The OS! Model

Established in 1947, the International Standards Organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards. An ISO standard that covers all aspects of' network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. An open system is a model that allows any two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture. Vendor-specific protocols close off communication between unrelated systems. The purpose of the OSI model is to open communication between different systems without requiring changes to the logic of the underlying hardware and software. The OSI model is not a protocol; it is a model for understanding and (ksigning a network architecture that is flexible, robust, and interoperable.

ISO i" tile mgalli/ati(}lI. OSI is till' IIH)(kl.

3.1 TIlE M(ll)EL

The Open Systems Interconnection model is a layered framework for the design of network systems Ihat allows for communication across all types of computer systems. It consists of seven separate bUI related layers, each of which defines a scgrucnt or the process of moving information across a network (see Figure 3.1). Understanding the fundamentals of the OSI model provides a solid basis for exploration of data communication.

Layered Architecture

The OSI model is buill of seven ordered layers: physical (layer I), data link (layer 2), network (layer 3), transport (layer 4), session (layer 5), presentation (layer 6), and application (layer 7). Figure 3.2 shows the layers involved when a message is sent from device A to device B. As the message travels from A to B, it may pass through many intermediate nodes. These intermediate nodes usually involve only the first three layers of the OSI model. In developing the model, the designers distilled the process of transmitting data down to its most fundamental elements. They identified which networking

.. 13

44 cusrrta: 3 'I'lIE 0,'-,'1 MODEL

FigUIT J.I The OSllI1odel

.- - ._-----------_._-----------------

• Ib •• ut "." .e

Device B

7 Application

6 Presentation

5 Session

4 Transport
4-3 interface
.\ Network
3-2 interface
2 I)ata link nata link

Physical Application 7
7 -6 interface
Presentation 6

Session 5

Transport 4
4-3 interface
Network .1
3-2 interface
Data link Data link 2
2-1 interface
Physical functions had related uses and collected those functions into discrete groups that became the layers, Each layer defines a family of functions distinct from those of the other layers. By defining and localizing functionality in this fashion, the designers

7 I



6 ~1 I_.,_.(_'s_r,_,I_a_l_io_" •






Nl'I work


Dala link


Figure J.2 OSllorers

----------------_._----- ------_. -------

Device A

Physical communication


Physical couununicmion




created an architecture that is both comprehensive and flexible. Most important, the OSI model allows complete transparency between otherwise incompatible systems.

A mnemonic fur remembering the byers or tile OSf model is: Please Do Not Touch Steve's Pet Alligator (Physical. Data l.i Ilk, Net work, 'l'rausport, SeSSiOIl, Preselltal ion. A ppl ic.u ion).

Peer-to-Peer Processes

Within a single machine, each layer calls upon the services of the layer just below it. Layer 3, for example, uses the services provided by layer 2 and provides services for layer 4. Between machines, layer x on one machine communicates with layer x on another machine. This communication is governed by an agreed-upon series of rules and conventions called protocols. The processes on each machine that communicate at a given layer are called peer-to-peer processes. Communication between machines is therefore a peer-to-peer process using the protocols appropriate to a given layer.

At the physical layer, communication is direct: Machine A sends a stream of bits to machine B. At the higher layers, however, communication must move down through the layers on machine A, over to machine B, and then back up through the layers. Each layer in the sending machine adds its own information to the message it receives from the layer just above it and passes the whole package to the layer just below it. This information is added in the form of headers or trailers (control data added to the beginning or end of a data parcel). Headers are added to the message at layers 6, 5,4, 3, and 2. A trailer is added at layer 2.

I leaders arc added to the data al layers (i, ),4,3, and 2. Trailers arc usually added only al layer 2.

At layer I the entire package is converted to a form that can be transferred to the receiving machine. At the receiving machine, the message is unwrapped layer by layer, with each process receiving and removing the data meant for it. For example, layer 2 removes the data meant for it, then passcs the rest to layer 3. I .aycr 3 removes the datil meant 1'01' it and passes the rest to layer 4, and so on.

