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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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2.

,2

l.l A c.osed 5 -m- tall ~~.rtk. i~ Ii Ilt.~ ""~ih water [.:l a depth :.>f ~ r.:, The lOp portion ;)f r~.~ tiak 's fLlJd wi.h nJ~ whlcb. a.~ i ~~i"~IL~J ~~ a Jlre.'Li;1:r<~ g~_g~ 3; 1.~~ ~op of ~:o: ~;_rl., i~ <;t !l pressure c~ 2<1 kJ'~. D~~·rrmne th~ p('t'~'.I!<: t.1~: :,l~ v. ',~~ exerts ~[I UIC r.C;Wr" ("of r~~ !Jnk.

2.3 A closed tank is partially filled with glycerin. I f the air pressure in the lank is

4 _ IN /cm 2 an J the depth o r gl ycer in is 3 m what j s the pres su re in N 1m 2 at the bottom 0 f

the tank?

:::: U_'d_3'\ \D ~ tJ'~ ) (3) +C·\I Nlc.m~) (

2,4 Blood pressure is usually given as a ratio of the maximum pressure (systolic pressure)

to the minimum pressure (diastolic pressure). As shown in Video V2.2 such pressures are

commonly measured with a mercury manometer. A typical value for this ratio for a

human would be 120170, where the pressures are in mm Hg_ (a) What would these

pressures be in pascals? (b) If your car lire was in flated to j 20 mm Hg. would it be

sufficient for normal driving?

\b)

+ ~ (\&'61\ ,J ll)

"JY)~

l6i~0-

j,";" ~ a. tarca9. \ :t" '"""" 6 ,s "(1 7.t

B.£2. ~ ~s. t.UQ__ LS

S'-'-\fo' ~t- ~

d~l~.l~O ~fo._)

-(I ",..".., oQ_ J_":'\J M ~ ,

~ . .5

:l. ~ Iv:. ~~ n..w.~ !n'lli~ ~I~ h~ld ~ I~~ ~ OVt'ItIm M Jr, ~ ~II ~ !>;)j~~ 1UII1I&Ilr=~ DScal.I!i IItoI ~ 1k~1I'I ,It R1e IIII'IkfIOII.In l~d is I.j II} II'IIit !he ~ at tilt fl:lI ftpllliflt: ~I .. II.HNtm'JllooII~~'(JIJ"'P;sjOm,A p_~ gJlse ~!I::~ ~ Ib:! bI;lmJm of tl:Ie AlIt ~g ~ tPE. WlItI h I.M ~LII(; ~~ oi' I..'t; ~Qk.oow" lqui~?

t-'"'t":= (~jl)( 5".~} l' (tj4 )(!S"., 1 o;,'~t .... ~"- <V U1'>lH.-.r~ !,ill.oj"J'

¥. = ·n.~... - _&~-iJ_~_) _ ~ '5";; u? ..;,._ - (8.5")( Jt~ ) (s-rPI )

.... l.;r ........

;;;; !:il<.16l.!!... ;m~

2.6 Bathyscaphes are capable of submerging to great depths in the ocean. What is the

pressure at a dept of5 km, assuming the seawater has a constant specific weight of to, J

kN/m3? Express your answer in pascals.

At~Q ()~CQ_ e~O J? -= t \0'\" \c? !i ) (5Ak? Tn) z: $D'S >(\& ~

T r'Jll2> "'}f}]...

~,7

2. 7 For (he great depth s that m a J be encountered m rhe ocean the mmp(~sSLtJility of seawater ma.y hccome ,'I;rJ important considcrarinn, (a) Assume tb;tt the. bulk modulus for sea.w;~tcr i~ constant ;l n n derive a E ~ ];L tionship tW( '.\ ee n pressure an d depth which t:l kcs i n I (} acco unl the change in flu.id density with do:p[h_ (bo) !I.·lilk~ use

(a.)

~ ~ -y =rs -s t: ~ '} dr

~,r pllrl {<I! to dexe IIniuc th-e ?re",~ U IT at a ,kp Iii of 6 kin .1~~lJrnin.~ scawarer has 8 bLlI:~ mo,)J1l1LL~ of 1_.1 '. Irr Pil, <lnd a dcn~i[_,· ,,'" ll1~ll ~r .. :nl·· at the surtace Compare [lii~ ,<:;~ul: '\Iiirh ·,tl"t ubra i ned 1· y assum i ng ;l co 11 stan: d c ns. t j (I r HDO k~im·'.

ff.en

FZ·tn

ftJd-P

t., e~" I;

/;-1. .p

ft 1n~r

-i. ~ li,l - rl 11Ie

) J

c/ep"tJr &ltJW Urk~1i!..

( carl't)

(e ) ~y ~I1"S &11 t dtns;1-o:;

p s: Cll = .P 3- I = {I. b3 .(It/ J!. ) (r. n f1;_ )1" ;< II/I'm)

= "{). t. H R._

2.8 Sometimes when riding an elevator or driving up or down a hilly road a person's ears "pop" <:18 the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the ear is equalized.

Determine (he pressure di fferencc (in kPa) associated with this phenomenon if it occurs

during a 46 m elevation change,

--

-

\ d. N Jryy,.3 (4 b '"m) 5-::;· 2 t\ l"rn 1-

0- 55~ kP(L

.,-......-- ~_,..,...,.rr k~ .. _.... pw ...................... + ... _._!J1_I .*_ta t -~,:" ................ --.~ __ ~.

-r;~-. -~~....------------~-~----~-~~-----....-......--- .... - ..... ---.-.......-..-...

2aq Develop an expression for the pressure variation in a liquid in which the specific weight increases with depth, h ~ as y ;;;;;:. Kh + Y'j, where K is a constant and Yo is t he specific weight at the free surface.

( Eg. ),.4-)

and

-r : ';r'dh

~ {

f dp= I r<flj

~ D

J--.:: k..i. + d;. )

'f ~

i d r = f. (I< ~ -t- r. ) 41

Uh el

2-6

*2.10 In a certain liquid at rest, measurements of the specific weight at various depths

show the following variation:

The depth h = 0 corresponds to a free surface at atmospheric: pressure. Determine,

through numerical integration of Eq. 2.4, the corresponding variation in pressure and

show the results on a plot of pressure (in kPa) versus depth (in meters).

~ b'Yl) l'( k~t-m)
Q \0 .'1
'3 \\I"l
b ~3· 2-
q 143
Id IS,_t.
l5 H.' D
I~ ib·g
?J \1,1-
)~ n·.£.
~1 Il'~
3-0 \S . \... ... _'hh

tYo..Qe_").a\c~ ~ ) ~,c!_ I

, b -n-I

T::. l ~ L,,; -t \~+0 CXL-t,- x'l_) d. l==-! (J 0

W ~ 6t,..Q. d A.-- Y t t. ~ 0. "r. d. 'YI::: rn 11.i"JJl 'o~ 0t ~ f6 mts .

"lh,,- -\-nJb~ J,~.....ll;s (UQ iT~n \,~"""/ o.I-~1

,--",~ ~"- Lt:nY",g ~<Spd-'1' ~\.n C~ 1Y"1J.."\.W1__ V<. ch",~

h(~) y) (~Nh~) r ra--8. s, u:Je._ k P 0..
t
0 I a . cr 0
\\''\ 3Y:.L
3
\ ~'1- 1'1.' Q
b l\,?>,3
9 \ll'o \5'7,--'
\~ 1"'S" z, ~()I..t lJ
} a.) ! Co, Q :;'53, c
1('" .q, ~
\9 3elt·" .
\ -:t-, .l-.
~L \"1-'b 35{',Q- ,
~~ itJo,O
:2.+ \ '1.9- y,~, 0
~S ,0
30 )DO .'. I .-
r:r 400 ..
~
...i.
............ +
~
"'
~ 300-
~
~ loo
100 ~!

30

*2.12 Under normal conditions the temperature of' the atmosphere decreases with

increasing elevation, In some situations, however, a temperature inversion may exist so

that the air temperature increases with elevation. A series or temperature probes on a

mountain give the elevation-temperature data shown in Table Pl. l2. 1f the barometric

pressure at the base ofthe mountain is 83.4 kPa (abs), determine by means of numerical

integration the pressure at the top of the mountain.

----_ .. _---

.. £emp~~aturc C~C) _ ....

10.1 (base)

--- ... - ._--- ----

.: 12.9

e=---

1951 17.0

__ -+-1_9.4 ~

20.2 --1

. . .. _---

Elevation (m)

1524

l676

2164

2256

15_7

------------j

__ ---1. __ --- _

: 21.]

---+-T' 20_.0 ~-- ----- .. -~ J

___ ---'-_19.~ (top) _j

2500

2621

2804

3018

TABLE PLl2_

fnYn If ,. s <~\,

J'Yl .f_,_

-

. .p .1

20.8

~"f\ th.z_ \ol-I"._ \:'0.\,,<.:1 1'tw --t.'m~d._~ ~Yl K ~ ~~'Y) (h,~ ""'._ mte:;"'"l)J I/Tcn ~~

G \ e0~,. t)T) -r 0c. \) K. \ I-
i ~ , (_K)
\~:i'-l \D·t ~~~'3 61~D3S3
\b -=l-b }~ '~1 J~b'D b'oo3lt~
\ ~ ~ C; t5'f- ,Q. ~~. S ~, bo3~'
l't S 1 \~·o ~qQ' z, D' e>D 3LtS
J( l &~ \ ~+ 0 ~<12'k e 003 Y IT
.;td56 ;.to,~ ~~2>·3 0' bo3~ 01
~ -S-co ~l. .1.. ~q ~,3 0' Do33,
~, ~l ~a·g ~~Y·o ~·~'34D
~~c4 0(0''0 J ot~ 'D 0' 60 3l1\L
3 a \ S '1 -: c{ ~~. :t-- b 'D~34 \(;: '\\,.,_ ~Fx;"'o.l& I)~ 0\- l:k ~~~ h, f} 2_,/ i.:. 5·13 ) ~~~d \J.5;,~1- "\:h, nc.r}Olc9d} J,y_,j., ,', L .... T ~ _L ~ ('1"L + It ~-;'I) CXL~I- "'L) J 1.JJ I""m '"i "-' 1/

.;1 L~' () 0 Q T )

ry_ n...- ~0Q]1''tj1') I 0<"'r1c\ f)l;;. rn~'fl)'o~ q ~ pomts,

2O\s''Tt,

) C-~)ch

15l~ 'J'f)

:::: 5·1 ~ m

----

K

$ () ~cd. w ~lfn q ~ ~,fj ~iv· Q.'1"I6 R z: ~ 9 ~ N1rt

o KO'K,

(L) .~\ ~ ) (51 \31:-)

d g:t N· 'lY)

~

'" .

d ·t;i. ~tcr-tn-\-d.,)

31" ~ \, "'~<l<: 'f='vn fV (t ) \J) i1fr, t I ~ ~ 2>' 'i k PC>.. ( [,b)

-\:haY f').. z: ~ 3·4 k ~~-6 ·\-=1-53 ir:

... ~ 4-0 'l( r 6_ t Ct\s)

l NCJ1L·, "5\~~ ~Q_ -:ttm,')~ VQ)J~~7) G. -n~t'" VD(j ~ t \\- lVCl.M. 10", .exfU~ \\"cU ih.._ Q.Ss\),~crn cr\ Q c~n~"\')t UyY)~~ WOuJ.&

lj ve. (r0J. ~.u:<u.Ix< . 31' "" '- M'N) ~ tV. ~ ;_;,

QgSUm~ -\n k ( Oy)S::~ {It- ~ b (\~t_ ~tf)~

1 t">.t 6 c, ) f,_ = 6 ru: He.. I w!,.,k\, (""" (S'i'I1 5 \\~t\6 &\\lb&'{)-'I ~~ \hQ... ~~ r: aho-cL)

------------------------.~

,

i,H (S« R~id~ ;Q :~'1.02 K~~ article lirk~ "GiraNe<.~ blood presS u rt," Section 2.3. L.) (~) Dete.LiIlin·~ the cb<Ulgt; in ~_ yJlo:"b.l.ic: pn=ss IfI"O in II gi::affe\ h~~J <IS it lowers us head fr,)m en I i B~ ~ea.vt:~ 6 :1] above the ground to ge,[Mjl_ ~ (lrin;.. uf ..... atcr et E/0~Qd [~~v~j :Jb 31l0WJl in 1 'i~, 1':!.14. A4.S0T!] e the speciflc t[~,· i I)' ()r blDOO is SG ~ : _ (bJ CO~'lvarr iJo.~ pressure change catc ula~~ i ~ pan (e) [" the.norm ~l ;;:'1 r.UlI uf me:cur;: p:"t.<;E;u:re i:l. a hunrtn '3 nean,

ros fi,~ h'1drPs/:-Q.,J.,i. frezUY( cJutHf;e.. ....

