl lyI, 1\'1)1' be.Yl ... Q 7'wk).sJ) isgolXi. II's grx:d tlutl tnl TV!ln!;1?

SoImln 00 llOOOlr r~m.cl'l Yow dr/n.1fJ.'l9 fills moo~ II's flo.! [}OOft/h'lt ~J

1!f1dcgll. /smigtJoo. (.,'{jp.k tlli!!" mlJr:il.

Ali'nln bllrn.d.o o:)11JI"II1<1-S1 Ali's /M'Qg hem- Is B A}/'s .'iv/r"i.iJ t~":I'rl i!t ,J

probll!!nL (Ii"Obfr;m, ~ro.!..'l'eJtl.

BI:dm oot.;l)'1l gL-Ilncmlz Q.:.rr [:"QJT"!,Yl.i"jI hem Is 11'8.tm,oon'ar.lt Illsf 'ltl£l

""oll;oncmll. l.;e,y/t.l~llrlr. d;lirrolll}lfJ,

Onlnrln gitJ'n(l-si gillf4!~. Th6I" gtJI'l'1g Is Ii! r)~.!:Sijy Tf.v.ty IJ"'!!~ flo..

If you use the perecnal PTQni)l.In;;J (benfm, senin, ctt.\ it makes the IDGnning clearer. J-IDW~\'~r > most of the time YOU can leave them out,

Possessed endings and -i, --e or -don bo1h togerh~r

Ali'nl.n bneade utuemaama I'm. W"lgl"~'" abOf1l A,li li~'i"g here.


Bur.u.Y'li l"lICImumiri b(:!kiiY{l-rl8.l". ~''r(! 1~11J [or US W CrJ.t11e Ju~m

Ac.Rba .tiUrmcni;,!;dcm noli'et 1 h~tr: }~7'JI'wing,


Onlarm gltmeslnden Yo.!I'1'f:' np'(i.i.d lluzy?'e goin.g I

.ko:r)nIYorsunuz. they'UlJOlthr:yi.'C gone.

Here am some examples in the neentive:

Gltmemenfal istediler. They did rwt want you to Rfi.

Onlarm gitmemeslnden You'mflfmVi theyh rl.rdgoinn,



fl'lI./l)' DO YOC) ~IKE OQil\'Gt

:1 Expressing obligation using tazrm, gerek, §art and mechur

WQk at tJIC!H3 nouns: ,fUrt


a fXmd.iti(JIl., or/ fu.!.SO/u/e 11t!ces.sity, a mUl)l a Rl?t't:'8Sity, (i nM

Now lnnk at these (1.dj~dL""B.'C

tneebur {olwf, ('(tmp~llf!.d

goe-:rekli II.(.'C"eSS<H)', nl!,~di!d

1.'I7.J.m I.1.t".'Cr:SS{(f)"flf!..i!dt!d

You can use any of the above words wgethf!t' with the ~:.}JOrt infinitive to sa,\" what you need to do, what you should <1_010'- what. YOIl am forced to do, For a. x ample:

Baat sekizde i~ ohnam lnzam.

SfL-ltt :!io:kiz.de i~ olman e:·crl'('ik.

Saat eekiadc Istc olmnst !;'el'ifl'ldidi~.

Suat a-ekizdc 4'<: clmumra !j:tI'l

f )~r:t(t [I) be ([/ work at l~l1rhtl)'d.(}IJk

YrJ1l nlM.4 to 00 (1.1 wf.lrk (,!~ .iJighl{J'~lt:}(L

Slw m~dl:J to &.. ~I 1-J~()i'k (rl ~ight o'clock

We'lJ(!, ~irn.pl}' got if) be a~ W(;lf'k (rf eight o'clock

~I't and mccbur are the 6t.l'ongcst ospreeeione. FOr" example:

- Gclmcnis laerm.

- ~trt nu?


- Yrm. mr~sl rome.

- hi i~ r.t.osof.-fdJ.)iJ' 171!1:.'I:'.!:!~a1J'f

-YIi!Il" it is.

1f11~r-f!, is nlso ;!1 scrb gerekmek, wbi-cn ia h.aody fIJI" culking :;I oout I'Ilw~ wlll need doi_D8" in the Iuluru 01' what needed ooin~ in the pnst, Fl)l'ch:aroptol.':

Gnlarm her gun i.}tc olmasi They 11~'t..a to be a.t work

gel'ifl'kir_ tt'i:ly day.

Onlarm i~te elmasr gerokiyoJ'. 1'1w,Y Mwufd be at W(wJt IWW, Onlann i~ OJJnIlSl gcrukecek, '1'Iw)"U Ju:W(! /0 be. at 1I:'(1l'k.

Diin onlarm j_~te olmasr gerekti. '(~i(zy hmi II_) IJ€. a1 work J'()ftlerci4y.


4 Expressing obligation using -meli

You cnn .':iiJ(lt lJ1C Turkish equivalent or mrl:;l, :rhrmJd or ought to b.}' the inclusion (If -mcli 1J) a verb form.

To use these forms, follow theee steps:

Taj(:e IhII slam 01 U)I)vefb. git Md -mo If 11"-19 'oM i$ to bit negtllh'03. git

A:fd -mcll aMl3f rhe verb stem. gj1_~lj

/J,r!s:J l;i1o r;:Eli:n.'ll,llt Inu1 01 the verb to) Q(J.. girmc1iylm

. ,

gilmll! !]irmomoll !JilmlJln~lill"lm

Her-e 11ToI! acme exumples:

Okula gitm~liAill, Girm.erncliler. i~jltJi:i':i yapmahYl1.. K0!flJlamal!;!;-uu1..

Y ... 1i m1I..<:t {io tI'l ~cltod_ rl~ 1mL~tn't 1.mt(:"J'_ W(:"In1.tStd(J(lJJI'1roI'k... YmlmlI.stIL'trrlJ'1-.

N()~ hnw -meli f(jJJC'J'NB e-type vcwel hneruony.

You atcen U8e the ~f.lu!llj form CoI)I offer advice (1)1' mnke st!"ollg euggea-

DQ'ItOX'.o gttmelisinia. Yor~ musl see a aocMr",

Slgm-n j~meyi bnulrmnhsru. Yorl, mu.st $lOp s-nwktl.1l.

5 Olmak

TIle verb olmak, as welt .1_.!J J))c,ming to he or so become, QCCI,H'!:! i~ <I number of common phrases where jt has ~\·t'ieukll' meanings, Fl)l' example:


oldu bir kerc ne oluyor1 Ileoldu? o.Iurmu'f oj.,.


Ilwzi!s at!n~ thai's firli:~ Iltfil'sstW~d

if's- o~w Uf1(1 dor'W wi[}~ whufs /.itrjJp.ct~il~ wh{~t'S'Wl'P.(!ll(!tf? ts-al-fllflllr-igM~ il':S-1J(.Jss-iltle,06,(Jifl'ig1t1 il'SIJ.(1-.!:Qlil'igM


ulablhr ulamuz ulsuc

6 -lik


it's pf).~fiihll~J m.o,},ue U'SJ1tJtJ1oO.'Rlibtc

{t?t iJ. h~, wl1;ve it o:U(m~, f(Jrgt?t it

Turkish usee the e.nding .Im to rcuhe nouns ont of other parte (If speech (adjectives, adverbs 01' nouns) .

It is sometimes similar 1..0 the EngliRh ending -ness, which means lx'ir1g _ For exnmplee

mutlu happy


he ... -t.a ill hastahh
!mg w-e-tl, (fli[}~ .~lghk
1r'n1nn', lorwlJ' ;~,':llm'7.hJ~
Dsk4!ol" .:::o.ldirrr aekel'li!.r IL is ulso used fflor obfccee and places. ltor El.-..:::mlp le:

kim who k.irnlik idcn titr card

bukun mi;>~iskt· bakaubk millislfY

.on POOl cinliik /Jib, apron.

yugmur !'(ti'~ yai,l'JJlUl'lulJ: rw.ru'OOt

)'UZ ;5"~mlmer yaz.hk ~Utflmi'r house

Turkish also uses -Iik lo make ndlectlvcs. Here it has a meaning aimilar to [or-. 1'10• example:

fk_i J~_i~i boo peDph:


l:iin balta

.ildkijilik !'a~lak

gl1:oWk h:dtabk


JWppi'le.~i; (being /J<lPPY)


hf!(rfl h, Jumlthinr:ss ltjRf!:liI1eg~ ltuti(mal.~(!"j'l]i(,A! (lJcing.a~()'r1i(!"I')

{or WJO people

Bummer, for tllJ!.~runm.C1· daily


II~ JI B _



Avsa:8962489 •

• J


The k.e.~' 00 bhesu 8.:wIT.ise.s ls on ptl~ 2F50.

1 In the first cchiruu bela ..... it; I) hut. (If ccmpfnsus. Match each campluml. ·""ilh suitable advice [tIIDL Ihc second column.

(I'J) B!i~ilm 8IFlyot"_ (i) Yllillolllhsm.

(b) Ar800m oak pia. Hi) QlJkYIIDIWlL1.:-li:>.ia..

(co) Onun aaclun 9U'k uzun. fUll Pul ilhnal.t..

Cd) Du mektubu peseulamuk (i .... ) Bcrbcrc giuncli.

istiyor. ( v ) Aspirin j~i1Cli::..i..iii;i;,

(e) ~i~mu.[~hyoru[[l_ hit Aoole crulcliyiz.

([1 bkl>urUY{loruJU, (';;'ii) DruM dikkatli elrunhsm.

(g) Ge~ kaldik, (;;'iii:) Sigara i~emclisirl,

(M AruMsl bczuk, {i;t) Dolmusa biumeli.

(i) K~pru kapeh. {s) Vapurla ge~.Jncliyi~,

(j) CiiwutllJlU kaybetrim.

bo.'j; il&ld

pia: C1'iI1y

pcstalamak fa post :IiIl!jmolllomilk 10 gBt I.lt .okt;(lrmcJ; ICCG'I!r.f,1h

Ylk.;;Im.;lk IOI/lo'~h

berber Dafti.5or

ecere ennek i.ohul{Y dlt;tm'HI ffiJ~f(JJ

I~m.d: l'od1in~l[:lr..v.:(;IrnOO/G.'r1r) ... npur ftJn:y


WHc~ T DO YOU' .LrKI; Dom(l?

Fill iIi the ,g~[13 fL~itJg -mclr, -mcyi, meye (II' .eenten. (a) Ot,(lD1.IstC(L ia._ iatiyerum.

(b) Ji'r'~n!h"'\'y<! git_ planh}'DI' muaun? (d Ttn-k restcrarnuda ye~ ~E!~'i}'I)J:'lUlL, (dl l{.nj':;.:k yap_ ha:;;Lu.ruyor.

(~) Onn gtn'_ ka~lIm:w.k i9ti]"Ql'um. (j') Onug{;-rme_ ~1}'l1rulll.

(g) AI':::Ib.'l;;nil'_ ij~rt.l[t.iyj)r

Ut) Gul~ ba~l.adl.

(i) Sigara it;:_ birakmah. (j) Yardrm et_ bikum.

T.!J.}'[ITn 'W(IT'k~ in a banls. Say whether the l(t.llowing .!i~litement8 refer ti) his weekends (balta FlonU) or hL9 weekduya (~8h!plla giirneri).

(a) Blncin gj~'fIl.(!ID(:I!i_ (/.I) G(:!~ kullutl.'ll)lalt.

{.v) TtLklR1 elbtse siymesi gcrcldi d~. {d) Kc.!l'nl~ takmaar .!fel:'ek,

(o) ~alLl;iJrum laamr degil.

m Kruvat takmnsr getekmcs. (g) 'rrns (Jhrw..al ~rt d.etiJ.,

(h) Ed •. en kalsmass getekmea. W Cck ~lL!imast.13zml ..

(j) 'r.alum elbiae ,!,riymeli.

blucln b..'tie }eI9J}!; tIl~lm@lbls:e- SI.\·1

)l;rawt Ji,~

1ra!} olmak to M.\!I'YO"

.4 Trnnslntc LJ)8 fellowtng sentences inlc Tu ... ldsb using cit-hel: -mcll J}l' gerckmck,

(11) Idon.'tltf.!1Jctogo. (b) I mmtn.'tgo.

k) HI? doem'l ncw to /.1,.~lth .. (ttl Wo!! mmtl'Z- 't .stop,

(oj:) y(tl~don't IUI.rle~.;.l' asJl, Sir, if) Tlwyneear1-'tpij)'_


'The t'.o-llowing jumbled dinlogue is :w_t. in a PMt office, Bcnrrange the aentencee in the order which makes the .1llOS~ sense.

(a) - Buy .. rrun. Baska bi!'" ~oy?

(b) - Bakm ~mtl.dnki kutuya. "Yure dl~l"'_ (e) ~ liF.!ll!!a)f<l_ ttlh 1m1 lrltfcn.

(d) - Evet, intfeu,

(e) - [\.lekt'lpku'A hangi klltoya ataro~lnl1 IF' - Rica ederun.

1$) - 'l'e~ek_kl)r ederim. (It) - U",1lda (mY

Belew nrc lhc questiccs and answers from a m.a,g.nz.ine interview with I) Icmoue theatre actor. Motch the questions and anawera.

(u) Sid en ~ok ne lczdmr. (il 9-10 yaslanmda, ·Marilyn


Hil Doatum -~Dk ama ka~ gerqek bilmiyorum.

mn Tiim yerli, }'sh.ancl di:1.il.;!rl bt:!geni)"oImllD_

(ivl M~li!gimlEi ilgili PJI~rn8!;1I1'. (~·l Once lu!nuimi, seurn E!:;..iml.