Interfaces between Layers

The passing of the data and network information down through the layers of the sending machine and back up through the layers of the receiving machine is made possible by an interface between each pair of adjacent layers. Each interface defines what information and services a layer must provide for the layer above it. Well-defined interfaces and layer functions provide modularity to a network. As long as a layer still provides the expected services to the layer above it, the specific implementation of its functions can be modified or replaced without requiring changes to the surrounding layers.

Organization of the Layers

The seven layers can be thought of as belonging to three subgroups. Layers I, 2, and 3-physical, data link, and network-are the network support layers; they deal with the physical aspects of moving data from one device to another (such as electrical

4(, CI/A!'lLR 3 nu. (}.)'/ M()/J/:L

specifications, physical connections, physical addressing, and transport timing and reliability). Layers 5, 6, and 7-session, presentation, and application-can be thought of as the user support layers; they allow interoperability among unrelated software systems. Layer 4, the transport layer, ensures end-to-end reliable data transmission while layer 2 ensures _reliable transmission on a single link. The upper OSI layers are almost always implemented in software; lower layers are a combination of hardware and software, except for the physical layer. which is mostly hardware.

In Figure 3.3, which gives an overall view of the OSI layers, L 7 data means the data unit at layer 7, L6 data means the data unit at layer 6, and so on.The process starts out at layer 7 (the application layer), then moves from layer to layer in descending sequential order. At each layer (except layers 7 and I), a header is added to the data unit. At layer 2, a trailer is added as well. When the formatted data unit passes through the physical layer (layer I), it is changed into an electromagnetic signal and transported along a physical link.

Figure -'.J An exchange using the OS! model

L6 data I HSI

LS data

LSdala ~

L4 data

L4 data 1 1I31

Udala 11121

U data

() I () I () I () I 0 I 0 II 0 I () I OOO()() I O()()O


Upon reaching its destination. the sign;" paxscs into layer I and is transformed hack into hits. The data 1I11its then move hack up through the OSI layers. As each block or d;lt;, reaches the next highn layer, thl' headers and trailer» attached t(l it at the COITCsponding sending layer arc removed. a III I actions appropriate to that layer arc taken. By the lime it reaches layer 7, the message is again in a form appropriate to the application and is made available to the recipient.



In this section we briefly describe the functions of each layer in the OSI model.

Physical Layer

The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. It deals with the mechanical and electrical specifications of the interface and transmission medium. It also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and interfaces have to perform for transmission to occur. Figure 3.4 shows the position of the physical layer with respect to the transmission medium and the data link layer.

Figure 3.4 Physical layer

From data link layer

L2 data

To data link layer

L2 data I

Physical r-:--:- ----I



Transmission medium


--------------~---------.----~----------- ------------------_----

The physical layer is concerned with the following:

• Physical characteristics of interfaces and media. The physical layer defines the characteristics of the interface between the devices and the transmission medium. II also defines the type of transmission medium (see Chapter 7).

• Representation of bits. The physical layer data consist of a stream of hits (sequence of Os and I s) without any interpretation. To be transmitted, bits must be encoded into signals-electrical or optical. The physical layer defines the type or encoding (how Os and I s are changed to signals).

• Data rate. The transmission rate-the number of bits sent each second-is also defined by the physical layer. In other words, the physical layer defines the duration of a bit, which is how long it .Iasts.

• Synchronization of bits. The sender and receiver must be synchronized at the bit level. In other words, the sender and the receiver clocks must be synchronized.

• Line configuration. The physical layer is concerned with the connection of devices to the medium. In a point-to-point configuration, two devices are connected together through a dedicated link. In a multipoint configuration, a link is shared between several devices.

"'1' ('1//\1)/'/:1< 3 TIll:' OSI MOf)L/,

• Physical topology. ThL' physical topology defines how devices arc connected to make a network. Devices can be connected using a mesh topology (every device connected to every other device), a star topology (devices are connected through a central device), a ring topology (every device is connected to the next. forming a ring), or a bus topology (every device on a common link).

m Transmission mode. The physical layer also defines the direction of transmission between two devices: simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex. In the simplex mode. only one device can send; the other can only receive. The simplex mode is a oneway communication. In the half-duplex mode, two devices can send and receive, but not at the same time. In nfull-duptex (or simply duplex) mode, two devices can send and receive at the same time.