Jj r= s-]: ~ ('?fo ~)('hnJ z: S9.8~ ~ _rf.~.kJa.

press« y'l. J 0\ h #111#11. na,,·t.

f"; p4rt (tt_) Iv ""'.,... tt8

59r3 4zN = Do -It. = (33 -!0?) {~_

hn" J. #i rm ·-0

1.r. z- (0. 11 tf 1. Itl\ )( tr/ ~) = Lf tf 2. /'(IVI.M ~fj

Uj. tm

, ~ ilu 5l"r4fh;

w,1Js 1 Z~ _ ... ~

lb) Y; c=".." I (U'iIt 14.9 i11

Co" Vry-C- P~#s.sll,,"-L

nus; "1b ~ P re1.Cl.t f.c. eha t11'

t s 'fl.Jl .... Mf ,/lJ. C6m p .. ,...A

fJJ e, h Ilm4 'I 11 eari: -

I ..

2.15 Assume that a person skiing high in the mountains at an altitude of 4500 m takes in

the same volume of air with each breath as she does wh ile walking at sea level.

Determine the ratio of the mass of oxygen inhaled for each breath at this high altitude

compared to that at seal level.

c ') & 'fl~to_ 4 S'~a "" oJ.--n \-u ciq__ )$

\jj hem.\}!- V d..J.v'('r1 o._

,..

~, ~''Y'I t& '""lY'I::;. rm n.q~ - f V ) 'YY1 t) ~ ~ 'I 0 urn & 'YI')\'5~ e v; V \ ~ \1~'Ylc.Q_

/

'J t 3 'c-':.. Q '!.'""..." cl ~ , \\, Q.. ~ (.., T"rl?O ~~<J>'J l O,ok, or

cW. ""'cd \ ~ =sr: ,,,> \;\w IJ O<'rf\Q ~ ()<>Ct ~ ~ ll.l

i\- \_~ ~ LrSoc 'IY7 ~ s~ ~ ~Q.2'QQ.~~ E' \}~ Cl.)Jt .' .-

eo ~ \. ?-2S" ~ o..rnd f\s:::.- C)'''1~ £~ ~

2.16 Pikes Peak near Denver, Colorado has an elevation of 4300 m. (a) Determine the

pressure at this elevation, based on Eq. 2_12. (b) If the air is assumed to have a constant

specific ." v eight of 12N/ml • what would the pressure be at this altitude? (e) If the air is

assumed to have a constant temperature of ] Y'C what would the pressure be at this

elevation? For all three cases assume standard atmospheric conditions. at sea level (see

Tabl~ 2.1).

~

(n.) f"- ~ (\- ~)l"f (J\. l'IL)

~ fn ~ \0\·33 k~~ ) r ~ IH)ab~ ! ) 1",q·'I,Cl1 p,_

. Tn ~ ~)t~ ·15 K R~;ta ~ ~1 'T c.o--&

I ~K'·

. ,.,.

10 l. .?>::, )\ \cr-~,_ - C~~~ (!-I~em 'l>7) ~ 4q·Q ~Q6.. (_~).

lel t~ ~ e-~ If'P-'I~) _[l:·SC11L) (lr3n~)

-c, \ () \ .;3 ~ \ (j":. N. \* e. (2gb' t:t_I_ ) f 23-~,' ~5 k)

~.~ \.:

2.r8 J

2 •. 1 8 A~ shown In r-{~_ 2.6 for the U.S_ ~t"':l

da rd atrnosphero, ltle troposphere CXleTlU5 to a I t altitude of 11 km where 1 IJe pressure is 22.6 kPa (,il tS), In (he tle:>;.t I a yer, called the stratosphere, rhe rernperarure remains constant 8[ - 5Ct.5 ~C. De term inc the pressure and density ill lhi~ Iaye { <-11 an altitude of 15 km. Assume g = 9,77 m!} in your calculations. Compare Y(IILf results \.Vtlh those giver! in Tilbte ~.i_in Avpmdi~ C.

Fe r '~8-i"Mt"ma I CJCJnd,.h~n5 J

- £ (i'~-:ih) 1!~ 1=: e R7;

]. ,

.... -== nJ.rm },.:: 22,' -*.?a. R;:: :281 1.. Jk. J;; '1.77 ~ ,

7:'1 I li J l'I!J') s - ,

Thus_)

= J;', J -A Pa.

AJ.stl )

2.-15

2. J "7 J 1. , 7 Equation "2 .12 provides tb~ relationship between pressure and elevation i tl the atmosphere for those regions ill 1,1/ hich the remperature varies Ii nearly with elevation. Derive this equation and verify the "'&t1C of the pressure given In T~bk (",1. in Appendix C for an elevation or 5

kffir- P:l,. r:

d l' __ .! ! 11

p R_. T

-;P, l-)

fi.'r" ?- = S-&_rm /Pi th Ii =/0/, 33.-i?Q.

p::: O. C(J ~'!i() /I;" R. ;: ~ ~7 ...:!..

.-r I of/.I< )

S. If 0 x. / (J" J!.

r1I-1'1

2. t9 (Sec Fluids in the News article titled "Weather, barometers) and bars," Section 2.5,)

The record low sea-level barometric pressure ever recorded is 65.5 em of mercury. At

what altitude in the standard atmosphere l.'j the pressure equal to this value?

ro-< R e crTCd. .l~ ,\,,"oS_s.U)._Q_ .»

f -:=- ¥& ~ ~ ":: l \3~ ~ ) (bi).'5rn, ) .,:: ~1- ~

, -4 9 ...,..,.,;. \0. 0 'Ynl-

~ . .,-yr \a.h\.o. c. L ~ A~~Q"1'dix L,

@. 0 'b1 Ql\1,\-ucLt f> -:: ~ . o \ ~" t ~s t-.\ hnl--( ~)

@ JecD 'fYJ ~ Tr--t~ f ~ ~ > 9 s ~ t 0 ~ "lI,y'?- C ex b5. )