(h) Son clnruk huub-i kilahi ckuduuuz?

(G) EII&i!.l,'digiJli ... loklmf;u h[lllgi{li'l

«(0 IW-li gc~ dasl.unuz var? (e) ilkonoolLimi di:1:;;rlllU,1{1J:"Sl.ll'Iuzl

([J Bizce en buyl'Lk. mutjuluk nooir'l


{g} En eik bangt i~ y.o.pm:.l}'1 ~e~'ivor!3-l.Itl.lJZ'!

(}t) E:n~k&! .... ((j;fJiii:i:


(i) Ill .. ne zamnn vc kime a~lk eldunnz?

(j) En son kimi lipHi.I-IUz?

(vii) luj'nin Yeri, Bodmm'da.

(i-x) Sntc - Franz Kafka.

klmlnfli!.k to Sll!~

en ~I;l:vdlglnlz 'JOllr filIlf.HHo'-,'oG' g~r1i'c.-k rQal,U1.ie

ueet fr.~~I:;I

IIlcui'l~ r.-r,_;tc;fa.'l..5D(lveaQ~ ... I.'id {I-10 'I.II:~I_~nlnd;) I~""~'i' /1)t.·BS

aro~-'{1d 9;;)f If) (tim .f1.,'I,ei-'&]t

yl!'lli kJr::J(, e&nesrlc (I.e.r.e«fuminn) olzl seses

-lollglll ctmI~(.·.'.I .... lw':,'h, Jo 00 ~'riff1

y .. I;1n ~'fJ

rifO! 1;'Y(XJ/ifI'S'j,lwc-tllr.t.ir,iw;}5

7 Below ::1J"(~ jumbled pieces of ndvice rOl· \1,1"t::!~te:m tomi9ts in To:rlwy_ Some Ij.l.I~s.t. how 00 0I~pi!" with the ho.u.~. Of;hl?T;::: esplnin how 1..0 behave when \rjs.il...i.Jlg II nmaqne. rloejrw whether cccb aenteuce is related buo the heat or 1.0 JIlOOqueH_

(a} A~ll~ rcnhll, parnukl n giysilcr b>lj"me H.

(b) Ay~ldllU.nbn ~b:rtrn..ah,

(c) Bebcklere srk sik su vernrcli. (l!) Poete alli.o[(il i~l-..-i ,'lImo_mah,

(e) Oenestcn kcruyucu ktem kullanmah. m C(I_l:'(Ulii yapmamah.

(g} ~:)dmiaJ" suclenm (lrln.leli,

(Ii) ('>tIe saatlcrinde golgede kalmuh. (i) :;?apkaeiYitl_(:li,

(j) $ortl.a girmemell.

.:I'rlk jJghl-roiDINBr1,(J(JI.:VI pamuk ooLlOl1

gir..lih~r ~~fJS k~rU)'lI(lu Pf!Jree~'vs tori ~I().r,'!;

gOranu 11.;.U::';-11I

(!.rtrnl!k jt)(;"Qlll!lr !J6lge .!It.w-tlQw 'l~.[]Jd(abl mlrior. :;ll!;iSlll"< crren

MIi~h the 'Iurkiah 'f'ffims tn the klft-h:md ccht mil below with blreir cornet m"}<L.lJi!lg~ an the right,


(a) askerlik Ii) bcshk (e) L:JirJik I,)) ~~'liik (f,) eil7.elUk ({:I iyillk (8) kirnhk (It) laramhk (i) stmdtltk (fj yilhk

(D unioll (ii) [ur tnre (iii) uanllty

(iv) polly, dwmucr PlJt (v) {uri/ow

(vi) a/fIIlurl

(vii) miWulJ'~roic(l' rvttu 'wudli/IJ]

Wi good,"",

(.'IC) glaSSl).s,::Ij~l(.Idc:t

!Ij .... , ",,"or tl<1ij' tieso !:102; €lyli'

lib;} IW.'J Vll }'iIIl1

1. \\rt1ic.h of the alternatives listed below are appropriate for the gi\'E!n sltuarion? One (101' more may be suitable.

(a) YoI}l.I IW'Ult 00 I.JclJ i9()J1L{!O(Le j"1)LL UIJ(I.(!r::;La.nd whHlt tbey an!

t-l!'JJin_,!:Y'Ou. (i) OIdu. (ii) Olur (iii) Olaun.

0) YL;lU wunl; to agree 1;011 I} request, til otdu.

(ii) OiW'.

rjii) Oh;un.

(.cj Ytm wunt Io say let'~ not WOJ'I')' about if. (i) OIr.lu.

(ii) Oldubir harc. (iii) Olaun.

(dj You ..... a.ot 1.0 say you'r6 [ltlt sure ubcut somethlog. m OlruM;,

(ii) Olamuz.

(iii) Olrrbili r.

(c) YO\l W~I1.~ 00 disagree. (j) Olmoz.

(jj) Oiomaz,

(iii) OI(hl1blr kcre.

((J You want W osk fur Borrroonc'.'l agreement, (i} Olm':mu.?


(ii) Oldu mul (Hi) Ne oldu7

(g) YtHl want !:;(1.f1t..OW you're aurpriaad. (i) Olur mu?

(ii) Olamaz.

(Hi) NC4J.ldu?

10 Il.ftr.tch items fi-mn the two columna bt!IDW to mnka COUllXIlJJld n(mll:.'i.

(al bekleme H) di~

(b) cekme Hi:! kalem

(c) delma (iii) yat.ak

(d) gitene (jv) b.rr.ftl)Sl

(e) nkumn (v) ;!I:;t.lcJnll

(f> tukma (vi) zameru

Konusma z

Banuou YnsemiJ)

Gclceck uy 'Iurkiye turuna ukacaksuuz byle mt?

E .. -et, Once Izmir'e &idj)'(Itu:t, Ondan sonra, M.;)l'fl'l;)l'ls, Alnnya \'8 Antalya'yn.

'lstilubu.l'da JI:1 kun~J' veecek niiainiz? J!,'vet. A~Lk huvu nyerrcsunda.

Obtit konserler nerede 4)lClcak'?

Hepsi 'Wlk havada. Ah! Uncttum - en buyak konserim.i.J:i Aspeudcsta vermeyi planbyoruz. (,~ok guze.l olecek, Avrupa turuna vUURUJ1 di:i~tlu.t\y(lr musunus?

$imdllik dl~uamfr}'m·LLm. Yeni J.'1Id.t-. claldlir. J'\1mI)8ya, .4\'t!9tnzy.a glbl ulkelere gi..nebilirim, Hcmiz hllmiyorum. Yaaendn, aac bil~n!a .. rliliyornz.

CQk ~ok tC!Jclili:i.'irler.

m:t de oak te~ckkur ediycrua.

ScrDUCU Yn.~emin Sunucu Yasemin

Sunueu Yll!:lE!min

Sunucu YoStlmin Buanuu


tu> ,,...

o~~ Mm I'hj?~

D~J~ ml? ~I'r 111;:.11 «(,It' cndan ecnra :l(lllfl!I(11 ~l'kha"a ~).:Iir [ibur IJreolJ'.le(

llnutfllOik JaliJrWM ,pl;:ml;;lm;;J1o: 'QpJ;.Jn,OlfW~ djj~iinmck JQrhirlir

ul~ catJrlJr}i

b~3rl ~"'S.S




In this unit you will/earn how to

• SI)}' wh~t will happen lf .'3Olllcthitlg alae haPJ.H:!n!)

• SIl.)' wh.o.~ }"Oll need givo advice

snybcw long S!Joilldh.i.llg hue been goitl.[l: Oil


Konusrna ------

tEl 5ibcl Humm is at the chemfars.

EL"mCl SibclHnrum

C'i.D"~rdm cfcndim. Ne arm edersinia?

GOT_lo.~rdm. Blr.Iu:J.(,: ill"Y j!>ti,YO"l'um. Dun c:}iw gune§te ~k fu~l;) kaldl. Yandi. Siru klpkunntl cldu. Bust da .agn~""(jI'_l\'c tav.siye ederainiz?

E ... et, B;)~ ;.1il:t't~l i(.in ila~ i9ti mi? Hi~bir:;;e.? j_~:rocdi.

na~l i~ill. aspirin \rcruc~im size. tki tane i~siu.. Egcr gerekh-se, gundc don kere alabili r. S".t,l i\-ll bir IItCrhem .... eriyorum. E~ji .. izin subna iki aeattc bir SUI'Un. Bugiirl G"ine,.!jC ~ ~kmamah. ]i}.-de dinlcnsin. Ineullah yarsn kendiaini dahn i}i blsaeder, lyi hissctmeaee, d(1k1:(l-J:'.LI gitsin. 'Iumnm nn?


Buslsn ihtiyru!!nIg. ... ';JI' rru'f


Sibcl Hamm ECZficJ

Sibc1Hnwm Iwmcl


Sibe.l Hamm O~urntln.un hi ... ilat~ ihtiyuc, var. lshnl i9-in_ .h~~:tt.>I, Kao;: Y"ll1mda?

SiJJ.e1 Hamm On~i-l.: Yl.I!$ullil.l.

JiJ~7.aCl N l~ zumundnnberi i.,;;1\~li vor?

Sfbe! Hamm Dun gecedan bcri,

EczaC,1 Cck mu fem,',

Slhel H.amm Qok falll:\ dci:il~ [una rol\~rel7..

Hezaci 0 nunen il;)-; verroeyin stmdt. Ynnna kader bekicyin.

Akli<lOlIl kadtll' h.ivbi"r ~e~' yemeain, Egar yarm ~l,«;rut:lz.o;;C. sine gclin j_la~ veri-rim. Ileeer iaaallah.

Sibel Hemm I~anflh.


1 Sibcl'Iu est nieln y('md.l'S'

2. EtwtL, Sibel'jt\ e~i i~in l11f! ... ~riJll)r"]

3 Siberia ~ll)'ll,1n nesi wrr? " Ec;;:aci. Sibel'in (J~11l kin ne verfyor?

(,]'IJ(!-I)!1Sl'.'erA[]'l'eOn pagol! 250.)


!Ij ee aae , d,,,"''_'

ar2uetfll~ t,;)Wi't.'iI',wi!-;f ... ~ tJ1t1Iaif= s Je~'1

'llm loo,toomL~ v.nnmnlt to oom SIr1 b.:1CIri

klplclrTTIl:;r;1 {:J;\'PS{iO

h:i'i rx.',i(J

tClv!l:lye ebnek IQ stLj\'"jt'SI,


alli'l ecee {Ja'kl (i'iOtJli)

11IIy n16dlc.'f1e

~I L'll'il.fJi~e{118Iet8lJl'et) c-!Jcr If

gc-r~1dloo IfWsl'lliCo!l;;;;;oary dcr1k~n:! lo~'.'l~

mernern iotrol1.,dnl'me.r.ot ~(jrrll(lk rol'l.lb, S{J1WJd diJll~[iin .twsJ'.l;xrlcJ~ 11I~~lliJh Grx,1 .. 1il\'l'1g" no,w(tlOY hi~~i':1lltl.-k <"" !wndl) w IQ,(N


hi!lse-tmez!Ie if 00 ikJt!-:;n't '~(]J Ihtryar; neoo

-0 ih,lyacl var he (woos .. l:!inal dl<1fmcea

k.J~ Y<lIIi1nda hew old? -den bert ~CC

ne ZiJl1rOlndiln ben :;,'nro L~tr6'lt rahatera UfIf.Tmrfaft1lv,1.:J-

geqtne-z!W iliJ ffl.Ir~j7t)tlCr ~ljtX1rt\rtv I( 1I..:kII?S.r.I'l·pasli')

BB Notlar

A.t the cbem tst's

Thlll"l!I i~ a d.lo?rnist,tlj. on ;:1.1l))O!3.t every corner in 'l'urke.'f. For small nilmenta the)' are the Firat p!1-ri, or -c;)11 [;'1' nd'O'icc, .Many pccple viait them rulher than a doctor, as most medicmc is sold wiW:wut a prescription.

Loan words

NBte how onllli ishali hils the leLLllIr I Il~· the possessed ending, where you might, expect t, This is an uxccpticn to the rule. lebal is (I worn which 'I'm·ki.'Jh bns adopted Irom Arabic. You may sea it. spelled i~h;!ll. Wtum you 800 an a wiU) a eirellJli.11c~ ucc(:nt. on top, it tells J'OIl it is IQnger and !lofte1' than a normal Turkish a. With loan words like Ishal, vowel h;)mtony follows the IJrlj1Jurwiatirm rather than t~e J>pl!lIing. The words 8:L,).t ~nd mesgnl U(;~ in this WI.I)' _ Thus, flOurs is eearler ratber than saattar and tm .. tmsy LS lliCl1;ib'Uli.im rather than meegulum,


Like i~allah~ there arc JlLlULY phrases in Turkish whi.-ch ccntaiu Jllh{h_ Here arc soue room:


Allah Allah AlIahat,ikmR Allahbilir Allah korusun


Allnbu ~:illi:~lr

Album lSmaru,d:d( (pronounced uUns:marladlk) MWjalluhl


1 p,.esent tense if forms

Good God.1 OIL m.<f G'o.dl

for aodr_~ sakr.-, ({J-r /JOOIJf!n.'s sak.e Codlmow~

md)' Of.id p1"oted (1:iI1.!i:JJ:nIOOll sign in minihueea and bur:ill)

lrlchily, (lIrlUIHJ.tel·.f


goodbyt! (use it onlj' wbcnlca\lwg someone else's bouse)

What a IOrN!.ly en lid! (u

liberal translation: you use tbi!:- esprcssicn to admire children)


It forms of to be

You C<JJ) spot the tden of ifin Turkish in ~I'SOD8) endmgs oontainLog -se -, Here rn'e the present t811:iL\ if Icnna of WlC vcrorc bf;':

Normalterm Ifform
iyiyim rmfj(lo ryiysem ifl'mll'8IJ
hafilsin you're !~f)hl hatifsen jf yo~ltO f!gM
Turk :;IlC'STtifk}.::h Turkse i/stlC"S TUlkl$h
iyi)'iz f'1O're line iyiysek iJ~w.ncfi1Jo
halilsini;;: yo.!lreli'g,l)t hafllsanlz jJ ybL.({O 1.'91)'
TUJklor rhey're Tvrki..'?h Turkseler if I})Dy'fiJ Thfl\:is.lJ
or Tu]k.lersc You should I101)t8 t:b(l need Ier .0. buller .y~ :)H:-F.-T' .'1 w ced >l!-nd.i.ug in ::J. ~o w et - iyiyseni, i~l~ek..