Data Link Layer

ThL' data link layer tr<1llsfortns the physic" layer, <1 raw trunstnission lacility, to :1 reliable link and is responsible for node-to-node delivery. It makes the physical layer appear error free to the upper layer (network layer). Figure 3.5 shows the relationship of the data link layer to the network and physical layers.

Figure 3.5 /)0/0 link laver

rrom network layer

TiJ network layer

L3 data 1


L3 data


,-fl i

, 0 '

, LtC>- ,
, ,t ,
, ~,~,
, I Data
Frame I T21 H2 I link
, ~ ,
, Iv ,
I ~ I
I ,
, , D<lt'.1 I I' I,

link T2. I 112 Frame

layer I---'------.L- -----i.

, ,

, :

I ,




To physical layer.

From physical layer

Specific responsibilities of the data link layer include the following:

JIll! Framing. The data link layer divides the stream of bits received 1'1'0111 the network layer into manageable data units called frames.

" Physical addressing. If frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network. the data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the physical address of the sender (source address) and/or receiver (destination address) of the frame. If the frame is intended for a system outside the sender's network, the receiver address is the address of the device that connects one network to the nr xt.


• Flow control. II' the rate at which the data arc absorbed by the receiver is less than the rate produced in the sender, the data link layer imposes a now control mocha'nism to prevent overwhelming the receiver.

• Error control. The data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding mechanisms to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames. It also uses a mechanism to prevent duplication or frames. Error control is normally achieved through a trailer added to the end or the frame.

• Access control. When two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link layer protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the link at any given time.

Example 3.1

In Figure 3.6 a node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87. The two nodes are connected by a link. At the data link level this frame contains physical (link) addresses in the header. These are the only addresses needed. The rest of the header contains other information needed at this level. The trailer usually contains extra hits needed for error detection.

Figure 3.6 Data link layer (Example 3.1)

r -----"-- ---.-.-~---~---------------~~----.~.- .. ---~ .~~---~~




Source address


Destination address

Network Layer

The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery or a packet possibly across multiple networks (links). Whereas the data link layer oversees the delivery of the packet between two systems on the same network (links), the network layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final destination.

If two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need for a network layer. However, if the two systems are attached to different networks (links) with connecting devices between the networks (links), there is often a need for the network layer to accomplish source-to-destination delivery. Figure 3.7 shows the relationship or the network layer to the data link and transport layers.

:;0 (''';\/'1'/:'/\ _i tt /I', O,""! MO/)!.."

Figun' -'.7 Nctworl. laver

r----T-~: __ L-I~.;.·2-I-_~!I _

I ;f I Network

I c:_c layer

Packet 1-1 -lI'-I_n~1

D I :

From transport layer

To transport layer

L4 data

L4 data

Network layer

113 I Packet ~-----~-~I



L.1 data

1,3 data j



'- I

To data link layer

hom data link layer

Specific responsibilities of the network layer include the following:

,., Logical addressing. The physical addressing implemented by the data link layer handles the addressing problem locally. If ;1 packet passes the network boundary, we need another addressing system to help distinguish the source and destination systems. The network layer adds a header to the packet coming from the upper layer that, among other things, includes the logical addresses of the sender and receiver.

n Routing. When independent networks or links arc connected together to create (In internetwork (a network of networks) or a large network, the connecting devices (called routers or gatewaysv route the packets to their final destination. One of the functions of the network layer is to provide this mechanism.

E\alllple J.2

Now imagine tha: in Figure 3.8 we want to send data from a node with network address A and physical address 10, located on one local area network, to a node with a network address P and physical address 95, located on another local area network. Because the two devices arc located on different networks, we cannot use physical addresses only: the physical addresses have only local jurisdiction. What we need here are universal addresses that can pass through the boundaries of local area net works. The net work (logical) addresses have this characteristic. The packet at the network layer contains the logical addresses. which remain the same Irorn the original source to the linal destination (A and P. respectively. in the-figure). They will not change when we go [rom network to network. However, the physical addresses will change when the packet moves fro 11 1 OIlC network to unotlu-r. The box with the R is a muter (internetwork device). which \VC will discuss ill Chapter 21.