As~Q._ Q,. ... ~ '0o.).c.!i"" ~ ~ ~ f<1.ll 'ml.\<Z.I).~/

~~~ ~j ~c_9.__ ~ ~ (\e'\~-1'9S)x,~~!:!.

o ')7J~

Q-y, c\ ,

I CI\3e ~ \ cf _fi - .!,J...., ) [ II ' ~,_] '::. ~ t '" ~ e N

')n1-

'"1""r'I !)YI~

So ~w ~ ~ '3bn 'Yn

2.20 On a given day, a barometer at the base ofthe Washington Monument reads 76 em

of mercury. What would the barometer reading be when you carry it up to the observation

deck 152 m above the base of the monument?

~Q_t ( )b Orncl (Joc\ l~~Q$)~ m ~ ~QJ>Q_ Ofno\ O'oSd\l~t3'f) c&.DcjL) ~~ (l00~ .

1\,oo) ,-"M-, ~ -=- \-, airS 0, ~ 0rYl<m~).

-+ P'b - f~ '" iaw\-l= 1'1 ~ 1I 52 ..,,) = \ .'<;3, ll4

'I'1llo

-=- (, b - , · 2, W tm \, oc\ ~ ry ~ . 6 LVYJ

~-~1 Bourdon g'iges (see 'Idl'fl \ 1. ~ and Fig, 2.13) an! commonly used to measure presxure. When such J gage i~ attached tt) the closed water tank 01 Fig. P2.21 (he gage {ead~ 3-l..5 kPFl. Wh:)t 15 {he absolute air pressure in the tlllk? Assume standard atmospheric pressure of 10].3 kP~1.

30.5 em

BourdOfl g<lp,e

I +I

15.2 em

• FIG U R f: P2_21

~ 3 r"}-C
~ S fi ~
~ "'C a ~ f',,)
;r "8 C IW
'""'- :JTO n
'"" r') 0.. lfQ 0
'- ~ ;'i ::)
I"bftC ,...
U en ::r
U I/'} ~ rJ ~
qC"~!n
ntn~=
I ~ C;' ~ 0-
=: bo..-.
__ cp 0
~ ~ =
" 8 ~ ::-;0 VI
!J:"-':~
."' ~
~ ~ ;?~~O
c: """"
;:n t\ -;"r;2D)
..._ ~~S]
f ~,... ~ 3
'1 =- ::E '"0
t'Il Ell'
~ ~ .... :Tr;e
o ~ 0
~ g :. c
~ _!,I'lo,"",
~ ....... c.
~ ? _:r'O
, ('I! =
~
'-.._. -,
i )~
e-
t)
~
jib 2.24 A water-f lled u-rubc manometer j s used to measure the pressure inside a tank that

contain s air. The water level in the U -l U be on the sid c t hat COn nects to the tank is 1.5 m

above the base of the tank. The water level in the other side of the If-tube (which is open

to the atmosphere) is 0.6 m above the basco Determine the pressure within the lank.

rY

fo;. ~ -@,~",,)"{ '\b ~ -CO ,'1"'1)( "l'l,t'lC ~",)

2.25 A barometric pressure of 74.7 em. Hg corresponds to what value of atmospheric

pressu re in pasca L~?

2.2.6 For ,\[I atmospnc..c pressure of 10: ~P~t (abs J determ i I~~ (he neights at til(' .111 i ,1 coli .. nHI ~ in haQmelnS containing one or :hr followirlF hqt<id~: (a} mercury. (b) .... ":l~eT, ,i nd {~) ctb.~1 ;I!i,;l\hol, Calculate the hciglm including the ~'ffc~,t of vapor pressure. alHt compare the r~"SUiL~ with those obtained negl ect i ng vapor pressu re _ D L' these resnlts ~~ppon the widespread use of mercury for barometers? Why'.l

l 1'''''-r'1'' ?~'iI re !

y..f... -t ·P",..

, -I N 1

I. ~ ~j~ -""

mot I

----------~-~~--- \'

133 )(/(J ~

~~ I

;:' J 0, J /'rI1

(_~) h,r e-flt, I o/c~hiJl :

- I;J.. 3 t"n-t

~ '" :Cil-IO ~).

,13' 3 ..r:.ID ';Ii Ji. /'IJO:J,

.1111 /01 '(. i/} :;;:;;- ..

7. 7/j- j, fO 3 /1/ J .~

Fc:.r rntr(tH"!} har"meterr he eHect of va./tly pWHi/re is n f'91/1iV~ cmd t:n~ r'e$IlIh'J hn9ht of tH~ rnt',.~ur'~ C~/f.(m n /5 !~.u$."~4/J te .

2. -2.1

2,27

~.~'7 l\ mL!"L"~·.II"'j :-;:1~IDr:.m~tc'r~;s connected :I.~ ;.: I::I::-£;I": 1"L:::::~L'r·:)~r :)~. water us .'!-.:~ I)· .... I~ i r; f~i g. P2.17. ~ i.:::-mj~I":- iJ:.;.' r ~ I i o~ ~ ... .'·h~_ ; I: ::,::di~l<J:;c·.~:; .'1, ~;Id h~ i ndiccie J Ln. :~~ fib;;rt,.

~ . .--~-~--.~ . .-.---.-~.-:--- .. !

-

,

U···

• •• I. •

.•. - .. -.~ .~ ... :' '.

0)

rft = 1.t hJJ + ( .... nm

bvi fl z: f; ~ 'O~ (Zrh,)

Thus

J

t." hili + owhm ~ 2 am hnr

or

(ow) hw ~(2tm- d"wJhm so ihc:1t

_h ~ (2 ¥m~tll') ~ 2 SG =! J where .s Gm ~ * ~ IJ,56

h~ ~~ ~

Thtls)

y& "'2(13.S6)-1 .:; 2',1

"rII FIG U ~~ i: P2.27

2-21.

.2. ~ ~ A U -tube manometer is U HlI\€t:h.'lIln :1 (;h, .... ~1 rank containing air :md water as shown in Hg. Pl.2S. At the closed end of the manomerer the air pressure is 1 10.3 k Pa I nh~.l. n .. .ternn ne the reading

~...- Closed val~e

~

; ,-. -Air uressurs = 110.3 kPa (abs:

Air

I

Gi€i' fluid

(y = 14.1 kN1m3)

• FIG U REP 2 .. 28

1',1 Yj I (":1.) il- '"J' (::.;~.,.) ~1t.~.'

~_. _._ ---~

~ ~ -p - G~D (!/t7l)
A
z: ~o -kp'_ - (9. ¥D XI~~ ;:'ll)b".. )
\
g(J. ~ 3 N
-;::: XJD --
..-m"
--P~ 3" N
~ 311.~ iii -;;'"1-
:;; -- z: iJ_ 2. 3 LI 'l11
J'iI -::=:
1'3jJ( Hi:' .s:
:.:l ",,1 t, 2 q I

:1.2.q ,I. ~1<)<eJ q;.;IWr.c~ll~n~ !"Hb' 11,:irJI wa~J iI,I,.'I ~J: .. - l~ph< ::L·;~I (! 01 1 ne a 1)(1 :' ;::.orul~l"t~d [v all inverted pi F' ~~ s, 'l~J\J "S sr.~,., Ii In Fi~. P~.4". The liquid i,'· !C.~ t{}P part 1,)[ ~!~t pipin;,r ~~'~lt.'m u.:L~ :, ~r»=itk grH'j(y "I 0.8_ ~11L~ the ro..'nl~.inm!l piu1,.: o( .IK. 5~·.<I~nl arc filL~ with W~rL'I" [f the r'~.~~Ufe ~J![<:: "~~"flng at ,\ is r,f) i"J'a, Jd~rm,~c (~) ~h(" .r<'5~uft' in p:p~ B, und ~ I}) .he 1"'1·"~~UrL· hc;ul, in ,tliltlm,'k~~ ,~f mercurv. ~t lh,: u-'p ~l~·;he dom~ ~Jx.1Ln1 ~-:'.

(a.)

= led ..kli

-~

:~. . ~ . )

P 2,J.~·

Z30!!!,~

r=2.30 I

I

-r:: -,

; ·tt lr- ....

\...... ./~. <,,, ,-

r .. ,_.

.,'" -, ,. rl· -.

.L, , --.:j

"___'____.,.

2,3fj Two pir:;~ il.:!: \··_'I;n~,·re-d ')y ;: ;n~:1-jr.]~:tr ~~ ',11'.- .... 1" ~r; f~~s. ~.3C-_ nelc:miJ'l~~ ~~l,~ prt'~' . .1;~ d;ff~rt' ~.::c, I'A i;~, h~ I"''<!L~~ L!:~ ~,~~~.

:"_:' .-

i I !

. !

~ -, ; -....

I~ _:.... -. -_.[ " . .,:

~ .. --.

-~ T (r~o (C.5"" "t- tl.r..~) - ~f ((H_) + d"#.s.a (1.3 ... -0.5"_)':"- ·PB ThW$)

PA- -PJa:: r, f (!J.fu",) - d""p-,O (0.5".- r O.'.m t- j, j_,... -». i"~ )

z-zs

2.31 A U-tubr.: manometer i<; connected to a dosed tank as shown ill fig. P2.31_ The air

pressure in the tank is 3.4 kPa and the liquid in the tank is oil (y-,:: 85 kN/m\ The

pressure at point A;" 13,8 kPa. Determine: (0) the depth of oi I. Z, and ~Cre"ti'l

r~:~ng'h,o~:e~ano~~::rz ~ ~~ Tl~~:~

l~ . _·,'c ~.J

1,,- __ -

. ..-

.---

2.32 For the inclined-tube manometer of hg_ P2.Y2 the pressure in pipe A lS 4, I kP;~. The Iluid i rl both pipes A. nm1 B is, water. and the gage fhud in the manometer ltl~ .1 Sr~l'j fie gravity of 2_6. What is the press ure in pipe 8 corresponding to the tiij rereuuai reading shown?

'_""ater

-t 7.6 em

L _

4@~}-~

1.6 em

........... ;.=--- .... -_. __ . j_

• FIG U R E: P2.32

~ 4·1 X!~·).,.~~. _ (2, t;) (1;f(~· M(I)ll?) (~fr>') (C';) - I.,~ kN

........---

.. m~··

2.33 A flowrate measuring device is installed in a horizontal pipe through which water is

flowing, A Uvtubc manometer is connected to the pipe through pressure taps located 7.6

cm on either side of the device. The gage fluid in the manometer has a speci lie weight of 17.6 kn/m '. Determine the differential reading o r the manometer corresponding to a

pressure drop between the taps 01'0.3 N/cm~.

.~l~w t

~ (W.Jh)

JeT- ~\ o'''r1d ~J- \).e. ~c;.uta ~ 'Y~SUl{!-\-d~s:. ~p

~l\_S'

V'\t i' I\P tn ,-I-h) - Y~l:,h - y \j~ "' p,_

30 ~cJ f\ _. h _h ( D·3 _t. \ (\OLJ C~\

..x1 ...- 'Y \ f""l--.. -=-'- \:: (_"m:- ... -j --::;;:1.- )

Y M- ¥ ',t.,j)

Ul \"l.bxlrrN. _ ~Scm N

~~ ~

-

~----_'--------------------------~-----------------~I~~-~

;(.34

2.3 if- Small differences in g,b we~~Llf-t'~ are commonly measured ..,,·ilh a micromanometer []f the t~Fc illll~lnm::d in Fig. n.31t- This device consists o[ two large fe5€ f\>nlrs each hilving ,J C rQ~~sectional area, A,. which are fil:cd wilh ;t liquid having a specific w;:igtll. -". and COn nected i:ly :; u-wbe of cross-sectional area, A" containing ,i liquid o( Spec-irK welghc, ;.,_ Wh-tn J. differential gas p rCSil.ETI!. p. - p~. is a pplicd <I djff~TC nt[,~ ~ re,hJi ng. h, devclop~- It is desired W have this reading sufficiently 1 arge (so that it can be C~ sily T~) for small pressure Jiffelelltial~. Determine lM rda~ion~tlip between II and PI -. P1 when the area ratio A,! Ar is small. and show that t hi.: differential reading. h. can b~ magnified by TI\~kil1g the difference LO specific weights, {'~ ~ i'I' small. Assume that initla 1 [y (" wi t h PI = j7~) (he tl UI d levels in 1 he two rese rv ·oi rs ;:\TC eLI:):! \.

____ t _ .~~

1~ k_

.. J' ~I-

r I ~ -.- - . - _' T. llt

!"':'::..J~F-;""·1L~ n ~. ~.::'~-.,;:::=.:,~

I·· -' ~ '<.-..- ~'I

~ ~ .- "1.._. A-..~; r- - .:-.::.'~ (rj

, .. I.'

.....~ ·1 ~

~. I • •

~ -t-- .

. -, - ~, - - - ,{,_ .- - I ~

. ,

. .

.. .

.. ---_.-~

I~;ft,/ l~jIf/ .;;_ ~1f! ·f/~j Ci

Whf'1I .:;j i/fmntJaJ pyeHun p,_.1: ~ alu'!I~A ~ ~"~lItflf. 1M£. itlit' { t;' I~f:t:

;- j .:1,) r

~r~j; dnPf:J, b.t... "11-kt!lc~.) A"-) QNd ri91rt HW/ ris,s ~ .6h. Th/,f$;-

1/If'!.. nMnnne-t.n e~Jlu.iJ~" OeCpmes

~ 1- 0 (-it 1" -A - i.{) - J:l; ~ - 6'1 (-1./ ·d. h) == 11.

1: - ~ ~ ~ -1 - ~j -t..,.. Sf {2 ~ .{ )

S'I1U The ji Z wWb 1'rI tJ-l.4 "" ..f)..41

r ~ 1;

4z. i!i s.m.1l Jhfn ,4,1-

Chn b e f)~flede A. Thu~)

--Fi~12":i (3'. -II) t..

_.pI - -P~

tllul

'The /rJtln~e-tu .. re }-n~Wt1f~5:.i ~}(!_;)

o}" z .:l. h Ai-

~"A;

;;. M .. «« ..f:.

(inti /"~t Vd/~~ :1 h al'l Ix oJt~);'H .ft,~ 5m,t!/ '''i'!SilY'~

d;~rMt.I~1s if 6.2.- - d'l ~ ~"""<l11 ,