Thcuc cndinga cf.lll(l'W I?·t.ypl!o ~'D'w81 hL1I"JILWlj', so you will ;))00 eee -sem, -sun, -!in, -snk, SlUl1:1. EIl1d -.!:inIDl'


tF IT OO~S"·T GET aE'rTER, ru.r, (i'WE" 'r'O.IJ SD.IiI'f! M~DJCjN.!:

1fform:s 01 otht:!!r verbs

'I'tte if forms of the verb 10 be cac ad L~:!.I.b£, if form (If persennl eudtngs on verbs. SI'I to make the if" form of the -r pro~(,!nt OOWlB, you folll)W theee stepe:

Actlo~ Example

,[Ike tile -rpreseru form of the verb. yap31$lnll

Remove Ihe personal ending. yapal

i\dOItlC if form of !he verb to be. yapals:mlZ

H"'rB ure rome more eearoples:

Sitripla preeern term


~Iirim yaparaen later onnurue g6ft:lrn[]I'I\l::: arrar1ar

paltrsem yapj)f";;j;~n tstarsn ot'lJrursak gcrtlIsenlz ecerteree

IIJ ....... orne if roo do

tt sne wenrs I/~w:-::il avoo oco IllfteYI11)QJ'i

wtlsit YOI.l,s~ m~yO(J(:ff1

Hare ara some examples of full SctLtC.lIDC:> ueing if forms: 'Telei.'o_1l etme:t:.se.m saat. lldde If 1 d,m't phone, we'll mtl:~

bu_lu~aei1tlz, at teo (/dodl.

late~eH IJi)J.cmaya gidcllm. Ih'OU WtUJ.t, let's go the ci_,wrria.

Bana dolrnmu'so dul!erim. OD.1I. If he touches me, I1l bOOllrim IIp, Sora.f1_mlt eeval) veric misiniz.? If WI? ask, will yon ansUlerr

