iii UNIT 1 Present Continuous

A\ Xet tinh huong s au:

Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work.

Ann dang & trong xe hoi C6 ~y dang tren dirong di lam. She is driving to work.

C 6 ~y dang lai xe di lam.

Cau nay c6 nghia la: Co dy bay gia dang fat xe. T9i thoi di§m dang noi, hanh dong lai xe chua cham dtrt.

Am/is/are -ing la thi hien tai tiep diEn (present conJinuous)

B~ I am doing something = T6i dang lam viec gi do; T6i dang & gifra thoi di§m lam c6ng viec d 6; T 6i d a khoi sir va chua ho an t~t c 6ng vi~ c.

Thuong thi hanh dong dang xay ra tai thoi di§m n6i:

• Please don't make so much noise. I'm working. (rwt 'I work').

Xin dung lam Bn qua nhir v~y. T6i dang lam viec.

• 'Where's Margaret?' 'She's having a bath.' (rwt 'she has a bath'). 'Margaret & clau v§Y?' 'C6 8v clang t3m'

• Let's go out now. It isn't raining any more. (rwt 'It doesn't rain').

Bay giG' chung ta hay di ra ngoai. Troi kh6ng con mira nfra.

• (ataparly) Hello, Jane. Are you enjoying the party? (not 'do you enjoy'). {tai mrt buSt fife) Xin chao Jane. B 911 c 6 thich buBi ti~ c nay kh6ng?

• I'm tire d. I'm going to bed now. Go 0 dnightl

T 6i met rBi. T 6i di ngu bay giG' day. Chuc ngu ngon nhe !

Nhung hanh dong kh6ng nhat thiet xay ra tai thoi di§m dang n6i. Vi du nhu:

T om and Ann are talking in a cafe. T om says:

Tom va Ann dang n6i chuyen trong quan caphe. Tom n6i:

I'm reading an intere sting book at the moment. I'll lend it to you when I've finished it.

Luc nay t6i dang doc mot quyen sach hay. T6i se cho b911 muon khi nao toi doc xong.

Tom kh6ng doc sach VaG luc n6i voi Ann. Anh ~y mudn n6i la anh ~y da khoi sir doc cudn s ach d 6 nhung chua d Q c xong. Anh ~y dang trong thoi gian d Q c.

Xem them mot s 6 vi du:

• Catherine wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian. (Vao thoi di§m noi c6 th§ c6 h kh6ng phai dang hoc tiEng Y).

• Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope it will finished before next sununer.

Chung ta dung thi present continuous kill n6i v§ nhtrng vi~ c xay ra tai mot kho ang thoi gian gk voi luc noi, vi du nhir today (h6m nay), this week (tuan nay), this evening (chieu nay) v.v ...

• "You're working hard today." "Yes, I have a lot to do" (not 'you work hard today').

• " I s Susan working this we ek?" "N 0, she's on holiday" .

C Chung ta dung thipresentcon.Jinuous kill n6i v§ nhfrng thay dBi dang di§n ra trong thoi gian n6i:

• The population of the world is rising very fast, (not 'rise').

Dan s6 th§ gioi dang gia tang r~t nhanh.

• Is your English getting better?

Ti§ng Anh cua ban kha hon rBi chir?


Present Simple

A Xet tinh huong sau:

Alex is bus driver, but now he is in bed asleep. So:

He is not driving a bus. (He is asleep) but He drives a bus. (He ts a bus drtver.)

(Alex la mot tai x§ Hi xe buyt, nhung bay giCr' anh ~y dang ngu). Vi vay:

Anh ~y kh6ng phai dang lai xe (Anh dy dang ngU) nhtrng Anh ~y lai xe buyt. (Anh dy fa tat x$ xe buyt).

Drive(s)/Work(s)/Do(es), v.v ... la thipresentsimple (thi hien tai don).

Chung ta dung thi present simple dE noi m.;!t each chung chung v§ nhtrng sir v~t hay sir viec nao do. Ta kh6ng chi rieng d§ cap d§n hien tai rna th6i. Chung ta dung thi nay dE n6i v§ nhtrng sir viec, hanh dQng xay ra thirong xuyen hay l~p di l~p 1~ hoac nhfrng sir viec hi~n nhien dUng n6i chung. Sl,l' viec dang noi c6 di§n ra luc d6 hay kh6ng la kh6ng quan trong.

• Nurses look after patients in hospitals.

• I usually go away at we ekends.

• The earth go e s round the sun.

Hay nhrr rang ta n6i: he/she/it -s. Bung quen them s vao dQng tir.

• I work ... nhung He works ...

• They teach nhung My sister teaches.

B Chung ta dung do/do e s et § et?t cau nghi v§n va phu dinh:


does I1we/they he/she/it

I1we/youlthey he/she/it don't


work? work? work work

• I come from Canada. Where do you come from?

• "Would you like a cigarette?"

• "No, thanks. I don't smoke" .

• What do e s this word mean?

• Rice doesn't grow in cold climates. (Lua kh6ng moe dmrc &' vung khi hau lanh)

Trong nhtmg vi du sau do cUng 18. etong tU' chinh:

• "What do you do?" (= "What's your job?) "I work in a shop".

• He's so lazy. He doesn't do anything to help me. (not 'He doesn't anything.')

Chung ta dung thipresent simple kill muon di§n dat mire eto thirong xuyen xay ra cua sir viec:

• I get up at 8 0' clock every morning.

• Ann doesn't drink tea very often.

• In summer John usually plays tennis onc e or twic e a we ek.

D I promise/I apologise, v.v ...

Kill ban hira lam viec gi do, ban c6 th§ n6i I promise ... ; kill ban ete nghi dieu gi, ban c6 th§ n6i I suggest .... Chung ta dung thi present simple (promise/suggest v.v ... ) trong nhtrng cau nhir vay:

• I promise I won't be late. (not 'I'm promising').

• t, What do you sugge st I do T' . "I sugge st that you ... "

Tirong tu chung ta n6i: I apologise ... / I insist .... (nan ni) I I agree ... (et6ng y) I I refuse (tir chdi) v.v ...

