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Pulkina

Pulkina

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8th edition, revised

H. M. IIYflbKHHA

E. E. 3AXABA-HEKPACOBA

1. PULKINA

E. ZAKHA V A-NEKRASOV A

RUSSIAN

PYCCKHH H3bIK

A PRACTICAL GRAMMAR WITH EXERCISES

I1P AKTI1QECKA5I rp AMMATI1KA C YI1P A)KHEHI15IMI1

H30aHue 8-e, UCnpaBJleHHOe

ft

'·410":.¥

--

Russky Yazyk Publishers

Moscow

2000

1:I3.n:aTeJIhCTBO «PyCCKMM .H3hIK» MocKBa

2000

Y.ll:K 808.2(075.8)-054.6 EEK 81.2 Pyc-923

n 88

Ilepeson C pyccxoro B. Kopomxoeo

Ilon penaxnaea P. Ihoccoua

flYJIbKHHa H. M., Baxaaa-Hexpacuaa E. s,

Il 88 PYCCKHH Jl3bIK. Ilpaxrasecxas rpasoaaraxa C ynpascaeaasaa:

YQe6HHK (.n;JI}I rOBop}lIUHX aa aHrJIHHCKOM }I3bIKe) - 8-e H3.n;., acnp, - M.: Pyc. }I3., 2000. - 592 c.

ISBN 5-200-02743-8

YTIe6HHK COCTOHT H3 .lIBYX PaJ.lIeJIOB: MoplfJOJIOrHH H CHHTaKClfca.

MaTepHaJI YTIe6HHKa pacnpeaenea no rpaMMaTHTIeCKHM TeMaM. I1JYTIeHHe Kalk.lloit TeMLI conpoaoxnaercs TpeHHpOBOTIHLIMH ynpalkHeHIfJlMH, ueJIL KOTOPLIX paJBHTHe HaBLIKOB YCTHOit H nHCLMeHHoit peTIH. MHOrOTIHCJIeHHLle Ta6JIHULI cHcTeMaTH3HpYIOT YTIe6HLlit MaTepHaJI.

IIpe.llHa3HaTIeH .lIJIJI JIHU, HMeIOll1HX HaTIaJILHYIO nonrorosxy no PYCCKOMY Jl3bIKY.

Y)1;K 808.2(075.8)-054.6 IJIJK 81.2 Pyc-923

ISBN 5-200-02743-8

© H3.l1aTeJIbCTBO «PYCCKlfit Jl3bIK», 1979, nepeaon na aHrJIlfitcKlfil: R3L1K, 1979, 1f3MeHeHlfJl H .lIOrrOJIHeHIfJl,1988,1f3MeHeHIfH,2000

Penpoztyuaposaaae (aocnpoaaaezienae) ztaanoro 1f3.l1aHlfJl JII06b1M cnocotiov 6e3 .lIOrOBOpa C 1f3.l1aTeJIbCTBOM sarrpeuraerca.

CONTENTS

Foreword. . Abbreviations

MORPHOLOGY

General Remarks on the Parts of Speech. . The Component Parts of a Word . . . . Alternation of Sounds in the Stem of a Word

Compound Words . . . . . .

THE NOUN . . . . . . . ...

Th\~:t:~d~~ ~o~~~ns 'Which T~k~ N~ Ending in 'th~ N~m"in~tive Singular

and Whose Stem Ends in a Soft Consonant . . '.' . . . . .

The Gender of Nouns Denoting Members of a Profession or Trade Nouns of Common Gender . . . . .. ..... The Gender of Indeclinable Nouns. . . . . . . ." : . . . . Supplement 1. The Most Common Feminine Nouns Endmg I~ -~Hb~ ~b,

s~;pl~:;n1~:T~~ Most C~m"m~n Ma~cuiin~ a~d Fe~inine'Nouns Ending

in b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Plural of Nouns. . . . . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . .

Formation of the Plural of Masculine and Feminine Nouns . . . . Formation of the Plural of Neuter Nouns . . . . '.' . . . . Some Peculiarities in the Formation of the Plural of Mascuhne and Neuter

Nouns . . . . . . . . . . .. .

Nouns Used Only in the Singular or Plural

Changing the Noun for Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Some Meanings of the Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Three Types of the Declension of Nouns. . . . . . . . . . . .

The First Declension . . . . . . . '.' . . ". 'th' G :fv~

Peculiarities in the Declension of Some Masculme Nouns m e em I

and Prepositional ~ingular.. . . . . . . .

The Second Declension : . . . . . The Third Declension . . . . . . The Declension of Nouns in the Plural The Genitive Plural . . . . . . . Irregular Declension of Some Nouns ' ..

Use of the Cases with and without Prepositions Use of the Genitive . .

Use of the Dative

Use of the Accusative

Use of the Instrumental

Use of the Prepositional

10 II

13 14 17 19 22 22

25 26 26 27

27 28 29 29 32

33 35 36 38 40 40

43 44 45 46 47 50 51 51 73 86 99

109

5

THE ADJECTIVE

Changing the Adjective According t~ Ge~de~ Changing the Adjective According to Number The Declens~on of Adjectives in the Singular The pe~lenslOn of Adjectives in the Plural . Qualitative and Relative Adjectives

~~mDplete and Short-Form Adjectives a~d Th~ir Fu~ct;on· in ·th~ S~nt~nc~ e egrees of Companson of Adjectives

The Comparative Degree . . . . .

The Superlative Degree . . . .

Conversion of Adjectives into Nouns

Supplement 3. Declension of Nouns Denoting Su;na~e~ a~d the·N· . ·f

CIties and Towns . ames 0

THE PRONOUN

Declension of P~rs~n~1 Pro~o~ns· The Reflexive Pronoun ceoil

Possessive Pronouns.. ..

Demonstrative Pronouns

IThe Defin.itive Pronouns ca·M, ·ca~bl~, ~ec~, ~Cil~H~ ~a"':/.Ib~ii ~106o~

nterrogative Pronouns "

Negative Pronouns .

Indefinite Pronouns

THE NUMERAL .

Classification of·N~m~rais Cardinal Numerals

Simple, Compound a~d co~posite Nu~e~al~ Spelling of Cardinal Numerals

Cardinal Numerals Used with a No~n· . . . . . .

Cardma.1 Numerals Used with an Adjecti~e ~nd· a N~un· Declension of Cardinal Numerals

Collective Numerals

Use of Collective Nu~e;als· . .

Ordinal Numerals

Fractional Numerais : . . .

THE VERB ..

General ~dea of ·Ve~b Aspects .

Meaning of the Aspects . . . . . Grammatical Distinction of the Aspects The Infinitive

The Stem of ·th~ I~fi~iti~e· . .

Use of the Infinitive .

The Present Tense .

The 1st and 2nd Conjugations of th~ Verb MIxed Conjugation Verbs .

Ver?s with Stressed Personal Endings: . . . . . . . .

Tlsht ansd 2ndfConJUgatlOn Verbs with Unstressed Personal Ending·s e tern 0 the Present Tense

Main Types of Verbs . . . : . .

Th The Present Tense of the Verbs OblTb eC;b ~X~Tb

e Past Tense ' ,

Formation of the Past ien~e

The Future Tense. . .

The Imperative Mood . : :

Formation of the Imperative The Conditional Mood

T~e. Meaning and Us~ of the Co~ditio~al· M·ood Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Verbs with the Particle -CII . . . . . . .

Principal Meanings of V~rbs ~ith the Partic1~ ~II . Impersonal Verbs.

Verbs of Motion

Verbs of Motio~ ~ithout P~erixe~

6

121 121 124 124 128 131 133 136 137 141 144

146 148 149 150 152 156 162 170 172 176 182 182 183 183 183 184 185 186 189 190 192 194 197 197 198 199 202 203 203 208 208 209 209 212 213 215 229 231 232 235 237 238 241 241 243 244 245 254 256 256

Verbs of Motion with Prefixes . . . . . . . . . .

Use of Verbs of Indefinite Motion to Denote Single Actions. . . . The Meaning of Some Phrases Consisting of a Verb of Motion and

a Noun .

Formation of Verb Aspects . . . . . .

Formation of Perfective Verbs by Means of Prefixes .

Perfective Verbs Implying Completion of an Action .

Perfective Verbs Implying the Beginning of an Action . . . . . . Perfective Verbs Implying Limitation of an Action in Time (the Prefix 00-) Perfective Verbs Implying the Short Duration of an Action, Momenta-

neousness of an Action. ..

Formation of Verb aspects by means of Suffixes

Prefixed Verbs with the Suffixes -blBa-, -HBa- . . . . . .

Prefixed and Unprefixed Imperfective Verbs with the Suffix -Ba- . . Aspectual Pairs of (Prefixed and Unprefixed)Verbs with the Suffixes -H-,

-a- . .. .

Aspectual Pairs of Prefixed Perfective Verbs Whose Infinitive Ends in -CTH, -lTH, -qb and Imperfective Verbs Whose Infinitive Ends in -a'rs (Except Verbs of Motion) . . . . . . . .. .....

Alternation of Vowels in the Verb Stem in the Formation of the Aspects Aspectual Pairs of Verbs Formed from Different Roots . . Aspectual Pairs of Verbs Differing in the Position of the Stress

Verbs with the Suffix -HY- .

Non-Paired Verbs .

Use of the Aspects .

Principal Meanings of the Verb Aspects .. .

Use of the Verb Aspects to Express Actions Lasting a Definite Period of

Time

Use of the Aspects to Express Recurrent or Single Actions

Use of the Aspects of the Infinitive. ..

Some Uses of the Aspects of the Infinitive Preceded by He Peculiarities in the Use of the Aspects in the Past Tense Peculiarities in the Use of the Aspects in the Future Tense Use of the Verb Aspects in the Imperative

Peculiarities in the Use of Tenses The Present Tense

The Future Tense

The Past Tense .. ... ...

Different Tenses Used with the Particles OblBaJlO and OhlJlO

THE PARTICIPLE .

The Verbal Features of the Participle. . The Adjectival Features of the Participle . The Participial Construction .

Active and Passive Participles

Formation of Participles

Formation of Active Participles Formation of Passive Participles

Declension of Participles . . . . . . . . . . The Participial Construction and the Attributive Clause Short-Form Participles . . . . . . . . . . . The Spelling of the Negative Particle He with Participles Conversion of Participles into Adjectives and Nouns

THE VERBAL ADVERB . . . . . . . . . . .

Verbal Features of the Verbal Adverb

Adverbial Features of the Verbal Adverb . Use of Imperfective and Perfective Verbal Adverbs The Verbal Adverb Construction

Formation of Verbal Adverbs . . . . . . . .

Formation of Verbal Adverbs from Imperfective Verbs Formation of Verbal Adverbs from Perfective Verbs

258
271
272
279
279
280
283
285
286
288
288
290
293
297
299
301
304
304
307
310
310
312
315
318
323
326
332
334
338
338
339
341
342
344
344
345
346
347
348
348
350
356
357
360
362
363
367
367
368
368
369
370
370
371
7 Verbal Adverb Constructions and Subordinate Clauses. . . . Supplement 4. Table of the Principal Meanings of Verb Prefixes.

THE ADVERB .

Adverbs of Manner Ending in -0 . . The Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs Predicative Adverbs .

Pronominal Adverbs. . . . . .

Relative and Demonstrative Adverbs Negative Adverbs .

Indefinite Adverbs .

Adverbs of Place .

Adverbs of Time . . . . . Adverbs of Measure or Degree

PARTICLES .

The Spelling of Particles INTERJECTIONS

SYNTAX

Declarative, Interrogative and Exhortative Sentences Interrogative Sentences. .

Direct and Indirect Questions

Exhortative Sentences .

Exclamatory Sentences .

Negative Sentences

Parts of the Sentence .....

The Principal Parts of the Sentence Unextended and Extended Sentences The Secondary Parts of the Sentence

The Principal Parts of the Sentence .

The Subject. .

The Predicate . . . . . . .

The Secondary Parts of the Sentence The Object . .

The Attribute .

The Appositive .

Adverbial Modifiers. . . . . Active and Passive Constructions

Coordinate Parts of the Sentence

Coordinate Predicates . . . : : : : : : : : :

Conjunctions Used with Coordinate Parts of the Sentence Punctuation of the Coordinate Parts of the Sentence Generalising Words in Sentences with Coordinate Parts

Detached Secondary Parts of the Sentence . . . . .

Detached Attributes . Detached Appositives . . Detached Adverbial Modifiers

Vocatives . .

Parenthetic Words . . . . . . . . . .

Kinds of Sentences According to their Composition Personal Sentences . . . . . . . . . . Indefinite-Personal Sentences . Generalised-Personal Sentences

Impersonal Sentences

Nominal Sentences

Elliptical Sentences . . . . .

Compound and Complex Sentences

Compound Sentences. . . . . . . . . .

The Copulative Conjunctions H, .!la, HH ••• HH . . . . . . . . .

The Adversa~lve Conjunctions HO, a, lKe, .!la, OAlUIKO • . . . . .

The Disjunctive Conjunctions TO '" TO, HJJH (HJJb), JIIIOO, He TO ••• He TO

8

424 424 428 429 431 432 437 438 439 439 441 441 446 456 456 459 462 463 475 478 479 480 484 485 486 487 489 490 492 493 495 496 496 498 4915 507 508 509 510 510 511 514

373 375 394 395 397 398 401 403 403 404 406 407 408 413 416 421

Complex Sentences . . . . . . . .

Complex Sentences with Object Clauses

Complex Sentences with Subject Clauses ". . '.' . . '.' . . . Conjunctions Used in Complex Sentences With Object and Subject CI,:uses Use of Verb Tenses in Subordinate Clauses Introduced by the Conjunc-

tions 'ITO and 'ITOObi . . . . . . . . . . . .

Conjunctive Words used in Complex Sentences with Object and Subject

Clauses . . . . . . . . . .

Complex Sentences with Attributive Clauses . Conjunctive Words Used in Attributive Clauses Conjunctions Used in Attributive Clauses Complex Sentences with Predicate Clauses

Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Place Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Time Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Purpose Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Cause Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Result Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Manner

Complex Sentences with Clauses of Measure or Degree ...

Complex Sentences with the Comparative Conjunction 'IeM ••• TeM ••• Complex Sentences with Clauses of Condition .

Complex Sentences with Concessive Clauses .

Supplement 5. Use of the Conjunctions 'ITO and 'ITOObi. . Complex Sentences with Two or More Subordinate Clauses

Compound-Complex Sentences. ...

Asyndetic Compound and Complex Sentences Direct and Indirect Speech

516 518 519 520

524 531 535 535 541 542 545 546 551 553 556 556 561 563 563 566 572 574 576 577 579

FOREWORD

This book is intended for students who have already learned the fundamentals of Russian: the structure of the simple sentence, the types of relationship between the words in a sentence, and the basic rules of conjugation and declension.

Students of Russian will find here a brief exposition of the material they have already studied which will prove useful both for revision purposes and for improving speaking skills.

Attention has been paid mainly to those themes which usually prove to be the most difficult for non-Russians: the meanings and uses of the cases, the productive and nonproductive types of Russian verbs, the verb aspects, verbs of motion, the use of pronouns, and the meanings and uses of conjunctions and conjunctive words in compound and complex sentences.

The book contains a large number of drill exercises designed to help the student acquire practical mastery of Russian.

As a rule, the examples in the explanations and the first exercises designed to promote the assimilation of a particular grammar rule are based on simple everyday vocabulary to make them easier for the student to understand: however, in exercises in observation sentences and whole passages from modern Russian fiction have been included to acquaint the student with Russian as it is spoken today.

ABBREVIA nONS

The following abbreviations of the names of the authors quoted are used throughout this book:

A:»e.- B. H. Axaes

AKC.- c. T. AKcaKoB A.K.T.-A. K. TOJICT6i1 AAUe.- M.H. Annrep

AHm.- C. IT. AHTOHOB A.Ocmp.-A. H. OCTPOBCKl-lii Apc.- B. K. Apcenses

A.T.-A. H. TOJICT6ii Eap.-A.JI.6apTO

EeA.- B. r. OeJIl1HCKMH

EA.-A. A. 6JIOK

s.n.a.-:«. H. ITOJIeBOll

Ey6.- M. C. 6y6eHHoB

r. H. B. rOrOJIb

Faud.- A. IT. Faiinap

Fapzu.- 6. M. Tapunnr

FOH'I. H. A. Toaxapoa Fop6.- 6. JI. Fopfiaros Fpu6.-- A. C. rpM60eAoB )J,OAM.- E. A. )J.OJIMaTOBCKMll lfcaK.-M. B. Hcaxoscxaa If.3.-H. r. 3peH6ypr

Kam. - B. IT. Karaen

KOAb"l.-- A. B. KOJIbllOB

Kop.- B. F. KOpOJIeHKO Kp.-H. A. KPbIJIOB Kynp.-A.H. Kynpna He6.-K.- B. H. JI(~6eAeB-KYMaq H.T. JI. H. TOJICT611 H.-M.lD. JIepMoHToB MauK.-A. H. Maasoa

M.F.- M. ['OPbKMH

M.-C.-)J.. H. MaMMH-CM6MPSIK Mapzu.-C.5J.. Mapurax

MaJlK.- B. B. MaliKoBcKMll Mux.-M.JI. MI-IXallJIOB MuxaAK.-C. B. MI-IXaJIKOB

H.- H. A. Hespacos

HUK.-H. C. HMKHTMH H.O.-H.A.OCTpOBCKl-Ill

Oeeu=« B. B. OBCqKMH

OUl.-- JI. 11. OllIaHMH

tt-: A. C. ITYlllKMH

fla6A.- IT. A. ITaBJIeHKO flae.--l1. IT. ITaBJIOB

flaH.- B. <1>. ITaHoBa

flaycm.- K. I". Ilaycroscxna flAeU{.-A. H. ITJIemeeB

flpUUl.- M. M. ITPHlllBMH C.-Ia.- M. E. CaJITbIKoB-IneAPHH Cepa¢.- A. C. CepaqmMOBMq C.-M.-H. C. COKOJIOB-MI-IKMTOB Teapd.- A. T. TBapAoBcKMH Tux.- H. C. THXOHOB

Type .-H. C. Typrenen Tiom'l.-<1>.H. Tror-res

C/>ad.-A. A. <1>aAeeB

C/>ed.- K. A. <1>CAMH

C/>YPM.-)J.. A. <1>ypMaHoB

£fepH.- H. F. qepHbIllIcBCKMll £fex.- A. IT. qexOB

tuo».-: M. A. llIoJIOXOB

The following abbreviations of some of the English terms are used throughout the text:

ace., accusative eonjug., conjugation dat., dative

fem., feminine

jut., future

gen., genitive

imp., imperfective instr., instrumental

lit., literally mase., masculine neut., neuter nom., nominative p., perfective

pl., plural

prep., prepositional sing., singular

MORPHOLOGY

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE PARTS OF SPEECH

There are notional and syntactic words in Russian.

Notional words denote objects (MaJIL'IHK 'boy', CTOJI 'table', xapan)):aw 'pencil'), qualities (KpacuBLIH 'beautiful', 60JILWOH 'big', CUHHH 'blue'), quantities ()):Ba 'two', TpH 'three', ,l1;eCHTL 'ten'), actions (namer 'he writes', 6eraeT 'he runs', Y'IHTCH 'he studies') or their modifiers (xopouro 'well', nnoxo 'badly', 6bICTPO 'quickly', THXO 'quietly').

Syntactic words express relationships between notional words or clauses:

'The book and the magazine are on the table'.

'1 have come from London.' 'The comrade did not come to the University because he had fallen ill.'

(In these sentences the syntactic words are: H 'and', na 'on', H3 'from', He 'not', B 'to', nOTOMY 'ITO 'because")

Depending on their meaning, the way they change, and their function in the sentence words are divided into groups called parts of speech.

Every word, whether notional or syntactic, belongs to a definite

part of speech.

There are ten parts of speech in Russian:

1. The noun: Y'IeHHK 'pupil', CTOJI 'table', BHHMaHHe 'attention'

2. The adjective: KpacuBLIH 'beautiful', 60JILWOH 'big', ,l1;epeBHHHLIH

'wooden'

3. The numeral: O)):UH 'one', )):Ba 'two', nepBLIH 'first'

4. The pronoun: H '1', TLI 'you', OH 'he', TOT 'that', MOH 'my'

5. The verb: '1HTaTL 'to read', CH,l1;eTL 'to sit', Y'IUTLCH 'to study'

6. The adverb: xopomo 'well', saarpa 'tomorrow', 3)):eCL 'here'

7. The preposition: B 'in', 'to', na 'on', H3 'from', OKOJIO 'near'

8. The conjunction: H 'and', HO 'but', 'ITO 'that', nOTOMY 'ITO 'because'

9. The particle: pa3Be 'isn't', 'don't', 'won't', etc. (P:l3Be ThI He npaneun, KO MHe CerO,l1;H5.I? 'Won't you come to see me today?'), JIH used to form a question (qHT::1JI JIH ThI 3TY KHHry? 'Have you read this book?'),

13

51 npnexarr H3 JIoH)):oHa. TOB:lpHIlI He npHIlIeJI B YHHBepcHTeT, nOTOMY 'ITO 3a60JIeJI.

Be~L which has emphatic force, )ICe used for emphasis or to show contrast (Be~L H )ICe rosopan Te6e 06 :hOM. 'I told you that didn't I?') 10. The interjection: YBbl 'alas', ax! 'oh!', oil! 'ouch!' '

Six parts of speech - the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the numeral, the verb and the adverb - are notional words. They can be used as parts of the sentence (for a definition of the parts of the sentence, see

p. 437).

Three parts of speech - the preposition, the conjunction and the particle - are syntactic words. They cannot be used as parts of the sentence.

Interjections are neither notional nor syntactic words.

THE COMPONENT PARTS OF A WORD

Russian words are divided into parts called morphemes. Each part of a word has a definite meaning.

The main part of a word is its root, which contains the principal mearung.

1. A word may consist of only a root: ~BOp 'courtyard' ~OM

'house', CTOJI 'table'. '

2. A word may consist of the root followed by a suffix: ~BOPHHK 'yardkeeper', ~OMHK 'little house', CTOJlHK 'little table'.

The part ~BOp of the word ~BOPHHK is the root, and the part -HHK is a suffix. The suffix -HHK is used in this case to form a new word which denotes a person. The suffix -HHK has the same meaning in the words ~OJlX03HHK 'collective farmer', nOMOIQHHK 'assistant', etc. The suffix -HK m the words CTOJlHK 'little table' and ~OMHK 'little house' is used to form diminutives. The suffix -UK has the same meaning of diminution (and. ~ffectlOn) m the words ca~HK 'little garden', xapannaum« 'little pencil , etc.

. A suffix can also be used to obtain a word form; thus, the part zram the verb ztan 'he gave' is the root, while -JI is a suffix, used to form the past tense.

The root in the word seceaee 'merrier' is aecen, while the part -ee is a suffix u~e~ to form the comparat~ve degree of adjectives.

A suffix IS the part of a word which follows the root and is used to form new words or word forms.

Suffixes may add var!ous connotations to the meaning of a word. , . 3. ,A wor~ m~y consI~t ~f t~e root preceded by a prefix: nepener flight (nepener xepea OKeaH a flight across the ocean'). The root in the word nepener 'flight' is JI~T whic~ contains the principal meaning of ~hIS ,;,or~. We can find ~hI~ root in the words JleTbL 'to fly', JleT'IHK f!:yer ' JleTHaH (noro.n:a) flying (weather)" etc. Hepe- in the word nepe-

ner IS <l: prefix, used to form a word with a new meaning (across/over s~methI~g). T~IS pr~fix adds the same meaning to the words nepexo~HTL (q~pe3 ropsr) to go (over the mountains)" nepe6e)ICaTL (sepes y JlIIll:Y) to run (across the street),.

14

A prefix is the part of a word which precedes the root and is used

mainly to form new words. .

Prefixes add various connotations to the meanmg of a word.

4. The stem. The root, suffix and prefix make up the stem of a word. Every stem has a root.

A stem may consist of only the root: ~BOp 'courtyard', ~OM 'house', CTOJI 'table'. Such stems are called primary.

Stems which contain a prefix or suffix are called derivative: e. g. ~BOPHHK 'yardkeeper', ~OMHK 'little house', nepener 'flight'.

A stem may contain more than one prefix or suffix, thus, the word nOHaCTpoHTL 'to build' (nouacrpoim, MHoro ~OMOB 'to build many houses') contains two prefixes (no- and na-); the word UCCJlC~OBaTeJlL 'investigator', 'explorer' with the root cnen has a prefix (HC-) and two suffixes (-oBa- and -TeJlL) following the root.

A word may contain more than one root, thus the word napoxon 'steamer' contains two roots: nap 'steam' and XO~ 'going'. Such words are called compound words.

5. The ending. The part of a word which follows the stem and denotes relationships between words is called the ending. qne and the same word may have different endings. The different ~elatlOnshIp~ between a given word and other words are expressed by different endmgs:

51 B3HJI )l(ypmlJI 6pha. 'I took my brother's magazine.'

51 B3HJI )l(ypmlJI fipary. 'I took the magazine for my

brother.'

The word 6paT 'brother' in the above sentences has different endings which express different relationships between the words: the first sentence shows that I took a magazine which belongs to my brother ('leu )l(ypm'm? 'whose magazine?' -)I(ypmlJI 6paTa 'my brother's'), whereas the second shows that I took the magazine for my brother (KOMY? 'for

whom?' -6paTY 'for my brother'). . .

The adjective 6oJILmou, 60JlLmaH, 6oJILmoe 'big' .takes ~Iffe.rent endings in accordance with the gender of the noun WIth which It agrees: 60JlLmOU MaJIh'IHK 'a big boy', 60JlLmOU CTOJI 'a big table' (masculine), 60JlLmau .n:eBO'IKa 'a big girl', 60JlLmau Kaura 'a big book' (feminine), 60JlLmOe cofipanne 'a big meeting', 60JlLmOe nHchMo 'a long letter' (neuter):

The verb nHmy 'I write', nmnenn, 'you write' (sing.), namer ~he writes', numeM 'we write', mnnere 'you write' (pl.), mnnyr 'they write' contains the stem mnu- and the endings -y, -eun., -er, -eM, -ere and -YT.

These endings denote the person and number of t~e verb. .

6. Suffixation. Suffixes help to form words of dIffe:ent,gramm~t!cal categories from one and the same root, thus '1HTaTL to read IS a verb' '1HTaTeJlL 'reader' '1TCHHe 'reading', '1UTKa 'reading' and '1HTaJlL~H 'reading-room' ~re nouns; 'IHniTeJlLCKHU (6IIJIeT) 'library (ticket)', 'IHTaJlLHLlU (3aJI) 'reading (hall)' are adjectives; ~Tp.OHTL 'to build' is a verb; cTpOUTeJlL 'builder', CTPOUTeJILCTBO '~Ulld!ng:, ~ocTpouKa 'building' are nouns; cTpOUTeJlLHLlU (MaTepIIaJI) building (material), is an adjective.

15

Every part of sp~ech has definite suffixes. These suffixes express various meamngs., particularly noun and adjective suffixes.

Suffixes differ as far as their productivity is concerned: productive suffixes form a la~ge number of words commonly used in Modern Russian; non-productive suffixes form a limited number of words.

Productive noun suffixes include:

-eu ( TBOpe u 'creator', r~peQ 'mountain dweller', 60peQ 'fighter');

-(H)HK (OTJlH'IHHK 'top PUPIl', KOJlX03HHK 'collective farmer' noaulp-

HHK 'fireman'); ,

-'1HK, -~HK (nepeBO.lJ:'1HK 'translator' 'interpreter' 3aK83'1HK 'cus-

tomer', K8MeH~HK 'bricklayer');' ,

, -aHH(~), ;HH(e) (BHHM8HHe 'attention', 3a.lJ:aHHe 'task', HaOJlJO.lJ:eHHe observation) and a few others.

The c?mmonest productive adjectival suffixes are:

, -H- _(JleTHHH 'summer', Be'lepHHH 'evening', MecTHblH 'local' cl»aoPH'IHblH 'factory'); -CK- (rop0.lJ:CKOH 'urban' aurm'tHcKHH ~English' ap-

MeHcKHH 'army') and a few others.' ,

7. Prefixation. Prefixes help to form new words from other words of the same category, i. e. verbs from vebs (nHCaTh 'to write'nepenHC~TI'. 'to rewrite',. cn~c8TL 'to copy', BbIDHC8TL 'to write out', etc.), adjectives from adjectives (BKYCHblH 'tasty'-0e3BKYCHblH 'tasteless', MY.lJ:PblH 'wise' -npeMY.lJ:pblH 'very wise', Bece.rrblH 'live!y' -:-- p~3Be~e~blH 'very lively', HaY'IHblH 'scientific' - 8HTHH8Y'lHLlH an~I-SClentIfic). Prefixes are typ~cal of verbs (except a few verbs,

mamly ~hose, borrow~d ,rro,m foreign languages) (HanHCaTh 'to write', l!epecTpoHTL to rebuild', yexars 'to leave', etc.) and of nouns formed from, verbs (np~X~.lJ:H~L 'to come' -uPHX:0.lJ: 'comin.g', B3MaxHYTb 'to wave - B3Max wave). Prefixes add vanous meanmgs to the words they are attached to. Thus the prefix BbI- added to verbs denotes movement from within (BblXO.lJ:HTL H3 ayznrropan 'to go out of a lecturehall', Bble3:lKaTL H3 ropona 'to leave the town', BblHOCHTL 'ITO-TO H3 KOMHa!~I 'to take something out of the room', BblB03HTb TOBllPLI H3 crpaasr to carry goods out of the country', etc.); however, when added to. other verbs, this same prefix may denote bringing the action to a certam result (Jle'lHTL fiorrsaoro 'to treat a patient' - BhlJle'lHTb 60nbnoro 'to cure a patient', npocHTL y TOBapH~a KHHry 'to ask a friend for a book' -Bhlnpoc!fTL y roaapama KHHry 'to get a friend to give one a. book') or removmg part of a whole (Bblpe38TL KapTl'tHKH 'to cut out pictures '), etc.

Like prefixes, suffixes fall into productive and non-productive.

Sor:te prefixes, e. g. UPH-, nepe- and C-, form many prefixed verbs with various meanmgs, others, e. g. B3- and BOC-, form but a limited number of verbs.

Exercise 1. Write out these words and underline their roots.

I. ponana, pO.ll.lfTe.JI If , PO.ll.HOM. 2. 3eMJIlI, nO.ll.3eMHbIM, 3eMJll!K. 3. HOBbIM, HOBOCTb. HOBaTop. 4. nerers, JleT'IIfK. no.ner. 5. ueaa, lIeHHTb, lIeHHbIM, oueaxa.

Exercise 2. Write out the words having a common root and underline the root.

16

1. BOT can, B cany pafioraer Ca.ll.OBHIfK. OH nocanan xpacamae canoasre I~BeTbI. 2. CKOPO paccser, Ha rOplI30HTe CBeTJlaJI rro.noca. He60 CBeTJleeT. CKOPO cornme ocseTllT none II nee. 3. MhI lltreM no necaoii nopore. Boxpyr rycroa nee, B rJly6llHe neca ,[10- MllK necaaxa. 4. Ha HaweM ynaue CTPOJIT HOBbIM ,[10M. K MeCTY CTPOlJ:Kll 'IaCTO nozrsea)!{alOT aBTOMaWHHhI. OHH nplfB03JIT crpoarern.asre MaTepllaJlhI. CTpOHTeJlll pa60TalOT 6b1CTpO. OHH 3aKOH'IaT CTpOllTeJlhCTBO AOMa K HOBOMY rOAY.

Exercise 3. Give some words which have the-same root as the following. pafiora, cB060Aa, MIfP, Mocxsa, 60Pb6a, MOJlOAolJ:, CTaphIR, Y'IHTh, TpYA, c-racrse Exercise 4. Point out the suffixes in the italicised words.

CaiJO(mUK pafioraer B cany, HeClILIK oxpanser nee. Cmo nhp nenaer CTOJlbI. Moph« mo6llT Mope. Ilucamens narmcan pOMaH. Y'lUmellb Y'lllT. Y'leHUKU ysarcs. Tpaxmopucm BOAIfT TpaKTOp.

Exercise 5. Write out these phrases and indicate the component parts of the italicised words.

Model: MOP-CK-oii

necuan zropora, caooeue lIBeTbI, 3UMHflfl onexna, uumepecuan HOBOCTh, cuacmnuBaH MOJlOAOCTh, tiecnoxouuan lKll3Hh, censcxoe X03l!il:cTBO, nunoean annes

Exercise 6. Find the prefix in these words.

BbIXOA, BXOA, norrer, paarosop, fieaonacnocrs, paccser

ALTERNATION OF SOUNDS IN THE STEM OF A WORD

In Russian, when a word is given new forms or when new words are formed from a given word by means of suffixes, some of the sounds (vowels or consonants) are occasionally replaced by others: a consonant may be replaced by another consonant (e. g. nacan, 'to write'numy 'I write', npyr 'friend' - .lJ:PY:lKeCKUU 'friendly'), and a vowel may be replaced by another vowel (JlOMaTL 'to break' -pa3J1aMbIBaTb 'to break to pieces', B3.lJ:bIXiTb 'to sigh' -B3.lJ:OX 'sigh'); besides, when a word is given new forms there may appear or disappear the vowel o or e in its stem, e. g. COH 'sleep' -CHa (gen. sing.), oren 'father' -OTQ8 (gen. sing.), ,a:eHL 'day' - ,a:HH (gen. sing.), 60peQ 'fighter' -60PQLI (pl.), KYCOK 'piece' -KYCKB (pl.), KOPOTKHH 'short' -KOPOTOK (short form masc.)-KOpOTK8 (short form fem.), The replacement of one sound by another is called alternation of sounds, and the vowels that may be dropped are called unstable vowels. Consonants alternate more frequently than vowels.

c-m

HOCHTL 'to wear' - Homy, HOCHmb ... nHeaTL 'to write' - nHmy, mnueun, •••

BLICOKHH 'tall' Bblme 'taller'

x-m

naury, naureun, ...

naxa n, 'to plough' cyxou'dry' yxo 'ear' crpax 'fear'

cyme 'drier'

ymu 'ears' cTpalUHblu 'fearful'

2- 384

17

3-iK

B03UTL 'to carry in a vehicle'- BOiKY, BchHUlL ...

pesart, 'to cut' p"

eiKY, peiKeUlL ...

"U3lmii 'low' - "UiKe 'lower'

MOI'Y 'J can' .n:opo['Clii 'dear' Doni 'foot'

l'-iK

MOiKeUlL ... MOI'YT .n:0poiKe 'dearer' HOiKKa 'little foot'

l'-iK-3

ztpyr 'friend' - .n:PYiKHLIU 'friendlY'-llPY3LH 'friends'

.n:-iK

CH.n:hL 'to sit' MOJIo.n:oii 'young'

CHiKY, CH.n:UUlh ... MOJIOiKe 'younger' .n:-iK.n:

XO.n:UTL 'to walk' -- XOiK.n:euHe 'walking'

nmlKaTh 'to cry' neKY 'I bake' KpenKHii 'strong' peKa 'river' BOCTOK 'east'

JIH~O 'face'

XOTeTh 'to want' xnonorars 'to bustle about' KPYTOii 'steep'

npeKpaTUTL 'to stop'

ponrars rto grumble'

K-q

una-ry, nJIaqeUlL ... - neseun, ••• neKYT

- xpense 'stronger'

- pe-nca 'small river, rivulet'

- BOCTOqHLlii 'eastern'

~-q

- JIUqHLIii 'personal' T-q

XOqy, XOqeUlL xonlM ...

- xnonoxy, xJIOnOqeUlL ...

- Kpyqe 'steeper'

T-IQ

npexpamy, npexpa'nnm, ...

pomuy, pOUIQeUlh ..•

CT-IQ

I'PYIQy, I'PYCTUUlb ...

nporne 'simpler' CK-IQ

HCKaTL 'to seek' - HIQY, HIQeUlL ..•

I'PYCTUTh 'to be sad'

npocroa 'simple'

18

6-6JI

mo6UTL 'to love' - mofimo, JII06HUlh ...

'repnert, 'to endure'

n-UJI

TepnJIIO, TepuHUlL ...

B-BJI

I'OTOBHTL 'to pre- - I'OTOBJIIO, I'OTOBHUlL •.. pare'

c(l- c(lJI

I'pac(luTL 'to rule'- I'pac(lJIIo, I'pac(luUlL •.•

M-MJI

KOPMUTb 'to feed'- KOPMJIIO, KOpMHUlh •••

.Note.- For more detail on the alternation of vowels and consonants, see the chapters on each part of speech.

Exercise 7. Write out these words and phrases, underline the root of each italicised word and point out the alternating consonants.

1. eocmo«, 60CmO'lHbIU paaon. 2. cmonuua, cmonuuuue rearpsr. 3. PYKa, PY'lKa, PY'lIlOU Me,ll;Be,ll;b, 6PY'lUmb nacsxro, 4. opye, i)PYJlCOK, noopyea, noopyocxa, opyss«, opy»cums, opyocua» pafiora, i)PYJlCeCKUU npaser.

Exercise 8. Read through these sentences; write out the words with a common root and alternating vowels.

1. - lIpOlUY Te6i1, npaxozni KO MHe ceronas BeqepoM.-He npoca, He Mory, g ceronas OqeHb 3aHgT . .H 6y,ll;y caners ,lI;OMa If 3aHIfMaTbCg.- )l(aJIb! Ho eCJIIf He MOlKelUb eeronas, npaxona 3aBTpa.- He Mory If aanrpa. 3aBTpa xeruepr, g KalK,lI;blii xeraepr XOlKY pafiorars B 61f6JIlfOTeKY If ClflKY TaM sees Beqep.

2. Bsepa g KynHJI IfHTepecHYIO KHHry . .H naano XOTCJI xyrnrn, 3TY KHHlKKY. ECJIIf xoseurs, g If Te6e xynmo TaKYIO KHHry.

3. - lIOqeMY y Te6i1 ceronas TaKoil nnoxoa BIf,ll;? - Bscpa g n03,l1;HO JIer cnars, If y MeHii 60JIHT rOJIOBa. 06blqHO g JIOlKYCb B II qaCOB, asepa ner B 2 xaca HOqlf If nonro JIelKM-He Mor 3acHYTb.

4. Ha oxpaane ropona nOCTpOlfJIIf HOBYIO !jJa6pIfKY. <l>a6pHqHOe snaaae 60JIblUOe, CBeTJIOe.

COMPOUND WORDS

Aggregation of stems. Words may be formed by aggregating two or more stems (with or without suffixes): nap-o-xen 'steamship', OB~-e-BO.n: 'sheep-breeder', Tpex-JTaiKRLIii 'three-storeyed'. Most words formed in this manner are nouns or adjectives.

Words formed by aggregating two (or more) stems are called compound words. To combine the parts of a compound word, so-called connective vowels are used: 0 after hard consonants (e. g. napoxen 'steamship') and e after soft consonants (e. g. 3eMJIe.n:eJIHe 'agriculture'), sibi-

19

2*

lants (e. g. .lJ;py*eJIJOOHe 'friendliness') and Q (e. g. oBQeBO.lJ; 'sheep-breeder'). Compound words may also be formed without a connective vowel: Bonrorpan 'Volgograd", BOCbMHJIeTKa eight-year school'. Compound words are generally formed from noun, arid verb stems (e. g. napoxo.lJ; 'steamship', JlHcTonAA 'fall of the leaves', C8,LJ.OBO.lJ; 'horticulturist'); they may also be formed from adjectival and noun stems (e. g. 'IepH03eM 'black earth'), a pronoun and a noun (e. g. caMoKpHTHKa 'self-criticism') or a numeral and a noun (e. g. 'IeThipexToMIIHK 'four-volume edition').

New words may be formed from compounds by means of suffixes: napoxen-cra-o 'steamship line', OBQeBO.lJ;-CTB-O 'sheep-breeding', 3eMJle.lJ;eJlb-'IecK-HH 'agricultural', .lJ;py*eJlloo-H-blH 'friendly', .lJ;oOPO.lJ;YW-H-blH 'good-natured'.

Compounds may be formed not only from complete stems but also from incomplete ones (e. g. 3apnJl8Ta 'wages', 'salary' -from 3apa60Tnaa nnara; yaueepsrar 'department store' - from YHuBepCaJ1bHblU Mara3uH).

Compounds formed from incomplete stems are called compound-abbreviated words. There are a large number of compoundabbreviated words in Russian which appeared in the language after the Great October Socialist Revolution (KOMCOMOJI 'Young Communist League', KOJlX03 'collective farm', BY3 'higher educational establishment, CiliA 'USA'='United States of America', etc.)

According to the manner of aggregation and abbreviation, compound nouns are classed into a number of groups:

(a) npotcOiol npo+eccHOHaJlbHblii co- Only the first word is ab-
'trade union' tOl breviated.
sansacm aanacnsie 'UICTH
'spare parts'
(b) YHHoepMar YHHoepC3J1bHblil All the words making up
'department store' Mara3HH the compound are abbre-
C06KOP c06cToeHHblll viated.
'own correspondent' KoppeCnOH)(eHT
JroMCOMOn KOMM)'HHCTiI'leCKHi co-
'Young Commu- tOl MOJlo.c.bH
liist League'
(c) BYl BWcwee ~ lase- The compound consists
'higher education- .c.elllle of the initial sounds of
al establishment' the component words.
cmA 'USA' COe)(HHi!HHble mT3TLI
AMepHKH
(d) PII» PoccHiicKall The compound consists
(pronounced ep- lI»e)(epallHII of the names of the ini-
34» 'RF' tial letters of the com-
ponent words. 20

(e) ',1I,HenpOr3C 'Dnieper ,1I,HenpoocKall ranpo- The compound consists
3J1eKTpU'IeCKall cran- of the abbreviated first
Hydro-electric component word and
Power Station' lIHII the initial sounds of
each of the following
component words. Note.- Like simple words, compound-a?bre,;iated words may. give n~w words: By3 'higher educational establishment -~y30BcKall (KoH<pepeHIJ;HII) (a conference at) a higher educational establishment.

THE NOUN

Russian nouns are distinguished by gender and change for number and case.

THE GENDER OF NOUNS

. A Russian noun belongs to one of three genders: masculine (emi-

nine or neuter. '.I'

, . It ~s necess~ry to be able to distinguish the gender of nouns since adJbctIves, pa~tICIple~, some pronouns, ordinal numerals and past tense vder s agree with their head noun in gender, i. e. the endings they take

epend on the gender of their head noun:

Masculine JIIHTepecHhIii ))'OKJI3)),. 'An interesting re-

port.'

CHHHii KapaH))'am. 'A blue pencil.' Ham nepBhlii YPOK.

'Our first lesson.' IIpHmeJI cryzrenr.

'A (boy) student

came.'

Feminine MIiTepeCHaH KIIHra.

'An interesting

book.' CHHHH 6YMara. 'Blue paper.'

Haura nepaas JIeK-

QHH.

'Our first lecture.'

II pHmJIa CTy))'eHTKa. 'A (girl) student

came.'

Neuter HHTepeCHoe 3a))'aHHe. 'A~ interesting as-

signment.' CHllee nHTHo. 'A blue spot.'

Harne nepnoe c06pa-

HHe.

'Our first meeting.' IIpHmJIo nHchMo. 'A letter came.'

I. The gender of nouns denoting persons is determined by the sex °hf the person concerned, the gender of all other nouns is determined by t err endings.

,The words MY~'lHlla 'man', roaoura 'youth' ))'e))'ymKa 'granddad' OTeQ 'father', 6paT 'brother', MaJIh'lHK (MaJIh'l~mKa) 'boy', which de~ n~te males, are masculine (no matter what their endings are)' the words ~elllQHlla 'woman', )),eBymKa 'girl', MaTh 'mother' ))'O'lh 'daughter" 6a- 6ymKa 'granny', cecrpa 'sister', whic~ denote fe:nales, are feminine. r All mascuhn,e nan;es (whatever their endings) belong to the mascuIl}e gender: M!laH (~aHH), HHKoJIaii (KOJIH), BJIa))'HMHp (BOJIO))'H) HH-

KHTa, BaJIellTHH (BaJIH), AJIeKcaH)),p (Caura). '

22

All feminine names belong to the feminine gender: TaThHHa (TaHH), AUHa (AHH), Ba.temsma (BaJIH), A.'1eKcaH))'pa (Caura),

Of all the words denoting persons, the word ))'UTH 'child' alone is neuter (it is rarely used in Modern Russian).

II. The gender of an inanimate noun is determined by the ending of the nominative singular as follows:

l. Nouns ending in -a(-H) are feminine: crpana 'country', 3eMJIH 'earth', pO)),HHa 'motherland', )),epeBHH 'village', apMHH 'army'.

2. Nouns ending in -0 (-e), -e are neuter: nHchMo 'letter', npaao 'right', py~he 'gun', Mope 'sea', 3)),aHHe 'building', nnarse 'dress'.

3. Nouns without an ending whose stem terminates in a hard consonant (nee 'forest', ropozt 'city', 'town', MOCT 'bridge', )),OM 'house') or the consonant ii (MY3eii 'museum', Kpaii 'edge', 600 'battle') are masculine.

4. Nouns without an ending whose stem terminates in a soft consonant (ztem, 'day', Tellh 'shadow', orom, 'fire', ~H3Hh 'life', yrOJIh 'coal', cram, 'steel') or a soft or hard sibilant (HO~ 'knife', pO~h 'rye', xapaunanr 'pencil', Tymh 'Indian ink', JIy'l 'ray', HO'lh 'night', IlJIalQ 'raincoat', aeun, 'thing') are either masculine or feminine:

(a) the words )),eHh 'day', oroHh 'fire', yrOJIh 'coal' are masculine; the words Tellh 'shadow', ~H3Hh 'life', CTaJIh 'steel' are feminine. (The gender of these nouns must be memorised, see Supplement, pp. 28-29.)

(b) the words HO~ 'knife', xapaunaur 'pencil', JIy'l 'ray'; naam 'raincoat' are masculine;

the words pO~h 'rye', rnyun, 'backwoods', HO'lh 'night', aenn, 'thing' are feminine.

Masculine and feminine nouns whose stem ends in a sibilant can be distinguished by their spelling: feminine nouns take h after the sibilant in the nominative singular, no matter whether the sibilant is soft or hard, while masculine nouns never take h after the sibilant.

5. There are ten Russian nouns ending in -MH (HMH 'name', BpeMH 'time', 311aMH 'banner', nJIaMH 'flame', nJIeMH 'tribe', ceMH 'seed', TeMH 'top of the head', crpesra 'stirrup', 6peMH 'burden', BblMH 'udder'); they are all neuter.

6. There are borrowed words in Russian which denote inanimate objects: naJIhTO 'overcoat', MeTpo 'underground railway', KunO 'cinema', 6IOpO 'bureau', ~IOPH 'jury', napa 'bet', 60a 'boa', etc. These words are neuter, except Ko«l>e 'coffee', which is masculine: KpenKHo Ko«l>e 'strong coffee'.

Exercise 1. Read through the text, state the gender of the italicised nouns and write them out in three columns, the first containing the masculine nouns, the second the feminine and the third the neuter.

Model:

Masculine Feminine

ropon crannas

Neuter YTPO

bbJJlO eocxpeceuse. MbJ peunour noexarr, aa zopoo. Paao YTPOM npnmrra MbJ aa 60KJail Ii CeJ11f B nOe3A. MbJ exann 'lac. BpeMR JlPOlll~'10 aeaasrerso. BOT naiua cmauuu», M bl BhlllIJm 1f3 sarona. bblJ10 scaoe ympo; '1aCToe nebo, Ha He6e nann, OAHO 6eJ1oe

23

06Aa'lKO. Henarrexo OT CTaH~HIf 6hIJI nee B ' ,

CTOS!JI my uan. MhI BOIliJIH B nee T. .. 6 JIe.c '1~pe3 none BeJIa mponunxa. B nOJIe erne

IIIJIH H B,lIhIXanH CBe)!(lfll JIeCHOll (;03:;:aK hIJI~ MOKpaR. _Ha Tp~~e 6JI~CTeJIa p_oca. MhI Hue nTH~. BOT MhI YCJIhIlIIaJIH THxoe ~ PY~OM mUUl,uHa H nOKOU. CJIhIIliHO TOJIhKO nenpospa-maa eooa. MhI BhIIlHJIH sonu If {fo'laHl~e B.o):lhI. 3TO PY'leil. B py-n.e XOJIo.uHaR eOA,m,W B~ICOKO CToilJIO B He6e. EhIJI Y)l(e ~JIa ):IaJI~lIIe. l!0pozCf npHBe~a Hac B nOJIe. B nOJIe )l(apKO. MhI OCTaJIHCh B .necy. A ens. necy 6hIJIa npOXJIa.uHaR mens, a

Exer~::rf~se 2. State the gender of the nouns and write them out in three columns as for

zrepeso, ):Iy6, cocaa, 6epe3a KJIeH KyCT 6' " ,

n?JIiIHa, JI)!, Hro.ua, rpafi, nor6.ua, ~a a 'r ~~~)TO, pexa, l?e'lKa, 03~pO, npy~, ospar,

peBHR, ceJIO, crane HO'lh JIYHa KocTe"pP JI' p a, rpoxi, MOJIHHH, panyra, serep, ne-

, , , ,Y'l, PO)l(h

Exercise 3. Write out the sentences d d li he. i ..

once and the feminine nouns twice' unde~lln ~~ er met t e Itahcls~d masculine nouns

, , ' e e neu er nouns with a wavy line.

I. EJIH3 neca nporesana THxaR pe« 2 H' ,

B~IIIIJIH aa nOJIHHY. Ilonhna necrperra ~B:~a' ~ c<?JIHI.\e ~PKO 6JIeCTeJI(~ osepo, 3. MhI

CHJIhHaR »capa. 5. B nepenae MhI nHJIH q ;-tHo )l(e nOR~HJIaCh 3eMAJlHUKa. 4. CTOHJIa JIaCh: uasanacs rposa .HPKO CBepKaJI' a y~ecHoe MOA~KO. 6. Beseposi nozooa H3MeHH-

YT' R'6 t=>: MOAHUJl rpesien ZpOM Ho 0 ' , HXJIa. e 0 npORCHHJIOCh MhI pa3BeJIH ' .. , . '1eHh CKOPO zp03a

. xocmep, BCKHnHTHJIH 'lail H nOY)l(HHaJIH.

Exerc~se 4. Write the names of the days of the week and indicate their gender.

Exercise 5. Give an account of a tit th

preceding exercises. r poe country. Make use of the material of the

~xercise 6. Write out the sentences and d li h ...

once If they are masculine and twice 1'[ th un erfim~ t. e nouns which end m a sibilant ey are emmme.

1. Bpax cneunrr aa noxroun, K 6 ' 2 H '

'1ePHaR 'ryms. 4. CTOPO)l( B3RJI K)JlO~~~~~y~, a,CTOJIe JIe)l(~T xepreac. 3. B 6aHKe

6. B nOJIe nocnena poses 7 CT~S!JIa" p IJI rapag)l(. 5; ,lJ,HpeKTOp nPOH3HeC pexs.

. . TeMHaR HO'lh. . Jlannsnn ~BeTeT B Mae.

Exercise 7. Write out the following nou ddi h

masculine nouns and MOK TBOII' to the f . ns, a mg t e pronouns MOH, TBOH to the

, e ,emmme nouns.

MR'I, HO)l(, neun., KJIlO'I, xapaazram, TylIIh, TOBapHm, rrnatn, pess

Exercise 8. Write out the following no ddi h

line nouns and 0"H8 to the ('em' . uns, a mg t e numeral O,!(HH to the mascu-

,... " mme nouns.

:na)l(, rapax, MhIlIIh, CTOPO)l(, HO'lh

Exercise 9. Write out the words I' h

nouns, 0,!(H8 to the feminine nouns a~ds~~~l~~g t~e e n~~~:.ral O):lHu to the masculine

.;. cryzieur, ... crynenrxa, Y'leHHK 'I" ,

... KHm;a, ... aJIh6oM, ... KJIy6, 6H6JIHo;~~I eH:~~ .. ; ionoura, ... ,~eBYIlIKa,: .. IIHChMO,

... He):leJIR, ... 'lac, ... MHHYTa, ... cexyana ,... y.u TOpHR, ... MY3eH, ... OKHO, ... MecR~,

Exercise 10. Rell:d through the sentences and write

noun + noun phrases m three columns: (I) the masculine (2) out the italicised pro-

neuter. ' the feminine and (3) the

1. :Jmo 60JIhlIIOe 3()aHue-TeaTp :Jma ' , ,

Ufa()b-nJIOma):lh Masxoscxoro "m ., yAulfa-yJIH~a Topsxoro. :Jma nso-

2' . J om naMJlmHUK - IIaM IT '

JIail .. KaK eatua ¢aMUAUJI? MOR ¢aMUAUJI ITeTpoB. KaK :J~~KuM~~~':I~M.q HHKO-

3. Bsepa R 6ce ympo pa60TaJI' B ()

4. Ilepsoro MaR MhI 6hIJIH aa K~:i~Ha~ll :c~ en» RB6hIJI B, YHHBepCH';ere.

l1.y, JIOma.uH. CJl nnoiqao» 6hIJIa rronna napo-

Exercise 11. Write out the following nouns, adding the adjective HOBhlH or HOBaH )l(H3Hh, nyrs, rerpam., I.\eJIh, ):IeHh, noprtpern, .

24

Exercise 12. Write out the following words, adding first the adjective HHTepeCHblH, -all, -oe and then nOCJIe):lHHH, -1111, -ee.

AOKJIaA,JIeKI.\HR,6eceAa,pe'lb,KOHcYJIbTaUHR,BbIcTYIIJIeHHe,co 6paHHe,KoHcpepeH-

UIfH, 3ace):laHlfe, COBemaHlfe, KOHuepT

Exercise 13. Write down some nouns (in the singular), which could be used to describe (a) a city (or town), (b) a university, and supply adjectives to them.

Exercise 14. Read through the sentences and find the words which agree with the italicised nouns. State the gender of each of these nouns .

1. B cany pacrer 60JIb1IIOll: cepe6pHCThlll: monos». Xopouto B 3UOllHbIll: nonoeu» nOA TeHhlO TOnOJIR. 2. Hacrymtna ocens. "4acTo 1I.ueT MeJIKHll: OOJIC()b. 3. B oropozte pocna MOPK06b, poc «apmotpe u». 4. BOT MopCKaR npucmau». Y npHCTaHH CTOHT 60JIbmOll Kopa6Ab. 5. Ha CTOJIe nexana pysonuc». 6. EOAbHb IIOMelIIaJIa eMY nplfHS!Tb ysacrne B Hamell patiore. 7. .H COBeTYlO BaM IIOCMOTpeTb 3TOT HHTepeCHbIll cneKmaKAb.

THE GENDER OF NOUNS WHICH TAKE NO ENDING

IN THE NOMINATIVE SINGULAR AND WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A SOFT CONSONANT

The gender of nouns whose stem ends in a soft consonant and which take no ending in the nominative singular must be memorised (the gender of these nouns is indicated in any Russian dictionary).

However, it is sometimes possible to determine the gender even

from the nominative singular:

1. By the suffix:

(a) Nouns with the suffix -TeJIb or -apb (qHTaTeJIb 'reader', nHca-

TeJIb 'writer', BblKJIlOqaTeJIb 'switch', 6H6JIHOTeKapb 'librarian') are masculine (-TeJIb in the feminine nouns MeTeJIb 'snowstorm' and apren» 'cooperative craft society' is not a suffix).

(b) All the nouns with the suffix -OCTb or -ecrs (HOBOCTb 'news', pa-

)1,OCTb 'joy', npOMblmJIeHHOCTb 'industry', cBe*ecTb 'freshness') are

feminine.

2. By the meaning of the noun:

The names of the months (sIHBapb 'January', ..,eBpaJIb 'February',

anpens 'April', HWHb 'June', HWJIb 'July', ceHTs6pb 'September', OKnl6pb 'October', Hos6pb 'November', )1,eKa6pb 'December') are mascu-

line .