Ali'yi bllltn'$(i:n~ bcndeo If you find Ali, say lUilto /tVftt me,

aetam SOfle-yio..

~~~~=leJ'$(! meuuiun If aU!}' c(m enme; ru ~ JWI}p;r.

YoI}U can put the ''11)1'u (..ge[' Uo:.!fore an iffi}T'm (l-fi.l verb, However, y(lu 119.mlly dca'e need i~, For cxumplec

(Egcd is'fJ['~n blsfmle gclcblllrsln.

If )"iJ1j. .wallt, you ruu crime wit1LrolS,



(Eger) dukkana gide.r.!ie bar If Itc'!l" goilliJ to ~hi1 Sil(JP, a:rk him

litre kola ulsm, to hri'y (j li~rc o{ cota,

Grammar ·hoob rete!' to if 1-0.\')))8 ee (lOo))dilional Icrms. 'Ihe present if limn ill. $nme-tlme~ called the fi:rst ccnditicnal.

Other tt terms

YI)U cam L1SC! the-se ending wilh cur lind yok. For example:

Parnnne foksll :6'idemoyi:z;. Problem \'nrSU bana ueber vcr.

rf ~\:'e f~O mOfl¢" we oonrt go,

Tf tlrei"I/S- f,L p1'OOIenb .wI li'k! Jml)w.

Yeu run also make enndutonal forms of the -iyor present Or the future tBDSl"S. This hook will not describe these forms in detail, but hero nrc two exemplee:

~imdi gE'!liY(lll'sa, ne yapahm' Irlu~'s on his I!XZY, IDhat Altall w(!'dul

G,t.decek!*!t erken gelatn. If he's gvi.J1{j W CWl101:l! MJ him to oonltturky.

YoiJ.u wil! learn eheut cnndttional forms of the past tense ill Unit 16,

2 Using the-r present tense in conditional sentences

Yuu use the present. i(.fClrn1 to talk about possible fuburu events and ..... Iute will happen in fhe event that th4!Y do happen.

lflwct)me~ ...

Y(lU (lolum foU(J.W' a present if Iurm wilh u verb in the .1" 11i1:'(!5(!nt t,c1\9C, ,For eanmple:

Eger gcllesc mumaun ohe-um. If Ju:. comes l'U be II-tI.J'P)'.

You use the -r present tense in sentences Like this rather than the -eeek future tense.

Listen out for war-rungs. lli1ing the -r prcstnt tOIL!iEl. For example:

DU,fC:rKinl Ym171 fo.lU

l'o.kuh yc:rs1n1 YI'J1l7111e.t niter:)!!}, (!(JtI (t st{lpf


WlII.·JI people make warnings like this, tile_;;, nrc using the, seccnd h.ul( (If.u cccdltionel sentence. '1'hey're leaving the if .. , part of tba sentence unspoken. What. they Teally mean is ilyQU'rc lIot crm{ui., yuu'U laU or ifJuuc.W lIlat agajn.,)YJu'l!.f:~gsJ.app~d,

3 -e ihliyaQ var

'Ihn Turkish equivalent of , J1eei.l (t IwlidrJJ.' is I ha~'IJ a. noo l.(J< a llftflda)l,

Tatile ihtiyaeim ~;3:r. II.t.eila a lrwida.y.

Neye ihtiyacmne var! Wll{,1l do Ice IIf!ed?

Onlann hana ihtiynci ''n .... un? Do IhtJ, lited me?

Note now the i} ill: Jb.ti)'II~ bctQIii(iS C. W ease pronunciation.

~1'h"'f.jJ'i 1'198d

4 Since end for


ViIJII!JI talking about time, the 'l\n'ldsh equivt'llC:llt 01 s.irj.(~ is -den beri. Here are some e:tamples:

No xaman dan. ~rn SiJI(-e wJj(!/~r

Diinden bf:!J'i. Since JI~s[~rd[2.J .

Bu ~ahRhtan bcri h:L5tnyrlll. roo .oo~n ill ~incl!' thk mom.ing.

mndD]nJ:il:yii7.do'k~nlbe~en /)(.1J'i l'~ U~W here s.irw~ 199t, burada otUI'UYG1"I1I11.

Yml should note that in T!.ltki~h Y<i'u $1\)' I am Ul -ail1L':'e }'oi!Ml!'rday, hut in EnRli~h J~U 5.'1)' l'~'fJ ~j. ill SMI('t! yt!Sb!:nUr.}'. Likewise, in Turkish )'DU ;!my l'm.Ii~i.tl,g Iwm smce 1995, not J'~I! li'.Ja.{ here since 1995


When tuUd.ilg ubcut lilD8 in the past, the equivalent or f(!r ts:

• -dcn beri or ml' if the action ill stl II C(I"timlUlg~

• n~lblng if the action ia finished.



--~~~-~ .. ~-~~--------------------------------~~--------------------------------------------

5 Kadar

-(.!o1fan 1.ttri bnradnyun, Dir b..un.udu.r~ wd bumda k:ah~rlnr,

Nc :ruma.uUu· bLU'oi,d;1.:9l...ul' ·ill gn.lt[u.i,. yel..n:iyOl'1.1l':. ·tIu gl'w ycmcdik,

OIL.u.l ilel giin Jm)lnhydl.

rv~ 6(:t"n here (m' a lfmC ~[m"'. 'l'll(!y'~~ been Mfi:'jing twre for

(.: tl)Uh. HiJl.fJlorlJ:'j{1L~y.oltbr.m}U!J"~for? lV~ lul.Il"en't oI!f.!ten fnf' two da}'~. We didn't rot fru' two days..

Th~ ~f':hool. was ck&.ed flJF tl[:'o!) r./.ay-R.


IF r r QO~8N'T oer Be-T7EIl, I'U GIVE you SOME {!.fED/GUNl

The equivalent 01' wl.fii is -c ~I", whtdl alao means a.s forr f.!11 m- Il.p to. For example:

<;~mbaya kadur bur.udarrm,

Bcse kudur Iicldcelm. Isiklara kad.ur gldfn, Sonunu kader oku.dun mu?

I'm 'tCl~ (I'll &! h.~J'tJ rulltl Wi?dn(:'8M},. I'UmaitwLtilO. a;.11.!::ia.I'I1Bt}Ie.liE/j~f}·

Did yml N!fui it rip to a~ ~rJ{U

Sentn lendar nlnlh d.e~n. Aslan "k3.J:J:I" ·ku"VVeUi,.vim. Perfhnn, Ilidem JtJ:illlU'" gum!. Onlar hadar' eengtn Qlmak ifllemi1i.nrmn..

Note ttl;), ben, sen, biz und siz take .(i_ possessor andilLg, but 0, onlar ;)00 MUll9. do J:lO[.. Fer cscmplc

H6~ nol; us cl.c[!ol.:/' as yurJ. I'm as slrwg es a lWrI,

lt~n:lwl~ .is as ooor/l.ifrd. us Did~m, {([.:.11~·t tr!(rIU /(J bt-as- lith a'S UItIi'I-..

hizim"k;:td:l"t" o kndnr David kadar-

os m.uckMuS" ~Iwlmrwh (tS"IIUICha.slk.wia

6 Parts of the body



~ Ah!?tarmalar

Tho lrey 1..0 these ~IT.i:!Je!l is 0'Il pegc :2130,

1 M ateh the etateme ... ru in the Iirat column to the correct replies in tbe aeeend.

({i) (~ok ~mmo·Juyum.

(b) F~ltbol 0YIW.wa.h. istiyorum (c) K..'l,PlY1 't~'litlJ.)'Urtl.:.:,

((l) S~'1I....'lntm Iaramam lueam. (c!) SI"~;;1d.U)l;!

([J VilT.l)1(!)'~ gitmalr i~tiyuruJll.

0) Auahtara ihtiya.CLU1:l. var. W) nil'~ya ibtiy._em VaT.

(iii) DLI~ y.apm;:!'J"<J. ilitiyuznn var. (h') M.'lFl'y;l ihti~~{:'Lll vur.

(,.,} T~ra~ jhl.j~~Qll var.

( v ll TDP!:t ihtiyacntill': vn r,

~ar'llul' flh . ..:t

t:8raM3k tuttlll'll'J 8tJBlllrn8k jDgtJtJfli,~JY

mayo swir)lrtliitg ~t{II"!lQ taJak oomb

top MN

2 Fill it! tbn jT,1I.PS bolo w wilh Ute. wrred verb f!n.din~. (I'l) ~k yorgunsnm, crkcn y.H_.

(h) Eger hava guzel oJ_, plnju giderlz.

(c) Parise gidersek, 'Eyrel Kolcsi'tti gur_.

(d) TUrk jemeklerlni .sev_~ suna blr TUrk yem~ pisiririm. (od Pnram yeterse, birTfu'k klllmi lll_.

:~ Build meomngfnl sentences using DIW item rr01.. n cuch of the ebrce eolumus betow.

(a) Bci\'ani (b) ""'101' (el Cake1i (dJ 1«ip3y; (13}~koIu

{f} KUlatlu~1 (g) Ruju

(fJ) SaE!ii

(I) ~t1pkayl (j) YO~

lJilC3.{)U"lttll DLI~mlza Dilctiil~il9 ·boyr1llr1tlW (lw:Jaglnlw t)lirI;ze ~letlnlZ(l ikl,ll(lOlnlla palmi.'l~lI)IZil amnuaa

g!yemlnlz.. aarerslnlz. aaramruz. lai£arl!ltnIZ,


bl10k IIITIst TI,IJ /ipsh'ck yu:1;i_rlo;. ring

1aklnilk ~(Ilf,1ch...totilS'61'I..ro {Xl1~~r, if)!ix

ctdreen gfO><6S h~ seen

kup~ OllrMp IcDlutluotj:OJ,1p .tiyhl's (iJJoI:dak lip

State what you would do 1:0 the .!!ituatiOIJS given below. Thea look at the answers ill the key at the back of the book 1..0 compare your QPlflztl)11 with ours, WQuhl we all de the srune UkIng in each eituatien?

Eg-or -il..!jug.d.alLi prohlemler V.3."t'9<J. tie ~~pnr.lillH"-? Dcktorn mt. eceancyc mi, ucll servisa rut gidersinia yohsu hiebir ~oi!}f japmaa uusma?

(a) GC~I~ akeamdan ben i!jha'iniz var. (b} ill glindtir gribinia var,

k) Bir sautdr bumunuz oI(l)k kamycr.

(d) Ev ..... ella gtmden beri burnunuz nlayor. &) Bi.rl~~ tkl~ lsolunuzu lcrdima.

if! TId llaJLttir kerman tl~r.lj·tlor.

(g) Neale oldunm.

(h) 0'( giind{i.l' oot<J2mt~ [litny-or.

(l) BiT haftadu- ~ya~ kalkarhen baamie ciln'I}'Ol'. V) Blrkac eaatten beri Qksi]rL1Yo!'SuIUU.

aktflll!k ro:ifIJf.l,s.rop

h:m'll3k rolJrYII,tk 'kanJI 8t011l&"'I1

nozl8 olrnak to ru v ~ ;l i:L!N bQgilli: rhroal

bn~II1I.J.(lOn('j)'or }'Otlfo%lfslr.iJ", yo.tlgo:;;odk'Y,.VOllftlesrJ8plM

.&.!jiagldll IM!low, ctwn~

acn oIWtldl'.!;lIlr~}'

yoltslll CfeEl?

hli,.blr ,ey ootli.\'19

grip fw

ki:Jntlm"k rolii"l?!!Id c'IVIlIII.I (Jffl'.',l;Jus

e~~"tllki giiJ1 IIJlJdio/beror.e )A"!lt£lr:rkly

6 Arrange tile fuilow"ing words in order of distance from the ground.

Start. with the lowest part of thf,- body firstl

~L:1. aytik burun ~I%t'is gcbck k~lfa pllpll-



Match items from the two cilmmu below to make the ten meet meaningful eeneeneee.

(a) EW~;I' bize acrarsan (b) EgerbenimJ.e.evlellil'!leo. (c) Egu biletiniz ycksa (d) Egm eglenirlen::e (e) E~Dr :H!i.tC1}; yazarsan ({J EgeT onlara yuedrm

(!1J1L(!~sek (g) E",i"rcr Tiirko(e klmu~abilil\'}en (vii)

(It) E~~.r "r~.lli kaemraenu (vUn

(j) E~~ i~mc gitmeeaem {ixl

(il celer da hize etmexler.

(jj) ben sana abl?,'erif1 }'l.l[l:;lnm, (ill) u~·l!:t!rk.::!ndiinmeyt'!bL1irlel'.

(t';;') g{!~{,':8lirainiZ.

('I ( v ~)

gircmeeslnis. :p~ro.::)..1J olmuaan.

sana C(l';'~IP veririz. mcsajhrrukm.

i~'i bir :tI1itwruoo ihtiyilliItllO)acllk.

(xl 'Iurklcr acni ~k eeverler.

Krtt;;1 ........ ;i): l~lr~:.)Q meee-et ('!~,I.:..'\J:RlI'l Od~ll~ vern,e): 10 tera

pliman611ll~k [()rY.og.-ot,IQft.rn'c mg<e~

Fill in the g.!Lp~ in the aeutcnces below ll~t[lg the eerrect enditl~~. (.(2.) Hemen hemea Ali_ kadar $~man.~m!

(b) SI:z_ ~t:ld~r gute1yoh..

(c) Y8.I'tn_k.adatt;~b~acugun.

(d) Hikavem bu kadnr.

(oe) Yot~ .~rmll_ kadar gtderacn bt(i.rimrUn. lfJ 00.1111'_ kadar Z~gill d~j}j.'l!.

8 '[1,'J#n(lye bakneak scrularn ~tW~~ varin.

{(t) En ucuz .)Ic:.m~gi seternem L1!?, kedar tntar? (b) VcjclL'rI'}'CD.Sfrm ne },i}'ebLUl'im?

(c) Pili~ haricct se v meaeem kec ~l,ioit,yetl)elr;yisclill.id!1l'/'

(J.) 'l'ipik Turk YCIilGg-ini yemek Jstersem ne tovsiye oocr:,iniz: (e) En f.!all-ilu. yClilck hn[lgis.i?



There ura ten items (If dothing bidden in this square. One hua boon found Inr },l)LL

p 0 ~ 0 r t

aya -kabl

I r b '9 I m


cr sr ur vr cr er er r goril vha

I~t~tak.m b· t g 0- m I -e K




Konusma 2

TI!8 ·lll3.:~t day Slholretums 00 fhc chemist's.



(i Iinaydm, E~in!~ (I!j]nnu7. nnasl?

'Iesekkurler. O~ll!mun iehali ~~i. E.~imjn ;;:artl hilla kD~ii nma .yav:!~ }':::'~';']~ ilo-ile.~iyar.

E,'e~. Memnuu oldum. Slmdl na arzu ederairria? Umemm, be sefer bk haatahk .i¢n r:l8Jtildir.