Hay nghien ciru cac loi giai thich va so S anh cac vi du S au:

P rese nt co nti n U 0 us (I am doing)

Hay dung thi Present Continuous dE diEn ta nhfrng sir vi~c xay ra ngay luc ta n6i hay xung quanh thoi diEm d 6, va hanh d Qng chua cham dirt.

• The water is b oiling. Can you turn it off? (NU'&c dang soi. Ban c6 thE t~t bep diro'c kh6ng)

• Listen to those people. What language are they speaking? (Hay nghe nhfrng ngiroi kia. HQ dang n6i tieng mrrrc nao v~y?)

• Let's go out. It isn't raining now.

(Minh ra ngo ai di. Hien troi kh6ng mira d au. )

• "Don't disturb me. I'm busy." "'Why? What are you doing?" ("BUng quay d.y t6i. T 6i dang ban. II II S ao? Ban dang lam gi d 6? ")

• I am going to bed now. Goodnight! (T6i di ngu day. Chuc ngu ngon!)

• Maria is in Britain at the moment. She's learning English. (Maria hien giG' dang fr Anh qudc. C6 §.y dang hoc tieng Anh.)

Hay dUng thi Present Continuous dE diEn dat m6t tlnh huBng hay trang thai c6 tinh ch§.t tam thm.:

• I'm living with some friends until I find a flat.

(T6i hien fr chung vCr'i may nguoi ban cho dEn khi t6i tim dU'IJC mot can ho.)

• "You're working hard today" "Yes, I've got a lot to do."

(" H 6m nay b an lam vi~ c v§.t va that" II U, minh c 6 nhieu vi~ c phai lam qua. ")

Xem them UNIT 1.

Present Simple (I do)

Hay dung thi Present Simple dE de cap toi cac sir viec mot each chung chung, hay nhtrng sir vi~ c ducc lap di l~p 19i,

• Water b oils at 100 de gre esc elcius. (NU'&c s6i fr 100 dQ C).

• Excuse me. Do you speak English? (Xin Wi. Ban n6i dU'IJC tieng Anh kh6ng?)

• It doesn't rain very much in the summer. (Troi kh6ng rmra qua nhieu vao mua he.)1

• What do you usually do at we ekends? (Ban thuong lam gi vao cudi tu§n?)

• I always go to bed before midnight. (T6i thuong di ngu tnrrrc 12 gio dem)

• Most people learn to swim when they are children. (H:iu het moi nguoi ho c b oi khi ho con nho.)

Hay dung thi Present Simple etE diEn dat mot tinh huong hay trang thai c6 tinh 6n dinh, lau dill:

• My parents live in London. They have lived there for all their lives. (Cha me t6i s6ng fr London. Hai nguoi eta s6ng fr et6 suet doi.)

• John isn't lazy. He works very hard most of the time.

(J ohn kh6ng hnri et au. H ~u nhir luc nao anh ~y cfing lam vi~ c r~t cham chI.)

Xem them UNIT 2.

B I always do va I'm always doing.

Th6ng thuong chung ta dUng" I always do something" (= TOi Iuc nao ding fa m vi9C do):

• I always go to work by car.

T6i 1u6n di lam bang xe hoi. (khong noi 'I'm always going').

B an cfing c 6 thE n6i "I'm always doing something", nhung voi mot y nghia khac. Lay vi du:

• I've 10 st my key again. I'm always 10 sing things.

T 6i 19.i lam mat chia kh6 a. T 6i 1u6n lam mat et,5.

• "I'm always 10 sing things" kh6ng c 6 nghia la t6i luc nao cfing lam mat et,5 rna c 6 nghia la vi~ c t6i lam mat et,5 xay ra qua thirong xuyen, nhieu han binh thirong .

• "You're always -ing" c6 nghia ban lam vi~c et6 r~t thirong xuyen, sir thirong xuyen rna nguoi

Chung ta chi dung thi Present Continuous voi cac hanh etQng hay cac sir kien (nhir they are eating/it is raining ... ) M Qt s 6 d ong tir, vi du nhir know va like kh6ng phai la nhfrng etQng tir hanh etQng. Ban kh6ng thE n6i 'I am knowing' hay 'they are liking'; Ban chi c6 thE n6i "I know", "they like" .

Nhfrng etQng tir sau etay kh6ng duo'c dung voi thi Present Continuous:

like love hate want
need prefer know realise
suppose mean understand believe
remember belong contain consist
depend seem • I'm hungry. I want something to eat. (not 'I am wanting') T 6i d ang d 6i. T 6i muon an mot chut gi d 6.

• Do you understand what I mean?

Ban c6 hieu y t6i muon n6i gi kh6ng?

• Ann doesn't seem very happy at the moment.

Luc nay dirong nhir Ann kh6ng diro'c vui.

Khi think duo'c dung voi nghia believe (tin tuong), ta kh6ng dung thi Present Continuous:

• What do you think (= believe) will happ en?

Ban nghi diEu gi se xay ra? (khong dung '"W'hat are you thinking')


• You look serious. What are you thinking about? (="W'hat is going on in your mind?)

Ban tr6ng that nghiern nghi. Ban dang nghi diEu gi v~y? (cat gi dtin ra trong tam tri ban njy?)

• I'm thinking of giving up my job. (= I am considering) T6i dang nghi toi chuyen th6i viec (= TOt dang xem xet)

Khi have c 6 nghia s fr hfru (possess),. v. v ... ta kh6ng dung voi thi condnuous (xem UNIT 17):

• We're enjoying our holiday. We have a nice room in the hotel. (not 'we're having') (Chung t6i hill long voi ky nghl cua chung t6i. Chung t6i c 6 mot phong t6t fr khach san.)


• We're enj oying our holiday. We're having a great time.

Chung t6i hill long voi ky nghl cua chung t6i. Chung t6i dang c 6 m6t kho ang thoi gian hanh phuc.

I See, hear, smell, taste

Ta thirong dung thipresent simple (kh6ng dung conlinuous) voi nhtrng dQng tir dum day:

• Do you see that man over there? (not 'are you seeing') Ban c6 nhin thay ngiroi dan 6ng d:fug kia kh6ng?

• This room smells. Let's open a window.