3. By the final sounds of the word:

Nouns denoting inanimate objects and having -3Hb (*H3Hb 'life'),

-CTb (necr» 'honour'), -cs (SbiCb 'height'), -Db (JI1060Bb 'love'), -6b (npepy6b 'ice-hole') or -ns (crem, 'steppe') at the end of the word are femi-

nine (see Supplement 1, p. 27-28).

In all other cases you must refer to a dictionary. (For the common-

est masculine and feminine nouns denoting inanimate objects, see

Supplement 2, pp. 28-29).

Exercise 15. Read through the sentences. State the gender of the italicised nouns.

1. I'nyxas uou», Pexa peBeT. (II.) 2. BOT ()OJIC()UK 6phI3HYJI· Tlu n» JIeTHT. (TlOm'l.) 3. EhlJI 6e'lep. He60 MepKJIo. Boou CTPYHJIIfCb THXO. )J(YK )l(y)l()I({tJI. (II.) 4. Bemep cnan. Memen» YTHXJIa, HMo 6hlJI0 He06blKHOBeHHO '1HCTO. (E. flOA.) 5. bbIJI nueap», co CTenH nY"1 OCTPhlH ceBepHbIll «emep. (E. Ilon.v 6. MOp03 U co.utue. !1Wb QYAecHhill (fl.)

25

7. Flpoapa-nrsra nee o,LIilH sepneer H ,~,

6JIecn'n. (II.) 8. /l,O:JICOb npouien. 'r:p;:: ~~:COT3? HHBCH ?6eJIeH~;T, H pe'-l,KG 1101\0 JIb,LIOM

HT. He e paoyea CTOHT. (Mapm.)

Exercise 16. State the gender of the nouns and supply adjectives to them

HapO,LI, pO,LIHHa, MHP, lKIf3Hb Tpy,LI ,LIPY 6" , , . 3aBMcHMoCTb, MOJI01\elKb 6e30rricHoc~b 11;0 a, ,e,LIHHCTBO; COKl3, 6oPb6a, csofiona, He-

MWI, naprua, X03}jii:CTBO' rrOJIMTHKa KYJI' bTY' pfaPecc, rrp~BHTeJIbCTBO, focY1\apCTBO, ap-

, , , H,LIeOJIOfHH.

THE GEND~R OF NOUNS DENOTING MEMBERS OF A PROFESSION OR TRADE

mas~~¥:: (~;~~;i~; .,~~~~~\s n~~:e~~~~e~;~~~e~:o~\a~~Q~~~ ~~~~~~l~~

::'1, do~tor." physlcIa~', cy.n:~H: 'judg~', cexperaps 'secretary', Mexa~

Rmec. aruch TOKapL turner, Ca.n:OBO.n: 'horticulturist'), but in Modern, ,usslan t ese nouns may be used in regard to women:

QHa onumuuu Bpa'l 'Sh . .

3 a' " ~ ~ IS an expenenced doctor.'

T .n:eBYIIIKa -- XOPOUlUU TO- 'This girl is a good turner'

KapL. .

Mo~ cecTpa-npeKpaCl-lblU nena- 'My sister is an excellent teacher.'

ror.

, In, such c~ses the adjectives (onhlTHhiD 'experienced' xo oumD

(good, npeKpacHhiD 'excellent'), used as attributes of masc 'I' p

Bpa'l 'doct ' 'h .. , , u me nouns ith th .or, p YSICtan , TOKapL 'turner', nenarur 'teacher') agree

WI em m gender.

K TO ~hIcTymiJI na C06P<lHHH c ,no-

K~a,noM? - ~LIcTynaJla npo-

cj)eccop Maxaanona.

CKa)J(H;e, noxanyircra, rzte ce-

xperaps? - Cercperaps BLI-

IIIJla.

"Who made the report at the meeting?" "Professor Mikhailova did."

"Can you tell me where the secretary is?" "The secretary is out."

gen~~~~~ate-~;rbs i~ the past tense are generally used in the feminine aa, ceKPeT~~L :ll~~~). to a woman (macrynana npocj)eccop MHxauJlo-

NOUNS OF COMMON GENDER

There are a number of Russian nouns endin in a ( ) ( .,

'~rph~~" Ka~eKa 'cripple', YMHHQa 'clever pers~n" ~a3~~H ~g~~c:'p~:~

~H~~les ~;~n iel~t~i~: whose gender depends on whether they ref~r to

(':I-) _when ~he1 denote a female, these nouns are feminine and h ~~~~fvYemrgb adtJekctIies,'p~rticipI~S, pronouns, ordinal numerals'and p~s~ s a e rerrunme endmgs:

3Ta ,neBOQKa - «pye na« cHpoT11. 'This girl has neither father nor

mother.'

'~hat a clever girl (woman) she IS!'

26

3Ta .n:eBytIIKa - nama llyttUlaH 3aneBaJla.

'This girl is our best leading singer.'

(b) when they denote a male, the modifying adjectives, participles, pronouns, ordinal numerals and past tense verbs are generally used in the masculine (3TO,[ yqeHHK-Harn JlyqrnHU 3aneBaJla 'this pupil is our best leading singer'), but they may be used in the feminine:

3TOT MaJlLqHK - KPYZJlblU CHPO-} 'This boy has neither father nor

Ta. mother.'

3TOT MaJlL'IHK - «pyesa» CHpO-

Ta.

KaKOU )Ke OH YMHHQa! } 'What a clever fellow he is!'

KaK(lH )Ke OH YMHHQa!

THE GENDER OF INDECLINABLE NOUNS

There are words which have been borrowed into Russian and are not declined (they all end in a vowel).

(a) Nouns denoting inanimate objects are neuter (MOe naJlLTO 'my

overcoat', KpacnBoe MeTpo 'beautiful underground railway', y.n:06Hoe Kyne 'comfortable (railway-carriage) compartment', 3TO TaKcn 'this taxi cab', cnpasosaoe 61Opo 'inquiry office', HHTepecHoe HHTepBLID 'interesting interview', nYIIIHcToe 60a 'fluffy boa', BKycHoe pary 'tasty ragout', etc.), but the word Kocj)e 'coffee' is masculine: nsro KpenKHD

Kocj)e 'I drink strong coffee'.

(b) Nouns denoting living beings are masculine (KpacnBLID KaKa.n:y

'beautiful cockatoo', MMeHLKHu KoJIil6pH 'little humming-bird', 6oJIhrnoD KeHrypy 'big kangaroo', HHTepecHhlD IIIHMnaH3e 'amusing chimpanzee'), but in the sentences llhtMnaH3e KopMlma cBoero .n:eTeHLlIIIa. 'The chimpanzee was feeding her young one'; KeHrypy KOpMHJla cnoero )1.e'feIlLlUla. 'The kangaroo was feeding her young one' the form of the predicate-verbs (past tense .fem.) shows that the nouns UlHMnaH3e 'chimpanzee' and KeHrypy 'kangaroo' denote females.

Some Russian words (interjections, adverbs, syntactic words, etc.)

used in a sentence as nouns are treated as neuter nouns as far as their relations with other words in the sentence are concerned:

Pasoanoc» zpoMKoe «ypa»! 'A loud 'hooray!' was heard.'

Ecms o()110 lle60JlbUlOe «HO». 'There is one little 'but'.'

Bbl He YMeeTe npoaaaocirn- pyc- 'Y ou can't pronounce the hard

cxoe meepooc «.'1». Russian "l '.'

Supplement 1

The Most Common Feminine Nouns Ending in -3Hb, -CTb, -cs, -Bb, -6b, -m,

60Jlle3HL 'illness' 6pOBL 'eyebrow' BeCTL 'news'

BJlaCTL 'power' BLlCL 'height' ropers 'handful'

27

rpycrs 'sadness' ",n3Hb 'life'

3anncb 'record', 'entry' 3aBnCTb 'envy'

KnCTb 'brush'

KOCTb 'bone'

KPOBb 'blood' .neronacs 'chronicle' JIeCTb 'flattery'

JIIOOOBb 'love'

MeCTb 'vengeance' MOPKOBb 'carrots' HeHaBncTb 'hatred'

OOYBb 'footwear'

nonecrs 'short novel' nponacrs 'gulf, 'precipice' no)],nncb 'signature' npopyob 'ice-hole' PYKonncb 'manuscript' cenecrr, 'conscience'

crem, 'steppe'

CTpaCTb 'passion'

nens 'chain'

qaCTb 'part'

seers 'honour'

nrepcri, 'wool'

Supplement 2

The. Most Comm?n Masculine and Feminine Nouns Ending in -b (WIth the exception of nouns with the stem ending in a sibilant and nouns ending in -3Hb, -CTb, -cs, -Db, -fib, -m.)

aBTOMooiiJIb 'motor car' aHCaMOJIb 'ensemble' OnHOKJIb 'binoculars' OIOJIJIeTeHb 'bulletin' aaxps 'whirlwind' r003)],b 'nail'

rocnaram, 'hospital' )],eHb'day'

)],O"')],b 'rain'

KaMeHb 'stone' KapTofjleJIb 'potatoes' xanrens 'cough'

KnCeJIb 'thin fruit jelly' KOHTPOJIb 'control' KOpaOJIb 'ship'

KopeHb 'root'

KpeMJIb 'the Kremlin' nareps 'camp'

JIiiOeHb 'downpour' JIOKOTb 'elbow' MOHacTLIpb 'cloister' HoroTb 'finger-nail' HyJIb 'nought'

atenapem, 'water-colour' OOJIb 'pain'

28

Masculine

orom, 'fire'

neus 'stump' nOJI)]'eHb 'midday' nopTfjleJIb 'brief-case' nY3LIpb 'bubble' nyrs 'way'

peMeHb 'strap'

POHJIb 'grand piano' pyOJIb 'rouble'

pyJIb 'steering wheel' cnexraxm, 'performance' cTeoeJIb 'stalk'

crepseem, 'pivot'

CTnJIb 'style'

cyxaps 'rusk'

TOnOJIb 'poplar'

TYHHeJIb 'tunnel'

yrOJIb 'coal'

YPoBeHb 'level'

fjloHapb 'lantern'

.. iipKYJIb 'a pair of compasses' nrrence.n, 'plug'

HKOPb 'anchor'

Feminine

OhIJlb 'true story' raaans 'harbour'

rapMOHb 'concertina'

riiOeJlb 'destruction', 'death' ropniHb 'larynx'

rpaHb 'facet'

rpy)],b 'chest'

rpH3b 'dirt'

)],aJlb 'distance'

)],aHb 'tribute'

)1;8epb 'door'

,[(POOb 'fraction'

ens 'fir-tree'

KOJlbIOeJlb 'cradle'

KPOB3Tb 'bed'

Jla)J;OHb 'palm (of the hand)' JIeHb 'laziness'

Ma3b 'ointment'

Me)],aJlb 'medal'

Me)],b 'copper'

MeJlb 'shoal'

MeTeJlb 'snowstorm' MOpaJIb 'morals' MbICJlb 'thought'

HefjlTb 'oil', 'petroleum' HnTb 'thread'

ocem, 'autumn'

OCb 'axis'

orpacm, 'branch' OTTeneJlb 'thaw'

naMHTb 'memory' nexam, 'sadness'

neqaTb 'stamp', 'seal' nexem, 'liver'

nJlOIQa)],b 'square' nOCTe.JIb 'bedding' npUOhIJlb 'profit' npacrans 'landing-stage' nhIJIb 'dust'

pom, 'role'

pryrs 'mercury'

CBH3b 'connection'

cers 'net'

cnpem, 'lilac'

cKilTepTb 'table-cloth' csrep'n, 'death'

COJlb 'salt'

cram, 'steel'

crenens 'degree' crynem, 'stage'

CYTb 'essence'

TeHb 'shadow'

'rerparn, 'exercise-book' TKaHb 'fabric'

'rperu 'one-third'

uem, 'purpose'

mnHeJlb 'greatcoat' utens 'chink'

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS

Nouns in Russian change for number: a noun may be either singular or plural. When a noun changes for number, its ending changes too (3aBo)], 'plant'-3aoo)],bI 'plants', )],OM 'house'-)1;oMa 'houses', rasera 'newspapet-vrasersr 'newspapers', KHHra 'book'-KHHrH 'books', nnCbMo 'letter'-niicbMa 'letters', none 'field'-noJlH 'fields'); in some cases not only the ending changes but the stem of the noun as well (rpa",)],aHHH 'citizen' -1'pa",)]'aHe 'citizens', peoeHoK 'child' - peoHTa 'children', opaT 'brotherv=fiparsa 'brothers', 3HaMH 'banner'- 3HaMeHa 'banners'). In certain cases the stress may shift too.

FORMA nON OF THE PLURAL OF MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS

Masculine and Feminine Nouns ending in -sr or -H in the Nominative Plural

1. The following nouns have the ending -hI:

(a) Masculine nouns ending in a hard consonant (3aBO)],

29

'plant'-3,aBo.n:L1 'plants', KOJlX03 'collective farm'-KoJlx03L1 'collective farms ), e?,cept for nouns whose stem ends in r, K, x, X\ or tn, which ~ak.e the en,d1Og -~: a~d t~e twC? nouns cocezt 'neighbour==cocena neIghbours. and .. epr devt!'-1fepTH 'devils'.

, (b) Fem!n1Oe n~)Uns, endiI_1g ,in -a (~a3ha 'newspaperv= raaersr newspapers, MamHHa . machine -M~f!lHHbl 'machines'), except for

nouns whose stem. ends 10 r, K, x or a sibilant, which take the ending -H. 2. The fol~ow1Og nouns. ha~e the ending -H:

,~ (~) mascu!1Oe n0l!ns ending 10 -ii (repelii 'herov= repea 'heroes', MYleH museu!ll.-MY3eH 'museums');

(b) feminine nouns ending in -II (.n:epeBHII 'village' - .n:epeBHH 'villages', crarss ~article'-cTa~~ 'articles', JIionuI 'line'-JIioum 'lines'); (c) masc~I1Oe and feminine nouns ending in a soft consonant ~.n:OX\.n:b 'rain-> .n:OX\.n:H 'rains', nJlo"-a.n:b 'square'c-s nnemana squares');

(d) m.asculine and feminine nouns whose stem ends in a sibilant (H,OX\ 'kmf~'-Hox\H 'knives', KoX\a 'leather'-Kox\H 'leathers' xapan.n:am 'pencII>'-:-KapaH.n:amH 'pencils', Homa 'burden-c uoma 'burdens' Bpa1f 'physicianv= apana 'physicians', HO'ib 'night'-Ho1fH 'nights>' nnam 'ra1Oc0<:tt'-nJlamH. '~aincoats', poma 'grove-c pema 'groves');' , (e) ~ascuhn,e an~ feml!ll~e nouns ,whose stem ends in r, K or x (apar enemy -BparH enemies, nora 'leg'-HorH 'legs' 3ByK 'sound'-3BYKH 'sounds', cfJa6pHKa 'factory'-cfJa6pHKH 'f~ctories' nacTtx '~hepherd'-nacTyxH 'shepherds', crapyxa 'old woman'_'_ CTapYXH old women').

N,otes.- I.. A, number of n?uns drop 0, e, e in the plural: KPYlKi)lc 'study group~~p~ stu~y f~oups.' O;reQ 'father'-O'I'IIbI 'fathers', opi!.JI 'eagle' -opm>l eagle~: I_lro~eK ht~le hght -OI"OHbKH 'little lights', COJloBeii 'nightingale - COJlOBbH nightingales'. The 0 and e (e) which are dropped are called unstable vowels.

2. In some ~asculine and feminine nouns the stress is shifted from one syllable to .anoth~r. In the formation of the plural:

, (a) \n femlJ?Ine ~ouns t~e ,stress is shifted from the ending to the stem: crpaaa ,coun!ry -.~pa~bI c?un~nes" 3Be3)la 'star'- 3Be3)lbl 'stars', PYKa 'arm'- PYleH arms , ~ora leg -:-HorH legs, rOJlOB8 'head'-J"llJloBbi 'heads';

(b) In mascuhne nou.ns the stress is shifted from the final syllable in the singul~r t? the final. ~y.llabl~ In ~he plural: oroHb 'light'-orHH 'lights', OI"OHeK 'little h~ht -OI"OHbKH httle hghts , KPYlKOK 'study groUp'-KpYlKKH 'study groups' P - ~lK '??undary'-PY?elKH '~oundaries', waJlaw 'hut'-waJJawH 'huts' KapaH~~

pencIl-KapaH)lawu 'pencils'. '

(The position of the stress in all such words must be memorised.)

Exerci~e 17. Give the plural of the following nouns and mark the stress. Read aloud the words In the SIngular and the plural.

M ode/: crpana - crpaasi

PYKa, nora, 3Be3.!1a, 3eMJIlI, rpaea, r0J10Ba, ropa, crena, .!lOCKa M ode/: HOlK - HOlKH, C0J10BeH - C0J10BbH

xapaanam, spas, uranam, nnaur, Bop06eH, MypaBeH

Model: oroaes - oronsxn, KPYlKOK - KPYlKKH

KyCOK, J1IiCTOK, nJ1aTOK, nOT0J10K, 3BOHOK

30

Exercise 18. Write out the sentences, putting the italicised nouns and the words which agree with them in the plural. Read the sentences aloud.

I. BJ(anH MenbKHyn OZOlJeK. 2. 51pKI1H ny« comma OCBeTHJI KOMHaTY· 3. ¥IJ(eT cans}!blH OO:JICOb. 4. B nanrax necax pacrer en«. 5. B CMY noer conoeeu. 6. 51 xyrran pyccKIill :JICyplJaJl. 7. 3TO au repecnaa cmamsh. 8. MHe apasarca 3Ta m?cIJJI. 9. B Hal1leM IiHcTIiTYTe ecrt. XllMH'IeCKali Jla6oparnopuJI. 10. BOT Ball csoeaps Ii saura «uaea. 11. TBoll «apaiuunu nelKin 3.!1eCb. 12. Ha crone .nexar JlO.JlCKa, IJO:JIC II eunxa II crosr crnaKalJ 11 mapentca, 13. KJlHJ'l nexorr B llIIl.IiKe crena. 14. Tyua 3aKpbIJ1a COJ1Hne.

MASCULINE NOUNS ENDING IN -A (-.H) IN THE PLURAL

Some masculine nouns have in the plural the stressed ending -a (-H): ,UOM 'house'--.n:oMa 'houses', Kpaii 'edge'-Kpas. 'edges', 6eper 'shore'- 6epera 'shores', ropon 'city' - ropona 'cities', Y'luTeJlb 'teacher' - Y1fHTeJlH 'teachers', npocfJeccop 'professor' - npodieccopa

'professors' .

Such nouns may be monosyllabic (.n:OM, Kpaii), dis syllabic (6eper,

ropon) and, less frequently, trisyllabic (y'IUTeJlb, npocfJeccop) .

These nouns are never stressed on the final syllable in the nomina-

tive singular.

Monosyllabic

Dissylabic

6eper' 'shore - 6epel'a 'shores'

nesep 'evening' - Be'lepa 'evenings'

ronoc 'voice' - ronoca 'voices'

ropon 'city' -- ropona 'cities'

.uOKTOP 'doctor' - .uoKTopa 'doctors' MacTep 'foreman-e- MacTepa 'foremen' HOMep 'number' - HOMepa 'numbers' OCTPOB 'island' - ocrpoaa 'islands'

nose 'belt' - nOllca 'belts'

napyc 'sail' - napyca 'sails'

nOe3.!1 'train' - noeazta 'trains'

nonap 'cook' - noaapa 'cooks'

60K 'side'

BeK 'century' rnaa 'eye'

,[10M 'house' Kpaii 'edge' nee 'forest" nyr 'meadow' cuer 'snow' por 'horn' COpT 'sort'

- 60Ka 'sides'

- BeKa 'centuries'

- rna3a 'eyes'

- )lOMa 'houses'

- KpaiJ 'edges'

- .neca 'forests'

- nyra 'meadows'

~- cnera 'snows' - pora 'horns'

- COpT a 'sorts'

Trisyllabic

nPO<!JeCCOP 'profes- - upooeccopa 'professors' sor'

Y'lHTeJlh 'teacher' - Y'!HTeJlll 'teachers'

Exercise 19. Read through the sentences and write them out. Mark the stress in the italicised words.

1. KpacHBbl 6epeza BOJIrll: oco6eHHo KpacHB npaBblii 6epez-KpYToll, nospsrrsra necoM. 2. Becnoit 3eneHeIOT nyza. 3. )J.aneKo B Mope 6eneIOT napyca. 4. OlKllBHnllcb oxpaaasi ropo.aa: nocrpoensr HOBbie ssrcoxae OOMa, HOBble saeoou, ¢a6puKu. 5. llpe-

ofipaxarorcs Haum zopooa,

Exercise 20. Make up sentences, using some of the nouns given in the above table and write them down.

3

Formation of the Plural of Neuter Nouns Neuter nouns .hav~ the ending -a (-II) in the plural.

, I. NoUl~s endmg m -0 take -a (nHcLMo 'letter'-nHcLMa 'letters' ~eJlo 'affair' - ~eJla 'affairs', rocynapcrao 'state' - rocy~apcTB~ 'states').

, ~. NoUl;~ en~ing !n =. ta~e .-11 ,(noJle, 'field'-nomt 'fields', MOpe . sea -:-- MO~II seas, J~aHHe building - 3~aHHII 'buildings'); nouns end!ng I? -e, also take -II (PY*Le 'gun'-PY*LII 'guns', KonLi . spear -KonLiI 'spears').

, , N0fe.- ,A ~umbcr. ?f neuter nouns form their plural irregularly: yxo ear - yWH ears, nJle'lo shoulder' -nJle'lH 'shoulders' KoneHo 'knee'-KoneHH 'knees', aeKo 'eyclid'-aeKH 'eyelids', WJlOKO 'apple'_:i6J1oKH 'apples'.

3. In forming the plural the stress may shift from the first syllable to the last (~eJlo 'affair'-~eJla 'affairs', npaao 'right:-npaB8 'rights') or fr~.m the last syllable to the first (OKHO 'window'-oKHa 'windows' PY*Le 'gu~'- PY*LII 'guns', nHcLMo 'letter'- nHcLMa 'letters')' th~ stre,ss remam~ u~changed in nouns with the suffix -aHH(e) or -e~(e) (J~a~He 'bUlI<;lmg'- J~aHHII 'buildings', C06paHHe 'meeting'c~6pa~HII.'l!leetmgs', Bne'laTJleHHe 'impression's-cenexarneaaa 'impre~SIOnS!, Wltp~ the ~uffix -CT~(O) (r«?CY~8pcTBO 'state'- rocY.llapcTBa

states, XOJRHCTBO economy - XOJIIHCTBa 'economies').

. Exercise 21. Form the plural of the following nouns and write them down in the

singular and plural. Mark the stress.

Mode!: OICHo-oKHa

nHChMO, 1C0JIhUO, CTeKJIO, JIHQO, ceJIO Mode!: J{eJIo - nena

npaso, MCCTO, 3epICaJIO, eJIOBO

M odel: 3J{aHHe - 3J{aHHII, rocy napcrso - rocy napcrsa c06paHHe, 3aceJ{aHHe, eOBelUaHHe, ynpa~HeHHe, npaBHTeJIhCTBO

Exercise 22. Read through the text. State the gender and number of the italicised nouns.

MOCKBA

MOCKaa-cffW.IIU¥ PoceHflcKOH <1>e"epli1\HH.

B MOCKBe paforaer POCCHHCKoe npaeumenwcmeo

MOCKBa-KpynHbIH npoMblWJIeHHbl(1 1\eHTp. B MOCKs«! 60JIbillHe tjJ6.6PUKU H 3a800bl. 113 MOCKBbl BO BCe KOH1\bl POCCHH H B 3apy6bKHbie crpausr BblB63l1TCli a8nwltw6,mu, cmauxu, CmaJIb, censcxoxoskucmeenuue ltWUlIlH.lx.

MOCKBa-1\eHTp HayKH H KYJIbryPbl. B MOCKs«! Hax6"HTCli Poccaacxas axaoeuus:

HaYK, MOCK6BCKHH rocy"apcTBCHHbl(1 yuueepcumem HMeHH )lOMOH6cOBa, O}lilH }13 craperiunsx YHHBCpcHTeTOB crpansr, B MOCKs«! MH6JKeCTBO BY30B, IllKOJI, 6H6JIHOTeK. POCCHHCKali rocynapcrseaaas 6H6JIHOTeKa-BCJIHllaHlllee KnUlOxpanu.nUUI,e MHpa. B MOCKBe aaxonarcs Koncepeamopus. HMeHH QaHK6BCKoro, AKa"eMHlI xYA6JKeCTB, liOJIblll6H rearp H npyrae rearpsr.

CC? &eeMH K,?Hl{aMH , POCCHH, . MocKSY CBlI3b1BalOT ~eJIbHble oopoe«

H B03J{YlUHhle mpaccu. B Mocxse 9 BOnaJIOB H 4 aaponopra. MocKSa-nopT mlTH MO-

32

pen. Ona pacnonosceaa rra 6eperax Mocxma-pexa. KaHaJI HMeHH MOCKBbl coerumser MOCKBy-peKY C Bonroii.

B MocKB!: 60JIhllIOe YJIHQHOe oeuoceuue: aemo uobunu, aemb6ycbl, mponseiuiyo«,

mpaMeau. CaMhlH YAo6HhIH BHA TpaHCnOPTa B MocKBe-:ho uempo. OHO cB1I3hIBaeT c U!:HTPOM oTJ{aJIeHHhle paiibHbl CTOJIHl{bl.

SOME PECULIARITIES IN THE ·FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS

1. Masculine nouns ending in -aHHH or -HHHH (rpaJK~aHHH 'citizen', KpeCThHHHH 'peasant') take -ane (-HHe) in the nominative plural (rpaJKAaHe 'citizens', KpecTLHHe 'peasants').

Nouns ending in -HH form their plural differently:

XOJHHH 'master' - XOJH:eBa 'masters'

rocnozum 'gentleman' - rocnona 'gentlemen'

TaTapHH 'Tatar' - TaTapbl 'Tatars'

60JlrapHH 'Bulgarian' - 60Jlriipbl 'Bulgarians' rppHH 'Georgian' - rpYJHHbl 'Georgians'

The above words are- isolated cases and must be memorised,

2. Masculine nouns ending in -OHOK or -eHOK (BOJl'l{)HOK 'wolf-cub', KOTeHoK 'kitten') and denoting the young of living beings end in the nominative plural in -ara (-HTa) (BOJIqaTa 'wolf-cubs', KOTHTa 'kittens').

The plural of pe6eHoK 'child' is pe6HTa 'children', but the more common form is AeTH. (The word pe6HTa may also be used with the meaning 'lads', 'boys'.)

3. Some masculine and neuter nouns take -LH in the plural:

6paT 'brother' 6paTbH 'brothers'

JlHCT 'leaf JlHCTLH 'leaves'

CTYJI 'chair' CTYJlLH 'chairs'

KPbIJlO 'wing' KPLIJIbH 'wings'

nepo 'feather' nepbH 'feathers'

AepeBo 'tree' ~epeBLH 'trees'

KOJlOC 'ear (of corn)' KOJlOCLH 'ears'

In the formation of the plural of some nouns alternation of consonants occurs in the stems.

AP)T 'friend' - ~PYJLH 'friends' (r-J);

CYK 'twig' - CY%H 'twigs' (K-'I).

Note.- The words My~ 'husband' and ChlH 'son' have two plurals each: My~ 'husband'-MY;KbH, MY~H 'husbands', CLIH 'son'-cblHoBhH, CblHbl 'sons'.

The forms MY~bH and ChlHOBhH are used in everyday language, ChlnbI and MY;KH in elevated style: J1Y'lIUHe ChlHbl BMHIWii M8TepH-PoAHHbI 'the best sons of their great Motherland'.

4. Neuter nouns ending in -MH have different stems for the singular and the plural; only the following nouns are used in the plural:

BpeMH 'time' JHaMH 'banner' nJleMH 'tribe'

BpeMeHa 'times' 3HaMeHa 'banners' DJIeMeHa 'tribes'

33

3 -384

HMH 'name' HMeHa 'names'

ceMH 'seed' cesreaa 'seeds'

CTpeMH 'stirrup' - cTpeMeHa 'stirrups'

5. The following neuter nouns ending in -0 have different stems in the singular and the plural:

He60 'sky'

IJY)):o 'miracle'-

He6eca 'skies' IJy)):eca 'miracles'

Hefieca generally occurs In CHHeH 6J1eLQYT nefieca. (IT.)

poetry:

'The skies glisten as they grow blue.'

Exercise 23. Write out the sentences, putting the italicised nouns and the words which agree with them in the plural.

1. Epam oTIIpaBIIJlCSl aa Phl6HYlO JlOBJlIO. 2. Petieno« arpan OKOJlO )lOMa. 3. J(PY2 qaCTO nHUJeT MHe nHcbMa. 4. HanpoTIIB Moero oxaa pacrer oepeeo. 5. X03RUlI npnserJlIIBO BCTpeTIIJl rocreii. 6. Hs-non aafiopa BhlCKOqlIJl «omeno«. 7. Arponoxi BHIIMaTeJlbHO pasr JlH'[(blBaJl KI');lOC TIUJeHHllbl.

A number of masculine nouns have different forms of the plural for their different meanings (J1HCT nepesa 'a leaf of a tree', J1HCT 6YMarH 'a leaf of paper', but: J1HCThH nepena 'leaves of a tree', ",}HCTLI 6YMarH 'leaves of paper').

Singular Plural
J1HCT J1HCThl m'tcTbB
'leaf (of a book, etc.; 'leaves (of a book)', 'sheets' 'leaves (of a plant)'
of a plant)' Mbl npHrOTOBHJ1H 60J1b- Ha L1epeBb8x n;:eJlTble
IUIIe J1HCThl 6YMarH L1J18 J1I1CTbli. 'There are yel-
ilHal'paMM. "We prepared low leaves on the trees.'
large sheets of paper
for the diagrams.'
nponycK nponycKH nponycKa
'absence, pass' "absences' 'passes'
Y yqeHHKa ecn, nponycica Y BxoLla npOBepslJ1H npony-
3aHslTHii no 6oJ1bHH. 'The CKa. 'The sentry checked
pupil was absent from the passes.'
some of the lessons owing
to illness.' Notes.> 1. The plural of IIBeTOK 'flower' is IIBeThl 'flowers' (Ha J1yry sanecTpeJ1H "BeThI. 'Flowers showed colourfully in the meadow.'); the plural of "BeT 'colour' is usera 'colours' (JIlO6mo slpKHe IIBeTa. 'I like gay colours.')

2. The plural of senose« 'person' is mOLlH 'people'. The plural form 'IeJ10BeK is used only in the genitive with a numeral (na n, 'IeJ10BeK 'five people').

Exercise 24. Write out the sentences, supplying the appropriate words from the right-hand column.

34

1. OceHb. Ha nepem.sx lKeJITble H xpacnsre ... . JlHCThI, JlIfCTbH

Ha CTOJle JlelKaJlH 6eJlbie ... 6YMam.

2. Y HeKoTopblX TOBapHllIeR B HameR rpyrme ccrr- IlponYCKH, IlpoIIYCKa .,. 3aHHTHR TIO 60Jlf:3HH.

fIpll BXO)le B :),[0 snauae HYlKHO npem.aans n,

3. ii ~apTHHe rrpeofinazrana csernsre ... lIBeThl, naera

Ha oxne CTOHJlII ... .

NOUNS USED ONLY IN THE SINGULAR OR PLURAL

Some Russian nouns are used only in the singular or only in the plural.

I. The following nouns are used only in the singular:

(a) Collective nouns, i. e. nouns which, in the singular, denote a number of objects taken as a whole: MOJlo)):eJKh 'young people', CTy)):eHIJecTBo 'the students', IJeJlOBeIJeCTBO 'humankind'. The above nouns denote animate beings. lieJlhe 'linen', nocyna 'tableware', 06YBh 'footwear', Me6eJlh 'furniture', o)):eJKJJ:a ' clothes'. The above nouns denote inanimate objects.

(b) A number of nouns denoting substances: JKeJleJo 'iron', Me)):h 'copper', cram, 'steel', KHCJlOPO)): 'oxygen', a30T 'nitrogen', BO)):OPO)): 'hydrogen', etc.; medicines: acnupan 'aspirin', no)): 'iodine', neHHIIHJlJlHH 'penicillin', etc.; food items: MBCO 'meat', caxap 'sugar', MYKa 'flour', pHC 'rice', etc.

(c) Some nouns denoting vegetables, cereals, berries: KapTo«JleJih 'potatoes', J1eH 'flax', J1yK 'onions', MOPKOBh 'carrots', POJKh 'rye', MaJ1HHa 'raspberries', etc.

(d) Abstract nouns formed from certain adjectives and verbs: BHHMaUHe 'attention', IJTeHHe 'reading', MOJlO)):OCTh 'youth', 6eJlH311a 'whiteness', TeMHOTa 'darkness', etc.

Notes.-l. A number of nouns of this group may be used in the plural, but when so used they acquire a concrete meaning: pa).lOCTH )KII3HH 'life's joys', J1HTeparypmae 'ITeHIlB 'literary readings', Ha,[(eJ1aJ1 rnynocrea 'he did a lot of foolish things'.

2. There are abstract nouns which have the plural: H3MeHeHHe 'change'-H3MeHeHHB 'changes', no'rpetiaoert, 'needv= norpetiaocra 'needs', cnoCOOHOCTb 'ability'-ccnocofiaocra 'abilities', etc.

2. The following nouns are used only in the plural:

6PWKH 'trousers' 6Y)):HH 'week days' nopora 'gates' BecLI 'scales' BLI60PhI 'elections' )):ellhrH 'money' ztpoaa 'firewood' )):YXH 'perfume'

KaBLIIJKH ' inverted commas' KY)):PH 'curls'

KerJlH 'skittles'

KaHHKYJlhI 'holidays' KypaHThI '(tower) clock with

chimes'

MeMyaphI 'memoirs' HOJKHHI.hI 'scissors' HOCHJlKH 'stretcher' OIJKH 'spectacles'

nepaaa 'railings', 'hand-rail' noxopoasr 'funeral, obsequies' npoBo)):hI 'seeing-off neperonopsr 'negotiations'

3*

35

pO.l1:LI 'childbirth' caHU 'sledge' Caml3KU 'sled' cYMepKu 'dusk' cmlBKu 'cream'

CYTKU 'twenty-four hours', '(whole) day'

TPyCLI 'shorts'

tl>UHaHcLI 'finance' XJIOnOTbI 'trouble' 'IaCLI 'clock', 'watch' 'IepHDJIa 'ink' maxMaTbI 'chess' uraunca 'draughts' mUDI~LI 'tongs'

mu 'cabbage soup'

and a number of others.

All the words used with above nouns also take the plural.

'I bought some red ink.'

'He spent his summer holidays nicely'.

'I travelled for twenty-four hours'.

Indeclinable nouns-e-nam.ro 'overcoat', MeTpo 'underground railway', TaKCD 'taxi', mocce 'main road', etc.~do not change for number; however, if these nouns denote a number of objects, the words which

are used with them take the plural: .

51 xynan xpacuue 'IepHDJIa.

OH xopouro npOBeJI nemuue xaHDKyJILI.

51 lIeAble CYTKU 6hIJI B ztopore.

B xrarasaae nponasann «pacueue oemcxue naJILTo.

Ilponoxcenu HOBble mocce.

'There were beautiful children's coats on sale at the shop.' 'New highways have been built.'

Exercise 25. Write out the nouns and state their gender.

(a) KpeCThiIHCTBO, HHTeJIJIRreHlJ,HlI, CTY):leHqeCTBO, ):IeTBOpa, pozurs, csrpse, 6eJIhe, oPY)J(He, 06YBh, onexaa, Me6eJIh

(b) JIJ060Bh, ):IPY)J(6a, qeCTh, repnenae, nesans, CMeJIOCTh, JIOBKOCTh, noxronts, BHHMaHHe

Exercise 26. Supply an adjective to each of the following nouns; write down the nouns with the adjectives in three columns: masculine, feminine and neuter.

)J(eJIt:3o, Me):lh, 30JIOTO, cepefipo, CTaJIh, OJIOBO, HeIPTh, IIllIeHHlJ,a, PO)J(h, JIyK, sarryCTa, MOPKOBh, KapTOlPeJIh, KJIy6HHKa, MOJIOKO, qaii:, cano, Milco, MYKa, MhIJIO, 6eH3HH, nsrns, B03):1YX

Exercise 27. Write out the following nouns in three columns: the first containing the nouns used only in the singular, the second the nouns used only in the plural and the third the nouns used both in the singular and the plural. Supply an adjective to the italicised words.

connue, JIYHa, 3Be3):1a, B(3):1yx, MOP03, scapa, mrrn., iJO:JICiJb, cner, my uan, rpasa, csrp, MOJIOKO, zpyna, MYKtl, COAb, caxap, caaa, MOAomOK, ronop, 06Y8b, Me6eAb, sopora, uepnuna, HO)J(HHlJ,hI, lIIaXMaThI, lIIalIIKH, opyxae, opyaae, cancra, 6PWKH, nepuamsu, pyfiaunca, «ocmto u

CHANGING THE NOUN FOR CASE

Russian nouns change for case (are declined). There are six cases in Russian:

36

KTO?, 'ITO? 'who?', 'what?' KOI'O?, 'Iel'o?

'of whom?', 'of what?' KOMY?, 'IeMY?

'to whom?', 'to what?' KOI'O?, 'ITO?

'whom?', 'what?' KeM?, 'IeM?

'by whom?',

what?'

'with whom?', 'with what?'

o KOM?, 0 '1eM?

'about whom?', 'about what?'

All the cases other than the nominative are called oblique cases. Nouns which denote animate beings answer the questions:

KTO? 'who?' ,lI;PYI' )l(HBeT B Mocxse.

'The friend lives in Moscow.' 51 6h1JI y npyra.

'I was at a friend's.' 51 HanHCaJI .l1:pYrY·

'I wrote to a friend.' 51 BCTpeTHJI APYl'a. 'I met a friend.'

51 3aHHMaJIcj{ C ApYr0M.

'I studied with a friend.' MhI rOBOpHJIH 0 .l1:pYre. 'We spoke about a friend.' B soonapxe ecrs CJIOH.

'They have an elephant at the

Zoo.'

Y CJIOHa ,[(JIHHHhIM X060T.

'The elephant has a long trunk.' 51 nozrouren 6JIH3KO K CJIOHY·

'1 came near to the elephant.'

Jl snepaue YBif):(eJI )I<HBOrO CJIOHa.

'1 saw a live elephant for the first

time.'

51 JIl060BaJIcj{ 3THM CJIOHOM. 'I admired that elephant.'

51 nanacan paccsas 0 CJIOHe.

'1 wrote a story about an elephant.'

Nouns which denote inanimate objects answer the questions:

lITO? 'what?' nUCLMO JIe)l(HT aa CTOJIe. 'The letter is on the table.'

The nominative, which answers the questions

The genitive,

The dative,

"

"

The accusative,

"

"

"

"

The instrumental,

'by

The prepositional, "

Y KOI'O? 'at whose place?'

KOMY? 'to whom?'

KOI'O? 'whom?'

C KeM? 'with whom?'

o KOM? 'about whom?'

KTO? 'who?'

Y KOI'O? 'who has?'

K KOMY? 'to whom?'

KOI'O? 'whom?'

KeM? '(with) whom?'

o KOM? 'about whom?'

37

'len>? 'of what?'

'1eMY? 'to (at) what?'

'ITO? 'what?'

'1eM? 'with what?'

o '1eM? 'about what?'

Ha crone HeT "HCIoMa.

'There is no letter on the table.' 51 pan "HCLMY.

'I rejoice at the letter.' 51 nonyxan "HCLMO.

'I received a letter.'

.H osern, noaonea nHcLMoM.

'I am very pleased with the letter.' 51 paccxasan 0 nHCbMe.

'I told (them) about the letter.'

Exercise 28. Write out the sentences. What questions do the italicised words answer?

(a) I. Cmyoeum pafioraer S nafioparopan. 2. Bsepa II 6bIJI sa KOHcYJIbTaUHH Y npoqieccopa. 3. R HanHCaJI nHcbMo omuy, 4. B rearpe II SCTperHJI moeapuiua. 5. Ha 3KCKYPCHH Mbl paaroeapasana C oupexmopou aasona. 6. Beseposr pafiosac rOSOpHJIH o sasone, 0 HOSOM oupexmope.

(b) I. RPKO CSCTHJIO COAHlJe. 2. Ceronas HeT COAHlJa. 3. Msr scerna pansr COAHlJY. 4. R JIIo6mo COAHlJe.

SOME MEANINGS OF THE CASES

The genitive case of a noun:

(I) denotes possession and answers the question 'leu? '1bB? 'lLe? '1LH? 'whose?'

(2) with the words HeT 'have no', 'there is no', He 6blJ10 'had no" 'there was (were) no,' He 6Y~eT 'will have no', 'there will be no' denotes the absence of an object.

(3) when used with different prepositions acquires different meanings.

38

Kmrra 6p:iTa.

'The brother's book.' (4bH KHl1ra? -- Bpara.

'Whose book? ~- The brother's.') nonS! 1\:0J1x{na.

'The fields of the collective farm.' (4bH nOJIS!?- KOJIX03a.

'Whose fields? --- Of the collective farm.')

Y MeHS! HeT ('lez():)) xapaanaura. 'I have no pencil.'

Bsepa.ae 6bIJIO ('le20?) ~OjK~H. 'It did not rain yesterday.' 3aBTpa He 6YJJ.eT (1(020?) ~HpeI\:TO-

pa.

'The director will not be in tom or-

,

row.

51 6bIn (y 1(020?) Y ~6I\:TOpa. 'I was at the doctor's.'

51 xynan KHHry (OAf! 1(0201) ~JUI

TOBapH"-a.

'I bought a book for a friend.'

OH npaexan (omICyaa?) H3 CaHKTc Ilerepfiypra.

He came from St. Petersburg.'

The dative case of a noun:

Ilojaoraro (I(OMj?) .roaaparuy. 'J help a friend.'

Panyrocs ('leMj?) ycnexav. 'I rejoice at (your) success.'

I1JJ.Y (I( KOMj?) I\: npenonaaaremo. 'J am going to my teacher.'

without a preposition or with the preposition I\: generally denotes the person or object towards whom or which the action is directed and answers the questions KOMY? (I\: KOMY?) 'to whom?', qeMY? (I\: '1eMY?) 'to what?'

The accusative case of a noun:

51 BCTpeTI-In (1(020?) TOBapH"-a. 'I met a friend.'

QFlTalO ('lmo?) l'a3CTY·

'I am reading a newspaper.'

(1) with a transitiv~ verb denotes the object to which the action passes over and answers the questions Koro? 'whom?', 'ITO? 'what?'

(2) when used with the preposition B 'to' or na 'to' and answers the question I\:YJJ.a? 'where to?' denotes the place towards which the action is directed.

I1JJ.Y (I(yoa?) B nereaaar.

'1 am going to the dean's office.' I1JJ.Y (KYoa?) na c06paHHe.

'I am going to the meeting.'

The instrumental case of a noun:

(1) may denote the instrum~nt C?r Haury ('leM?) MCJIOM. means by which the action IS 'I write with chalk.' performed and answers the PbKY ('leM?) HOjKOM.

question '1eM? 'with what?' '1 cut with a knife.'

(2) may denote the person 111 c~m- 3aHHMalOcb (c l(eM?) C TOBa-

junction with whom the actton pH~eM.

is performed and answers the '1 study with a friend.'

question C KeM? 'with whom?' Toaopro (c l(eM?) C npenonanare-

JIeM.

'I am speaking with the teacher.'

The prepositional case of a noun

(which is used with prepositions only):

(a) with the preposition 0 'about' MhI -nrrana (0 I(OM?) 0.ntlUKHHe. it denotes the person or object 'W~ read a?out Pu.~hkm.

spoken of and answers the OHI~ roBOp"JIH (0 'leM?) 0 JIHTepa-

questions 0 KOM? 'about Type. .,

whom?', 0 '1eM? 'about what?' 'They spoke about l.'terature.

(b) with the prepositions B 'at', na OH 6hIn (cae?) B TeaTp~. 'at' it denotes the place of .ac- 'He :was at th~) theatr~.

tion and answers the quesuon Pa60TalO (2oe;) aa cIla6puKe.

rAe? 'where?' '1 work at a factory.'

The cases in Russian are rich in meanings. One an.d. the ~ame case of a noun can be used (either with or without a preposition) 111 sentences to express different relationships.

39

Exer~ise 29. Read through the sentences, state the case of each noun and tell what question It answers. Translate the sentences into English.

, 1. MOll OTe!! pafioraer ~a 3aBoLl~. Bpar yqHTCH B HHcTHTYTe. 2. Cecrpa TOBapHlQa yqHTCH B ¥ocKBe',3. Y, MeHH HeT yqe6HHKa. 4. CTYLleHT C,Il;aJI aaser npenozrasaremo. 5. JJ. ITHlIfY nH~bMo TOBapHlQY.~. 51 nO,Il;apHJI 6paTY ITOPT<peJIb. 7. Ha :holl6YMare MOlKHO ITH~aTb TOJIbKO K~paH,Il;aIllOM., 8. Bxepa Mbl CJIYIllaJIH mrrepecaua '[(oKJIaJ( 0 MelKJ(YHapoJ(Ho!" nOJIOlKeHHH. 9; Ha YJIHl\e H BCTpeTHJI TOBapHlQa. 10. JJ. nonro paaronapHBaJI C TOBapHlQeM 0 J(OKJIaJ(e.

THREE TYPES OF THE DECLENSION OF NOUNS

I. . I~ acc~rdance with their endings in the singular Russian nouns are divided mto three types of declension.

!. The first declension includes: (a) masculine nouns without any ending m the nominatrve whose stem ends in a hard or soft consonant or iI (ropo,lJ; 'town', 'city', ,lJ;eHL 'day', Mail 'May')'

(b) neuter nouns ending in -0 (-e) or -e (nHCLMO 'letter' PYlKLe 'gun' none 'field', 3,lJ;ilHHe 'building'). "

. Note.- Masculine ~ouns ,with augmentative or diminutive suffixes plus the ending -? o~ -e (mpoJ(HwKo small town of no Importance', J(OMHWKO 'small and/or dilapidated house', J(oMHlI1e 'huge house') also belong to the first declension.

2. The second declension includes feminine nouns ending in -a -H:

crpana 'country', 3eMJlH 'earth', apMHH 'army'. '

~ote.~ ~ascu,Iin~ no~ns en,ding in -~; -H (wHowa 'youth', crapocra 'village elder, eYJ(bH Judge ,.J(H~H uncle, KY3bMa Kuzma', BaHH 'Vanya') and nouns of ~omm,on gender ending III -a, -H (eupora 'orphan', YMHHlla 'clever person', P33HHH gawk) also belong to the second declension.

. 3. The third declension includes feminine nouns without any ending m the nommative, whose stem ends In a soft consonant or sibilant (hard or soft): TeHL 'shadow', CTenL 'steppe', HO'lL 'night', POlKL 'rye', MhIWL 'mouse'.

I~. Some nouns do not belong to any of the above three types of declension and are declined in a special way: they are the neuter nouns endmg m -MH (8MH 'name', BpeMH 'time', etc.), the masculine noun nyn, 'way' and the neuter noun ,lJ;HTH 'child'.

III. There are a number of nouns which are not declined and do not change according to number: naJILTO 'overcoat' KHlI0 'cinema' MeTpO 'un~er~rou?d rail;-vay', mocce 'main road', lKIOPD' 'jury', Keurypy"kangaroo, KocIJe coffee, etc. These nouns are neuter, except KocIJe (masculine). All of them have been borrowed from foreign languages.

The First Declension

This .declension includes masculine nouns without any ending in the nommative and neuter nouns ending in -0, -e or -e. The declension of a noun of the first declension depends on whether its stem ends in a hard or soft consonant.

40

THE DECLENSION OF MASCULINE NOUNS WITH THE STEM ENDING IN A HARD CONSONANT

Ending

xmo? umo? yqeHHK eJlOH 3aol'm No ending
'pupil' 'elephant' 'plant'
K020? 'le2o? Y'leHHKa eJlOHa 3aooJ(a -a
KOMjJ? 'leMY? Y'IeHHKY eJlOHY 3aooLlY -Y
K020? umo? Y'IeHHKa CJlOHa 3aBoJ( as Gen. or Nom.
KeM? ue u? Y'IeHHKOM eJlOHOM 3aOOJ(OM -OM
o KOM? 0 'leM? 06 Y'IeHHKe o cnoue o 3aooJ(e -e Nom.

Gen. Dat. Ace. Instr. Prep.

WITH THE STEM ENDING IN A SOFT CONSONANT OR -if

Ending
Nom. xmo? umo? J(OlKJ(b oroHb repoH 60H No ending
'rain' 'fire' 'hero' 'battle'
Gen. K020? 'le2o? J(OlKJ(K orHK repea 60H -H
Dat. KOMjJ? 'leMY? J(OlKJ(ID ormo repolO 6010 -10
Ace. K020? umo? J(OlKJ(b oroHb repos 60H as Gen. or
Nom.
Instr. KeM? ue u? J(olKJ(eM OrHeM repoeM 60eM -eM, -eM
Prep. o KOM? 0 "eM? o J(olKJ(e 06 orHe o repoe o Me -e (a) The accusative of masculine nouns denoting animate objec!s and their genitive are identical (yqeHHKa, CJI0Ha, repes); the accusative of nouns denoting inanimate objects and their nominative are identical (saBO,lJ;, oroHh, 6oil).

(b) The accusative of the masculine no~ns HapO,lJ; 'p~ople',. OTP.H,lJ; 'detachment', which have a collective meanmg, and their norrnnatrve are identical (JlI06DTL aapon 'to love one's people', BeCTD OTPM 'to lead a detachment').

THE DECLENSION OF NEUTER NOUNS

Neuter nouns with the stem ending in a hard or soft consonant are declined in the same way as masculine nouns.

With Stem ending in Ending With Stem ending in Ending
a Hard Consonant a Soft Consonant
Nom. OKHO J(eJlo -0 PYlKbe nOJle -e, -e
'window' 'affair' 'gun' 'field'
Gen. OKHa J(eJla -a PYlKbK nOJlH -H
Dat. OKHY J(eJlY -Y PYlKbW nOJlIO -10
Ace. OKHO J(eJlo as Nom. PYlKbe nOJle as Nom.
Instr. OKHOM J(eJlOM -OM PYlKbeM, 1l0JleM -eM, -eM
Prep. 060KHe o J(eJle -e o PYlKbe o none -e 41

The accusative of neuter nouns and their nominative are always identical.

THE SPELLING OF STRESSED AND UNSTRESSED CASE ENDINGS AFTER A SIBILANT OR IJ,

After a sibilant (jK, 'I, m or ur) or u the ending of the nominative singular of neuter nouns is spelt -0 when stressed (KOJILlIO 'ring', nJIe'lo 'shoulder') and -e when unstressed (cepnue 'heart', Y'IUJIHme 'college'); the ending of the instrumental singular of masculine and neuter nouns is spelt -OM when stressed (60iiI,OM, HOjKOM, KOJILlIOM, DJIe'lOM) and -eM when unstressed (eonrorpannees, TOBapHmeM, ceplIueM, Y'lHJ1HmeM).

THE DECLENSION OF MASCULINE NOUNS ENDING IN -MM AND OF NEUTER NOUNS ENDING IN -HE

Masculine Neuter
--
Nom. «mo? umo? npoJleTapuii c3uaTopuii co6pauue
'proletarian' 'sanatorium' 'meeting'
Gen. KOC!O? ueeo? npOJleTapUH cauaTopuH co6paHuH
Dat. KOMj'? <leMY? nponeraparo C3H3TOPUIO co6paHulO
Ace, KO?O? umo? npOJleTapUH caHaTopuii c06paHUl'
Instr. KeM? 'IeM? npoJleTapUeM caH31'opueM co6paHueM
Prep. o KOM? 0 'IeM? o nponerapaa o caHa1'opuu o co6paHuu Unlike other masculine and neuter nouns, masculine nouns ending in -HH (DpOJIen'ipHH 'proletarian', BaCOJIHH 'Vasily,' caHaTopHH 'sanatorium') and neuter nouns ending in -ne (C06p{lHHe 'meeting', BHHM3HHe 'attention') take the ending -H in the prepositional (0 nponerapan, 0 BaCUJIHH, B canarepaa, na C06paHHH, etc.).

Exercise 30. Write out the sentences, state the gender and case of the italicised nouns and give their nominative.

I. MhI cnyurana J1OKml)]; 0 C06hIHIS!X sa py6e:JICoM. 2. Bsepa MhI XOJlHJIH C moeapuUJeM B 'rca'rp. 3 . .SI rOBOpHJI C epauou, 4. C1'apHK pafioracr B KOJIX03e cmOpO:JICeM. 5. r1TeH(::~ BhlPOC H CTaJI Bece.f1hIM neeuou, 6. MhI nOKphIJIH J1HO JIOJlKH xauuuuos«. 7. B .necy naxuer /laIl0blweM.

Exercise 31. Give oral and written answers to these questions, using the masculine nouns npenoztaearens and Jla60pauT in your answers.

1. K1'O BOWeJI B aY)];II1'OpHIO? 2. lIM! :31'0 KHHra? 3. KOMY crynearsr O1')];a,lH CBOH pa601'hI? 4. Koro cTy)];eHThl BhI6pami npencenarcness c06paHIIJI? 5. C KeM crynenrsr pa60TalOT B JIa60paTopHII? 6. 0 KOM 6hIJIaCTaTbl! B crearasere?

Exercise 32. Make up sentences containing the words Y'lCH8K and cexperaps in all the cases singular. Write down your sentences and mark the stress throughout.

Exercise 33. Decline the neuter nouns CTpoilTeJlhCTBO, 3/.laHUe, aacenauac. Make up sentences containing those nouns in the prepositional.

Exercise 34. Write down the instrumental of words xapanaaru, Jly'l, KY3HCII, cOJlHlle, JlUIIO, naJlell, exaopeu, nreaeu,

42

'CULIARITIES IN THE DECLENSION OF SOME MASCULINE NOUNS

PE IN THE GENITIVE AND PREPOSITIONAL SINGULAR

THE GENITIVE WITH THE ENDING -y (-10)

When denoting a quantity or part of ~ substan~~ or I?ateria~, son;e asculine nouns take the ending -y (-10) In the gerutive sl~gular. K~COK ~ py 'a lump of sugar' craxaa '1illO 'a glass (cup) of tea , KIUIOrpaMM caxa '"" 't b y some

.. y 'a kilogramme of honey', xyrnrrt. caxapy, Me~y 0, u ,

~~:ar, honey', BbITIIITh '1alO 'to drink some tea, nafipa'n- XBOPOCTY to

ther some brushwood'. di .

ga The nouns xJIe6 'bread' and OBeC 'oats' do not take the en mg -y m

the genitive. . ..

Note.- Sometimes the genitive singul,ar ending -y occurs III preposltl?n~1

hrases e . OR BhlWeJI 83 AOMy, 83 necy he came out of the house" out 0 ! e p d' ~ ~~~ AO AOM 'lac 'it took me an hour to reach home', 51 JKAaJI OKOJlO 'lacy ~o~ait'ed for about a~ hour'. In such cases, the stress is frequently shifted to the

prcposition.

Exercise 35. Read through the sentences and account for the ending -y or -10 in the

italicised nouns. , ,

I Hanciirc MHe, nOJKaJIYllCTa, '1awKY 'IalO. 2. A~llTe MHe, n?JKa!,YllcTa, ,KHJIO ,ca-

. , .. ~ 3 ThI nOHJleWh B Mara3im? KYIIII MRe, IIOJKaJIYllcTa, x.1e6a. CblPY

xapy H CTaKaH Meuy. . "

II caxapy. 4. He YXOJ.\H, MhI cell 'lac BhIOheM uaio.