Dugll, allcha iiiikUr. Bugun tL~ kremi.jllet, ve mendil


q'Lm:;.lr.rol:!lJlE lrulIJU1!Dlii. O~l8dO:!T:I ..'Il)[1I.!J. ~1~0I:!k. Pelrl. Dls macunu 1,-'"(1 Ji~ ipi ~.8I nul

DL~ ipt .;18 kalmanus. tr~I8-dG[l sonra emu da hukllycrua. 'Iumum. Digcrleri icin yunn gclirlm. Brm!WIL ru:!Llir-?

Bil" clal • .ik" hesaplayayun.

Ec~_C-1 Sihel


Ecr..t;1:\cJ Sibcl Bczacr Sibcl E'CZfl.c..

IO:Oru 1.l>2d

1",lIe~m.ek b ~ l.:en'eJ~ to il'.!COJ.l;!!( nu eerer t.'1k1tlme

-o1til~1 8!;I,;W1St

~I"'~ ;:;.~,;rL'"C'

lil~t -.JIg

I1LCnd!1 h;"J!;W.(m)rl(J.t ka.!III;!)II-II;; ,:.~!:o.:lrk"!.f!.

m:J:.Cl)J;n P-;:).I;1'a

ip .st,~·rlf}.t,'I~(,I di!)er oner bDro; ~bt

ecrcum ncalr Pi,l;-,lt do I (;!1«6'


h.oc~~pl .. m"k 1.0 o;.lictlhlc



//1 this unit youwillieam how to .. mnke complaints

• opclogtec

• Tepot'e wh.ae someone else lms ::;r:-id

• any wbut }'DU expect to have happened



B 'Ibe C;dik family hLW~ 1'1::'1.1£1\00 curly fr-CI'JiL IA dlseatroua holiday in nn hotel in Bodrum, ElL' \:c.Li..k hoe returned 00 tho travel :::.R"t'!n-l!}' whe-re !I~OC becked the hotel in erdcr 1..0 complain.

l"i:lif iyi guclcr, Mu-cH.i.-ld kcuusmek iarlyonrm.

Gijrevli M.iJ.~Ic.sc.r ~Ihi.r:lu.- bG,f yuk ~u uncln. Ben y~u'cllm etlebilir miyim'f

E!..if Bcfkl. Bir ~i.llliy(!tiin VIU_ tlil :l!}' dnce firmamzl'a otel teeerV.LUI~I"(Inll. yuptuu, Badrum'du, ii~ kial, bir hnfta iy.in_ 'T':)IU p.-m:tiyoa, ~~r'..jO;~t yuul iki gi.in dnce ~ttik_ 'Pnti]jmli Iclnkctti. Bugun dandck.

Gij~ij Qol!:; OZ1lrdi!~lill. Problem ncydl?

BUr 000). Bfzcc "'Klilp Onman" ctali lulU! bi!" otelmia, eok aaktn bir .Ye,rul}., OO;:U;:u-1 donie manearah ve belkcnluymna, btrinci eimrrcstoean ~ffi".i1IIa.

GtIYe<li "'~e'!

I~Uf Otele geuncc, 00;;: OO~ yok dodder. ~ikr.iytt. etellrten senru, dlj,rl, aaot bcklcdik, mn scnunde blzc ((lClin arhaamda ik.i

-166- -167-

ada vardiler. NE! manzarah, rto bnlsnnlu. nl!;!nim cdamdc tuvulet. boeuk, jiJriir odada dn an y(lkt,lI. Hem btatm, hem de aglumu,:"un yatak ~ar::;:3Il1aTL ·kirliydi.

Gcrcvli \!Dk ..

Elif Otcl '¥'U"k !,-UriilLulu. futLk have d.i:;::kol:e.~n tam yarnndn.

M:i.i:dk :!I::Ja~ rJA~rJi.'I M1..hlT devum BUt. Hi~ uynyamndrk.

Gon: ....... 1i Qok:

EH.f' Sizce utclin rcstoram birinci :::JJllflrn:;;. Sacmc! Yemekleri bc:tbo.u.]_ YuglL, 1.:O.1.SJ..z, 19TI!n~ ..

G(;["cvli ~ok, 'lok fu.u[" dilcrim. Cck Ifmu illmu~. Otelln mijdijliiru!~ilriyt'eU .. [n.i~([]i'l

Elif ~~~'C~ CI:r:J::W.~'C ~1I~(..lli. umc, mliJlir ylll[~:;:gul yu .lraala ya de ~o.l.o.J"L~. En ::;()IIUlJ~ di.indiik. Fclakcul. Punum geri alnmk istiycrumlrcmcn :;.iL.udi,

G.orevl..i ~(I1r i.i:tl.ildUill. Kusura br .. k.r:rlatU1, islUi..u.i:,:l vc tclcfbn .rl.um.:"'u'.aruZJ. vcnracnis rl.H.idilrlufLUy;(!: hnbur verlrirn. En lusa zemanda uizi arar.

gOr~ll am,.o;,'nyt:'C

~1](;j~'E!t Co::iIi"l,I:o/,:i\!r.!

tam penaiycn flilo'lJt:isJti 1·81::11«11 di~&£tel (Ji}nmok 1'0 rw.tm

m n l'"Ii!I.j]. ~;v,,lmI'1ant{1m blri"B{;I:;lI1lt fim.(7I'~;; oLcI.c':l~lilllC~ (.II! .. ?!rivilr!jiJr~

''''''' ~ik:;3lR!tI!iL1j};I:.('I1~l'jom;:i ;]"!JCl


en 8OO.tIild8 1J);osoy, 1l"I tile I?lIt1 09".ne,y ne!ttidr._.OOI_ .. otli'.ir odil tf.o.!t otl1er room

1IC{Tl~,hcm." oal1';l ,., Sfld".

oii:,,"]~ .. 1 ¥o-oc.l guriilluljj r.o.:;i~y

t:I('.I,I';;!i['n i!LII1(!1o; reo"':[)Iro~YlrJ(.~ ti:lyo"! on

B:Eio;tlfiB. J)o:JrlS~Si9

beroot 1~'"fJUe

tB1:!IlZ t!ls.!si'es~

I, .... "'-"OJ

~1k.."J..YCl; ~)'!} oI(o:'I~II'" L'YS tried 10


11".' ._)';J._ 1~.lIlr.I[:1'" ,., {){."

gl!irL ;iln"liJk /{J t{Ji«.i /.I;"-Io,';~ 1'I~lll.er"l ~j'.fndl l/gtll {I(wl

en aree eamanue e.s!!;>Xy)8!:. fJfJS~

r.Jrttlm<Bk IDDe-6(1I1}·


Ifuo:; k~[ Boorumt;:[ glut?

IElif ctalin reetoramndun mammm kaldr mr? Elif ctalin mudiirune liib-i}'irt edeblldi mi?

4 Etif 1:,riirnvUJL"ll ne iatiyur?

(Th~ lLTISWP.TS ure on P8s-e 2[:00.")


IllI Notlar

hem ... hem ... , ya ... ya .. _, Ile __ ne __

NoiIlC: the rcPC8tOO ;;; v orda in the esprcsstoua hem •• , bern ••• , ya , •• ya ., . nnd lie ... i1e '" , Here ru.~ sorn.)'J IDOl:'~ examples of ~ho:!ir U~E!:

Hom fnlboJ hem vclcybul I ti.hc: pl(l:J'illg bNh [ooIOOU (lfld

0l'm.Uo..u~'l scvcrhu, oI)(jIl~U.

Ya ~:uml_,n yn pcrscmbc Come- .either ,oJ1 W.ctlf.!e.sM."Y (If'

gclln. M l'hursd~'_

Yavuz tic yflln.Jilil..:i; no scmpatili. l'Ui;J11Z is" lL(!i~l.!er n(.t.rJdromt'! ntlr Ulux.i.ble_




!fiL-C: CILdLag ·M~ 011 a verb D1e£1n;::: (iproJ'{~n.tJ.j'l ,s11[J~ly D.L" H![Jorimly_ To make tnte (OlTII (If the verb you take the f(lllawing steps:


Take tha verb etem. Add-mi:;;_

Add the peraonur endlnp.

Here arc some e~;)mpI1!J6~ Ben ;}'.urUD.I~U·I. DiUt gclJn~siu...

I etta U, 6"JlP[J(jsl~dly.

Yor~)J'oi! S1ipP'}.~d. to 'uw~ r.t.!IIU? )\i!.SMJ'dtt.l', (.t.ppamntl~f yOft 001J1f:' W!.SfiJJ'dt!y.

'/hr.y lYIjJ it '~ /inisJuYl_

They say Wf:''L"'i? m.r.%f:'d it App(.t.i"(!"J1tly U',s ~if)11 will) dmr.oe. m:Y'r.l'1r.

f g;thr:l· t.h.~' pl.f1.y footbalL

Bi.l1n.~~ c.ljyQ~'I:tI"_ Kn~['tm~~_

Atal;),illu siz. ~lnuu~si.ll"iiz.



ll'IJ?t I WI'iI~ !,;UppoOO M be- goo(~

I gf11/~,. yOu are/ ~m Q.1J(Y.;lmlJll ii'/{ .~(lid 11(: is I was Englisl~

tJU!j' f;Q.1 we and l ...... U.r. frJ~ appar;i)nUy J'tlu an I We-I~ lik&.-~u~c thf!J lIn~ I Well: said to be dlmgeror}:;

NqI~ how these examples could be rtofl!!-:rriDg eithor to the present 1)1' tha peat; Note 01:::0 how Yfl'1l DoOO a bulfer -y- ~tw'(:CJ1 iii vowel and ·mi~,

L}'i.rmi~im p(L'Jt"Clj'OiI~s:m tnHiliWl.if} ;;;It~J1laU~n; SlrriLp;;Jt[Itmi~inL;': trilili~IiYi.n~lc.r

Here. are some qu~tions lI:::ing -D1i~' Enteeesan JlllyOUf;i?

'I'ii ... k dejtfl rn.,"W.ie?

Is it 'iiUP}~ If) b.!.! inkn?RJ.iIJIJ~ WL!.$It'lli'lt-i! Imp[Josed 10 be Tarhili'M

\Vhar did )'<:Itt S(ry it was? lfhere do thr.-<! sev it W~?

W10,r - ~

Neymi~? Nt!rt.'deytlli!(! Nj!}inml::;i'~

2 Using-mi'<i

You will hear ·DLi~ Iurme used .(,'t'J""J, Iraquently in spaken Turkish. People use thetn ill crder to tlistaucc themeelees in acme waj' from wha.~ they're ~03yjng.

MDTe epectficnlly, YlJU UF.lP. -mi~ Icnns far the fflo"]Jowi!Lg purposes:


saying wnat someone elee sald

talking aIX:Ui SOl"TlBlhirtg you're not sere of (and ale lhcrelore



lor somelhlna )'Ou've [ust Aal 9~bt m kao;;ml~! OM My Mocking's

discovered (I~ neuced I[l(kjCft!:d!

Otcl gft~elmii?


Oo(jrlJ .. flu yapmll;;:lm?· Have I cone It nfl/WI"

{and are mesercrc not rBsp::onsibll;ljor)


1((111 should .tlOUI th.ut. the eummcn clement. in all I:;he91.'! usages L9 hi .~ID'Ci way s~yi!Lg YOU'To:! not !jUT(! about. I}t JlO~ involved in the action.

YOu usc -mifi to tell (.';Ilry stance, jokes (I:r aneecdes. 1'"or examl)le;

Blr ~tiizel prenses '9~["UI~ .,. Thr:re WM « ucallli,nfJ priJU':f!~ _ ...

tiy erlcek b;:)'l".{I gltmi.$ no Thr~ me-n u,-a.Ui..ru inlo 11 bar ._

Whilllt aoorytcll.i.ng, the tense once again 'excuses' the nnrmtor, "ilggeann.g I r.,asn't UWn? bur . __

I ~l! I~O wonder L.lmt Turks use ~rui~ Ionna EL 'lat. If there wan [L ··ruw t';1~9C ill Engli.9lL, I'm ;!IUn:! ~i1t usc would he made of jt by LIle: ~:J!glis:h too. So I'm told, appal'ently ,.,

:] Nouns and adjectives ending in -rnls

There are some nouns and adiectivea whi.cb end in -mi.!1. fi)1· example:

,"'l:~~ Ooi)IJJH.I~ iyi pi~mj.!J klZarmJ~


a 'flt.rJ.ffo!'.f:f l(1,~i. ~""eU·coohro. fried

lit' and Ou:.)' fm'IDS or verbs ending in -lIlj~it"" Or ~mi~lcrdil' can IHI.ve IWI) different mctU)j~,

t exoect ...

Yell! csn UiU: ·mil;;tir when you're not sure that. som¥.-ttl<ing's happened, Imt eKPOC~ it to be tJm case. Ji:ne1i!Ih (,:([ui,,",1181Jt.:::: ura the esprcsaons llu'pc.cl or mu.M haoe. Far example:

Uk saM once ~Ikta. ~iu\di. uruya gclmistdr.

Du i~ ipj 1I(...gil, Hizh



Shl! fe{l all heur {lga, She must haJ,"'f! a.rrhW l>j' r.l.Q.!o,

Thiff 1m!"};:',.': r~ good, 1 e;r;pr.r:l l.hf!Y did i:J. f/lJ.ir;kly.

Slit: mud har,ot! (Ol'g(}UM,


Journalistic past tense

You ..... ill (!I~(J hear these endtnga i" official announcements or tn news reperta. In these alsuattons thizy me simI)I,}' (Jfficiu1'l:JJunding eqntva. -leute 1)[ the p.tu;.t. tense. For oP.Jo:{l.mple:

Ankar-a trent uot;liinOll percna gulmi~til'.

DlikIuirumlzd.a yaz. ~7.0»\l bfi$laDlll;!'br.

The .... \nakam traitl 1.1<16 (rfl'i~f!d at platf<il'm th7'i)e.

/(4 t11i~ ston~, the QIWWl.Cl' seesca hfUilwwllklrk!d.

5 -j nee, -dl kte n son ra, -den on ce etc.

Y{JU cue add the fol}.::l'winl!, endings to vcrli ~le:rns:


-dikten som-a


hitanlmJ!n gellace nG'W-'u ~t(!-lillli;;;;c 1j~I;!;ik.

Beni gOri:in~e g(Udll Yumil'i,iini yedikteJ:1 SOJ.\I"" uyudu.

Yarim saat beldedikren sonru e .... e d(i.ndnm.

011 ••. -ing, 1J}lJer~ after .... inS

Or, (.!rri.~'i.J1g in Islfm.lml, we IjJt'!IU slnj:it.IMo'J"Q:rl~l,

IIi! ~mile.-d wh(!/~ he S(H~.' m~. She ;"i!!l aslet!p (lftt~r cat..itljJ hermeal.

~ifter W(JJ'tiI1R hfJl.l(IIL floro" lweltrlJllm,z,

Ylm can add tbia end:i:ilg [0 L.Si(=: 'I a fonn or UtI!- ,1' preaenr tense

-ken mhilsl, , . ·i{~,

l~ot ex.-unplt:

Tcmialerken katann ~i"l)t:Jw.. FlhilEi cle.allingl barw'G' my h~ad.

CEl.h~n·kon l'lldyo d'inI iyO)'" HIJ'IJ lkkllirJg to th~ mdio whii.:;1 w(Jr-liillC·

You ctLTI add the lQUCJwing endings to the ~,hIJl'l; infinitive (Job-orbs:

-dee anee ~fl)rt .,.·i!ig

-den u.!iI!tQW .. ..fIl{1


AIJi,'c.ri~ ;5-'8prnadltu bnce k~i"iphaneyp. ~itti.

nit/mY!.' dlJiltg tlt.-e dJCpping, 'it WUII to th~ lioMl:!!.




GS!Zeteyj okumad-t'n unce· kah~aIh yupb.