2-Z,g.

OJ

2.3s

2.._~S The c ydil'ldric~ tank witt! henlis.pb.erio;;;11 ends ~hm':11 ill Hg. P'Z.35 ,,-:cntatns II ~l}llttile liquid and ib vapor. The liquid densily i~ !j(IQ l.g/m~. and its ~POf dt!rtstly i~ Mgligibl~. The pressure: in the 'f.lPIlf is l20 kI'a {aM). and ~ alrnC&llr.erk pressure is WI kPa {aln). Det~rmin,;~ (aj tbe g:lge ~res~ur~ readtltg (]!\ 1M: pressure glile; and {b) the heigh:, h., of the mercury manometer

·----1 I

i

I

I

~;:·;·.'I·

(tV Lt.f:

.____-~----~~--~~--.-j

r.;' F ; CUR E :;:~.3S

QV}~

~1f1"',(" (,~~j ~ I ZQ.kPa. (o..h) - 'oU~~ (a.b~)" j q --l Fa.

nu'J,~ ~A5L :;:

-A l' 't.t (l JW, )

V"~T

I 'l ~ I~ 3;;;~ "t (l MiD ~~ ) ( \ I"M )

Z&,~-kR

{~0.2.0l. /hII.

. 2-29

I

Vi ~~
.....
:l ~
l""'l
f'\
_\J' ;:-C{
~
t::t
~ 1
-4._ ~~
\","-.0 ,I
LJ
0 -i-
~
Ji'>.
..._....
*-~ ."
.. _:
...
{) . , -+

••• __ I •• 'I

~

-5 r.

r;. ........ _ r..

- -<

- ,,"'

~~ ~

- _. ..." ~

'7""":::;

'f -'

/. c... ::--- :--

~ -' ..........

~ I:. I

- ""'I

::::::: r:

-

3' ~

r;

""T].

~-v " ;:;;."'0 .

'J o:r ; r: ..J-j -

.J- ::: - ~~

r:

....

/

<1

"

.: ~.:~: .. :: . -.:.~.:- ;-; ~

_ t. I • :._:' .:' I' : r-~~- - ~ .

...t

,

c~ ...

~. \. ~

.. ~

............... _ .......

,>. zs':

""----_/

.. ---

. !

.. _ ._. -- r '._'~ ._J ;

.-

. ...

2.37 For the configuration shuv v n in !:ig. P2.37 what must be the value of the specific !J~

\ ... 'eight of the unknown fluid? Express your answer in K/mJ.

=r:

J.. e'r -( be- () ?m~t c W 1;'\ c T- U'll. \;'0""'" ~c\..1

~<m) -{ 111-0 [ ( 11.\- ~ . b ) 0r) \- "'6 r ( g.tl- "3 · ~ ) '1")\ I~ 1"

\bO J L \0 C J 1

}i

- Y \11.0 f l\~l\-~' ~ )'YrJ \ -=- 0 L ~oo 'J

[ j

.~,rM·. "---r

~I

I r

j 11·9 I t-I1{~ J u.J::1¥t.o"i.. I

-ilvJ ~

r; [( '4-3 ,b)-O'l.·4"'6.~)1rw1

~~ ~

_.-

19·4~?'· £) ')"t)

CBOO ~ \ l \o'~-4)

""\'113 ) ~ '8

\~ k~r~

l.:; 2 A f! ~ ir·filkJ, he mi~rhe.rtCOl:~ ~ he Il i~ attached to the ocean floor at a de prh ur" W rn <I~ shown in Fig_ P~J2'_ A mercurv barometer 1.1- cared inside the shell reads 765 mm Hg, und a mercury U·tubol: manometer designed ~() fli\'c UlC outside water pressure indicates a ditfcrential reading of 735 rum Hg as illustrated. Based ()f. these dat a wh:J.t is (he Rltm,s;Jhc no.: pressure <1 t the ocean surface 'f

··t-

13'1 rrl'l

1_

~i: n

I

J.1GURF. Pl_32

.fa. "-' ~b"(jlul~ ~ {f. pY~'iS/Jn! f;'~;dt: 5 ,,~II '" ~3- (CJ, 7~~ """ )

;;f"", "'" 5Uy/aa .. aiftllo.rpherg pH!-'f.Ure

J:;w ..".. Sf.n.ili(. Wf/fA t. of Se44.J(./;ev-

Thti~ m.'r1t)md:!y ..e$IlUiIM r.:M be wrdien as

~<W1 +- ~w- (/() ....... ) + J;4r ~,g't).-m) - 0t, ((), U5;')<1» ~ -Ii

.)11' -thtt

I:..t. = t (f ((0." /1>1) -t ~ (tl,7"~_)

4L'Il'I't S 4r "J

== (/~5 ~)(".7'~'"i#d - V{),/ !~)(;ll. ~(>"'t) 1" (,~3 ~~)(~,73~_)

I

t

J

":). ?1 I

·Z.J1 Both ~;ld~ of the U-tube .uercurv rna-

nomete I of F I g_ P2 .''i a rc i niti ~JI y open to tlu: atmosphere and under standa: .l atmospheric pressure .. When the valve at th(;'" ~O:} l)~ [ILe right 1-'=11 is ope n t h-:= level of rtle rcu ry be low me ~.1I,] ~'C is h, .. 'her the valve is Ch1~~lJ_ uir f(~~~L:n' I~ applied W rbc teft leg. Determine tile rejalioIL~hi[l between the diffcrentiel reading 011 the manometer a I'Id the applied gagr:- pressure, P.~· SbCI'N· on (I; plot how the ditrerentiat reading varies with p& for 11, .. "'" 25. 5G. 75, and 100 mm over tile range o ~ (J, :s 300 kP~. Assume that t11e temperature of tile trapped ai r rernai ns constant.

!\! 1: d~'''r.'\"I'
~ ;
, t 4~ 1
I i :
I T I- ..
.6.-h j
i ...:k__. i
~)E!b:LI)'
Ii
~'WURr P2.-:'~ -A _ 0. ,tjl: h 'j #1 fa.

1:Jt.:;-

dll..t t:. 4~ .7-<~f.' ff't.s.$~r~s. fi., Ij~ "lhef/YJA I ~ fra.fft41 (It)"

1..:;: ~..,.f izlAt

~

MItJlttllt etr mass

pr

~'17~ ~~

I.Jnef'!. .y ts tilt- ilhlum(.. I -p Ii Ifb$dl(k IVf!.fVV~; (JII.:! {_ "lUi {'
~ltr ft> /,,/-h:'1 corti f,notl $tw.ffS" Yf.J.?nl-wdy. TJI"-5) I
-t:.~ 7'. ~ (~ or ~t», ) 1rf !
( 2) i
/I.. ~
fo,. lilY' rntfP'# In r;,# If'J if::: i.. (/1 re« ~f hb~) ~ <' 7!r.tJ
~ ~ '" .
£'$,(2) Cilit .be It/J'i 11(;1 4.5
- [ s. ~ (]
t ~ t.~ ~. ~ 4h ; ~!
!. .L
Su b£flt"t~ ~$ ,tJ) irl·h Ej.O) h ()j,hll ~ f
,
~h~ 'e (. 1., ~
~ totf. I - ~._ Ai~ ) (..,..)
~, I a; ( CDn't ) ,
2~31. (I)

Et'n6,~,.., tit) Ctt~ h~

(Ll-k ) J. _ (:L.( +

=c

(.x;p"~ 55.('&1 (Jot 7Jj ( h,Y'N'1

1-1" ~ t_ L1H + ~/1._ 1t'

C"Hg J DII;-

1JrJ.S !/I~dr'~.JI{_ e5ffa. btO> an

1) ~ :tQo1 )! 1 ~.--: 1+ -p~~)-:c.-_-2~1----:t' ( S J

.,.:. ..... JJa V I '-~ .;L ¥~ [~J

T; P.V .. Aftll-k:. JI. the. ntJ.d1 v< $'111 i ~ ~H" ~Jn(E Ah ==0 4 ... -1 =CJ,

14~~jj!lJ..-e-A IItf/w4$ ~f ~-A -kr litty/ow v~IF('~ &>1- 1). <l..--c= 'Jj"~,,

,it fh~ AIJ~Wtit, +dJc ~". d, Mr('w';' ;'i(II(J ;~?li (w;t;. 1 f ';:; ,'otkji I

anA o~ = la~ i?J.I/;mJt.) A- p}r.t ill 1J1e dab .f.:,JltJW<3_ • ..m I

hj patrn Yh9 ~ Ah(h, '" 0) j,i1(I't,<l.S25) I\h(h,;;:~ C5j &i(tl.=il C!5) ..lh(h~O.1 j :

.rn) {kPaj (Io;:NlmJ) (kPa~ (rn) 1m} (m) (m) (m)

0.025 101 133 0 0 0 0 () .,

a 05 101 ~33 30 c 'J 01'0 O.02t2 C·.OJO:5 O.D3&«

0,075 '01 133 00 a 0.01B2 DO::f5.<: 00517 0.80572

o 1 101 133 :;10 0 ,3.,3?:) 1 ,}.0454 0.0668 0.0874

10 t 133 120 0 0.0268 o. D5.28 0.0781 0.1 {iJ6

101 133 150 o v.0296 0.0585 D.0857 G 1143

101 133 '80 J O.031e (1. 0030 0_0936 0.12;16

101 1 JJ 210 0 0.0:13-5 00666 0.0991 D 13<;.>

101 133 240 0 (I_Q3:50 0.0096 0.1037 c. ~."'.74

101 l33 270 a Q.03€-2 0.0721 O. rOil) 0.1426

101 13.3 300 0 0.0372 0.0742 c 1108 Q 147(;

0_16 .----

t:

i I .. -:-_ ... --~

!

, ,

0.14+--·

0,12 .:

I

.---'----

"0.08 r-i--

0.00· ~'-./

E 0.1

.-

h, '" O.05D .

O.OZ '

·--·1

r. = 0

\LO~ 5 __ 0 10_0 15_0 ~_o ~_a 300 35_0 ~

,_ ,_ ~g. kPa

2-33

r

2. ~O 1 '11(:. inverted U-rubl: manometer cor Fi~_ n,,,,, amtaiM oit (SG ;;. 0_9) and W~t-f'r ~~ sh{tv.o[t. The pressure dill"er~llti~ l b~EwC~ll p~~.~ A ~1Ic1 II, p~ - p~, i~ - ~ k P~. Determine the dif.el'tl1ti~ I reading, Ir.

,~~.w''I'~m,

"'. .

1~; ,,' I

'J :; ,-, \ I_~. ~ _,

_L._(.--;;' _ -.,\ : ·1

1 .... .( I,

-, .___...- <, ':':.:~ I"

·/,' .... 's- I

,_: l

t-; ~.

i ..... ~ _L

"--~~,'

• r J G U A E P2, rr~'

2.4 t An inverted L' -tube manometer i;~ uuuinmg 011 ~ SG = 0.8) is located between 1\\.'. ~ r exervoirs as shown in l-i g. !)2A 1_ The

55 kPa

~r~or, ~~tr1!ch loride / //

r ---------.

":" - .. -.-.--.-;-

-

-,

T

It

Water

OJ m

• FIG U R E P2.41

reservoir on the left which contains curbou tetrach loride, is closed and pressurized to 5S k Pa_ The reservoir on ltl€ right contains water and is open to (he atmosphere. Wi til the given data, determine OX' depth of water, h, in the right reservoir,

LX t

(;.'11 li

.Ll , ;', ,. 6 .. , .. ~.',~.~ ,j-to..

UJ;. w) r"':"_"_'··'·

1 ._ ~fA +_}d~ (c,\~L_I~dt.~~) + C·G .. ~ ')'hl:

_ C2_, <WI E! + (I'd ,{ ~",.')(D·'''l + (f.l;·XICl~,) ~ ..... ) + H4> ~ gt{" ~(oo ':

2.42 Determine the pressure of the water in pipe A shown in Fig. P2.42 if the gage

P A - --(\0 'n \ - c.. D ·91" w)~ ~ -( ~\'3 ='- feu:;_ 1w

of )

P!\.~ Paa + '( w ( h\ 4- 0 ·9),'11.- ho

pressure of the air in the tank is 13-8 kl'a.

\ 3· ~ t. \(} t-\ + 9~oo t-\ lD,t"m + 0·4 l~''2"f11) - 0 ,3')"1) )

------ -----

'Y'II~ ~

2.<;3 [n Ft~_ P2.43 ~r~ A ~()t1ta.im gitSOlin~ (SG = ~_ 1) _ pipo:- n co:mtail1~ Qil (SO ~ o.~), ~n(1 !h~ mancrnerer lIuid is rocfCDi)', Determine the new di:(f.!n:l"'tiaL rud~ng H tile pressure in pipe A i~ d!=:cre~~ 2~ ll'~. and the presSlIte in pipe B rerna il1~ consia nr, The inili~ 1 clilfere ntial reading is O_:lO ru as shQwo-

~'JGU R E PU_~

!;r -f1u. I;', ·h.:t I ~,dtjH,.d. it,_,yo :

f/f 1" ~p.; (tJ. 3~ 1 .- ~Jl.1 (.1,"3 .... ) - ~il (tl.~~) ~:P,-:, t- J

With .:l lite ("~u '" ~ h Pi ~4 f~ .,cIt/iLl Itl4'is c hl{~ a s

.sig"R.1" I'ff fir~U't!. _ Th u.! ~,. .h"rl. r ell'''' .{/~,,~~i- "

;

1},.1 + ~ (~.3~) - tN; (.{It) - J:;; (a. If 'f""a) ~ ~ :~ I

W~tr'~ Q 1/ 1t'~1hs c-J,-tA,:'" "

fA- -1Jt j "i- J" f£t ( Q_ )

Since

cl~.,.Ah"'"tI,3 d : (fJ,3-..:Il1 z

(J n ..-( holm F'j.o )

Pit -p,/ + ~.cs (O,3~J,h ) - I'u, (0,3-.1;') + 4i/ (c. J;_ t.k ) ~ Cl

Thu 5J

A1 ~ Pof- -p • .' + (t/4:. (().jS~ ~J'J/-I (~j) -r ~;I (cud

..... oi'!.' i!./~

- olJJ T .;l. -f" ;2_

4,,11 w;111 "A _lA' ; zs-A f... •

tJJ ~ .2S~ Yo {(!).7)(f-fl !~X~:J!>·~J -63~ ~)(a :Jho"t)t- (~,fff,81$_)~.1~ - 1'43 .~ ~ (0.7) ft.,} ~~) + {p,'I )(9.81 ~ J

- ---:2 nn --;;r -

0./00 r'n"I

2-37

2.44 The incl ined di fferential manometer of Fig. P2 .44 contains carbon tetrachloride.

initially the pressure differential between pipes A and B, which contain a brine (SG =

i.I], is zero as illustrated in the figure. It is desired that {he manometer give a differential

reading 0[30.5 em. (measured along the inclined tube) for a pressure differential MO.7