Phong nay c6 mui. Ta rrur cira s6 ra di.

Chung ta thmmg dung can+seelhear/smeWtaste:

• Listen! Can you hear something?

CM y! Ban c6 nghe thay gi khong?

Nhirng ban c 6 th,§ dung thi continuous voi see (I'm seeing) mang y nghia "having a me eting with" (g¢jp mat, g¢jp go) d~c biet fr thi tuong 1ai (Xem UNIT 19A):

• I'm seeing the manager tomorow morning.

Sang mai t6i se g~p ngiroi quan 1Y.

C He is selfish va He is being selfish

BQng tir be chia fr tillpresentconJinuous la I am being/He is being. You are being v.v ...

• I'm being = I'm behaving 1/ am acting. So sanh cac cau sau:

• I can't understand why he's being so selfish. He isn't usually like that.

T6i kh6ng hieu tai sao giG' anh ta lai to ra ich kY nhir v~y. Blnh thirong anh §.y ctau co nhir v~y ctau.

(B eing selfish = behaving s elfihs1y at the moment = ha nh vi ic h ky tat thot diJ m do) nhung

• He never thinks ab out other people. He is very selfish.

Anh ta kh6ng bao giG' nghi ctEn ngiroi khac ca. Anh ta r§.t ich kYo

(= Not chung fa tinh anh ta ich ky, khong chi rieng vao Iuc nao cd)

Chung ta dung am/is/are being ct E noi hanh vi cua ngiroi khac nhir the nao, va kh6ng thirong diro'c dung trong nhfing tnrong hop khac, chang han nhir:

• It's hot today.

H6m nay troi nong (khong dung 'it is being hot')

• Sarah is very tire d.

Sarah r~t met (khOng dung 'Sarah is being tired')

D Look va feel

Ban co thE dung till present simple hay connnuous khi diEn ta dang ve hay cam giac cua ngiroi nao ct 0 vao thoi ctiEm noi:

• You look well today. hay You're looking well today.

H6m nay tr6ng ban khoe ct§.y.

• H ow do you fe el now? hay H ow are you fe eling now?

Bay giG' ban cam thay the nao?


• I usually fe el tire d in the morning.

T6i thirong cam thay met vao bu6i sang. (not 'I'm usually feeling')

II UNIT 5 Past Simple

A Xem xet vi du s au:

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and c omp 0 s er. He live d from 1756 to 1791. He starte d c omp 0 sing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pie c e s of music. He was only 35 years old when he die d.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart la mot nhac sf'va nha SOC;ln nhac ngtan €o. 6ng sang tic ndm 1756 d@n ndm 1791. 6ng bat dJu SOC;ln nhac Iuc ndm fu6i va da vih han 600 ban nhac. 6ng chh kh: 6ng chi mat 35 fu6i.

Live d/Starte d/wrote/was/ die d d Eu fr till past simple.

II Thirong till ctQng tir tillpast simple tan cung bang -ed (ctQng tir c6 qui t~c - regular verbs):

• I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worke d in a shop.

T6i hien giG' dang lam fr mot van phong du lich. Tnrrrc ctay t6i la vi~c fr mot cua hieu

• We invite them to our party but they de ride d not to come.

Chung t6i d a moi ho dir ti~ c voi chung t6i nhimg ho d a quyet dinh kh6ng d En.

• The p olic e stopp e d me on my way home last night.

• She pas sed her examination be caus e she studie d very hard.

Nhung c 6 nhieu d Qng tir b:it qui t~c (irregular) khi fr till past simple kh6ng tan cung b kg - e d.

Vi du:

write - wrote

Mozart wrote more than 600 pie c e s of music. We saw Rose in town a few days ago.

I went to cinema thre e time s last we ek. I t was cold, sol shut the window.

see - saw go -went shut- shut

Xem bang liet ke c ac d Qng tir b:it qui tac.

t Trong cac cau nghi van va cac cau phu dinh chung ta dung did/didn't + infinisive (enj oy/ s e e/ go ... )

I enjoyed She saw They went

Did you enjoy? I didn't enjoy

Did she see? She didn't see

Did they go? They didn't go

• A: Did you go out last night?

• B: Yes, I went to the cinema but I didn't enjoy the film much.

• "When did Mr. Thomas die?" "Ab out ten years ago."

• They didn't invite her to party, so he didn't go.

• "Did you have time to write the letter?" "No, I didn't".

C §n than kill do la d Qng tir chinh trong cau:

• What did you do at the we ekend? (khong n6i 'w ha t did you at the wee ke nd ~

• I didn't do anything. (khong n6i 'I didn 't do anything')

D Qua khir cua be (ami is! are) la was/ were:

llhe/ she/it

was we/you/they?

llhe/ she/it?


we/you/they were/weren't were

Ghi chu rang ta khong dung did trong cau nghi v§n va phu dinh voi was/were.

• ~ was angry be caus e they were late.

• Was the weather go 0 d when you on holiday?

• They weren't able to come because they were so busy.

• Did you go out last night or were you to 0 tire d?

II UNIT 6 Past Continuous

A Hay xem vi du sau:

Ye sterday Karen and Jim playe d tennis. They began at 10 0' do ck and finishe d at 11.30. So, at 10.30 they were playing tennis.

Hom qua Karen va Jim chat qudn vat. Ho aa uit aJu chat Iuc 10h va kh thuc Iuc llh30

V ~y luc 1 0 h30 ho d ang choi quan vot.

They were playing = "H Q et ang &' gifra cUQ c choi luc et 6 va ho chua ket thuc cUQ c choi. " Was/were -ing la tillpastconJimious (qua khir tiep diEn):


llhe/ she/it was doing


were working


B Chung ta dung till past condnuous d E diEn ta mot ngiroi nao d 6 et ang thuc hien mot c ong viec d&' dang tai thoi etiEm diro'c et~ cap. Hanh etQng hay sir viec eta xay ra tnrrrc thoi etiEm nay nhirng chua ket thuc.

• This time last year I was living in Brazil.

Vao thoi etiEm nay nam ngoai toi dang s6ng &' Brazil.

• ~t were you doing at 10 0' do ck last night?