Ah.~1;'eft, :)'Upman..m ];:ut.iiphooC)'o ~oitti. GIIZf!te}1 ukumadan kuh v lIlh ynph.

S/i-I.: had brook{i.Y$t IJp.fiJI'e r-ooding tht:pap(Jl'.

Wi.t/J.O.!d dOil1g aw shoppiYlg, 'IE ll!tnt to the Uhnuy.

Slit had b7'i)~k.{.(J_~·t wfthmlt. rooding tl~ papt'T.

6 -Iemek D.nd -tesmek

In En[li!)h verbs can be made from ether parts (If speech by ;)ddiug .ify or -Ise tc the end Ho1' example, intense - intensify, modern _ mDdernise). Turkish has slmllar endings.,

Hare are some verbs formed u!JnlJ the ending -Iemck;



Noun, adjective or adverb Verb

df'o!ll'l temlzlonwk

1:J.1Y,1rIWlice hIi:Wph;II'T1.:lk

llll::tlling;Sl[}lJM) CrU(lmr.k

= ;~~~~~~~k

(11;!.'1~fL$"(l, lubJ~~1 BEIJ;mal:amBrIt:

.::rg.;Jirr fakrarlEllTLllt

I,rr-w::.i) 111·~flIElm."i-;

!=.\'ijt za'llflru:n"k;

~t'dc:-;m r(.lei"t!~il',&!€! rl)f:\\:Wt.tDJI18'k.'&8 lMWr'I'),gJWfsl3 t{Jti.re.ftk(f;f.tr)P.I.sC8S

to ptOparl9, OCr 11If1kJ3 ruv«v OCr i<lrJ:nCY1;:;:~n.:;GI

to ropo.!1~



Note how most of these verba have U)C idea of ;.,,,oking, Here nrc some verbs formed using the ending ·le~e.k:

Ncun, adjective or adverb


ty; 0-

blr errs

il"ll~rnek blt1e~mek


far EUJTJpB<lr'/

YBrlo~rnel( uzilkla~mjJ}( A\'r\Jp..'lI.I::t~mak

yor uzak AlJnJpalr

Note how these verbs have the idea of bt!eoming.

~ AII!}tlrmalar


rc umte. .!or:;.wl,lJ;j ~toor rOS{Jrlr'e, so fit In fOgc.aw.3Y

to 'Europeanisei, r'obeoo.'7h3El.l1'CpeiirJ

The key to these exercises j!> on pngu 25 L

Ayhn spoke to her 8L~f;eT lin the phone, TIlls is "wh~t her sister !;:Uid;

'Simdi tclC\'U~'-Oll iSeyrooiyol1lm."

"Dun gccc aaat iklye kadar dtaketekteydlk." "~im 1ir)k [ella, BIl'8.kmaYl dO~iin~i}'Drum.~ ~'llrJ.yr~r:n l~in Ali'nin nilesindeydlk."

"Anncmin he(H~6i_l)j aevmedlm. Ht~gi.)"OJ8ytr::c~·im,~ "Yeni bir bilgis!)Y{1:l" nldrk."

aSi2lcri ualedjm."


you SAW rr 'ltIlS A V~RY CH.lJE"T PI..JrGEt

Thill; is what Aylin wid her mother abmn the conversation:

"$imdi tel(!\'ityoa ecyrediyormns, dUn gcec de evde kahm§. j~i fena d~n"ti.~, Buyramda Ali'rrin ailcsUIO gltmialer. &min hediyani 9Jk bete:ulll~. Yeni bill=:iIWyar ehmetar. Blzi 67.Jemi~.';

How many fica did she tell?

In ehe nl'6t ccluuui below :!Ll'~ 6(I:n-l.e requests fur upprovnl. In tho M!wr.rd column oro possible TI!-plics. 1"llJr each ri:a:lUa~~ .dHI(I:)oC: tho mOAtlikelyl'cply,

(11) ~~u t::i)yrumlii- rniyim"? (bl t"azla tu .. k(r}'1DlllJU!llm,


(c) iyi s(!i;'Jni;; nLiyim? (a, Rengi gtlzcl n:riyrniq!

(e) Sa~;)nm llUylG j".u.1Ll~mJ!i rm? (h') f(J Yallh!} llli:r·(!pl[Uq.Lm?

W) Yeterince kil1l- 'fillmj~ miyim?

g; ~~:~rie~:~l;l ~!~Iffi.

Daha aek elmah. ~

Wi) Mcrc.J.k~l;meyin. j"yi yapuussimz.

Bence dt~Jru deti1. Gclctr.:rkt:e. eusarsan dnha


( .... ) Vol':l·rr~i¥>il).~jirnjni

blrnkabilil'8b:l artik.

(~'i) Evet.. Babam bu hoolY{!)':i eck eever,

Evet. ama daba uzun clueca deha yakl~wor.


<lylll; Ii£1ltl

ncrcceete il'llitefl!.lI!J"t)" mlim oJ6t

ladn 11"lo;rT)ii)oj tomre.I<Js,.'1!rJ,"!JtJ

rflol!r.rk ~1m~1r; W ~mli'}'

filii., toa moon

m=,~rrmll; tocnocee l'tI"kllimt11r; w-besltrsclJrt!:' rtill:!rfm::'Il" ~ffl,-:,'MI.EIJXltJ,9.'t

IcCr!rl'II a'lrk

Pill in the gaps in the. text below with U.e e.ndingJ:. -ince, -ken, -meden or -dfkten. Make chane-e.'! to the prccewng verb stem where necessarv.

Yntnktnn kil.L(a)_ SI)nl','I. dcgru du~a girerim. KahvallL yap_(&)_ scnru evden ctkanm. Otchuse bin_(c)_ MoCC gnaete uUrH:1I vo a~fbilate ot~.Ir_(d}_ gaseteyi Dku11l1l1, i~ y(}o r'rme gcl_(d_ bir kuhve L~erim: Sub~hl~ill -r,:allf;~ __ ({}_ fir;::

V~~'8 d·i:h't hrutlalr ~lAy leerttn. O{He yeJl,cg-[rni Jro-f.J;)_ eenra mraz di)w.~lmrr. Th:rl~(lt}~ i:lj!looe:n ~(rllr..u>..i igimi plan Ianm.



A~3m iii-too ~(o_ t)-nce ifIllcima 1I11lsaID' tQplanm. E .. 'e g1t~W~ uill}au'~ gatecestm okurum.

MaL:.c.!:L items fmm 1:;])13 ewo (011)11)1'11} below UJ mukc the cjgh~ .~~.?~ .... mcnntngful aantances.

(a) Qocllg-tltDl.I)!. uyatunca (ii

(6) Bcsukpetanm alinoa (ii)

(c) DudOk 6(!!;inl duyuncn W) Hava g(lllE:!!}li olunea (e) P.Ll;ro:molm~}'mcll

m &m S:JI:;Jt alude we


(g) l:;!kJ.'lT'~ gellnee (h) ~efod;'ly.ngirifl-C8


""I'm acnunu durt. gir .. de ~~kli~«Jrum_

bat;Il'mll}'a buehyor.

16tr""D kontrol cdiniz, meeejmezi lnrulun. 1il~~::'LIp1lL ~Hi.z~D.,)'C.lll.C$.nli:1:iyWik.

UY;;lnnl;!ik to wa.L:1? up d:iidjjk bi?Bp

ece, s.:JL.IJlC(. ~1~1i'

clor' g62l€1 bBiI;loll1ck to (fJl.'M 10!"'EJfI1rQ

i:l3lDlrll'l1llK t.oCf)'Q.:ll,ro~lirJ!Jl

fi 'rtu:orl) ere many rntea of Nuaruddlu HUI;<~, a w-itt:y old man who deale shurply with aeeoungers. Fi.U Iu the I3'lps- in the ::.Lary below uHilig lJ~is list of verba.

~.!I.lmlli dcrui~ vermiii ba;;t[lffil~

Gtin1.ln blrlnde. Nnsrcddin Hoen'uin kupiseu, kot"n~ul;;l.J'l11d::m biri (a)_:.

_ H;';: efendi. _(I;;)_: Acele bir i.~.i.fr. ~tl, Hnnn e~.gi.ni verte mi~in?

Nnereddln Hell:", kom'jULUln bu isl.e~lne, OlL,lffi:1ll1Z cevap

=E~::~~n1da ~'ol{, Senden brice b~lij-l.ills. akb. _(d}___ . Fakut, tarn bu simda nbude ulnn csck. anrtmayn _(eJ_. Kom:;,usut c~eli;ln ~e5-ini duyuncu;

- Pekat. Heca, ~ burade, _r:{)_, Naeraddiu H(JC8. gOleN!'k ~INUp _(gi_:

-A$ku]::,ult k()m'lll, bene rm yuksll t:7~e mt tnamyorsun? _.

gon ..... "Dblrlmll} f).'1(irJr:ty from~1J fo'(Ilg.'IOOIlf IO;I;I~uL1nndUllblri (IJ",o€fwl1ls


.jJCl}ll}blrl!limltlktl llryBflr OlJ.:.;LriL¥'-.!i lifts c-copea up Il'.l;l~k r:ftJ!"/!IEy

I!!':u'.t; P2q(Jl?8t


YOU ,:;:,\)O J'r ~~'A$ A 1I.E"Fi'V (JVIET PUtCEr

OIUl'1lSUl. fll¥iiJtfodl b89'kaS1 somf....:)(If.<(.#itJ 1alrol IIO~'fBVi:'J'

tsm bu SImd<l jtJgr ar I'IlBr rlJ(llt1drJJ

Oll!lf sr~i3

Olnlfll1.lIt; lobray lIiikal~n sIr<l111(3 em ,VOL!

yol.;~ n.r()1':J(I

U TIp-low ia a noee which Scrpil has lclt. for liar husband. All the verbs hnve been ~m(l\'ed end are listed below. Thera ace no clues as to where they have coree trom. Rewrite U'e ucte, relnaerting the verba in the correct pcsjtlous. Do no' uloor the. order Dr the IDriatingwDrd:::i_

alneassm ceu glili.'f{u·nmQ gidiyorunt

gitmednn kalncaknus cl.o.ciJkmlli tnpln


6gk"{icll sonra aneern tetedon. Bu i~k§.llm ot.o~)!'i.s]e_ Or gOn bizimlc. OWg})m1m. Vm.m §ii'Kctillir,l otlsinde 8,il.lll yetii b(j~~ukl.'l. Ben {.!"ll"~Jya. Ak§<llll yemegimizi ,Mr~erilJe benlbcr, Once.: liltkn evi birez.


I "",m,' ",,'dylip ~1r1m.t comp8,~'y

Place thcsu words in the ecrreet order, 1JegU::ill.lngwith Oenk.

At,"u~tna AT'ahk I~ylb 1 Ekim Haziran Kasun 'Mart MaY'ls Nisan O,_.. .. ak $l)bat 'Iceuauz




Luter that day, tJlC! director (If the travel tiglt!Jll.!-y telephones ELL' ((!ljk

£Iii AleJo?

"Miidiir Giilt~)'dm, Elil'Qclik'le snnnamek iatiyorum.

Elif Buyurun. Bcnim.

Mtidu[' Gihu.'I.}'d.m £Jj1" H...1..TI_lIn_ Benim adun Fik.-(>.( Boakurt, Boekurt-Iuruu lD1.Idu:ri.lY'im_ BubcU..nku ~i.lill~'ct.lei".in:izi ogrundLru. ilk arce qok t~dll' dilemek ist;iy-iJorUlrL. Scnru, size bir lcklifiruv[tt'"_

Elif Eh"ct,.!lizicijnli:"fIJI.'lm-._

Miidlir Gcncltikle m1.l!}terimiz }'8nl~ hir taw} seecrse hl~bjr !}(:r J'ilpolllil)1l-rtl:T.. Bu seferltk size o;wl bir ~Cy Y<llKtJlZ, Si2"A! d~'t, grtu M<lrm...'1ri!)'te bes j'ddlih bir ctcklc kalru..'1Ji'l tddir edtJOO"ll1:, 'ram pnnstycn. Ne dersinis?

Eli! Bilmiyorum. Yclu uzak. ZlIIten hir lillru gi-dip gcldik,

Mlidii.c Be:.-;: ytldmb btr nbel. Plsmun otrnui'.S.lll..L2, Bnkm, nllmriale

k.fi.:r.JUllI:rP bane telefen ediu. B(irW(l:!l1 m, E(![derim. 'Iaraam rru?

Tamam ama .. ,

Telefonu[llIl.'iU bcldiyu(ll.1)l. iyi ak§o<'lml.:l.r Blif'Hanua. Iyi aksnmlnr.

Konusrna 2

~lif Mudur Elif

r.; Ilk jincc lir.st of ,1,Y 6z:tJrdllool~ j"Q"Jr.lo.l:Jg.;.M '~JI1' c.{fCl

m~l~rl ~(wt·IIY

bizlm y-<lp3bl~~jI"l"l12 blr ~.ey vot; (fIlNd"!: rl(lm'.'1g l'fl?CSfl ao oo!ltlf1!'lilk }I1St(h.I,gCVi~ ~I~I

t€!l!Ilf etlll~k tocfful

zaren ~ll"lytJQfI.'.1rJ .v.Y{".lTOO gldlll'1JDlt:llk WGI WO/I( mllj rll(.VI


kO'm:=,;up, fch:~fO[In edln 1&Jk fIJld ,'.lronphur"J!"!rl"lf.'




In this unit you will/earn how to

• make efficinl announcements

• make .!iBIltl!oDO!!!'l with tile o!)'!uL· v alent of w'Udt 0'- dur.t

• I;.IS('; blns 'Iurklsh -ip verb endirtg


It la Seker B8}'1';!l.mL Nnr ond hcr husband Orban lh'e in Kon..1f.1, NUl" I" Llbout tt} flt:!lephD.ne her t.'ltDity in Bnndmnu.

Nul' Allneml(!l'e tclcfbn edeyim. SlID de iyi h.."}'r.Ulllar dcmch

iE-ter mi~jn'! ()rhllD Denm tebii.

Nul' Temam

Nur dlals.

i)\()lefO-J1 S(ij·!(L nbonemlz, TIn btr teyp knydld..t.r, AnldLgrn12 numam y~(~tLr. Lutfen kcntrcl edfp, tckrar illil}'IUI:G. T~l!'kkUr edcrirn.

Nur Jmt.!i the. phone down. C)rJmR MeWU'1 run'!

Nue Ha~m', Yonh!} umnuaun.




Telcfon Sl'YIn ubonemiz. Bnnduma telefculnn vcdi rakam olrnustue. 2, 3, 4 ve S lle bllF,:lay.nn telefonlunn bl.t~lnI.I '11 gelmi~ti"r. Aynl!l.I ~s. ile bn~18~'aR 1x!1efOtl[l-n'JII buena 1~, 3!:l Liehasluyun telefhnlann bnsma 7·~ ge[ln.:i:;;lji. T~l}t!kki.i.r ederiz.

Nu[" put..<i the phone down,

Oi-lian Yine rni _Y<1l1hl}? Iieu nruyuynn [Ill?

NuT' IH.nyu·, xansma. Numam Jl.!<gLim~_ {l'aII1i1l.(f to '~IY!II (T~ .~IJ(:: dt.f_rls , .. ) SIli.r - ild - (dtcu~l1H.l - retrni~i.:r - crutsckia-. yil'mti)ir - .:afu· .,.

Tclefon So'lym ,,\:ioucl"llit. BII bir teyp kaydldlr. Bnt1)n hilthnnuz

deludur. Lntfen bcltlcyip tckrur ureyrms. TIf!~f!kk(h' cdcrim.

N ur slams the phcnc dcwu.

Nu):'" Euhretain!

O .... h.{Ul Yardun cdevim rni?


~dl r~k,"m ol"mul}1!Jr MI-@, &o.Ik·.;:r=~Il,figl!.'''l1l~'m.'"(Ir:::t b<I~ m;.ao:.B!.ftfl

8 ilo b<lilQlI'sn 1.eJeJonlimn b;l;;m., 71 gelml9tir "11fJ8-sbe~)I)f'!.;lir) i~lloJw.'rJp!;MSI"J!IIli'lJeJ~ oog.vmil"lg ~.'i!h (I