Transport I .ayer

The transport layer is responsible for source-to-destination (end-to-end) delivery of the entire message. Whereas the network layer oversees end-to-end delivery of individ-


_ 4,1\."'.1' r. n __ " "

$ t

t t


tI I II! •• nr

'S $




Figure 3.8 Network Inver (Example 3.2)




F 20



N {l


ual packets, it does not recognize any relationship between those packets. It treats each one independently, as though each piece belonged to a separate message, whether or not it does. The transport layer, on the other hand, ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow control at the sourceto-destination level. Figure l.9 shows the rcl.uionship or the transport layer to the network and session layers.

For added security, the transport layer may create a connection between the two end ports. A connection is a single logical path between the source and destination th.u is associated with all packets in a message. Creating a connection involves three steps: connection establishment, data transfer, and connection release. By confining transmission of all packets to a single pathway, the transport layer has more control over sequencing, 110w, and error detection and correction.

Specific responsibilities of the transport layer include the following:

• Service-point addressing. Computers often run several programs at the same time. For this reason, source-to-destination delivery means delivery not only from one computer to the next but also from a specific process (running program) on one computer to a specific process (running program) on the other. The transport layer header therefore must include a type of address called a service-point address (or port address). The network layer gets each packet to the correct computer; the transport layer gels the entire message to the correct process on that computer.

52 CII/I/'l'/·_H 3 'I'II!-" os, MOf)tI

Fi~lIrl' J.9 Tnnisport laver

--_ .. _.-._ .. _ .. _--_._---

._-_._--_----_._-----------_ _--- .

From session layer I LS data

To session layer

/ Transport //_--1--,

layer L.r __ L-..J

I LS data

/~ __ ~ -...l

/ /


Transport r---+---. layer

IA data

fA data

L4 data

To net work layer

R Segmentation and reassembly. A message is divided into transmittable segments, each segment containing a sequence number. These numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble the IllCSS;lgC correctly upon arriving at the dcsriuntion and to identify and replace packets that were lost in the transmission.

II Connection control. The transport layer can be either connectionless or connection-oriented. A connection less transport layer treats each segment as an independent packet and delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine. A connection-oriented transport layer makes a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine first before delivering the packets. Arter all the data are transferred, the connection is terminated.

n Flow control. Like the data link layer, the transport layer is responsible Ior flow control. However, flow control at this layer is performed end to end rather than across a single link.

• Error control. Like the data link layer. the transport layer is responsible lor error control. However. error control at this layer is performed end to end rather than across a single link. The sending transport layer makes sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer-without error (damage. loss. or duplication). Error correction is usually achieved through retransmission.

Example -'.J

Figure ~. I () shows an example or a transport layer. Data coming from the upper layers have service-point (port) addresses j and k (.i is the address of the sending application and k is the address or the receiving application). Since the data size is larger than the network layer can handle. the data arc split into two packets. each packet retaining the service-point addrL'sses t] and k). Then ill the network layer. network addresses (A and P) arc added to each packet. The packets Illay travel on different paths and arrive (It the destination either in order or out PI' order. The two pacI.;.ets are delivered to the destination network layer. which is


responsible for removing the network layer headers. The two packets are now passed to the transport layer, where they arc combined tor delivery to the upper layers.

Figure 3.10 TUI/I.\}Jorl laver (/:'.wl/lplc 3)

r------ .. ~~.-.---~- .. -~-.-.------.-----~---.-


Transport r;=====-==,,-,-, layer

Session Layer

The services provided by the first three layers (physical, dala link, and network] arc not sufficient for some processes. The session layer is the net work "ill log controller. II cst.rhlixhcs. muiutnius. and sYllchwlli/l'S Ihl' iutcr.rcriou hclwcr n C()llllllllllic;lIillg systems,

Specific responsibilities of the session layer include the following:

• Dialog control. The session layer allows two systems to enter into a dialog. It allows the communication between two processes to take place either in half-duplex (one way at a time) or full-duplex (two ways at a time). For example, the dialog between a terminal connected to a mainframe can be half-duplex.