• 1 waved to her but she wasn't looking.

c So S anh till past condnuous - qua khir tiep diEn (I was doing) va past simple - qua khir d an (I did):

Past co nti n U 0 us (d ang fr gifra hanh d Qng)

• 1 was walking home when 1 me et Dave. (= fr gifra dirong di vE nha t6i g~p Dave)

• Ann was watching television when the phone rang.

Ann dang xem TV khi dien tho ai reng.

Past simple (hoan tit hanh dQng)

• 1 walke d home after the party last night. (= t6i da di vE nha, hoan tit).

• Ann watche d television a lot when she was ill last year.

Ann d a xem TV d.t nhieu khi c 6 §.y b enh nam ngo ai.

D Ta thirong dung till past simple va past condnuous cung voi nhau dE diEn ta mot sir viec xay ra vao luc dang xay ra mot sir vi~ c khac:

• Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.

• 1 saw you in the park ye sterday. You were sitting on the gras s and reading abo ok.

• While 1 was working in the garden, 1 hurt my back.

Nhirng chung ta dung till past simple khi mot su vi~ c xay ra s au mot su vi~ c khac:

• 1 was walking along the road when 1 saw Dave. Sol stopp e d and we had a chat.

Khi dang di tren dirong till t6i g~p Dave. T6i da dirng 19i va chung t6i cung tro chuyen.

Hay so s anh hai cau s au dE thay ro su khac biet vE y nghia:

• When Karen arrive d, we were having dinner.

Khi Karen toi, chung t6i dang an t6i.

(= Chung tot da an tat truoc kh: Karen tbi.)

• When Karen arrive d, we had dinner.

Khi Karen toi, chung t6i an t6i.

~ (= Karen tot truce rat sau do chung tot an tat.)


~ Co mot s6 dQng tir (vi du nhu know! want! believe) kh6ng diro'c dung fr cac till continuous

(xem UNIT 4A dE biet them chi tiet):

• We were good friends. We knew each other well. (not 'we were knowing') Chung t6i la nhtmg ngiroi ban t6t. Chung t6i hieu ro vE nhau.

• 1 was enjoying the party but Chris wanted to go home. (not 'was wanting') T6i da r§.t thich bu6i tiec nhirng Chris muon vE nha.

II UNIT 7 Present Perfect (1)

A Xet vi du sau:

Havel has 10 st la thi Present perfect simple

• Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.

Tom dang tim chi@c chia khoa. Anh ay khong tim thay no.

• He has lost his key.

Anh da lam mat c hi@c c hia khoa cua a nh ay

" He has 10 st his key" = Anh §.y lam mat chie c chia kh6 a va 0 En b §.y giG' v§n chua tim ra.

Thi Present perfect simple = Have/has + pastparliciple (qua khir pharr tir) thirong tan cung bang -ed (finished/dicided ... ) nhimg nhieu oQng tir quan trong lai la b§.t qui t~c - irregular (10 st/ donelb e en/written ... ).

B Khi chung ta dung thipresentpetject thi ludn ludn c6 mot sir lien M toi hien tai. Hanh oQng xay ra fr qua khir nhimg ket qua cua n6 lai fr hien tai:

• "'Where' s your key?" "I don't know. I've 10 st it." (I haven't got it now).

• He told me his name but I've forgotten it. (I can't remember it now).

• "Is Sally here 1" "N 0, she's gone out." (she is out now).

Chung ta thirong dung thipresent perfect oE dira ra mot thong tin moi hay cong b6 mot sir viec vira xay ra:

• Ow! I've cut my finger.

• The road is do sed. There's been (= but has been) an ac cident.

• (from the news) The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.

C anh sat vira b ~t hai ngiroi lien quan 0 En mot vu CU'&p.

C Ban c6 thE dung thipresent perfect simple voi just, already va yet:

Just = "a short time ago" (Vlia mot xdy ra truoc do).

• "Would you like something to eat?" "N 0, thanks. I've just had lunch."

• Hello. Have you just arrive d?

Xin chao. Anh vua moi 0 En phai khong.

Chung ta dung already oE n6i vE mot sir vi~c xay ra srrm han dir dean (nen xem Unit 110D):

• " Don't forget to post the letter, will you?" "I've already po ste d it."

"BUng quen gill thu nhe, ban se gill chir?". "Hi vua moi gill thu roi''.

• "What time is Mark leaving?" "H e' s already gone."

Yet = "until now - c ho d@n bay gid' va diEn ta ngiroi n6i mong cho' sir vi~ c nao d 6 xay ra. Chi dung yet trong cau nghi v§n va phu dinh. (xem UNIT 110C).

• Has it stopp e d raining yet?

• I've written the letter but I haven't posted it yet.

T 6i d a viEt xong la thu nhimg t6i chua kip gill.

D CM Y sir khac nhau gifra gone to va been to:

• Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Spain. (= he is there now or on his way there)

Jim dang di nghl. Anh §.y eta di Tay Ban Nha. (= Anh dy hi9n gio dang a do hay dang di tren duong).

• Jane is back home from holiday now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now comeback from Italy).

J ane hien giG' eta di nghl vE. C6 §.y eta fr Y. (=Co dy da ~ tic 0.

Xem them UNIT 8 va 125B.

'I UNIT 8 Present Perfect (2)

A Hay xem m1u et 6i thoai dum et ay:

Dave: Have you travelle d a lot, Jane?

Ban co di du Itch nhiJu khong, Jane?

Jane: Yes, I've been to a lot ofa places. Dave: Really? Have you ever been to China?

Thjt U'? Th@ ban da tung d@n Trung Quac chtsa?

Jane: Yes, I've been to China twice. Dave: What ab out India?

Jane: No, I've been to India.

Khi chung ta et E C?P toi mot kho ang thoi gian lien tuc hi qua khir et En hien tai, chung ta dung thipresentpelject (have been! have travelled ... ) 0 etay Dave va Jane dang n6i vE nhfrng noi rna Jane d a d En trong CUQ c d oi c 6 §.y (la kho ang thoi gian ke 0 dill et En hien tai)

• Have you ever eaten caviar? (in your life) Ban c 6 b ao giG' an m6n tnrng c a muoi chua?