THE PREPOSITIONAL WITH THE ENDING -Y (-10)

Some masculine nouns take the stressed ending ~y (-10) in the prepositional after the prepositions Band na (when denoting place and, occa-

sionally, time), e. g.: , ,,' th r

(a) B JIecy 'in the wood' B ca.LJ:Y 'in the garden, B yrrry m, ~ co -

ner' B mKalJly 'in the cupb~ard', B HOCY 'in the nose', B ~~a3y .'l~ t~e eye< BO pry 'in the mouth', B 6010 'in th~ ~attle', B :rLlJI~ behin T t,. e frontline', B nJIeHY 'in captivity', B KpLiMY in the Crimea , B .LJ:LlMy m

smoke' B CHery 'in snow'. .,' ,.

(b) 'Ha 6epery 'on the bank', ua MOCTY 'on the ,?ndge , na J1yr~ m

the meadow', ua UlKalJly 'on the cup~oard'" ua JI6y I? ~he forehead" ua HOCY 'on the nose', na DOCTY 'at one s post, na xparo on the edge, na

)1:0HY 'on the (river) Don'. T' 1988 '

B KaKoM ro.LJ:Y? 'In which year?'-B 19,88 ro.LJ:Y· ~n, . ,

B KOTOPOM 'lacy? 'At what time?'- B nepeoxr 'lacy. After twelve.

Exercise 36. Read through the sentences; state the case of the italicised nouns and

give their nominative. Mark the stress.

Model: JIeC--B necy

1 MhI nonro rYJISIJIH 6 /leey. 2. IIoJKeJITeJIH JIHCThS! 6 caoy. 3. TYPHC!'hI pa30~K:rJIl{

. H' COBOH 5 Ha Mocmy 60JIhIIIOe )];BIIJKeHHe.

KOCTep IJa 6epezy pexa. ,4. Ka nocm7y c~oKllaTK~~ 200Y 'Bh~ PO)];HJIllCb? --.SI POJlHJICJI 6 1962

6. Ornycx MhI npOBeJIH 6 PbIMY· " , ~?

200y. 8. B KOTOPOM 'lacy Bbl npllIIIJIII )];OMOII. .

Exercise 37. Make up several sentences containing masculine nouns in the prepositional ending in -y (-10).

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Exercise 38. Write a composition, using the words Jlho, Mope, C{)JJHlle, OT..r.bIX caHaTopHli, the prepositional of masculine nouns (ua 6epery, B .!fecY, etc.) and the ph;ases nposecra nero, panoaarsca OT)~bIXY, JJ1060BaTbcH MopeM, 3aKaToM, OClloMHHaTb 0 .nere.

The Second Declension

This declension includes feminine nouns ending in -a, -B.

Like the first declension, the second declension also has different endings depending on whether the stem of the noun ends in a hard or soft consonant.

WITH THE STEM ENDING IN A HARD CONSONANT

End- Nouns with Stem End·
ing ending in J', K, X ing
Nom. «mo? limo? CTpaHa meHIIIHHa -a PYKa nopora -a
'country' 'woman' 'hand' 'road'
'arm'
Gen. 1(020? 'Ie?6? crpama meHII,HHbl -bl PYKU !10pOrH -H
Dat. KOMj? , ? CTpaHe )KeHlIIHHe -e PYKe nopore
'Ie.uy. -e
Ace. K026? umo? cTpaHY meHlIIHHY -Y PYKY ..r.opory -Y
Instr. KeM? ueu? cTpaHoli meHlIIHHoli -oli PYKoli !1op6roli -oli
Prep, o KO.I1? o ueu? o crpaae o meHlIIHHe -e o PYKe o nopore -e WITH THE STEM ENDING IN A SOFT CONSONANT

End- End-
ing ing
Nom. xmo? limo? 3eMJlH ceMbH cTaH -H apMHH -H
'land' 'family' 'flock' 'army'
Gen. Ko?6? 'Ie26? 3eMJlU ceMbu CTaH -H ap'l1HH -H
Dat. '? '? 3eMJle ceMbe CTae -e apMHH
KOMy. 'Ie.uy. -H
Ace. «ozo? umo? 3eMJIlO ceMbID craro -10 apMHIO -10
Instr. KeM? 'IeM? 3eMJleli CeMbeli cTaeli -eli, apMHeli -eli
-eli
Prep. o KOM? 0 'IeM? o 3eMJle o cesn.e o crae -e 06 apMHH -H (a) nouns with the stem ending in a hard consonant take -a in the nomin~tive, -bI in the .g~nitive (~ut after r, K or x the ending is -H), -e in the dative and prepositional, -y m the accusative and -oti, -010 in the instrumental.

(b) nouns ending in -HB (apMHB 'army', JIUHHB 'line') take -H in the genitive, dative and the prepositional (apMHH, JIUIIHH).

(c) masculine nouns and nouns of common gender ending in -a (-B) also follow the second declension: MYJKqUlla 'man', .LJ.H.LJ.B 'uncle', YMIIHua 'clever person'.

44

THE SPELLING OF STRESSED AND UNSTRESSED CASE ENDINGS AFTER A SIBILANT OR IJ,

After a sibilant (JK, q, m or ur) or 11 the ending of the instrumental

'ngular is spelt -on (-010) when stressed (MeJKOn 'with a boundary', CB~s60 'with a candle', oBlIon 'by a sheep') and -en when unstressed (Kp,bI~eii 'with a roof, pomen 'with a grove', ntullen 'by a bird', Tyqeii 'with a cloud', JIyJKen 'with a puddle').

Exercise 39. Give oral and written answers to the q~estions, using one of the feminine nouns npenO!1aOaTeJlbHHlla, cecrpa and Jla60paHTKa III them. Underhne the endings

in these words.

, ' '?

I. KTO BOWeJI B KOl>fHaTY? 2. LJhl! :ho KHura? ~. KOMY BhI HaIIH~aJI~ nHCbMO.

4. Koro BbI BII!1eJIH aa cofipaaaa? 5. C KeM BhI pa3rOBapHBaJIH no TeJIC¢oHY· 6. 0 KOM BbI rOBopiulIl c rouapamcsr?

Exercise 40. Decline the words $a6pHKa, KHura and aY!1HTOpHH. Make up sentences containing these words in the prepositional.

Exercise 41. Write out the sentences and mark the stress in the italicised words. I. Beptunna ropsr 3aKpbIJIaCh myueu. 2. MhI IIIJIH poU/eu; 3. KOMHa:-a ocseuraJIaCh ceeuou. 4. JIacTO'lKH CBlIJIll rHe3)10 non «puiaeu. 5. MbI nonro m060BaJIHCh nmu-

ueii.

The Third Declension

This declension includes feminine nouns with no ending in the nominative and with the stem ending in a soft consonant or a sibilant (hard

or soft).

Ending
Nom. «mo? umo? mH3Hb HO'lb pomb MhIWb No ending
'life' 'night' 'rye' 'mouse'
Gen. K026? 'Ie26? mU3HH HO'IH pmH MblIIIH -H
Oat. KOMi' IteMj? mU3HH HO'IH pmH MblWH -H
Ace. K026? umo? mH3Hb HO'lb pomb MblWb As Nom.
Instr. xest? 'lCM? mU3HblO HO'lblO pomblO MbIWblO -(b)1O
Prep. o KOM? .. ? o mU3HH o HO'IH o pm" o MblWH -H
o ue u. (a) the accusative of nouns of the third declension and their nomi-

native are always identical;., . , ' ,

(b) the ending of the genitive, dative and prepositIOnal IS -H (JKH3I1H,

HOqH, pJKH, MbIIUH);

(c) the ending of the instrumental is -(b)1O (JKU3I1blO, ~tc.); ,

(d) some nouns (stressed. on the stem in all ?ther cases m the smgular) are stressed on the endmg in the prepositional when th~y denote place, e, g.: uens 'chain', lIenH, lIenblO, but na uenu 'on a cham', crem, 'steppe', CTenH, crensro, 0 CTenH but B cTenu 'in the steppe', KpOBb 'blood', KPOBH, KPOBblO but B KPOBU 'in the blood'.

Exercise 42. Read through the sentences; state the case of the italicised words.

1. illHPOKO pacKIIHYJIaCb cmeno, XopOWO 6 cmenu. 2. Tpyn JIIO)leil npe06pa)J(aeT

45

cmens. OrHH CTPOil:KH ropxr uao cmenuo. 3. MbI 6hIJIH aa aaaonc, B uexe, rne JlbIOT cmans,

Exercise 43. Decline the nouns pe'lb, '1eCTb and CMeJlOCTb.

Exercise 44. To which declensions do the words oceHb, 3HMa, aecna, JleTO and the names of the months belong?

Exercise 45. Write out the sentences and account for the ending -H or -e of the italicised nouns.

I. MbI 6hIJlH aa Kpacnoii n.unqaou. 2. Ha n nouounce nepen AOMOM HrpaIOT AeTH. 3. ~ 3anHcbIBaIO JleKi\HH B o6lIleil: mempaou, a HOBbIe CJlOBa -- B MaJleHbKoi1 mempaoxe.

Exercise 46. Decline the nouns HO'lb, H(l'lK3; KpoBaTb, KpoBaTK3; JlOm3)lb, .nomaznca; cryneas, CTyneHbK3.

The Declension of Nouns in the Plural

Nouns of all three declensions take the same endings in three cases in the plural, viz.: -aM (-HM) in the dative, -aMU (-HMU) in the instrumental (with the exception of JlIO,n:bMH 'by people', ,n:BepbMH 'with doors', JlOrna,n:bMH 'by horses') and -ax (-HX) in the prepositional. In the genitive the endings are different.

First Declension Ending
Nom. 33BO.llbI OrH" repoH Ae,la nOJII, 3AaHHH
'plants' 'lights' 'heroes' 'affairs' 'fields' 'buildings'
Gen. 33BOAOB orHeR repoeB AeJl nOJleR 3AaHHR
Oat. 33BOJl3M orHHM rcpoHM ACJlaM nOJlHM 311aHHHM -aM(-HM)
Ace, 33BOAbI OrH" rcpocB AeJla nOJlH 3AaHHH
lnstr. 33BollaMH orHHMH repoHMH AeJlaMH nOJlHMH 3AaHHHMH -aMH(-HMH)
Prep. o 3aBo.llaX 06 orHHx o repoax o nenax o nOJlHX o 3AaHHHx -axt-ax)

Second Declension Third Enging
Declension
Nom. 3eMJlH lKeHIIlHHbI apMHH crena
'lands' 'women' 'armies' 'steppes'
Gen. 3CMeJlb lKeHIIlHH apMHR cTeneR
Oat. 3eMJlHM lKeHIIlHH3M apMHHM CTenHM -aM (-HM)
Ace, 3eMJlH lKeHIIlHH apMHH crena
Instr. 3eMJlHMH lKeHIIlHHaMH apMHHMH CTenHMH -3MH
Prep. o 3eMJlHX o lKeHIIlHH3x (-HMH)
06 apMHHx o crensx -3X
(-HX) 1. If a noun denotes an animate being, its accusative plural and its genitive are identical (repoea, )KeHllluH); if a noun denotes an inanimate object its accusative plural and its nominative are identical (3aBo,n:bI, orHH, ,n:eml, nom), 3eMJlU, crena).

2. Masculine and neuter nouns ending in -bH in the nominative plural (6paTbH 'brothers', ,n:epeBbH 'trees') keep the b in all the cases; the

46

genitive: 6paTbeB, nepessea; the dative: 6p3TbHM, ,n:epeBbHM; the instrumental: 6paTbHMu, ,n:epeBbHMu; the prepositional: 0 6paTbHx, 0 nepeBbHX.

Exercise 47. Write out the sentences, putting the italicised nouns in the plural.

1. Flpcnonaaarern, ;laJl cmyoeumy sanaaae. 2. ~ xony norosopun, 06 :'nOM c npenoOaeame,leM. 3. Ilpenonaaarensnaua paar osapnaacr co cmyoeumtcou. 4. Bo BpeMlI xaH1fKYJI MbI 6hlJlH B meampe H B uysee. 5. YqeHHKH paccsasana yuumento 0 KaHHKYJlax. 6. Msi rOBOpHJlll 0 xuuee II 0 ifjUJlbMe. 7. B socxpecease 1I noeny B rocra K opyey, 8. ~ nanacan llYlCbMO moeapuuty, 9. B uaeasune 6hlJlO MHoro napony. 10. B eopooe H B oepeeue CTPOHTClI HOBbIe ll<HJlhle iloMa. II. MHe HYlKHO nocnari, cecmpe re.nerpaxoay. 12. OHa nOllL1a na KaToK C noopyeou.

THE GENITIVE PLURAL NOUNS OF THE }<'IRST DECLENSION

A. Masculine nouns take the ending -OB, -en, -en or -ea in the genitive plural; a number of nouns take no ending in the genitive.

(1) -OB is added to nouns ending in a hard consonant: 3aBo,n: 'factory', 'plant' - 3aBo,n:bI, 3aB011:0B; yqeHHK 'pupil' -- yqeHUKH, yqeIlUKOB; nee 'wood' -Jleca, necos.

However, nouns whose nominative plural ends in -LH (fipar 'brother' - 6paTbH, JlUCT 'leaf -JlHCTLH, CTYJl 'chair' - CTYJlbH, KOJlOC 'ear [part of a plant]' - KOJlOCbH) take -LeB in the genitive (KUHrH 6p3TbeB 'the brothers' books', I.BeT JlHCTbeB 'the colour of the leaves', oxpacxa cTYJILeB 'the colour of the chairs', ,n:JlUlUl KOJIOCbeB 'the length of the ears'), but )J.PY3LH 'friends' --- ,n:pY3en, CblHOBLH 'sons' - cLlHoBen.

Nouns with the stem ending in Q (60eQ 'fighting man', KOMCOMOJlel. 'Young Communist Leaguer') take -OB when the ending is stressed (60nQOB) and -CB, when the ending is unstressed (KOMCOMOJlbQeB).

(2) -ee or -en is added to nouns ending in -n (60n 'battle', I'epon 'hero', Mpen 'museum'); -ee is added when the ending is stressed (60eB) and -eB when the ending is unstressed (repoea).

(3) -en is added to nouns ending in a soft consonant or sibilant (BO)K)J.b 'leader' - BO)K,n:en, orom, 'fire' - oruen, TOBapuIU 'comrade', 'friend' - 'roaapaurea, Bpaq 'physician' - Bpaqen, UO)K 'knife'HO)Ken, icapaanam 'pencil' - xapauzramea).

(4) Nouns ending in -aIlUH, -HHUH take no ending: rpa)K,n:auHII 'citizen' -rpa)K)J.aH, KpecTLHHuH 'peasant' -KpecTLHu.

Note.- Some masculine nouns take no ending either: nHTb COJlJlaT 'five soldiers', necHTb napruaan 'ten guerrillas', meers, '1eJlOBeK 'six people', napa caner 'a pair of high boots', HeCKOJlbKO pas 'several times'.

B. l. Neuter nouns ending in -0 (OKIIO 'window', nUCLMO 'letter'), -ue (co6pallue 'meeting') or -e with Q or a sibilant at the end of the stem (yqitJlHllle 'school', nonorenue 'towel'), do not take any ending in the genitive plural (CTeKJIa OKOII 'the window panes', ztocraexa nHceM 'mail delivery', rrpOTOKOJIbI c06pauun 'the minutes of the meetings', rrperro.ll,aB:lTeJIH yqHJlUIll 'college teachers', ysop noaorenen 'the patterns on the towels'). In all the words printed in bold-face type there is no end-

47

ing: -un in the genitive plural of the nouns c06paHun, 3)J;aHun, asrcrynJICHUn belongs to the stem. *

The genitive plural of the nouns YIIICJIhe 'gorge' and MrHOBCHhe (MrHoBcHue) 'instant' is formed in the same manner (YIIICJIUn, MrHOBCHun).

There is an unstable vowel in the genitive plural of the noun PYJKhe 'gun' (pyJKen).

2. The genitive plural of the noun 06JIaKO 'cloud' is 06JIaKoB. Neuter nouns ending in -0, whose nominative plural ends in -hB (nepo 'pen' -ncphB, KPhIJIO 'wing' - KPLIJIhB, nepeso 'tree')J;epcBhB), take -sea in the genitive plural (cspan nepsea 'the squeaking of pens', B3Max KpLIJIheB 'the flapping of wings', JIUCTBa ztepeasea 'the foliage of trees').

3. The nouns Mope 'sea' and nOJIe 'field' take the ending -en in the genitive plural (rJIy6uHa Mopcn 'the depth of the seas', npocrop DOJIeR 'the spaciousness of the fields'). The noun rope 'grief has no plural.

Exercise 48. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the nouns from the right-hand column in the genitive plural.

1. Ha ynauax MOCKBbI 60JIbIIIOe ~mDKe-

HIIe ....

2. B Mocxee MHoro ....

3 . .5l nonysan HeCKOJIbKO OT ....

4. B rorty naenannan, .

5. B CeHT5I6pe rpannart, .

asrofiyc, 'rpo.nnejifiyc,

TpaMBaii

rearp, MY3en IIIICbMO, rosapaui MeC5Il\

~eHb

aBTOM06HJIb,

Exercise 49. Write out the sentences, putting the italicised nouns in the plural.

I. 113 «onxosa B ropozt e~YT MaIIIHHbI C IIIIIeHHl\en. 2. I1a~aIOT lKeJITble JIHCTb5I C oepeea. 3. I10cJIe oo.sco« ace 3a3eJIeHeJIo. 4. 113-3a 66AaKa BblrJI5IHYJIO COJIHl\e. 5. ry~KH mennoxooa HapYIIIIIJIH TIIIIIHHY HO'IH.

Exercise 50. Give the genitive plural of these nouns.

spas, rrpeztcertarens.pyxosoznrrcm., ~I1peKTOp, seprezc, ypozcaii, repoii, osepo, Mope, rHe3~O, IIaCT6I1me, Y'lHJIHme, KOJIbl\O, 5IHl\O, 3~aHIIe, aHrJIH'IaHIIH, KpeCTbiIHIIH

NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION

Feminine nouns ending in -a (-B) do not take any endings in the genitive plural.

Nominative Singular Nominative Genitive
Plural Plural
lKeHIl1HHa 'woman' lKeUWHHbI lKeHIl1HH
crpaaa 'country' CTpaHbl CTpaH
3eMJIII 'land', 'earth' 3eMJlH 3eMeJlb
~epeBHH 'village' ~epeBHH .llepeBeHL
craa 'flock' cTaH CTan
ceMLlI 'family' ceMLH ceMen
apMHH 'army' apMHH apMHn * The letter e in words of the co6paHHe type denotes two sounds [n3]: [co6paHHn1].

48

Nouns with the stem ending in a hard consonant take a hard final consonant in the genitive plural (crpan, JKCHIIIUH). Nouns with the stem ending in a soft consonant take a soft final consonant (nepesens, 3eMCJIh), except a number of nouns, such as nccHB 'song', BHIIIHB 'cherries', which take a hard final consonant in the genitive plural: necen, BHUlen.

Nouns whose stem ends in n (eras [craiia] 'flock', ceMhSI [ceMua] 'family', apMuB [apMMua] 'army') have n (i. e. the final stem consonant) in the genitive plural: craa, ceMcn, apMun (there is an unstable e in the noun ceMhH 'family' - ceMcn).

NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION

Feminine nouns of the third declension take the ending -en in the genitive plural.

Nominative Singular Nominative Genitive
Plural Plural
CTenL 'steppe' CTenH CTenen
HO'lL 'night' HO'!U Ho'!en
MblWb 'mouse' MLIWH MLIwen
rerpam, 'copy-book' .rerpana TeTpa.llen Exercise 51. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the nouns from the right-hand column in the genitive plural.

1. )J;BepH ... 6bIJIH OTKpbITbI. KOMHaTa, aY~I1TOpH5I

2. Ha c06paHIIH MbI 06cy)K~aJIH nnaa ... . 3KCKYPCH5I

3. B cany MHoro ... . rpYIIIa

4. B HallleM .necy MHoro ... . fiepcaa, COCHa, ern,

5. B cany CJIbIlllHO )KYlK)KaHHe ... . nscna

6. B necy CJIbIIIIHO nenae ... . rrrana

Exercise 52. Write out the phrases, replacing the genitive singular by the genitive plural.

3HeprH5I pexa, cTpOHTeJIbCTBO 3JIeKTpOCTaHl\HH, pexrotrr MalllHHbI, cHiIHHe 3Be3~bI, TeMHoTa HO'lH, 6JIeCK MOJIHHH, npocrop crena, ~oMa nepesna, JIan cofiaxa, pxanne JIOlIIa~H, MbI'IaHHe KOpOBbI.

Nouns Which Have No Singular

Nouns which have no singular take the following form in the genitive plural:

(1) the ending -OB:

BeCLI 'scales' 21:YXH 'perfume' 1(0HCCPBhI 'tinned

food'

KypaHThl 'chiming clock'

TPYCLI 'shorts' «iJumlHchI 'finances'

BeCOB )J;YXOB KOHCC-

pBOB

KypaHTOB

- TPYCOB

- «iJUHlIH-

O'IKH 'spectacles' - O'IKOB

npoBo)J;hI 'seeing-off - npeso)J;OB

COB

'1aCLI 'watch', 'clock' IIIUDULI 'tongs'

'1aCOB IIIunuoB

4-384

49

(2) the ending -ea:
6y,lJ;HH 'weekdays' 6Y,lJ;Hen caHH 'sledge' callcn
,lJ;pOmmH 'yeast' npoac- IUH 'cabbage soup' IUen
men HCJ1H 'creche' - HCJ1en
mO,lJ;H 'people' - J11O,lJ;en
(3) no ending:
nopora 'gates' BOPOT nepana 'railings' nepuJ1
,lJ;ellhrH 'money' ,lJ;cller 'hand-rail'
ztpona 'firewood' - ,lJ;POB rroxopomr 'funeral', noxo-
KalluKYJ1hI 'holiday' - KaIlU- 'obsequies' pOll
HomllHQLI 'scissors' KyJ1 cYMepKH 'dusk' -- cYMe-
- lIomllHI~ peK
1I0CUJIKH 'stretcher' - 1I0CU- CYTKH '24 hours' - CYTOK
J10K XJ10nOTLI 'trouble' XJ10nOT
'1eplluJ1a 'ink' - '1eplluJ1 Irregular Declension of Some Nouns

Ne~ter nouns ending in -MH (UMH 'name', 311aMH 'banner', etc.), the mascuhne noun nyrs 'way', the feminine nouns MaTh 'mother' and ,lJ;O'fL 'daughter' and the neuter noun ,lJ;HTH 'child' are declined as follows.

Neuter Masculine Feminine
Singular
Nom. HMH 3HaMH nyTb MaTb LlO'Ib
'name' 'banner' 'way' 'mother' 'daughter'
Gen. HMCHH 3HaMcHH nYTII MaTcpH I(O'lCPH
Dat. IIMCHH 3HaMcHH nYTII MitTCPH ;:IO'lepH
Ace. HMH 3HaMH nyTb MaTb i"lO'Ib
Instr. HMeHcM 3HaMcHcM nYTeM MaTcpbID )lO'lCPbID
Prep. 0611MCHH o 3HaMcHH o nYTII o MitTCPH o LlO'lCPH
Plural
Nom. HMeHa 3HaMeHa nnll MliTCPH ;lO'lCPH
Gen. HMeH 3HaMeH nYTeii MaTepeii )]o'lepeii
Dat. HMcHaM 3HaMeHaM nYTlIM MaTepHM 1l0'lCPHM
Ace. HMeHa 3HaMeHa nYTH MaTcpeii )lo'lcpeii
Instr. HMcHaMH 3HaMeHaMH n)'THMH MaTepHMH LIO'lepbMH
Prep. 06 HMcHax o 3HaMeHax o nYTllx o MaTcpHx 0 1l0'lCPHX 1. All neuter nouns ending in -MH follow the declension pattern of UM,H 'n~me' (BfeMH.'ti~e', 3I1aMH.'banner', nml~H 'flame', etc.), except 311aMH banner, which IS stressed In all the cases In the plural on the suf-

50

fix -eH, ceMH 'seed', the genitive plural of which is ceMHH, and cTpeMH 'stirrup', the genitive plural of which is cTpeMHII.

2. The masculine noun nyrs 'way' is declined as a feminine noun with the stem ending in a soft consonant (mH3l1h 'life') in all the cases singular and plural, except the instrumental singular, which is nYTeM. 3. The stem of the feminine nouns MaTh 'mother' and ,lJ;O'fL 'daughter' ends in -ep in all the cases in the singular (except the accusative) and plural (MhepH, ,lJ;O'lepH, MaTepen, ,lJ;o'lepeu).

4. The neuter noun ,lJ;HTH 'child' is generally used in the singular only in the nominative and the accusative. In all the other cases the word pe6elloK 'child' is preferred: pe6ellKa, pe6ellKY, pe6ellKoM, 0 pe- 6eHKe. In the plural, the word ,lJ;CTH 'children' (nerea, ,lJ;CTHM, ,lJ;eTen, ,lJ;eThMU, 0 ,lJ;CTHX) is generally used.

Exercise 53. Write sentences, using (a) the word HMH, 3HaMH or BpeMH; (b) the word nyTb; (c) the word MaTb or 110%. Mark the stress throughout.

USE OF THE CASES WITH AND WITHOUT PREPOSITIONS

Use of the Genitive

The gemtrve is used in Russian either without any preposition (KHHra 'ronapmna 'the friend's book', pafiora CTY,lJ;CHTa 'the student's work') or with a preposition (KHHra y TOBapHUlR 'the book is at the friend's', pafiora 6e3 ollIu6oK 'work without mistakes').

THE GENITIVE WITHOUT A PREPOSITION

The genitive without any preposition is used with nouns (orner CTY,lJ;CHTa 'the student's answer'), adjectives (rrOJIHbIH pa,lJ;OCTH 'full of joy'), numerals (nsrt, CTY,lJ;CHTOB 'five students') and verbs (,lJ,06HTbC5I ycneXOB 'to achieve success').

USE OF THE GENITIVE WITH NOUNS

The genitive with a noun is used:

(l) to denote the possessor of an object (the noun in the genitive answers the question 'len?, 'fLH?, 'fLe? or 'fLH? 'whose?'):

3TO KHHra TOBapHIUa. 'This is the friend's book.'

lfbfl 3TO KHHra? -- Tosapmna. ' "Whose book IS it?" "The friend's." ,

This is the sister's album.' '''Whose album is it?" "The sis-

3TO aJIb60M cecrpsr.

'Iei; 3TO aJIb6oM? - CeCTpbI.

ter's." ,

(2) to denote the person or object performing an action (after a noun indicating an action):

MbI CJIhIIllaJIH nenae apracra. CTY,lJ,eHThI OTBeqaJIH na sonpocsr npenOJ1,aBaTeJ1H.

'We heard the artiste's singing.' The students answered the teacher's questions.'

4*

51

(3) to denote the object of the action expressed by a noun:

Hsyseaae rpaMMaTHKH neofixo- 'It is necessary to learn grammar.' )J:HMO.

3aKOHQHJIaCb yfiopxa YPolKaB. 'Harvesting is over.'

(4) to denote a quality or property of an object:

B KJIy6e 6bIJI sesep TaHQeB. 'There was a dance at the club.'

KaKou BeQep?- Be-rep TaHQeB. '''What sort of event?" "A

dance." ,

Hac HHTepecYIOT sonpocsr conpe- 'We are interested in problems of

MeHHocTH. our day.'

KaKue nonpocsr? - Bonpocsr ' "What kind of problems?"

cOBpeMeHHocTH. "Problems of our day."

. (5) to denote a quality or property of an object, a noun in the genitrve preceded by an adjective is frequently used:

Beuren QeJIOBeK nsrcoxoro pocra. 'A tall man came in.'

MbI npOe3)IGiJIH xrecra y)J:HBH- 'We drove past places of amazing

TeJIbHOH xpacorta. beauty.'

(6) to denote the person or object to whom/which the quality or

property is ascribed: .

OeJIH3Ha cnera. TeMHoTa HOqH. Bo.ns qeJlOBeKa.

'The whiteness of snow.' 'The darkness of the night.' 'Man's will.'

(7) .to denote the whole to which a part belongs or from which a part IS taken:

BeTKa nepena. KyCOK xJle6a. PYQKa )J:BepH. YroJI KOMHaTbi.

'A branch of a tree.' 'A piece of bread.'

'The handle of the door.' 'The corner of the room.'

~xercise 54. Read through the sentences. Find the nouns in the genitive. What questions do they answer?

Model: KHHra cecrpsr JIe)J(HT na CTOJIe.- l[b/l KHHra JIe)J(HT na CTOJIe?

, 1. CeCTpa npmrecrra KHHry. KHHra cecrpsr JIe)J(HT na CTOJIe. 2. TOBapH~ npenno)J(HJI MHe Y1fe6HHK . .H B3HJI Y1fe6HHK TOBapH~a. 3. Ilporpeccop 1fHTaJI JIeKI.lHIO. JIeKI.IHH nporpeccopa 6bIJIa arrrepecaa. 4. Ilacarens 3aK6H1fHJI H6BbIM pOMaH. H6BbIM pOMaH naCaTeJIH,BhnIIeJI H3 rre-rara. 5. nYIIIKHH-BeJIHKHM PYCCKHH rroar, Msr Y1fHM crnxo rsopeHHH nYIIIKHHa.

Exercise 55. Fill in the blanks with the italicised words in the genitive.

,(a) 1. I;Ia KOHl.lepTe, asrcrynan x,op. Bsrcrynnenae ... scesr rrOHpaBHJIOcb. 2. YIJeHllK OT~eTHJI ysepeaao. OTBeT ... 6blJI npasam.asnr. 3. Hacrynaer eecna. Hac panyer aacryIIJIeHHe ; ... 4',Bo zmope Hrp~JIH oemu. tv!b1 Ha6JIIOAaJIH sa HrpoM .... 5. Ilpenooaeamess O?bHCHH::' rrp~BHJIo. O?bHCHeHHe ... _rrOHHTHO Y1feHHKaM. 6. Toeapuiq rrOIIpOCHJI MeHH xyrrHTb eMY KHHry . .H BbIIIOJIHHJI npocsfiy ....

(b) ,1. Ha HallieH YJIHl.le cTp6HTCH H6BbIH aOM. CTpOHTeJIhCTBO ... sepes MeCHI.I 6yAeT 3a!,oH1feHo. 2. Msr opraaasyesr JIHTepaTYPHblH eeuep, TOBapH~H IIOPY1fHJIJf MHe opraHH3al.lHIO .... 3. 3aBoA BhIITOJIHHJI nnan. ,Z:(HpeKTop C006~HJI 0 BhlIIOJIHeHHH ....

52

4 ACImpaHT 3a~HTl1J1 ouccepmauuto. 3a~HTa ... COCTOHJ1aCb nsepa. 5. Bxepa rpynna C~y.neHToB IIOCeTl'fJ1a MY3er'i. TOBapH~ paCCKa3aJI MHe 0 noceuienna ....

Exercise 56. Read through the sentences. Write out the phrases consisting of a noun in the nominative qualified by an attribute in the genitive.

Model: rrHcbM6 aenpasrnoro coziepacauax

I. 06JI6MOB HaKaHYHe IIOJ1Y1fHJ1 H3 ,l.IepeBHJoI· IIHCbM6 aenpasruoro conepxaaaa (rol-llJ.) 2. Ha crene THxoHoB YBH,l.IeJ1 zma noprpera npexpacaoa pa66TbI. (llaycm.)

3. ApKaJ.lIfH OrJIHHYJICH If YBHJ.leJ1 )J(eH~IfHY asrcoxoro pOCTa B 1fepHOM nnarse ... (Typ2.)

4. 3TO 6bIJ1 1feJIOBeK J1eT TplfAl.laTH J.lBYX-Tpex 6T P0,l.lY, cpennero p6CTa, rrplfHTHOH naPYJKHOCTH. (ToI-IlJ.) 5. Bee C06hITHH IIOCJ1eAHIfX AHeH Ka3aJ1HCb eMY neeeposrnuwa. (flaycm.)

Exercise 57. Answer the questions, using the words in brackets. Model: KaKHe MecTa Mbl npoesxana? (YAIfBHTeJIhHaH xpaccra) Msr npoeaxana MeCTa Y,l.IHBHTeJ1bHOH KpaCOThI.

I. KaK6H 1feJIOBeK BOIIIeJ1 B KOMHaTY? (BbIC6KHH pOCT) 2. KaKHe aonpocsi aarepeCYIOT sac? (MeJKAYHap6AHoe npaso) 3. KaK6M 1feJ10BeK :hOT IIH.citTeJIb? (60JIbIII6M yM If TaJ1aHT) 4. KaK6e IIJIitTbe 6hlJ10 aa AeBYIIIKe? (CHHH.H I.IBeT)

Exercise 58. Read through the sentences and state the meaning of the genitive in the italicised words.

I . .H BhIITOJIHJoIJI npocsfiy moeapuiqa. 2. Ha CTOJIe JIeJKaJIIf 1fepTeJKH tipama. 3.

CTpOHTeJ1bCTBO saeooa IfJ.leT 6hlCTPblMIf TeMnaMH. 4. 3aB6,l.1 ssmycsaer nponyxinoo BblCOK020 xauecmea. 5. nYTeIIIeCTBeHHJoIKOB nopasnna spacora MOPJl. 6. MaIIIHHbl ofinersaror TPYJ.I uenoeexa. 7. Ilpenonaaarens IfCrrpaBH.JI OIIIH6KH. cmyoeuma. 8. PYKOBO,l.lHTeJIb uposepun peaynsra na »ccnepuuenma.

Exercise 59. Make up sentences containing these phrases.

J.lOKJIaJ.l cTYJ.leHTa, BblcTYIIJIeHH.e ztenerara, 1f3Y1feHH.e onsrra, BOIIp6c 60JIhIII6H Ba)J(HoCTH., rnasa J.lIfCCepTaI.lHH

USE OF THE GENITIVE IN ADJECTIVAL PHRASES

1. The genitive is used with the comparative degree of an adjective.

EpaT crapure cecrpsr. BOJIra )J:JIHHHee )1,Henpa.

'The brother is older than the sister.'

'The Volga is longer than the Dnieper.'

Note.- In a comparison, the genitive may be replaced by the conjunction .. eM followed by the nominative.

Epar CTapIIIe, .. eM cecrpa. B6JIra AJIIfHHee, .. eM ,Z:(HeIIp.

'The brother is older than the sister.' 'The Volga is longer than the Dnieper.'

Exercise 60. Write out the sentences, replacing the nouns in the nominative preceded by 1feM with the genitive of the nouns.

Model: Mocxsa 66JIbIIIe, 1feM KHeB. Mocxsa 60JlbWe Kueea.

1. BOJIra IIIHpe, 1feM OKa. 2. KJIHMaT KphIMa TeIIJIee, 1feM KJIHMaT nOB6JI)J(bH. 3. ,Z:(pyJK6a nopozce, 1feM 36JIOTO. 4. Cua CTaJI BbIIIIe, 1feM oren.

2. The genitive is used with the adjectives nOJlHbIii 'full' and )J:ocToiiIIMii 'worthy':

53

'There was a jug full of milk on the table.'

'He lived a life full of struggle.'

'This question is worthy of attention.'

Exercise 61. Read through the sentence. Write out the phrases consisting of adjectives and nouns in the genitive.

Ha ~TOJIe CT05rJI KYBIIIJm, nOJZHbZU MOJIOId ..

OH npO)!(HJI )!(H3Hh, nOJlHYIO 60Pb- 6bl.

3TOT nonpoc oocmouu BHHMaHHH.

, TOBapHllI~, lKH3Hh ~?CT KalK~OMY '1eJlOBeKY orpOMHhIH, HeOUCHl1MhiH nap-sMO!IO~OCTh, rrOJlHYIO CHJI, IOHOCTb, rrofmyio '1allHHH, lKCJlaHHH CTpeMJIeHHH K 3HaHHlIM K 60ph6e, rrOJlHYIO Ha~elKi~ 11 ynosanan ... (H.O.)' ,

USE OF THE GENITIVE WITH WORDS DENOTING A QUANTITY

1. The genitive is used with the cardinal numerals .IJ:Ba 'two', TPH 'three', 'IeTblpe 'four', nHTb 'five', etc., if these numerals are in the nominative or accusative:

B aY.IJ:HTOpHI1 uemupe oKHa. 'There are four windows III the

lect ure- room.'

.51 KynJIJI oee KHorH. 'I bought two books.'

B H<lIIIeH xsaprape nnms KOMHaT. 'There are five rooms in our flat.'

After the numerals .IJ:Ba, .IJ:Be 'two', Ma, o6e 'both', TpH 'three' and 'IeTblpe 'four' and after numerals whose last component is .IJ:Ba, TpH or 'IeT~lpe ()_I.B:l.IJ: u aT.b .IJ:Ba 'twenty-two', nHTb.IJ:ecSlT TpH 'fifty-three') the genrtrve singular IS used: oea xapanzraura 'two pencils', oee PY'lKH 'two pens', otia Y'IeHHKa 'both schoolboys', otie Y'Ieuu"bI 'both schoolgirls', mpu M:lJIb'lHKa 'three boys', uemtape .IJ:eBYIUKH 'four girls', oeaouams oea Y'IeHHKa 'twenty-two schoolboys'.

After the numerals nsrrr, 'five', mecrt, 'six', ceMb 'seven' etc. the genitive plural is used: nnms xapannamen 'five pencils', tuccmu PY'IeK 'SIX pens', cesu. Y'IeHHKOB 'seven pupils'.

2 .. The genitive plural is used with words denoting an indefinite quantity:

(a) MHoro 'many', 'much', M:lJIO 'few', 'little', CKOilbKO 'how many', 'how much', CTOllbKO 'so many', 'so much', HeCKOJIbKO 'some', 'several' (MfiOZO CTY.IJ:eHTOB 'many students', liCCKO/lbKO MUHYT 'several minutes');

(b) 60JIblUHHCTBO 'majority', MeHblUHHcTBO 'minority', MHOiKeCTBO 'a lot' (60JlbUlUliCmeo cTY.IJ:eHTOB 'the majority of the students' MeHb-

tuuucmeo .IJ:eJIeraTOB 'the minority of the delegates'). '

Note.- Nouns which have no plural are used in the singular with Muoro and MaJlO (Muoro :mepruH 'much energy', Ma.~o BpeMeuH 'little time').

3. The genitive is used with nouns denoting a measure: KHJIOrp:lMM caxapy 'a kilogramme of sugar', JIUTP MOJIOK:l 'a litre of milk' MeTp cy-

KHa 'a metre of cloth'. '

Exercise 62. Read through the sentences. Account for the use of the genitive in each

sentence. .

54

I. nepen oKHaMIi pacryr 'rpa ziepeaa. 2. B paiione HeCKOJIhKO 6ll6JIIiOTeK. 3.

CTy~eHTbl 3a~aJl1l ~eK~opy MH~)fO BOrrP?CoB. ~. Hyxcac xyrnrn, rrOJlKllJIO ~acJla, II JIllTp JVI0J10Ka. 5. Y MeHI! B :HOM, vrecaue MHOro, paaasrx ,~eJl. 6. ,EOJIhWllHC;BO To~apllllleH nOJ\J\eplKa:IO MOe rrpeJ\JIOlKCHHe. 7. 51 KyrrHJI cecrpe na unart.e 'rpa xrerpa lIJeJIKy.

Exercise 63. Write answers to the questions, using the words given on the right.

L(eCliTh xertapc L(Be rrllTh TpH ~Ba

I. CKOJIhKO ~TOJlOB B aymrropau?

2. CKOJlhKO OKOH B aYL(ll;Opllll?

3. CKOJIbKO KI;I1Ir 011 KyrrllJI?, ,

4. CKOJlhKO nncer« Bhl IIOJIY'lllJlll 113 L(OMY?

5. CKOJlbKO MeclIueB BhI npolKl!JlII B MOCKB~?

6. CKOJlbKO 'lK3aMeHoB L\OJllKHhl CJ\aTb CTYL\eHTbI BecHoi1'?

7. CKOJlbKO CTYL(CIITOB B saurea rpynnc?

Exercise 64. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the nouns given on the right in the req uired case.

C06bIT1Ie

I. B JTO!\1 rOL\Y Y MeH5I 6blJl0 MHoro .... 2 . .LJ:JllI OT J\hlxa OCTat'TclI MaJlO ....

3. Ha n.rouiaria crosno HeCKOJlbKO ....

4. no YJJl1UaM n,BMraJlOCh MHolKecTBo ....

5. B <lJ1lI1JI5IH7\1I1I MHoro ....

6. CKOJlbKO ... cronr nOe3J\'?

7. B 'lKCKYPCll1l Y'laCTBOBaJIO 60J1bIIIIIHCTBO ....

8. B 1TOM rOLlY B .recy MaJlO ....

9 . .LJ:eTll npIIHCCJ111 H3 JIeCa MHoro ....

BpeMli aBTOM06MJIb MamllHa osepo MMHYTa CTYL(eHT rpll6

5IroL(a

USE OF THE GENITIVE WITH VERBS

I. The genitive is used after transitive verbs if their action passes over not to the whole object but to part of the object or not to all the

objects but to some (an indefinite number of) obje~ts. . .

Compare the use of the genitive and the accusative after transitive

verbs.

Accusative

Genitive

Pe6eHoK XOqeT ecrs. ,ll;aiiTe eMY MOJIOKa.

'The child is hungry. Give it some milk'.

B 6YThIJIKe erne ecrt, MOJIOKO. ,ll;aHTe 3TO MOJIOKO pe6eHKY·

'There is still some milk in the bottle. Give that milk to the child'.

There are Russian verbs which always denote an action passing over to part of an object or to an indefinite number of objects. Thes.e verbs always require the genitive. They are formed from certam transitive verbs by means of the prefix na-, e. g.:

Imperfective

Perfective

py6HTh .IJ:pOBa (acc.) 'to chop wood'

ne-n, napora (acc.) 'to bake pies'

paarr, "BeThl (acc.) 'to pick flowers'

napydirrs .IJ:POB (gen.) 'to chop some wood' aanexs nuporoa (gen.) 'to bake some pies' napaa n. I.BeToB (gen.) 'to pick some flowers'

55

Verbs with the prefix aa- and the particle -CD indicate complete satisfaction resulting from the action: HamlTLCD BO)],bl 'to drink one's fill of water', HaeCTLCD iIro)]' 'to eat one's fill of berries'

Exercise 65. Account for the use of the genitive and the accusative in the sentences. 1. HYlKHo xyrnrrs TeTpa)]'eH H sapaanaiuea. R 3a6blJl )],OMa 'rerpazta H xapaanama, 2. OOlIbHOH nonpocarr BO)],bI. OH BbInHlI BCIO BO.llY, KOTopaR 6blJla B rpaqnme. 3. Mars aanana MHe '1alO. R BbInHlI '1aH H BCTalI H3-3a crena. 4. Oren c 6paToM nouma B nee co- 6HpaTb rpatisr. OHH npaaecna rpafios, H MaTb csapana BKYCHbIH cyn,

Exercise 66. Make up sentences containing these verbs. After each verb supply an

object in the genitive.

npHBe3TH, npaaecra, xymrrs, nocrars, nat's, HaJIHTb, npacnars, aacianarr,

Exercise 67. Account for the use of the genitive in the sentences.

I. B npaannax MaTb aanesrra naporon, H MbI n03BalIH rocrea. 2 . .LJ:eBywKa napsana UBeToB H cnrrerra BeHoK. 3. R noexarr aa PhlHOK H naxynan <PPYKTOB. 4. MbI oCTaHoBHlIHCb y PY'lbH H aananacs BO.llhI. 5. B necy MbI aaenacs ClIa.llKOH 3eMlIRHHKH.

II. The genitive is used after transitive verbs preceded by the negative particle.

51 lie nOIlRIl aonpoca.

'I did not understand the question.'

'We have not received your letter.'

'He has not seen the new film yet.'

Msr lie nonyuunu rnoero nHCLMa.

OH erne lie euoe» noaoro ClnIJILMa.

(Without the negative particle: 51 nonan aonpoc.

Msr nOJIyqi[JIH rnoe nHcLMo. OH BH!l.eJI HOBhIM CPHJILM.

'I understood the question.' 'We have received your letter.' 'He has seen the new film. ')

Note.- After transitive verbs preceded by the negative particle the accusative is also occasionally used, especially in colloquial speech: R: He uumas :hy KHury. 'I haven't read this book.' MbI He nO.llYlJu.IlU TBOe nHcLMo. 'We haven't received your letter.' However, it is not always possible to use the accusative after transitive verbs. If the verb is used figuratively and the noun does not denote a concrete object, the accusative cannot be used: Ero npennoxeaae He scmpemuso nO)J,)J,eplKKH. 'His proposal did not get support.' B pafiore OH He suan YCT3J10CTH. 'He knew no fatigue in work.'

However, the accusative is possible in sentences where the noun denotes a concrete object or a person: OH He oa» MHe KHury. 'He did not give me the book.' OH He suan :hy cl'y)J,eHTKY. 'He did not know that student.'

Exercise 68. Compare the sentences in the right-hand and left-hand columns. State the case of the italicised words and account for the use of the genitive and the accusative.

I. R: yace '1HTalI Ce200HJlWHIOIO easemy, I. R erne He '1HTalI Ce200llJlWHeU easemu.

2. Y'IeHHK rroaan eonpoc. 2. Y'IeHHK He nOHRlI sonpoca.

3. Bpar nonyxan nucbMo. 3. Bpar He nOlIY'lHlI nucuua.

4. CTY.lleHT BbInOlIHlllI saoauue. 4. CTY.lleHT He BbInOlIHlllI 3aOaHUJI.

5. OH nepeveaan peiueuue. 5. OH He nepesreaun peWeHUJI.

6. CTY.lleHTbI 06CYlK)],MH OOK.IlaO. 6. CTY.lleHTbI He 06cYlK.llalIH OOK.IlaOa.

7. IIIKOlIbHHK peunot 3aOalJY. 7. IIIKOlIbHHK He peunrn saoauu.

8. I10'lTalIbOH YlKe npnaec noumy. 8. IIo'lTaJIboH elUe He npnaec noumu.

III. With HeT 'have (has) no', 'there is (are) no', He 6h1JIO 'had no',

56

'there was (~e~e) ~o', He 6y)],eT 'shall (will) have no', 'there will be no' only the gemtrve IS used.

y MeH5t: HeT 6HJIera. (present) 'I have no ticket.'

Y MeH5t: He 6hlJIO 6HJIera. (past) 'I had no ticket.'

y MeH5t: He 6Y.neT 6HJIeTa. (future) '1 shall have no ticket.'

Sentences with HeT, He 6h1JIO, He 6Y!l.eT'are impersonal (they have no subject). They denote the absence of an object.

Note.- The following verbs preceded by the particle He can be used i!lstead of' ne'r He OLIJlO He oY)J,eT: He cyuiec'rayer 'there is (are) no', 'do(es) not eXISt', He OCT3J1~CL 'had ~o ." left', 'there was (were) no ... left', He OKa33J1OCL 'there was (were) no .. .', 'there turned out to be no .. .', He BCTpe'lftJlOCL 'no '" was (were) encountered', etc. When these verbs are used with He and denote the absence of an object the genitive may also be used.

3THX TpY)]'HOCTeH 'reneps He CYUJecmeyem (Hem).

)KYPHftJla na crone He oxasanoc» (Hem, He tiu.no ),

XJleoa ue ocmanoc» (uem.)

HHKaKHx 3aTpY)J,HeHHH B pafiore He ecmpemumcn (He tiyoem ),

'These difficulties do not exist now.' 'The magazine was not on the table.' 'There is no bread left.'

'There will be no difficulties whatsoever in the work.'

Exercise 69. Make these affirmative sentences negative.

1. Ha He6e TY'lH. 2. Cercnna .llOlK.llb. 3. OP~T .lloMa. 4. TOBapHlU 3~ecb. 5. OKO~O ):IOMa can. 6. Y MeHH cero)],HR ecri, csofionaoe BpeMH. 7. Y Hac cerorraa lIeKlI~H no HCT<;>pHH CCCP. 8. B nOHe.llelIbHHK y MeHH 3K3aMeH. 9. Y :horo TOBapHlUa ecrs onsrr patioTbI.

Exercise 70. Give negative answers to these questions.

1. ECTb lIH Y nac HOBbIH lKypHalI? 2 . .LJ:oMa lIH OT~U? 3. ECTb lIH, ceronaa m:KuH?, no XHMHH? 4, Byner lIH aanrpa cewanap? 5; ObIJI lIH B'I~pa 3.llecb.)],olK.llb!~. ECTb lIH Y saurero 6p:iTa cnocoouocra K MY3bIKe? 7. Byner lIH cero)],~H B KlIy6e KOHLJepT? 8. Y Ba~ ecrs xacst? 9. ObIlIH lIH B 3Me csooonaue MecTa? 10. Byner 1I1i y aac aanrpa cB060)],Hoe

BpeMH?

Exercise 71. Write out the sentences. Underline the nouns in the genitive. Account for the use of the genitive.

1. MawHHHcT BOBPCMH OCTaHOBHlI noesn, H Kpy;weHHH ,He npOH30l~1JI0. 2. H~ aalIIeM nYTH He BCTp6THlIOCb HH o)],HOH .llCpeBH!f' 3. B Kac~e rearpa He ?CTalIOCb 6HlIeToB aa ceronns. 4. B Mara3HHe He osasanocs nyxaoro yqe6HHKa no <pH3HKe.

IV. The following verbs denoting a desire, expectation, request, demand, etc. require the genitive:

Imperfective

Perfective

.n06UTLCD (YCneXOB) 'to achieve (success)' - !l.OCTUqL (YCneXOB) 'to attain (success)'

- )],OCTurHYTL (BepWHHhI ropsr) 'to reach (the top of the moun-

tain),

!l.06UBaTLCD

)]'ocTuraTL

XOTeTL

57

~emiTb

~)1,aTb, O~U)1,aTb (noxrouta) )1,O~U)1,aTbCH

UCKaTb (rroztzrepacxn) npOCUTb

no~eJlaTb (KOMY-JIlI60)

(MMpa, CqaCTMI)

'to wish (somebody) (peace, happiness)'

- )1,O~)1,hbCH (orsera) 'to get (an answer)'

--- uonpocirn, (conera) 'to ask (advice)'

- no'rpetioea n, (BblllOJIHeHlIH) 'to demand (the fulfilment of...)'

Nouns in the genitive used after these verbs denote the object of the desire, expectation, request, etc.

Tpe60BaTb

MbI xomu.u Mupa.

MbI ootiueaeucs xopomeii ycneBaeMOCTu.

OH uctcan B KHHrax ornera na 3TOT sorrpoc.

'We want peace.'

'We try to achieve a high showing in studies.'

'He looked for an answer to this question in books.'

The verbs )1,06uBaTbcH 'to achieve', 'to strive' and )1,OCTUraTb 'to attain', 'to reach' are used only with the genitive.

The verbs XOTeTb 'to want', 'to wish', ~)1,aTb 'to wait', 'to expect', uCKaTb 'to look for', npocuTb 'to ask', Tpe60BaTb 'to demand' are used not only with the genitive, but also with the accusative.

The accusative after these verbs is generally used when the noun denotes a concrete object or person, e. g.:

Accusative

KOHl? 'whom?', 'ITO? 'what?' 51 lImy KHury.

'I am looking for a book.' OHa »coem nO)1,pyry.

'She is waiting for her friend.'

OR nonpocun y MeRi! TeTpa)1,b. 'He asked me for an exercisebook.'

Genitive

'1ero? 'what?'

51 HIllY nO)1,)1,ep~Klf,

'J am looking for support.'

M bI :>ICdCM oraera na Haw Bonpoe.

'We expect an answer to our question.'

OH npocun coaera. 'He asked advice.'

Note.-After the verb lKAaTL 'to wait (for), some nouns (e. g. nHcLMO 'letter', noe3A 'train', TpaMBaii 'tram') may take the genitive though they denote concrete objects: lKAY nHCLMa 'I expect a letter', lKAY nOe3t.a, TpaMBaH 'I am waiting for a train, tram',

If the noun used with the verbs IlpOCUTb 'to ask', Tpe60Barb 'to demand' denotes part of a whole or a quantity of objects, it takes the genitive; if the noun denotes a definite object, it takes the accusative.

58

Accusative

Genitive

'1ero? 'what?' OH nonpocun 6YMaru.

'He asked for some paper.' OR npocum KOH«Jlh.

'He' is asking for some sweets.' ami nompetioeana raser.

'ITO? 'what?'

OH nonpodlll TeTpa)1,b. . ,

'He asked for an exercise-book. OH npocum KOH«Jlhy.

'He is asking for a sW,eet.' ,

OHa nompetioeana raaery «Hase-

CTlIH».

'She demanded the newspaper Iz- 'She demanded some newspa-

vestiya.' pers.'

Exercise 72. Write answers to the questions, using the words in brackets.

I. qero A06HB<1IOTCH cTYAeHTbl? (XOpOIlJ~H ycrreB<leMo~Tb)

1 qero A06HJUfCb aarua JlbllKHHKJ{? (nofiena B cocTH3aHJ{Hx~, ,

i qero AOCTHrJlJ{ cTYAeHTbl? (xopoume pe3~JlbTaTLl,B J{3yqeHUH pyccxoro H3blKa) 4. qero AocTHrJlJ{ nyremecrnennaxa? (sepmnaa ropsr)

Exercise 73. Write out the sentences. Underline the verbs requiring the genitive.

1. MLI XOTeJlU npexpacaoit, CqaCTJ1I1BOH lKH3HI;l, H MbI IlJJlH, pilAOM co ~BO~MH o;lIaMU 3aBocBbIBaTb CBOe CQaCTbe (H.D.) 2. ,60JlbllI~ro ~arrpHlKeHHlI H B~JI."KOH ~TpacT~ rpefiyer HaYKa OT QeJlOBeKa (JIa6.) 3. Pa60Ta 6bIJla CJlOlKHalI, KpOrrO;JlIlBaH, Tl?e60_saJla HOBbIX MeToAoB H 6blJla cnssaua C BblQHCJleHIIH,MH. _(JIaycm.2 4. Ilposa, KOfAa OHa AOcrnraer COBepllIeHCTBa, HBJlileTClI, no cyutecrny, rrOAJlJ{HHOJ{ rr033HeJ{. (JIaycm.)

Exercise 74. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the words given on the right in the required case.

I. 0Ha lKAaJla ... , QTo6LI BMeCTe HATH B rearp.

2. jI. lKAY ... ua CBOe rrJ{CbMO. .

3. YQIlTeJlb Tpe60BaJl OT YQeHIIKOB ....

4. TOBapJ{1I1 nOnpOCHJI y MeHii .

5. Jho)J,H aa rreppone lKAaJl~ .

6. Haponsr scex CTpaH XOTHT .

BHHMiullIe

YQe6HHK noesn MHp

Exercise 75. Write two sentences with each of these verbs. Use a noun in the accusative in one sentence and in the genitive in the other.

Model: jI. npotuy KHHry. jI. npoury J{3BHHeHIIH. xoreri., lKAaTb, npocari., Tpe60BaTb

V. The following verbs require the genitive.

(a) Imperfective Perfective

u36eniTb (acrpe-m) u36e~aTb :to avoid (a meet!ng),

JIUUJbbCH (nozutepaoor) JlUIlIUTbCH to lose (support)

nyraTbCH (IIJYMa) ucnyrarsca 'to be t:nghtened (of

a noise)

60HTbCH (xo.nozia) onacaTbcH (oCJIO)l(HeHlIH) ocreperarsca (npocryau)

CTbI)1,UTbCH (owM6KlI) CTOPOHUTbCH (rnonea)

'to be afraid (of the cold)' 'to fear (a complication)' 'to be careful (not to

catch cold)'

'to be ashamed (of the mistake),

'to avoid, to shun

(people)'

59

'to keep away (from people)'

Nouns in the genitive used with this kind of verb generally denote an object which one is afraid of, which he tries to avoid, which he wants to away from.

l_(BeTbl 60flmOI XOJIOJl.a. Pe6eHoK ucnyzaAcR c06aKH.