kPa. Determine the required angle of inclination, 0_

~&'VRt "pJ, ~~

f~ .... -{", .. (\',,-tn.j - ..... c.~~ (c.-1.-'b"",,@)4\'i"'~ -'o~,,@) ~~~

.p~ - p~ + (r/\:r(- "¥'Cc.Qy) (C\-tP~ n®) --- 0 (I)

\"y,l!_ &i\-\~"j\'ri~ ~1' t:,'<) , cJ.~1 \'n,O ~e_ .s,

I:::. ~ ~ CL --\-- n

0<

2.4$ Determine the new differential reading along the incli ned leg of the mercury" manometer of Fig- n,45", if the pressure in pipe A is decreased 10k Pa and the pressure in pipe B re mains unchanged. The fluid iu A has a s pccific gm ... lty of U.9 and the tlu id in B ls W~ ter,

FEGU R E P2.45'"

fill'" th~ },,;f/q/ (~n f..,ul'"a &I~~

-b of )I (C_O + 1"" ( t)."5 :5m 3c") - ~ (0. O~) "'" 1>",-

r~ A", .0 I.J

VJh(~ Ill! 1!'l11hs an /n m. (JAin ~ de.c.r~~!- Itli r:.::.1,",m~

n"lClI.lf'S tAob A. dJ~'-~t:f! a.. Clnd ,./'" /1:: ~/"ml1 rn6 ........ ~ dlI)~1'I

F I) '" •

A dt5HtJ4(.f!. it. f as.: I1Dwn /» I/""~I!:, ~J' the .fti'JlI}! ~4;Jd-- 6;;., .-

14 I + ~ (0, I - a. ~/·n 3 iJ ") f- "r.4.; (Q. j,~ 30 ~ + C. o~ :'J~ k· 1"" 4.) -

. r. !, (I. oli + 4) = ...J..

H~o re

loS 1hf! Ilrw !r.fHI;(y"e. i rt

E'l ' , 1 j .f.,-om s f . i J J -{_ ~

JA (4 $J~3'0 - 3H, ~ (.r/~ ~1l""1) "t- ;r~~}Q._) ~O (P,lf- - of..,.i I

a.. -

JA 'S '·11 3 D~ - d'ft, ( ~.-':.I 3D"'tJ) T t ~6

J

IA - fA ~ / Q J. P{I..

-10

a.. =

o. D5'f() m1

New dr' rH'r'tr'J't/~ I feu dlll,.J h h... rn e~HlO"t',( aJCN7? j ,.,'}I !1e.J ~ I.e I ~

e1ttAl -t", 't.

r t. h ." -f" D. 05 -4- a.

'S~n 1Q~

.= t!l, oS/fo /"1"0'1 -r ~t 0 £; mt 1" C. 05'tO Il'l1 ~ O. z,.. 2 1111 !l.S"

(I)

I, ,

LoL,.)

2.46 Determine the change in the elevation of the mercury in the Jeft leg of the

the pressure in pipe 1J remains constant.

V,J.;.!h"

FTi1lWl 'f ~. ~b Fa< -\ho_ ~rn\hnSt (_trnf O~~')1 ~

P", -Y -(\If> e;~""l) - '(,.,b l \ ;~;-<;i,,, 3;;) - Y ":ll ?,tFo ') = p (l, C1 )

. 1

Wh<Ult <:ill. h't!> (IM_ "" """"''4';. ,Vl"'QY) P f.'I ""'(:}LQM." h, r A

t-.,,- [U,_~ c",lu,..."y¥) .~ I:rO~<C oIJ~<.Sl, Q ) D",J I:1M.. -r (a.~'Y)"I'Y) ......,-n~\JEl. u_~ ~h ~ ci~~tQ I b) CL3 (J\'OI...iJ-n .~ t\\-...Q_ rf~ <

\''0'\ ~._ r~~ ("''''~ (f-~"" '

rA' ~ '( 'rl~ ( L~ -+0.) - iK6 ( ct-\- 'S-')._...s'Y13~ -+'oS~~ )-

lOD

-{ o,l ( ~\J .S' __. bs ~y, ~o \ ~ P Q:, (_)_ )

\._ \00 j

'5,.1oTY<lct e'tl-'Qtr;"'" elJ ~(rm 1"~",,(2-) +0 obW..':'" '.

PAl _ fA _..'( I-I,D (0.1-'1 «» (().+\'s~Y1?:.a~Yol\( \:"l'';()6~J -=- 0 (_~

S""";(J)_ ""<>- V olv.,'>lQ_ at ~1~ d.. '"lilloJ1- be ["'Yf>~ Ala =- Aj_.b bT

,

(I. ?, l-mJc. '" (6 'bc~b

g C) {\,c& b:=: ~. "+ o.._ ~

Thus I f~{ 1.) CO'l') b e wlU~ {{~

r Ai - P <\ -I- 1)'';''>1:> [Q) ~ Y"'b (0+ y."'IqJ;,~:i ~ i c& Lj·1 % itl ~) ~ 0

.".

'(\.jt'-YHC,c3.3S) +Y'~/-L.-3S-) _ /~4,.Lt '" \2 ~)

\ '"'m~

-

-

.-:::----,-------------- -----~-~-----. -'----------.,

2~ 47

"!.47 T~e U -snuped LLI~ shown IT. h~ _ ?~ ~ 7 ln.nall v .m L~ i ~ .. ; wa{el l'llly. A secuml hq uid with spc~iti~ w~ i ght. 1': less rhan ..... ater j~ p laced on to ~ of j'.t water with ill} m i ~~Ilg (>"'L·UT~i n~. Call the hel ~!:.t, h. or t~e second iiquid be Jdjusted so {IIIlt the len ~~J Light level ~ are at the same h~gh 1 ': Pruvide proof o: ~·CI~r answer

(~L-'~:r1)

1.', 1 '!D- 1-· ...... 1' ~,::

-I . 1 "'I

1'>'.IE'··r _ _j .

--. _ _j

• ~ I G U R E P2.47

pr~5$.U~ .i..f. pGlltti' I ) rn I']J 1:-- b( ~8"4 j +-u

P'-~(,/ J.<'~ aJ PCf;' t (z.) :S Hi'- ~ "fh ~ P n~ J Sa V~ 5

etu.J e! ~j}a:h",u" In. a_ C.~Fl·h,;jw(!jI.J m Q 5;<;

-I (<<r'ttl tnus.r be. 7h~ .,Slfmt:.. 51nr. ~ "

t :! ~~oh

1h~ j~ +w 0 p(nSlIrr.s rJ4rl ().., JIj b~ ~i!4:) ,-+

'!r = 0/",.1 tl. ::r/";t:~ ~;j;(tJ z,o --the {"6'rJ /, i1lr"£/tp'rl J hd lei n In fl1 II! IJi"'-= ,:,; net p,,:g; trl~_ Ntl.

·~------ --.~--.-~--------,

"2. iUI An i rve ned holl(\W tyJi.llde~ L~ pu;<,]-,..._£ l~ L;) th r "'~{cr J~ b ~t[l'I' .. n .n f1~. p:!.'ra. Determine me distance, t, tha: the water nses ill the cylinder lIS a tuncson of the ~th, d. uf Lhr kwr.r ~Jge of the tylin~ r. Mot the ~~su11~ for I i ~ " ::=; ff _ \l :'eJ~ /I i,~ (~_ U~ 1 R' 1 IT!. ,\_~~ ~1fI~ tht It!mper~tu~ ufthc all' with i~ the cyl i nocr remains C(I~.~La~L

_---- _.

,

-.':::=:=-=--=-~ ;.-.-.~ ... :-_.--:

s: ;W~t..'. ~-.

d I .. _- """T

! !-., ·1.1- ~

~.-L............L7 _i

G·;-:.;.n e.-.==. ....

• F f G lJ R E P2,4-8

M..I" CQIJ 1-bJ" i- -i:.ef"lfpt ...... i;.'IYf! CdWI p~H/~11 ~; 1J..J.:., 1h~ {'JJI;"~

t.. ~- ; 1f- "'f (f I

whtw ¥ f.i. fh~ ~ Ii- Y~/wm ~; lind ~' .fI1/ f roe fir ..J-t, f?o~

/,; .. ".; I ~i'f~ Ii;,,,, / :5l-..k.s) "~s~~fl r~/!1 . L t: fo/I#M) S th6t-

(S"~ lip;>-#!)

1:. ~ PL

(. It~

--'J. .: (f (d-1.)' + j., J-.

q. 7i_

Th I.fS f!YNn FZ. OJ )

efrm (~ll'#)"=; (Y(d-1) +4;,/-J ~1)"L(H--J.) {;Z J

i?'l ,(2.) S/;?o ~J. t~ i..J I-~

f2_ (d-t-/L3J).i. T c:i (Lm) =0

So -fha..-t (U:1';"7 1h~ zu~I/~t!! ~fd.. .i;rmH/") J... ~ (d--tU-3!) ~ V d"Z-t J8 .. r..l d + 11.8 2-

'S"r'lC..e. fiJI'"" d'=.O / 1.. =- 0, t'ht. ~Aflll~ ."ft,~ :'i1-10J.l/J h.e.

U5e d (j.., .:1-

/J z: (ei.,. JJJJl_: V d"2 ~ /2 .• J d f (!:!

JL :t.. .

Ta b14ll%h~ dtl,,-bf. UII~ 11le. t!#rl't'.1ftJl1dliJ~ pl~ f. are. Sl10Wh 6~ ~e. 1h;louuifJ pa.~.

(&11 ~)

2-'1'L

~.

((ft/t)

Depm.Cl(m) 0.000 0100 0.200 0300

{I ~OO 0.500 nscc 0.700 0.60(') 0.900 lOOO

W",ter rise t. (m) 0.000

O.;]()7

O.V16

0.024

0.OJ3

0041

0.049 0_057 0_065 ::Hl!3

0.1)'BO

0.080

D_070

i

_ .. ·_--1

0.060 I 0.050

.. ---._- -/1

... _ ... _--/ i

i-/ .

, ,

aJ

.~ 0.040

jj

~ 0.030·

0.020

0.200

OAOO

0.600

0.800

1.000

0.010

-I

I

0.000 0_000

--+------+--- - .. -.- - .- .. ----- .. --------I

Depth, d (m)

*250 A Hourdou ~<I~C (~C Fig,. 2,13 and Vldeo Y2..J) is often used [0 measure pressure. One way to ('ali brule rhi ~ type or ga~e is tl~ use the arrangement shown in Fig. P'2,50a. The container is filled wiih a liquid ~LIIJ a weight .. '~ .. placed on one side with the g:~,gt' on the other side, The weight acting on the liquid {hrough a l-cm-diameter openi ni! C'rL'ak~~ II pre-sure (h~11 h transmitted to the gage. This arrangement, with n series of weights, can be used to determine what a change in the dial movement, II. in Flf!. P2.S0h. corresponds to in terms of ~I change in pre "",u re . For ~I particular gage. some data aft:' given below. Based on a plot of these data. determine the re!ahnn~bir between {$ anJ the pressure. p. where p is measu red in kPa,

(b) • F t G U R E P2.50

f~ ~ .- ~k'~~_ - \' ,/1 'W (~l) ( l)
-
i\l.'< s (\ ,. \'l
'-'" "
+r: ~.""! t, kl't: )
~. . ( ~ '0 .r )/"J IIf"-.
.... ~_. I'; ~ ...
-, 'it- Jj.J- .~ ~.~' 4, (\)

~) :;::" C. ,$:J.r& \. :11

~d t, (I.,f.)- o· JVi., 6

l~ t ·1 ~ (Jl)
k \~ ) ~)-~
~. C: . C ('
l_..'
I '(
t~ ~ 1,1' b '
40 8, rC'
6e t~·~
8r J g, c-
.L
.., nn ... · ......... ......._.7.-. .... _.; *_.....· .... ~&_JL_ •... _Ii ... __ • INILY_ .. _1 ~ ... _ .... .. _. _. -' "'_.~_~ diIi'_~'oJjq_",_", .. _~~r ........ - ........ _. __ ........ ~ .... ....u..--:....-r..:I ........... _

2

---+----+------------l- ?/

lo - ---+---1-------+-- _ .. V

If, ., .... --~-_+_-----r::-/:..-- .. -

.. - /./

l1.,-; --+

11 //

It·· /

l~-------'-------I -

a. 20 lIO 6t,

·"~---~l

; \ , .,

~

,

I ~ order to- hald the inde), card in p}'C8 when .Jh~ qJ4J.r it ;noJsneJ J fhe pre.s.fl)re a1 Iho card- ~.Ier ;"fe,.filce 1 PI) 1t1r;.s1 he AI/ ... ~ wh,;f'C /I is the area trf ihe Iflass fJPeIJiP9 and 141 is Ihe G4/'tl wei9JJ1. Thus, ~ =-W/A + Hellce~ 12 ~ fJ, ~rh, or

jJ: .:: -W/f1- r h ('1~9~) .

.since the Qmovm pi air In lb« "Ius remcUM the same when if /.J if}vU'je~

Et R!lIl =:'fi f1 ~- J wh~rt; u and i .tvbsr-r/pis refer I~ 1he iJpti,hT 4PrJ ilHler7ed condd/cns, T/Jv~ to ~. ~ ~ ~ SUf P ~eRT SP Jh.1

Po. (I~~ IRTi! PIS 'J f .J

til -e;.:::. r (J,' IA1;·) .:= (J; ProVI ~J the 8111! el'tl7vpe

rem~ ills C~M'4111 : 7;- = fa . Mie : S~/Jt~ we are v;/I19 iJJ~ pel'!e&f 94.:; Jfi., fhe prlSl~/8.S rm).d be 8Mo/llfe - flu. s: f#AI J ft';: f. ~ -Vlfi~dth i f4/~ ~

HCf1'ti,l from £'l~. (I) find {zJ l ~

(3) Hi ~ ( AI", -ti!9~rh ) H~

ThQ-f is~ w/JaJJ fh8 '1lq~ is i,,~erleJ th~ c()/vnm "I Qir ;IJS;J~ t!xp,ns .s/~9iJflj-J cavIl", 4.s:J'Jh1/ 9/Jp ef ~ i» it .6 U 6eive6l) fiJ, Ii; ;.s rne ql4r.r tmJ 1he indIA C4rti. Frolt1 £,.D) -finS.6.f/ l.s

(4)AI1~ N--#, := ( b,f", )11, -H .:: ( wJA -t-4'6\ n

l /I (J.//l, -W49 -1 h II fJ .pilffn -WI)] _ 1 h I n!J

If 1hl.t 94P is "lo'9t l!.11D1I9h II fh~ w«fer MlW1/J IJQ~ cui" Ihf 1/4$S and ll;' irr/f /I, 1

If if is~.Jl enDu,h;'~JJrf~ce lenJiM willol/MII #Je .rk9M pl'es.sVf't! riifferef)ctl

tl trsss -1110 alr-: """I er inlerfG ce U~ t!'1 Pi s: - -,r/A) n#tJeJ -f,; pre v MI f J(!JJ QM ihrlJ keop fht ill~ CQrJ in pJ~ce. ReC4J1I frtlm qvaN#fI {/.2J} ill Sec:liDJ11/1

2.51 f