• We've never had a car.

Chung t6i chua bao giG' c6 diro'c mot chiec xe hoi.

• "Have you read Hamlet?" "No, I haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays."

"Ban d a d Q c Hamlet chua?" "Chua, t6i chua d Q c tic pham nao cua Shake sp e ar ca."

• Susan really love s that film, She's seen it eight time s!

Sus an that sir thich cuon phim d 6. C 6 §.y d a xem cuon phim d 6 tam lanl

• What a boring filml It's the mo st boring film I've ever seen.

Cuon phim moi chan lam sao! B 6 la mot cuon phim d& nhat rna t6i tung xem.

Trong nhfrng vi du sau ngiroi diEn dat dang n6i vE khoang thoi gian rna lien tuc etEn bay giG' (recently / in the last few days / so fur / since breakfast v.v ... ):

• Have you heard from Ge orge re c ently?

G§n etay ban c6 duo'c tin gi vE George kh6ng?

• I've met a lot of people in the last few days.

T6i eta g~p nhieu ngiroi trong nhfrng ngay g§n etay.

• Everything is going well. We haven't had any problems so fur.

M oi chuyen d Eu t6t d ep. Lau nay chung t6i kh6ng g~p phien phirc gi.

• I'm hungry. I haven't eaten anything since breakfast. (= from breakfast until now) Minh doi rBi. Tir sang toi giG' minh chua an gi ca.

• It's nice to see you again. We haven't seen each other for a long time.

TMt la vui duo'c g~p 19.i ban. R§.t lau rBi chung ta kh6ng g~p nhau.

B\, Chung ta dung thi present perfect voi today/ this morning! this evening ... khi nhtrng khoang thoi gian nay chua kEt thuc vao thoi eti~m noi (xem UNIT 14B):

• I've drunk four cups of coffee today. (perhaps I'll drink more before today finished).

H6m nay t6i eta u6ng bon 1y ca phe. (co thJ tot con uong them nita truoc kht hh ngay hom nay).

• Have you had a holiday this year (yet)?

N am nay ban d a nghi phep chua?

• I haven't seen Tom this morning. Have you?

Sang nay t6i kh6ng g~p Tom. Ban c6 g~p kh6ng?

• Ron hasn't worked very hard this term.

Ron hoc kh6ng cham lam trong hoc ky nay.

t CM y 1:3. chung ta phai dung present perfect khi noi "It's the first time somthing has happened" (86 la 111 diu tien mot sir viec nao do da xay ra). Vi du nhu:

• Don is having a driving lesson. He is very nervous and unsure because it is the first Ie s son.

Don dang c6 bill hoc hi xe. iI11h §.y r§.t hBi h6p va 10 lang brri vi day la bill hoc etiu tien.

• It's the first time he has driven a car. (not "drive '') Bay 18. 111 (tiu hen anh §.y hi mot c ai xe hoi


• He has never driven a car before.

Tnrrrc gid anh §.y chua bao gid lai xe.

• Linda has lost her pastport again. It's the second time this has happened. (not "happen")

Linda lai lam mat hQ chieu. Bay la 111 tlnr hai xay ra chuyen nay.

• This is a lovely meal. It's the first good meal I've had for ages. (not "J have") That 18. mot baa an ngon. Bay 18. bfra an ngon diu hen cua toi trong nhieu narn.

• Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. That's the third time he's phone d her this evening.

Bi111ai dang goi dien thoai cho co ban gai cua anh §.y. B6 la 111 thir ba anh §.y goi dien cho

It has been raining. Xem vi du sau:

Is it raining?

No, but the ground is wet. I t has been raining.

Trot mot vim mua xong.

Have/has been - ing la till present perfect continuous.

I1we/they/you have (=I've etc.) been doing

I1we/they/you have (=I've etc.) been waiting
I1we/they/you have (=I've etc.) been playing
he/she/it has (=he's ect.) been doing
he/she/it has (=he's ect.) been waiting
he/she/it has (=he's ect.) been playing etc. Ta dung tillpresentpetjectcontinuous khi noi vE nhfmg hanh dong da ket thuc gin day hay moi vira ket thuc va ket qua cua no c 6 sir lien M hay anh huang toi hien tai:

• You're out to breath. Have you been running? (you are out of breath now)

Ban trong met dtrt hoi Ban vira moi chay phai khong? (hien gid anh §.y nhir dut hoi).

• Paul is very tire d. He's been working very hard. (he's tire d now)

Paul d.t met. Anh §.y vua moi lam vi~ c r§.t c ang. (bay giG' anh §.y d ang met).

• Why are your clothe s so dirty? What have you been doing?

Sao quan 8.0 ban b §n the. Ban vua moi lam gi v~y?

• I've been talking to Carol ab out the problem and she thinks that ...

Minh vua moi d E c ~p d En v§.n d E cua Carol va co §.y nghi la ...

B It has been raining for two hours. Xet vi du sau:

I t is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. Trai dang mua. Trai aa mua duoc hat gio rat va bay gio con dang mua. H ow long has it been raining?

I t has been raining for two hours. Trai aa mua duoc hat tieng a6ng h6.

Chung ta dung thi present perfect conduous cho nhfrng tnrong hop nay, et~c biet la dung voi how long, for ... va since ... Hanh etQng la v§n dang xay ra (nhu vi du tren) hay vua moi cham dirt.

• How long have you been learning English? (you're sti111earning English) Ban eta hoc tiEng Anh diro'c bao lau rBi? (ban v§n dang con hoc tiEng Anh)

• Tim is watching television. He has been watching television for two hours.

Tim dang xem TV. Anh §.y eta xem TV etU'1JC hai giG' rBi.

• Where have you been? I have been looking for you for the last half hour.

Anh eta 6' dau v~y? Toi eta tim anh rnra tieng etBng hB rBi.

• George hasn't been feeling well recently.

George vua moi cam thay khoe g§n etay.

Chung ta c 6 th~ dung thi present petject continuous et ~ chi nhfrng hanh et Qng lap di lap lai trong mot khoang thoi gian:

• Debbie is a very good player tennis. She's been playing since she was eight.