'Flowers fear the cold.'

The child was frightened by the dog.'

OH cmuoumcn :lTO" HeYJl.a'm. 'He is ashamed of his failure.'

OHa noxexry-ro ustieeaem 'For some reason she avoids

BCTpe'lH c mlMH. meeting us.'

(b) The following verbs also require the genitive: KacaTbcH (imp.) 'to concern', 'to touch' - KOCHYTbCH (p.), CJIymaTbcH (irnp.), 'to obey' -noc.lYmaTbcH (p.), Jl.ep)KhbCH (imp.) 'to adhere', 'to hold'.

3TOT aonpoc «acaemcs Harne" 'This question concerns our

pa60TbI. work.'

BeTKa nepesa KOCHY//GCb xroero The branch of the tree touched

nJIe'la. my shoulder.'

Pe6eHoK cnytuaemcs MhepH. 'The child obeys his mother.'

)J,pyr nocnyucancn Moero coaera. 'My friend followed my advice.'

OH oep:JICUmCR roro )Ke MHeHHH. 'He is of the same opinion.'

(c) The verb CTOHn also requires the genitive ifit means 'to deserve' (and not 'to cost'):

Kanra CTOHT py6JIb.(acc.) 'The book costs a rouble.'

3TOT sonpoc CTOHT BHHMaHoH. This question deserves attention.' (gen.)

d) The impersonal verb xaaran, (imp.) 'to have enough' -XBaTlrrb (p.) also requires the genitive. The past tense is XBaTaJIO-XBaTHJIO.

Y MeHS! xeamaem BpeMeHH na OT- 'I have enough time for rest.' rtsrx.

EMY xeamum 3TH X Jl.eHer. 'That money will be enough for

him.'

Exercise 76. Fill in the blanks with the nouns given on the right in the genitive.

1. Ona H36eraJ1a ... . paarosopu ua 3TY n':MY

2. DOJIbHOii J1HUlHJ1CSI ... . COH

3. Bpax onacancs ... . OCJ10lKHeHHe

4. Bpaaa o6cYlK.lIaJ1H sonpocsr, xoropue HOBbie MerO.llbl J1e'!eHHlI sacaiorcs ....

5. nOJ1bHOii nOCJ1ywaJICll ... spaxa. cOBeT

Exercise 77. Make up sentences containing these verbs and write them down. .lI06HBaTbclI, .lI0CTHniTb, H36eraTb, 601lTbClI, J1HIU3TbClI, nYr3TbClI, xacart.cs, CJ1YluaTbClI, CTOHTb, xBaT3Tb

60

THE GENITIVE WITH A PREPOSITION The genitive is used with a preposition to denote: 1. Place (the question: rne? 'where?'):

6JIH3 Jl.epeBHU 'near the village', B03JIe .reca 'near the forest', OKOJIO ,llOMa 'near the house', y OKHa 'by the window', BOKPYr Jl.OMa 'round the house', BJl.OJIb Jl.oporu 'along the road', BHYTPH Jl.OMa 'inside the house', Doe Jl.OMa 'outside the house', MHMO BOPOT 'past the gates', nocpezra nnomaJl.U 'in the middle of the square', Me)KJl.Y zrepem.en 'between (among) the trees', nporna oKHa 'opposite the window', CpeJl.H ztepeasea 'among the trees'.

2. Direction of movement (the question: oTKYJl.a? 'from where?'):

H3 KOMHaTbI 'out of the room', C KphImu 'from the roof, OT 6epera 'from the shore', 03-3a TY'lU 'from behind the cloud', 03-nOJl. KycTa 'from under the bush'.

3. Time of action (the question: KOrJl.a? 'when?'):

HaKaHYHe npaszmmca 'on the eve of the holiday', nocJIe pa60TbI 'after work', cpeznr HO'IO 'in the middle of the night', Jl.0 BonHhI 'before the war'.

4. Cause or reason (the question: nO'leMY? 'why?'):

H3 npannana 'on principle', U3-3a nJIoxon nOrOiJ:bI 'owind to bad weather', OT xOJIoJl.a 'with cold', C ropa 'with grief.

5. Other relations:

6e3 anrepeca 'without interest', BMecTo orna 'instead of the father', 'as father', Jl.JIH noaropenna 'for revision', KpoMe MeHH 'except me', 110- MHMO 6paTa 'besides the brother'.

Note.- Some prepositions used with the genitive may also be used with other cases; thus the preposition c is also used with the instrumental (ll 6eCe.llOBaJ1 C TOnapan .. eM '1 talked with a friend') and with the accusative (npourrm C KHJJOMerp 'we walked about a kilometre').

PREPOSITIONS DENOTING PLACE

The prepositions Y 'by', 'at', OKOJIO 'near', B03JIe 'near', 6JIU3 'not far from', B6JIU3H 'near', BOKPYr 'round', BJl.OJIb 'along', MHMO 'past', CpeJl.H 'among', nocpenf 'in the middle of, nporae 'opposite', Me)KJl.Y 'between', 'among' denote the place where an object is or where an action takes place. These prepositions, with the exception of Me)KJl.Y, are used only with the genitive.

roe CTOI1:T CTOJI? 'Where is the table?' Foe CH.uiIT rocrn?

'Where are the guests sitting?'

roe pacTYT .uepeBh~?

'Where do the trees grow?' Foe npoexana Marnima? 'Where did the car pass?'

rOe CToiIT naMRTHIIK?

CTOJI CTOFIT Y oKHa.

'The table is by the window.' rOCTII cnzrar aoxpyr CTOJIa.

'The guests are sitting round the

table.'

tJ:epeBb~ paCT}'T BJl.OJIb Jl.oporu . 'The trees grow along the road.' Mannnra npoexana MHMO o3epa. 'The car drove past a lake.'

rraM~THIIK CTOFIT rrocpena

nnoruana,

61

'Where does the monument stand?'

Foe oCTaHOBHJ1aCb MawHHa?

'The monument stands In the middle of the square.' Maunrna ocTaHOBHJ1aCb np«hHB BXO.lJ:a.

'The car stopped opposite the entrance. '

The meaning of the prepositions y, OKono, onH3, BonH3D and B03nc are nearly the same. The prepositions cpe.lJ:H and nocpezni have the same meaning when they denote place.

'Where did the Gar stop?'

Exercise 78. Write out the preposition + noun phrases which answer the question rae?

. !. Y nozrsesna ~)cTaHOBilJlaCb ~awilHa, 2. Boxpyr eJ1KI1 npurana neTI1. 3. nOCpe.llH oaepa 6blJ1 OCTpOBOK. 4. BI~OJ1b 6epera nnstna J1()JlKa. 5. OK0J10 wKa<jJa CToilJ1 )lI1BaH.

Exercise 79. Make up sentences of your own containing the phrases you have for Exercise 7!i. Write down your sentences.

PREPOSITIONS DENOTING DIRECTION AND ANSWERING THE QUESTION OTKY)],A"!

The prepositions H3 (H30) 'from', c (co) 'from', 'off, OT (OTO) 'from', H3-3a 'from behind' and H3-nO.lJ: 'from under' are used with the genitive to denote direction. Nouns preceded by these prepositions answer the question oTKY.lJ:a? 'where from?'

CTy.aeHT rrpaexan (omlCyaa?) H3 'The student came from

Caaxr-Ilerepfiypra. Petersburg.'

.H B3HJ1 KHHry (omKyda?) co 'I took the book off the table.' crnna.

Jloztxa f1J1hIBer (omKyda?) OT oepen K rennoxony.

COJ1HlJ,e nOSIBHJ10Cb (omKyda?) H3-3a TY'fH.

3aSllJ, BbICKO'lHJ1 (omKydu?) H3-nO)l.

xycra.

Nouns with the prepositions B, na, y, sa, non answer the question rne? 'where?'

'The boat is sailing from the shore towards ship,'

'The sun appeared from behind the cloud.'

'The hare rushed from under the bush.'

Nouns with the prepositions Hl, C, OT, 111-38, 113-nO)l. answer the question oTKY.lJ:a? 'where from?'

B rOpo.lJ:e (prepos.) 'in the town'

na crone (prepos.) 'on the table'

y oepera (gen.)

'at the shore'

aa TY'feii (instr.) 'behind the cloud'

non KYCTOM (instr.) 'under the bush'

Hl ropona

'from the town' co cTona

'from (off) the table' OT oepera

'from the shore' H3-3a TY'fH

'from behind the

cloud'

113-00.lJ: KycTa

'from under the bush'

gen.

62

st.

Exercise 80. Fill in the blanks in each second sentence with the italicised words from the first sentence in the required case and with the correct preposition (they answer the question oTl~y,'la?).

Model: <<ie'

KHHra nescana aa nomce.

omxyoa? .H He anaio, KTO B311J1 KHHry c nOJIKIt.

I. Ilncsxso 6blJ10 6 xoueepme. OH BbIHYJ1 lll1CbMO .... 2. B cmaxane aona. BblJleil BOAY .. , . 3. Ha CmOAe llblJ1b .... COTpH llblJ1b .... 4. )],e-r11 rYJ111J111 6 necy, OHI1 llpl1HeCJ1H .. , MHom lrroA. 5 . .H I1AY 6 uucmumym . .H lloil.llY ... He ,'lOMoil, a aa KaToK. 6. KapTHHa BHCeJla na cmcue. Ma,1b'IHK CHlIJ1 KapTHHY .... 7. JIeToM naonepu OT,'lblXMH 6 naeepe. OHllnpl1eXaJ111 '" saroperrere 11 oxpemuae. 8. Mars 6blJla Ita PblflKl' 11 6 uaeasuue, ... OHa npHHCCJ1a MlrCO 11 OBOIlII1. a ... x.nefi 11 caxap. 9. KYllH IIG noume KOHBepTbI H MapKI1, ... B03BpamailclI nplrMO .llOMOH. 10. Ceronns 1I 6blJl 6 6UOAUOmeKe . .H IIpl1HeC ... KHHrH. II. Moil TOBapI1m .1eToM 6blJl Ita Ka6Ki13e .... OH llPHCJ1M MHe naa llHcbMa. 12. OH lKHJl tJ Cu6upu .... OH npaexan B MocKBY Y'lHTbClI: 13. Besepoja 1I 6YAY na cotipauuu .... 1I npaAY n03J1Ho. 14. Bpar ceil'lac Ita saeooe. OH CKOPO acpnercs .... 15. Pe6eHoK 6blJ16 oemCKOM cady. Ma rs npasena pefienxa .llOMOil .... 16. Cnoprcesea CTOHT Ita 6b1UlKe. no carHaJ1Y OH npsrruer ... B uozty. 17. Ha (/jti6puKe KOH'II1J1ClI pa60'lI1H neas. Pafiosue urJlI1

JloMoil .... 18. Msr 3aHI1MaJII1Cb 6 ayoumopuu. Ilpenonanarens BblWeJ1 19. Maorae

nTH UbI npoeonxr 3HMY ua io>«. Becuoa OHH ons n, npanerxr K HaM .

Exercise 81. Answer the questions, using the italicised words from the left-hand column. Put the words in the required case and supply correct prepositions.

I. nl1CbMO J1eJKaJ1o nod KIIUZOU.

2. 3a II II. CI1,'leJl 3a KycmoM.

3. Tpaaa nod cueeos« 6bwa se.reaaa.

OTKY)la OH .llOCTaJ1 llI1CbMO? OTKY,'la BhICKO'lHJ1 saan?

OTKY,'la llOKa"3MI1Cb nepnsre noztcneacHI1KI1?

OTKY,'la llOllBHJ10Cb cOJIHI~e? OTKY.lla BLlllOJ13JIa 3Melr?

4. COJ1lH~e no.nro rrpsranocs sa myuea.

5. 3Melr YllOJ13J1a nod xaueu«.

PREPOSITIONS DENOTING TIME USED WITH THE GENITIVE

The prepositions no 'before', nocne 'after', HaKaHYHe 'on the eve of and cpe.lJ:H 'in the middle of are used with the genitive to denote time. Nouns preceded by these prepositions answer the question KOr.lJ:a? 'When?'

TSDKeJI3 6b1JI3 )J(l:I3Hb 3TOro aapona no peBOJIIOlJ,Hl:I.

Ilocae peBOJIIOQHH rpynsutnecs uaxarra CTPOl:lTb HOBYIO )J(l:I3Hb.

ApY3bR c06epYTcSI BMecTe aaxaHYHe H080ro rO.lJ:a.

Pe6eHoK rrpocHYJ1CH Cpe.lJ:H nO'IH.

'The life of this people before the revolution was hard.'

'After the Revolution the workers began building a new life.' 'The friends will gather together on New Year's Eve.'

'The child awoke in the middle of the night.'

Exercise 82. Make up sentences, using the prepositions no, DOc.ite, HaKaHYHe, cpeAil expressing temporal relations.

63

USE OF THE PREPOSITIONS

OT, no, C, 113, Y, EE3, ,nJI~, KPOME, BMECTO IN VARIOUS MEANINGS

USE OF THE PREPOSITION OT (OTO)

The preposition OT 'from' is used only with the genitive. Its princi. pal meanings are as follows:

1. A noun with OT denotes the starting point of a movement.

OT {nepa nYTerneCTBeHHHKH HUlM 'The travellers walked from the

netuxoxs. lake.'

J10.llKa OTllJIbIJIa OT 6epera. 'The boat pulled out from the

shore.'

In such cases the verb of motion frequently has the prefix OT- (OTO-).

Floeszt OTOrneJI OT eniH,,"",

'The train pulled out from the platform.'

with the preposition no to denote dis-

2. OT is frequently used tance.

OT Flerepfiypra no Mocxasr 649

KHJIOMeTpOB, .

PaccToRHHe OT neca .ll0 CTaH,,"" Mhl npourrra neuncoxr.

'It is 649 kilometres between Moscow and St. Petersburg.' 'We walked all the way from the wood to the station.'

3. A noun with OT may denote the person or object which is the source of something.

'I received a letter from my brother.'

'The tree casts a long shadow.'

JI 1l0JIyqHJI llHChMO OT 6pba. OT nepesa JIO)l(HTCR .llJIHHHaR 'reus.

4. OT is used to express the' date of a letter or document.

nHChMO OT nepsoro .lleKa6pH. 'A letter of December the first.'

Pe30mo~HR OT nepaoro MapT8. 'The resolution of March the

first. '

5. A noun with OT often denotes the object one wishes to get rid of or to protect oneself from.

Jlexapcrso OT rpimna. 3aIllHTa OT serpa.

'A medicine for flu.' 'Protection from the wind.'

In this meaning the preposition npOTHB 'against' is sometimes used (JIeKapCTBo npOTHB rpanna 'a medicine for flu').

6. OT is used after the adverbs .llaneKO 'far', He.llaneKO 'not far', cnpaaa 'on the right' and cneaa 'on the left'.

HeOaJleKO OT .llepeBHH nporexana 'There was a river not far from

pexa. the village.'

7. The following verbs require the preposition OT:

64

Perfective

Imperfectivc oCB06o~.llsTh( CH) 1t30aBJIHTb( CH) 3amllmsTb(CH) cnaCSTb(CH) CKpblBSTb( CH) npHTaTb( CH) OTKS3b1BaTb( CH) 3aBuceTh OTcTaBsTb

OCBOOO.llHTb(CH) 'to free (oneself)'

1136sBIITb(CH) 'to get rid (of)'

3aIQIITHTb(CH) 'to defend (oneself)'

cnaCTH(cb) 'to save (oneself)'

CKPbITb(CH) 'to hide (oneself)'

CnpHTaTb(CH) 'to hide (oneself)'

OTKa3STb(cH) 'to deny (oneself)' 'to depend'

'to lag'

'to differ'

'He is already through with that work.'

OT 'For a long time I could not get away from the thought of my failure.'

MhI cnphmanucs OT .llO~.llH non 'We took refuge from the rain

cTapbIM .Ll.Y60M. under an old oak.'

8. A noun with OT may denote the cause of or reason for an action or quality and answer the question nO'leMY? 'why?'

(1) CMeHTbCH OT pS.llOCTIl 'to laugh for joy', nnaxa n, OT rops, OT OOU.llbi 'to cry with grief, with resentment', .llpO~STb OT xonona, OT crpaxa 'to tremble with cold, with fear', CTOIISTb, KPH'ISTb OT 60nll 'to moan, to cry out with pain', YMepeTb OT PSHbi 'to die from a wound', noru611YTb OT 60M6b1, OT nyJIH 'to be killed by a bomb, by a bullet', 83.llporllYTb OT lIeO~H.llaIlIlOCTH 'to start from surprise'.

Pe6eHoK 3aCMe5IJICll OT pS.llOCTH. 'The child laughed for joy.'

Pe6eHoK sannaxan OT 06H.Ll.bI. 'The child cried with resentment.'

OH zrpoxcan OT xoaona. 'He was trembling with cold.'

OTCTSTb

OT JIll1uiTbCH

OR Y)l(e oceotioouncn OT :hoil pa- 60TbI.

51 norrro He xror u36aeUmbCJ1 MblCJIeH 0 CBOeR neyztaxe.

(2) 6enblH OT cnera 'white with snow', MOKPblH OT .llO)l(.llH 'wet with rain', cepblH OT nblJ]H 'grey with dust', rOpH'IHH OT COJIHlI.a 'hot from the sun'.

'The grass was wet with rain.'

Exercise 83. Read through the sentences. Explain the meanings of the preposition

OT.

A. 1. JIoAKa nnuna OT 6epera K TenJlOXoAY. 2. CTYAeHT nOJlY'lHJI nlfcbMo OT POAH-renea, 3. MHe HYlKHa rasera OT nsazma'n, nepsoro ¢leBpaJlS!. 4. TIoJlS! CTaJlIf 6eJlbIMIf OT CHCra. 5. Iloacarryacra, KynH MHe JIeKapCTBo OT xauina. 6. CBeT OT YJlIf'lHOrO ¢loHapS! mlAaJl B OKHO. 7. OH norrro He Mor HIf'lerO cxaaars OT sormenna. 8. JI n03AHo axepa nPlfrneJl OT ronapmna.

B. 1. Jlerxo aa cCPALle OT necna secerron. (JIe6.-K.) 2. Korna co.nnne nozuraseaerca HaA JlyraMIf, 1I HeBOJlbHO YJlbI6iIOCb OT panocrn ... (M. F.) 3. Bee 6blJlO MOKPO OT POCbl.. (flaycm.) 4. OT vroero lKlfJlHIlI.a AO KPYToro 06pbIBa HaA oacpoxi scero ABaALlaTb rnarOB. iIlpuiu.i 5. TYT lKe, na BOK3aJle, OT 3HaKoMoro na-ram.naxa crauuaa neiireaaar y3~ nan, 'ITO OTeLl ero YMep MeClI[~ naaan. (!Jaycm.) 6 . .nama OTKa3aJlaCb OT 06eAa, B31IJla B KapMaH xnefia If KPbIlKOBHlfKY If YUlJIa B nee, (A. T)

Exercise 84. Write out the verbs used with the preposition OT. Make up sentences of YOur own, using these verbs.

65

5 - 384

1. F OPbI 3aIIIHIIIaJIl! 3amIB OT nerpa. 2. )J,eTl! YKPbIJIl!Cb OT ));OJK));iJ: nozr ));epeBoM. 3. O));HH MaJIb9l!K OTCTaJI OT roaapmnea l! 3a6JIY));HJICli B rrecy. 4. Y9HTeJIb aanncanpe));JIOJKeHHe H OTOilleJI OT ));OCKH.

Exercise 85. Make up sentences, using the verbs 3aBnceTb, oTKa33TbcH, OTJlH'I3TbCII

cnacra, npsrrarsca followed by the preposition OT. '

Exercise 86. Make up sentences with the adjectives 6eJIblH, '1epHbIH, MOKPbIH, rops, '1HH, YCT3J1b1H using the preposition OT with the meaning of cause.

Exercise 87. Make up sentences, using the preposition OT and the adverbs )1aJleKO

B6J1H3n, cnpaaa, cneaa. '

USE OF THE PREPOSITION )J,O

The preposition )):0 '(up) to', 'till' is used only with the genitive. 1. A noun with )):0 '(up) to' denotes the spatial limit of an action or movement: )):0 KaKoro MecTa? '(up) to what place?'

(00 KaKo20 Mecma?) ,lI;0 CTliH~H" 'We walked to the station.' MhI IIIJIH neIIIKOM.

.51 ,aOQHTaJI KHHry )):0 cepenaasr. 'J read half the book (lit. up to the

middle).'

In such cases the verb frequently has the prefix )):0-:

.51 OOlJUml1Jl )):0 KOH~a. .51 ooexan )):0 )):oMa.

'I read to the end.'

'I reached home (the house).'

2. A noun with )):0 'till' denotes the time limit of an action (the final point of time).

)l,O)l(,ah IIIeJI (00 KaK020 6peMellu?) )):0 yrpa.

MbI pa60TaJIH )):0 Be'lepa.

)l,hH )l(HJIH na ,aaQe )):0 ceHTH6pft.

'It rained till morning.'

'We worked till evening.'

'The children stayed in the country till September.'

3. A noun with )):0 'before' may denote the time of action and answer the question Kor)):a? 'when?'

Cerozma OH npHIIIeJI ,aOMOif: (K020iz?) )):0 06e)):a.

CTy,aeHTbI BOIIIJIH B ayrnrroparo (K020iz?) )):0 3BoHKa.

'Today he came home before dinner-time.'

'The students had entered the lecture-hall before the bell.'

The opposite meaning is rendered by the preposition nocne 'after'.

Exercise 88. What questions do the nouns with the preposition ));0 answer? (IJ,O xaKOfO MeCTa?, IJ,O KaKOfO BpeMeHH?, )10 KaKnx nop?, KOflJ,a?)

I. )J,PY3bH paCCTMIICb J(O ocean. 2. Korna MbI ));06paJII1cb ));0 BepIIIHHbI ropsr, COJ1Hue ysce Ca));HJ10cb. 3. J1eKTUHI 6Y));YT ));0 'rpex -iacon. 4. )J,o peBo.CUDl(IIH B POCCHJ.I 6bIJ10 MaJ10 IIIKOJI H 60J1bHlll(. 5. MOJIo));elKb rYJIHJIa B napxe ));0 n03));HerO sesepa. 6. CerO));HH MbI ));OeXaJIH ));0 IIHCTl!TYTa aa rpazmari, MJ.lHYT. 7. EYpH npO));OJIJKaJIaCb ));0 yrpa. 8. 51 npaeny ));oMoii));o ofiena. 9. Msr pcnnrna OTJ10lKllTb pa60TY ));0 B03BpaJl(eHHlI PYKOBOmrrens.

Exercise 89. Read through the sentences and account for the use of 01" and ));0.

66

1. 01' MOCKBbl 110 .sJPOCJIllBJIlI M6)1(HO 1I0CXaTb aa nsrn, '1ac6B. 2. OT lIepCBHI-l 110 r6polla Mbl 1llJl11 neurxox. 3. 3a 01l1'1H lIeHb OH npo-nrran KHHry OT nepsoa 110 rrOCJICIIHeH cTpaHHl(bI. 4. OT Bonrorpana 110 ropona HI'I)I(Hero Hosropona Mbl IIJIblJll1 na TeIIJIox6l1e . no B6J1re, OT HH)I(IIero Hosropona 110 MOCKBbI exana rr6e3110M. 5. ,Il;JlI1Ha B6JIfI1 nO'ITH paBHa paCCTOllHl11O OT MOCKBbl )10 Ceaepnoro rr6JIlOCa.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION C (CO)

The preposition c 'since', 'from', 'with' is not used with the genitive only, but with the instrumental and the accusative as well. The principal meanings of c followed by the genitive are as follows:

1. A noun with c 'since' denotes the beginning of an action (in time).

3aH;ITH}f B BY3ax H IIIK()JIaX aasaHclIOTC}f (c xaxoeo 6peMellu?) c nepaeru CeHTHOpH.

OH rOTOBHJICjf K 3K3aMeHY c noae,a:eJILHlIKa.

)l;eTlI c YTpa arpaior B cany .

'The classes in higher educational establishments and schools begin on September the first.' 'He had been preparing for his examination since Monday.' 'The children have been playing in the garden since morning.'

The preposition c 'from' is frequently used with )):0, which denotes the time limit of an action .

Ha rronsx C YTpa )):0 Be'lepa KHnHT 'Work is in full swing in the fields

pafiora. from morning till evening.'

Bpas npHHHMaeT C )):ecHTH)):o 'The doctor receives patients from

T.,eX 'IaCoB. ten till three.'

2. C 'from,' 'off denotes the direction of movement. In such cases, the noun with C answers the question otKY)J;a? 'from where?'

CTy)):eHT B3jfJI KHury (omKyoa?) 'The student took the book off

c nOJIKH. the shelf.'

OH npHIIIeJI C y~. 'He came from the street.'

3. A noun with c 'from', 'with', 'out of may denote the cause of action in certain phrases, e. g.: aannaxari, c ropH 'to cry with grief, czreJIaTh qTO-JIH60 C OT'IaHHHH 'to do something out of despair', cxaaars co 3JJOcTH 'to say something out of malice', y6e)l(clTb co crpaxy 'to run away for fear', aaxpasarr, C HcnYrY 'to cry out with fright', YCTclTb C HenpHBhl-tKH 'to get tired for lack of habit'.

Exercise 90. What questions do the words with the preposition c answer? Explain the meanings of c.

1. Co acex KOHl~6B crpaasi C'bCXaJII1Cb YQaCTHI1KI1 na 1-H Bcepoccaacxua C'be311 ¢cpMepoB. 2. 3amlTI1l1 B aysax 11 B urxonax lIaQI1HalOTCli C cellT1I6pll. 3. bH6JIHOTCKa pafioraer c lIeBliTH yrpa 110 OIlHHHa)lllaTI1 aexepa. 4. CHJIbHblH )lO)l(lIb I1l1eT C yrpa, 5. C )lepCBbeB nanasor nOCJICIIHl1e )l(eJiTble JIHCTbli. 6. OH C IICTCTBa ynncxancs MY3bIKOH.

Exercise 91. Describe your actions during a day, using the prepositions coo. no in

their temporal meaning. .

5*

67

USE OF THE PREPOSITION 113 (1130)

The preposition H3 'from', 'out of is used only with the genitive. 1. The preposition H3 'from' denotes the direction of action or movement.

A noun with H3 denoting direction answers the question oTKY)1.a? 'where from?'

OH IIpHexaJI crozta (omKyoa?) H3 'He came here from the village.' )1.epeBHH.

Ona BbIHYJIa IIJIaTOK (omKyoa?) H3 KapMaHa.

TOB(ipH~ 1I03BOHMJI MHe (omKyoa?) H3 HHCTHTYTa'.

'She took the handkerchief from her pocket.'

'My friend phoned me from the institute.'

2. A noun with H3 'from' may denote the source of information, the origin of something or someone.

3TH CJIOB<l (omKyoa?) H3 CTHXOTBopeHHH nYllIKHHa. 3TOT TOBllPH~ H3 pa6o'leii ceMbH.

'These words are from a poem by Pushkin.'

'This comrade comes from a worker's family.'

'I learnt that from the newspapers.'

3. A noun with H3 'from', 'of may denote the material of which an object is made: IIJIaTOK H3 meJIKa 'a silk kerchief, IIJIaThe H3 tuepcrn 'a woollen dress', xpsnua H3 *eJIba 'an iron roof.

4. A noun with H3 'from', 'out of may denote cause in certain phrases, e. g. cnymars H3 Be*JIHBOCTH 'to listen out of politeness', OTxaaarsca H3 ropnocra, H3 npHH"Hna, H3 ynpHMcTBa 'to decline out of pride, on principle, out of stubbornness'.

5. A noun with H3 'of may denote the whole from which a part is singled out.

Hexomopue H3 pa60'lHX BbIIIOJIHHJIH 3a~ilHHe ~OCpOlJ:HO.

AfHozue H3 cTY)1.eHTOB HallIeR rpynnsr YlJ:aCTBOBaJIH B JIbDKHhIX copeanoaaaaax.

Ha c06paHHH BbICTYIIHJI ooim H3 acnapauroa.

'Some of the workers fulfilled their tasks ahead of time.' 'Many of the students of our group took part in the skiing competitions. '

'One of the post-graduates spoke at the meeting.'

Exercise 92. Read through the sentences. Account for the use of the preposition HJ.

1. Mxoro nozraaroa coaepurann JIl0.u1l 113 JU06BH K pO.QHHe. 2. MbI qllT1UIH OTPhIBOK 113 posraaa Axaeaa «.LJ:aJIeKO OT MOCKBbI». 3. Mnorae 113 pafiosax aaurero uexa nepeBblIIOJIHinOT HOPMbI. 4. B MeTpo npexpacnsre KOJIOHHbI 113 MpaMopa. 5. B O.uHH 113 »CHbIX 3HMHIIX .uHeH .uPY3b» OTnpaBHJIHCb na JIbIlKHYIO nporYJIKY. 6. YpOKII KOHQllJIIICh, .uerll mJIII 113 mKOJIbI. 7. 3anHcKa 6bIJIa HaIIHcaHa aa JIIICTKe 113 6JIOKHoTa. 8. neH3HH II xepocau IIOJIYQalOT 113 He<PTII. 9. 113 OCTOPO)J(HOCTH OH He nouierr He3HaKOMOH JIeCHOH noporoa,

Exercise 93. Write out the following, filling in the blanks with the preposition H3 and the suitable words in the genitive, chosen out of those given at the end of the exercise.

68

I Ha CTOJIe CTOllJIa xpacaaaa aasa .... 2 .... BbleXaJI aBT,OM06HJIb. 3 . .DeBell H~nOJIIIJi ai)H1O .. , .4. EMY 6bIJIO CKYQHO, HO OH cnyuian .. , . 5. Floean ; .. npHxo.uH: B Boc,eMb II , 6 MbI Y3HaJIH ... 0 aenerie HH.uHHCKHX <PHJIbMOB B Mocxse. 7. 80 MHOrHX BY3ax ~~~~H 'Y4aTcSI cTYJleHTbI ...• 8. HHKTO .•• He MOl' peUII1Tb 3TOH 3aJla4H. 9.' C66p-

HK cOCTosiJI ... .

Il . ' .,

(BOpOTa, MocKBa, paaasre crpansr, YQeHHKH, CTeKJlO, Be)J(JIHBOCTb, raaer sr, onepa,

CTJoIXOTBOpeHHSI PYCCKHX n,03ToB) ,

USE OF THE PREPOSITION Y

The preposition y 'by', 'at' is used only with the genitive. Its principal meanings are as follows: .

1. A noun with y denotes the owner or possessor of an object and

answers the question Y Koro? 'who (has)?'

y 6paTa ecrs aarepecnas KHHra. 'The brother has an interesting book.'

'The students have syllabuses in all the subjects.'

'His sister has a beautiful voice.' 'The book has an interesting beginning.'

Y cTY)1.eHTOB ecrs nporpaMMbI IIO BceM npezmeraxr.

Y ero cecrpia KpacMBhIH ronoc, Y KHHrH aarepecaoe aasano.

2. A noun with y 'by', 'at' denotes the object or person n~ar which/whom some other object or person is to be found or some acnon

occurs.

CTOJI CTOMT (zoe?) y OKHa.

MbI )f(MJIH JIeTOM (zoe?) y MOpH.

,lJ,eTH HrpaJIH (zoe?) y peKH. 51 6bIJI (y KOZO?) Y Bpa'la.

OH )f(HJI JIeTOM (y KOZO?) Y PO)1.H'renea.

'The table is by the window.'

'In summer we lived at the seaside.'

'The children were playing by the

river.'

'I was at the doctor's.'

'He stayed at his parents' in the summer.'

3. Y 'from' is used after these verbs:

Imperfective 6paTb OTHHMaTb 'npoCHTb cnpamaears

nOKynaTb KpaCTb

Perfective

B3HTb 'to take', 'to borrow'

OTHHTb 'to take away'

nonpocars 'to ask', 'to beg' cnpocan, 'to ask (questions)'

KynHTb 'to buy'

YKpacTb 'to steal'

The noun with y used after the above verbs denotes the person from whom something is taken.

51 63flA Y TOBapHma YQe6HHK. Mart. omunna y pe6eHKa HO)f(HH~hI.

'I borrowed a textbook from my friend.'

'The mother took the scissors away from the child.'

69

OH nOnpOCUA y cecrpsr KHMry.

'He asked his sister for a book.'

. Exercise 94. Read through the sentences. What questions do the words with the pr _

posiuon y answer? e

" I. OXOTHHK.H CH~eJlH Y .KoCTpa. 2; Bcxepow Y fipa ra cofipanacs ero llJKOJlbHble TO~apH~llH. 3; y ~eBO'JKH a~~H:,a. 4. Jk~OM yqeHHK£' ornuxana B narepe Y MOp". 5. Y 'rror 0 ;OBapHllJa_?OJlbllJOH. OnbIT pa60Tbl. 6. Ha CT?Jle y cexperaps CTOitJI TeJIe41oH. 7. B ~loe'lle. Mbl CeJllf'y OKHa. 8. JleTo",!" lKHJl Y pozurrenea. 9. OH 6b1J1 Y apaxa. 10. R B3)1JI ny ~HHry y TOBal;lHwa no HHCTHTyTy. II. OH Y'JHJlC" rrenaro y 1f3BecTHoro nesua 12. Maunrna OCTaHOBHJlaCb y caM oro L10Ma. .

Exercise 95. Make up sentences containing y in various meanings.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION 6E3 (6E30) The principal meanings are as follows:

1. The preposition 6e3 'without' denotes the absence of an object or a person.

OJ{ npHWeJ1 ceroznrs (6e3 lJe2o?) 6e3 nOPT«!leJIH.

.51 Ilb!O lfail (6('3 lJec'o'!) fie3 caxapa.

Ee3 TBOeH nOMomH (6e3 lJe2o?) 'I shall not cope with the work

Sf He CnpaBJ1I{)Cb c pafio'roji. without your help.'

)],hH ryJ15IJ1H (6e3 K020?) 6e3 Ma- 'The children were taking a walk

'repu. without their mother.'

The ant~mym C?f the preposition 6e3 in this meaning is c (followed by a noun In the Instrumental).

OH f1pHWeJ1 6e3 nOPT«!leJIH. 'He came without his brief-case.'

OH npMWeJ1 c nOPT«!leJIeM. 'He came with his brief-case.'

.51 nsro lfaH 6e3 caxapa. 'I drink tea without sugar.'

51 nsro lfaH c caxaposs. 'I drink tea with sugar.'

.2. A noun with fie3 'without' may denote the manner in which an acuon occurs.

In such cases the noun with 6e3 answers the question KaK? 'how?' YlfemiK, peWHJ1 sanasy (KOK?) 6e3 'The pupil solved the problem

TpyJ{a. " without difficulty.'

OH rOBopHT no-pyccxn 6e3 omir- 'He speaks Russian without mis-

60K. takes.'

The ant~:mym C?f the preposition 6e3 in this meaning is c (followed by a noun III the Instrumental).

OHpemMJ1 aanaxy 6e3 TpyJ{a.

OH peunin aaztaxy c TPYJ{OM.

OH rOBopMT f10-PYCCKH 6e3 omir- 60K.

70

'Today he came without his briefcase.'

'I drink tea without sugar.'

'He solved the prolbem without

difficulty.' .

'He solved the problem with difficulty.'

'He speaks Russian without mistakes.'

'He speak Russian with rmstakes.'

OIl rOBOPMT no-pyccxa c omir6KaMH.

3. Ee3 is used to denote time.

CeHlfac 6e3 nHTir MUDYT ztecsrrs. It is five minutes to ten.

Exercise 96. Read through and write out the sentences. Underline the nouns with the preposition oe3. What is the meaning of the proverbs?

I. Be3 -rpyzta He BbIHellib If PbI6KY 1f3 npyzra.

2. tJ,blMa 6e3 oras He 6hIBaeT.

3. qeJlOBeK 6e3 p6e'!MHbI-,coJloBeii 6e3 necmr.

Exercise 97. What questions do the nouns with the preposition oe3 answer?

1. CTyn:eIH YlKe MOlKeT qMTaTh rasery 6e3 cnosaps. 2 OH e'!OJllKeH 6hlJl rrpMllTll c ceCTp6il, HO npmuen 6e3 cecrpsr. 3. >!. npmnerr na 3aHiITlf5I C KOHcrreKToM. a OH 5IBllJIClI 6C3 KOHcrreKTa. 4. CTYe'!eHT nanacarr co-mnenae 6e3 01llll60K. 5. YqeHllK 6e3 rpyna BblrrOJIHlfJI rpaMMaTllqeCKOe aananae, a co-nnrenae HarrMC<l.JI C TPYJ.I;OM. 6. OH paccsaauaarr crroKoHHO, 6e3 BOJIHeHlI5I. 7. OH BbIIIOJIH5IJI :'ny pa66TY 6e3 YBJIeqeHMlI, a 1I pa60TaJI c YBJIeqeHlleM. 8. CeroJ.I;H5I TeIlJIO, MOlKHO xomrrr, 6e3 nam.ro. Ewe asepa nee XOJ.I;llJIM B naJIhT6.

Exercise 98. Fill in the blanks with the nouns given 011 the right in the required case .

I. OH 06eIl\aJI rrpMHTll C TOBapMII\aMlf, HO npaurerr 6e3

rosapamn (pl.)

01llll6KM (pl.) OqKll (pl.) BOJIHeHMe CTeKJIa (pl.) TPYJ.I;

2. Y'ICHllKH HanHCaJII1 ):lIlKTaHT 6e3 ....

3. Oren He M6lKeT -nrrars 6e3 ....

4. OH paccxaausan crroxorino, 6e3 ....

5. B HOBOM J.I;OMe oxua 6blJlll erne 6e3 ....

6. OH BbIIIOJIHMJI nopysenae 6e3 ....

USE OF THE PREPOSITION AJl>!.

The principal meanings are as follows:

1. The preposition J{JIH 'for' shows that the action is done for the benefit of some person or object. A noun with this preposition answers the question J{JIH tcoro? 'for whom?' or J{JIH '1ero? 'for what?'

51 KYflMJl KHMfY (dAR KOZO?) J{JIH 'I bought a book for a friend.' TOBapHl u a.

CTYJ{eHT lfHTaJl JlMTepaTYPY (dAR lJe20?) J{JIH J{oKmlJ{a na cexraaape.

2. Jl.JIH is used to denote the purpose of an action. A noun with J{JIH answers the question 3a'leM? 'what for?', J{IIH '1ero? 'for what?' or C teaKOu .. em.IO·! 'for what purpose?', 'why?'

nYTemecTBeHHMKM oCTaHoBM- 'The travellers stopped to rest.'

'The student read material for his report at a seminar.'

JlMCb J{JIH oTJ{hIxa.

3. Jl.JIH may show the purpose which the object serves.

Ha CTOJle Jle)l(MT rerpam, J{JIH co'IHDeHH".

He 3a6yJ{b nocyny J{JIH MOJlOKa

'There is a composition book on the table.'

'Do not forget a container for the milk.'

71

4. ,lI,JIH is used with certain nouns, adjectives and adverbs:

(1) with nouns: 3Ha'leHHe )J.JIH 'importance for', ocnoaa )J.JIH 'a basis for', YCJIOBHH .uJIH 'a condition for', B03MO~HOCTL .uJIH 'a possibility for' cpeztcrao )J.JIH 'a means of, noaon .uJIH 'a pretext for'.

B :hOH crpane cosnansr see yCJlO- 'All conditions for the develop-

6UJl .uJIH pa3BHTHH HaYKH. ment of science have been created in this country.'

(2) with adjectives: HY~HLIH 'needed', Heo6xo.uHMLIH 'necessary', o6H3~heJILHLIH 'obligatory', Ba~HLIH 'important', TpY.uHhIH 'difficult', JIerKHH 'easy', HHTepecHhIH 'interesting', H3BecTHLIH 'well-known', 3HaKoMLIH 'familiar', nOHHTHLIH 'clear', 'understandable' (in complete or short form), etc.

ITPHCYTcTBHe aa c06paHHH otis- 'All the students are required to

samensno )J.JIH acex CTy.ueH- be present at the meeting.'

TOB.

3a.ua'la 6bIJIa mpyonou )J.JIH y'leHHKa.

'The sum was difficult for the pupil.'

(3) with adverbs: HY~HO '(it is) necessary', 'one must, needed', Heo6xo)J.HMO '(it is) necessary', 06H3beJILHO '(it is) obligatory', 'one must', Ba~HO '(it is) important', nOJIhHO '(it is) useful', etc.

,LI,JIH YCneUIHOrO OBJIa)J.eHHH pycCKHM SI3hIKOM BaM lIeo6xoOUMO CHCTeMaTlf'leCKH 3aHHMaThCSI.

'To master Russian well, you must study regularly.'

Exercise 99. Read through the sentences. What questions do the nouns with the preposition IlJIH answer?

I. Ha tor 1I npaexan Mll pa60Tbi Hall KHI'!.roH. (llaycm.) 2. Msr KynHJIH Mll phl6· HOH JIOBJIH HallYBHYIO pe3HHOBYlO JIOIlKY. (llaycm.) 3. R C1UlcTJIHB, 'ITO II Mory patiorars nna MOeH Jll06WMOH P6)lHHbl H JlJllI C'IaCTbli scero xenoae-recraa. (Ilae.). 4. HssecrHblH nHCaTeJIb ApKa.uHH faltzlap nacan KHWrH )lJllI )lereH. Er6 KHHrH HHTepeCHbl He TOJIbKO Mll lleTeH, HO H .!IJIli B3p6cJIb1X. 5. C KalKllblM rOlloM npOMhIIllJIeHHOCTb BbInY' CKaeT Bee 60JIbllle MalllllH Mll ceJIbCKOrO X03J1HCTBa.

Exercise 100. Make up sentences, using the following words with the preposition IlJIH.

HHTepeCHbIH, nOHJlTHbIH, nOJIi:3HbIH, Bpe.!lHblH, omicHblH, HylKHblH

Exercise 101. Make up sentences, using the following phrases and the preposition IlJlH.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION KPOME

The preposition KpoMe is used exclusively with the genitive and has the following meaning:

1. With the exception of somebody or something:

Ha npacrana aaxoro He 6bIJIO, KpOMe CTOpO)l(a C <poHapeM. (llaycm.)

'There was nobody on the pier except the guard with a lantern.'

72

2. In addition to something, or besides somebody:

'He knows English besides Russian.'

Kpb~~ pycc~~ro SI;bIKa, OH 3HaeT eIIIe aHrJIHHCKHH.

Exercise 102. Read through the sentences in the left-hand and right-hand columns.

Make up sentences of your own, using these sent~nces as mod~ls. . .

1. Bce npauina aospews. TOJlbKO O;J;HH Bce,. xpowe onnoro rosapama, npHlllJlH

TOBapHlll onoanan, Bo~peMlI;..

2. HHKTO He 3HaJI .!IopOrH. ,lJ,opory 3HaJl HHKTO, KpOMe PYK~BO.!lHTeJlll oxcnena-

T6JlbKO PYKOBO.!lilTeJIb 3KCne)lHJIHH. uaa, He 3H~ )lO~orH. .

3 JIeToM II OT ncex nOJlY'IHJI nMcbMa. JIeToM 1I nonyxan nHCbMa OT scex, xpoxte

. T6JlbKO 01' Gpara 1I He nOJIY'lHJl Gpara.

llHcbMa.

4. ,lJ,6Ma 6blJla He TOJlbKO MaTb, HO ,lJ,oMa, KpOMe MaTepH, 6bIJI oren,

H oren.

5. Mbl KYllHJlH He TOJIbKO yqe6HHKH, HO Kpoxte YQe6HHKOB, Mbl KynHJIH cnosaps.

H orrouapt-.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION BMECTO

The preposition BMecTo is used exclusively with the genitive and denotes the replacement of somebody or something with somebody or something else.

'Today there will be a maths lesson instead of a Russian class.'

BMeCTO ypoxa pyccxoro SI3bIK<1 cerozma 6Y.ueT YPOK MaTeMaTHKH.

Exercise 103. Translate into English.

I. B KJIy6e ceronas He 6Y)leT K?Hlie~Ta. BMecTo.KoHliepTa. 6Y)leT tP~JIbM. 2. :roBa- pam ofienta,n nanacari, MHe llHCbMO. Braecro llHCbMa 1I llOJIYQHJI OT Hero renerpaseay. 3. fIYTHHKH urrm B .!IepeBHIO sepea rrec. Korna OHM BhllllJIH H3 rreca, TO BMeCTO nepeana ysH.ueJlH none H pexy.

Use of the Dative

In Russian the dative is used either without a preposition (e. g . ztaPHTb cecrpe 't~ give [a present] to the sister', noworars TOBapHLQY 'to help a friend'), or with a preposition (e. g. H.uTH K TOBapumy 'to go to a friend's', exart, no YJIuQe 'to drive along the street').

THE DATIVE USED WITHOUT A PREPOSITION USE OF THE DATIVE WITH VERBS

1. When used with verbs, the dative denotes the person or object for (the benefit of) whom/which the action is performed.

51 uanncan nHcbMo (KOMj?) OTQY. 'I wrote a letter to my _fath~r.'

51 zran KHHry (KOMj?) TOBapumy. 'I lent the book to a fnend.

Imperfective )],aBaTb )]'apHTb

Perfective

.uaTb no.uapHTb

'to give', 'to lend'

'to give (as a present)'

73

nOKynaTL -- KynHTL

npHHOCHTL -- npHH~CTH nOCLImlTL -- nOCJIaTL nOKa3LIBaTL -- nOKa3aTL

06eIQaTL -- noo6eIQhL

nOMOraTL -- nOMOqL

'to buy'

'to bring' 'to send'

'to show' 'to promise' 'to help'

The dative is also used with some of the nouns obtained from the same roots as the above verbs:

,a:apHTL ,nenlM 'to give presents to children'

no,a:apKH ,a:enlM 'presents for children'

nOMoraTL 'ronaparny 'to help a friend'

nOMOIQL 'ronaprnny 'help to a friend'

2. The dative is used to denote the person spoken to:

eoeopums CJIymaTeJIHM paccxasueams ,a:pyry omeeuams yqHTemO 06'bJlCHRmb yqeHHKY

Imperfective rOBopHTL paCCKa3LIBaTL coo6IQaTL 06LHBJIHTL OTBeqaTL 06LHCHHTL

'to tell the listeners' 'to tell a friend'

'to reply to the teacher' 'to explain to a pupil'

Perfective -- CKa3aTL

-- paCCKa3aTL

-- C006IQHTL

-- 06LHBHTL

-- oTBeTHTL

-- 06LHCHHTL

'to say' 'to tell'

'to tell', 'to communicate' 'to announce'

'to answer', 'to reply' 'to explain'

'to write'

'to telephone'

nHcaTL -- HanHcaTL

3BOHHTL (no TeJIeq,()HY) -- n03BoHHTL

The dative is also used with nouns obtained from the same roots as some of the above verbs:

nHchL OTQY nHcLMo OTQY OTBeqaTL y-nrrenro oTBeT y-nrrerno

'to write to the father' 'a letter to the father'

'to reply to the teacher' 'a reply to the teacher'

3. The dative is used after a number of verbs which denote actions harmful to a person or object:

ueiuams 6phy ueiuams pafiore epeoums mo,a:HM epeoums 3,a:OpOBLIO us.uenhms ,a:eJIy stcmumn npary

Imperfective MemaTL npenHTCTBOBaTb

74

'to disturb the brother'

'to interfere with the work' 'to harm people'

'to damage the health' 'to betray one's cause'

'to take vengeance on the enemy'

Perfective

-- nOMemaTb 'to interfere'

-- nocnpenarcrsoaa'n, 'to be in the way'

Bpe;:l;Il~b noepeznrn, 'to harm'

113MeHHTb H3MeHHTb 'to betray'

oPOTHBo,a:eiicTBoBaTb 'to oppose'

MCTHTb -- OTOMCTHTb 'to take vengeance'

COOPOTHBJIHTbCH 'to resist'

The dative is also used with nouns obtained from the same roots as some of the above verbs:

113MeHHTb neny 03MeHa zterty

MCTHTb npary MeCTb spary

4. The following verbs taught or studied:

Imperfective

'to betray one's cause' 'betrayal of one's cause'

'to take vengeance on the enemy' 'vengeance on the enemy'

requrre the dative to express the subject

Perfective

I1pello,naBaTeJIb o6Y'laA cTy,neHTOB PYCCKOMY H3b1KY.

'The teacher taught the students Russian.'

I1pello,naBaTeJIb 06y'lUA cTy,neHTaB PYCCKOMY H3b1KY.

'The teacher has succeeded in teaching the students Russian.' I1pello,naBaTeJIb Y'lUA cTy,neHToB npaBHJIbHoMY npoH3HomeHHIO. 'The teacher taught the students the correct pronunciation.' I1pello,naBaTeJIb HaY'lUA cTy,neHTOB npaBHJIbHoMY npoasaomeHHIO.

'The teacher has succeeded in teaching the students the cor-

rect pronunciation.'

MbI Y'lUMCJl PYCCKOMY H3bIKY. 'We are studying Russian.'

MbI HaY'lUAUCb PYCCKOMY H3LIKY.

'We have learnt Russian.'

(The perfective verb is rarely used with the dative; it is more frequently used with an infinitive: MbI nayuu.tuc» l'OBOPHTb llO-PyCCKH. 'We have learnt to speak Russian.')

Note.- The verb Y'lHTI. in the sense of 'to learn by heart' has a perfective counterpart with the prefix BhI-:

06yqHTb 'to teach'

HayqHTb 'to teach'

YlfHTbCH 'to study'

HaY'lHTbCH 'to learn'

JI y'IHJI CTHxoTBopeHHe.

JI BbIY'IHJI. CTHxoTBopeHHe.

'I was learning a poem.' 'I have learnt a poem.'

75

5. The following verbs require the dative:

Imperfective

Perfective

pa.l1:0BaTbCH 06pa.l1:0BaTbCH 'to be glad', 'to rejoice'

Y.l1:HBJIHTbCH Y.l1:HBHTbCH 'to be surprised', 'to wonder'

3aBH.ra:OBaTb D03aBH.l1:oBaTb 'to envy'

CO'lYBcTBoBaTb - DOCO'lYBcTBoBaTb 'to sympathise'

Such verbs express various feelings and emotions.

The noun in the dative used with these verbs denotes the person or object which causes the emotion: paooeamscn BecHc

youensmec» CMCJIOCTH

3a6U006amb TOBapHIQY saeuooeams YCDCXY CO'lY6cm606amb .l1:pYry

'to rejoice at the spring'

'to be surprised at (somebody's)

courage'

'to envy a friend'

'to envy one's success'

'to sympathise with a friend'

THE DATIVE IN SOME PHRASES The dative is frequently used in these phrases:

MitpY-MHp. 'Peace to the world.' BoRHa-BoRHe. 'War against war.' CJIoa repOHM. 'Glory to the heroes.' llpHBeT .l1:PYlbHM. 'Greetings to the friends.' BC'lHaH DaMHTb repOHM. 'Eternal glory to the heroes.' llaMHTHHK lljIuKHHY. 'A monument to Pushkin.'

Exercise 104. Fill in the blanks with the words given on the right.

(a) 1. Oren nonapan ... BeJIOCHne.A. ChlH

2. Ma.rreHhKoH OH Kynim KYKJIy. .A0'lh

3. Mars noer KOJIhI6eJIhHYlO neCHIO. pefieaox

4. Ea6yuIKa paccxaasraaer ... cKa3KY. BHyK

5. .sI aanacan nHchMo ... . nonpyra

6. OH rrocnan ... TeJIerpaMMY. pO.AilTeJIH

7. Y'IeHHK 3ll.AaJI ... sonpoc. Y'IHTeJIh

8. Y'IHTCJIh a6"blICHHJI HCnOHlrTHOC CJIOBO. Y'lCHHK

9. Jlexrop nOKa3bIBacT cxeMhl H .AHarpaMMbI. CJIyruaTeJIH

10. CTY.AeHT CAaeT 3K3aMeH ... . npodieccop

11. CTY.AeHT OTBt!THJI aa Bee aonpocsr, 3K3aMeHllTOp

12. liH6JIHOTeKaph AaJI HOBYIO KHHry. '1HTllTeJIb

(b) 1. JJ:0'lh nosroraer ... rOTOBHTb o6eA. MaTb

2. IIIYM MeruacT ... 3aHHMllThcli. AeTH

3 . .sI ofieiuan ... npaaecra KHHry. TOBapHIU

4. Bpax aanperan ... KYPHTb. 60JIbHOii

5. Ilpenonaaarem, nopysan .,. C.AeJIaTb .AoKJIaA. cTYAeHT

6. PYKoBO.AHTeJIh nocoaerosan ... npo-nrrari, :hy acnapaar

crarsro.

7. Mars paspenrana ... H.ATH na KaToK. CbIH

Exercise 105. Write answers to the questions, using the words given on the right-

I. KOMY MaTh cnrana HOBOe nnari,e? cecrpa

2. KOMY cTYAeHT cnaer 3K3aMeH? nporpeccop

3. KOMY allJIOAHPYIOT 3pHTeJIH? aprncr

4. KOMY Thl OTAaJI 3anHcKY? npenceztarens

5. KOMY '1HTaTCJIb CAaJI KHHrH? 6116JIHOTeKapb

6. KOMY OHa 3BOHKna no TeJIe<jJOHY? nonpyra

7. KOMY nosroraer MMh'lI1K? MaTh

76

Exercise 106. Write out the sentences and underline the verbs which require the dative.

1. BeJIHKHH PYCCKI1H KPHTHK EeJIHHCKHH nOCBlITHJI CBOW JKH3Hb 60Pb6e aa nepcnoBoe HCKyCCTBO, xo'ropoe CJIYJKHT aapony. 2. I1CKYCCTBO, nareparypa nosroraror '1eJIOBe'lecTBY B ero ,USHJKCHHH OT npOIlIJIOrO K 6Y,UYlLIeMY. (Kop.) 3. OH (rOPbKHH) 3HaJI II' JIl06HJI CBOW P0,UHHY, H :'nOMY '1YBCTBY MbI ,UOJIJKHhI Y Hero Y'IHTbCli. (Ilaycm.) 4. Ona pa,UoSaJIaCh caofio.te, 6bIJIa B aocropre, 'ITO MorJI:l o,UHa XO,UHTh no ropony, panonaJIaCb BceMY, 'ITO BH,UeJIa B J]CHHHrpa,Ue. (Ilaycm.)

Exercise 107. Make up sentences, using these verbs with nouns in the dative. Bpe,UllTb, nO,U'IHHHTbClI, B03paJK:lTb, scpari., noaeparr., CJIYJKHTb, nonpaxart.,

CO'lyBcTBOBaTb

Exercise lOS. Make up sentences, using these phrases: y,UeJIHTb BHHMaHlfe (KOMj? lJe.wj?);

npl1HOCHTb nOJIb3Y (KOMj? lJeM,Y?);

naears B03MOJKHOCTb (KOMj? lJeM,Y?).

THE DATIVE TN IMPERSONAL SENTENCES OR CLAUSES

The dative is used in impersonal sentences or clauses to denote the person who performs an action or experiences some state.

In impersonal sentences or clauses the dative is used:

(1) with the words: Hall.O 'must', '(it is) necessary', HYJKHO 'must', '(it is) necessary', Heo6xo.l1:HMO 'must', '(it is) necessary', MOJKHO 'may', HeJIb3H 'must not' followed by an infinitive.

6pby lleo6XO()UMO BbleXaTI, 'The brother must leave today.'