2, ~ r You pmti~ny rill a gfa.ss wi th water, ::l.ill.(,:t an Lnd~~ earn nn lOp of ~h~ g[~s. 100 1.M:~ turn tlJr ~141i' Ujl~itk Q(lWn while hcldi~8 the utd i n p]~~~, roc CAlI ~h~n n:_ )'{l~t h;lfl(j tmm Ine Card ~nd the CIiJ'd rem ain~ in Jlt!l~, n01~ir=~ me water m 1M. g I ass, hpl ain h~lW 1 hLS 'oIiO!'k~.

Icard

tJi(\ TH.

~

:·,··-_·,·····t

.. -W'lf8r· .,--.

,.:_ '." , .,,- ' .. j h

.- .... -" .',': -·,1

t-hoJ 1hQ. ?TU~~ 6;~ ~YlCQ O.aos.s o-.

\ .. r~rc:9._ \s. vrt>'?tr(b~ to ~(L D(A~r..Q __ le_Y1~~ ~ ~Q._ "Qs~) CJ) ny,ct ~

A o.cll ~ ~ c__us.\J~, R, ~ 11nQ,_ .h'1~ tQ_ ,

~ro ~, P, ~ C } R

,~;_t0:".

\. .,' t .w-t' ~ (j:_ ...

, 1"\-<-·'·' .' .

._'.

~Q<;l, ~ ~ 0<-"0'" Ci5' h'n I W\-'\cl.-, (f~ ~ (nrI~ .e"'~~"' m':-~CQ_ ~act~

Dt- ~,R, ~~\aco t~Y'I%.CY) \s.. 9..cr-

eYrcUS\-' +~ ~~ ~ ~ rCi'm ;fiot_»Y1~ «rd.

1"h1L ~~I\ coo..&. 9Jrfnrw:ns. '('(\ ?~~CJl... '0

Ct:., S\c\ '-'t- Gc,,,,,,,,--- tcJ~( ca!) 'l'\ om ~ 5 -to ()~--r-; '<TI om Q f 171"0 X';"-'ru:< 0'rJ

~ ~~ oo.-y ~~ ..

Asc;~Q.. r h ~ ~. b C_'ff) ~ D· D'+6 '"n') Htt ~ 5c'f() z: D 'D S 'TY)

, /

P ..}"" ~ IN- '0, k.~", (_ 36:) O"Ylcl 'tj } A < < Yh , ~ ts. ) '"\\-,"- w~'n-l:

tr\ -\he._. coct.c.\ \ So rn1\jC:_\y, ~";:. ~'""b1 '\h e. w ~An t at '\hL

W ~ fu ~ Q_ 0' ()S~' C \. e ') 'l0 <s; 1( A", ')

rt12"('(Q J ~ Yn EcvL Y J "

lJu -~h ~ [ ~gDD N\~ Co,ci1t-m) J~ ,

n - \1\.1. z: ~. C 5 ti77)

-1 In '0\· 3~\r}- .tl - 9 &oc~( (YQ~'Yn

,...."..",)-. P)'lJ.

bY A

~\1 ~ '3'1 x \0 rrtJ ~ 0 ·o3~ C'fQ

I"nis \__~ ('Y~'I1\:I~ a ~ ~"'1" d"-~ to ~()uJ ()LG~<:Q_ t-Q_'{1~DY") w· ~f t\,4- wo..W l'"ll th Q_ ~ q~ 1 o.o, 0 Ld D1 It )

~ 'Y& p-rl-%sL3..Q crl- ~ ~ -o:&J! rn\-~(Q_ J_cUJ RYlC(S~

~ \~~ ik- c.cud1 ~ ~~Q tQ_ ,

2.52

2.5 2. A pi_~!~,m n:lvillg a cross-sectiorut ~a nf 0.07 m' ~ jnc.al~ in it c},lindc. runroioing 'l.ll'a'er iI.!i. 5hown in fig_ P2.S1- An open U-lube manorneter is con n~~ to ~ c~t'mkr as shown. Fer h, = 60 rnm and h = 100 mm, wh~l is the "alu~ of rhe <lWlicd foITt= _ I'. acting on the pist01'1? Th~ wei~ht of the piston is neil,ligib!t=:.

p

<

< ••

I

.I~

L

F;,. et«;/;Jl"i#m ; p:::! $. .4p ~n ?i$~" lh>K Ap ~~ h~

~+~" ~j

~ Ii ",f!... jJyr'U<l1'e f;o d,~~ h~ p._r:~J'l, .4 I:J"-"/

'::::0

P '" [t z »

"I"'~_~)( 2.)

,._ II P.a"'"",,::-

_"

253 A 1 S cm diameter piston is located within a cylinder which is connected to 1.3 em

diameter inclined-tube manometer as shown in Fig. P2.53. The fluid in the cylinde, and

the manometer is oil (specific weight = 9.3 k}J!m3). When a weight Wis placed on the

top of the cylinder the fluid level in the manometer tube rises from point (I) to (2). How

heavy is the weight? Ass-ume that the change in position of the position is negligible.

\~C~~~(~

"~.~N ~ "" " '.""" : .'''_ \-' ,""" ~_" "'_;" - (i)

:">lJ·,'~r ... / .-' :>?~y"

._~".".I.- /

' __ '//~

"' ~ _:_;_."_ • (lt~UP.E f) ~,s '~

\4'\ ~ V\~s\nT1 mtrn Q_ M 1='~s.cQ;2__ a-n +UL 0\ ?~\st:D'""n ~ P p , ~A f"lYIC('f1DYrlillx e__~~11 be_t:_{J~

tt - "ocn ~\~,~?>~ ;:::;_ 0

\.J:l1\\P l>.l1'"'t ~ y.-o1.':,\l3Q tv .mClAj;~ m f~ W>-,dQ

~ -= tp 1- \N [A~~ D.J..Q_Q 01 ?\\\-0"'t?)

Ar"

()!"Y\d rrnO"n~rn~ eJt~esy, b et~YY(!9

t~ - y 0 ~ l ( ~ \ +!?:1fl \ Sm 3~ = 0 \00 J

:5ubY-ra_6 E.cu{L) ~ EV[l) to o\,~ ~

r~ ~ ~ --~~>L (~'"m) s,~~~~ ~ 0

~. S'I A ci fC'.ll:1[ ~-[ll-( ~~,:I1(!.t,~r b~L~ .,~ ·.("lcaL~J Il:L ~p~ sl ;'ci lit &;.(1;.; 8; :, S·"·~:[IIr,ir.~ rud. :-tiC S i OC .:r [be po»l : ~ urie.uad U,)'" r~;~ L.is~ [C the ~ ici!of.t~l to ll<: I; •. an ~ : ~.~ center of the gate ;~ l~~l1L~d , I~~ be I 0.... l~l~. vI~:~ r surf ac~. [}-~1 e IT:'_l~ ~ [he m R.I:Fl.i[·~J,~ .:,~ the water forC'!.!' ::!.1.!t.:lLg 0-": r:"'!::= ;::;:Jl~ iJ.n.j ~hC' P8;~I,[ ~}:rO'.l~h lvhi:.;:h It ~~I.<_

FR == f' II .= :the jJ J where he ~ 3m Tn 1/-1.t

~ ~(9.3-';!1)(3m)(!(2mt) :::: 17':2 AN

2.55 A vertical rectangular gate is 2.4 rn wide and 3 m long and weighs 26.7 kN. The gale

slides in vertical slots in the side of a reservoir containing water. The coefficient of

friction between the slots and the gate is 0_03. Determine the minimum vertical force

required to lift the gate when the water level is 1 .2m above the top edge of the gate.

" l qg"o _!i_ \ L2.t\-",) (2_''+mx3",)

- ~)

\b~ KN

..-

I

~ -;:" :Zb'~ kN't (o·c0) (_'b~ kH)

3~\<N

. ~ (C,.c~~)~fi tJ

JC.·f }.tJ r·...,__,~~

·1 ~~~ll~ ~~)"~

f r-: Jtw- -t J._J1 ~

~n~ z: f A j whu~ P ~~ WI<' f'~~55·A"'€.

-i}.II~1 _

I;:""al~ = (~oo :-: i;~ ;~ ~ )("J[)( ~(fI'Ir -~ ;~of>-rr"_ 1./ ,...

r

, DV

~_.

I 2.56 A horizontal 2-m-<l.iamM~~ roncluit ~ ha l! !\oiled IIIith ~ Hqliid (SG = L~} and is capped as Imrh ~nd~ WiTh. ~anc vc:nicIU 5Urbocs_ llw: ~il pressu re ill [lie ~o~uiC ~hoy~ me Itqwd surface is 200 kP~. DetcTmioe th(: resunant fora of tile fluid <ldirlj!; OR one m tho:: end QI]X, and Iecate I his force relative (O the botrem of the condtJi1.

i=',,".~~

F~~"I ~~~""IT";' .: :~,_

d: -, , ~~" .:.

.-If' ...,.1..:'

o

'1 ~ .. R

/ ··r··/" "

, '-

.... ....

\:::~

- .. I

) .... /

. . ._---_ .. - ......... ._

=: [l~e.:;. (d"~"''"l'I L,1 '~,LI:d

·-.1 l.1 ~ -::. ~I

F. 1..; F· r ~

~t~~J .... ~ t 1Hr h't ~;t>I

s IJ.m'I momert b a. ~(>iJJ (1

=

( .;l 0 ''IT + • C . G"" ') ~ Id r.J :::>: (" 3 ~ .b ~ ...

_.= ... _J

( - ~ , ( , . ~.,,,,-r ){ 1 D JJ) L - ;

'r

, -

r~_. -

bb~,,~ '~~ H",.,., ~+. ~(I~dl,Jl' t

"_ ... - - ·.v --~-==--===== =.

I l._

2 _ _5 J

-----_._ _. -----

2.57 Forms u-ed 10 mahto a concrete basement wall are shown in Fig. P2. ~7. Each L2-m-lnng rorm I.~ held together DY [our lies-. (WO ,if the lop and two ot (he bottom a<.;. j nuicured. Determine the tension in (he upper and IOWl,.'f tiex. Assume concrete acts at- ~! tltlid with a weight ol' 2_\.6 kN!m·~.

CO!'icrete

Form·

25.4 err

-, f"'-

_l_

. oTt

~.,:=, f·(_""'_ f.,_

3.0 rn

l

• F (G U R E P2.57

'£ ~ .,. C, Cb I;.J,

r'2) ~ ~ - (I ,~ L f.' -~ 'l, f~ ~ -tR ~R t t:h1ft fp ~ ~ ,/1- -:_- (-lr: A

.F1t" __ 'I' __ ,.,.,.,.~

~LJ_'~ I 1,1') (),. Dt" ( "3)

j , l' h t c,.'~ 'I. H. -r '1 1 (/ x - C - ~ ~ ~-~ 1 ~ 1 ~ r 0 1

l

,,' (,~~f ...... :-~~1"--"-'~~-~' 4:~~-':.'. --.<- . .- .....

t ~" .. ~Ier

~:~m

• t.~S A S'.L"~~t~ rc is all ~chl~(1 :~ ~ ~_~ .:). c ,1"- 1 hs)r ~s ~~10'~· t. i r .. ; .;~ ~ L~~. i\ 2-ll;-c.iam~ le~ ~n~ch ; ~ I.: .• al~~ i=l an tncllneu w~l; ano r.illY:d. un ~n~ ~d~~_ ~Ie:'flline the minimum uir r~~~un. p,. 1'1 ithin the contamcr Lv ·:)~n the baL'~~_. -" tgle.-::1 ~~I~ ~ igh{ n~ the hatch .nl! :ri~Lio~ i n ~~.~ ~,iQg~.

j_

~~,k:~w.mrnm:%bW-/~.7.'::"· • "rGUFIE P2 sl)

.t- ;1.:::-

., F:. ..i--7.

\" /" I,"

":y~{

/'" r·.'~

- (~Y;~)I,I

------

.J__/

~~ efflltl;brt~m~ Z Mif ='0 .jc, 1h4i:

~ (.2./. D1l--~ .- LO _,) --

(3 ", .. X /.Ii" «r 1 ( J'" ,

~ ;r'::; ~ (I( j I I L.J I .L- ~'Jrt-"f I

------~. ----.--- .... ~--.

-rr (, Mt) t (r1>"o)

r» 7 -k h:

-P= ( (

l. _

_ .. _ .... _ .. __ .. _J

~::--=~---r-----~---~--------- ---~--'---

'2_59

----_. ---.-~----

2..59 A long, vertical ... all separates se~ ..... ater {r('l~u ~"..~!et. U Ih~ !ie<I"""l!.t~T 5;I~ds at a ckptl'l of 7 m, ~Il~t {I.e~ h (Jf h~mwat~r is req .. m~d to !:ive a zero lttUIcallt fwa= 01\ tho: wall? When thr:: r~lIltant force is zero wililhe moment '.h .. ~ to tl1~ fluid f()r0=5 be l~f01 E~piaitl_

. 1 ~ _

.-."}.':'-

1-·- ":':1

~'('~~~k',. - : ( :

],.r jr;.:';

'~<'~); '-"

....... .." . ...- .. -

1 ---"J-' r,' i F.

I - ,.: j;1.(.

r~, .-

{ ~ ~.: ,I

y .. :;r-;:--', 'II;.-~ :-:···- ...... ri~-

.. :.:~,..

,

'>'"

: .: ~'SJ ,.:... ~: ... ~;!.

_., ..
~" 1"'_iL'"
Tn ~ ,df~
r-or c:
;"R~ ) =:- ...." /i ,LA

0], , . r-,

-~ '-=_ .. '-='"

. ,

"!or. t.rt

~rl OM e •. L

?f-1 D, e~ (~~ t1 r-ii"~

. '\ ~

;i (i -}l'J ~)

~: .~

.- '-!

_____ • 1"

LJ. , ..... ) ('l ....... I ... )

~

r~f -'

I~ {J .... ){J.fI ... y

'j ili- .....

TI.(.H ·fy.'.i{ In}

~L'.--

Sf f),.~ d" ~"hC(!, ,'~

k r cv . .-:l~ .'J8r .... ·r-d~f;-f'iI· I

=

-::: -S~f

2,&0

2_MI A ~~rr,~ xupplies wurz r lI~d~, pre ~~u~~ -.r;- r; h:!l= :~n~ ~,' shown in Hg. r'2 6oJ. The ~ i rrll~~i". p l~[~ \ alve ~lled in ~~l~ .~t nrr I~! scharge rj;JC on ;';~ !a~ k ~i vots ubout '.'5 -::'i~ ~I~ ter A-A. and ,~ ~:-:"'Ii: ~~:lIl .=.:;:a~["J:i~ Ihl' ...... ~I[L!r pl·~-=::-:.~I:r"I.:' .:-o~' a :ar~-:~ II~ R. :-1hrJ· ..... L).;=.; I~;~ rorce on the latcn H Ir.ll~p\~n~ U ~,:" I ~_:: >~p:el~· pi ~~~UI~. p, ~·,rl'~ L"1~ ~I~j!lh·. ()r the t~nk, h.

.: --- .. -, .... ~rl

.. ' .~- .. : .-----:- I, p.

o :' I i: ~

.......... 'T

-T-~-fIr

1 :Y.~'J.< f _ :.= .. ~ . -+_~.5 'I~

he

1

i I

.- .. ,:;;. :u ~_ E ?2.GC-

;S ~ :::0 r or

! iJ (Yll - Yc ) FR -z: R Fs

where

f" = fc fJ -z: t h ,J 1T R1.) ~ (f + ~ Ii )( tr R ~ j

an d 1 p.f('¥. R"2

}(C z: __ Lf-7-:- __

YR-YG ~"Y;R (£-t~!!_)1!Rz -z if (if~ .fh)

\ il'

~h)_..'; f r~(h tasr (n 1nd u:

J

fl.}

. ,0 r .. : ·.!'II , ("f!" R ~ .