Debbie 18. mot van etong vien quan vat r§.t gioi. Co §.y eta choi quan vat tir khi len tam.

• Every morning they meet in the same cafe. They've been going there for years.

M6i sang ho lai g~p nhau 6' cung mot quan ca phe. HQ eta etEn quan et6 nhieu narn rBi.

t So sanh I am doing (xem UNIT 1) va I have been doing

• Don't disturb me now. I am working.

BUng quay d.y tdi bay gio. Tci dang lam viec.

• I've been working hard, so now I'm going to have a re st.

T oi d a lam vi~ c nhieu rBi nen bay giG' tdi s e di nghI.

• We ne e d an umbrella. It's raining.

Chung tdi c§n mot cay duo Troi dang rmra.

• The ground is wet. It's been raining.

M~t et§.t con irot. Troi eta rmra.

• Hurry up ! We're waiting.

• ~e've been waiting for an hour.

~ UNIT 10 Present Perfect Continuous and Simple

It N gillen cuu vi du s au:

• Ann's clothes are covered in paint. She has been painting the ceiling.

Quan ao cua Ann clinh to an san. Co §.y 0 ang san tran nha.

• The ceiling was white. N ow it is blue. She has painte d the ceiling.

Trk nha tnrrrc oay mau trang. Bay giG' no mau xanh. Co §.y oa san tran nha.

• Has been painting la till present perfect cantinuous (thi hi9 n tat hoan tha nh ti@p diff n): o oay chung ta quan tam oEn hanh oQng rna khong quan tam oEn hanh oQng oa hoan t§.t hay chua. 0 vi du tren, hanh oQng san nrong chua ket thuc.

• Has painted la tillpresentpetjectsimpie (thi hi9n tat hoan thanh): 0 till nay, oiEu quan trong la sir ho an thanh cua hanh 0 Qng. Has painte d la mot hanh 0 Qng 0 a ho an t§.t. Chung ta quan tam oEn kh qua cua hanh oQng chir khong phai ban than hanh oQng 06.

So sanh cac vi du sau:

• My hands are very dirty. I've been repairing the car.

T ay toi r§.t b §no T oi 0 ang sua xe.

• The car is OK again. I've repaired it.

ChiE c xe giG' lai t6t rBi. T oi 0 a sua no.

• She's been smoking to 0 much re c ently. She should smoke Ie s s.

Gk 0 ay co §.y hut thud c qua nhieu Co §.y nen hut it di.

• Some body has smoke d all my cigarette s. The packet is empty .

Ai 06 0 a hut het thud c cua tdi. G6i thud c trdng r6ng rBi.

• It's nic e to me et you again. What have you been doing sine e we last met?

R§.t mung g~p lai ban. Ban oa lam gi tir khi chung ta g~p nhau lan sau cling?

• Where' s the book I gave you? What have you done with it?

Cuon sach tdi oa tang ban oau rBi? Ban oa lam gi voi n6?

• Where have you been? Have you been playing tennis?

Ban oa fr oau v~y? Ban oa choi quan vot phai khong?

• Have you ever playe d tennis?

Ban 0 a tung choi quan vot chua?

• Chung ta dung thi continuous etE hoi hay n6i how long - bao lau (cho hanh etQng v§n con dang xay ra)

• H ow long have you been reading that book?

Ban eta doc cudn sach et6 duo'c bao lau rBi?

• Mary is still writing letters. She's been writing letters all day.

Mary v§n dang con vi~t thir. Co ~y eta vi~t thir ca ngay hom nay.

• They've been playing tenis since 2 o'clock.

HQ eta choi quan vot tir luc 2 giCr' .

• Chung ta dung thi simple etE hoi hay n6i how much, how many hay how many times (cho nhfrng hanh d Qng d a ket thuc)

• H ow many page s of that book have you read?

Ban eta doc diro'c bao nhieu trang cua cuon sach rBi?

• Mary has written ten letters to day.

Hom nay Mary eta vi~t dinrc mmri la thir.

• They've playe d tennis thre e time s this we ek.

HQ eta choi quan vot ba lan trong tuan nay.

MQt s6 etQng tir (vi du nhir know/likelbelieve) khong diro'c dung voi thi continuous.

• I've known about it for a long time. (rwt "I've been knowing")

Toi eta duo'c biet v§ eti§u et6 lau rBi.

Xem UNIT 4A etE biet bang liet ke cac etQng nr nay.

(I UNIT 11 How long have you (been) ... ?

A Xet vi du sau:

Bob and Alic e are marrie d. They got marrie d exactly 20 years ago, so to day is the 20th we dding anniversary.

They have been marrie d for 20 years.

Bob va Alice aa thanh han. Ho cuai nhau dung 20 ndm vJ truoc, vi Vtjy hom nay la ngay ky mem thu 20 ngay cuai cua hr. Ho aa ctan nhau duoc 20 ndm rat.

They are married (present) Ho aa cuai


How long have they been married? (presentpetject):

Ho aa cuai duoc duoc baa IJu rat? (Kh6ng n6i "How long are they married") They have been marrie d for 20 years. Ho aa cuai duoc 20 ndm rat.

(kh6ng n6i "They are married for 20 years")

Chung ta dung thi present perfect c1E n6i vE nhfrng sir viec b~t c1§.u trong qua khir va con tiep di§n c1En hien tai. Hay so sanh hai thipresentvapresentpetject qua cac vi du sau:

• Amy is in ho spital.

Amy c1 ang fr trong b enh vien. nhirng

• She has been in hospital since Monday. (not "Amy is in hospital since Monday") C 6 §.y d a nam vien tir thir hai.

• We know each other very well.

Chung t6i biet ro vE nhau.


• We have known each other for a long time. (not "we know") Chung t6i d a biet nhau kha lau rBi.

• Are you waiting for some body?

Ban dang cho' ai phai kh6ng?


• H ow long have you been waiting?

Ban c1a cho' duo'c bao lau rBi?

I I have been doing something (present perfect continuous) = T6i c1a khoi sir lam vi~c gi d 6 trong qua khir va t6i v§n d ang c on lam tiep (hay vua moi ngirng xong)

• I've been learning English for a long time (not "I'm learning") T 6i d a ho c tieng Anh lau rBi.