CerO.D:HSr.

CTYll.eHTaM llYJJC1l0 rOTOBliThC51 K 3K3aMeHY.

51 He3.D:OpOB, MOJJC1l0 MHe yiiTll c 3aH5rTllii?

60JII)HOMY HeJlb3h KYPHTh.

'The students must prepare for the examination.'

'I am not well, may I leave the classroom?'

'The patient must not smoke.'

(2) with the words: BeCeJIO '(it is) fun', XOPOlIlO '(it is) good', rpycruo '(it is) sad', CKY'lHO '(it is) dull', '(it is) boring', etc., occasionally followed by an infinitive.

)),hSlM eeceno.

Cecrpe CKY'l1l0.

CTYll.eHTaM unmepecuo cnymart, JIeKlJ;lHo.

(3) with impersonal verbs:

MaTepn He cnumcn. Iipby nesoopoeumcn. )),hSlM XO'lemCR ey ahms,

(See 'Impersonal Sentences' p.

Exercise 109. Read through the sentences and explain the use of the dative. Make up sentences of your own, using these sentences as models.

'The children are enjoying themselves.'

'The sister is bored.'

'The students find it interesting to listen to the lecture.'

'The mother can't sleep.' 'The brother is not well.'

'The children want to go for a walk.'

498)

77

1. )l,eJIeriTaM HYlKHO 3aperHCTpupOBaTbCH)J;0 Ha'IaJIa KOH<j!epeHIIHH. 2. CIO)J;a Re.

JIb3ir BXO)J;UTb nocropoaums. 3. CTY)J;eHTaM HarneH rpyrmu 3aXOTeJIOCb oTnpaBHThC~ na JIbIlKHYIO nporyrrxy. 4. B napxe KYJIbTYPbI MOJIo)J;elKH BeCeJIO H mrrepecno. 5. Ceo rO)J;HH HeT )J;OlK)J;ir, )J;erliM MOlKHO H)J;TU rynsrt., 6. JIacTO'IKaM XOJIO)J;HO 3HMOH B HarullX xpasx, OHU YJIeTalOT aa ror.

THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES

1. The dative is used with a number of (complete or short form) adjectives: nOll;o6HblH 'like', 'similar', CBOHCTBeHHI.IH 'peculiar', 'characteristic', BepHLIH 'true', Bpa~lI;e6HblH 'hostile', 6J1aroll;apHblH 'grateful'.

OH 6bIJI 6lta200apeH lI;PYrY aa 'He was grateful to his friend for

rrOMOIlJ;b. the help.'

OH nrpan co ceoucmeenuuu pe- 'He played with the enthusiasm of

6eHKY YBJIeqeHHeM. a child.'

51 He BCTpeqaJI mOLJ:eii, noootiuux 'I've never met people like him.' 3TOMY qeJlOBeKY.

2. The dative is used with the adjective pall; 'glad'.

51 pao acrpese c BaMH. 'I am glad to meet you.'

(The adjective pall; occurs only in the short form.)

3. The dative is used with the adjectives: Hy~HblH 'needed', aeofixolI;HMblH 'necessary', HHTepecHblH 'interesting', nOJlC3HblH 'useful', H3- BecTHblH 'known', 3HaKOMblH 'familiar', nOHHTHblH 'easy to understand', 'clear', etc.

3Ta KHMra HY:>ICHa 6phy. ,n:oKJIaLJ: 6bIJI uumepecen cnyura-

TeJlHM.

06b5ICHeHHe nOHHmHo yqeHHKaM.

'The brother needs this book.' 'The listeners found the report interesting.'

'The explanation is clear to the pupils.'

Note.- The above adjectives may also require the genitive with the preposition )J;JlH 'for', 'to'.

)l,oKJIa)J; 6blll unmepeceu )J;JlH cnjmare- 'The listeners found the report interest-

JleH. ing.'

Exercise 110. Write out the sentences and underline the adjectives which require

a noun in the dative. .

I. )l,oKJIa)J;'IHK npHBOLluJI npavepsr, noasrmae H narepecasre scew CJIYrnaTeJIHM. 2. CJIyrnaTeJIH 6bIJIH finarozrapasr )J;oKJIa)J;'IHKY sa mrrepecnoe asrcrynneaae. 3. Ilo:3- 3HH Ilynncusa Y)J;HBUTeJIbHO nepna PYCCKOH )J;eHCTBUTeJIbHOcTH. (Bell.) 4. 11 B3pOCJIble H )J;eTH pansr necne. 5. Tarssne crpauren 3ll:MHHH nyrs, (fl.)

Exercise 111. Make up sentences, using the adjectives you have underlined in the preceding exercise.

THE DATIVE USED TO DENOTE AGE The dative is used to denote age:

MHe TOrLJ:a 6bIJIO mpuouams oea

rOLJ:a, Mapyce oeaouams

'I was thirty-two then, Marusya was twenty-nine and our

78

daughter Svetlana was six and a half years old.'

'Today is my brother's birthday.

He is eighteen.'

i)e6flmb, a lI;OqepH HameH C;Be~miHe uiecms c nOItOeUHOU.

(Tauo.)

y Moero 6pciTa ceroLJ:H5I LJ:eHh pO)l(lI;eHH5I. Bpary HcrrOJIHH]lOCb 6oceMHaOlj.amb Item.

Exercise 112. Write answers to the questions.

, BaM JIeT? CKOJIbKO JIeT BarneH cecrpe?

CKOJIbKO· "'?

C,,6JIbKO JIeT sauresay 6paTY? CKOJIbKO JIeT samevy OTUY·

Exercise 113. Make up some sentences, using the dative in expressions of age.

THE DATIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS

The dative is used after the prepositions:

K 'to(wards)' Jl. H.n:Y K maapaury. J16.n:Ka rrJIhIBeT K 6epe..-y.

'I am going to my friend's.'

'The boat is sailing towards the

shore.'

no 'along'

MhI rYJI5lJIH no YJlHQe.

oJiaroll;apH 'thanks to', 'owing to' l)Jlaro.n:apH TBoeii UOMOmH pa-

60Ta tuna ycneumo.

COrJlaCHO 'in accordance with', CO"-JIaCHO pememuo c06paHH5I.

'We were strolling along the street' ,

'Thanks to your help, the work was carried on successfully.'

COrJIaCHO upHKa3Y nnpexropa.

'according to', 'under'

'In accordance with the decision of the meeting.'

'In accordance with the director's order.'

'Under an article of the Constitution.'

uaacrpexy 'towards', 'to meet'

'The host came out to meet the guests.'

X03}rHH BbUneJI

rocTHM.

RoupeKH 'in defiance of, 'against the will of

OR BCTaJI c rrOCTeJIH BoupeKH co- 'He got out of bed against the

Rhy npaxa. doctor's advice.'

Note.- The preposition no may also be used with the accusative or the pre-

positional. .'

The other prepositions always require the dative.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION K

The principal meaning of K is to denote approaching somebody or something in space or time,

79

1. A noun with K denotes the object or person approached by another object or person and answers the question Ky)],a? 'where (to)?', K 'IeMY? 'to(wards) what?', K KOMY? 'to(wards) whom?'

j:(enl 6erYT (Kyoa?) K pexe. 'The children are running to the

river.'

YqeHlIK IIo)]'OllIeJI (K '1eMY?) 'The pupil came up to the black-

K nocree. board.'

nOJIbH6ii H)]'er (K KOMj?) K Bpa'iY. 'The sick man is going to the doctor's.'

Note.-:« The opposite meaning is rendered by the preposition OT 'from'. Y'IeHlIK OTOllleJI (om 'lezo?) OT .'J,OCKII. 'The pupil stepped aside from the blackboard.'

Verbs denoting approach generally have the prefix npn- or nozr-:

CbIH npuexan K pO)],llTemlM aa xa- 'The son came to his parents for

HlIKyJIbI. his holidays.'

Mannma noosexana K )],OMY. 'The car drove up to the house.

_}{ npuiuen K TOBapHIQY. 'I came to see my friend.'

51 nOOOUleJl K npenonaearemo. 'I approached the teacher.'

Verbs of motion which have the prefix non- (nono-) always require the preposition K (a nOOOUleJl K TOBapHIQY 'I came up to my friend'; OR noosexan K )]'OMY 'he drove up to the house'; OH noonnta.a K 6epery 'he swam right to the shore').

Verbs of motion which have the prefix npn- may require different prepositions (OH npuiuen B YIIHBepcHTh 'he came to the University'; ~ npuuien ua 3aBo)], 'I came to the factory'; OH npuexan B MOCKBY 'he came to Moscow').

2. A noun with K may denote an object to which something is added. In such cases the verb invariably has the prefix npa-:

npuxneums M::1PKY K KOIiBepTY 'to stick a stamp on the envelope'

npuessams JIOIlIa)],b K )],epeBY 'to fasten a horse to a tree'

npuiuums IIYrOBH.u;y K naJIhTO 'to sew a button on a coat'

3. Many verbs which have the prefix npa-, and a number of other verbs, require K:

Imperfective npH6JIHiKaThCH

Perfective

- npH6ml3HThCH (K ro- 'to approach (the town)' pony) - npHBhIKIIYTh (K KJIHMaTY) - npHY'IHTh (K II 0 piI)],KY) - npH3BaTh (K 60Pb6e)

npHBhIKaTh

'to get used (to the climate),

'to train (somebody) (to be orderly),

'to call (to struggle),

'to belong (to an organisation),

'to listen (to a conversation)'

npH3h1BaTh npHlla)]'JIeiKaTh

(K opraanaanaa) npUCJIymaThcH (K pasrosopy)

npHCJIymHBaThCH

80

(K 'to prepare (for an examination)'

na- 'to address (the nation),

rOTOBHThCH

- no)],roToBHThCH 3K3aMeHY) 06paTHThcH (K pozty) oruecrucs (K TOBapHntai«)

'to treat (the friends),

o6pamaThCH

OTlIOCHThCH

'to strive (for knowledge)'

Nouns obtained from the same roots as the above verbs also require K:

no)],roTOBKa K 3K3aMeHY 06paIl(eHHe K aapony oTHorueHHe K TOBapHlQaM

'preparation for an examination' 'address to the nation'

'treating (treatment of) the

friends'

rrpH6JIH)KeHHe K ropony 'approaching the town'

rrpHBblqKa K nopsmcy 'a habit to be orderly'

npassm K 6oph6e 'a call to struggle'

CTpeMJIeHHe K 3HaHlfHM 'striving for knowledge'

4. After a large number of nouns denoting feelings or relationship K is used (the verbs denoting the same feelings do not require K):

IfHTepeCOBaThCH MY3bIKOH mrrepec K MY3bIKe

JII06HTh PO)]'HHY

JII060Bh K pO)]'HHe

HeHaBH)]'eTh Bpara HeHaBHcTh K Bpary

YBaiKaTh yqHTeJI~ YBaiKeHHe K yqHTemO )]'oBepBTh JIK>)],~M

noeepae K JIK>)],5IM

COqYBcTBoBaTh TOBapHIl(Y COqYBCTBHe K TOBapHIl(Y

'to be interested in music' 'interest in music'

'to love one's country' 'love for one's country' 'to hate the enemy' 'hatred for the enemy'

'to respect the teacher' 'respect for the teacher' 'to trust people'

'trust in people'

'to sympathise with a friend' 'sympathy with a friend'

5. K is used with these. adjectives:

rOTOBhIU K OT'bb.D:Y 'ready for departure'

cnOC06HhIU K MY3bIKe 'gifted for music'

npUBhl'lHhIU K XOJIO.D:Y 'used to the cold'

CTporuu K yqeHHKaM 'strict towards the pupils'

Tpe60BaTeJIhHhIU K yqeHHKaM 'exacting towards the pupils'

l(06phlu K )],eT~M 'kind to children'

paBHo)],ymHhIu K MY3bIKe 'indifferent to music'

oeCnOlQa)],Hhlu K sparaxr 'merciless towards the enemies'

etc.

6. K is used to denote time. A noun with K used in this meaning ans:vers the question Kor)],a? 'when?' or K KaKoMY BpeMeHu? 'by what tIme?'

6- 384

81

OH rrpIIIlIeJI .D:OMOi1: (K02()(Z?) K 06etJ,y.

MhI 3aKOH'IIIJIII pa60TY (KaZda?) K Beqepy.

CTY.D:eHThI .D:OJI)I(HbI rrpnexart, (K KaKOMY epeMeHu?) K nepnosry ceHTD:6pH.

Exercise 114. What questions do the nouns with the preposition K answer? State the meaning of K in each sentence.

I. J1oJ(Ka IL'IblBeT OT napoxona K fiepery. 2. Mars 30BeT J(eTcll. ,[(eul 6el'YT K Ma'repa. 3. ,[(opora npuse.na Hac K osepy. 4. ABTOM06HJIb nOBepHYJI HaJleBO, K 3J(aHHIO KJIY6a. 5. 51 npnny J(OMOll K 06eLlY. 6. 3aBTpa SI nOHJ(Y K nonpyre B rOCBI. 7. YqeHll:K nonoruen K J(OCKe. 8. TOBapHLl(H c06epYTcJI K -racy J(HSI. 9. HO%IO MbI nOJ(beXaJIH K MaJIeHbKOll cTaHlIHH.

'He came home by dinner-time.' 'We finished the work by the eve. ning.'

'The students must arrive by the first of September.'

Exercise 115_ Fill in the blanks with the words given on the right, putting them in the dative and using the preposition K.

I. CTYJ(eHTbI rOTOBHJIHCb ....

2. Iloxynarern, 06paTHJICJI C aorrpocoxt ...

3. Msr npHBbIKJIH ....

4. Temroxon npH6JIHlKaJICJI '" .

5. OXOTHHK npHCJlYlllHBaJICJI ....

6. MbI npHcoeJ(HHHJIHCb .

7. Mart, npay-mrra J(eTell .

8. Cccrpa npHIIIHJIa nyrosnuy ...

3K3aMeH nponaseu KJIHMaT Cesepa npHcTaHb KalKLlblll 3ByK 'JKCKYPCHlI nopHJ(oK pyfiaurxa

Exercise 116. Make up sentences, using (a) the verbs:

rOToBHTbCSI K ... ,cTpeMHTbcSI K ... , npaesrxari, K ... , OTHOCHTbCSI K ... ,npH3blaari, K ..• ;

(b) the adjectives:

rOTOBbIll K ... , crtocofiasra K ... , CTporHH K ... , paBHollYIIIHbIH K ... , BHHMaTem-

HhIll K ... ;

(C) the nouns:

ornonrenae K ... , nosepne K ... • CTpeMJICHIle K ...

USE OF THE PREPOSITION no

1. The preposition no is used to denote movement on a surface.

A noun with no indicates the surface on which the movement occurs and answers the question rne? 'where?'

,[(erII 6eraJIII (zde?) no .D:BOPY. 'The children were running about

in the courtyard.'

'The car is driving along the highway.'

'The motor ship is sailing down

reo the Volga.'

MhI ryJI5IJIII (zde?) no 6epery peKu. 'We were strolling along the river bank.'

ABTOM06HJIh ezrer (zde?) no mocceo

Tennoxon nnsmer (zde?) no BOJl-

82

PeKa Te'IeT (zde?) no paaaane. The river flows across the plain.'

After the verbs 6HTb 'to beat', cTyqaTh 'to knock', 'to patter', y,uaps'tTh 'to strike', a noun with no denotes a surface.

OH Y.D:aPIIJI KYJIaKOM (no 'IeMy?) 'He banged the table with his fist.' no CTOJlY·

,[(O)K~h cTY'IaJI (no 'IeMy?) no 'The rain was pattering on the

KphIOIe. roof.'

2. ITo is used to denote the place of an action which proceeds: (a) within a whole:

no BceMY MUPY IlIHPIITCR .D:BII)I(eHIIe 60Pll,OB aa sceofiutee II rrOJIHOe pasopyxeaae.

(b) at different points:

no cIla6pHKaM II 3aBotJ,aM nponrnn c06paHIIR.

(c) in different directions:

Ilocne c06paHIIR nee pa30IlIJIHCh no .D:OMaM.

(d) from one point to another:

MhI XO.D:HJIII no Mara3uHaM. 'We went from shop to shop.'

'The movement for universal and total disarmament is gaining strength all over the world.'

'Meetings took place at all the factories. '

'After the meeting everybody went home.'

3. ITo is used to denote an action recurring at definite intervals. ,[(OKTOP rrpIIHIIMaeT (KO?da?) no 'The doctor receives patients on

BTopHHKaM II cy66oTaM. Tuesday and Saturday.'

5{ pa60TaIO no BeqepaM, IIHOr.D:a 'I work in the evenings and some-

no HOqaM (but one cannot say times at night.'

no .D:HRM).

4. ITo is used to denote the cause of an action. A noun with no used in this meaning answers the question nOqeMY? 'why?'

CTY.D:eHT OTCYTcTBOBaJI na JIeK- 'The student missed the lectures

lI,IIII (nO'leMy?) no 60JlhHH. through illness.'

OH nponycrnn 3aHSITIIR no yna- 'He missed the lessons for valid

iKUTeJlbHOH npHqUHe. reasons.'

YqeHHK c.D:eJIaJI OIlIH6KY no He- 'The pupil made a mistake

6pe-KHOCTH, no pacceannocra. through carelessness, through absent-minded ness. '

OHa pa36HJIa Ba3Y no neocropoae- 'She broke the vase through care-

HOCTH. lessness.'

5. The preposition no is used to denote a person's speciality or ocCUpation, or the subject (theme of an investigation, paper, report, etc.).

cnel\IIaJIllcT no ceJlbcKoMY xo- 'a specialist in agriculture' 3HHCTBY

6*

83

pafiora no reorpiulmH 'a work on geography'

3aHhl'HI no cjUI3HKe 'classes in physics'

cexranap no nOJlHT3KOHOMHH 'a seminar on political economy'

3K3aMeH no XHMHH 'an examination in chemistry'

6. 00 is used in the sense of 'according to', 'under', 'in conformity with', 'on the basis of:

pafiorars no nnauy 'to work according to plan'

3aHllM<lTbC}l no pacnucamuo 'to study according to the time-

table'

'to do something at (somebody's) request, by (somebody's) order, at (somebody's) urgent request'

C~eJIaTb qTO-JIll60 no npocL6e, no npHKa3Y, no Tpe60BaHHIO

7. 00 is used to denote a feature or an attribute.

51 Y3HaJI ero no ronocy, no no-'I recognised him by his voice, by

xOAKe. his gait.'

Hranas npesocxoznrr HCIIaHlllO 'Italy's population exceeds that of

no 'IHCJleHHOCTH HaCeJIeHll51. Spain.'

8. 00 is used to denote relationship, kinship:

pozrcrseaanx no MaTepH 'a relative on the mother's side'

roaapaur no mKOJle, no pa60Te 'a school-mate', 'a work-mate'

cocezt no KOMHaTe 'a room-mate'

9. 00 is used to denote distribution of objects singly.

Ka)l(~bIH YQeHl1K IIOJIYQfW no 'Each pupil got a textbook.' Y'Ie6HHKY·

51 KYIIfW zma 6llJIeTa no py6mo.

'I bought two tickets at rouble each.'

10. 00 is used to denote the means of communication used, as in the following phrases:

IIOCJIaTb IIllCbMO no nO'ITe 'to send a letter by post'

II03BOHHTb no TeJlecjloHY 'to telephone'

ronoprrrr, no TeJlecjloHY 'to speak by telephone'

C006mHTb no TeJlerpacjly 'to inform by telegraph'

asrcrynars no pa~Ho 'to speak (perform) on the radio'

cnynrars no paAHo 'to listen (to something) over the

radio'

no co06meHHHM raser 'according to newspaper reports'

no MHeHHIO CIIeQllaJIHCTOB 'in the specialists' opinion'

Note. ~ The preposition DO is also used with the accusative or the prepositional (see pp. 98 and I 17).

Exercise 117. State the meanings of the preposition DO. What questions do the nouns used with this preposition answer?

I. MbI AOJIrO rynana no Ymu.\aM II nJIOlllaAlIM MOCKBbI. 2. no Be'fepaM MbI 'faCTO scrpcnanacs B KJly6e. 3. r6cTH H3 I1cm'tHHH npOeXaJIH no ITYWKHHCKHM MecTaM. 4. ITo

84

one

co061l1eHHlIM raser , yfiopxa ypoacas B OMcKoll 66JIaCTH 3aKOH'feHa. 5. B 3HMHIOIO ceccHI{) MbI 6YAeM CAaBaTb 3K3aMeH no HCT6pflH. 6. OH B311JI 'fy)!(ylO .rcrpans no oIIlH6Ke. 7. Hafiexcarra rysa, H no KpbIIIIe 3acTY'faJI AO)!(,l.Ib. 8. ITpeIIO,l.laB<lTeJIb Be,l.lCT 3aHSITHli 1I0 npor pasoae, 9. Crpaue HY)!(Hbl CneI.(HaJIHCTbI 1I0 CeJIhCKoMY X031IllCTBY. 10. 3TY HOBYIO necmo MbJ HeAaBHo CJIhlWaJIH no panno. 11. MbI '1HTaJIH pOMaH CHMOgOBa «TOBapHllIH no OPY)!(HIO». 12. Mart, ,UaJIa ,UeTliM no 1I6JIOKY·

Exercise 118. State the meanings of the preposition DO in the poem 'Rain'.

no He6y rOJIy60MY ITo BceM 3eJICHbIM JIHCTbllM,

npOeXaJI rpoxo r rposra, ITo scer-r )!(eJIt!3HbIM xpsnuasr,

H cHOBa BCe MOJI'fHT. ITo I.(BeTHHKaM, cKaMeilKaM,

A MHr cnYCTlI MhI CJIhIWHM, ITo Bei.\paM H 1I0 JIellKaM

KaK BeCeJIO H 6bICTPO BeCCJIbIH ,UO)!(,Ub CTY'fHT. (Mapw.)

Exercise 119. Make up sentences, using the verbs HATH, ryJIITfI>, DJIblTb, exari, and the preposition no.

Exercise 120. Make up sentences with the phrases:

pasroaapasars no TeJIe1jl6HY, ,UellcTBoBaTb no npaxaay, IIJIbITb no Te'feHHIO, ysHaTh no ronocy, H1\TH no H6BOMY IIYTH

Exercise 121. Make up sentences, using the preposition DO in its various meanings.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION 6J1ArO)J,AP.5I

The preposition 6J1arO~apH 'thanks to', 'owing to' is used to denote cause.

Sentences with 6J1arOAapH report pleasant phenomena or facts.

EJlarO~apH HaY'lHou opraHH3aQHH TpYAa pafiora 6bIJIa 3aKOHQeHa ~OCPOQHO.

3KCKYPCll}l npomrra Y.l1.aQHO 6J1aronaps xopomea norene.

'Thanks to the scientific organization of work the job was completed ahead of time.'

'The excursion was a success owing to the fine weather.'

Note.> When unpleasant phenomena are reported the preposition H3-3a 'owing to', 'because or is generally used (followed by the genitive).

113-3a OIUHfiKH B 'fepTe)!(e aauurry ,UHnJIOMa npHWJIOCb OTJIO)!(HTb.

'Owing to a mistake in the drawing the defence of the graduation thesis had to be put off.'

'The excursion did not take place owing to the bad weather.'

3KCKYPCHli He cocrosnacs H3-3a DJIOxoii DOI'O,UbI.

Exercise 122. Fill in the blanks with the words given on the right, using the appropriate preposition.

1. DhlcTpble TeMlIbI cTpOHTeJIbCTBa B03MO)!(HbI ....

2. 51 3aK6H'IHJI pa60TY ,UOCp6'fHO ....

3, YpO)!(aH 6bIJI npeepacnsni .

4. MaJIb'fHK OTJIH'fHO Y'lWJICli .

ycnexa TexHHKH n6Molllb .roaapautca neceuuue ,UO)!(,Uw xopounre cnocofiaocra

USE OF THE PREPOSITIONS BOITPEKM, HABCTPE4Y AND COrJ1ACHO 1. The preposition aonpexa 'in spite of can be replaced by the preposition HeCMOTps. na (followed by the accusative).

BonpeKH BceM Tpy~HOCTHM, Hecssorps na see Tpy~HOCTH,

3KCne.l1.HIU1}1 BblIIOJIHllJIa sazta- 3KCIIe.l1.Hll,ll}l BblIIOJIHllJIa sana-

Hue. HHe.

85

'In spite of all difficulties the expedition fulfilled its task.' Bonpexa cosery spaxa, 60JIhHOH BCTaJI c rrOCTeJIH.

'In defiance of the doctor's advice the patient got out of bed.'

'In spite of all the difficulties the expedition fulfilled its task.' Hecjaorpa ua coser spaxa, 60JIhHOH BCTaJI c rrOCTeJIH.

'In defiance of the doctor's advice the patient got out of bed.'

However, the preposition HecMoTpH aa cannot always be replaced by BonpeKH. Thus, in the sentence: Hecssorps ua MOP03hl, ~6JIOHH He rrorH6JIH. 'In spite of the frosts the apple-trees did not perish' necsiorpa na cannot be replaced by aonpexa,

Bonpexu is mainly used when a person is opposed by another's will or is confronted with difficulties to be overcome.

2. The preposition nascrpesy 'in the opposite direction' is generally used with verbs of motion.

'The old teacher was coming towards the boys.' 'Cross-country vehicles were sent to pick up the members of the expedi tion.'

3. The preposition cornacno 'in accordance with', 'according to', 'under' is used with the dative: cor.nacno paCnOpHJKeHIUO pexropa 'in accordance with the rector's order'; cornacuo AHpeKTHBaM 'in accordance with the instructions'; coraacno peuremno cyna 'in accordance with the court's decision', etc. In official documents cor nacno is frequently followed by the genitive: cor.nacno npmcaaa 'in accordance with the order', cor.nacno paCnOpHJKeHHH 'in accordance with the order', etc., but this usage is not standard literary Russian.

Haecrpesy pe6HTaM uie « HX erapbIH Y'IHTeJIh.

Haecrpesy qJleHaM 3Kcrre,UHIJ:I1H euexanu Be3AexO,UhI.

Exercise 123. Make up six sentences, using the prepositions aonpexu, HaBCTpe'lY and cor.nacuo.

Use of the Accusative

In Russian, the accusative is used either without a preposition (mrraro KHury 'I am reading a book') or with a preposition (eAY B MoCKBY '1 am going to Moscow').

THE ACCUSATIVE WITHOUT A PREPOSITION

The accusative without a preposition is used with verbs. The accusative is not used with nouns or adjectives without a preposition.

1. The accusative is used to denote the object of an action, i. e. the person or object to which the action passes over.

Pa60QHe cmposm (limo?) AOM.

'The workers are building a house.'

'The father is reading a newspaper.'

'The mother loves her son.'

Mart, .ubtium (KOcO?) chlHa.

86

Verbs which can take a noun standing in the accusative without a preposition a~d. answering the question Koro? 'whom?' or 'ITO? 'what?' are transitive.

Transitive verbs may denote physical actions, perception, feelings, emotions, speech, etc.

Imperfective CTPOHTh mHTh y6HpaTh 6paTh KJlaCTh cniBHTh BemaTh

BUAeTh CMOTpeTh cnsnnari,

cnymart, qYBCTBOBaTh ncmrrsma'n,

3aMeq:.lTh JlI06UTb HeHaBUAeTh npe3HpaTh QeHUTh nOMHHTh nOHHMaTh

H3yqaTh pema'rs yqUTb

paccxaaur-

BaTh 06bHCHHTh C00611{aTh rOBOpUTh

Perfective

nOCTpOHTh (AOM) CUIHTh (rurari,e) y6parh (KOMHaTY) B3HTh (KHHry) nOJlOJKUTh (rerpam.) nOCTaBHTh (craxan) nOBeCHTh (naJIhTO)

* * * YBuAeTh (npyra)

nOCMOTpeTh (KapTHHy) ycmnuarr, (nenne)

npocnymarr, (JIeKIJ:HlO) nOqYBCTBOBaTh (60JIh) - HCUhITarh (6ecrroKOHcTBO)

3aMhHTh (HeAocTaTKH) (pOJ1HHY)

(spara)

(rpyca) (QeJIOBeKa) (necmo )

nOHHTh (06b5ICHeHHe)

'to build (a house)' 'to sew (a dress)'

'to tidy up (a room)' 'to take (a book)'

'to put (an exercise-book), 'to put (a glass)'

'to hang (a coat)'

'to see (a friend)' 'to see (a film)'

'to hear (somebody's sing-

ing)'

'to listen (to a lecture), 'to feel (a pain)'

'to feel (uneasy)'

'to notice (shortcomings), 'to love (one's country), 'to hate (the enemy)'

'to despise (a coward), 'to value (a person),

'to remember (a song)'

'to understand (an expla-

nation),

H3yqUTh (sonpoc) 'to study (a question)'

peunrn, (sanasy) 'to solve (a problem)'

BLIyqHTh (craxorsope- 'to learn (a poem)'

HHe)

paccxasa'n, (cKa3KY)

06bHCHUTh (npasnrro) cootiuurn, (aosocrr.) CKa3aTh (npanny)

* * *

'to tell (a fairy-tale),

'to explain (a rule)' 'to give (the news)' 'to tell (the truth),

6.1al'OAapUTh -- rrofinaronapfrrt, (rosa- 'to thank (a friend)'

P HIll, a) n03ApaBJ'HTh - n03ApaBHTh (oTIJ:a)

BcnOI\1HHaTh BCTpeqaTh

BcnOMHHTh (zrpyra) BCTperHTh (cecrpy)

'to congratulate

father)'

'to remember (a friend), 'to meet (the sister),

(the

87

pyra'n, JKLJ;aTh

- (MaJIbqIIKa)

- (noztpyry)

'to scold (a boy)'

'to wait for (a friend),

. Exercise 124. Give written answers to the questions, using the words given on the

nght.

1. q TO -nrraer nporpeccop?

2. Koro CJIywaKlT cryriearsr?

3. qTO cnaer crynenr?

4. Koro cnpamasaer npenonasare.u.?

5. qTO crponr pafio-nre?

6. Koro lK,nyT pafiouae?

7. qTO Y'lHT fipar?

8. Koro fipa r Y'lHT xarart.ca ua KOHbKax'?

9. qTO paccxaasrsaer 6a6ywKa ):(hlIM'i

10. KTo 30BeT vra'rt.?

II. Koro BbI BCTphHJIH?

12. qTO npnacc no-rrarn.oa?

):(OKJIa):( nporpeccop 3K3aMeH cTy):(eHT

MOCT

HHlKeHep CTI1XOTBOpeHHe cecrpa

cKa3Ka

):(O'lb

fJO'lTaJIbOH lKYPHaJI

Exercise 125. Fill in the blanks with the words in brackets, putting them in the required case (the accusative or dative).

1. CTy):(eHT paccxaasrsaer ... TeKCT. (npenonasarern.) 2. Ilpenonaaarem, BHI1Mare-

JIbHO cnyuraer (cTYAeHT) 3. Flpeno.aasarens aanaer sorrpocsr .... (CTY):(CHTbI) 4. Y'lH-

TeJIb nOXBaJll1JI sa xopouree CO'lI1HeHl1e. (yxenaua) 5. Y'leHI1K cnyuran ... HeBHIIMa-

TeJIbHO, noarosry nnoxo rrOHlIJI sonpoc. (y-nrreris) 6. 51 cH):(eJI ):(aJIeKO II nnoxo CJIbIWaJI .... (JIeKTop) 7. 51 noworaro ... Y'lHTb aHrmii1cKI1i11I3bIK. (nozrpyra) 8. MY3bIKa MewaeT

... 3aHHMitTbclI. (CTy):(eHTKa) 9. CbIH n03BoHlIJI .... (o reu) 10. Oren cnpocan 0 norene

B Mocxse. (CbIH) II. MbI 6JIaro,napHM aa nossouis. (ToBapHIU) 12.51 Y'ly arpars aa

rI1Tape',(6paT) 13. JY1bI xopouio 3HaeM 11 .... (MBaH 11 Onsra) 14. Ea6YIllKa paccxaaa-

sacr cKa3KY .... (BHyKI1) 15. Mart, naer MOJIOKO. (pefieaox) 16. MbI lK):(eM ... 'lTo6bf

BMecTe I1J1,TH rYJIHTb. (JI,PY3bH) 17. Kiaoura <poTorpa<pHpyeT .... (ncsyunca) 18. AeBO'IKa pacyer ... , (CJIOH) 19. Bscpa B 'rea rpe 1I BCTpeTI1JI .... 51 6b1JI pan BH,nCTb .... 51 06eIUaJI ... , 'ITO npnay K HeMY B cy666Ty. (ztpyr) 20. Epar muucr rrl1cbM6 .... (cecrpa)

Exercise 126. Which verbs irr these sentences require the accusative? Make up sentences of your own, using these verbs,

1., Pexrop n03,npaBHJI cTYAeHToB-AHrrJIOMHHKOB C OKOH'laHHeM YHHBepCHTeTa. 2. 51 zronro He Mor BcrrOMHHTb IIt~CHlO 11, HaKOHeu, Bcrr6MHI1JI ee. 3. OH n06JIarOJl,apHJI TOBapHIUei1 aa n6MoIUb. 4. 51 noxono aaury npocsfiy. 5. 51 3an6MHHJI Bam aztpec.

Exercise 127. Make up sentences, using these phrases.

HMeTb 3Ha'leHl1e, arpars POJIb, .!(aTb CJIOBO. nonaaars npaxrep, OKu3bIBaTb n6- MOIUb, npmorn, peureaae, cosepnnrrs nonsar, Hcrr6JIHHTb npocsoy

2. The accusative may be used with any verb to denote a period of time during which an action occurs.

In such cases the noun in the accusative answers the question CKOJIhKO BpeMeHH?, KaK LJ;OJIro? 'how long?' or KaK 'faCTO? 'how often?'

Msr )J{MJIII (CK{JllbKO epeMeHu?) BCe 'The whole summer we lived in

JIeTO B zrepesne. the country.'

OH OTLJ;bIXaJI (CKOJlbKO epeMeHu?) 'He rested for a week.' aenenro,

(CKOJlbKO epeMeHu?) BTOpOU LJ;eHh 'It has been raining for two days.' IILJ;eT LJ;O)J{LJ;b.

Msr 3aHliMaeMC51 PYCCKIIM 513bI- 'We study Russian every day.' KOM (KaK lJ_acmo?) KaJKLJ;h1H

LJ;ellh.

88

'The students attend lectures on political economy every week.'

CTy,ueHT~1 CJIy'!'alOT .;'eKlI,IIII rro nOJIIITIIqeCKOli 3KOHOMIIII (KaK T.ulemo?) KaJKLJ;YIO HeLJ;eJIIO.

3. The accusative is used with verbs of motion to denote a distance. n0J10BHIIY noporn Mbl exanu na 'Half .the way we drove in a car.' r.mll1MHe.

SCIO LJ;opory OHM UlJlU MOJIqa. 'They walked silently all the way.'

Mbi npoUlflu KHJIOMhp II YBMLJ;eJIli 'We walked a kilometre and saw

peKY. the river.'

In such cases the verb of motion often has the prefix npo- (npoexars KllJIOMeTp 'to drive a kilometre', npOnJILITb ,ueC5lTh MeTpoB 'to swim ten metres').

4. The accusative is used with the verbs CTOHTh 'to cost' and necan,

'to weigh' to denote price or weight.

KHllra cmoum py6JIh. 'The book costs a rouble.'

Y.eMonaH eecum LJ;eCHTh KHJIO- 'The suit-case weighs ten kilo-

rpaMMoB. grarnmes.'

Exercise 128. Give written answers to the questions, using the words on the right.

I. CKOJ"IbKO BpeMeHH BbI eXaJIH CKl):(U? , •

2. CKOJIbKO BpeMeHH BbI rOBOpHJlIi no TeJIe<p6HY?

3. KaK 'laCTO y aac 6bIBaeT CeMI1Hup?

4. CK6JIbKO KI1JIOMeTpOB npoexan aBTOM06HJIb?

5. CKOJIbKO cT6HT noprrpens?

nsa Jl,HlI

OJl,Ha MI1HYTa

Ka)!(.!(all HeJl,eJIli TPH,!(UaTb KHJIOMeTpOB 'leTblpe py6JIH

Exercise 129. Give written answers to these questions .

I. CK6JIbKO BpeMeHH BbI OT):(bIXUJII1 JIhOM? 2. CKO.1JbKO BpeMeHI1 npo.!(OJIlKaKlTClI 3HMHI1e KaHHKYJIbI? 3. CKOJIbKO BpeMeHH BbI 3aHHMaJlllCb PYCCKI1M 1I3bIKOM? 4. CK6JIbKO .!(Hei1 B aene.no BbI 3aHHMaJIHCb PYCCKHM 1I3bIK6M? 5. CK6JIbKO .!(Hei1 BbI exaJII1 B MocKBY?

THE ACCUSATIVE WITH A PREPOSITION The accusative is used with the prepositions:

"PO 'about'

.5l JI106mo qHTaTb KHMrii npo MOJIOLJ;eJKh. 'I like to read books about young people.' OH paCCKa3aJI npo noceuieuae MY3e5l.

. He told (us) about his visit to the museum.'

CKB03h KpLImy nporexana BOna.

'Water leaked in through the roof.'

lJepe3 pexy nOCTpOIIJIli MOCT.

'A bridge was built across the river.'

CTyneHT nOJIo)J{MJI KHMrii B nopTcIleJ'lh.

'The student put the books in the brief-case.'

OH nOJIo)J{MJI KHMrii ua CTOJI.

'He put the books on the table.'

MbI asrcrynaev aa MUp.

'We stand for peace.'

CKB03h 'through' 'Iepe3 'across'

B

'in(to )' lIa

'on'

3a 'for'

89

no)). 'under'

OH IIOJIO)KiIJI IIlICbM6 non KHury. 'He put the letter under the book.'

Y MeHR 6TIIYCK no ceHHI6pb.

'J am on holiday till September.'

C KHJlOMeTP MbI IlIJIII M6.Ha.

'We walked silently for about a kilometre.' Kopafim, pa36iIJIc~ 0 CKaJlhl.

'The ship was wrecked on the rocks.'

no

'till'

C 'about'

o 'against'

. Notes.- I. The prepositions npo, CKBOlb, 'Jepel are used only with the accu. satrve.

2. The prepositions B, ua, 0 are also used with the prepositional (see pp. 110

113, 114). '

3. The prepositions aa, nOLI, c are also used with the instrumental. C is also used with the gem~lve (see pp. 104, 105, 106).

4. The preposition no IS also used with the dative and the prepositional (see pp. 98, 117).

THE PREPOSITIONS B, HA, 3A, no.a USED TO DENOTE DIRECTION

. The prepositi?ns B 'to', na 'on (to)', sa 'behind', non 'under' are used WIt~ .the accusative to denote direction. Nouns preceded by these prepositions answer the question Ky)).a? 'where (to)?'

,a:eTII uoym B WK()J]y.

Cryzrearsr uoym na cotipaane.

OH no/LO:JICU/l -reprezor aa wKa<IJ. Taaera ynana non CTOJI.

'The children are going to school.' 'The students are going to the meeting.'

'He put the drawings behind the cupboard.'

'The newspaper fell under the table.'

. No;e.--;- In den~tinp place in answer to the question '·i.l,e? 'where?' the prcposi-

nons B III and ua on are used With the prepositional.

Beum J1elK<lT (zoe?) B 'JeMoLlaHe. 'The things are in the suitcase.'

Kmirll nexcar (zoei') ua CTOJIe. 'The books are on the table.'

, .In ?~noting p~ace in,answer to the question rne? 'where?' the prepositions sa

behind and nOLI under are used With the instrumental.

1.J.epTelKll J1elK3T (ZOe?) sa lllKacjJoM. 'The drawings are behind the cup-

board.'

MbI OTLlbIX3J11l (zoe?) 00).1, L1epeBOM. 'We were resting under a tree.'

Exercise. 130. Give :w:ritten answers to the questions, using the words on the right and the required preposiuons.

1. KYLla M3J1b'JHK IIOBeCIfJ1 xaprmry? l LlC BHCllT xa pruaa?

2. KYLla cecrpa IIOJTOlKllJla KHllrll?

I' LIe J1elK3 T KHMfH?

3. KYiJ:3 BbI cnpsranncs, KorLl3 HaQaJ1ciI )~O)l(iJ:b?

Tne BbI CnpiITaJIIiCb OT LlOlKLliI?

4. KYLla CKPbIJ10Cb cO"'IH~e?

OTKYLla BbIrJISIHYJIO COJIH~e?

CTeH3

UIKa<iJ

LlepeBO

90

USE OF THE PREPOSITION 1.J.EPE3

1. The preposition Qepe3 'across', 'over' is used to denote an action directed from one side of an object to the opposite one.

newexo)). lI)).h 'Iepe3 yJluuy.

LJepe3 peKY MbI rrepertmann aa ]l6)).Ke.

In such cases verbs frequently have the prefix nepe- (nepeirra xepes )!Jlmw 'to go across the street', nepenmart, sepes pexy 'to swim across the river', nepenpramyrs sepea pYQeH 'to jump over the brook'); however, phrases consisting of the same verbs followed by nouns in the accusative without a preposition have the same meaning (nepeHTll yJluuy 'to go across the street', nepemlblTb peKY 'to swim across the

river').

2. LJcpe3 is used with a meaning very close to that of the preposi-

tion CKB03b 'through':

MbI Ilp06lIpaJIlICb 'Iepe3 nenpo-} 'We were

XOJl,HMYlO 'IaLUY rreca. through

thicket.'

MhI rrpotiaparmcs CKB03b nenpo-

XOJl,HMYlO 'IaLUY .neca.

KPO,Bb npOCOQMJIaCb 'ICpe3} 'Blood oozed through the gauze.'

MapJIIO.

KpOBh npoco-ranacs CKB03b

MapJllo.

3. LJepe3 may be used to denote a period of time and it answers the question Kor)).a? 'when?'

qepe3 ron on sepuerca B pO)).H6H ropon.

Qepe3 MHHyTY naQHeTC~ KOnQepT.

'The pedestrian is going across the street.'

'We 'crossed the river by boat.'

making our way the impenetrable

'He will return to his native town in a year.'

'The concert will begin in a minute.'

4. LJepe3 is used with the meaning of 'through', 'by way of, 'by means of:

Pasronop IlIeJI 'Iepe3 nepeao)).'IHKa. 06b5IBJ[eHH~ 6hIJllI )).anhI 'Iepe3 rasery.

'The conversation was conducted through an interpreter.'

'The announcements were made through a newspaper.'

Exercise 131. Read the sentences. State the meanings of the preposition sepea.

I. 4ePCl aenerno MbI 6YLleM CLlaB3Tb sa-rer. 2. )),eBywKa 6pOCHJIa M5I'J xepea cer s y. 3. OH nepcna.r MHe I1IlCbMO -repcs cecrpy. 4. MbI rrepenpaaanacs -repes pe'JKY B6po_1. 5. Haw ny n, JIelK3n 'Jern ropsr. 6. 4epe3 nee rrp0J10lKH.JIIi HOBYIO nopory. 7. Mu BOIlUIll B ):10M -repes rJ1aBHblH BXO)l. 8. MbI He 3H3J11l pyccxoro 5l3bIKa II no rrcvy pa3IoB3pllBaJII! sepea ncpeaon-iaxa.

Exercise 132. Make up sentences, using the preposition xepea in its different meanings.

91

Exercise 133. Make up sentences, using these verbs and the preposition '1epel. Ilepeara, nepcnpurnyrs, nepefiexari., nepefipocars, neperres'n., nepcnrnlrn,

USE OF THE PREPOSITION CKB03b

.A ~oun with the prepositi(::m CKB03h 'through' denotes an object which IS penetrated by something and which resists such penetration.

KPO,Bb npoco-nrnacs CKB03h 'Blood oozed through the gauze.' Mapmo.

Bona npo rexaer CKB03h KphImy.

CKB03h TYMaH M Ty'lU caxro.ners:

HaCTOilQMBO np06MBaIOTcSl

nnepezr.

'The water leaks in through the roof.'

'Through fog and clouds the planes are stubbornly flying on.'

Exercise 134. Read the sentences. Write out the nouns with the preposition CKB03L.

I. CKB03b H09H6i1 TYMaH

Bztana scpuecr XOJIM orp6MHLIiI. (rI.)

2. CKB03~ 3eJI~Hble serxa ~OJIOflbIX 6epb npocne-mnano C6JIHl\e. (Jl. T.)

3. B aJIJIelO TeMHYIO BXOlKY a,

CKB03b KYCTbI rJIllfll1T Re9cpHIIH JIY'1. (Jl.)

4. CKB03L ll(eJIII B reconoti xpsnue CBeTHJIllCL 3Rb,llLI. (Jlaycm.)

Exercise 135. Read these sentences and translate them into English.

.1. 51 HIIger6 He BHlK¥ CKB03L :)TII ~TeKJIa. 2. CKB03b rycroil TYMaH TYCKJIO CBeTHJIlI O;Hll. 3 . .ll,OlKflL nponnxan CKB03h O)~elK!~Y. 4. CKB03b Il~eJIII uponnxana B capati JIY9n cornma. ? Tpormaxa ~eJIa xepes Ca,ll.R ncrre. 6; J1YTeUIecTReHHl!Kl! npOlIIJIH scpea nee, 7. B KOPOTKlllI CpOK xepea rrenpoxonnxuae rreca II 6ofl6Ta npOJIOlKHJIl! H6BYIO nopory,

USE OF THE PREPOSITION [IPO

The preposition npo 'about' is used in denoting the object of verbs of speech or thought or of nouns corresponding to those verbs.

TOBapMlI.( paCCKa3Ct.1l MHe npo 'The friend told me about his

,CBOIO _noe3))'KY., tri p.'

L(eTM :'IlYlUaJIU cKa3KY npo MBaHa- 'The children were listening to

IIapeBU'Ia. a fairy-tale about Crown Prince Ivan.'

. The prepositions .npo and 0 a~e synonymous. TIpo is used in colloquial speech only, 0 IS used both m the colloquial and the literary language.

Exercise 136. Read the sentences, state the case of the italicised nouns and give their nominative singular and plural.

I. [I6:VlHll rrpo /.I.U{O.I)'

TO;IbKO C HCH

CTaHelIIb cTpOHTeJIeM

pa,'{ocTHLIX ,lIHeH' (MaHK.)

2. CrrOM, HalV!, aerep, npo .nHKlle ?OPbl, IJpo CHHI-re npocmopu,

Flpo r.nyfioxne rnauue: MOPCH, Flpo CMeJlbIX II 60JIblIIllx AHJOi:U. (Jle6.-K.)

I'lpo I1TH'Ibl! paieoeopu,

92

3 He)lapoM n6MHllT BCll POCCHll . [Ipo oen» Bopozuraa. (Jl.)

4. Onlin crapax paccxaasiaan CBOll 6eCKOHe9HbIe acropaa rrpo oxomy. (Jl.T.)

USE OF THE PREPOSITION 3A

1. The preposition aa 'behind' followed by the accusative is used to denote direction. A noun with aa answers the question Ky)),a? 'where

to?'

COJIHUe 3aIllJIO aa Ty'lY.

ABTOM06HJIb nosepnyn 3a yro,n. rOCTM CeJIM sa CTOJI.

2. 3a means 'instead of, 'for' a person.

Cero)),HSI SI pafioraio aa TOBapmua.

'The sun disappeared behind a cloud.'

'The car turned the corner.' 'The guests sat down to table.'

when used with a word denoting

'Today I am working for my friend.'

3. 3a 'for' is used to denote the purpose of a struggle or an action performed for the benefit of somebody or something, after the following verbs: 60POThCH sa MUP 'to fight for peace', CTOHTh sa MOp 'to stand for peace' (but: OTCTaUBaTh MUP 'to defend peace', 3aLIIHLllaTh MOp 'to defend peace'), cpaaerrsca sa PO)),UHY 'to fight for one's country', noeBaTh aa CBo6o))'y 'to struggle for freedom', BhIcTynaTh sa npeztnoaceuae 'to support a proposal', BLIcKa3aThcH sa npennozceaae 'to speak in favour of a proposal', rOJlOCOBaTh aa Kall)),u)),aTa 'to vote for a candidate'.

The preposition sa is also used with nouns corresponding to these verbs: 6oPb6a sa MOp 'struggle for peace', 6UTBa, CpaJKeHUe aa JIeHuHrpazr 'the battle for Leningrad'.

In such phrases sa and npo'raa 'against' are antonyms: rOJlOCOBaTh (rOJlOCOBaHue) nporaa KaH)),u))'aTa 'to vote (voting) against a candidate', BhICTynbh (BhIcTynJleHue) nporaa npe)),JlOJKeHHH 'to oppose (opposition to) a proposal'.

4. 3a is used after the verbs:

Imperfective Perfective
(a) finaro- nofinaro-
)),apuTh )),apuTh
'to thank'
HarpaJK))'aTh - Harpa)),uTh
'to award' XBaJlUTh 'to praise'

nOXBaJlUTh

.51 no6J1aro))'apuJI TOBapHlI.(a aa nOMolI'h.

'I thanked my friend for his help'. 3a OT JlU'IHyIO Y'le6y BbIIIycKHMKa Harpa))'HJIM Me))'aJIbIO.

'The school-leaver was awarded a medal for his excellent achievemen t.'

YtrHTeJIb nOXBaJlUJI y~eHMKa 3a xopouree CO'lUHeHue.

'The teacher praised the pupil for his good composition.'

93

pyra'n, 'to scold'

He nano pyrart, pefienxa aa CJlC)_ MaHuylO arpyuncy.

'Y ou shouldn't scold the child for his having broken the toy.' OTeIJ. HaKa33JI csma aa nJIoxoe noaeneaae.

'The father punished his son for bad behaviour.'

MMJUIIJ.HOHep onrrpadroaan neure. xona aa napytuenne npaBIIJI YJIH'IHOrO ));BH)J(eHH5I.

'The militiaman fined the pedestrian for non-compliance

with the Highway Code.' JI 3anJIaTUJI sa pyqKY pyfim, 'I paid a rouble for the pen.' OH KynUJI PY'IKY aa py6JIb.

'He bought the pen for a rouble.' OH nOJIyquJI ));eHbrH aa pa6iJTY. 'He got money for his work.' OH nponan pa));HOnpHeMHHK sa

CTO py6JIeu.

'He sold the radio-set for a hundred roubles.'

5. 3a is used with the following verbs:

nopy.-ilTb

HaKa3b1BaTb - HaKa3aTb 'to punish'

urrpacJ>oBaTb 'to fine'

(b) nJIaTUTb 3anJIaTUTb
'to pay'
nOKynaTb KynUTh
'to buy'
nOJIyqaTh nOJIyqUTb
'to get'
npo)J.aBaTb npoztars;
etc.
'to sell' Imperfective 6p:lTbCH

Perfective

- B3HTbCH (sa pa60TY, sa ysefiy)

} 'to get down (to work, to one's stu-

npUHUM:lThCH - npUHHThCH (aa pa60TY, aa ysefiy) dies)'

Bee ));PY)J(HO B3HJIUCb sa pa6oTY. 'Everybody got down to work

with a will.'

'The holidays are over, it's time to get down to studying.'

KaHIIKYJIbI KOH'IMJIHCb, nopa npuHUM:lTbCH sa yqe6y.

6. The preposition sa is used to denote time:

(a) a noun with sa may denote a period of time during which an action is accomplished:

3a KaKOU CpOK (sa KaKoe BpeMH) '''How long did it take you to

TbI npO'lHTaJI KHHry? - JI read the book?" "It took me

npO'lHT<l.JI KHHry sa He)J.eJIIO. a week to read the book."

(b) a noun with sa may denote a period of time preceding something:

OH npHIIIeJI (KoziM?)' sa MUHYTY ));03BoHKa.

'He came one minute before the bell rang.'

94

MbI npHeXaJII; B MO~KBY~ 33 ));Ba )J;UB ));0 aaxarra 3aH5ITHH.

'We came to Moscow two days before classes began.'

Exercise 137. Read the sentences, Write out the verbs used with the preposition 33.

Make up sentences of your own, using these verbs.

1. CnoprcMeHbI ynopno 6op6JlHCb aa nepnoe MecTo B copenaosanaax. 2. OHa C

T a OJKHBJleHHO npaasnaci, aa rrpHrOTOBJleHHlI K OTbb.LIY. 3. C yrpa II B31lJlClI aa ~6~PKY KBapTllpbI. 4. MbI ~OJlOCOBaJTH aa pe3?JlI0l\H~ KOMHTera. 5. M?I BbICTy~aeM ~a pa3BIITile TOprOBJlH II COTpY.LIHII'IeCTBa C ApyrllMH crpanaxra. 6. l1HJKeHep rrOJlY'IHJl rrpeMIII{) sa H306pcTeHHe. 7. BOHAl! B K6MHaTY, OHa H3BIIHIIJlaCb aa Orr03.L1aHHe. 8. 51 nofinarO.llapHJl TOBapHIl\eH aa noxrouu, 9. Y'IlneJlb noxnannn Y'IeHIlKa sa CO'lHHCJ!He. J O. ToBapllIDIl YBaJKanH ero sa npnannnaam.aocrs. 11. Er6 KPIITHKOBMlf aannoxyro pa66TY. 12. Ee JTlO6HJlH aa BeCeJlbIH xapaxrep, 13. OH xyuan Y'le6HlfK aa pyfirrs. 14. OH sanna nor sa y'Ie6HlIK pyfirn.,

Exercise 138. Read the sentences. What questions do the italicised words answer? I. HC,[b3l! orcryna n, rrepcn rrePBbIMH JKe TPYAHOCTlIMH. HYJKHO 6op6TbCli sa ocyUjeCn16.lellue naurer o rtrrana. 2. 3a oeiu. AO or sesna KY3bMilHa Eaunr.toa nepcztan eM)' nrrCbM6 AJlll CBoeH JKeHbI. (17aycm.) 3. Ta om.nuunyto ytlc6y BblIIYCKHHK6B IlIK6Jlbl aarpaJK!lalOT MCAamIMlI. 4. Mannrna csepayna sa )120/1 60Jlb1ll6ro A6Ma. 5. MaJlb'lllK npauren AOMOH. cen sa cmon H cpaay npnnancs sa )lpOKU. 6. 0p{lTY npHHeCJlH 'renerpaMMY. Er6 He 6blJlO A6Ma. 3a tipama pacnacanacs cecrpa, 7. J1eToM MbI nepecernrnncs 3a pexy, B nepeamo. 8. 3TOT !lOM rroCTp6HJlII sa uecnu. 9. OH xyrmn 6HJleT B KIIH6 sa mpuouams xonee«.

Exercise 139. Make up sentences. using the preposition 33 followed by the accusative in its different meanings.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION B

1. The preposition B 'in(to)' is used to denote the direction of an action (the place into which the action is directed).

A noun in the accusative with B used in this sense answers the question Ky));a? 'where (to)?'

2. B 'on', 'at', 'in' is used to denote the day of the week or the time When an action takes place.

Co6paHHe 6y));eT (KOZOO?, 6 KaKOU OeHb?) B cpeny,

Co6paHHe Ra'lHerC5I (KOZOO?,

6 «omopo u 4acy?) B mecrt, qaCOB.

CTy));eHT nOJIo)J(HJI TeTpa));h

(KYOO?) B nopTcJ>eJIh.

OH BOmeJI (KYOO?) B KOMHaTY.

'The student put the exercisebook in the brief-case.'

'He came into the room.'

'The meeting will take place Wednesday.'

'The meeting will begin at o'clock.'

on

SIX

B followed by the accusative is also used to denote time in the following phrases:

a MUHYTY onacaocrn OH noxsor MHe.

a rOJJ:bI BOUHbI OR pa60TaJI na saB6));e.

a nepBbIU AeHb KaHUKY JI MbI nOUIJIl1 B rearp,

'He helped me at the moment of danger.'

'During the war he worked at a factory.'