~ •.. .. ..- : -1-' l~..rIJ ,I ,.

!~ " '",

1\'5ih/ '

of'"

r: .... XZpJ

rS -- o Lf- '

-------_._-------- . __ .. _. _._---_. -_ ... _.-

T----;':- .-.-

y ~ fl._ ·1-

.r: I C

I

~ ~:;~,

"-');-._ ...

_i__ 1_- .~~

Yt'Yt i, ,.

~_I.____'" i:·2

,

:;.r /.I~ ih 1,1 a n.~l' ,i-;

..

2.61 A homogeneous, 1.2 III wide. 2.4 m long rectangular gate weighing 3-6 kN is held in

place by a horizontal flexible cable as shown in Fig. P2_6L Water acts against the gate

which is hinged at point A_ Friction in the hinge is. negligible. Determine the tension in edb-

/

j

the cable.

fR_ ~ --ohc:.A whM ~c_ _:;; ( \~"P'l) ~''Y1 bO \nUS'

I ~R:::- (qeo 0 J::!_) C \,~) (S~ b~) (\.~ 'tl? X \. ~'rn)

'")-()b

- l &,5 \<N

fo-c q0 \~ tr-Pu'"'rt") J ~Ml"1 ~ 0 (&leA

T C ~.lrn;)~\~ be) = 'hJ (\~1nJ}) ((OS bD)+ PR C 6' £-w,)

T s: [3 'b)(,\t? N )(\'2-)l('~bJ): (\b~~-~ \~N) (b'b'YJ1 ) (J-y..",) (SVY) bO )

T ~ 'K\-4

2-63 An area in the form of an isosceles triangle with a base width of 1.8 m and an

altitude of 2_4 m lies in the plane forming one wall of a lank which contains a liquid

having a specific weight 125 kN/mJ.. The side slopes upward making an angJe of 6OC'

with the horizontal. The base of the triangle is horizontal and the vertex is above the base.

Determine the resultant force the fluid exerts on the area when the fluid depth is 6 m

pressure is located.

above the base of the triangular area. Show, with the aid of a sketch, where the center or

(J~ ~ C.ir,~'l7l- ().~ "M k__ lj

_ b d~ "l7) ec.

o ~. r 0 ~1ft:_.'7 11

AI e, z: Or. gVY)t) D f-" e Jy)U: I c

J2R "" ¥\, c, 11 ~ (tl. s x \ a3 N I...? ) l (§ . \ 3",,) s \~ b~Jll ) ( \.~ 'l7) n 'i '>rj )

-c, 14 ~ KN

2.64 Solve Problem 2.63 if the isosceles triangle is replaced with a right triangle having the same base within and altitude as the isosceles triangle.

~ -.

-

x

~~ ~ \43 kN

~ \ ~ e:/l S 'Tv') I f,c'

( $.... s,,\uVifu> \-0 F bllm1 :l.' 6:, ) .b'!._

XR_ - T¥ac.:_____ -t )(c. lbt· J_ ·~O )

dLA

'il c = b' I ~ ,.,." ( (We ;? ",lu~"YI ~F hI."" ;;I_' b:~)

_ 6'~b'rl1~ -t C·b rm ~ D~ bJ- ~

X-R - .

('=- '13--m) ( -{:) (\. <6"111 x1-'Y'tY))

~ "- kce 9R a._c~ \n)'\Y1h ~e_ Cm~y 0\- y-raslJ)_Q_ WI~

~~. i) ()

C.O GO cL~ 'X 12..:: (), bd. "rY) cvnc\, a I :: C ,"1- 5 "WJ ( ';-eQ_ I) kJt ~ ~ ) .

l. 1].5 A Vn~il·i'. pi ;.fK'" ~(~;, hav I n~ I h ~ .,llll!-'" ~howiL in Fig, J"?. -5 5 i', 1m Inc =iJ In ~ n vi I Ihll h (specific w~ igtlt ~ JU ~ k N 1m ']. Derenuine 1 he rTI~~ui tu,j~ (If tne resul tam t()fC~ acting on one ~i(lf. L1f !h~ nrca 8~ a ~U11 of {~"~ OJ i I.

L.-- .-1 I I

4 II.· -l

[j .vf'i'. k 4~tf). ;~h, fu--o l~qrh; c< ~ ~."'(',,-.--~,' .. 11 1.''1<-u·t-

~;,.-- a"'f'~.

c: ~ ~- .{/ /~/ R,

<) -iN ·1 i !f "" .1/' ...
_ ':"'
- ~ "!. -- ~ J._ -I;> :.,

r" - r: -r- F: -_- ) .. r.., 1"0 i ,t, ..... (,f_-{ _. ,'.-. .. J. = ~ '1, ::1_ -k. .. \:

r-,R. - ',1;;:.... 1e;1. - '" ~ ,..:1< T ' , ~

.. ·_·--l

L __

2.66 A L ~I- ',\ I(~, N- m -~ ig h rr ~J~n~ o,a~ g~ I~ is l.J~a~;J ~: the e I~J L; I ~ 1"(':( ~~Ilgu I ~ f ;,~~s.~ge ttl ,)I :.~ ,< '·1 r,~ cL~ U L~' .1 I ar~~ I'~' tzn k fi II ~.d Wt~·~ '.~ mer ~s skuw:: i I~ :, .. u, P:. 6~ , Tl' ~ g~[~ i ~ h~~ gcd ~1 its bottom i],d _~e,1 u ~)~.~~ d .~" c_ hori WQ ~~ 1 fo~~, FIl_ I,:,:; ~ ".~ at ~r.e cen lei or the !I~t~. Thr- In :l:<1 rn '.11::' v~ 1 lie :·0~ 1",,' l~ .1 ~I)() k;-;, (~) Dt!telmt~~ .~e III ;[~iJr_·J m ' .... ,' L~ I dqLh, I:!, dQm .. e ~".~ cell t~ r of 111 e gate u.a: ~d:1 ~x i ~[ \',' i I hou: :h~ g .I{l'. opemu ~ (u) 1 s : :,~ ~:: we",r .lu- .,_!cl,' ! f ; . " ~".~~ ~5 tu I: g~J u L H : (Op'l [Y P :~m J.'':-~ r ~,~~W~ I

III I'- I G U R E P2_ 66

;; '/v1, .. - a

- .'H

(7-171'1) i-'H

~/ ')~ (~

c. - \.." A

, J:?. -_ 0 I"J-::_ ,

I (" .r: ...,]

id. : 3"" A 8,.,.,.,/ 0

____ + ··h

+j c.

7 fJl.{5; Lr:m) z:

/"

(tf-

.

~.v~ _ ..

/i" z

,

: Con t: /

7 ... ~ f)

[" i;,

'-l.
~ . ..._ .'
i
1 :t _ :;.-.33

T

... _-_ ... -.

:)0"

)~.---- --

/. ~

,.-~ .JE- .... ru " ,.,..',.

-~~. ~ _~ ~~

~ '~.~

./. ~ < ..:~

j_ "

;Io!. .~

2,66 l·--

(5', B + J ~ (J - ~ ~:

1 - /'I,. I ,._ I

'1,,_

h (" 5c.1~ h it,¥d ct_!- -i-o p

2: f.1H =-0 ..56 1hg-t

( I ~

If ri'fI) 1=t,L. == J: I te.

whtre

XJ:: ~ e_ - (--it - 4) ~

-_.-_"-::'-:':'':''_.- .. -

_ V. i r

--'r .... · 1- 'it.. - I

..... {j;;_ i"hul l7J4~ :J.;t{Mrj J"epl;' _,~ j",', t:« .bo ffe:>m

2 ··6;

2 ,h -: A gate havi n~ t he n~ 1<';':-' '-I,.'d I' ~n shown j n FiF- P2. 67 (loses an opening 15 m wide and j.2 III high in <.I water reservoir, The gate weighs 2.2 kN and its center nl gravity i" OJ m tu ihe kfl of AC and 0.6 m ubove HC Determi ne the horizontal reaction tnar is developed on t he ga te at c_

-=--- ..... _.-

- - l

I I

T

10 kft r; J
d I'a + ~.-
- ------ L !
\ JCIAl .I

• FIG U R E P2,67

-

-

)J jUJ

T-; i: t~ A 1- I-t.(J_

':;' ~ i~,o (~,,,,,) (A,) "" ( Q9W If/ .. l) (J.b",)( o· j", (I. j .. ) ~. 41.' ~

•• Ii 111 ..... _

r.., (·r. I.~ ... ' + J ,.'

ci' (", " "_oJ. 1\. f1 " " /'

,

L M~ ~ (:

(I,,j fi (~,- -.:w-)+/</(t3,,) - r,(U(oi",)-F;(I,/It<,)

~ ~ (Cbk.R)(1,gl.~\~.)~)+ (~,:{~·N) (t;"~r:.)- (~~6kM)(o,~rh\)

I. a /h'-

........

2,M'; The m;l:-,~h:~(;,. I" 2~IIH\"ltk g~lk shown I n Fig. Pl,68 pivots about the friction les:. hinge 0_ It 1 S held in place by lh~ ft9 k N coumerwei ~hl. W Determine the water depth. h.

o 9 m '"' ----j

Pivot 0

Width = 1.2 m

In

w • F J G U R E P2. 68

f~ ~ "'(" ke A ~1s"}'t l r ~"-}~k~f

~ ~ z: ~~ c -~ (-l ~d,)

to:. ;L '"

i

l_

r~

-"~V" ~, l-v

l·bOt}tt_

=

*2.69 A 890 N homogeneous gate of 3 m width and l.5 m length is hinged at point A and

held in place by a 3.7 ill long brace as shown in Fig. P2.69. As the bottom of the brace is

moved to the right, the water level remains at the top nfthe gate. The line of action of the

force that the brace exerts. on the gate is along the brace. (3) Plot the magnitude of the

force exerted on the gate by the brace as a function of the angle of the gate, 8, lor 0 ~ () s

9000• (b) Repeat the calculations for the case in which the weight of the gate is negligible.

Com ment 0 n the resu Its as 0 ----+ O.

FJGURE P1.~q

F~ ~"-6 ~c A tV' (.~ 1Js gcdc

7=- '0 ( .i "~IY\ _tj_ ) ( .f_ k~~)

")..-"

Cl--7 dtr,,· "'JJut-) 4.: -to' ('} ~

, "~ ~" " I r- " rr e

In ""XCzd' , . v> I

C6S¢ :;/"),,' (- + r;;i W 1· Ces e

F K-. i z: q 8 c 0 I'J I ",y" ~ ) .1 ~ 1< S - ~IA

_ ( q 2,ccr-JhIA ~ ') (I'~ u.] C-~~~1.) !fu,-f.! ,t{89c ry_)

F~ ~ - . .;..'" .l.-

(j."so/ tiW. t f st-: {

h.J'·~ '3 ·1''1'.... (L.",_d 't J.-:- (1 <J (' {'Ii

(((-:; <f k~'L' f; -f .Sr 'i'," 1" ~-= n 0 ~ c. t Q1., o .J" L, s-

. __ -._- _------

C tS 4' ta,_, D r .0~· 4~'

S n" c '2 S:i hi 4) .z: _1_ ._\ i 'lv' fJ 0. 'h. rl 1-:-::! I S ~ L z: 3 t -:;. 1'v\'

L )

Srv- rP :0./ y~_) ~.~/h· 1.1

, '3. 7-

(J.n~l .fez{, 0 (3'"\ ll{'''_ \ [J J 1- (~}, 6_(' d( /e t 'fl U hcJ . :lA H -f_, C1/ 3 j

Ca-,., &, ( b) ,1-CtC.

F 8 ;:-- \ 1 c )_ S \&" D

cr: ~ t (iV', ('_! fCr"~ 1

Cl Y\ d. ~-5t ~ 4 ) (.:.0..,,-,\ DJ- i.d'. e.d ;-:i{,' dri C-t ·n-,.f l"I..l!_- r f.) i /.t(~. a."

cr \;t:,'rv {;. --r(:l: b·'l.Lt~tf_d r1~1 -(,_ N {B ~3 f ~,tt(_, h (': lfu;'

<:.l,j ~~-. (J 1 G ri (1..1. <d 1-t' -' {; (\.;. cU { (r 1.{(.v1, !;tlH~ I, ~

t .'

l/ ) ~l

qc,.c 7';, c gc, c.

1~·-c lo,t,

Gr·c

(;.', C

'C I .... I I

t_;""(, 0 (D·C

,

4~·G ~ C·CI

3<·,(:

~u· 0 f) ~-o JD,C

f~, C ~c· c ~-·0

() .r

f£ .J 01 ( hi == ;'-1 c N") I~· c G

~ I I ~ Ir

p ,L'G 11· be 1 ~ . 17- If''·"l-6

W' '31 Ie ' c I

~ . b ~

H·.h· ,G· (r

q,32 q. to g.l~

~', of:

p, Y7 g.2( g. qs ~. ,e

i·1C Il' '1 S 16· ~ J

g'J~

g·t';e~c~ r. qf 1· >q~

-"(. g?

.( , ~~

Mba_I

1:6) G>hj .. j

A J.5 (J -» 0 H,-.~ )

~p ~~h~ C. l $( ~~ 1:

.. q·h,·CL ~ih 1':- J i)-. ~(nv f

-3' 1-

:d 1t.-llc,-u'.s 1J~al

CM p~: ~/ /- S/~1' ~-~/I~(/~~ • -: .. -;_._._ ) ~ ft

:,'7

(\ Y\cl fl,;J.V 1~·9

Fr, :-~ _jj_£ -,) 5-- fo"~_D_ ._. __

- «: rr=--( fi)\;' J e'.lb.v. t) -t {!;fj )~'" P

fb.- .. , __ .~lO)_·~ ~ _

- _- 11- (1_~'1 ) ~~>}~ r -~i(")S

__ 7·8(, k N

J + __t_ s;

3"7-·

p ~~ (' -'t1(,t JAM )~ ( '.;.{( (I?} If_-~,,)l, ,~.-{Cl.- e= o f ltv. V(t_'&L(

c t f.r~ it, ~ d fJe.-'\ v.. ..... ( hA.XJ but - 1 C'[_. {Lv~ ~1 II V t:{ [} /:s'N~ U !) \ItLl.Lct of ()) fB t:l.l\ ctfJ-~i2d- i, ? ~ l N

.\

/

! ~ r---i-- .---

) (, I---'t-------.----+--f-

\

:: f-------'I----\--+------'----. __ -. - ._. _~ .

... __ .\~._ }'J o,~"

6

~ ~; --+--~-----

~ ~----+_----4----------

__ -I!-"

_.

_ .. - --

~ ... -----t-------1r-------I----

2_1/l

1, 1 DAr. (lp!=n tank has J ' .. erucu; part.t.on ~nd O~ Ofl~ ~I ~~ runUUm gasoliue wiili I!I ;:kn~jIY p - 700 k~l/m~ ut a depth cf 4 1l'1. ~ shown in Flg. P2 1 !I.A rectangular gare tr.~l i..§ 4 m hl~h a.'Id l m ."".[U~ :iIld hi n.g~ at {IJ1~ end i~ liJL"~~~J in the partit.on. Wat~r is siO'\'l.'ly added tn '.he empty side of Ul~ tank. A; .... I·,~{ d..."1'lh, ft, will the gale Start lI.l o ?~n ~