• Synchronization. The session layer allows a process to add checkpoints (synchronization points) into a stream of data. For example, if a system is sending a file of 2000 pages, it is advisable to insert checkpoints after every 100 pages to ensure that each 100-page unit is received and acknowledged independently. In this case, if a crash happens during the transmission of page 523, retransmission begins ut page 50 I: pages I to 500 need not be retransmitted. Figure 3.1 1 illustrates the relationship of the session layer to the transport and presentation layers.

S·' CIIII/''//:H 3 1'11"- (),\/ stonn,

Figure J.II Sc_JSS;OIl layer

--_ .. _-------.--_"-""----------_-------------

From presentation layer

To presentation layer
I ,-
L6 data
/ ,
I / ~ 4 I
I / /1 L 'I I
I / /1 " I
/ /1 'I
I Session / / /1 I I
I ~j; I I I
I layer / / I '- ~ I
'115! I ~ ,~

syn syn Li ~syn syn L6 data

/ ) - ~

/ /' "

/ /1 "

/ /' 'I

,--- / /11

Session / / I -. 'I

layer 11---/ -----~ -'7' ----~ _______,

syn syn

L ~I~----------~

To transport layer 1\0111 transport layer

Presentation Layer

The presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics or the information exchanged between two systems. Figure 3.12 shows the relationship between the presentation layer and the application and session layers.

Figllre J.12 Presentation laver

From application layer

To applicat ion layer

L7data ~

L7 data

Presentation layer




Encoded, encrypted. and compressed data

Decoded, decrypted. and decompressed data




L6 data

L6 data

To session layer

From session layer

Specific responsibilities or the presentation layer include the lollowing:

~ Translation. The processes (running programs) in two systems are usually exchanging information in the form of character strings, numbers, and so on. The



information should be changed to bit streams before being transmitted. Because different computers use different encoding systems, the presentation layer is responsible for interoperability between these different encoding methods. The presentation layer at the sender changes the information from its sender-dependent format into a common format. The presentation layer at the receiving machine changes the common format into its receiver-dependent format.

• Encryption. To carry sensitive information, a system must be able to assure privacy. Encryption means that the sender transforms the original information to anot her form and sends the rcsu I ti ng message ou t over the net work. Decrypt ion reverses the original process to transform the message back to its original lonn.

• Compression. Data compression reduces the number of bits to be transmitted.

Data compression becomes particularly important in the transmission or multimcdiu such as text, audio, and video.

Application Layer

The application layer enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail, remote file access and transfer, shared database management, and other types of distributed information services.

Figure 3. 13 shows the relationship of the application layer to the user and the presentation layer. Of the many application services available, the figure shows only three: X.400 (message-handling services); X.SOO (directory services); and tile transfer, access, and management (ITAM). The user in this example uses X.4()() to send an e-mail message. Note that no headers or trailers are added at this layer.

Figure 3.13 Application layer

• USL:f 1ft'


• Usn ~


Application layer

Applicurion layer

L7 data

L7 data

To presentation layer

From presentation layer

Specific services provided by the application layer include the following:

• Network virtual terminal. !\ network virtual tcrminul is a solrw.rrc vcrxinn or 1I physical rcnninnl and allows a user to log Oil to II remote host. 'Io do so, tile appli-

(, ('/1/1/'/'1',1\3 'f'I1I'.'(),)'IM()n".'I,

cation creates a software emulation of a terminal at the remote host. The user's computer talks to the software terminal, which, in turn, talks to the host, and vice versa. The remote host believes it is communicating with one of its own terminals and allows you to log on.

• File transfer, access, and management (FTAM). This application allows a user to access files in a remote computer (to make changes or read data), to retrieve tiles from a remote computer; and to manage or control files in a remote computer.

II Mail services. This application provides the basis for e-mail forwarding and storage.

II Directory services. This application provides distributed database sources and access for global information about various objects and services.

Summary of I .ayer Functions

The lunctious or the seven layers arc summarized ill l-igurc 3.14.