• Sorry I'm late. Have you been waiting long?

Xin 16~ t6i d En trE. Ban d a cho' t6i lau chua?

• It's been raining sine e I got up this morning.

Troi c1a mira nr luc t6i thirc d~y sang nay.

H anh d Qng c 6 thE l~p di l~p lai:

• "H ow long have you been driving? II II Sine e I was 17. II "Ban c1a lai xe diro'c bao lau rBi?" "Tir khi 17 tu6i."

C I have done (simple) hay I have been doing (conJinuous):

Thi connnuous thirong duo'c dung voi how long, since va for (xem UNIT 10B): • I've been learning English for a long time. (it dung "I've learnt")

Ban c6 thE dung ca hai thipresentva connnuous voi aQng tir live (sBng) va work (lam viec):

• John has been living / has live d in London for a long time.

John aa sBng fr LU3n B6n lau rBi.

• H ow long have you been working / have you worke d here?

Ban aa lam viec fr aay bao lau rBi?

Nhimg chung ta chi dung thi simple voi always:

• John has always lived in London. (not "has always been hving).

John 1u6n s Bng fr LU3n B 6n.

Ban c6 thE dung thi continuous hay simple cho nhfrng hanh aQng l~p di l~p lai trong mot khoang thoi gian dill:

• I've been colle cting / I've colle cte d stamp s sine e I was a child.

T 6i a a sU'U tap tem tir khi t6i con nho.

MQt sB aQng tir nhir know/likelbelieve kh6ng dinrc dung fr thi continuaus:

• How long have you known Jane? (khong not "have you been knowing") Ban a a biet Jane b ao lau rBi?

• I've had a pain in my stomach since I got up this morning.

T6i bi dau bung tir luc ngu d~y sang nay.

BE biet them bang cac aQng tir 10?i nay xem UNIT 4A. BE biet rfi han vE Have xem UNIT 17

D Chung ta dung thipresentpetjectsimple trong cau phu dinh nhir sau:

• I haven't seen Tom since Monday.

T6i kh6ng g~p Tom tir thir hai. (= ngay thir hai vua rBi la 1k cudi t6i g~p Tom).

• Jane hasn't phoned me for two weeks.

Jane kh6ng goi dien thoai cho t6i hai tuan nay. (= lan cudi c6 §.y goi dien cho t6i each aay hai


A Hay so sanh When .. ? (+ past simple) va How long .... ? (+presentpetject):

A: When did it start raining?

Troi rmra tir kill nao v~y?

B: It starte d raining an hour ago / at 1 0' do ck, Troi b~t cHu rmra each day mot giCr' Iluc 1 giCr'.

A: H ow long has it been raining?

Troi eta rmra lau chua?

B: It's been raining for an hour / sine e 1 0' do ek, Troi eta rmra duo'c 1 giCr' rBi I tir luc 1 gio.

A: When did Joe and Carol first me et?

Joe va Carol d a g~p nhau l§n d §.u tien kill nao v~y?

B: They first met a long time ago / when they were at school.

HQ eta g~p nhau lan et§.u tien eta lau rBi I kill ho con di hoc.

A: H ow long have Joe and Carol known each other?

Joe va Carol d a biet nhau b ao lau rBi?

B: They've known each other for a long time / since they were at school.

H Q d a biet nhau tir lau rBi I tir kill ho con di ho c.

B T a dung ca fo r va si n ce d E noi rang mot sir vi~ c xay ra trong b ao lau

Chung ta dung for kill noi vE mot khoang thoi gian (nhir two hours, six weeks ... ):

• I've been waiting for two hours.

T6i eta cho' hai tieng etBng hB rBi.

• Sally's been working here for six months. (khong not "since six months") Sally eta lam viec &' etay duo'c 6 thang.

Chung ta dung since kill etE cap toi sir b~t et§.u cua mot khoang thoi gian nao eto (nhir 8 0' dock, Monday, 1985 ... ):

• I've been waiting sine e 8 0' do ck, T6i eta cho' toi 8 gio.

• Sally's been working here sine e April. (= from April until now) Sally eta lam viec &' etay tir thang tir.

Cling co thE dung for trong cau khang dinh (nhirng trong cau phu dinh thi b~t budc).

• They've been maried (for) ten years. (dung for hay kh6ng cling duo'c) HQ eta cuoi nhau dinrc 10 nam.

• They haven't had holiday for ten years. (ban phai dung for trong cau nay).

H Q d a chua nghl phep 1§n nao mum nam qua.

Ta kh6ng dung for + all (all day, all my life .... )

• I've lived here all my life. (khong not "for all my life") T6i c1a s6ng fr c1ay ca doi t6i.

C Ta n6i "It's (a long time I two ye ars ... ) sine e something happ ene d" :

• It's two years since I last saw Joe. (= I haven't seen for two years = TOt aa khong gi;ip Joe hat ndm rat I LJn cuot cung tot gi;ip Joe each ddy aa hat nam)

B a hai nam tir khi t6i g~p Joe lan cuoi.

• It's ages since we went to cinema. (= We haven't been to cinema for ages = chung tot aa khong at xem phim nhtJu ndm rat)

B a nhieu nam chung t6i kh6ng di xem phim.

ThE nghi v§n la: H ow long is it sine e ... ?

• How long is it since you last saw Joe? (= When did you last see Joe? = Ban aa gi;ip Joe ldn cuot kh: new?)

Ba bao lau rBi tir khi ban g~p Joe lan cuoi ?

• How long is it since Mrs Hill die? (= When did Mrs Hill die? = Ba Hill aa mdt ndm


II UNIT 13 Present Perfect and past (1)

A Xem xet vi du s au:

• Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.

Tom dang tim ki@m chia khoa cua minh. Anh dy khong tim tMy.

• He has lost his key. (thipresentpetject)

Anh dy aa Jam mdt chia khoa cua anh dy.

BiEu nay c6 nghia la anh §.y hien gid kh6ng c6 chia kh6a.

MUm phut sau c16:

• Now T om has found his key. He has it now.