'On the first day of the holidays we went to the theatre.'

95

3. A noun denoting a unit of time and preceded by B may denote a period during which an action has been accomplished (as is the case with the preposition sa).

5£ npo-nrran xmrry B OAHH Aellh 'It took me one day to read the

(or sa OAHII Aellh). book.'

OH aanncan .D:OKJIaA B nezremo (or 'It took him a week to write the

sa aene.no). report.'

4. B followed by the accusative is used in these types of phrases: pa3 B MCCSIQ 'once a month' (5£ nncan AOMOif pas B MCCHQ. 'I wrote home once a month.'); 60JIhme B ABa paaa 'twice as many/much' (Y AeBO'lKH opexos B ABa paaa 60JIhme, 'IeM y MaJIb'IrrKa. 'The girl has twice as many nuts as the boy.').

5. These verbs (and the corresponding nouns) require the preposi, tion B followed by the accusative: BCPUTh B n06cAY 'to believe in vic. tory' (aepa B n06cAY 'belief in victory'); crpenfrrt, B nern, 'to shoot at a target' (cTpeJII.6a B QeJIb 'shooting at a target'); nrpart, B manum, B BOJIeii6oJI 'to play draughts, volley-ball' (nrpa B iuaunc«, B BOJIeii6oJI 'playing draughts, volley-bali').

USE OF THE PREPOSITION HA

1. The preposition na 'on(to)' is used to denote the direction of movement (action) (the place towards which movement is directed).

In such cases a noun in the accusative with na answers the question KYAa? 'where (to)?'

Kapannaur ynan (Ky(M?) Ha nOJI. 5£ nOBeCHJI KapTIIHY (KYOtz?) na CTCHY·

OH BbIIlIeJI (Kyoa?) ua yJIuQY. 'He went out into the street.'

2. Ha followed by the accusative is used to denote time in the following phrases: na APyroii Aellb 'the next day'; na CJICAYlOlQuii AeHb 'on the following day'; na BTOPOU, TPCTUii, etc. AeHb 'on the second, third, etc. day'.

'The pencil fell onto the floor.' 'I hung the picture on the wall.'

Ha BTOpoii AeHb nocJIe nprre3.D:a OH nPHWeJI K HaM.

'The day after his arrival he came to see us.'

Note.-One may also say B cJle~YIOU1"e ~H", B nepBLlH ~eHL.

3. The preposition na 'for' followed by the accusative is used to denote the period of time during which an action will continue. In such cases the noun with ua answers the question na KaKoe BpCMH? 'for how long?'

OH yexarr B nepesmo na JICTO.

'He went to the country for the summer.'

'He lay down for an hour.'

'I borrowed the book from the library for a week.'

OH ner OTAOXH}'Tb ua 'lac.

5£ B3SIJI xmrry B 6H6JIHOTeKe na nenemo.

96

4. Ha 'for' is occasionally used to denote purpose.

lla 3TY pa60TY aY)l(HO AecSITb 'This work requires ten days.'

AHeif. , '

51 B3SIJl AeHbrl1 na Knury. 'I took some money for a bo?k.'

Mara3iIH saxpsrrm aa pesrorrr. 'The ~hop was closed for repairs.'

5. A noun with na followed by the comparativ.e degree of an adjective or adverb is used to denote the extent of the difference between the objects compared.

TOBapIIlu Ha rOJIOBY euuie MeH5J:. 'My friend is a head taller than I.' OH npHeXaJI na nenenro pauuue, 'He came a week earlier than I.'

'IeM 51.

6. The following verbs require the accusative with na: BJIUHTb na pa3BHTue 'to affect the development', HaAcHTbcH ua nOMoIIlb 'to rely on help' cepAHTbcH na CbIHa 'to be angry with one's son', nanacrr, na Bpar~ 'to att~ck t~e en~~y', ~OXOAHTb ~a orua 'to resemble the father', .ueJIHTb na '1aCTU to divide mto parts.

Exercise 140. What questions do the italicised words answer? Explain the meaning of the prepositions Band aa.

1. AJIbnIfHHCTb! nO~HJlJIHCb na eeptuuny ropsi. 2. OH nocnarr TeJIerpaMMY II ua opyzou oeu» nOJIYlJHJI oTBeT. 3. Epar crapure cecrpsr na eoo, 4. Pe6e!l0K noxox I-l,a uam». 5. Ma'rr, nplirOTOBIIJIa 06e~ Nil »« ~HJI. 6. Bee y'laCTHIfKIf 3KCne~IfI.\MH p~3L1eJIHJIIfC~ ua lIeCKOJlbKO OTp5ILlOB. 7. Oceasio nrnm-r yJIe~alOT ua 102.~8 ... Mara3MH ~aKpLIT na peMoHr;z. 9. Iloe3J1 m.exan (3 mvunen». 10. B eocepeceune MbI nOIf)J,eM na KaTOK. II. 51 npo-nrrarr 3TY KHHry (3 oouu eeuep. 12. Ham KPYJKOK neHMJI pa6oTae,T pas (3 lled~JlIO. 13. Toaapmu scerna nOMOJKeT 'refie (3 mpyouyto MUJlYmy. 14. Epar crapure cecrpst 6 oea pasa.

Exercise 141. Compare the meanings of these pairs of sentences.

I. CTY)J,eHT cOCTaBIiJI nnau pa60TbI sa ueoe.uo.

CTy.[(eHT cOCTaBMJI nnaa pa66TbI na ueoemo.

2. MbI C06paJIHCb 6 oouu oeus, MbI C06paJlHCb ua ooun oeu».

Exercise 142. Read the sentences. Explain the use of the prepositions aa and ua, I . ..QeTM yexana 3a ropo.a ua (3Ce nemo. 2. Ja JlemO, )J,eTIi xopomo OTP.OXHYT II o~penHYT. 3. COJIHl.\e nOKa3aJIOCb H3-3a Tyq ua oono M2HO(3eIlUe M CHOBa CKP,bIJIOC,b. 4. 3a "}pu eooa CTyneHTbI xopouio OBJIaLle:m PYCCKI1M SI3bIKOM. 5. Bpas oCB060i,:ll1JI ero OT p!,60TbI ua uecsu. 6. 3a 20d Moer6 OTCYTCTBIfJl B HaweM repone MHO roe H3MeHHJlOCb. 7. IlOLlOJK)J,HTe ero, OH BhlmeJI ua MUIJYmKY·

Exercise 143. Write out the sentences. Fill in the blanks with na or sa to suit the meaning.

I. Pa66lJMH oCTaHOBHJI cTaH6K norr-raca. 2. lliK6J1bHHK nplIrOT6BHJI yp6~11 .", )J,Ba

xaca. 3. Bee yexann, a OH oCTaJlcJI 'lac, 'lTo6bI 3aKOHlJlITb pa66TY· 4. J;fHJKeHe~ yexan

B KOMaH)J,Mp6BKY ... MeCSIl.\. 5. 3aB6)J, BhIfIOJlHHJI ronosori nJIaH ... Llec~Tb MeCJll.\eB. 6. Dlf6J1lfoTeKY 3aKphIJIM ... MeCJlI.\, lJTo6bI npcaseecra pexioar. 7. MbI )J,oexaJlIf ~o IIHCTJ1TYTa ... uo.n-iaca. 8. Il030BHTe ero ciona ... MMHYTKY. 9. 3TOT )J,OM 6b1JI nocrpoen ... TPIf MeCSIl.\a.

Exercise 144. Make up sentences, using the verbs BepIITL, Ha)J.eHTLcH, BJlHHTL, npeBpalI13TLcH and the preposition B or ua.

7 -384

97

USE OF THE PREPOSITION ITO

1. The preposition no followed by the accusative is used to denote distribution of objects in two, three, etc.

Bee xynana no ,lJ;Be KHUrH. 'They all bought two books each.'

Ka)K,lJ;hIM nOJIyqHJI no 1feTblpe 'They all got four apples each.'

it6JJOKa.

Note.- To denote distribution of objects singly, the dative is used (JI:erll nOJ1Y'liIJIII no ir6J10KY. 'The children got an apple each'). With numerals (from five on) either the accusative or the dative is used: no nHTb ir6J10K or no nRTlI ir6J10K.

2. no is used to denote the price of each of a number of objects of the same kind.

CTY,lJ;eHT KynHJI seriape 'rerpazm no naa py6JUI.

'The student bought four exercise-books at two roubles each.'

'one exercise-book for two

roubles')

(but: O,lJ;HY rerpazn, aa nna py6· JUI

Note.- If, in denoting price, the nouns KoneuKa 'copeck', py6J1L 'rouble', rpHBeHHHK 'ten copecks', nanlK 'five copecks', etc. are used without a numeral, they take the dative: R xynan scrsrpe TeTpa,Q1I no rpHBeHHHKY. 'I bought four exercise-books at ten co pecks each'.

3. The preposition no 'till' is used to denote the end of a time period.

Y 6pha ornycx (no xaxoe 'My brother is on holiday up to

epeMJl?) no nepnoe ceHHl6pit. the first of September.'

4. The preposition no 'up to' is used to denote a limit.

BO,lJ;hI B py%e 6hIJIO no KOJJeHO (,lJ;0 KOJIeH).

Y Hero pa60ThI no repao. (idiomatic phrase)

'The water in the brook was kneedeep.'

'He is up to his eyes in work.'

USE OF THE PREPOSITION ITOJI:

1. The preposition non 'under' followed by the accusative is used to denote the direction of an action (the place towards which the action is directed). In such cases the noun with non answers the question KY,lJ;a? 'where (to)?'

Ona nOJIO)KHJIa IIHChMO (Kyda?) 'She put the letter under a book.' no,lJ; KHUry.

2. The preposition non is used to denote the purpose of an object.

3TY KOMHaTY OTBeJIH non 1fHTaJJbHLlH 3aJJ.

B03hMH 6YThIJIKY non MOJJOKO (it is also possible to say: ,lJ;JJH MOJJOK3).

98

'This room has been set aside for a reading-hall.'

'Take a bottle for the milk.'

3 The preposition non is used in the meaning of 'on the eve of in

h se phrases: non HOBLIH ron 'on New Year's Eve', non np33,lJ;HHK 'on \: eve of the holiday', non aocscpecease 'on Sunday eve', non BLlXO,lJ;~oii ,lJ;eHL 'on the eve of one's day off.

UM BblXO,lJ;HOH ,lJ;eHb OH yexan 3a 'On the eve of his .day off he went

ropO,lJ;. to the country.

MbI BepHYJIHCh ,lJ;OMOM non Be1fep. 'We. returned home towards evening.'

4. The preposition non is used in phrases of this type: TaHQeB3TL DO,lJ; MY3L1KY 'to dance to music', 3achlD3TL non myM ,lJ;O)K,lJ;it 'to fall asleep to the noise of the rain', 3aKOH1fHTL pe1fL non anJJo,lJ;HCMeHTLI 'to finish a speech to applause'. In such phrases the noun with non denotes an attendant action (generally a sound).

5. Flozt is frequently used in the phrases: B3HTb non KOHTpOJJ~ 't? put under control', B3HTb non Ha6JJ10,lJ;eHHe 'to put under observation', 83HTL non Ha,lJ;30p 'to place under surveillance', CT3BHTL non yrpesy 'to endanger'.

Exercise 145. State the meanings of the prepositions no and non followed by the accusative. Make up sentences of your own, using no and non in their various meanings.

I. KalK,QLIH pefieno« IIOJ1Y'lHJ1 no 06a fl6AoKa. 2. Y orua OTIIYCK no nsmoe asrycra. 3. HaM HYlKHO scrupe 6HIlCTa no COpOK py6lleJt. 4. Tpaaa HaM 6bIIla nO'lTH no ~?RC. 5. CaMYIO 60J1bIIIYIO II CBerJ1YIO KOMHaTY OT~eJ1H ~oo '1UmaAb';lblu 3aJ!. 6. MOJ1o.!!elK~ TaHlIeBMa na ynnue noo eapstous. 7. JI:PY3bll onars C06paJIIICb BMeCTe noo H06blU 200.

Exercise 146. Make up sentences, using the phrases B3RTb non KOHTpOJlL, B3RTL non Ha6J1lOileHHe, OT.r.3TL non cyn, CTaBHTb nOil yrp03Y·

Use of the Instrumental

In Russian the instrumental is used either without a preposition ("HC3Tb KapaH~amoM 'to write with a pencil') or with a preposition (6eCe,lJ;oBaTL C ,lJ;PYr0M 'to talk with a friend').

mE INSTRUMENTAL WITHOUT A PREPOSITION

1 The instrumental is used to denote the instrument of action: IIHC1lTh'(1feM? 'with what?') KapaH,lJ;amOM, p5'1fKoii 'to write with a pen~i1, a pen'; pesarr, xJIe6 (1feM? 'with what?') HO)KOM 'to cut the bread with a knife'; py6HTh nepeno ~1feM? 'wit~ 'Yhat?') TO,nopoM, ~to chop ,do~n a tree with an axe'; MaxaTh (1feM? with what?) PYKOH, nJJaTKOM to

wave one's hand, a handkerchief. . .

2 The instrumental is used to denote the manner of an action, 1. e. to show how the action proceeds. In such cases the noun in the instrumental answers the question KaK? 'how?'

X03iIiicTBO pasnnsaercx (KaK?) 'The economy is developing at

6bicTPLlMH TeMnaMH. a quick pace.'

OH 3arOBOpHJI c HaMH (KaK?) Be- 'He began speaking to us In

CeJJLlM rOJJOCoM. a cheerful voice.'

99

7*

A noun in the instr.umen~al describing the manner of an action may be the name of an object with which some other object is compared.

Tpornraxa BHJHlCb 3Meen (or KaK 'The path wound snake-like.' 3MeH).

BpeM5I JIeTll:T nTHQen (or KaK 'Time flies bird-like.' rrraua).

.3. The instrumental of a number of nouns may denote the place in which movement proceeds.

OTPH)l; merr (zde?) 6eperoM peKH (or no 6epery peKu).

3a5I~ BhICKOqHJI H3 rreca H nofie)KaJI nOJIeM (or no nomo).

J.(opora tuna COCHOBbIM JIeCOM (or '1epe3 nee).

'The detachment was moving along the river-bank.'

'The hare darted out of the wood and ran across the field.'

'The road went through a pine wood.'

4. The instrumental may denote time: BhIi1TH (KOr)1;a? 'when?') panHHM YTPOM 'to go out early in the morning', BepHYTbC5I n(3)1;HHM Be'lePOM 'to return late in the evening', exart, TeMHon HO'lbIO 'to drive on a. dark night'; pafiorart, HO'laMH (or no HO'laM-dat.) 'to work by mght'; 3aHHMaTbC5I QeJIblMH )1;HHMH (or no l~eJIblM )1;HHM-dat.) 'to study.all day lon~'; BCTpeQarbC5I Be'lepaMH (or no Be'lepaM-dat.) 'to meet m the evening',

5. The instrumental may denote the means of conveyance: exars nOe3)1;OM, TpaMBae~ 'to go by train, by tram'; .nerers CaMOJIt:ToM 'to go by plane' (or na noesne, na 'rpasraae, na CaMOJIeTe-prep.).

Note ... To denote the means of conveyance, the preposition na followed by ~he prepositional is more frequently used. The instrumental is not always possible l~ this meanmg (you can only say: exan, na BeJIOCHneLle, na JIOWal~H, na 'renere 'to ride on a bicycle, on horseback, in a cart').

6. The instrumental is used in some phrases denoting comparison:

OH ,rrpHIlleJI '1aCOM (or aa 'lac) 'He came an hour later than I.' noasee, qeM H.

Epar )1;BYMH rO)1;aMH (or Ha )1;Ba 'The brother is two years older

rO)1;a) crapme CeCTphI. than his sister.'

7. The instrumental is used to denote the performer of an action expressed by:

(a) a verb in the passive voice:

J.(oMaIllHee aazraaae euno n- 'Homework is done by the pupils

nhemcs Y'IeHHKaMH esceznrenno. daily.'

J.(HccepTa~H5I sauaaqena acnn- 'The thesis has been defended by

paHToM B CpOK. the postgraduate on time.'

(See 'The Passive Construction', p. 477).

(b) a noun:

euno nuenue zioxraumer-o 3a)1;aHHH Y'IeHHKaMH 'the execution of the

100

homework by the pupils', saiquma nncceprauaa acnHpaHToM 'the defence of the thesis by the postgraduate'.

8. The instrumental is used with the adjectives )1;OBOJIbHblH 'pleased', 6e)1;HblH 'poor', 60nlTblH 'rich':

PyKoBO)1;JneJIb d06{)JleH pa6oToH. 'The instructor is pleased with the

work.'

'The schoolmistress is pleased with her pupils.'

'He was telling us various stories from his eventful life.'

yqtfTeJIbHHl~a 0060JlbHa YlleHHKaMH.

On paccxinbIBaJI HaM pasnue HCTOP"" H3 CBoeH iioeamou c06LiTHHMH :)I(l13HH.

Exercise 147. Give written answers to the questions.

I. 4eM mnuer Y'IeHItK aa .AOCKe? MeJl

2. 4eM pacyer Manb'lHK? xapaunaui

3. 4eM Mbl pelKeM xnefi? HOlK

4. 4eM Ca.AOBHHK xonaer 3eMJllo? nonara

5. 4eM Mbl npH'IecbIBaeMcll? pacxecxa

6. 4eM Mbl 'IItCTHM nnarse? uierxa

7. 'leM nauiyr 3eMnIo? rpaxrop

8. 'leM yfiaparor XJIe6? KOM6aHH

Exercise 148. Read the sentences. What questions do the italicised words answer?

I. Tbmou oceuneu IIO'lblO npaurnocs MHe exars no He3HaKOMOH nopore. (TYP2.) 2. OO.A rOJly6btMH He6ecaMH 6eJlUKOJlimHblMU K08paMu, 6J1eCTlt aa COJlHl.(e, caer JlelKilT. (fl.) 3. Bees .AeHb Mbi WJlH eOCH06b1MU necauu. (llaycm.)

Exercise 149. Put the italicised words in the instrumental without a preposition. I. B lIepeBHIO Mbl WJlD no 6epery pexa, a H3 ).IepeBHH B03Bpa~aJlHCb no oPYi!OU 00- poee. 2. <t>YT6oJlbHall KOMaH.Aa npaexana B Haw ropon na mennoxooe. 3. lTo lIeJlbiM OHl/AI .AerH rYJlltml B necy .. 4. MOH 6paT Ha oea 200a MOJlOlKe Meljlt. 5. Msr UIJiH K uenTpy MOCKBbl IW ToePCK6j:i YJlul{e. 6. 011 npauren «a '«ie n63)Ke, '1eM 1I.

Exercise 150. Replace the sentences with phrases containing the instrumental, as in the model.

Model: Y'IeHHKIt nOBTOpltIOT npoanenuoe.

Iloaropeaae npoanenaoro Y'IeHHKaMH.

1. 3aBO.A BbmOJlHHeT nnan. 2. CTY.AeHTbl C.AaK>T 3K3aMeH. 3. Bpax npHHDMaeT 60JlbHhIX. 4. Y'IeHHK peuraer sanavy. 5. CTY.AeHTbl H3Y'laIOT qIHJlOCOqlHIO. 6. OOe311 ncpeB03DT rpyasr. 7. Pa60'lHe aaaona HcnoJlb3YIOT HOBYIO TexHHKY.

(DcnOJlb30BaHHe. nepeeosxa, H3Y'leHHe. npHeM, BbInOJlHeHHe, cnaxa, peurenae)

VERBS WHICH REQUIRE THE INSTRUMENTAL I. The following verbs require the instrumental: 6b1TL (imp.) 'to be'

0" 6blA HH*eHepoM. 0" 6 )'Oem HH*eHepoM.

CTaTL (p.) 'to become' 0" cman HH~eHepoM.

0" cmauem HH*eHepoM.

'He was an engineer.' 'He will be an engineer.'

'He became an engineer.'

'He will become an engineer.'

101

HBHTbCH (imp.) 'to be'

BO/~3 .<le.1JlemcR

eemecraesr.

K333TbCH (imp.) 'to seem' Ten.noxon in~aJHi KQ3ClJ1CR TO'l-

CJlO)f(HbIM 'Water is a compound substance:

'From a distance the motor boat seemed a dot.'

KOH.

OK333TbCH (p.) 'to turn out to be'

TO'lKa, KOTOPYIO Mbl 3aMeTHJlH aa r OpH30HTe, OKQ3CUQCb Ten.10XOAOM.

'The dot which we noticed on the horizon turned out to be a motor boat.'

and ~ number of other verbs used as link-verbs in a compound nominal predicate,

Note; For more details on auxiliary verbs, see The Nominal Compound Predicate', p. 446.

Exercise 151. What questions do the nouns In the instrumental answer?

,I. JlI1Tepa.TYPd 6bl,la .11.lll. MeHlI caMblM lleJ1HKOJlCnHbIM lIBJlCHl1eM B MHpe. en», cm.~ 2. n.O'lBO,)() nOJ31111 n_YIlIKI1Ha 6blJla ~I1Ball neiicraarensnocn, II BCer.11a nno.1101 aopnas I1.11ClI. (be.1.) 3; Hapon lIB,ll1eTClI rJlaBJ;'oii ciL'lOii pa3BHTI1l1 ofiurccr sa. TBOpUG\oI.HCIOPIfI1. ~4. MI1X,!H,l BaclI.'1beBH'1 JlOMOHOCOB 6bLl reHI1<LlbHbll\1 MblcJ1HTe,leM II Y'leHbl!'.1. OH ObLl XH!'.1I1KO\ol II no'rrow. ¢H3I1KO",,' II ¢1I,10JlOrOM, aCTpoHoMOM 11 xY.110- l!.HI1KOI\1, I co 10rO\ol II ¢11.l0CO¢OM.

Exercise 152. Change the sentences according to the model, using the verb HBJliITLCH.

Model. Tecnas CBlIlb C )J(~3Hb)() aa.nor npouseranas HaYKII.

Tecxaa CBlIJb C )J(113Hbf{) lIBJllICrClI sanorov npouseranaa HaYKII.

I. npaKTI1Ka BhlClIlHH KPIITCPllii HCTIIHHOCTII acex HaY'lHbIX CI1CTC\oI II reopaa.

2. KpeMJIb-:ho cepnue MOCKBbl.

3. JI6HJ(OH-CToJlf,ua Be;IHK06p~lT:\mlH.

2. The following (imperfective) verbs require the instrumental: fa) PY~OBO~HTb ceMHII3P<?M, crpoarenscraoxr, pa60TOH

to be 1!1 charge of a sermnar, the construction, the work' rnp3B.'IHTb, np3BHTb rocynapcrsow, MawifHOH

to ;ule, to govern a country, to drive a car' . 33Be"rWB3Tb Mara3lmoM, 6HomwTeKoH, K3<penPOH 'to manage a shop, a library, to hold the Chair' KOM3H']OB3Tb POTOH, 6aTaJll,OHOM, nOJlKOM

'to comm~nd a co~pany, a battalion, a regiment' p3CnOpH)f(3TbCH cpeJ\CTBaMH, J11OJ\bMH

'to dispose of the funds, to be in charge of people' (b) p3CnOJl3r3Tb BpeMeHeM, B03MO)f(HOCTHMH

'to ha~e time a! one's disposal, to have possibilities' 06JI3J{3Tb cnoc06HoCTHMH, 3H3HHHMH, onsrror«

'to have abilities, knowledge, experience'

BJl3JIt-Tb Sl'1bIKOM. oPY)f(HeM, rexnnxoa, 3eMJleH

102

·to know a language, to know how to use a weapon, technique, to own land'

OB.13aeB3Tb 3H3HHHMH, H1bIKOM, rexHHKoH 'to master knowledge, a language, technique'

(c) HHTepecoB3TbCH narepar ypoii. MY3bIKOH, TexlIHKoH 'to be interested in literature, music, .technology' YB.leK3 fbCH pafio'roii, HCKYCCTBOM

'to be keen on work, on art'

.11060R3ThCH BlmoM, xapt HHoH, npnponoii 'to admire a view, a picture, nature"

BOCXHU.3TbCH, socropra'rsca xpaccroii, KHHroH, CMeJlOCTblO 'to be enraptured with beauty, a book, to admire courage' 113c.laiK,13TbCH noxoext, MY3bIKOlI

'to enjoy tranquillity, music'

ropaHThcH YCl1exOM, peayrn.rarava

'to be proud of one's success, of the results"

(d) 331IHM3TbCH cnoprow, PYCCKHM H3bIKOM, HCTopHeH 'to go in for sports, to study Russian, history' no.lb30naTbcH cone 10\.1" Ol1bITOM, CJlOBa pe\.1

'to make use of the advice, experience, dictionary' ;.OpOIKH rb nosepnej«, .nPY)f(60H, ~leJIOBeKOM

'to value one's confidence, friendship, a person' P"CfiOB3Tb )l(H3HblO

'to risk one's life'

(e) when used with the verbs p360T3Tb 'to work', Bhl6Hp3Tb 'to elect' (p. B,;,6paTb) and Ha3H3'1inb 'to appoint' (p. 1133H3'1HTb), a noun in the instrumental denotes a person's occupation or profession:

OH paoomaem na aaaozte HHiKeHcpOM.

C06paHHe euopa.io ero aeneraTO'\1 aa KOH<pepeHUHIO.

Ero ua snauu.tu J(HPCKTOpOM.

'He works as an engineer at a factory.'

'The meeting elected him a delegate to th'e conference.'

'He was appointed director.'

Exercise 153. Write out the verbs which require the instrumental. Make up sentencc-, of your own. using these verbs,

I. n l1\.a rc.ts ,10.I;J;CH 06.la,la I b xopoumv 3HaHI1CM IICT()PHI1 npouinor o II 3HaHlle\ol couu.i.n.m.rx SlB,lCHlfrl COBPC'.1CHHOC111. (,1.1. r) 2. Hauia 1\10.l0.uall .nrreparypa no cnpaBC,1.IHBOC1 H \oIO)J(CT r op.urrscs 3I1d'IHTeJlbHbIM 'lIlCJlOM BeJIHKIIX xYAb)J(ecTBt:HHbIX co- 3:taHuH. iBc.t.) 3. y)J( vano Hac oci a.rocs ci apsrx llPY3eH. OT aroro 1I TaK II ,tOPO)J() TBOC)() lPY)J(6oii. (fl. T.) 4. OH rnofiarr pafiorart., yancxa.rcs AeJlOM. (M. r.) 5. OaaalK.-lbl SI 110'11 H BCe nero 3aHHI\1{IJlCli C60pOM TpaB 11 lIBCTOB. (Ilavcm.s 6. C oc66cHHbl\ol 'lYBC I BO\ol ,lK)6YCTCli 0'(0 rHIIK OKPY)J(dlOlueii er o npnpo.aoa. (C.-M.)

Fvercise 154. Make lip sentences. using the verbs P~·KoBo.(Hrb, ~·lIp3B.li1Tb, 13RC,II)B31 b" K0'\13H,(OB3 fL, P3CIIOPIIlK3 I hClI.

Exercise 155. Make lip sentences. using the verbs IIHTCpeCOB3TLCII, }BJ1eK31LClI, mooon3TbCH, BOCXHlU3 rbCII, H3CJl3lKl(3TbCH, l'OP.11HTLClI.

103

THE INSTRUMENTAL WITH PREPOSITIONS

The following prepositions are used with the instrumental:

C 'with'

R 6bIJI B rearpe C TOBapu"-eM.

'I was at the theatre with a friend.'

Bxepa H 6eCe.LJ:OBaJI C PYKoBO));llTeJleM. 'Yesterday I spoke with the instructor.' CaMOJIeT JIeTeJI Ha.LJ: necoss.

'The plane was flying over the forest.'

CTy));eHT pa60TaJI Ha)); ));OKJla.LJ:OM. 'The student worked at his report.' MbI CII.LJ:emr nO)1; .LJ:epeBoM.

'We sat under a tree.'

lllKoJIbHHKH rOTOBHJIH .LJ:OKJIa.LJ:bI non PYKOBO));CTBOM y-nrrerra.

'The schoolchildren prepared their reports un-

der the supervision of their teacher.' Hepezr ));OMOM paCTYT IIBeTbI.

'There are flowers in front of the house.' DOJIbHOH npirnan JIeKapCTBo nepea e.LJ:oii.

'The patient took the medicine before the meal.' 3a .LJ:OMOM 6blJI 60JIblIIOH cazr.

'There was a large garden behind the house.' Cecrpa nOlIIJIa B can sa B6J10KaMu.

'The sister went to the garden to get some ap-

ples.'

CTOJI CTOMT MeJK));Y OKHOM H KpoBaTblO.

'The table is between the window and the bed.' Pexa TeqeT MeJK));Y ropaMu.

'The river flows between (among) the mountains.'

Notes. 1. The prepositions H3,L1 and nepen are used only with the instru-

mental.

2. The preposition 33 and nOI~ are also used with the accusative.

3. the preposition MClK.LIY is sometimes (though rarely) used with the genitive the same meaning if the objects concerned arc of the same kind: MClK.LIY .LIByX coceu 'between two pine-trees'. MC;IU.y CK3.1 'among the rocks', but:

MClK,LIy COCHoii H eJIblO 'between a pine-tree and a fir-tree'.

4. The preposition C is used with either the genitive or the accusative.

Ha)); 'over', 'at'

non 'under'

nepezr 'in front of, 'before'

aa 'behind'

MeJK));Y 'between',

'among'

THE PREPOSITIONS HA)]" non nEPE)]" 3A, ME)K)],Y USED TO DENOTE PLACE

The prepositions HaA, nOA, nepen, aa and MeJK.i1.Y are used to denote place,

In such cases the noun in the instrumental answers the question rne? 'where?'

Jlaxrrra BHCMT HaA CTOJlOM. 'The lamp is hanging over the ta-

ble.'

104

TeTpa,Ub JIe)J{MT non KHuroii. UBeTbI pacryr nepen AOMOM. OropOA HaxoAHTcH aa AOMOM. ,r:(opora lIIJIa MeJKAY peKoii H ro-

paMH.

'The exercise-book is under the book.'

'The flowers are in front of the house.'

'The kitchen-garden is behind the house.'

'The road ran between the river and the mountains.'

The preposition nOA used with the name of a city or town means 'not far from', 'near', 'in the vicinity of.

'In the summer we lived in the vicinity of Moscow.'

The prepositions nOA and aa used to denote direction require the accusative. In such cases the nouns with nOA and aa answer the question KYAa? 'where to?'

fleroM OHM noexana (K}'(M?) nOA MocKBY·

MalIIMHa nOBepHYJIa (K}'(M?) 3a

fleToM MbI )l(Mmr nOA MocKBoii.

'In the summer they went to a place near Moscow.'

'The car turned the corner.'

yron.

Exercise 156. Read through the sentences. State the meanings of the nouns in the instrumental with a preposition.

1. )],epeBHSI aa pexoi! euie cnana., )],bIM6K He nO,LIHllMaJICSI HaJJ. KpblluaMli. (IJaycm.) 2. Illnpoxas panyra croana Ha,LI JIeCOM: TaM, r,LIe-TO aa 63epOM, WCJI He6oJIbIIIM .LIOlK,LIb. (IJaycm.) 3. Flepen 6epc30Boil pouteii paccTl1JIaJIc5I p6BHbIH, wllp6KllH nyr. tType.] 4. Ha,LI KpyrJIbJM CTOJI6M roprrr JIaMna nozt 6eJIbIM ¢ap¢opoBbIM afiaxcypOM. (A. T.) 5. 3a ,LIBepblO 3ClJIaHJIa cofiaxa, nOCJIbIWaJIliCb THlKCJlble MYlKcKHe urara. (IJaycm.) 6. R nOCeJIHJICH n63,L1Hen ocem.io B nepesae non P5I3aHblO. (Jlaycm.) 7. bbIJI TenJIblil lUOHb. KOHuepTbI npOXO,LIHJIli B rop0,LIcK6M napxe non OTKPbITbIM He6oM. (IJaycm.)

Exercise 157. What questions do the italicised nouns answer? State their cases.

I. R nOJIOlKHJI nllcbM6 noo KHUq H 3a6bIJ[, qTO oH6 JIelKHT noo KHU20ii. 2. C6JIHue 3aIIIJJ6 sa myuy, Cenqac TeMH6, nOToMY qTO C6JIHue sa myueu. 3. 3a oepeeueu HaqllHaeTCH none, sa noneu - nee. 4. 3Mell ynOJI3JIa noo «auen». 5. Korna naxanca ,LIOlK,LIb, MbI BCTaJIH noo oepeeo, Iloo oepeeau ,LIOlK,LIb He MOqHJI Hac.

USE OF THE PREPOSITIONS HA)]" non nEPE)]" ME)K)],Y IN VARIOUS MEANINGS (EXCEPT THAT OF PLACE)

1. The preposition nan 'at', 'about' is used with the verb pafiora'n, (pa66mamb HaA AOK.1aAoM 'to work at a report'), the noun pafiora (pa- 6ama HaA AOKJlaAOM 'work at a report"), and the verbs cMeBTbcH (CMe/lInbCfl HaA mynocTblO 'to laugh at stupidity') and AYMaTb (dyscami, HaA sonpocosr 'to think over a question').

2. The preposition nOA 'under' is often used in the phrases:

nOA PYKOBOACTBOM 'under the leadership of

nOA Ha6J1IOAeHUeM 'under the supervision of

nOA 3HaMeHeM 'under the banner of

105

YqeHHKH .ueJIaJIH 6nbITbI non Ha6- JIIOLl.CHueM npenonasarena.

'The pupils made experiments under the teacher's supervi. sion.'

3. The preposition nepen 'before' may be used to denote time. 51 3aH.uY K refie nepen Coop3HHeM. 'I shall call on you before the meeting.'

The preposition nepen 'to' is frequently used in the following phrases:

OrBCTCTBeHHOCTb nepen Hap0Ll.OM 'responsibility towards the peo-

ple'

ooinaHHocTb ncpeLl. o6mecTBoM 'duty to society'

L1.OJlr nepezr p0Ll.UHOU 'one's duty to one's country'

. 4. The preposition MCJKJJ:Y 'between' may denote the time of an acnon:

011 BepHeTC51 Mex<,Uy nHTblO 'He will be back between five and

U urecrsro 'IacaMu. six.'

5. The preposition MCJKLl.Y 'between', 'among' may be used to denote mutual relations:

oTHomcHuH MCJKLl.Y rocyziapcr- 'relations between states'

BaMU

MHP, L1.PYJK6a MCJKLl.Y Hap0Ll.aMu

'peace, friendship bet ween peoples'

'a treaty, an alliance between countries'

The preposition MCJKLl.Y 'between', 'among" is used in the phrases:

pasnaua MCJKLl.Y 'the difference between'

CXOLl.CTBO MCJKLl.Y 'the similarity between'

Exercise 158. What questions do the italicised nouns with prepositions answer? I. ABT66yc OCTaHOBHJlCSI nepeo 06.11OM. 2. fTepeo pacceemo.« aa-ranacr, rposa.

3. pepeo Hapl!i>aMu acex CTpaH CTOHT BeJ1HKaSl 3ailaQa OTCTOHTb :-..mp. 4. Hauia

BHeWHSISI nOJ1HTHKa- nOJllITHKa MHpa H ilPYlK6bl Me.)l(·OY napooauu.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION C (CO)

l. A noun with the preposition C 'with' denotes the person together with whom an action is performed.

Epar npaurerr L1.oM6H (c Ke"w?) 'The brother came home with

C TOB3pUmeM. a friend.'

.51 paarosapaaan (c KeM?) C npeno- 'I spoke with the teacher.' JJ:aB3TeJleM.

.2. A no~n with C 'with' may denote an attribute of an object, in which case It answers the question KaKou? 'what (sort on?'

106

Mbi xdUHI, B K,6MHaTe (KQla5il?)

c oO.'lbmUMU OKH~MU. ,

MauIlma OCTaHOBHJIaCb OKOJIO )lOMa (KaK~ZO?) C KOJl.OHHaMU. 51 3anOMHHJI aroro asrcoxoro -reJlOBeKa (KaKOZO?) C 6opoLl.Oii.

'We lived in a room with large windows.'

'The car pulled up at a house with columns.'

'I remembered that tall man with a beard.'

3. The preposition C 'at: is used to denote tim~. In such, c~ses th~ noun in the instrumental with C answers the question KOrLl.a? when?

nTHUbl npOCbII1clIOTC51 C sapero. 'Birds wake up at dawn.'

'In the summer I used to get up at sunrise.'

]1eTO:vt 51 BCTaBclJI C BOCXOLl.OM COJIHua.

4. The preposition C 'with' is used to denote the manner of an ac-

tion.

Mu cnyiuana JleKUHIO ("'aK?) C UIITepCCOM.

OR PYKOBOJl,HT pa66ToH (KaK?) co 3H311HeM L1.CJla.

OH CnpOCHJI 06 :31'oM (KaK?) C JlIOOOnbITCTBoM.

'We listened to the lecture with interest. '

'He directs the work expertly.'

'He asked about that with curiosity.'

The instrumental with the preposition C is generally used when the opposite meaning is rendered by the genitive with 6e3:

cnyuian, C mrrepecoes

cnyiuar b 6e3 mrrepeca

PYKOBO.uHTb co 3H3HueM L1.cJla PYKOBO;:J.HTb 6e3 3H3HUH .uCJla aannca n, pa66TY C omn6KaMu

narmca rb pa66TY 6e3 oUIn6oK

'to listen with interest'

'to listen without interest'

'to direct expertly'

'to direct inexpertly'

'to write an exercise with mIStakes'

'to write an exercise without mistakes'

5. The preposition C is used in certain formulas of congratulation.

n03.upaBJI5teM aac C np33,lHUKOM! 'Best wishes of the season!'

51 nOJlyqHJI noa.rpas.nenae C Ho- 'I received New Year greetings.' BbIM ro.uoM.

6. With the verbs 60POTbCH 'to fight", 'to struggle', L1.parbCH 'to fight', CpaJK3TbCH 'to fight', 'to battle' and the nouns 60Pb63 'fighting', 'struggle', Ll.p3Ka 'fighting', CpaJKCHUe 'fighting', 'battle', ~nTBa 'battle' the preposition C is used in the meaning of nporun 'against':

60p6TbC5I C Bpar3Mu Cpa)((clTbCH C npoTIIBHUKOM

'to fight the enemies' 'to fight the adversary'

Exercise 159. State the meanings of the preposition c. What questions do the nouns With the preposition c answer?

I. Co6aKH C JlaeM rtoficxcarra HaM HaBCTpeQY. 2. OX6THHK 6pOilHJl no Jl~cy C pylKbCM. 3. C npHC3J~OM 6ptlTa B HaLlJe\o1 il6Me CTaJlO seceno. 4. CTYileHT rOBOpHJl C npe-

107

nonasarcnev 0 CBoeH pafiore. 5. OH '1eJlOBCK C TBepllbIMH y6elK.]cHHlIMH. 6. nerH C lie. rcpnenuev lKL(alH rtpaannnsa. 7. ~ n03.lPdBH~1 TOBapHIueH C HOBbIM ronow,

Exercise 160. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the words on the

right in the prepositional with or without c.

I. MbI OTIICCJlIICb K 1TOMY paCCKa3Y ...

2. OH BLICJIywaJl MeHlI ....

3. CTYL(eHT nanncan ynpaxneane .

4. Flepenosue pa60'lHC pa60TalOT .

5. 3pIITeJ1H CMOTpeJlH QJHJlbM ...

6. 3TOT Y'ICHIIK rnuncr ... .

7. Pc6eHoK cnnr .

8. neTH cMelI~lHcb .

9. TOBapHW ... cor.naca.ncs MHC nOMO'Ib.

10. OH aoure.t B KOMHaTY .... II. OH nOIlH\-IaeT no-pyccxn XOPOIIlO, HO rosopar ... 12. Flepccxaxorrc TCKCT ....

CBOII CJIOBa

HellOBePHC

60JlbmOe BHHMaHHe

oWll6KH

HOBbIe MerollbI 60JlbIII()H HHTepeC KpaCIIBbIH IH)'1epK KpellKHH COH 3B()HKHH cvrex pa.aocri,

6bICTpbIe mara aKI~CHT

Exercise 161. Make up sentences, using the preposition c in its different meanings.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION 3A

1. The preposition sa IS used to denote place.

3a peKoli BH.Ll,eH nee. 3a JIeCOM - n6ne.

JH~TOM Mbl )KHnH 3a roponost,

Msr CII.Ll,enlI sa CTOJIOM.

'Beyond the river a wood is seen.' 'Beyond the wood there is a field.' 'In the summer we lived in the

country.'

'We sat at the table.'

2. When used with verbs of motion, sa denotes the purpose of movement.

Ma n, yurrra B Mara3HH sa xne- 60M.

.51 nOM.Ll,Y B 61I6nHoTeKY aa KHHroli.

'The mother went to the shop to buy some bread.'

'J shall go to the library to get a book.'

3. A noun in the instrumental preceded by aa and used after a verb of motion may denote not only the purpose of movement but also the object or person followed.

The sentence: Manb'lHK nourerr aa OTIJ,6M may mean either: 'The boy went for his father' or 'The boy followed his father', depending on the context.

4. The following verbs require the preposition sa followed by the instrumental:

CJIe.ll.OBaTl. aa npOBO.ll.HHKOM CJIe.ll.HTI. sa C06blTHHMH Ha6mo,naTb aa pc6ellKoM rmlTbcH aa 3alit.eM

'to follow a guide'

'to keep track of events' 'to watch a child'

'to chase a hare'

5. The preposition aa is used in the following phrases which convey time: aa OOe.ll.OM 'at dinner', sa YiKHIlOM 'at supper', sa 3aBTpaKoM 'at breakfast', 3a 'fae,\1 'at tea', aa pa6oToH 'at work'.

108

3a ooe.ll.OM o reu 'lHnin rasery (one can also say: Bo BpeMjI 06e.ll.a).

6. 3a is occasionally used in formal speech in the following phrases which denote cause or reason: sa HeHMeHHeM 'for lack of, sa OTCYTcTBHeM 'for lack of, sa He.ll.OCTaTKoM 'for want of.

3a oTcj'TcTBHeM (or aa HeHMe- 'J could not carry out the errand

lDIeM) cB066.Ll,HOrO BpeMeHH for lack of time.'

jI He cxror BbInOnHlITb nopyxe-

'At dinner the father read the newspaper. '

HHe.

Exercise 162. State the meanings of the preposition 3a in the following sentences. I. Cpaay aa L(epCBHeH Ha'lHH3J1ClI rycroa nee, 2. Bpar noexa,n aa BOK3aJl aa 6HJlCTaMH. 3. 3a 06CL(OM MbI paCCKa3aJlH zipyr npyry see HOBOCTH. 4. C06aKH rHaJlIICb sa 3aHueM. 5. Jleroja L(erH lKIIJlH B cnopTHBHOM narepe aa roponoxs. 6. lllen LleHb sa LlHeM, a OHII HC soaepauianacs.

Exercise 163. Give written answers to the questions, using the words on the right.

3a '(eM nera nOWJlII B nee? 3a KeM nocrrana CaMOJleT?

3a KeM TbI HLlemb B LlerCKHH can? 3a '(eM npaexan rpY30BIIK?

3a KeM npaexarra MamllHa?

rpH6bI H lIroLlhi reonora MaJleHbKHH fipar KHpnll'l LlHPCKTOP

Exercise 164. Make up sentences, using the preposition aa in its different meanings. Exercise 165. Make up sentences, using the following phrases:

paoorars non PYKOBOLlCTBOM, pafiorars nan )lOKJlaL(OM, paasasarscs non BJlHlIHHeM, orcrynars nepen TPY)lHOCTlIMH, BbICTyn3Tb nepen CTYLleHTaMH, CJleLlIITb aa co- 6WTHlIMH

· Exercise 166. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the required preposi-

tions. What questions do the nouns in the instrumental with prepositions answer?

I .... BXOLlOM B L(OM 6bIJI UBeTHIlK. 2. J{epi:BHII HaXOL(HTCIi nanexo JTHM JlCCOM.

3. '" L(CpeBOM croana cKaMeHKa. 4 .... JleKUHeH II nouren B 6H6J1HOTCKY KHllraMH. 5.

CaMOJleT neren ... J1CcOM. 6. CTYLlCHT 6eceLlOBaJI ... npenonasarenexs.

· Exercise 167. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the words on the

nght in the instrumental with a preposition.

I. Tennoxon uren ....

2. OKHO 6blJlO BbICOKO .

3. Ha crone croxna saaa .

4. Mhi OTLlOXHYJlH .

5. He60 nOTeMHeJlO .

6. ... paaeesanca dmar,

~. M.bI BbIIIOJl~HM CBO~ norrr .... · AeTH .,. lKLlaJIH OTua.

MOCT

usersr

eJlb

rp03a xpsnna POLlHHa

aerepneaae

Use of the Prepositional

, The prepositional case is used only with a preposition. The follow~ng prepositions are used with the prepositional case: 0 'about', 'of, Oil'

PaCcJ(:i3bIBaTb 0 acrpexe

'to tell (somebody) about the meeting'

109

acnovanart, 0 )leTCTBe KHHO<pHJ1hM 0 J1eHHHe cTaTh~ 0 BocnHTaHHH

'to recollect one's childhood' 'a film about Lenin'

'an article on education'

npn 'sponsored by', 'attached to', 'at'

cnpocirrs npH acrpese cazt npa )lOMe

'to ask on meeting (somebody)' 'a garden attached to the house'

B'in'

'the book is in the brief-case'

na 'on'

'the book is on the table'

no 'up(on)'

no B03BpameHHH 'upon his return no npuesne 'upon his arrival

} OH npozrorrscan pa60TY he continued his work'

Notes.- 1. The prepositions Band aa are also used with the accusative. 2. The preposition no is more frequently used with the dative and the accusative.

3. The preposition 0 is also used with the accusative.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION 0 (06)

The preposition 0 is used to denote the object of speech or thought:

):(enf paccxasueanu 0 nocerueuaa MY3eSl.

Msi qHT<lJ1H paccxasu 0 JIeTqHKaX.

TOJ1CToi1: MHorO nucan 0 )leTHX.

'The children described their visit to the museum.'

'We read stories about flyers.'

'Tolstoy wrote much about children.'

The following commonly used verbs (of speech or thought) and the corresponding nouns require the preposition 0:

(a) eoeopums (imp.) - cxasams (p.) 0 He)lOCThKaX 'to speak about the shortcomings'

paseoeop 0 He)lOCTaTKax

'a conversation about the shortcomings'

paccxasueams (imp.)-paccKa3amb (p.) 0 nOe3)lKe 'to tell (somebody) about a trip'

pacctcas 0 noeszuce

'an account of a trip'

paseoeapueamu (imp.) 0 nor-o)le

'to talk about the weather'

pa3206op 0 nor-o)le

'a conversation about the weather'

110

6eceoo6al11b (imp.) 0 3a)laqaX -to talk about the tasks' 6ecMa 0 3a,naqaX

'a conversation about the tasks'

coo6ulamb (imp.)-co06U/Ul11b (p.) 0 npaesne 'to inform about the arrival'

coo6U/eJiue 0 npuesne

'a report about the arrival'

npocum« (imp.) nonpocums (p.) 0 nOMomH 'to ask for help'

npocb6a 0 nOMOU{H

'a request for help'

cnptuuueams (imp.)-cnpOC11f11b (p.) 0 pe3YJIbTaTaX 'to ask about the results'

eonpoc 0 pe3YJIbTaTaX

'a question about the results'

npeoynpexcoams (imp.)-npeiJynpeiJumb (p.) 06 onacnocm 'to warn against the danger'

npeoynpexcoeuue 06 onacaocrn

'a warning against the danger'

(b) oj'.Hamb 0 6YAymeM

'to think of the future'

ueumams 0 acrpese

'to dream of meeting (somebody), ueuma 0 acrpese

'a dream of meeting (somebody),

ecnowuuams 0 )leTCTBe

'to recollect one's childhood' eOCnOMUJi{11lUe 0 AeTcTBe

'a recollection of one's childhood'

nouuumu 0 nopyqeHHH

'to remember to do an errand'

suams 0 c06paHHH

'to know about the meeting'

and a number of other verbs.

The verbs 3a6oTHTbCH 'to take care of anxious' require the preposition 0:

Ma n, satiomumcn 0 )lCTHX.

and 6ecnoKoHTbCH 'to be

M bl 6ecnOKOUJ1UCb 0 'ruaapaurax.

'The mother takes care of her children.'

'We were anxious about our comrades.'

as do the corresponding nouns: saooma 0 )lhHX 'care of children', 6ectzOf,:oiicII160 0 TOBapumax 'anxiety about the comrades'.

III

Exercise 168. Read through the sentences. State the gender and number of the nouns in the prepositional. Pick out the verbs which require the preposition 0 and make up sentences of your own, using these verbs and nouns in the prepositional preceded by o.

l.Mon TOBapHWH nHwYT 'vIHe 0 caoeii lKH3HH H pafio re. 2. 51 '1HnlJJ B raacre 0 copes_ HOBaHHH uraxrepos. 3. He.n.as !VIOJl'liUb 0 nenocra rxax B pafio re. 4. )J,PY3bH CrrOPIfJlII o HOBOM q,HJlbMe. 5. Tsr norracen 6blJl noxnnrn, 0 caoer« 06eU{aHHH. 6. Panno co06WR.no 06 OTKPbITHH cTpOHTeJlbHOH auc [aBKH. 7. PeBOJlIOUHOHepbl-neMoKpaTbI Me'lT~ o C'I3cTbe napona. 8. 51 He CrreUHaJIHCT H He Mory cynHTb 0 pafio re :hOH MaIlJHHbl. 9. Cnyuiarena CnpOCHJIH ,UoKJIa,U'IHKa 0 nO"'lOlKeHHH B A3HH. 10. YBJle'leHHbIH pa60TOH, 08 3a6bIBaJl 0 BpeMeHH.

Exercise 169. Write out the nouns used with the preposition o. Make up sentences of your own, using these nouns.

I. )J,eTH 'IHTa,'lH «CKa3KY 0 psroaxe H pbl6Ke» nYWKHHa. 2. B cer onaauraea ra3ere ec rs coofiureane 0 peayrn.rarax '1eMrrHOHilTa. 3. Xop acno.mnn rrecrno 0 POMHe. 4. Bsepa B K.lY6e 6blJl HHTepecHblH noxnan 0 MelKllYHaponHoM nOJlOlKeHlIH. 5. Bxepa BC'1epOM MbI CMOTpeJlH KHHOq,HJIbM 0 Jlenaue. 6. B »cypaane ecrt, HHTepecHali CTaTbl! o HOBblX nOCTHlKeHHlIx Me;IHIIHHbl. 7. no panao nepenana C006IucHHe 0 HOBOM KOCMlI'1eCKOM nOJIeTe. 8. )J,eTH paanux aapozros, Mbl !VIe'lTOIO 0 MHpe lKHBeM. (Ozu.) 9. Taxae pe'lH 0 cefie, 0 csoea lKH3HH OHa crn.nuana anepasre. (M. r) 10. MblCJIb 0 CKOPOH pasJlYKe co MHOIO nopasnna M{lTYUlKY. (n.) II. Bocnosrnnanae 0 scene B036YlKnaeT MbICJIh H YHOCHT ee nanerco-narrexo. ('-lex.) 12. Ornro BpeMli II ncepi.ea nY!VIaJl CTaTb MOplIKOM. Ho scxope MblCJlb 0 nncarern.crue BbITeCHllJIa see OnaJIbHOe (IJaycm.)

Exercise 170. Make up sentences incorporating the words Pa3roBOP, JleKIIHII, sonpoe, MbICJlb, H3BecTHe, paccxaa followed by the preposition o,

USE OF THE PREPOSITION npl1

I. The preposition UpH 'at', 'under' is used in denoting time. In such cases the noun with UpH answers the question xorna? 'when':

UpH cjleo)),a:U13Me 'under feudalism'

UpH KauHTam'nMe 'under capitalism'

UpH COQHa.'1H3Me 'under socialism'

Flpa Ilerpe I B Poccnn 6bIJI C03- 'The Russian Navy was created

)1,aH MOPCKOH <pJIOT. under Peter l.'

Ilpa acrpese ,c 10BaP!lmeM 51 Y3- 'On meeting my friend I learned

HaJI mrrepecnsre HOBOCTH. interesting news.'

2. The preposition UpH is used in denoting place. A noun with upH answers the question rne? 'where?' and denotes an object having something near it or possessing something.

Ilpn aasone ecrt, )1,i:TCKHH can. 'The factory has a kindergarten

laid on.'

'There was a small kitchen-garden in the grounds where the house stood.'

Ilpn )),oMe HMeJIC51 He60JIblIIOH oroport.

3. The preposition UpH is used to denote condition in the phrases:

npa YCJIOBHH np" Ham)"HH UP" OTCYTCTBHH np" JKemiHHH

112

'on condition', 'provided'

'in the presence of, 'if there is' 'in the absence of

'given the desire'

IIpH c~apaHHH liP" nOM~~mH liP" co)),e~cTBHH "pH nOMepJKKe

OP" JKeJI:lHHH ;hI Mor 6hI BbInOJIHHTh nopysenne.

Op" sceofiutea nO~epJKKe 3TO npe)J,JIO:lKeHHe y)1,aCTC51 ocyureCTBHTh.

'with an effort' 'with the aid of

'with the assistance of 'with the support of

'If you were willing, you could have carried out the errand.' 'With everybody's support this

proposal can be carried

through.'

In the above cases, the noun with the preposition npa answers the question UpH KaKoM YCJ10BHH? 'on what condition?'

4. The preposition npa may also be used to mean 'in the presence of:

MbI BH))'eJIHCh TOJIbKO npa TOBapauiax (or B npHcYTcTBHH TOB:lpHmeii).

3TO npOH30lIIJIO npn cBH)),heJIHx.

'We saw each other only in the presence of friends.'

'It happened in the presence of witnesses. '

5. The preposition npa is often used in the following phrases:

"PH CBeTe JI:lMnbl 'by lamplight'

"PH JI:lMne 'by lamplight'

"PH JIYHe 'in the moonlight'

"PH BeqepHeM OCBeIQeHHH 'in the evening light'

npa )),HeBHoM caere 'in daylight'

Crane TeMHo, H 51 npononxan 'It had become dark and I contin-

qHT<lTh npa JIaMne (or npa CBeTe ued to read by lamplight.'

JI:lMm.r).

Exercise 171. Read through the sentences and explain the different meanings of the preposition npa.

1. Msr 06bI'IHO 06elIaeM B CTOJIOBOH npu uncmumyme. 2. IJpu »cenauuu TbI MOlKewb xopoIf1o paoorars. 3. 51: cKalKY eMY 06 :hOM npu ecmpeue. 4. )J,opora 6bl.J1a XOPOUlO BHlIHa npu ceeme JIYHbI. 5. IJpu nepeeooe 3Toro rexcra MbI nOJIb30B1UUlCb CJIOBapeM. 6. Ilpu :XCU3HU poznrrenea OHa 'faCTO npaeaxana B POlIHOii ropoa,

USE OF THE PREPOSITION HA

. 1. The preposition na 'on', 'at' is used to denote the place of an ac~lon. The noun with the preposition ua answers the question r))'e? Where?'

AOM CTOHT na 6epery pexa,

MbI 6bIJIH aa npOMbIlIIJIeHHOH BLlcTaBKe.

Bce ))'OJI)I<HbI npacyrcrsosart, na C06p:lHHH.

2. The preposition ua is used to denote a conveyance: exart- na

'The house stands on the riverbank.'

'We visited an industrial exhibition.'

'Everyone must be present at the meeting.'

113

noeazre, ua 'rpajaaae, na napoxone, ua aenocanezte, ua .rIOUla.n:H 'to go by train, by tram, by boat, to ride on a bicycle, on horseback', neren, Qa casronere 'to go by plane'.