Figll re J. t '" Stunmarv oflaverjunctions

To translate, encrypt, and compress data






Data link


To allow access to network resources

To establish, manage, and terminate sessions

To move packets from source to destination; to provide internetworking

To transmit bits over 11 medium: to provide mechanical and electrical specifications

To provide reliable end-toend message delivery and errol' recovery




The TCP/lP protocol suite, used in the Internet, was developed prior to the OSI model. Therefore, the layers in the Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite do not match exactly with those in the OSI model. The TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and application. The first four layers provide physical standards, network interface, internetworking, and transport functions that correspond to the first four layers of the OSI model. The three topmost layers in the OS1 model, however, are represented in TCP/I P by a single layer called the application layer (see Figure 3.15).

TCP/IP is a hierarchical protocol made up of interactive modules, each or which provides a specific functionality, but they are not necessarily interdependent. Whereas .1." r.Cl ,,,~/I~I ",.,o,,;f,oC' ",hi(,h Fllnr'li()I1" he.lon o to each or its lavers. the lavers or the

To organize bits into frames; to provide nodeto-node delivery


Figure 3.15 TCPI/P and the OS/model



RPC Presentation



~ TC_,p __ ~I~l u_DP __ ~11



Data link


--- ---_---------------------------

TCP/lP protocol suite contain relatively independent protocols that can be mixed and matched depending on the needs of the system. The term hierarchical vacsuvs that each upper-level protocol is supported by one or more lower-level protocols.

At the transport layer, TCP/II> defines two protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and UScI' Datagram Protocol (UDP). At the network layer, the main protocol defined by TCPtIP is Internetworking Protocol (lP), although there are some other protocols that support data movement in this layer. See Chapters 24 and 25 for a discussion of TCP/IP protocols.



application layer




data link layer


destination address


5X C"M'FFN..? n /1-: OSt uotn«.

logical address

presentation layer

network layer

session layer

node-to-node delivery

source address

open system

source-to-desti nation del i very

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)


peer-to-peer process

Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking Protocol (TCP/lP)

physical address

transmission rate

port address

transport layer


• The International Standards Organization (ISO) created a model called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which allows diverse systems to communicate.

• The seven-layer OSlmodel provides guidelines for the development of universally

compatible architecture, hardware, and software.

• The physical, data link, and network layers are the network support layers.

• The session, presentation, and application layers are the user support layers.

• The transport layer links the network support layers and the user support layers.

• The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium.

• The data link layer is responsible for delivering data units from one station to the next without errors.

• The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet across multiple network links,

• The transport layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of the cut ire llless~lge.

• The session layer cstahlishcs, maintains, and synchronizes the interactions between communicating devices.

• The presentation layer ensures interoperability between communicating devices through transformation of data into a mutually agreed-upon format.


s '


g 7 7

, t $ ? ; 7 • g' 7 7 7 7 2F. 177 7



• The application layer enables the users to access the network.

• TCP/IP, it five-layer hierarchical protocol suite developed before the OSI model, is the protocol suite used in the Internet.


Review Questions

I. Which OSI layers are the network support layers?

2. Which OSI layers are the user support layers?

3. What is the difference between network layer delivery and transport layer


4. How are OSI and ISO related to each other? S. List the layers of the OSI model.

(). What is a peer-to-peer process?

7. How does information get passed from one OSI layer to the next'?

X. What are headers and trailers and how do they get added and removed?

9. Group the OSI layers by function.

10. What are the concerns of the physical layer?

I I. What are the responsibilities of the data link layer?

12. What are the responsibilities of the network layer?

13. What are the responsibilities of the transport layer?

14. The transport layer creaks a connection between the source and destination. Whdt arc the three events involved in a connection?

I). What is the difference between a service-point address, a logical address, and a

physical address'?

16. What are the responsibilities of the session layer?

17. What is the purpose of the dialog controller?

I X. What are the responsibilities of the presentation layer?

ILJ. What is the purpose of translation by the presentation layer?