! .~,

'Rj :.=- t, )-'c ~ i+ ~

I..) r.e n' '} to; LU ~ +.-, ')'<1"'" 1 '.1 €

J:R s: (70u~. Vet. ~ J ~ ') ("hI1 ': (1- i.

i ~~; '. 51., ~ ,

J

i let I'e.. N == ~ \ 0 h r~'

!fC':;_ .. r

-=- 0- w- ),~ u.r ;"!.,. 1...-

f...0'" n +-eY5 ""):.1;0 wC{..~y- ,

( 3N·C'\( , 'l~();-:"It').;;~) 4il,1 ....... )I:.'I"'I)

n ~'!> d~pTh ~~ wa.~'r"', ('L~o /.IDJ).{:l.

;Cc-y € ~ u) II !;> r ~ ,.f« )

l'

----- .. ,

1

.. :.:.;.. 1I ~ ~ r-

~.

r,

',,

.... ~ ~I (I ':L \ t ~ \, _ ( ... j u .. :... ~i-

, •• ; .. ,-' ,. A ' ,. • .. 1 ' I r- ._., I _. ,~ : I· -:.... ~~" .'

! fl iJ,:' , ., '; . :.; ~,;" I ,! . r , " ... ~ "3 .J - : ,",.'... /,-~

I .... ::

3.5"5 {y{l

w h,~ l1

i~

;,- r ' ~-

L__ __ ... _

)_ -t.:

1

e »

2,71 A 1,2 m by 0.9 m massless rectangular gate is used to close the end of the water tank

shown in Fig. P2. 71. A 890 N weight attached to the arm or the gate at a distance f from

the frictionless hinge is just sufficient to keep the gate closed when the water depth is 0_6

m, that is, when the water fills the semicircular lower portion of the tank. If the water

were deeper the gate wouJd open. Determine the distance t .

• F= l G U R. E P2.7j

C~tt L}· J, 1~ ) ~(~~J ;.~) (ltl~:~t) z:

~ t~ (C .. ).~ t 6R)

_ (1·.41 XU) j~ ) l~ '-lif. ;f_1h

g~o N

J_.

r·2. 7.2:._J

I I

L ..

---- --_._-----_._.

2. 1.2 /"\ rc.;,'{-:,J Il:t! Iii ~11 ~i~[C ~ h~11 )S 2 'n \'r·i ... k· :', IOCJ.t~(~ ; n I he ~r[ll'i,l \~~ 11 "f iJ 1 an /-.: conta ;n''''~: wercr ~~ shown in r;_~ r2,7,2..][ I~ d~slrc{/ k) h.wc t~ r:'~~ open uu L{ml.~ [; I'.~ I I Y whc n lii ~ J~p1 h ,',f \'·~[;."'r ~I,()~'~ [h~ [,,[.' <jf HI':: gJr-= reaches 111 'r. (~) il.1 ... 'I.I[ disranct-. d. ~h~11r:,1 ihe fri~II,<nk~" JHu i~"'lI~' ~ h~fr he [,:-.:., I ed? C b) W h,"~ I~ the ; .. : '!!oil, _ (I~I i~' ~)f rhe r~-. (('-"_~ ~)[I ~ h"=.: /.II~: ~"'" I~' ~ I I~ or: I .... J

I 1Q r-t

-+-

i

4 I~

,

(4) .4..:; de.pi"h ircreese: :n~ c~~-r.rr ( Pd'_~S4Y"<:' 1'-::--:6!Jf~, ~1L'~t·.~· ~
l.Jt Int= :.: ~.: r ~ r : I .~.
r:;f the. 5aft. I.f f..J.'1! i,'c.~ ~~ n,nj'- r. L _i.~ ':".J.I1f.'i n"e.pl"f. -= I r.: ~'" ~
-1M 1Ate. £A,h' i~ ~f¥'."1 a u t~77ai,("~;/ . .' i-r..~ a ..... ~; -H~r{~fr I r .. :· r f?.v5t;_ ._ ~( .0',;. 'I,.

:,-:' .. -

--_--

- .~ .....

,..' .; r ...

I .. ~ ,I r..,..,-. - " C ''''1

c: __ .::.. .. Co .4 .. ! c;. ""~ ..k ~_,' .,' . (

"h, , J ~ .:!' / ;i. .-"t:r'= .,: I ,;...., v. 1,0-,-:....-.

;~ _. '(_._ l - :;'''':J

.. ~ 4-

.:: -6~

2.73 A thin 1.2 m wide, right-angle gale with neg] igible mass is free to pivot about a

frictionless hinge at point 0, as shown in Fig. P2_73. The horizontal portion of the gate

covers a 0.3 m diameter drain pipe which contains air at atmospheric pressure_ Determine

the minimum water depth, h, at which the gate will pivot to allow water to flow into the

pipe.

_ FIG U R E: p 2. _ 73

~.' ~ l

~-- !21,tIA.t' .Ct !J9r_~ U tv..__,.

i: Mc·-'C

FR. I y_ tl ~ (~)_ 1, 'iF k I :-.. 'i ~ (" I /4 [

.:: \.TJ tl c -h' J--

Rr~ _, ~ .- ·f-tf--C0 C;vv .A{ .j, rkl 7 un tit_( -rtrt:_l~&t.v q s; jti

t., • [ 'I' .. (' r·\. .>\ ) ~.\_. ,

. r·

I

( ~ 8& G h}_.J I !~_ ) z: (( Q. "j -h 1 (C' ? M )

\_ ._.

:2.7 Lf

----------------------------_.y,

'2 J 'f A 11 Open I eel ~rL~IIL~r rank is 2 m wide <II,d 4 HI I~)n~. The t8nl; ~II{" i n~ water Lu u dep I h ()f"2 m and 011 (SC ~ 0.8) On !(Jp of the w.,rCI to) a depth or 1 Ill. 1 kl<':Hlli ue the m~gllitLille and J,)~~ tion of the rem't~ 11 t tl~ljd force acti Il~ un (ln~ elld of the tank.

.oJ: _.- ---.---------.l~ .~

~'?:j/ ~!I Cc, ~ , ....

··r

I=" .4.--- I,

II! ""2 .: ) 1

• ~_.,:..... -------.~/ "'2:, ••• -- I' :

~,,!"'.L1.· .... ~Y r: ...... .::i..~..::-.~.. ~

~ - - -or ... --.-:f <

5~_: . ., ,_j~

._. -----_. -.,..

,

~c~ fi. lIf "1h~ (~e~ ./I'~"'''')

e- s. , {"

f",

, /':"",'

J ... ',

. \1 b)"\.'.i"'J' .. /

{/~. ~ 'I 1 '( i - 'I - ,',' I .... ~ ~ _..,.. ) . , I " ",,3/ .:l. -/. '

.~

··~.~...:...:-:i

'L i ~ ~ I ~ • I : I ". I) ." I

.c;~ = ThJ.<5 )

).f ..• '"; .

J',.,__. J" '::,L .: .. )~. /0 ~r_,_'}

'"=' _._,'-

..... co. ; . .:

c: .. ::I R/ I

._.'j.,e~~ dk .~ di~ h.F,!<~ h ~ :}/~Lo<:. 7~!.I '=.:,.. I o,,;I~.l «(j 1r.""".,~,.' 1he Cf'rifl'~/·d~ b/ lhtl"r "e~rctij(! }HI!JJ"."'~ FV(l"'_S ... "i: f..,,'i'''J ~~7

, .~... ,

CJ I:&:' ? L ) ...... , ) ) ll}.:::! .1.,.., -t f ~ -........... rl J I .1-' ..,....:;i; :.i. ........

!-"##"t ~} '~: )

""I ;0 r: 1 ,I .J[~ V,._ '

. . . - ~ I' 3 1\ e >» ...

(

'3<;. 1 Jr: to' > ( .......

£" ..

. re« .~~ t: " ~ I~ ~:-:- •

,,:-,:,'

? -71

I "'Z, 7.5

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2.76 The closed vessel of Fig. P2_76 contains water with an air pressure of 69 kPa at the

water surface. One side () f the vessel contains a spout that is closed by a 15 em diameter

circular gate that is hinged along one side 3S illustrated. The horizontal axis of the hinge

is located 3 m below the water surface. Determine the minimum torque that must be

applied at the hinge to hold the gate shut. Neglect the weight of the gate and friction at

the hinge.

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2.77 A 1.2 ill tall, 20.3 em-wide concrete (23 06 kN/m l) retaining wall is built as shown in

Fig. P2.77. During a heavy rain, water fills the space between the wall and the earth

behind it to a depth h. Determine the maximum depth of water possible without the wall

tipping over. The wall simply rests on the ground without being anchored to it.

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2.78 Water backs up behind II concrete dam as shown in Fig, P2_78.

I .eakage under the foundation gives a pressure distribution under the darn as indicated. If the water depth, h, is. too great, the dam will topple over about its toe (point ,4), For the dimensions given, determine the maximum water depth lor the following widths 0 r the dam: f = 6,9,12,15 and t 8 m . Base your analysis on a unit length of the dam, The specific weight or the concrete is 23.6 kN!m3•

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2.81 A 0.6 m diameter hemispherical plcxiglass "bubble" is to be used as a special

window on the side of an above-ground swimming pool. The window is to be bolted onto

the vertical wall of the pool and faces. outward, covering a 0.6 m diameter opening in the

wall. The center of the opening is 1.2 rn below the surface. Determine the horizontal and

vertical components of the force of the water on the hemisphere.

FB t» Q-f Wafer

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2.83 Two hemispherical shells are bolted together as shown in Fig. P2.83, The resulting

spherical container, which weighs 1-3 kN is filled with mercury and supported by 3 cable

as shown. The container is vented at the tnp. If eight bolts are symmetrically located

around the circumference, what is the vertical force that each bolt must carry?

~ . , ..

• F. G U REP 2 .83

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~~s ['/ ... v ,(1 Wt~}r. Nt( ~ _.iLU .

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2.84 The 5 ,5 m-Iong gale of Fig, P2.84 is a quarter circle and is hinged at H. Determine

the horizontal force. P. required to hoJd the gate in place. Neglect friction at the hinge

and the weight of the gate.

·I?IG l.fRE 1-"2.9 tt

p

r-~ ~ L.6A-_!u,1h' ("'rCfr-v ./,0 tx')cty- d..iO~.1_thvv r:;( ~P.t{.id 'hv:r£)_/ l_-r'1-.~C;

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"="~ ( q 'i) (J . .' .0L ) C- /t(g'M) It, [( "r"LJ 'A ~. S· hi) .: .. - 8"1- I 3- k. N .

, m3 ' J-- L

s, hl-"_. ~_a_.1) /"

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F y .;:_.: I--j .--=- 'O'HlO y., (l'c-·L~ n.'\( (i1- ft-q. d. )

~(crt!oc r: ,[ n (1.(j)"2 X ({_" (1vI)] =- 137,2 klV'·

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2.85 The air pressure in the top of the tv v 0 liter pop bottle shown in Video V2.5 and Fig.

P2_85 15 276 kPa, and the pop depth is 25 em, The bottom of the bottle has an irregular

shape with a diameter or II em. (a) lf thc bottle cap has a diameter of2.5 em what is

magnitude of the axial force required to hold the cap in place? (b) Determine the force

needed to secure the bottom 5 em of the bottJe to its cylindrical sides. For this calculation

assume the effect ol'the weight of the op is negligible. (c) By how much does the weight

of the pop increase the pressure 5 em above the bottom? Assure the pop has the same

specific weight as that of water.

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