3. The preposition na used with some nouns denotes time.

Ha :hOH nenene MbI non.n:eM B My- 'We shall go to the museum this

3en. week.'

(But: B :hOM ro.n:Y 'this year', B :hOM MecHLlc 'this month") OXOTHHKH BbIIIIJIH H3 .n:oMa na 'The hunters left the house at

paccaere. dawn.'

Omr BepnYJIHCb .n:oMon ua sa- 'They returned home at sunset.' KaTc.

4. The following verbs require the preposition ua followed by the preposi tional case:

roeopirn, ua PYCCKOM H3bIKe naca n, na pj'CCKOM H3b1Ke urpaTb na CKPIIDKC, na pofmc (but: HrpaTb B UlaxMaTbI, B BOJ'lCH-

6o.fl

JKCHHTbCH na KOM-.rlH60

(but: BblXO.n:HTb 3aMYJK sa xoro.flH60

nacrauna'rt, na CBoeM MHeHIIH

'to speak Russian' 'to write Russian'

'to play the violin, the piano' 'to play chess, volley-ball,' etc.);

'to marry somebody' [of a man] 'to marry somebody' [of a wom-

an] the accusative);

'to insist on one's opinion'

Exercise 172. Read through the sentences and explain the meanings of the preposition na,

I. Ha nOJIliX KOH'lHJlaCh yfiopxa YPOlIGlii. 2. Eecena sc.racs aa PYCCKOM il3hIKe. 3. Ha npOIIIJlOH uenerre MhI 6bIJlH B 'rea rpe. 4. YlKC 3HMa. Ha rpo ryapax, na xpsnuax. na nepeassx Be3)J;e JlelKilT cner. 5. B cocenxcii Ko:vtHaTe KTO-TO 111 paer Hd pos.ne. 6. J1eToM Mbl noenev na rcnnoxone no Bo.nre.

USE OF THE PREPOSITION B

1. The preposition B 'in' is used to denote the position of an object inside something or within some limits. A prepositional noun with the preposition B answers the question rne? 'where?'

KHJlnI rreacar B UlKaIJ1Y. 'The books are in the book-

case.'

nJIaTOK nezorr B xapwane. 'The handkerchief is in the pock-

et.'

)J,eTH nrparor B cany. 'The children are playing in the

garden.'

Jleroxr OHH )l(HJII.I B nepeane. 'In the summer they lived in the

country.'

2. The preposition B (followed by the prepositional) is used to denote time.

(a) expressed in months, years or centuries:

114

'I came to Moscow in August, in 1975.'

'Lomonosov lived in the 18th century.'

(b) expressed as a period of life: B .n:hCTBC 'in one's childhood', B WDOCTH 'in one's youth', B 3peJ'lOM B03pacTe 'at a mature age', B erapoeT It 'in one's old age'.

(c) expressed by the word Haqa.flO 'beginning', cepennua 'middle' or KODeLl 'end': B naxane 'at the beginning', B cepenaae 'in the middle', B KOHue 'at the end'.

OH npnexan B MocKBY (KoziJa?) 'He came to Moscow in the mid-

B cepe.n:HHe CCHTH6pH. dIe of September.'

(d) expressed in hours (if the time is marked approximately):

OH BepHYJIC5I (Kozda?, 6 K0Il10pO.w 'He returned after ten.' 'lac.ll?) B o.n:HHHa.n:uaTOM qacy.

3. The preposition B is used with nouns denoting a state: B neqa.lH 'in sorrow', B rope 'in grief, B 'rucxe 'in dejection', B rneae 'in anger', B B03MYlueHHH 'in indignation', B BO.flHeHHH 'in agitation', B 6ccnoKOHcTBe 'in anxiety', B BOCTOPloC 'in raptures', B BocxlllUeHHH 'in admiration'.

Bee 6bIJIH B aocropre OT xapTHHbI.

OH B BO.flHeHHH XO.n:HJI no KOMnare.

'All were delighted with the picture.'

'He walked up and down the room in agitation.'

4. The preposition B is used with nouns denoting articles of dress:

JJ:cBywKa 6bIJICl (6 'le.w?) B 6eJIOM 'The girl was wearing a white

n.uunee. dress.'

OR npHWeJI cerozms (6 'leM?) 'He turned up today in a new suit

B HOBOM KOCTIDMC H B mnsne. and hat.'

5. The following verbs and the corresponding nouns require the pre-

Position B:

HYJK.n:aTbcH (imp.) B nOMolUH 'to need help'

HYJK.n:a B nOMolUH

'a need for help'

cOMHeBiiTbcH (imp.) B npaBH.flbHOCTH 'to doubt the correctness'

COMHeHHe B npaBH.flbHOCTH

'a doubt as to the correctness'

nOMoraTb (imp.) nOMO% (p.) KOMY-.flH60 B pa60Tc

'to help someone with his work'

8'

115

nOMOlUb B pa60Te 'help in one's work'

06BHHHTb (imp.)-06BHHHTb (p.) Koro-JIH60 B He'leCTHOCTH 'to accuse somenone of dishonesty'

06BHHeHHe B He'leCTHOCTH

'an accusation of dishonesty'

nonoapeaars (imp.) KOrO-JIH60 B He)l06pocOBecTHocTH 'to mistrust somebody's conscientiousness'

ynpexari, (imp.j-v-ynpexnyn, (p.) KOrO-JIH60 B paBHO)lywHH 'to reproach someone with indifference'

ynpeK B paBHO)lywHH

'a reproach of indifference'

OWH6:lTbCH (imp.) - oWH6HTbCH (p.) B OQeHKe 'to err in judgement'

oWH6Ka B oueaxe

'an error in judgement'

ynpaiKHHTbcH (imp.) B npousuourenaa 'to practise pronunciation' ynpaiKHeHHH B npoaauoureuan 'practice in ponunciation'

OTKa3b1BaTb (imp.) OTKa3:lTb (p.) KOMY-JIH60 B nOMOIQH

'to refuse someone help'

oTKa3 B nOMolUH

'refusal of help'

y6eiK)laTb (imp.) - Y6e)lHTb}

(p.) KOrO-JIH60 B He06xo)lHMOCTH

'to convince someone of the necessity'

YBepHTb (imp.) YBepHTb (p.)

'to assure

. The adjectiv~ ~BepeH~bIH (yaepen) 'certain', 'sure' is always used with the preposinon B tollowed by the prepositional.

MbI ysepensr B ycnexe. 'Weare sure of success.'

But:

MbI BepHM B ycnex. (acc.) 'We believe in our success.'

Exercise 173. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the words given on the right in the required case.

I. B nOSIB.1HIOTCli nepaue ~BeTbI.

2. B SI llUlJ] B ztepeane.

3. B IIBCTYT Si6.10HIl.

4. B 6Y.leT yxacr aouarr, 1l3BecTHbill aprncr.

5. Mbl ynepenu B ....

6. Ilepen 3K3aMeHoM see cryneirrsr 6bIJlIl B ....

xrapr

tleTCTBO

caLI

KOHuepT

naui ycnex 60JIbWOe BOJIHeHlle

116

USE OF THE PREPOSITION ITO

The preposition no followed by the prepositional (usually of a verb 1 noun) denotes time with the rnearung of 'after', (up)on'.

;0 npue3)le B MOCKB), BI;>1 ceiixac '0!l arriv~l in Moscow you wi~1 g~

)i{e oTnpaBHTecb na nO'ITy. immediately to the post office.

no B03BpameHHH na pO)lHHY OH 'On his return to his country he

CTaJl npenoziaaart, B HHCHI- began teaching at a college.'

TYTe.

Exercise 174. Fill in the blanks with the words given on the right in the prepositional with the required preposition.

1. nllcaTeJIb H~nllcaJ] nOBe~Tb ....

2 DbUiO TCMHO. Il Mbl pa60TaJIIl ....

3: Bxepa o reu C 6paToM 6blJIIl B necy .... 4. Epa r lKllBeT ... B Apxanreriscxe.

5 .. ,. POCcllli 6blJIa OTCTaJIOll CTpaHO".

6. J10LlKa cxpurtacs ....

7. OH ... xo.ucr no KOMHaTe.

8. Jlerosr cTYLleHTbl-reOJJOfIl 6blJIH B ropax .... 9 .... SI cpasy npncrynan K pafiore.

10. B raserax smoro nHCaJIH ....

11. nYTeUlecTBeHHIlKH OT,L(bIXaJIH ....

12. JIeToM fipar ornsrxan ... B LlepeBHe.

uraxreps:

CBeT JIaMnbl oxoTa

ceBep UaPH3M TYMaH BOJIHeHlle npdKTHKa

aoaspaurenae H3 ornycxa KHHoqJeCTHBaJlb

TeHb rtepeaa

YKpaHHa

SOME USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS BAND HA TO DENOTE PLACE

In some cases the prepositions Band na are used with the same meaning to denote place. The choice of the preposition is determined by the noun they are used with.

paooTaIO B KOJIX03e

'I work B Y'lpeiK,ueHHH B Mara3irne

B 60JIbHit:Qe

B 6u6JIHOTeKe

Y'IYCb :1 go, 1 am

'1 study

na 3aBO)le na c1Ja6puKe na nO'ITe

na 'renerpadie na CTaHQUH ua BOK3a.lJe

ua npe)lUpHHTUU na cTpOHTeJIbCTBe ua npoaseozrcrue

B IUKOJIe

B )J.ecHToM KJIaCCe B HllcTHTYTe

B TexlIHKYMe

B aKa)J.eMHH

on a collective farm' at an office'

at a shop'

at a hospital' at a library'

at a plant'

at a factory'

at a post office'

at a telegraph office' at a station'

at a railway station' at an enterprise'

on a construction site' at a factory'

to school'

in the tenth form' at a college'

at a technical school' at an academy'

117

na nepaoja Kypce

ua UCTOpH<JeCKOM <l>aKYJlbThe

na Kypcax c reuorparpnu

6h1J1 'I was

B TeaTpe B KUHO

B xoncepaaropna B KJly6e

B UHpKe

ua cnexraxne ua peneruunn

na Be<JepHeM (YTpeHHeM, .llHeBHoM) ceauce

na KOHUepTe

aa YTPeHHeM npe.llCTaBJIeHUU

/KUBY 'I live

ua ypoice

na JleKUUU aa 3aUSITUSIX na ceunnape na co6paHuu na 3aCe.llaHIIU

na KOH<I>epeHuuu na csesne

B repone

B nepeyrnce B CU6HPU B KpblMY

B Benopyccna B PYMblHUU

B tIexuu

na nrnnnana Boccraaaa na YJluue Fepuena

ua Ypane

na KaBKa3e

na YKpaHHe

ua .ore

aa cenepe

na sanane

ua socroxe

6blJl 'I was

B HaWe" crpaue B cany

B napxe B necy

B ThlJlY

B :hOH MecTHocTU

118

in the first year'

in the history department'

at shorthand writing

courses'

at the theatre' at the cinema'

at the conservatoire' at the club'

at the circus'

at a performance' at a rehearsal'

at the evening (morning, af-

ternoon) performance' at a concert'

at a morning perfonnance'

at a lesson'

at a lecture'

at a class'

at a seminar' at a meeting' at a session'

at a conference' at a congress'

in a city'

in a side street' in Siberia'

in the Crimea' in Byelorus' .

in Rumania' in Czechia'

In Vosstanye Square' In Herzen Street'

in the Urals'

In the Caucasus' In the Ukraine' In the south'

in the north'

in the west'

in the east'

in our country' in a garden'

in a park'

in a forest'

behind the front line' in this locality'

B TlOpbMe B He80Jle 8 cCblJlKe

na CTa):lHOHe aa pblHKe

na 6yJlb8ape na ci»pOHTe

Ha JTOH TeppHTopHH ua pO):lUHe

In prison' In captivity' In exile'

at a stadium'

at the market' on a boulevard' at the front'

in this territory'

in one's native country'

Exercise 175. Read through the sentences. State the gender and case of the nouns used with the prepositions Band RH. Note the prepositions Band RH used to denote place.

1. .sf H)lY B Mara3~1H H na nOqTY. 2. Oren pafioraer aa aaaone, MaTb - sa !fJa6pHxe. a cecrpa yqHTCH B urxo.ne. 3 . .!lI1PCKTOPd HeT B Kd611HeTe. OH aa COBelllaHHH B MI1HHcTepcTBe.4. Msi 6blJIH B KJIy6e aa xonuepre. 5. Cecrpa yexana B )lOM OT)lbIXa aa KaBI(1i3.6. MOH TOBapHllI lI{11BeT aa nYlllKI1HCKOH YJ.Hue B )lOMe N<! 15. 7. Mauraaa csepHYJla 0 nepeynox. 8. YTpOM na Y,.Huax MHoro napony. B3pOCJIbie crreurar na pa60TY. Jli:TH-O WKOJly. 9. Iloesn oCTaHOBHJICJI aa M<lJIeHbKOH cniHHHH. 10. Mbl npOBeJIH neTO 0 nepesae, na 6cpery Bo.rra. 11. CerO)lHJI aa CTa)lH()He HHTepecHble cocTJl3aHHJI. 12 . .sf 6Y.uy lK)laTb Te611 aa oCTaHoBKe rpawsas. 13 . .!leTH 6blJIH 0 UHpKe aa YTpeHHCM npeilCTaOJIeHHH. 14 . .sf 03J1JI 6HJIerbl 0 KHHO ua BeqepHHH ceaac, 1 S. Acnapaar cnenan JlOK.'1a.u na 3aceJ.\3HHH Ka!fJe)lPbI. 16. .sf HAY B HHCTHTYT na JIeKUHIO. 17. OH yqHTCJI o ynasepcurere sa !fJH3HqeCKOM !fJaKYJIbTeTe. 18. Cerozurx B MOCKBY npaesxaer MOH fipar . .sf rroiiny aa OOK3aJI ncrpexars ero, 19. HliHII aener peoenxa ryns n, ua 6YJIbBap.

20. Bparannp CeHqac B none, aa yfiopxe ypoxaa.

Exercise 176. Fill in the blanks with the required prepositions.

1. 3aBO)laX H ... !fJa6pHKax COCTOllJIHCb npenasroopnsre C06pl1HHII. 2. HYlKHO

nOHTH nOqTY H KynHTb MapoK H KOHBepToo. 3. Mbl CJIyqaHHO BCTperHJIHCb ... OCTa-

HOOKe anrofiyca. 4. Msi noofienana ... pecropase ... BOK3a..'1~. 5 .... 6YJIbBape useryr JIIt-

nu. 6 Y"'1HUaX H ... nnoiuansx CTOJIHUbl OeqepOM xpacaaoe ocaemeaae. 7. J1eToM

II noeny )lOM ornsrxa ... KpblM. 8. B socspecem.e MbI noenev ... BblcTaBKY. 9. Y Hac

'" pozume YlKe secaa, a 3;JeCb erne JIelKHT cuer. 10 HaweH crpane KJlHMaT TenJIblH

H BJlalKHblil. 11. Epara HeT .uOMa. OH ... HHCTHTYTC JIeKUHH. 12. Fopon 'lem'l6l1HcK

HaXO)lHTCII Hd Yparre, Kpacaospcx ... CH6HPl1, CeBaCTOnOJIb ... KpblMY, T6HJIHCH ... KaBKa3e. Hr apxa ... KpaHllcM Cesepe.

Revision Exercises

. Exercise 177. Replace the prepositions in the italicised phrases with prepositions which have the same meaning.

1. B6_1U3U oepeenu nporexana pesxa. 2. Crapsie APY3bll BCTpeTHJIHCb naxanyue H060i'O coda. 3. Ilocne 6036paU/e1iUJI B POJIHOH ropozr OH nocrynan pafiorar s aa 3aBO)l. 4. Y nnpexropa ornycx no 10 ceumstipk 6K.1104UmeJlbllO. 5. )l.eBOqKa npHrOTOBHJIa ypokH Ja O6a uaca. 6. Ha nOOi'Omo6KY TeOpeTHqeCKOH KOH!fJepeHUI1H HYlKeH MecliU. 7. OH paCCKa3aJI MHC 0 ceoeu ecmpeue C HlillIHMH 661l1HMH )lPY3bllMH. 8. Hano aecra 60Pb6y "pomu6 61OpOKpamUJMa B pafiore yqpelK)leHHH. 9. nYTHHKH npouma C KUJlOMemp H OCTaHOBHJIHCb aa fiepery pexa. 10. Hepe: U/C,1U B capaa npOHHKaJI CJIa6bIH CBeT.

Exercise 178. Explain the different meanings of the sentences due to different prePositions.

1 . .sflKHBY OKOJIO 'ronapxuta . .sf lKHBY Y rosapaura. 2. Cnenaa ho JIJIII MeHlI. CnelIaii 3TO aa MeHit. 3. Flpauren nocne saca, Ilpauren sepea qac. 4. Ilosreureuae JIJIII 6H- 61I1IOTeKH. Floweureaae 6H6JIHOTeKI1. 5. Mbl CH.ueJIH BOKPyr CTOJIa. MbI cH.ueJIH sa CTO- 110M. 6. Yqe6HHK aa PYCCKOM 113b1Ke. Yqe6HHK no PYCCKOMY 113blKY. 7 . .sf npasec KHHrH 1(;111 cecrpsr. .sf npanec KHHm CCCTpe. 8 . .!lBa 6H.~ha aa C6pOK xoneex . .!lBa 6HJIeTa no COPOK xoneex. 9. Cocrasun nnan ua nenemo. COCTaBHJI nJIaH 3a nenemo. 10. Flpoxa-

119

'rarr rasery aa 3aBTpaKOM. Ilpo-nrran rasery nocrre saarpaxa. II. Maunnra e.!leT no YJlHlIe. Maunrna ener sepea yJlHlIY. 12. Mut H}leM K 'rca'rpy. Msr H;:{eM B Tearp 13. BbITIOJIHHTb pa60TY aa fipara. BbITIOJ1HHTb pa60TY .!IJllI 6p<iTa. 14. 3a6bIJI CTaT!.JQ· 3a6blJl 0 cra n,e. 15. Hanacarr CTaThlO aa nero, HanHCaJI cTaTbIO rrerow. 16. npHlUe; K ofieny. n paurerr nepen 06e.llOM. n pmuen .!IO ofiena. 17. n pa lIIKOJlC 60JlbWOH ca.q_ OKOJlO WKO_lbI 60JlbWOH can.

Exercise 179. Read through the text. Note the use of the prepositions.

HO'lblO, aaxoneu, XJlbIHYJl .llO)K.llb, J111BeHb. H TaK 3aCTY'l{1JI B OKHO H no JlCeJlhlloii KPbIllJe, 'ITO HHKilTa npOCHYJlClI, cen B KpOBaTH H cnyuran, YJ1bI6allCb.

4Y.!leCeH WyM HO'lHOro .!IO)K.!IlI. «CnH, crm, cnu», roponnano 6apa6aHHJ1 OH no

cmexsa«, H ae rep B TeMHOTe nopbIBaMH pBaJ1 TOnOJlB neped dOMOM.

HHKllTa rrepesepuyn nO.!lYllIKY XOJIO.llHOi1 C10POHOH asepx, .ner ons n, H BOPO'laJICB nod OdeltJIOM, ycrpaasasci, KaK MO)KHO YLl06Hee. «Bee 6Y.lleT Y)KaCHO, Y)KaCHO xo-

pouro», LlYMaJI OH H npOBaJll1J101 B MlirKHe, renmae 06JlaKa CHa.

K ympy LlO)K.1lb npouren, HO He60 euie 6blJl0 B TlI)KeJlbiX csrpsrx TY'IaX, J1eTeBIUlu c toea IW ceeep. HHKllTa B3rJ1l1HYJ1 B OKHO H aXHYJI. OT cnera He OCTaJ10Cb H CJle.lla. IIlJt. POKHH LlBOP 6blJl nOKpbIT dIHHMH. p1l6iIBlIlHMH non serposa J1Y)KaMH. C iora Mh,cdy pa. sopsaaaux mvu nOllBHJIClI H co cmptuuuou t>blcmpOm()u ncrerr aa YC,iJlb6) oC_lenllTe_1],. HblH Jla3ypHblH KJ10'lOK He6a.

3a uaeu MaTyrnKa 6blJla B3BOJlHOBaHa H BCe BpeMlI nor JllI.1lbIBaJIa aa OKHa.

nllTbIH .lleHb HeT no-rrsr, cxasana ona, 1I HH'IerO He nOHHMalO ... BOT-

.1l0)KLlaJ1Cll: norroaonsa, reneps see nopora CTaHYT na oee ueoe.su ...

HHKHTa nOHll:JI, 'ITO MaTYWKa roaopnna npo orrta, ero )K.llaJlI1 reneps co dllJlIIU oeu«.

HHKilTa pacnaxnyn zmeps na KPbIJ1bllo. Bees OCTPbIH, '1HCTbIH B03.llYX 6bIJI n0J10H MlIrKI1M 11 CllJlbHbIM WYMOM nanarouiea aonsr, 3TO MHO)KeCTBO cHerOBbIX PY'IbCB 6e)KaJ1o e oepaeu. Ilo.nasre do «paee oupara maJlli senraae sonu B pesy. ]loMall Jlc.1l, pesa BbIXOLlllJla U3 tiepeeoe, KpYTHJ1a JlbLlllHbl, Bbl.llpaHHble C KOPHCM KYCTbl, uina BbICOKO uepe: n.iomuuy H naaana B OMYTbI.

Jla sypaoe narno, J1eTeBWee na ycansfiy, pa30pBdJIO, pa30I HiJIO see TY'IH, caaeB:lTO-npOXJ1aLlHbIH CBeT nOJ1llJ1ClI C 1Il!6a, cnD1H rOJIy6bIMH, 6e3 zura, JlY)KH aa nsope, H orpojansre oaepa ua no.is x H 'rexyurae osparn cHonaMH CBeTa OTpa3HJ1H cOJ1HIle. (A. T.)

~
THE ADJECTIVE
In Russian, the adjective changes according to gender, number and
case. . h i . . h
An adjective qualifies its head-noun and agrees Wit It, I. e. It as
the same gender, number and case.
CHANGING THE ADJECTIVE ACCORDING TO GENDER
GENDER ENDINGS OF ADJECTIVES
Masculine Feminine Neuter
«axou? 'what (sort of)?' xaxas?' what (sort of)?' xaxoe? 'what (sort of)?'
-blH,-OH,-HH -as, -lUI -oe, -ee
ROBblH (LlOM) HOB811 (nopora) HOBoe (anaaae)
'new (house)' 'new (road)' 'new (building)'
MOJlOJlOH (.!Iy6) MOJIOJlIlK (cocaa) MOJlOJlOe (nepeso)
'young (oak)' 'young (pine)' 'young (tree)'
J1en:RH (TeKCT) JIi!n:all (sanaxa) J1en:oe (ynpaxaeaae)
'easy (text)' 'easy (problem), 'easy (exercise)'
38MHHH (aeas) 3HMHHlI (HO'lb) 38MHee (YTpO)
'winter (day)' 'winter (night)' 'winter (morning)'
XOP(IIUHH (OTBeT) xopomaa (pafiora) xopouiee (cO'lHHeHHe)
'good (answer), 'good (;0 b )' 'good (essay)'
6oJlbmoH (ycnex) 60JILmali (nooena) 60JlbmOe (.llOCTH)KeHHe)
'great (success)' 'great (victory), 'great (achievement),
1. Adjectives whose stem ends in a hard consonant take the end-
ings -LIN -ON (HOBLIN ,lJ.OM 'a new house', MOJlO,lJ.ON ,lJ.y6 'a young oak'),
-aa (HOB~H nopora 'a new road', MOJlO,lJ.aa COCHa 'a young pine'), -oe
(aoaoe ],lJ.:lHHe 'a new building', MOJlO,lJ.oe nepeao 'a young tree'). .
Adjectives ending in -Lin in the masculine always have the endmg
unstressed (HOB LIN 'new', HOBaH, HOBoe). . .
Adjectives ending in -ON in th,e mascuhI?-e always h,~v~ the en~m?
stressed (MOJlO,lJ.On 'young', MOJlO,lJ.aH, MOJlO,lJ.Oe; nepenoaoa progressive,
nepe,lJ.OB:lH, nepenoaoe). ,
2 The unstressed masculine ending is· spelt -Hn after r, K, x (CTpO-
ruii ~PHKa] 'a strict order', J1erKHN TeKCT 'an easy text', TllxHN ronoc 'a
low voice').
121
.. 3. Adjectives whose stem ends in a soft consonant take the ending -H" (30MHH" ,lJ,eHb 'a winter day'), -HH (30MHHH HO'tb 'a winter night') Or

-ee (30MHee YTPO 'a winter morning').

The ending of adjectives with a soft stem is always unstressed. 4. The masculine ending is spelt -H" after iK, IU, 'I, in (cBeiKH" B03- JJ:Yx 'fresh air', XOPOIUUU oTBeT 'a good answer', rOpH'IUU '1au 'hot tea' 06U_H" H3blK 'common language'). '

The neuter ending -oe is always stressed after iK, IU, 'I, III ('1YjKoe JIH"O 'a strange face', 60JIblUOe ,lJ,OCTHiKeHHe 'a great achievement'), and the ending -ee is unstressed (cBeiKee ,lJ,blXallHe 'fresh breath', xopolUee CO'lUHeHHe 'a good essay', ropsxee COJIH .. e 'a hot sun', 06mee ,lJ,eJIo 'the common cause').

The feminine ending is spelt -as after 'I and III (ropsxaa BO,lJ,a 'hot water', 06maH pa60Ta 'common work').

There are few adjectives with the stem ending in a soft consonant.

Their stem invariably ends in 'I, III or the soft H.

LIST OF THE MOST COMMON ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A SOFT H

oceHHHU, 30MIIHH, BeceHHHu, JleTHIIH, B'lepaIUHH", CerO,lJ,HHIUHHU, 3aBTpaIUHH", BepXHltU, HOiKIIH", nepeJJ:HH", Cpe,lJ,HH", 3a,lJ,HH", JJ:aJlbHHU, 6JIOiKHHU, YTpeH"H", Be'lep"H", paHHH", n03,lJ,HH", ,lJ,aBHH", TOr,lJ,auIHH", npeiKHH", COCe,lJ,HH", JJ:oMaIUHH", BHYTpeHHH", BHeIUHH", KpaiiHHu, nOCJIeL(HH", HblHeIUHH", 'renepeuman,

-HH, -ee, -ne

"

'autumn' 'winter' 'spring' 'summer' 'yesterday's' 'today's' 'tomorrow's' 'upper' 'lower' 'front' 'middle'

'rear'

'distant' 'near' 'morning' 'evening' 'early' 'late'

'old'

'of those days' 'former' 'neighbouring' 'domestic' 'internal' 'external' 'extreme'

'last'

'present' 'present'

"

"

"

" " "

"

"

"

"

"

"

122

"

"

'ancient'

'last year's' 'New Year's' 'five-year' 'three-year'

'of this place', 'local' 'of that place', 'local' 'outside', 'extraneous' 'unilateral'

'versatile' 'multilateral'

'blue'

'sincere'

'superfluous'

JJ:peBHH", npOIUJIOrOL(HuH, HOBorO,lJ,HHH, DHTHJIeTHHH, TpexJIhHHH, 3JJ:CIUHHH, T8MOIUHHH, DOCTOpOHHHH, O,lJ,HOCTOpOHHHH, pa3HocToPOHHHH, MHorocTopOHHHH, CIIH"", HCKpeHHHH, mHIIHHH,

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Exercise 1. Supply nouns to the above adjectives, write them down together with the adjectives, making them agree in gender and number.

Model: ochlHJIJI noeooa, paunuu 'lac

Exercise 2. Write out the sentences. State the gender of the adjectives. Write down each adjective in the masculine, feminine and neuter.

I. n03,L1HJIJI oceus. Fpa-ra YJIeTeJUf. (H.) 2. MOp03 H COJIHue. ,lI,eHb '1Y,LIecHbIii. (II.) 3. H H3 necy BbIIIleJI. EbIJI CHJIbHbIH MOp03. (H.) 4. B TOT ron OCeHHJIJI norona crosna nonro aa ,LIBOpe. (JI.) 5. TenJIblH serep ryJISJeT no 'rpase, mer ,LIepeBbJl H IIO,LIHHMaeT nsins. CeH'IaC 6pbI3HeT MaHCKHH ,LIOlK,LIb H Ha'iHeTCJI HaCTOSJIUaJl rposa. ([{ex.) 6. HosHoil TYMaH YlKe .ner na CblPYIO rpony. XOJIo,LIHaJi JIYHa nO,LIHJlJIaCb Ha,LI '1aIUaMH. (Ilaycm.)

Exercise 3. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with suitable adjectives chosen from those in brackets.

I )I nOJlY'I(1JI OT TOBilplIIIIa nHcbMo. 2. Ceronaa Y nepBoKYPCHHKOB 6b1J1a ••• .!IHCKOlcKa.

3. l1.n:eT ... .!IOlK)lb. 4. Ilepen HaMH IICJlb. 5. B HalIIeM repone ecrs ... 3aBO.!l H ...

ljla5pHKa. 6. B Haweii. crpane pa3BHBaeTCJI ... H ... npOMhlIIIJIeHHOCTb. 7. no 06eHM CTOpOHaM nopora TJlHYJIaCb ... crens. 8. B,LIaJlH nOKa3anCJI ... nOe3,L1. 9. Ha CTOJIe JIelKana ... rasera. 10. Haxoneu MbI VBH,LIeJIIf B OKHO sarona ... Mope.

(HOBOrO.!lHHH, CHJlbHbIH, MHHHbIH, iICHblH, MaWHHOCTPOHTeJlbHbli!, TKaUKHH,

JIerKlfil, TJllKeJIbIH, 6eCKOHe'lHbIH, TOBapHblH, CHHHH, axepaumaii)

Exercise 4. Supply adjectives to the italicised nouns.

npOIIlJIa 1I0'lb. Ha BOCTOKe saroperracs sap s. ,lI,yeT eemepo«. IIOJlBH.nOCb COAlI'Ie.

COJlHue OCBeTHJIO nee, AY2, nose H osepo.

Exercise 5. Give antonyms of the adjectives in the following phrases, underline their endings and mark the stress.

Model: MOJIO,LIOH - cTapbIH

MOJIO,LIOH ropon, 6oJIbIIlOii. ,LIOM, noporoa TOBap, nnoxoji npastep, npocroa BOnpoc, nYCToH craxaa, TynoH HOlK, cyxoii. .rpor'yap, 60JIbHOH pe6eHOK, BblCOKHH nOTOJIOK, 3JIOH '1eJIOBeK

Exercise 6. Tell a story about spring, using the antonyms of the adjectives in the follOWing phrases.

Fpycraas xOJIo,LIHali oceas, HH3Koe TeMHoe He60. Ilnoxas ,LIOlK,LIm'lBali norona, XOJIO,[IRblH aerep. IIacMYPHble nevansmae ,[IRH.

123

CHANGING THE ADJECTIVE ACCORDING TO NUMBER

HOBblH .L(OM 'new house' HOBhle
HOBaH zropora 'new road' 'new
HOBoe snanae 'new building'
3HMHHH .L(eHb 'winter day' 3HMHHe
3HMHHH HO'lb 'winter night' 'winter
3HMHee YTPO 'winter morning'
MOJIO.L(OH nee 'young wood' MOJIO.L(ble
MOJIOwIH 6epe3a 'young birch' 'young
MOJIO.l1.0e nano 'young face' {~~~trl1

3W1HI1S1

{;~~11

ylpa

{~~~tbI

JlI1u.a

endings -sre, -ae m the

houses' roads' buildings'

days' nights' mornings'

woods' birches' faces'

Adjectives of all three genders take the plural.

The ending is spelt -hie after a hard consonant (HoBbie 'new', MOJIO):{ble 'young', CHJIbHhle 'strong', CMeJIhle 'courageous').

The ending is spelt -ae after a soft consonant (3HMIIHe 'winter', cnHHe 'blue'). 1', K, X (JIeI'KHe 'easy', CTpOI'He 'strict', THxHe 'quiet') and ik, 'I, IU, ur (cBeJKHe 'fresh', reps-me 'hot', 60JIblUHe 'large', 06mHe 'common').

Exercise 7. Put the italicised nouns and adjectives in the plural.

I. Patio-rae npHMeHslloT H06blU uemoo. 2. Y 6pil'ra xopoiaan uoeas KIlUcU. 3. Hanporns 60/lbUloii 6blCOKUU i)oM. 4. Ha CTOJle c6hICWI easema. 5. OH B3S1Jl no owil6Ke '1yJICou Y'le6I1uK. 6. BOT euepauomn easema. 7. Cmapiuuu 6pam ~oMa.

Exercise 8. Put the italicised nouns and adjectives in the singular, changing the verbs accordingly.

I. Hpxue .1Y'lU COJlHIIa oCBeTiI.~H pexxy H ,1yL 2. Ilepen OKHOM pOC~lH eucoxue me. uucmue oepees«. 3. no pexe CTpeMHTCJlbHO JlBHra.1Hcb .teetcue 6bumpble ,1lI0KU. 4. HasaJlilCb xOAoi)lIble ocenuue oaxcou. 5. B norre pafio rann noeue KOM6alillbl. 6. B KOMHaTe aacar «pacueue «oepu, 7. Ha nHBaHe ~lelKaT .w'ti'KUe nooyuocu.

THE DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES IN THE SINGULAR

Masculine and Neuter

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STE'\1 E""DS I'" A HARD CO'\SO'\A:\T

Mascuhne Ending Neuter Ending
Nom. HORblit saaon 'blit HOBoe ne.ro -oe
'new plant' 'new affair'
Gen. HOBOIO aaso.iu -01'0 HOBOI'O ne.ra -01'0
Dat. HOBOMy 3aBo;IY -oety HOROMY neny -OMy
Ace. HOBblit aanozt as Nom. HOBOC /16.10 as Nom.
(HOBOIO nHpeKTopa or Gen.
'new director')
Instr. H('RbIM aanonov -blM HOBblM ,'le.l0M -blM
Prep. o HOBOM 3aB01C -0\1 o 1I0BO:"l .re.re -OM 124

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A SOFT CONSONANT

Mascuhne Ending Neuter Pndmg
~
Nom. 1I0C,lC:lIIHit ,'leHb -Hit nOCJ1C,'lIlCC wecro -ec
'last day 'last place
Gen. 1I0c.le.lHCI0 /lH5I -ero 1I0C,le;{Her 0 YleCTa -eIO
Dat. 1I0c.le,.(HC\t} .lHIO -e\l\ 1I0C,lC.lHCMY YleCTY -estv
Acc. nOCJ1e"(Hllit /leHb as Nom. 1I0c.'le,'lHCC YlCCTO as Nom.
(noc.re.ruer o noce- or Gen.
T11Te.1S1
last VIsitor') noc.le;{HHM MeCTOYl
Instr. nOCJ1c"(HIIM .iIHeYl -11M -HM
Prep. o noc.se.ruew .rae -eM o 1I0C.1C,'lHCM YleCTe -eIW.
~ 1. The endings of masculine and neuter adjectives are identical in all the cases except the nominative and accusative.

2. Masculine adjectives ending in -OH (MOJIO):{OH 'young', nepe):{o~oH 'foremost', 60eBOH 'fighting') are declined in the same manner as a.dJectives ending in -hlH, but they are invariablr stressed ?n the ~n~mg,. 3. The I' in the endings -oro and -ero ("OBOI'O, xopomero) IS mvanably pronounced as B.

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A ~IBILANT FOLLOWED BY A STRESSED ENDING

Masculme Ending Neuter Ending
Nom. OO,TJbUIoit .llOM -oit OO,TJbUIOe snaaae -oe
'large house' 'large building
Gen. OOJ1bUIOr 0 .lloMa -oro OO.lbUIOIO 31l<1HHlI -oro
Dat. OOJ1bUIO\lY .llOYlY -OMV OOJ1bUIOMV 3~aHH!o -OMy
Ace. OO.lbUIOit /lOYl as Nom. OO.lbUIOC '3.laHHe as Nom.
(OO,lbUIOI 0 Yla.lb' or Gen.
'lHKa
'big boy') OOJlbUIH\t 3,'laHlfeYl -HIW.
Instr. OO.lbUIH\I .llOYlO'\1 -H\I
Prcp. o OO,lbUIO\l .rowc -0'1 o OO,'lLUIO\l 3.laHIflf -01\1 ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A SIBILANT FOLLOWED BY AN LI\STRESSED ENDING

Masculme Ending Neuter Ending
Nom. XOpoIUHit oTBeT -Hit xopouree CO'lHHeHHe -ee
'good answer' 'good composition'
Gen. XOPOUICI'O o rnera -ero xopcmero CO'lIfHCHHSI -er o
Dat. XOPOIIlCMY OTBeTY -CMy XOPOUICMY CO'lIfHeHIfIO -CMy
Ace, XOPOUIHit OTBeT as Nom. XOPOUICC CO'lHHeHHe as Nom.
(xopouiero 'leJlOBCKa or Gen.
'good man') XOPOIUIIM CO'lHHeHHCM -HM
Instr. XOPOI~IIM OTBeToM -11M
Prep. o XOPOIUCM OTBeTe -e\l o XOPOIUCM CO'lHHeHHH -eM 125

After sibilants (*, ur, If, Ill) adjectives take the ending -on (mase.) -oe (neut.), -oro, -OMY, -UM, -OM, if the ending is stressed, and _~ (masc.), -ee (neut.), -ero, -eMY, -UM, -eM, if it is unstressed.

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN r, K, X

Masculine Ending Neuter Ending
Nom. nlxHii aesep -Hii Jlenwe ynpaxnenae -oe
'quiet evening' 'easy exercise'
Gen. TlIXorO aesepa -oro nerxoro ynpaxnenn» -oro
Oat. TlIXOMY aesepy -OMY JlencoMY ynpaxaemno -OMY
Ace, TRXHii sesep as Nom. JlerKoe ynpaxnenae as Nom.
(TRxoro pe6eHKa or Gen.
'quiet child')
Instr. TltXHM aesepoj« -HM JlerKHM ynpaxaeaaera -HM
Prep. o TRXOM aesepe -OM o JlencoM ynpasoreaaa -OM After r, K, x adjectives take the ending -oro (gen.), -OMY (dat.), -HM (instr.), -OM (prep.) (JIeffiOrO, JIeffioMy, JIerKUM, 0 JIernoM). The interrogative words KaKon? and KaKoe? take the same endings: KaKoro, xaKOMY, KaKHM, 0 KaKoM.

Exercise 9. (a) Give written answers to the questions, using the adjective I"I>PHblii.

I. Kaxoe :lTO osepo? 2. Y xaxoro oaepa Bbl lKilJIH JIeToM? 3. K KaKoMY osepy ornpaBHJlaCb 3KCrre.nHIlHlI? 4. Ha xaxoe osepo Bbl rrOllIJIII? 5. Han KaKuM osepoja rrpOJIeTeJI caMOJIeT? 6. B KaKoM osepe MHOro pbl6bl?

(b) Give written answers to the questions, using the adjective crapwHii ..

I. KaKoH fipar npaexan " Te6e? 2. OT xaxoro fipara Tbl nony-ran rrHcbMo? 3. KaKoMY 6phy TbI rnrcan? 4. C KaKuM 6phoM Tbl rrPOBeJI JIeTo? 5. 0 KaKoM 6phe Tbl paccsaauBaJI?

Exercise 10. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the adjectives given on the right in the required case.

(a) I. Ero He 6blJI0 .llOMa c ... yrpa no ... sesepa.

2. C ... nons .llOHOCHTCli llIyM 'rpax ropa.

3. Fopsr 3aIUHllIalOT 3aJIHB OT ... aerpa.

4. npOMbtlIlJIeHHOCTb BbmYCKaeT Bee 60JIbllIe MallIUH .llJIli .,. X03StHCTBa.

paHHHH, rr03.llHHiI:

Coce.llHHiI: ceBepHblH ceJIbCKHH

(b) I. .Sf aanacan rrHCbMO ... 6phy. CTapllIHH
2. Floeaa rrpH6JIHlKaeTCli K ... MOCTY. 60JIbllIOH
3. Bee panysorcs .,. COJIHIlY. BeceHHHH
4. CTY.lleHTbI rorosarcs K ... 3K3aMeHY. rrOCJIe.llHHH
(c) I. Floeaa rrepeexarr sepes ... MOCT. 60JIbllIOil:
2. Msi HlieM na ... 63J1. MOJlOlli:lKHbIH
3. Bparansr COpeBHYIOTCli aa ... KaqeCTBO rrponyxuna. OTJIUqHblH
4. Ilpenonasarem, 06bllCHUJI ." npaaano. HOBblH
5. CKB03b ... TYMaH HHqerO He 6blJIO BUAHO. rycroji
(d) I. B :lTOM rony Mbl 3aHHMaeMclI C ... rrpenonaaare- HOBblH
JIeM.
2. .Sf npaexan B MocKBY C ... 6pilTOM. MJIaAllIHH
3. Flepezt ... AOMOM 1j>0HTaH H MHoro IlBeToB. coceAHHH
4. YqeHUK peunor 3a.llaqy c ... TPYAOM. 60JIbllIOH
5. CTYAeHT CB06o.llHO anaaeer ... 1I3bIKOM. PYCCKHiI:
6. Mbl OTAOXHYJIH nozi ... ztepeaow, TeHHcTblil: 126

(e)

I. Mbl 6blJIH na ... c06paHHH. .

2. HylKllO same 6bIBaTb aa ... B03Ayxe:

3. M bl 6bIJIH B I(HpKC aa ... npencraancaaa.

rrpolj>cOH)3HbIH cBelKHH YTpeHHHH

Feminine

ADJECTI\'ES WHOSE STEM E"IDS I:\, A HARD OR SOFT CONSONAl'iT

---- Adjecnvee Whose Stem End"
Ad edl v es Whose Stem Fnd .. In
a Hard Consonant in a Soft Consonant
r--
Ending Ending
HOBaH ¢a6p~Ka -aH nOCJIeLlHHH crpanaua -HH
Nom. 'last page'
'new factory -eil
HOBOil ¢a6pHKH -oil: nocJ1e)1Heil CTpaHHIIhI
Gen. -oil nOCJ1e;1Heil cTpaHHIIc -eil
Dat. HOBOil ¢a6pHKe
Ace. HOBYIO ¢a6pHKY -YIO nOcm'!LlHIOIO CTpaHIlUY -1010
Instr. HOBOil ¢a6pHKoi1 -oil nocJ1e/.lHeil crpaaancit -eil
Prep. o HOBOil ¢a6pHKe -oil o nocnennea CTpaHHUc -eil ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A SIBILANT FOLLOWED BY A STRESSED OR U~STRESSED ENDING

Adjectives with a Ending Adjectives with an Ending
Stressed Ending Unstressed Ending
Nom. 60.1blmlH KOMHaTa -aa xopomas pafio ra -as
'large room 'good work' -eil
Gen. 60.1'bllloil KO"!HaTbl -oil xopollleil pafio rst
Oat. 60.rlbllloil KOMHaTe -oil xopomeii pafio re -eil
Ace. 60.1blll~·~ KO"1HaTY~ -YIO XOPOIllYIO pa60TY -YIO
Instr. 60.1b1llOH KOMHaTOH -oil xopollleil pafioroii -eil
Prep. o 60J1bllloil KOMHaTc -oil o xopomeil pafio re -eil 1. Feminine adjective" take identical endings (-oil or -ea) in the gen-

itive dative instrumental and preposItIOnal. . .

i. Adje~tives whose st~m ends in .a sibilant (*, 'I, ~ or ,Ill) In~anably take the ending -aa In the nornmatrve (c~eJKaH fresh, .ropHIf~H 'hot', xopeuraa 'good', o6luaH 'common'). :~IO In the ~~cusatIv.e (c~eJ\ylO, ropHlfYIO, xopomyro, o6mylO); an~ -eu I? t~e gemt}ve, ~da!IVe, ~n~ strumental and prepositional (cBe*eH, ropaxeu, xopomeu~ ~06I1leu~, however, after JK, m the ending is -on if it is stressed (60Jll.moH 'large,

'1YJ\oil 'strange').

Exercise 11. (a) Give written answers to the questions, using the adjcctive, rJ1~BHaH. 1. Kaxas -)ro y.~HIIa? 2. Ha KaKoH YJ1111(e aaxozurrcs renerparp? 3. ~a,KaKYIO YJIHl!y nOBCpH}.Ia Ma!LIHHa? 4. no KaKoH y.1H1le X?)lHT anrofiyc? 5. BllOJIb KaKOH YJIHllhI pacryr Jlllnbl? 6. KaKoii yJIHI(ei1 BhI IUJIH K BOK1aJIY?

(h) Give written answers to the questions. using the adjective CeIO)1I1HIIIHHH.

127

I. KaKali rasera J1elKUT Ha CTOJ1e? 2. 1'13 KaKoH ra3eTbi Tbi Y3HaJ1 :hy HOBOCTJ,? 3. B KaKoif rasere TI.l npoxaran 06 3TOM? 4. KaKYIO rasery OH '1HTaeT? 5. KaKoH r33eTol! Bbi aarepecyerecs? 6. 3a KaKOH raaeroji Bbi npamrra?

(b) I. R aanacan nHcLMo cecrpe.

2. Mauraaa exana no nopore.

3. Msr npHBhIKJ1H K ... lKU3HH.

4. CTy.neHTbI rOToBlITClI K ... ceccaa.

5. Bnaronaps ... norene 3KCKYPCHII npouina y.na'lHO.

(c) I. B ... H ... norony XO'leTCIi noexars 3a ropon,

2. MbI 06cYlK.naJ1H HalIIY ... pa60TY.

3. 4epe3 ... peKY nOCTpOUJIH MOCT.

4. OH n0J10lKUJ1 CBOU KHurH aa ... nOJ1KY.

(d) I. OH PYKOBO.nilT .,. J1a60paTopHeH.

2. 3TH li6J10KH C03peBaIOT ... OceHbIO.

3. )l,epeBLII nOKphlJ1HCb 3eJ1eHbIO.

4. MI.l O'leHL .nOBOJ1LHbl rrporyneon.

5. R noH.nY B 6H6J1HOTeKY sa ... KHuroH.

(e) I. OH HYlK.naeTcli B ... nOMolllH.

2. PYKoBo.nHTeJ1L paccxasan HaM 0 ... pafiore,

3. MOH TOBapHllI lKHBCT B ... KOMHaTe.

4. R He c.neJ13J1 HH O.nHOH olIIu6KH B ... pafiore.

5. KallJIH .nolK.nli 6J1eCTeJ1H aa ... 3eJ1eHH.

cerO.nHlIlIIHHH

CUJ1bHLIH 6J1HlKaHlIIHH

ManeHLKHH

CTaplIIHH

POBHblH CTy.neH'IecKHH 3K3aMeHallHoHHblH XOPOlIIHH

TenJ1blH, COJ1He'lHblH 06mHH

lIIHpOKHH

BepxHHH

XHMH'IecKHH n03.nHHH

cBelKHH

B'IepalIIHHH

HOBblH

.npYlKecKHH npencrosuma Coce.nHHH nucbMeHHblH cBelKHH

THE DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES IN THE PLURAL

. In the plural, adjectives of all three genders take identical endmgs,

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A HARD CONSONANT

Nom. HOBbie (aaaonsr, ljla6pHKH, 3.naHHII -b1e
'new' 'plants', 'factories', 'buildings')
(Y'lHTeJ1lr, Y'lHTeJ1bHHlIbl
'schoolmasters', 'schoolmistresses')
Gen. HOBbiX (aasonoe, ljla6pHK, 3.naHHH) -biX
(Y'lHTeJ1eH, Y'lilTeJ1bHHlI)
Dat. HOBbiM (aasonass, ljla6pHKaM, 3.naHHIIM) -101M
(Y'lHTeJ1lrM, Y'lHTeJ1LHHlIaM)
Ace, HOBbie (aaaoztsr, ljla6pHKH, 3):(aHHII) as Nom.
HOBbiX (Y'lHTeJ1eH, Y'lHTeJ1bHHlI) or Gen.
Instr. HOBblMH (3aBo):(aMH, ljla6pHKaMH, 3):(aHHlIMH) -blMH
(Y'lHTeJ1lrMH, Y'lHTeJ1bHHlIaMH)
Prep. o HOBbiX (sasonax, ljla6pHKax, ananasx) -srx
(yxarenax, Y'lHTeJ1bHHlIax) 128

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A SOFT CONSONANT

--:
Nom. nOCJ1c).(HHe ():(HH, crpaaauu. \-ICCTa -HC
'last' 'days', 'pages'. 'places')
(rroce nrrena, noce rare.n.uann
'men visitors', 'women visitors')
Gen. nOCJlc).(IIHX (.ilHci1, CTpaHHlI, MeCT) -HX
(nocer arc.ieti. nocerare.u.ann)
Dat. nOCJle;IHHM (;IHlI\-I, crpanauaw, !'.fCCTaM) -HM
(nocerurenav, noccrwre.u.auuaxi)
Acc. nocaennne (..JHH, crpamuru. \-ICCTd) as Nom.
nOCJlc).(HHX (noccrm C.1Ci:i. nocertrrc.n.aan) or Gen.
Instr. nocJlc).(HHMH ():(HlrMH. crpanauawa. MccTaMH) -HMH
(noceTHTeJllIMI1, nocc'nrre.u.nanawa)
Prep. o nOCJlc).(IIHX ():(HlIX, crpanauax. MccTax) -HX
(noce nrre.rax. nocerare.n.anuax) Notes.- I. If an adjective qualifies a noun denoting an animate being, its accusative and genitive are identical (HORbiX Y'lHTCJ1eH, Y'lHTCJ1bHHU).

If an adjective qualifies a noun denoting an inanimate object, its accusative and nominative are identical (HOBbIC aaaoztsr, ljla6pHKH).

2. The genitive and the prepositional have identical endings (-blX, -HX).

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A SIBILANT

60JlblllUe 'large' xopourae 'good' 60JlblIIHX 60JlblllHM 60JlblllHe XOPOlIIHX 60JlLlIIHMH o 60JlblllHX

(JlOMa, KOMHaTbI, 3l1aHHlI 'houses', 'rooms', 'buildings') (Y'leHHKH, Y'leHHlIbl 'schoolboys', 'schoolgirls') (lI0MOB, KOMHaT, 3l1aHHH) (lI0MaM, KOMHaTaM, 3l1aHHlIM) (.iIOMa, KOMHaTbI, 3l1aHHlI) (Y'leHHKOB, Y'leHHU)

(lI0MaMH, KOMHaTa'vlH. 3l1aHHlIMH) (lI0MaX, KOMHaTax, 3l1aHHlIx)

ADJECTIVES WHOSE STEM ENDS IN r, K, X

-ae

-HX

-HM

as Nom. or Gen. -HMH

-HX

Exercise 12. Write out thc sentences, filling in the blanks with the adjectives given on the right in the required case.

(a) I. Msr Y3HanH 06 3TOM H3 ... ra3eTLI.

2. Iloesn onosaan 113-3a ... MeTeJ1H.

3. )l,o ... nepeaaa .naa KHJ10Me-rpa.

4. Ilocne ... xOllb6hi Mbi OTlIOXHYJ1H na 6epery ... pe- .nOJIrHH

'1KH.

Nom.

Gen. Oat. Ace,

Instr. Prep.

Nom.

J1erKHe 'easy' crporae 'strict' J1erKHX J1erKHM J1erKHe cTparHx J1erKHMH o J1erKHX

(TeKCTbI, aanaxa. ynpaxaeaua 'texts', 'problems', 'exercises') (Y'lHTeJISI, Y'lHTeJlbHHubl 'schoolmasters', 'schoolmistresses') (TeKcToB. aanau, ynpalKHeHHH) (TeKcTaM, 3a):(a'!aM, ynpalKHeHHlIM) (TeKcTbI, 3a,la'lH, ynpaxaeana) (Y'lHTeJ1eH, y'!HTe.~bHHu)

(TeKcTaMH, 3a.na'!aMH, ynpalKHeHHlIMH) (rexcrax, aanasax, ynpaxnenasx)

-HC

-HX

-HM

as Nom. or Gen. -HMH

-HX

Gen. Oat. Ace,

Instr. Prep.

After the sibilants (lK, 'I, ur, IQ) and after r, K, x adjectives take the endings -HX, -HM, -HMH (xopourax, JIerKHX; xop6mHM, JIerKHM; xopoIlIJtMH, JIerKHMH).

Exercise 13. Give written answers to the questions, using the adjective 6oJlLiliON.

129

I. KaKHe Y HIIX ycncxa? 2. 0 KaKHx ycnexax cnoprcveaos coofiuiana ra3er. 3. C KaKHMII ycnexaxm IIX n03J.(paBIIJlII? 4. KaKHM ycnexa« OHH paJ.(YIOTclI? 5. KaKHX / nexoa OHH J.(ocTHrJlH? c.

Exercise 14. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the adjectives giVe

on the right in the required case. n

(a) I. CTYJ.(eHTbl aoaepauraiorcs c ... KaHHKYJl.

2. Ilocrre ... XOJlOJ.(OB HacTynHJlII TenJlble secenuae J.(HH.

3. MHe CKY'IHO 6e3 ... KHIfr.

4. B :lT0 JleTO 6blJl0 MHoro ... JlHeH.

Crynenrsr rorosxrca K ... 3K3aMcHaM. Ceronns II uanacana nHcbMa ... J.(PY3bllM. CaMOJleT npll6J1l1lKaeTCli K ... ropasi.

no '" YJlIII . .{aM M'IaTCli aBTOM06HJlIf.

MbI BCCeJlO nposena ... KaHHKYJlbl.

B POllHOM repone OH BCTpCTIfJl ... TOBapHlueH. CKOPO 3K3aMCHbi. CTYJleHTbl cnyuraior ... JleKUIfIl. Becnoii aa ... nons ssiexana rpaxropsr.

B npiI3J.(HIIK ace YJlHUbl 6hlJlII yxpaureass ... «pm!raMH.

TYPHCTbl WJlH c ... necHIIMII.

Becaok ace olKlIBaeT non ... JlY'IaMII COJlHua. Flepen ... 3K3aMeHaMH Mbl O'leHb MHoro 3aHHMaJlIICb.

Ha ... copesnouanasx OH 3aHliJI nepsoe MCCTO. Mbl JHaeM 0 ... TPYJlHOCTliX.

Ha ... JaHlITlIlIx npHcYTcTBOBaJJH see,

(b) 1.
2.
3.
4.
(c) 1.
2.
3.
4.
(d) 1.
2.
3.
4.
(e) 1.
2.
3. .1eTHIIH 3HMHIIH

IIHTepCCHblH lKapKIfH

BecCHHIIH CTaPblH KaBKalcKIIH WHPOKHH

3HMHIIH WKOJlbHblH nOCJleJlHIIH 6ecKpiltiHHH

pa3HoU~THbIH

eecensra rOpll'lHH BeceHHHH

JlbllKHblH npertcrosuraa Be'lepHHH

Exercise 15. State the gender, number and case of the adjectives. Write down the nominative singular of each adjective and the noun it qualifies.

I. B cany nen COJlOBCH CBOIO nOCJleJlHlO1O npeJ.(paccBCTHYIO necas. (Typi!.) 2. Ilocne CBCTJlO:O JlCTH~rO JlHlI HacTynHJI lICHblH H TitxlIH sesep. (Typi!.).3. Jluuo rope.no OT COJlHua II csexero eosnyxa. (Ilaycm.s 4. Flocne HeJ.(aBHHx JlOlKJleH 0 rrecy 6hlJl0 J.(OBOJlbHO Cbl' po. (Apc.) 5. 113 :lTHX OKOH aecnacs na YJlHUY panocrusie, JIerKHe 3BYKH 3BOHKIIX MOJID' JlhlX rOJlOCOB, 6ecnpepblBHoro csrexa. (Typi!.)

6. B anneio TeMHylO BXOlKY 1I; CKB03b KYCTbl r JlIIJlitT Be'lepHHH Jly'I, II lKeJlTble JlHCnd WYMlIT non P06KIIMIf waraMH. (JT.)