20. Name some services provided by the application layer.

21. How do the layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite correlate to the layers of the OSl model?

Multiple Choice Questions

___ model shows how the network functions (\1' a computer ought to be

22. The organized.

;1. ITU-T

(,0 CII;II'TU< 3 FIIF OS/ M(){)/:''_

h. OSl
c. ISO
23. The OSf model consists of
a. three
h. rive
c. seven
d. eight ____ layers.

2·1. The layer decides the location or synchronization points.

a. transport

h. session

c. presentation

d. :lppl iC:11 ion

2). The end-to-end delivery or the entire message is the responsibility or the _


:1. network h. transport l'. session

d. presentation

26. The layer is the layer closest to the transmission medium.

a. physical
h. data link
c. network
d. transport
27. In the
a. physical
h. data link
t,' . network ____ layer, the data unit is called a frame.

d. transport

2:-;. Decryption and encryption of data are the responsibility of the layer.

a. physical
h. data link
l' . presentation
d. session 2\). Dialog control is a function or the layer.

:1. transport

h. session


c. presentation

d. appl ic.u ion

30. Mail services and directory services are available to network users through the ___ layer.

a. data link

h. session

c. transport

d. appl ication

31. Node-to-node delivery of the data unit is the responsibility of the layer.

a. physical

h. data link
c. transport
d. network 32. As the data packet moves from the lower to the upper layers, headers are _

a. added

b. subtracted

c. rearranged

d. modified

33. As the data packet moves from the upper to the lower layers, headers are _

a. added

h. removed
c_ rearranged
d. modified
34. The
<l. physical
h. data link layer lies between the network layer and the session layer.

c. transport

d. presentation

35. Layer 2 lies between the physical layer and the layer.

a. network

h. data link

c. transport

tI. presentation

36. When data are transmitted from device A to device B, the header from A's layer 5

is read by B's layer.

a. physical
b. transport
c. session
d. presentation (,2, ('II/IITF/? 3 nu. OSI MOULt .

. s], III the layer, translations from one character code to another occur.

a. transport h. sessron

c. presentation

d. application

3X. The layer changes bits into electromagnetic signals.

a. physical

b. data link

c. transport

d. presentation

39. The layer can use the trailer of the frame for error detection.

a. physical

h. d;lla link

c. I runsport

(I. prcscnuuiun

·10. Why was the OSI model developed?

a. Manufacturers disliked the TCP/IP protocol suite.

h. The rate of data transfer was increasing exponentially.

c. Standards were needed to allow any two systems to communicate.

d. none of the above

41. The physical layer is concerned with the transmission of over the physi-

cal medium.

;1. programs
h. dialogs
c. protocols
d. bits 42. Which layer functions as a liaison between user support layers and network support layers?

a. network layer h. physical layer

c. transport layer

d. session layer

~U. What is the main function of the transport layer? ;1. node-to-node delivery

h. end-to-end message delivery

c. synchronization

d. updating and maintenance of routing tables

44. Session layer checkpoints _

;1. allow just a portion of a file to be resent


h. detect and recover errors

c. control the addition of headers

d. are involved in dialog control

45. Which of the following is an application layer service? a. network virtual terminal

h. Iilc transfer, access, and management

c. mail service

d. all of the above


46. Match the following to one of the seven OSI layers:

a. Route determination.

b. Flow control.

c. Interface to outside world.

d. Access to the network provided for the end user, c. ASCII changed to EBCDIC.

r. Packet switching.

47. Match the following to one of the seven OSI layers: a. Reliable end-to-end data transmission.

h. Network selection.

c. Frames defined.

d. User services such as e-mail and file transfer provided.

e. Transmission of bit stream across physical medium.

4t(. Match the following to one of the seven OSI layers:

a. Direct communication with the user's' application program. h. Error correction and rcuunsmission.

c. Mechanical, electrical, and functional interface.

d. Responsibility for information between adjacent nodes.

e. Reassembly of data packets.

49. Match the following to one of the seven OSf layers:

a. Provides format and code conversion services.

b. Establishes, manages, and terminates sessions.

c. Ensures reliable transmission of data.

d. Provides log-in and log-out procedures.

e. Provides independence from differences in data representation. L Synchronizes users.

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