Bay gio Tom aa tim duoc chia khoa rat. Hien anh dy dang co chia khoa.

• Has he lost his key? (presentpetject) Anh dy bi mdt chia khoa rat a?

• No, he hasn't. He has found it.

Khong, anh dy khong lam mdt. Anh dyaa tim ra no.

• Did he lose his key? (past simple).

Anh dy aa mdt chia khoa phdi khong?

• Yes, he did.

Vdng anh dy aa lam mdt chia khoa.

• He lost his key (past simple) but now he has found it (presentpetjeci).

Anh dy aa lam mdt chia khoa nhung bay gio anh dy aa tim ra.

Thi present perfect la thi hien tai hoan thanh va 1u6n cho chung ta biet c1iEu gi c16 vE hien tai. " T om has 10 st his key" = hien gid anh §.y kh6ng c 6 chie c chia kh6 a cua anh §.y. (xem UNIT 7).

Con thi past simple cho chung ta biet vE qua khir. N Eu c 6 ai d 6 noi rang: "T om 10 st his key" chung ta kh6ng biet bay gid anh §.y c1a tim dinrc no hay chua. Chung ta chi biet la anh §.y c1a mat chia kh6a vao mot thoi c1iEm nao c16 trong qua khir.

Xem them hai vi du s au:

• Jack grew a beard but now he has shaved it off. (= he doesn't have a beard now) Jack d a d E rau nhimg bay giG' anh §.y d a c 9.0 het. (= bay giG' anh §.y kh6ng c 6 rau)

• They went out after lunch and they've just come back. (= they are come b ack now).

S au bfra tnra ho d a di ra ben ngo ai va bay giG' ho vua quay vE.

B Thi present perfect kh6ng duo'c dung neu kh6ng c 6 sir lien M voi hien tai (chang han nhfrng sir vi~ c d a xay ra mot thoi gian dai tnrrrc d ay).

• The Chinese invented printing. (khong not "have invented") N gum Trung Qudc eta phat minh ra viec in §.n.

• How many plays did Shakespeare write? {khong not "has Shakespeare written") Shakespeare eta S09.ll duo'c bao nhieu vfr kich?

• Beethoven was a great composer. (not 'has been') Beethoven d a la mot nha so an nhac vi d ai.

Hay so sanh:

• Shakespeare wrote many plays.

Shakespeare eta viEt nhieu vfr kich.

• My sister is a write. She has written many books. (she still writes books)

Chi t6i la mot nha van. Chi §.y eta viEt nhieu cudn sach. (hien giG' chi v§n can viEt sach).

C Chung ta dung tillpresentpelject etE dira ra nhfrng th6ng tin moi (xem UNIT 7). Nhimg neu chung ta tiep tuc noi vE dieu et 6, chung ta dung till past simple:

• A: Ow! I've burnt mys elf.

Oil T 6i et a bi phOng rBi.

B: How did you do that? (khong not "have you done").

B an d a bi nhir the nao?

A: I picked up a hot dish. (khr5ng not "have picked") T 6i d a nhac phai mot c ai rna n6ng.

• A: Look! Somebody has split milk on the carpet.

Nhin kia! C 6 ai d 6 d a lam d 6 sua tren tham.

B: Well, it wasn't me. I didn't do it. (khong not "hasn't been ... haven't done") 0, kh6ng phai t6i. T6i kh6ng lam chuyen do.

A: I wonder who it was then. (khong not "Who it has been")

till ai lam nhi.

A Chung ta kh6ng dung till present perfect (I have done) kill n6i vE mot thoi ctiEm d a ket thuc (chang han Ye sterday, ten minute sago, in 1985, When 1 was a child), rna kill d 6 chung ta phai dung till qua khir (past tense):

• The weather was nice yesterday. (khong noi "have been nice") H 6m qua thoi tiEt d ep.

• They arrived ten minutes ago. (khong noi "have arrived") H Q d a d En mum phut tnrrrc d 6.

• 1 ate a lot of sweets when 1 was a child. (khong noi "have eaten") T6i eta an nhieu keo kill t6i con la mot dira tre.

• A: Did you see the new on television last night? (khong noi "Have you seen") Ban c6 xem tin tire tren truyen hinh t6i qua kh6ng?

• B: No, 1 went to bed early. (khong noi "have gone") Kh6ng t6i qua t6i d a di ngu s om.

Chung ta dung till qua khir (past tense) d E hoi vE thoi gian When ... ? hay What time? .

• When did they arrive? (khong noi "have they arrived") H Q d a d En kill nao v~y?

• What time did you finish work?

Ban d a ho an thanh c 6ng vi~ clue may gio?

Hay so sanh:

Present perfect

• Tom has lost his key. He can't get into the house.

Tom aa lam mat chia kh6a. Anh ay khong thJ vao nh«.

o day chung ta kh6ng nghi vE hanh etQng ma nghi toi ket qua hien tai cua hanh etQng do: hien giCr' Tom kh6ng c 6 chia kh6 a vao nha.

Past simple:

• Tom lost his key yesterday. He couldn't get into the house.

Hom qua Tom aa lam mat chia khoa. Anh ay aa khong vao nha duoc.

o day chung ta n6i vE hanh etQng xay ra trong qua khir, rna kh6ng quan tam toi vi~c hien giCr' Tom c 6 chia kh6 a hay chua.


~ So sanh thi hien tai hoan thanh va qua khir (presentpetject va past simple) qua cac cau


• Present perfect (have done)

• I've done a lot of work to day.

Ham nay toi eta lam nhieu viec

Chung ta dung thi present perfect khi et@ cap toi mol khcang thoi gian hen tue Iii qua khir et@n hien tai, Vi du nhir: Today, this we ek, sine e 1985 .

• Past simple (did)

• I did a lot of work yesterday.

Ham qua toi eta lam nhieu viec.

Chung ta dung tni simple past khi ete cap tfu mal thoi et,em eta kfl thuc trong qua khir. Vi du nhir ye sterday, last we ek, from 1985 to 1991.

• It hasn't rained this week.

Tu§n nay troi khcng mua,

• It dido't rain last week.

Tufu-t fBi troi kh6ng mila