;!i!fricil ~I ,~J;:M'=vn, mOl190ve.r yille ag,'lir:l

kaTl'lIllSk JfJi'r:i,lrl("'Ii) deOl~IMk 1'0 r.iul"n_gQ tlinOn 811

11m JimJ

bolt.kn'lp te=1tr<lF -Braymll! ~"-:U~' rll{".'o'l (,.'.;II"1"L.IglI,'t1

k-iilll'CI!;ln OOmrlf

bl!.\'r<lm p~f.o.:J~·rkly

~clrer :l"oI.I"!Jll(,lillll661fs -Bilnemli!'.r fltj· /r.',;lllic'l'S filmi(y Saym oee-

;!1J0fIIB sl.lbsClitlll(

tcyp ts"~s


iJr.JdI9JnI:;:;nUlIll11ra Iflsl'lLl'tID.!lryoll

~\'M y:lflh~ l'ir.;iog

kon!roI ebnl.-It I~ ~c .. ( [o;.oI'iUOledlp,ll. ... r;u-.1rOlll'lnl:;:; crnck,

lhdl'Jc.!l[l"~i·l r,lKilm IiglJWI,d'g.IJ

2,3,4w8i)(!I !)s1il1aysn 'Iillefoll[;;:1rI w-,'Opb.om.tflLl1ibel"Sbtlg.i'tI"tIT1_t:'IloI'9t ~,a 44J.'ld8


Dogru mu, j'anh~ nu?

I Nur '.l~ kerc tclcfcn etmeyu pdl~Jyor. 2 Ol'h;)TI y.urd)1ll. ctmck lliel.!lmi.y.;Jr.


:~ Nur'nu ailcsinin oaki nnmarasr 02613 AA2l0_ Ycni numarasi 0266 'S!621O.

• Nur huyaua.

t'l'he &n.!I9.'CrS are on page 251.)

a Nollar

$eker Bayranll

nti!l is e tbree-d.1Y holiday whc:.!, people eat sweets to celebrate the end rJ!' the l'O(tntJ,·!otJg fruit of Rarcaaan. Its data changes a~cr.ml.inR" to the ~!WjHm lunar calaudar .. nnd 6(1 each y4!W"' .it t-ak-es plate 12 duye eerlier. TIm other big It.::ligiilluf;. bJ)licl_Q~r jJ!, Kurban n.:lyX'-Onu, which (]~Wt'9 a muple of months uflar :;Jekel" biJ.}'l1UIU_ On chill- date t.hc tradlticn i!l- tQ 1ll.iI~rhter (I sheep and diE-tribute its meut. to the needy, The 1W1,'E!!lt eonIMillm.ic ho}jday is New Year, Christmea i.a a normal working day.


NDte hew often the- omci<"tJ·S(lu.ndil~g -dir ending is used on the pose n-ffi-ce- tape rceoedings. Note <"tIS(! -lhu Ll.BEi of the ~mi.$l...i[' verb r~ndiDg whlcb .!limply £L(:1..s aF.. an officinl .... craicn of the past tense.



Y"V!J,'}; fbl/(J/'d Jr'/e.~/tJe

}jen,' ,!ylda :;;aj I,L I k~z" r ve V"ttf/u/",,- Ji!u;z.


Note 11.)'1." N ur- UiW-fI. th(! mle eno:lb!!; 11) rccort whac ahe haa jmt learned,


It is ~'t'r/ dtfflenlt to knew , c hen and how to USi.1 ::',~(';.1r .... '.Orllilin n [oreigu language. You should uccid ustng any JUU ntigh1 j)ld:; I.Lp ~T y{~~ could cause ~at UP~(!·t. However, here 8.I'E! acme of UI~ common ones:

Donhev! (&~-t""rJl) C{oor ~m (P~~ off!)

Son e{f). donkf!J! (Ba'l:-rdl) MG)' Goo. crus.h :}'O/II u. WamuD


Dcfoll E~ogIlJ e~ekl Kuhretsin!



1 -dik adjectives

Look ::It the Iollcwing plu-nnes: (brellim) au ... ·digi,IJ. l'e-lJ'k

~h(! CO/Oil!" whit'! lUke, ~IJI:: (YJl(tar-wJii(!JlJ liJw.d


(bl'Zi:rn) althgunlJ!: ev thf:! "(JURe whid~ !.toc'reo bu,,';'II:. the hOli.$I~ whi(!/t we boughi

(ilJizin) yedigin;z lreme_k MIl! food which yo!' (Xf_t_ the food whiclrJ-t11I ale

cmJa:rm yazd,Cr. mel..i=oJ.1 the letter wh.idl th.,>;y'ro UJriting,

the leiter rollich th.,'Y wrote.

The words sevdijrim, tnttuglm, !;:urougu, a_ldlguw:.!, Yl.>diwni? lind Y1l2wgl are all edieetfvcs. The idea of which eeutences is someLhhlg 'lurldeh does in a completely diffe-ren.t w'*' L{I English. 'The ~~I'IJIjsb. .!i~ty (JU! co{ow' whietl 1 Wre, hut in 1"lIl'kie-J) you SUj' m}'--liltffi n)/Qrn',

YOu LlHI the el1d~tl.g ·djk W IT4!\!J.t.e :ldjectivoC3 like tlmee l:Joove, so we ",,[U cull them -dik ~j«Li~·c.9. 'I'o create tbein, 10]]0 ..... th-L'8B steps:

the 00011 wl!ich. )-Qu!n /wldillt;, th~ hook l~hich. you held

the. car u:lticlt he driN!,l;, Mu! ct:lTwhic1t/I(!"W'OVI::


TnkEi the stern of the verb. Md·dl:k.

{l,fjd the possessed .ending,

The examples above all show ·dik illIjll!cth'es created from verbs which add M ~i illlding 1;0 t.heir objccts, The)' are the equivaleue (If the ":nglis.b u,JUch.

VOUCWllt!.i;O use-dik adjocU\'Cs to IILII!3D in whic-h Otut which_ In such l'IISflS they include the idea of the: Turkish -de ending. For example:

otuniugum ev the florist iI~ which Ilw!!

{fcWig-in eeat, t~ tWit cd whit:h )"()u romp.

Thl,,)' ron also include LJI!) idea afthe 'lurldsh -c ending. In such cases, lh!W maan to rd/i.ok, Pm example:

jlittiiiiokul bindigbn1z trcn

1M ~c"'llIcl (which) JW~'I() thB tmill (which) w(!' gol 0010

.dlk n(ljcL:ti ... -I3r:- CEIR also indudc UI8 idea (If the Turkish -den ending. II) Stlc.h cases ilill!Y menn froJn wilidt, For lI!l:amp le:



gekl_i~iz koy unlarm indigi uraba

Ihc llillage. (which) yllLI oom~ fl"Ofll the ear (wlw:h) lltej· cot out 0(

'T11e\' enn nlsc tncfuda the jd,(!8 of Ilc. In .su~b C: __ ~8~ the v mean willi

whi~h. For esamplec •

ths cJutd (whornJ ::r"(JI~ wcm talkilJgwUiJ

the ",(IIi (whom) tlhc fiW1'I'ied

Note h{low -dik (i,clje-ct:iVB..~ ~1iI1L refer efeher [.(1 [he: past Dr I..hc present, Thus. }""(III can translate tuttui;,"tInu:f. kitep as either ale bowl J'tlll flJ'{? lwiding Dr tht: book)IQu hl![d.. The me:ming- is '1S1_Jall~' dear from t:he context,

2 The difference between -en and -dik adjectives

Ques~iOtl: Vllu\~ is the difference between the: -dtk adjective m~dl: from a ve-rb und the -en adjective made froru the some verli (dcucribed otlpagellD?

Answer- Y~HJ, use thu -cu form tn describe the deer (the subj('!ctJ cf nn aetion. You UEi! \;hI.:! -dik Ionn to describe the [)bj~cl cf nn nerism.

Look :1.1; thctc csampies:

Be-TIi seven lmdm. Sevdigim lrodll1.

r/Jt!.1t.'l'Jr.r.:UJt W'll(;oL:-ti:J~~ J'.IToI:!. The WlHlIM whom Ilooe.

In [JJc first aeneenec, it is the wcnum who i.!I diling the l{loving. She l~ the subject. Tn the second &.-nti!mC! il, is abe who is bet11£; loved. She is the. object.

III 6r-r::'m"LIl1.IU boob, t.hc -on fbtm l.!i called the au.bjac.t. participle (if u ve-rb, and the -dik fbrm is called the objC<!t parlklplc. It i!), bcwavor, easier to Hunk or them as adjl!ct.i~·U!i than as forms (If a verb.

3 -diknouns

Sematimns yr:J11 can uSC a -dik edicctive wiilimJiI.. uc noun which l~ describes. &J instead of saying: yapw.gm ~eye bnk (/.0011 oi the thillJj }'ltu·.t;1!' dOriC) you can i:ff.Jj yapttgma bak {!c;tok tU the tlrir~ }'OIl'.oI? dOrle).



NMl} how you take th.rd -e endillg from ~ej' end add it to the llil.d 1)[ )'1~ptliPn. lJE!r-e, tho -dlk adjective is acting aa ifit were a noun. You I nn only do thle when it. is clb;.·l.ous whnt thot mi~lrlng noun is.

II~Jm ere 90n_HJ examples of'" -dik adiaetivcs used as 1\(11):06:

lIfll'lI eernencc (-dIIw;"Wor(l DeUng as tl.n j)~JlOOtlve)

ShoJ1 sentence {~dilor word actIng as a nou:n)

Ald.g1m :;;8yi ibiiym mueun? SO~in ~yEl lnanmwcrum. YDptl~m ~eydl:'lri KOlk;uy"Ol'l.lffi. (ilOrd~nuz ~ri)'den ~etme! .s~ ... mi3diQiniz ilMinl;)


OnIann '9Btirtligi ~moOl 1'l!'ltIFJyaCegilii.

AAJ.?'!lmJ istrvor mueunv s.t'Jy'ledigiM tnennuycrurn. Yaptlgmdan kcrkuyorum. G(Itl:t(~umu2:-di3n bah~(O:tmol Sewnediginirle 'konu~rna}'1 nl

Villi. should note how, in 1iI!1 these examples, yN1 t;,'lke the -i, -a. or -liml. ending from the missi.IJg »nun ~Jl\r1 neld it. to the -dfk p,ufdd:plE:!_

I l the mtasinq noun u; in .0. plural form, you ;{Idd that, plural ending to I:hr. -djk perl.icipba toe. Fer example:

I r-~IIlIGTm

AJdlkl~Jnml Istemnj'Of rnuaun? Soyrooll-..ierlne jnenm ryonrm. S...:rvmedIKlerlnl:;::le konuerreym!


AtdI{)lm ¥~'IBri istemi~'{)r mu.sun? ~lc(!l~n ~eylsre menmrvcrum.

SD...medl~iI'lizinE.anlsrla I l!:onl,J!ii~ln!

1/ -ecek adjectives and nouns

Iu mnkc a u:·_I.w:.ch sentence llbou~ the fulura ycu usc nn -ecek arljec-

ilvu.F(l.l"CXllnIple: .

OkUJ.·f~~ae ,m kitnp, TIl£. hook wll i~h rm. g(Jil~ /(J I\.·'r:'r.d.

Ottm:K'f'-iml. ~clrlr_ Tlrf!. roW11 WhI!'H! }W,('/i IiI;!.(!.

I'(] m.flke an adjec(j"e like [Jlis, Iollcw Ih~e 6tepR:





(lit gh;lecek gldecegim

T~kC: tile srem ot iha verb. A(I(I~k.

AIkJ Ihe possessive ending.

g!)~'~giniz film g61.'m~fece.iljoi:l film

thr. film IDlrich 101/11 set!

thl! film which;H)[t war"I, SC(!

Like ·(l1k JorlllR, you can ulsc use -ecek farms as nouns. Here are same examples:

&.rl'C~'eeegine dikk.'tt et.

B.i:lml ya.l).{)(!;¢Iml7.1 merak dmeyiri.,

A1fieuk)a:rW_I bunter.

B& r:arr!1~1I ~1.r~ mlt.at :}'t.IU',re goi.rlgroW:}'.

Iftm't wor".(lOOnt what lce'n: goi(~{odtJ.

These c.:m th~ .:JIles whicll fm gdine10 blj.J.

You ·Ll~C -ecek :'11) the [ul..urt! equivalent of -en edjeeldves .iJ.S well .,'1;:: .di.k adjectivt.!I_ 51. }'QU use .it for suQj(~C~ taoS well 35 C1b.ft:ct!;, For cx.arnpLr.-:

Paat torm

Yapacax bu. (rh[s Is the jserson ~~fJ()'/) ao 11,)

Y.clpacagl b\l, (This is (he one fIG'H(J'(),)

GiUrlCC'kJ(t1 kim'? (Who s.re me ()rI6~ ........ toWIII!JQ?)

GiuC(;c~jm yerter goz-al. (The p.~~s I'll (JO UHJfe nice.)

Yapan bu. (This /!] (1"/8 persoo whodidll,)

Vaptl{U bu. (n~ Is "~ nne "'did)

GidenlBr kil'lW (~V)1O i3fe (m OJJ8S 'i'1I1() ~,-eJl(?)

Giiligim yi)ib '!)ltret (The p.lliCes , ~J'li1)t to am n.fce.)

5 .ip

in E::n3liah, instead of sa~'-i"g Tr.mighl rrn going iv haoe a b«lh and I'm going M II:-a,gh my liai.r~ yon CI)t1 !JOIY T(might 17n gQYlg to !I{we ([ ball! wid W(.i.m m.y hair" The second 1 am gab1g it> not ueccsaurv ~I) we- mise it out v.-jthlm~ lo~ing the roenning,


ln Turkish you can do semethiug slmilur, but where jtm Rli;::s a bit (jlle, .'r~lJ in~r~ a ;!{ll,~al t~ let people knew you'ru l:ik.ipp-inlj I)(Imething. rnt(J elgnulis the limdlllS" -I.p, Lno!;;; «t UlC .llillowing Hli!ntfm~S:

Du ekecm banyc yapileng-un \'C ;!i1l~I.arlDli Ylk:::ty{lCflgun, Du ekaam b;'myo yap"l) saelaruru ;pkayaeaw:m_

In tbe eecond ~CULGtLOC, tho i'inlt ..ac-..aWm nee gone, and -Ip ls in its plnce, 'lhe vets ~l60 JllLsSi!lg_

II(I~I} IUD SI).(JlIO) more ElXJJ.mr1el:: of -ip sentences:

Full sen re nee

Shortened verstcn

BOKkfJf.lgit\'a-birkiloslital! AnFiosinakQo;1tuwonuDp-tU. Cltl.lruyorlill' \,(1 dara 'ital 1~I~Drf.ar. ElLlIi)~1k YIk:ill"l'IalIYlrn \'T:I" annama

tcrcron clmaliyirn.

Slnon'lj)y~1 gitiBlim ~'13 film eeveocnm.

Peneereyl kBlpa.'lrrl1l~lm:?;vc buraya gelir misinlt'i'"

S;;tkk.a18.gidipbirkilosutel] Annesir\oC! k~p onu (ipLU. Qturup-O(:-.(!;.cnllfilyorli:lr. Bula~tk: ylkaYlp armeme teletcn etmeliyh~,

Slllemo.)'o. Oidip film aeyrecenm.

Panoareyl kapallp 1)lJra~'a Ut. .... lr mi::;iniz"?

V(lU should note t.hiJIt f(l1.I cauucr usc bha -tp vaeh form to shorten UlC I'ollowing:=;entf;!llor.-cs:

Eve dijneceI![z ve ~"Uhfitcui.l'J.m, We'llIW' lwntc- wid 1'lJ worli.

Ali oyun Oyullyor lie Hakan Alis P1~Yinlf a gatflr: uml Hokan

televfzyon !ie)'rc~'f)r. iR w().1.dtlng Mc(}i:;iM.

t~~t19ti{ln: Why can" yr.m?

AI!9\\'OO:: In the Iirsl, sentence, the v(!m forms rue l10t ehc same. In the ~ACX)nd eeuteaco, it ili JlO~ tJ)8 aame .mbjl!;!ci; perfOl'Illing LJIC two actions,

6 KlpkJrmlzl etc.

'l'Urkish uaually \~.I}:rJ;,Ji.l:Jy adding suffixes ((!fHlmgs) U;. words. There t!> Imc esse where it works by adding pm!'i,;:e.s (additions w the front) '1\IIte~d. This is when Y(lU want to make the lllCaiiiilg of .u.djectt..,e..'1 mnre mtenae.


-- --------~~--~.---------,,.--


NmmOi' adlective l!,len:!l;lfjedfurm
kllmlZI fed KI~lrrn~;:;1 bri,g/11fM
beyaz. while bC:ill1)e~;;.:z ~'Vhjle.::iS SfI0W
ma v i - mosmavl .cJe.urhlUlJ
san yeJJolo'l,bJom/6"' ceceen ptJf(J W(lOOQ, yal'l'qW
~l gt"MI't ~c-.mye!j:i~ iJS ~roX'll as C81'1' ne
siy<J.h ~I",* ~Imslvah pllChIJM"Ck
nora dstk. capkara darKi1!Jrl/(lfJt
mmiz crean tertemlz ~-qJ..J{lLlkyc/e.."ifl
oo~ empty L)omha::;: .:;OfI¥'/Clci)'eJT.'pi'y
duz .5trai91it d:Omdll:z Sffi},i9tll as 13" die
ibLl1kO. di~rll bembaake wmpfelt:llY different
~Iplak IliJked ytnlQlplElk 5t,"lI1!:nak.ed Nobi! hew the firet t,W(!- letters .ell LJ1C prefixes TB(lI)~j~ the fLrs.t ~w.j) k.1l;eJ'SonhI!'Dri.6ri:[Ll:~l ('JdjCCtlVoC_

l';lA 11ljt 1 rm a I ar

The 1roy lei these 1D'"-el'dF.J:!1:- i~ {JoJ) page 251. 'Iranslute LJl8SC nemencee int-ll E!Ll:;lish {a) E,'n ~evdigimi:.: ~Md{:llcr bun lnr. (b) No!!- }':="~i!l:lit.Lmi llilullj'(loJ'Um.

(c) Bann verdigin habcr h~ ilgiru,: dl"gil. (4) IytiP;i.mi:.: qL'Jr.!l.bLLL ismi "~?

(c} 'l'amaucuguuz adam bu fmnanen muduru. if) Dun ),LH-d.l["(L CUj~IDjz kadm i}'1l8~iyl)r ~iDlclj_ (g) A~I!J'ni!. bL1.h~tljg-j Inannlar gdcli

(h) VUrcl:uJWl adam li:..im?

(i) Yunn crkcatranm ~ lac:~g. paren Bcerboven'm bB..!lind


(11 ~k cldugu k.u: iJ!:.n sevmedl,

F'jll'in the gap::. ill. the sentences'belcw wiLtL an-en ~cl.j~t.i v e, a-dik ad,jec~i~'e DT an -ecckudlecbfve. Alter thcvcrb stcms aa nE.'O!!f:.SIHJ'_



(a) Bunlm eaki Dt.UT~ 8P.'l1't.111:,il1l, ~kkll'liJdi,

(It) Turlderlo L"TJ oI,:ljk !iE'! v _ kotnedi aruiatcun Kcmal Benul, (a) Bi:::LDI hln_ DooMs b~ dnkika ecnra ki.".llLJ.o.r,

W} Senin Il:~n haftu h,"':ino('!l'_ mektnbu allll,:,''!.c!L([l.

(e) ~im.d[ liijprtidlm I¥!i?- at-l)bi:ls bisdm.

if) Scnin krr_ V.!.L<!.(l eok pehob.

(g) Gt~n h8fL~11l:!:;;imln gjmdoP.-J'~ mektabu aldunz llli'/ (h) Onlann ~[w~k 1lI00~ urahn ~.'ltl h k deWcll,

(i) Hc.sWl·.o.r:u.L.u ycmek )'i!I~in:~,.'ln].m t ... nturorcm.

(j) O11lnmun $.z_ resmi b~istE!ril' nliI:;:Lni~?

fI I Sllll'l~l ailisr, M:I(J~

",r:;o,:rnok ro..:lhlw

n Rend the folllWliDg recipe fbr humus. DWling your nTIS'A'el"6 on the context ~t.l. wJricl. lAIc), appcur L[J. the recipe, mntnh the lise (If vnrbn belcw to e!leL'r correct E.ngli.sh l[li!m:.lng&.

Ndu.1[1,1 :t;!-'ll!:layJP :YLb(U:lt'1II sonm flir .Q.i:~LI ilrr.ltI sndu brmkin, Pr4c.si :g_t:'Jn ~uyOOlJ.I :;UWj1' •• ~knt all ~';II;'iK Il,('lh.I,Il.!1 Fli~icill:.. :I("I),lIk[<II1)111 ~p pure bnline ~irjrL [·l:LLlJJ~dl~lI1l7. 1~I'CfO mhln, tli)~Ulmii~ ~"n.JI!.!5;i.k., ruz. kimynn, kIrml:ll bjllcr ve lunen :':I1YIL kunp K;nl~llllil.

Servis m~lI1rl ~UI"_ '1i7.C',!'i[)(; R:1n"IL':O:llli'IJ~ru y"el j]l.:wiJc.rekID!'iYd:LOOZ13 ~il~l~ip acr v ls ynpm,


25(10 j]r, nchul, ynnm bnrdnk taillll, ~ di~ ~1I'1I~"k, :2 ~;,L~' b';;IRi;!;1 I;;.imy01'l, I umcc, I flncnn zc:.'LiILY~L, klfi.llJ~1 bihcl'. [11:f., I1laJltll~.

la} 8Jlkl~m;)k Ii} to add
lo} yiknmak (iiI tudf!t.'Or.f1.te.
I,) anemek (iii) tumix.
Idl f,;tk.arn,l;;t.k (iv) tuprr:ktJvr.r,t(jpicko1lt
1,1 hutmnk Iv) ws.i.!::L'1!'
If) llan~tll'ffi:,ilk IvD W Spri.ukk.
Igi gmo.irmp.k (vii) ww.k.8Ijff.l(Jb3.lu::Oltt
V,) uaalemek (viii) WIh'i.J.~it
-1a9- TUnKIStf

ntltlu1 .ctA~IqN.,"

t:;JJLln "::1:':';:'~r{l(!(loY

8:Brfl'w!';:~k g.lrA'rl

Ii:ltnYOtl el.'lr~Tl

m:ayaaooz pfuSl'ey IJ:.rt"ljJlin lire (O(bo.101T\g day kabvk s.Vn,s1;'6g

nnre atJTM

Ii<ll srers, iXlf1d.'~\-JrJ (1DJI'r.'drf}'


d.jj,viilf11~ .c~oo,b096!1'aI7 k~~lk s,.."OM

iizt:. ... 1 (J,jl~(:" SI.{fiil(:"Q:

-1 ),ofake these adjecth'cs. more 'intense' by filling in the ga~ usinf; prefixes,

w} OtLlUlkan1~i_ hrn;lll. fj} Dente mavi,

(1.1) K.·u:_be:ya<:.. (g) SIl:~lm'In_!l;Jl'l.

(c) Siuama _ bCl~_ (h) Go:tll!!ri _ siyaJ).

ui) ,,(ol_ dns. (I} IJll v a __ remta.

((!) P8Si!j_kanl. if) Pe}'~llj~}'~il.

I.kar SflOW

l)B.SaJ pa~:5'"a,g6

(a) 'Imnelate ebis sign.

{.tJ} III whuc eype of ahcp 0(1 Y{l.U think the sj8TI wee hanging?


Read t.hls bia~phy in order to dtaccvcr t~he identity or x..

Varhkh btr ailcnin (I~lu 1)1:)0 X, 16 Nisan 1889'dli Londra'nm Ken5ingtol'l. maludleelede dliilYii.~ra geldi. Bir buriton olan bubasrm bcnce .yodi yasmdnykcn kaybetti. 0,,11(( SOIU.It opera ~IUCl31 elan 3..W1CSl hast"'llamp sure-kit 'hastaocdc kalmaya baslaymea X vc k.arde!?i Sidney bir yetimhnnedc )'tl~lm1;!l.y;) b'W1adl. Yerlmhancden kaenmk iein kurrlE.!l}iylc birtikte aktt)t'" o-lml1,},R karar .... crdi \'8 bir- uvatro grub-una kenkli. Bu gT1lf'l~ blrlikta I-I{)llyw(lIxfa kudar witt Oradu en iyi kotnedi Iilmlerinin YllpLrnc:ulI Mac..k Scnlli!~ He h~ J'lll.lli. hir enlasma ,}'ilptJ_ Selrir Ii}lklan ve Modern Zamanlar 1Ji . hi filmlerde oynnynu X ainetna tarihinde eok t)7.cl boil" yur lraaendi.

Y'L"Iimhtlooo arp,lrlilr~;l\:3(1 k:U~III;Jk IQ~.,r'loI'I.;Iw[o/ -te blrllkbrl I'CI.{iIE\If;I&.' ~'I1l1J Y"OIpimCil (Jrodlir:"llr

;JIlL1:,;m,1 cOlIttBt"\l"IJa,"J1.G'm6rJr 1",rfJt lli.sfory

t:az;JJun,,'k_ 10'Ho\\'1'. r.:Joa~m J(lIitllrll",k IQ,1:;ffi

VJlrflkl1 ~'ft38!!.I')y 111:'II111J[1r.:~(

l!illriiLvn OOr;if\:l.r76o llu:;t..lh:lnrna.kt{]IJ~flI

IliI!n~~\,8dl !la~l]-tU" M'm.r..fims

/1(.0 ~"::?-5 ;iEl\l6f1

:!jIat'klcl ~,YI.Qer

tlDr~li ~J.Wously

7 Sh.j}:Me:n these sentences using the -ill verb ending. ((1.) ~~uq:tj'a (lid.iy<mml ve all~ ... eri~.YfLpLJorum

(b) Bene lnE.!Kl;l.1p>,azd! ve tesekkur ctti

(c) Lokentaya gidclim ve ~i~ keo;)bl yiyelim. (d) Evde .kalma.b~'uIi\-·B dera cahsmahynn,

(e:) &at beate sc1ecckmili ve t~til fot..ogm.Jllll"l getirecclunle. f[) EW;l !,';t.."'Iin ve dinlcnsin.

(g) Suaar lTIl81m:-. ve uturur mLL~nt1.lIZ'!

(It) Bu yulun acnuna kadur gidin .... e ~L' sapm.

(i) Buebukan Anblj'a'YlI gitmir;,Ur ve ooylr.h' vermistir.

"'Dh~Llluk~ r.lhlllsrz: 1»~'Tm.1l'OIWI:Ih dll1!cmmer.: r.:lnlt;rx

b.:l~bal:lllri J.lrU?IQ r11lhl~r6( ~oll"ll)Vv€'rmck rQm,l1i"BB ",-

~ 191-




Konusma 2


On her fourth uucmpt, N ill menages i;(] g-et through t.o her parents' house an the phcnc.

NuT' un babaar

Nur' un bebasr


Nur' un bubnsr

Nur Nu.r'lU1biiliU&iJ Nur

NUT un biLOOSl


Nuie un bahusi NUl"


Baba.i, ita OOyr<lmbr!

TeliCkkur1cr, Sana dn iyi beyramler }'u\'nlJtl! Nasdsin?

Tu~.Jd:c:iH·lct, Ya !Ji~leI1

Biz hcpimiz iyl~rjz. Misaf'iT 'jar buruda. Tcvzcn, eencannen, amc:m, kiskardealn C;:1lI)" ~p schbcc cdiycruz.

i\n~cru 11C yap~'ol't 'Iuhmin ct, Mutfnktu g..'lhb:1l.

Evet. Ak~m yemegini pilliriYl)f. Biraz eonrn ~[t(w~yUQ" Hf!!} dnklra dnuu Orlmn "'0 aenin haklnnd.'l kenusuyorduh burudu. Kui['.lk1~rmu ~mladL rut? i'Lr~ffI..a(l.L&J OOkJiyorduk. Si.7. uu )'np]yars.UtLlIz"/

Hicbir ~et y[)pmL}'OO'l.~ !}imdilik_ Orhan'lu koJ.m~abmY miyim?

Orhun cede dotU, .Biro"!: ,jj.nce yirrUyilio!l3 c,:Lktt ._.

wbactij:ull daddy

),w",rum d9.'fir.>:I. oootr, r.aIXW

(fitetal~' my Cht!d) nl1sa11r \11.00/

ornea UI)';.Ic «(,:0 f;:llh(lf'l'l Ud~) s.otJoot ¢milk UJ t.'h9! ti'!hmln Clml:t to ~ss g;tUb;, prt.'tosbfy

ftil9mll;)k tOCi1.V

d;)kiclll flnor1ford"kU<a

Orh.m vi! !;l!-iI:lf'll1al!klnda aceur


"Oiiu~lik we ~>BI'"8 tc1Nring ~m.IElm;Bk roliDg (ear) afamanlZl bc:ldiyQrdllk, wQ WfJ(i~


flmd<llik for ril£: Irx.;r)lcnJ,. TO! now hC:fI1l;m;;[mdl p.;lrXM·,jlJSf yiiru),u;;e t;:Jkii.ak zc go ow to."





In this unit you will learn how to

• s~ wh(,t "'!:IS happening

• 98}' wh~~ bud happened .previou:=::ly

• 9Q~' whn~ someone reparteri ot" h(!;:11~ about an (';VCJl~

Ht'lli)' ;"18[[.:> -Turb.}· regularly and has studied the IU.IlglU.l,g;oI!I at univeraity. S]II} is In Murmarls und her purse h\:lfl disappeared. She has found :L tl)Uri9tpoJiCi'llIflJL

Snlly Pelle bey.

Polis EveL

SaUS Biriai ciizdamm! 111ml!}. Pulis Nerede, ne zaman? n.BUy Plnjda, biraz bnee. Polls Hll"SlZL goruunuz mi.?" Kldly Emili. dD,b.J.lim.

Polls Pchi, no cldugunu anlatar nUSltllir

!-IILII)! Ban deniede yuzirycrdum. Yuzerken cnntunm ark .!ilk bakrycedum ~LUlku p\.uj.!J. y.u.tnL~ gelmiatim. Bir hcec balrtrm va gen~ bir crhck esyalunmm ynmndn cturuycrdu. Yuemeye devam edip, hir dukibu acnra jfne bnknm. Erkck yok olmuacu,

flo-Us: BlI crlrck uri cii;,:cl.~[llnL'Zl eldr sizce?


You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->