7. Ha cesepe JlHKOM CTOitT OJlIfHOKO Ha rOJlOH sepunure COCHa. (JT.)

Exercise 16. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the words given in brackets in the required case.

(a) I. MOH rosapmu lKlfoeT aa BOCbMOM eraxe .... 2. K ... nozrsexuna MawitHa.

3 . .[(eBywKa BOWJla B ....

4. Mauiaaa ocTaHOOHJlaCb nepen ....

5. Ilpa ... ecrs crosaxa aBToM06itJleH. (60JIbWOH CocCJlHHH .!lOM)

Mbl Me'lTaJIH 0 ....

Bee CTaJIH TCMHblMH OT .... MbI npHBhn:JIH IC ....

HeJlb3l1 anoynorpefiners ....

HeJIb3" CMOTpCTb 6e3 TCMHblX O'lICOB na .... (ropssee JOlKHoe COJIHlle)

.H c06paJI 6yICh ....

(b) I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(c) 1.
130 2. Mbl KynHJlIf ....

3. M bl paJlOBaJlHCb ....

4. )J,CTH YKpaC~JlH KOM.HUTY .

5. nO:JT aanacan CTHXH 0 .

(nepOble seceunae useru)

Exercise 17. Decline (orally) the following phrases consisting of a noun and its ad-

. qualifier Make up sentences of yourown, using some of the phrases m all the

jCCuve .

cases.

I nOCJlC}lHHH TpYj]HbIH ·)K3aMcH. 2. Baxuoe 061l1ee ne.no. 3. )J,aJlbHHH COCHOBblH 4' ~pKoe seceuuee cormue. 5. nOCJlCJlHHe TenJlblC .'l.HIf.

Jlee. .

Exercise 18. Write out the sentences. filling irr the blanks with the words given on the right in the required case.

I. n6cJlc nYTewecTBcHHHKH HaKoHc11 npH6JlH311-

J1HCb K .

2. )J,CTH IIrpaJIII ~oKpyr .

~ 3TH UBCTbl 601lTCli .

4: Moli 6pal YBJlCKaCTCII ....

5. Bee paJlYIOTclI .... .

6. ~ 0311,1 hy KHHry C ....

7. Mbl '1I1TaJlH paccxaasr 0 .

8. CTYJlCHTbI rOToBII,lI1Cb K .

9. POCCHSI C Klt)J{):IbiM r6)lOM pacumpser

10. Pa6o'llle oananesu-or ....

llomHH TPYJ.(HbIH nyu COCHOOblli nee HOOOrOJlHlIlI ernca

pannae oceauae MOP03bl 3itMHIIC OHJ.(bl cnopra

lIpKoe seceuuee COJIHlle npaoal! OCPXHIIII nOJlKa CMCJlble BOCHHble JleT'IHKH nOC]l~JlHIIH TPYJlHblH JK3aMeH BHCmH!!!! TOprOBJl!!

nepenosue MCTO/lbl opran 11-

3allllll rpyzia

urapoxoe II scecropoanee 06- cYlKJ.(eHlle

II. 3TOT oalKHbul sonpoc rpeoyer ....

QUALITATIVE AND RELATIVE ADJECTIVES

Adjectives may denote various qualities and properties of an obje;t: its size (60JlbUlOH, MaJleHbKHii ,UOM 'large, small house'), colour (~pacHoe St6J10KO 'red apple', leJleHble J1HCTbH 'green leaves'), the matenal of which it is made (KaMeHHblH ,UOM 'a stone house'), the person to whom it belongs (MaUlHH YQe6Hl1K 'Masha's textbook', On.lOBCKaH 6H6mwrexa 'father's library'), etc.

According to their meaning, Russian adjectives fall into qualitative and relative.

Qualitative adjectives denote qualities and properties which an object may possess in a greater or lesser degree:

3TO 60J1bllIOH ,UOM, a TOT ,UOM 'This is a large house, but that

eute 60JlbUle. house is still larger.'

CeHlf3C serep X0J10,UHbIH, a B~Qe- 'Now t.he ~ind. is cold, but in t~e

POM OH 6y,UeT euie XOJlO,UHee. evening It will be still colder.

Qualitative adjectives denote: "

(I) size. dimensions: 60JlbUlOii ,UOM 'a large house', MaJleHbKaH KOMfiaT a 'a small room', OfpOMHblH ropon 'a huge city', UlHpoKaH nopora 'a Wide road', Y1KHH KOPH,UOP 'a narrow passage', HiilKHH ,UHsaH 'a low settee', BblcoKoe nepeso 'a tall tree';

(2) colour: leJleHaH rpasa 'green grass', ciiHee Mope 'a blue sea', roJly60e He60 'a blue sky', KpacHblH <pJ1ar 'a red flag', *eJlTblH J1HCT 'a yel-

131

low leaf, cepaa nsim, 'grey dust', KOpH'flieBbIH noprtpern, 'a brown brief-case';

(3) taste: cnameoe il6J10KO 'a sweet apple', KHCJ1aH KJ1WKBa 'an acid cranberry', ropsxoe J1eKapCTBo 'bitter medicine', coneuaa Boml 'salt water';

(4) weight: THiKeJIblH qeMOL{aH 'a heavy suit-case', nerxas J10L{Ka 'a light boat';

(5) temperature: XOJIO.lJ.llbIH serep 'cold wind', TenJIaH nor6.na 'warm weather', iKapKoe COJ1Hue 'a hot sun', rOpH'fHH neCOK 'hot sand' npOXJ1a.lJ.Ilb1H nesep 'a cool evening'; ,

(6) various qualities of people and things: CMeJIblH J1eHHK 'a bold flyer', npHJIeiKHblH YQeHl1K 'a diligent pupil', xpacaaaa zieayurxa 'a beautiful girl', OTJIH'fHaH pafiora 'excellent work', nnrepecuas KHHra 'an interesting book', rpycrnaa necns 'a sad song', etc.

Relative adjectives denote qualities and properties which cannot exist in objects in various degrees; they express relationships between objects.

Relative adjectives may denote a quality of an object through: (I) the material of which it is made: KaMeHHblH LlOM 'a stone house', .lJ.epeBHHllblH capaii 'a wooden shed';

(2) time: MeCH'fHbIH ornycx 'a month's holiday', ocemme m1cTbli 'autumn leaves';

(3) place: rOpO.lJ.CKOH rparrcnopr 'city transport', JIecliou B03t1yX 'the forest air';

(4) another ohject for which it is intended: crynensecxoe 06111e)l(HTHe 'a students' hall of residence', naccaiKHpcKHH noeszr 'a passenger train';

(5) the person to whom it belongs: MaUJUH YQe6HHK 'Masha's textbook', On(OBCKaH 6H6J1HOTeKa 'father's library', Flermn.r KOHbKH 'Petya's skates'.

Note. There are relative adjectives ending in -HH, -bH, -se; -bH which also qualify an object by relating it to its owner: JIIICHH XBOCT 'a fox's tail', JIIICbH JHina 'a fox's paw', JlHCbe 'lyTbC 'a fox's sense of smell', JlHCbH cnenu 'fox's tracks', MellBbcbH 6epJlora 'a bear's den', BOJl'lbH nac n, 'a wolfs mouth', DTH'Ibe rHe3.uo 'a bird's nest', Pbl6HH r.naa 'a fish's eye', 1I0MeIIlH'IHH .uOM 'a landowner's house', p ... - 6S'IbH ceri, 'fisherman's net'.

Exercise 19. Supply qualitative and relative adjectives to each of these words. Model: E01bUlOU ropon. npUMOpCKUU ropon,

ropon, )];OM, KOMHaTa, CTOJl, KHl1ra, <ilJlar, pexa, nee, ziopora, aerep, UBeTbJ, HO'lb,

B03tlyx, J10tlKa, COJ1Hue

Exercise 20. Replace the adjectives with nouns with prepositions. Model: KHHlKHblH IlJKa<il. WKatj) o.t» k·/IU?

lKeJ1(:)HaH xpsnna, nHTHJ1CTHHH nJ1aH, MOCKOBCKOC MeTpo, KOlKaHblH nopT<ileJIb, nercxas KHHra, li6J10'lHblH napor, urepcrxaoe nnarse, KHHlKHaH nOJIKa

Exercise 21. State in which of these phrases the relative adjectives have a qualitative meaning.

lKe.lbHaH xpsnua, lKe.lf:3Hali LlllcUHn.1HHa. cransaas sons, CTaJlbHOH HOlK. 30J10TOe K0J1bU6. 30J10TOe BpeMlI, B03.!lYIUHoe nnarse. B03.ilYUlHoe npOCTpaHCTBO, .!leTCKaH KoMna fa. nercxoe yxpexneaae

132

COMPLETE AND SHORT-FORM ADJECTIVES AND THEIR FUNCTION IN THE SENTENCE

Russian adjectives fall into complete-form and short-form adjec-

(ves .

I Qualitative adjectives may be either complete (HHTepecHblH paCCK,l3

'an interesting story', arrrepecuaa KHl1:ra 'an interesting book', HHTepecDoe Coo6111eHHe 'interesting report', mrrepecnsre HOBOCTH 'interesting news') or short (paccxas arrrepecen 'the story is interesting', KHl1ra JlHTepecHa 'the book is interesting', co06111eHHe anrepecao 'the report is interesting', HOBOCTH mrrepecma 'the news is interesting').

Relative adjectives may be only complete (CTY.lJ.ell'feCKHH 6HJ1eT 'student's identity card', CTY.lJ.ell'feCKaH )l(H3Hh 'students' life', cryziee'1eCKOe 06111e)l(MTHe 'students' hall of residence', CTY.lJ.eH'feCKHe pafiorsr 'students' papers').

Complete-form adjectives answer the questions KaKOU?, KaKaH?, teaKoe?, KaKHe? 'what (sort of)?', and short-form adjectives the questions KaK{)8?, KaKoBa?, KaKoBo?, KaKoBbl? 'what (sort of)?':

KaKoH paccxas? - HHTepeCHblH 'An interesting story.' paccxas.

KaKoB paccxaa? - Paccxas 'The story is interesting.'

mrrepeceu.

Complete-form adjectives are used in sentences either as attributes:

51 npOQHTaJ1 HIITepecHYIO KHMry. or as predicates:

3n KHHra aurepecaaa. 'This book is interesting.'

Complete-form adjectives change for gender, number and case and agree with the noun they qualify in gender, number and case.

Short-form adjectives are used in sentences as predicates; they are not declined, but agree with the noun they qualify (the subject) in gender and number:

'I read an interesting book.'

PacCKa3 HHTepecell.

KHJ1ra mrrepecna,

Coo6111eHHe aurepecno. PaccKa3bI, KHHm, co06111eHHSI

mrrepecnsr.

'The story is interesting.' 'The book is interesting.' 'The report is interesting.'

'The stories, books, reports are interesting. '

The link verb 6b1Tb is generally omitted in the present tense. In the past tense the link verb is 6br.1, 6br.1a, 6bl.10, 6bIJIH.

PaCCKil3 6blJI anrepeceu (mrrepec- 'The story was interesting.' HMU).

JIeKUHSI 6blJIa HHTepecHa (HHTe- 'The lecture was interesting.' pecuaa),

COo6111eHHe 6bl.TlO aarepecao 'The report was interesting.'

(HHTepeCIIOe ).

133

Paccxaasr, JIeKIUHI, C006U(CHlUI 'The stories, lectures and reports

6bl.1H anrepecu ... (aurepecmae). were interesting,

In the future tense the link verb is 6YJJ:eT, 6YJJ:YT:

Paccxas 6YJJ:eT mrrepecen (HHTepecHbIH).

J1eKUH5I 6Y,'1.eT narepecna (HIlTepecnaa).

Coofiuienne 6y JJ:eT nnrepecno (mrrepecnoe).

Paccxaasr, JleKUHH, coofiurenas 6YJJ:YT narepecma (HHTePCCHhle).

(For the use of complete and short-form adjectives as part of the predicate, see p, 447,)

'The story will be interesting,'

'The lecture will be interesting.'

'The report will be interesting',

'The stories, lectures and reports will be interesting,'

The adjectives pan 'glad' and ;J;OJllKCH 'obliged', have only the short

Note, form:

OH pa.t BCTPC'fC c B.1:-.-1I1, Ona pa ia BHJlCTb aac.

OHl:1 )IOJllKllhl CKOPO npl1I1TH,

'He i\ glad to meet yOU, 'She is glad to see you,' 'They must come soon.'

THE ENDINGS

OF SHORT-FORM ADJECTIVES

Complete Form

Singular

BhICOKH" ,(0'"

'tall house'

KpaCHBhI" IlBCT6K 'beautiful flower'

1 py iuaa aa.ta-ra 'difficult problem' IIIl1pOKall PCKd

'wide river' CBOOO..lHOC vice 1'0 'vaca n t scat' npaBIIJlhHOC perueuuc 'correct decision'

)10'" BhlCOK

'the house is tall' URCT(1K KpacHB

'the flower is beautiful' 1<Lla'fa Tp~',lHa

'the problem is difficult' PCKd umpOl,a

'the river i\ w ide' ~1'::CTO CBOOO,IIIO

'the scat is vacant' peurennc npaBIIJlhHO 'the decision is correct'

Plur.li

BhlCOKIIC no \1a

'tall houses' TpjilHhlC 3arla'fH 'difficult problems' cB060.IHhIC vicc'ra 'vacant scat,'

llO!Vl.1 BhlCOKH

'the houses are tall' 3a.l{I'fU Tpy.lHhI

'the problems are difficult" :l.1CC1 a CBOOO.IHhI

'the scab arc, acant

IJ4

135

1. Short-form adjectives take no endings in the masculine singular; they are identical wi~h ~he stems o~ the ~orresponding complete-form adjectives (JJ:OM BblCOK the house IS tall ),

2, In the feminine gender the ending is -a (aana-ra TPYJJ:lUl 'the problem is difticulC) and in the neuter -0 (MecTo cB06oJ],1I0 'the seat is vacant'). The plural ending for all genders is either -bl or -H (3aJJ:a'IH, BonpOCbJ. ynpa)!{IH~HH5I TPY;J.llbl, J1erKH 'the problems, questions, exercises are difficult, easy'), the ending -H being added after r, K, x or a sibilant (lI\ 0I,1f or m) (J1erKu 'easy', XOPOIllH 'good') and -bl after a hard conso~ant (TPY /Jllbl 'difficult', KpacHobl 'beautiful').

3. If there are two or more consecutive consonants at the end of the stem of a complete-form adjective, an unstable 0 or e may appear bet\\'een the consonants in the short form masculine: 6ilH3KHH "near' 6.1HlOK, 6bHblH 'poor' - 6cJJ:eH.

An unstable 0 appears when the complete-form adjective has a hard consonant at the end of the root before the suffix -K-:

TOHKHH 'thin' YlKHH 'narrow' ~lOBKHH 'adroit' cmlll.KHH 'sweet'

TOIIOK YJOK J10BOK cmiJJ:oK

6mt3KJlH "near H"3I-mH 'low' KpcnKIfH 'strong'JlemHH 'easy'

6,TlHJOK HU30K ... penox J1erOK

Besides, 0 appears in the following short form adjectives: JJ:OJlrHH

'long' -lI.oJ1or, nOJ1lIl.IH 'full' nOJ](III, cMeuIII6H 'funny' cMemoli.

An un-table e or (i appears after a consonant before the suffix -H-:

6CJJ:llhiH 'poor' 6eJJ:eH Tpy.1.IIb1H 'difficult' TpYJJ:eH

60J1bHOH 'sick' 60J1eH IICJKllblH 'gentle' HeJKeH

6J1Cil.HblH 'pale' 6J1ClI.eH l'pSI3I1b1H 'dirty' rpSl3eH

BPC"J,HbIH 'harmful' npeneu YMHblH 'clever' YMeu

nOJ1C3HbIH 'useful' - nO,lC3eH 1fepHhlH 'black' 1fCpeH

UYJKHblH 'necessary' HYJKell

An unstable e also appears when there is a soft consonant or -H at the end of the root before the suffix -K-:

rOPbKHH 'bitter' rope ...

60nKHH 'sharp' 60eK

CTOHKHH 'staunch'<-> CToeK

Besides, an unstable e or e appears in the following adjectives:

"HC.lbIH 'sour' - Kllce_l

CBCT,lblH 'light' CBCTeJ1

TenJ1blH 'warm' TCneJ1

XHTpblii 'sly' OCTpblH 'sharp'

Note. No unstable vowel can appear between C and T: '1HCThI" 'clean'

'fIlCT, TOiICThIH 'fat' TO.'1CT, nycToH 'empty' nycr, npoeron 'simple' npocr,

An adjective whose complete form ends in -eHHbIH, -eHHHH (yaepeu""'n 'sure', oTKpooellllblH 'frank', uCKpeHHHH 'sincere') has the ending -ell or -euen in the short form (yaepen, orxpoeenen, HCKpeHell):

Jlef'KOMbICJleHHbIH JlernOMblCJleH

'light-headed'

60ilhHeHHbIH 'sickly' 60Jle3HeH

Of'paHlf'feHHbIH 'limited' orpaussen

YBepeHHhlH 'sure' yaepeu

06bIKHoBeHHMH 'ordinary' 06bIKHoBeHeH

uCKpeHHHH 'sincere' uCKpeHeH

HeH3MeHHbIH 'invariable' HeH3MeHeH

oTKpoBeHHbIH 'frank' nrxpoaenen

Exercise 22. Write out the sentences. Underline the short-form adjectives. State their gender and number.

I. PYCCKlIH nO:JT PO.nHJICIi B crpaae, rrte He60 cepo, cnera rJIy6oKH, MOP03bl Tpeclty_ 'Ill, BblOrH crpaumu, JIeTO 3HOIIHO, 3CM,ll1 06H.lbHa 1I nnonopoaua. (Se.t.) 2. JIlICTB;l aa 6epe3ax 6bl,1;l euie nO'lTH BClI sencua. (Tvp?) 3. 3,lecb JllO.lll BO.lbHbl. He60 RCHO. (fl.) 4. Mopoaaa HO%; see He60 lICHO. (fl.) 5. fle'laJIbHbl 6bl.111 HaWlI BCl pe'lll. (ll.) 6. llyn, aa osepa 6blJI no.nor. (llaycm.) 7. 4y.neceH WyM HO'lHOrO .nolK.nll. (A. T.)

Exercise 23. Replace the following phrases consisting of a noun and a complete. form adjective which qualifies it with phrases composed of a noun and a short-form ad. jective and write them down.

Model: Crporaa Y'lHTe.lb. Y'!HreJIb CTpOr.

cBelKlIH B03.nyX, TPY/IHbIH sonpoc, KOPOTKlIH paccxas, npocroa cnocofi, 6e.nHbIil xpecr sanaa, 60raTblH noveurax, Hil3KlIii nOTOJlOK, nyc-I oil craxaa, TOHKlIH crcfiens, 60JIbHOH pefieaos; Y3KlIH xopanop, HYlKHblH Y'le6HlIK, JIerKliH '1eMo.naH, CBo6o,llHbIil BXO.n

Exercise 24. Read through the sentences. Find the short-form adjectives and state their funcuon in the sentences.

I. 3eMJIli BeJIlIKa 1I npexpacua. ECTb aa Heil MHOIO '1Y.lleCHblX MeCT. (l.fex.) 2. 3ani.lIO'lHbl 1I noroxry rrpexpacasr TeMHble '!aUlll necos, my6llHbi MopeH. (llaycm.) 3. )KH3Hb npexpacaa 1I YllllBHTeJIbHa. (MaRK.) 4. YTpO 6bfJIO caexcee H npexpacaoe. (Jl.) 5. THX:! yxpaaacxas HO'lb. Ilpospa-mo He60. (fl.) 6. 51cHO YTpO. THXO seer TenJIblH BeTepOK. (HUK.) 7. KaK nee XopOW n03}]HCH oceusio! (T),p?) 8_ flo'!c-wy TaK xopoin 1I xynolKeCTBeH 1I3blK naponaoa pexn? flOTOMY 'ITO B aaponaoii pe'lll lKHBYT 1I scerna .lIeiiCTByroT 3aKOHbi pOlK,lIeHlIlI 1I3b1Ka. (A. T.)

THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Only qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison.

Relative and possessive adjectives have no degrees of comparison. Qualitative adjectives have two degrees of comparison: compara-

tive and superlative.

The comparative degree:

30J10TO TH~eJlee )J(eJ1f:3a. BOJ1ra .umlHHee )].Henpa.

'Gold is heavier than iron.'

'The Volga is longer than the Dnieper.'

The superlative degree:

3BcpecT - BbICO'faHlUaH ropa

B MHpe.

MocKoBcKMH rocynapcraennsni

YHMBepcMTeT cTapeHIllHH

YHMBepcMTeT CTpaHbI.

'Everest is the highest mountain in the world.'

'Moscow State University is the oldest university in this country.'

136

qeMnMOHaT C'beXaJ1MCh CHJlh- 'The country's strongest hockey

J-I~eHuJJte xOKKeHHhle KOMaH.uhI teams arrived for the cham-

CTpaHbI. pionship.'

The comparative degree may be either simple (mrrepecnee 'more insting', Bblllle 'higher') or compound (60Jlee mrrepecHbtH 'more intertere, ,~ 'hi h ')

esting', 60Jlee BbiCOKHH ig er .

THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE

The simple comparative is forme~ by mea~s of the s,~ffi~ -e: TUIll,e 'quie!er', f'POM'f~ 'l?u,der', or -ee .( -e~): cunsnee (cHJlbHeH) stronger, KpacHsee (KpacHBeH) more beautiful.

The Suffix -ee (-eH)

The suffix -ee (-eH) is used to form the comparative of most adjectives:

CUiIbHhlH 'strong' CHJlbHee (cHJlbHeH) 'stronger'

cmi6b1H 'weak' cnatiee (CJla6eH) 'weaker'

cBeTiIblH 'light' caernee (cnernea) 'lighter'

TeMHblH 'dark' TeMllee (TeMlleH) 'darker'

npHMoH 'straight' npHMee (npHMeH) 'straighter'

The comparative is generally stressed on the first e of the suffix -ee. The comparative of polysyllabic adjectives (of three or more syllables) is stressed on the stem, as is the positive degree:

'more interesting'

HHTepeCHblH 'interesting'

HHTepeCHee (HHTepecHeH) noneauee (nonesuea)

- iepacaaee (KpacIlBeH) C'faCT JlUBee

( C'faCT JlUBeH) BHHMaTeJlhHee (BHHMaTeJlbHeH)

'more attentive'

nOiIbHblH 'useful'

'more useful'

KpaCUBblH 'beautiful'

'more beautiful'

C'faCT JlUBblH 'happy'

'happier'

8HHMaTe.'1bHbIH 'attentive'

The Suffix -e

1. The suffix -e is used to form the comparative of adjectives whose stem ends in f' K X or .u, T, CT and also of a number of adjectives with other stems. The ~uffix -e is never stressed. In the formation of the comparative an alternation of consonants occurs:

Jl.OPOf'OH 'dear' .uopo~e 'dearer'

CTporHH 'strict' crpoace 'stricter'

KpenKHH 'strong'- Kpen'fe 'stronger' rpOMKHH 'loud' - f'pOM'fe 'louder'

137

THXHii 'quiet' - THme 'quieter'

cyxoii 'dry' cyme 'drier'

MOJlo.1\oii 'young'- MOJlOiKe 'younger' TBep.1\Llii 'hard' - TBepiKe 'harder' 60nlTLlii 'rich' - 6ora'fe 'richer' KPYTOii 'steep' - KpY'fe 'steeper' TOJlCTLlii 'stout' - TOJlme 'stouter' 'fHCTLlii 'clean' - 'lin.ue 'cleaner'

In the formation of the comparatives of a number of adjectives Wi~h the suffixes -K-, -OK- these suffixes are dropped and an alternation of fi. nal consonats occurs In the root:

HH3KHH 'low' - HHiKe 'lower'

BLiCOKuH 'high', 'tall' - BLnue 'higher' 'taller'

YlKHii 'narrow' YiKe 'narrower'

6J1H3KHii 'near' - 6J1HiKe 'nearer'

KOpOTKHii 'short' - KOpO'fe 'shorter'

pe.1\KHii 'rare' - peiKe 'rarer'

, 2. !,he .c~mparatives of the adjectives .1\aJleKHii 'far', .1\oJlnrii 'long', TOHKHH thin are formed by means of the suffix -me, the K and r being dropped:

.1\aJJeKHii 'far' - .1\3.rJbme 'farther' .1\OnrHH 'long' - .1\OJlbme 'longer' TOHKHii 'thin' - TOHbme 'thinner'

3. For the comparatives of nnoxoa 'bad' xOpOmHii 'good' M3.rJeHb-

KHii 'small' forms obtained from other roots are used. '

nJloxoii 'bad' - xYiKe 'worse'

xOpOmHii 'good' - JlY'IIlIe 'better'

MaJleHbKHii 'small' - MeHbme 'smaller'

4. The comparatives of 6oJlbmoii 'large', n03.1\HHii 'late' cJla,!\KHii 'sweet', rJlyooKHii 'deep' and .1\emeBLlii 'cheap' are formed i;regularly:

6oJlbmoii 'large' - oo.ilbme 'larger'

n03.1\HHii 'late' - nosnaee 'later'

or n03iKe

CJIa.1\KuH 'sweet' - CJIame 'sweeter' r.ilyooKuH 'deep' - rJly6iKe 'deeper' .1\erneBblii 'cheap'- .1\erneBJle 'cheaper'

Adjectives. in the comparative may be used with the prefix no- which ~as th~ mearung of '(just) a little': noOOJlbrne 'a little more' nOBbirne 'a httle higher', 'a little taller', nO.1\opOiKe 'a little dearer'. '

The Compound Comparative Degree

The c?mparative of some qualitative adjectives is not formed bf means of suffixes. The following adjectives belong to this group:

138

1. Adjectives with the suffix -CK- (.1\PYiKecKHu 'friendly', TOBapHJlleCKHH 'friendly', 'comradely').

2. Adjective~ with the suffixes -0-, -e- (JJ.e.;IOBoH 'businesslike', nepe-

)lOBOH 'foremost', MaccoBbiu 'mass', 60eBou 'fighting').

3. A number of other adjectives: paulIHH 'early', ropbKHu 'bitter', JlltUlHHH 'superfluous', pOOKHH 'shy', JIIlnKHii 'sticky', .ll.eplKHii 'impertinent', rOp.J.bIH 'proud', oT.-.6r'Hu 'sloping', BhxHH 'ramshackle', nnocKIlIt 't1at', YCTaJlblH 'tired'.

These adjectives have the compound comparative degi ee formed by

means of the word oOJlee 'more' or Meuee 'less':

M:lCCOBbIU - o()JIee MaccoBblH

'mass', 'on 'on a larger scale'

a large

scale' piullmii 'early' yCTaJlhIH 'tired' )lPYiKecKIIH 'friendly'

- 60Jlec pauIIHii 'earlier'

- OOJlCC YCTaJlbIii 'more tired'

- 66.1ee .ll.PYiKecKHii 'more friendly'

- Mellee M3CCOBblii 'on a smaller scale'

Mellee pallllHH 'not so early'

- Meuce YCTrulblii 'less tired'

- MeHee .ll.pYiKecKHH 'less friendly'

The compound comparative degree may be formed from any qualitative adjective .

One can say either:

3n KHHra aurepecuee, qeM 'ra. or:

3Ta KHHra 60Jlcc nurepecna, qeM 'ra.

Kaaxa'scxne ropu BI;lllle, qeM Ypanscxne.

or:

KaBKa3cKHe ropsr 60Jlcc BblcoKHe, qeM Ypam.cxne.

'This book is more interesting than that one.'

'The Caucasian mountains are higher than the Urals.'

Use of the Comparative Degree

Adjectives in the simple comparative degree (of the CHJlbllee 'stronger', BhUDC 'higher' type) do not change for gender, number or case.

The simple comparative degree is generally used in sentences as part of the predicate:

Bpal MOJlOiKe cecrpu, 'The brother is younger than the

sister.'

Epa I 6blJl BhlUIe cec I pbl. 'The brother was taller than the

sister. '

but it may also be an attribute:

Oli nonyxnn KOMHaTY 60Jlhrne 'He got a larger room than mine.' MoeH.

139

When used as an attribute, the simple comparative degree invari. ably follows the word it qualifies.

The second part of the compound comparative degree (6oJlee HHTepecHblH 'more interesting', 6()J]ee paHHHH 'earlier') changes for gen. der and number.

CerO.lJ.HSllIIHSlSI

JIeKlJ,HSI

60Jlee

HHTepeCHa, qeM BqepaUJHSlSI.

CerO.lJ.HSllUHHH cexranap 60.1ee arrrepecen, qeM BqepawHHH.

Ceronnaumee sanaaae 60Jlee mrrepecuo, qeM axepaumee.

CerO.lJ.HSlIIJHHe JIeKlJ,HH 60.1ee

mrrepecma, qeM asepanmae.

'Today's lecture is more interest. ing than yesterday's.'

'Today's seminar is more interest. ing than yesterday's.'

'Today's assignment is more interesting than yesterday's.' 'Today's lectures are more inter. esting than yesterday's.'

Adjectives in the compound comparative degree change also for case:

51 He nOMHlO yrpa 60Jlee I'OJ1y- 601"'0 H cBb,ero. (ll.)

'I do not remember a bluer and fresher morning.'

The compound comparative degree is used in sentences either as the predicate (always in the short form):

CerO.lJ.HSlWHSISI

60Jlee

HHTepeCHa, qeM axepatuasa.

'Today's lecture is more interesting than yesterday's.'

or as an attribute (always in the complete form):

51 He nOMHlO yrpa 60Jlee rnny- 'I do not remember a bluer and

60ro H CBelKero. (ll.) fresher morning.'

In Russian, the noun denoting an object with which another object is compared takes either the genitive:

Cecrpa npunesenee 6pha.

'The sister is more diligent than her brother.'

or the nominative after the conjunction 'IeM 'than':

'The sister is more diligent than her brother.'

The genitive is not possible after the compound comparative degree, which may be followed only by the nominative with 'IeM.

Cecrpa tio.iee npu.1e.JIC/W, .. eM 6paT.

Bpar ueuee npu.iexceu, .. eM cec'rpa.

'The sister is more diligent than her brother.'

'The brother is not so diligent as

his sister.' ~

Exercise 25. Write out the sentences and underline the adjectives in the comparative degree.

I. HeT HIf'lero paJIOCTHee TPYlUl. (H.D.) 2. Jl!060Bb ... earn.nee cMepTIf Ii crpaxa

cxrcpr«. t.Tvpe.) 3. TPYJI If HaYKa Bblllle 3TlfX )l,BYX CIfJl HeT aaxero na 3eMJlc.

140

. 26 Write down the comparative of each of the following adjectives, as in

ExerCise '. . . .

del precedmg each group. Mark the stress.

the 010 , ~, ~ , ~ ..

eu IbllblU cunsuee; cJla6blii, JI06pblii, HOBblii, OC1Pbl!", 6e.:!Hbllf, CB~TJlbI~, TeM-

" J ~alK~blii. 2. 11Jeecmllblu useecmuee; KpacHBblii, npIf5ITHbI!", IfH;epe<:_HblH_, BH~-

!I~IIf, "3. Tuxuil muuie; cyxoii, r nyxoji, 4. KpimKUil-I<:p,en'le; S1PKJ1If, )J{apKI!~' Id~TeJl!,H~IJ16"'Kliii, 3BOHKliii, JlerKJ1ii, MlIrKlfii, lKCCTKliii. 5; TYcoil, m~·.)I(·e; }l0p9roli, pe3~1fJ1:. ~ Kpymbu-KPY'le; 60r:'tTblii. 7. To ncmui: -moIlUJe; '1J1CTbJl1, rrpocron, ryCTponll~. . ~

cr6ii, '1aCTblli. . .'

Exercise 27. Make up sentences incorporating the following nouns, using adjectives

in the comparative degree. " ,

36;JOTO J1 cepefipo; BOJIK J1 Me,J,BeJlb: p~Ka Ii pY'lcii;, c6JIJ~ue J1 ~TJYHa; K.lli'-'laT ~PblMa II KJlHMaT CJ16HPJ1; i-Iy6 Ii 6epba; KIiCJlOPOJI Ii BOAOPOA; 3IiMHJ11i neus J1 JleTHJ1J1 JIeHb

Exercise 28. Put the italicised adjectives in the comparative degree.

J CerOJlHSI norozra xyxe, '1eM axepa. Berep XO.UiiJlibiU If phKUU. Mop,o~3 CU.I~lIbI9· 2 OH 'Tencpb ny-nue pafioracr. Er~. ABJ1lKeHJ1H y6epellllbl.,~. Mbl WJlJ1 npyrou noporoa. 3Ta nopora 6bLTJa mpyouou, nOAbeM B ropy 6blJl «pymou,

Exercise 29. Fill in the blanks with the adjectives given on the right, putting them in the comparative degee.

J. HO'lb crauoaanacs BCe '::', '

2 C KalKJlblM urarovi nOJ(bC'VI B ropy CTaHOBJ1J1CH .: .. 3: TpoIlHHKa craaoaunacs BCe ... J1 CKOPO CORce:>.!

npona.ta. , . .

4. npJ16.~lflKiL1aCb BeCHa . .uHJ1 naHOBIf.1J1Cb ... , HO'l11

cTaHOBIl.lliCb ....

5. Haunt 3HiIHI1S1 CTa.1J1 ... J1 ....

6. '3aJla'la OKa3a:JaCb ... , 'Ie\! ;--tbI .lY:v1a.1H. .

7. Mbl C:v10Tpe:1I1 B OKHO Ba:oHa. ~ !ICpe;J. HaMJ1 OTKPblBiwJ1Cb KapTHHbI o_AHa JlpyroJ1 .. .:

8. C KalKJloii 'VIJ1HYTOii ero pe-n, CTaHOBIi.JaCb ... J1 ....

TeMHblii Kpyroii )3KJ1ii

AJlHHHblii KOPOTKJ1ii npo'lHblii rJly60KHii TpyJIHblii J1HTepeCHblfi

cnoKoiiHblii YBepeHHblii

THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE

The superlative degree may be. either .si~ple (KpacIlBeHIllHH ',mos~ beautiful', HJlTepeCHeHIllHH, '~ost, interesting') ?_r, compound. (C~MbIH HHTepecHblH 'most interestmg , caMblH KpacHBbIH most beautiful').

The Simple Superlative Degree

The simple superlative is formed by mean_:; of th,e suffi~ ~aHIll- ~BeJlHKHH 'great' -BeJlH .. aHIllHH 'greatest') or -eaur- (CHJlbJlbIH strong-

CHJlbHeHIllHH 'strongest'). .' .

I, The suffix -a HIll- is used to form the superlative of adjectives

Whose stem ends in r, K, x. In the formation of the superlative the alternation of sounds r -IK, K - 'I and x -Ill occurs:

CTPOf'HH 'strict' - cTpolKaHIllHH 'strictest' 8bICOKHH 'hight' - asrco .. aHIllHH 'highest'

THXHH 'quiet' - THlllaHIUHH 'quietest' , h diec-

2.' The suffix -eiuu- is used to form the superlative from ot er a jec

lives:

141

KpacJIRblH 'beautiful'- KpaCHReHIllUH 'most beautiful'

1I0RLlH 'new' - 1I0BeHIllHH 'newest'

cnipblH 'old' - cTapeHIllHH 'oldest'

CH.'lbllbIH 'strong' - CHJIblleHIllHH 'strongest'

npocrea 'simple' - npoCTeHIllHH 'simplest'

60niTblH 'rich' - 60l'aTeHIllHH 'richest'

3. The superlative of a number of adjectives is formed by means of the suffix -Ill-:

BblCOKUH 'high'

- BhlCIllHH 'highest', 'supreme' (and BblCOluiHlliHij 'highest')

- IIHJIllHH 'lowest' (and IIH~aHIllHH 'humblest')

IIHJKHH 'low'

The stem is occasionally changed:

XOPOIIIHH 'good' - JIY'fIUHH 'best'

nJIOXOH 'bad' - XY.llIUHH 'worst'

MaJIellbKHH 'small'- M"ellblUHH 'smallest'

4. Some adjectives in the superlative take the prefix naa-: lIaHJIY'fIUHH 'best'

lIaHxY.llIUUH 'worst'

lIaHBhlclUHH 'highest'

lIaHMellblUHii 'least'

lIauKpacHBeiilUuH 'most beautiful' lIaHCHJIblleHIlIlfH 'strongest'

This prefix has an emphatic force and expresses the highest degree of the quality.

Adjectives with the prefix uaa- are rarely used.

Many adjectives do not have the simple superlative degree (e.g.: 60:llbIlOH 'sick', pallllUH 'early', .lleJIOROH 'businesslike', .llpy~ecKHH 'fne!1dly', YJKHH 'narrow', rH6KuH 'flexible', MOJIO.llOH 'young', PO.llHOH 'native').

The Compound Superlative Degree

. :rhe compound superlative degree is formed from all qualitative adjectrves by means of the adjective CaMblH (CaMbIH CMeJlblH 'boldest', caMblH paHHHH 'earliest'). The compound superlative degree is used more frequently than the simple superlative. Sometimes the word HaH60JIee is used instead of CaMblH to form the compound superlative degree. Thus, one can say either HaH60JIee uHTepecHblH 'most interesting' or caMbIA uHTepecHblH.

The word HaH60JIee is characteristic of the literary language. The compound superlative degree is also formed from the cowparative degree of an adjective and the genitive of the pronoun ace 'all' (acex 'of air):

CaMblH HHTepecllblH'most interesting' CaMblH MOJIO.llOH 'youngest'

142

UIITepeClleH Bcex

'the most interesting of all' MOJIO~e scex

'youngest of all'

Use of the Superlative Degree

Adjectives in the superlative degree change for gender, number and case:

CII.lbHe~IUHH (CaMbIH CH:lbHbIH) I1JIOBeu

CII.lbHeHlUaH (CaMaH CHJIbHaH) KO-

r.HIH.L{a

CH.lbHeHIlIHe (caMLIe CHJlbHbIe) KOV13H,IThl

OH urpaer B CHJIbHeHmeH (caMOH

ctWbHOii) cpYT6oJIbHOH KO-

'the strongest swimmer'

'the strongest team'

'the strongest teams'

'He plays in the strongest football team.'

:\1aH,,)C.

The superlative degree is used in sentences either as part of the predicate or as an attribute.

03epo naHKaJI-rJIy6o'faiirnee 'Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in

(c:iMoe rJIy6oKoe) osepo the world.'

B MHpe.

In this sentence the superlative is part of the predicate.

K rnyrJIy66-

'The train is approaching the deepest lake in the world.'

TIoe3,IT npnfinaxaerca 6o'faiillleMY (CaMOMY KOMY) osepy B MHpe.

In this sentence the superlative is an attribute.

The simple superlative degree is used not so often as the compound superlative and is typical of the literary language. The compound superlative with the pronoun CaMbIH is equally common in colloquial and literary Russian.

Sentences containing the superlative degree may be built in different ways:

, 1. with the genitive of the noun without a preposition:

Osepo naHKaJI- zAy60lJauUlee 'Lake Baikal is the world's deep-

osepo MHpa. est lake.'

2. with the preposition B (prepositional case):

03epo naHKaJI - Clly60lJauUlee 'Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in

osepo B MHpe. the world.'

3. with the preposition U3 (the noun with U3 takes the plural): 03epo naHKaJI - z/ly6olJauUlee 'Lake Baikal is the deepest of the

HJ oaep MHpa. world's lakes.'

4. with the preposition cpe;J,u 'among':

03epo naHKaJI- ?/lyoulJaiiruee 'Lake Baikal is the deepest among

CpeLl.H osep MHpa. the world's lakes.'

In some cases the superlative degree loses its original meaning: 14J

Pa60Ta 6yneT 3aKOHQeHa e 6AU»caiauee epe MR.

Harmunr MHe 0 daJlbHeUUll'U paiiome.

Cryzterrna CJIymaJIH xypc Hoeeiitueii ucmopuu.

'The work will be finished in th

immediate future.' e

'Write to me about your furthe

work.' r

The students bad a Modern His. tory course.'

Exercise 30. Write out the sentences. Underline the adjectives in the superlative I

gree. 'c-

1. I1YIIIKHH-seJmqaHIIIH(1 PYCCKHH nO~T. 2. OT caMOH CCsePHOH T6qKH POCCH ):10 caMOH iO)I<HOH noqTH nars TbIClI'I KHJIOMCTpOB. 3. I1pllMall-KpaT'IaHIllee paCCTOlllll111 MbK):IY ):IBYMsI T6qKaMH. 4. PYCCKHH 1I3bIK ):IOCTaTO'lHO 6oraT, OH 06JIa):laeT BceM~ CpC):ICTBaMH nns BbIpa)l{CHHlI caMblX T6HKHX OIL\YIL\CHHH H oTTeHKoB MbICJIH. (Kop.)

Exercise 31. Replace the compound superlatives with simple superlatives.

1. OCTaHKH~cKali TeJIe6alllHlI-caMali BbIc6Kali TeJIe6aIIIHlI B Espone. 2. MOCK6BCKHii rocY):IapCTBeHHbIH YHHBepcHTCT-CUMbIH cnipbIH YHHBepcHTcT CTpaHbI. 3. EHHCCH-caMa» MHoroOO):lHali pexa Poccna,

Exercise 32. Give the simple superlative degree of the following adjectives

. ):IO~PbIH, ~HJI~HblH. T?HK_HH. )1Cr~~H. CTP?rHH. npocroa, HOBbIH. PCIlKHH. rpYIlHbIH. 6JlH3KHH. 60I'aTblH. IUHPOKHH. IlJIOXOH. XOp0IlIHH

Exercise 33. Make up sentences, using the following phrases.

. KpaT'I<IHIIIHH CPOK. KpaT'!aHwHH nyrs, HOBcHullle J\OcTHlKeHHlI. MeJlbtl<iHWHe nonP,)OHOCTH. 3JleHIUHH spar, BCPHCHIlICC CpC.~.:rB(). I JlYOO'liIHIJICC YRalKCHIIC

Exercise 34. Read through the sentences. Pick out the adjectives in the comparative and superlative degrees.

1. YM BeJlH'!aiiwero reHHlI scerna HeH3MepHMo HHlKe YMa scero xenoaexccrua. (Se.!l.) 2. 113 scex cpencrs IIJlII pacnpocrpanenns 06pa30BaHHocTH caMoe CHJlbHOe _ JIHTepa~ypa. 3. Ha xpato 1l0PO~H croan Ay6. Bcposrno. B AeclITb paa crapure 6eph COCTaBJlIlIOIL\HX .Jlec. o~ 6bIJl B ~eclITb pas TOJlIL\e H B ABa pasa BbIUIe K3lKAOii 6CpC3bl. (Jl. T) 4. l.kT ~HJ1bl. 6o;lce.MorY'leii, '!eM ~HaHHc. (M.r.) 5. MOl! pOAHHa. MOll ponnas 3eMJl~. Moe oTc'!eCTBO. B lKH3HH HeT rops-ree, rJlY6lKc. CBllulCHHee '!YBCTBa. '!eM J11060Bb K refie. (A.T.)

CONVERSION OF ADJECTIVES INTO NOUNS

There are adjectives which can be used as nouns, e. g.:

Pa60'lHiiBOWeJI B uex, 'The worker entered the work-

shop.'

Compare with these sentences:

OH 3aHHJI csoe pa6o'lee MecTO.

Pa6o'lHii neHb HaQaJICSI.

'He took the place at which he worked.'

'The working day began.'

. In the first sentence the word pa6o'lHii 'worker' answers the quesnon I(TO? 'who?' (I(TO BOWeJI B uex? -- Pa6o'lHii. "Who entered the shop?" "The worker did. "), In this sentence pa6o'lHii is used as a noun and fulfils the function of the subject of the sentence. In the second sentence, the word pa6o'lee answers the question KaKoe? 'what (kind 00?' (l(aKoe MeCTO OH 3aHSIJI? 'What place did he take?'). In this sen-

144

ce pa60'Iee is used as an adjective, it fulfils the function of an attriteote onhe word MeCTo 'place', and agrees with it in gender, number ~~d. case. In the third sentence, the word pa6o'lHii is also used as an ad-

J·ecUve. . . .

In some cases adjectives have completely turned mto nouns, e. g.

he words nopraoa 'tailor', BOJKaTbIU 'Young Pioneer leader', npoxoJKIrii ~ asser-by', MocToBaH 'pavement', 3anHTaH 'comma' and the following Pames of parts of speech: npanararensnoe 'adjective', cymecrearem,-

Il , ' , I'

poe 'noun, '1HCJlHTeJlbHOe numera .

Nouns which are adjectives by origin and adjectives used as nouns are declined as adjectives, e. g. MocToBaH 'roadway' (MOCTOBOii, MOCTOByro, etc.). They may be qualified by adjectives:

KocnoM mMJI OnbITHbIU nopmuoii. 'The suit was made by an experienced tailor.'

'An old acquaintance came to see me.'

Ko MHe npanren MOR cTapbIii 3HaKOMbIU.

Exercise 35. Write out the sentences. Underline the italicised nouns once and the italicised adjectives twice.

I. R na MHHYTY OCTaHOBHJlC}I B nepeoneu, '1To6bI CHIITb KaJlOWH. (JI) 2. MbI exana B nepeoueu MawHHe. 3. R HaBeCTHJ1 60.!lbH020 'roaapmua. 4. SO.!lbHOU HaqaJl nonpaBJlllTbclI. 5. Ero npHH}lJ1 oeocypnui; spas. 6. )1eJICYPHbIU AOJ1lKeH CJ1eAHTb aa nopsziKOM.7. R CMOTpeJl H3 oKHa sarona aa suaxouue MecTa. 8. Ha yJ1HI~e}l BCTpeTHJl3HaKOM020.9. nOCJ1e J1eKl.lliH MbI noH)J.eM ofienart, B CrnO.!106YIO. 10. B 6y<pere CTOHT cmono- 6aR nocyzia.

Revision Exercises

Exercise 36. Write a short essay on one of the following subjects, using the adjective + noun phrases given below.

1. JILilKHaR npory JIKa

}ICHbIH 3HMHHH zteas, ronyfioe He60, lIpKoe COJIHl.le, 6eJ1ble nOJ1l!, np03pa'lHbIH nee, ronsre nepeass, seneaue erra, 3a}l'lbH cnenu, xpyraa ropa, KpenKHH J1e)]., MOP03HbIH B03- .lIYX, PYMlIHble J1Hl.la, cepe6pHCTbIH HHeH, OCJ1enHTeJlbHbIH 6J1eCK

2. Jleraee y-rpo

eBelKHH paHHHH aerepox, P030BbIH KpaH He6a, COJ1HeQHble J1Y'lH, penxae 06JlaKa, rOJly6oe He60, senenas rpasa, nacrynraa pose OK, 60J1bWOe crane

Exercise 37. Find the qualitative adjectives in the text and write them down in the short and complete forms and in the comparative and superlative degrees.

KaK rrec xopoui n03nHeH oceasro ... Berpa HeT, H HeT Hii ccnaua, HH caera, HH TeHH, liM ):IBHlKeHHlI, HH WYMa; B MlirKOM soanyxe pa3J1HT oceHHHH sanax, nOAO()HbIH 3a~axy 8MHa; TOHKHH TYMaH CTOHT BAaJ1H HanlKCJ1TbIMH nOJ1l!MH. CKB03b 06HalKeHHble 6YPble CY'lb}l nepessea MHPHO 6eJ1eeT aenonaascaoe He60; KOH-rAe aa J1HnaX BHeilT nOCJ1enHHe 3()JlOThle J1HCTbli. Csrpas 3eMJ1l1 ynpyra non HoraMH; BbICOKHe CYXHe 6blJlHHKH He we-

lleJIilTclI; JIJ1HHHble HHTH 6J1eCTlIT aa n06J1eAHeBWeH TpaBL. (TYP2.) .

10 - 384

145

Supplement 3

Declension of Nouns Denoting Surnames and the Names of Cities and Towns

Masculine Surnames and Masculine and Neuter Names of Cities and Towns ending in -WK, -BH

-

Nom. Gen. Oat. Ace, Instr. Prep.

H.'1LitH HJlLHH3 HJlLHHY HJlLHH3 HJlLHHhlM (06) HJlLHHe

-LIM

Unlike masculine nouns, masculine surnames ending in -HH, -LiH take -LIM in the instrumental.

Nom. Gen. Oat. Ace, Instr. Prep.

KambHH KambHHa KambHHY KambHH KambHHOM (0) KambHHe

The names of cities and towns ending in -HH, -LIH take -OM in the instrumental like masculine nouns ending in a hard consonant.

Masculine and Neuter Names of Cities, Towns and Settlements ending in -08. ~B, -080, ~BO

Nom. Gen. Oat. Ace. Instr. Prep.

Caparos Caparoaa Caparosy Caparos Cap3ToBoM (0) Caparoae

KYHQCBO KYHQCBa KYHI,CBY KYHQCBO KYHQCBOM (0) KYHQCBC

-OM

The names of cities, towns, residential areas, villages, hamlets and settlements ending in -OB, -OBO, -ea, -CBO are declined as masculine nouns ending in a hard consonant.

Masculine Surnames Ending in -OB, -ea

Nom. Gen. Oat. Acc. Instr. Prep.

TIeTpOB Ceprees

TIeTpOBII Cepreeaa

TICTpOBY Cepreesy

TIcTpOBa Cepreeaa

TICTPOBLIM CcpreCBLlM (0) TIeTpOBC (0) Cepreese

-LIM

Masculine surnames ending in -OB, -ea take -LIM in the instrumental.

Feminine Surnames Ending in -MHB, -OBB

Nom. Gen. Oat. Ace, Instr. Prep.

HJlLHHa HJlLHHOii HJlLHHOii HJlLHHY HJlLHHOii

(06) HJlLHHOii

TIcTpOBa TICTpOBOii TICTPOBOii TIeTpOBY TICTpOBOii

(0) TICTpOBOii

-Y

Feminine surnames ending in -HHa, -OBa are declined as feminine adjectives, but in the accusative they take the noun ending -y,

146

-

Masculine and Feminine Surnames

f..--jifBaHIII1K_!Iii J)eJlLCKHH

HBaHitllKaR IiCJlLCKaR

HB3H HB3HOBH't MapitH I1BaHoBHa

Surnames with adjective endings arc declined as adjectives.

First names and patronymics are declined separately as nouns with the corresponding endings.

--

)J,YPHOBO TInIlHhix !.fVTKitX )J,OJl[ itx

IIIcB'tcHKO KOPOJlCHKO IiC360pO)lKO XBoiiKO

MHI.IKCBH't liapaHoBH't 1i0pO'uH't

MOllapT HLJOTOH

fapH6a.'1L.lH Hepy TIpitCTJlH

liaK" T6HnitcH CO'tH CKOnJ1C !.fHKafo

Xopasa Chlp3H

10'

When Russian surnames have endings uncommon in Russian, they are not declined.

Ukrainian surnames ending in -eHKO, -KO are generally indeclinable (Y Koponemco, Y XBOHKO); if they are declined, they follow the declension pattern of feminine nouns ending in -a (y KOPOJlCHKH, 'at Korolenko's):

51 nacan KOpOJIeHKe.

'I wrote to Korolenko.' 51 BHAeJI Kopo.ncnxy.

'I saw Korolenko.'

51 roBOPH~l c KOpOJleHKoH. 'I spoke with Korolenko.'

If surnames ending in -H't or -OBH't, -CBH't denote men, they are declined as nouns with the corresponding endings; if they denote women they are not declined.

Surnames of foreign origin ending in a consonant are declined as nouns with the corresponding endings if they denote men; they are not declined if they denote women.

Foreign surnames ending in a vowel and foreign names of cities and towns ending m -y, -H, -e, -0 are not declined.

Foreign surnames ending in -a (-H) and not stressed on the final syllable may be declined.

147

THE PRONOUN

In accordance with their meanings, pronouns are classed into nine groups:

1. Personal: H '1', TM 'you' (sing.), OH 'he', OHa 'she', OHO 'it', MLI 'we', BM 'you' (pl.), OHit 'they'.

2. Reflexive: ce6H 'oneself.

3. Possessive: Moil 'my', 'mine'; TBoil 'your', 'yours' (sing.); er6 'his'; ee 'her', 'hers'; Ham 'our', 'ours'; Barn 'your', 'yours' (pl.); IIX 'their', 'theirs'; CBoii 'one's', 'own'.

4. Demonstrative: :hOT 'this', TOT 'that', TaKoii 'such', TaKOB 'such'

CTOJILKO 'so much'. '

5. Definitive: caM 'oneself, CaMLlii '(the) very' ('the same'); BeCL 'whole', 'all'; BCHKHii 'every'; Ka~,lJ;Mii 'each', 'every'; JIIo60ii 'any'.

6. Interrogative: KTO? 'who?', 'ITO? 'what?', KaKoii? 'what (sort of)?' KaKoB? 'what (kind of)?', '1eii? 'whose?', KOTOpLlii? 'which?', CKOJILKO? 'how much?', 'how many?'

7. Relative: these pronouns have the same forms as the interrogative pronouns; however, they are used not to ask a question but to connect clauses. Thus, in the sentence: KTO npHlIIeJI? 'Who has come?' the pronoun KTO is interrogative, whereas in the sentence: R He saaro, KTO npHlIIeJI. 'I do not know who has come' KTO is relative.

8. Negative: HHKTO 'nobody', HH'ITO 'nothing', HHKaKoii 'no', HH'IeU 'nobody's', HeKoro 'nobody', He'lerO 'nothing'.

9. Indefinite: KTO-TO 'somebody', 'ITO-TO 'something', KaKoii-To 'some', '1eii-TO 'somebody's', KTO-HH6Y,lJ;L 'somebody', '1TO-HH6Y~L 'something', KaKoii-HH6Y,lJ;L 'some', 'any', '1eii-HH6Y,lJ;L 'some body's', KTO-JIH60 'somebody', '1TO-JIH60 'something', KaKOii-JIH60 'some', 'any', '1eii-JIH60 'somebody's', KOe-'1TO 'something', Koe-KTo 'somebody', Koe-KaKoii 'some', HeKTo 'somebody', He'lTO 'something', HeCKOJlbKO 'some', 'several', HeKoTopMii 'some'.

DECLENSION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS

First and Second Persons
Singular Plural
f-
Nom. a TLI MLI RLI
. Gen. MeHii Te6ii Hac Rac
Dat MHe Te6e HaM RaM
Acc. MeHii Te6ii Hac aac
Instr. MHoil T060il HaMH RaMH
Prep. 060 MHe o Te6e o Hac o aac (a) When preceding an oblique case of the pronoun H the prepositions K 'to', C 'with', nepen 'in front of, 'before', nan 'over' take o.

Ko MHe npHlIIeJI TOBapHl~. 'A friend has come to see me.'

OR He3HaKOM CO MHOii. 'He does not know me.'

Bsr cnmrre nepeno MHOii. 'You are sitting in front of me.'

Hano MHOii ro.nyfioe He60. 'There is a blue sky above.'

(b) The preposition 0 'about' takes the form 060 before MHe (prepositional of H).

OR rosopan BaM 060 MHe. 'He told you about me.'

(c) The pronoun BM 'you' is used not only as a plural but also in politely addressing one person.

Third Person
Singular Plural
Nom. OH OHO OHa OHH
Gen. ero (y Hero) ee (y nee) HX (y HHX)
Oat. eMY (II: HeMY) eil (II: Heil) HM (II: HHM)
Ace, ero (aa Hero) ee (aa nee) HX (ua HHX)
Instr. HM (c HHM) eli, elO (c Heil, HMH (c HHMH)
c HelO)
Prep. o HeM o Heil o HHX The pronouns of the third person OH 'he',oH3 'she', OHO 'it', OHit 'they' take an H at the beginning when preceded by a preposition.

In the sentence R npHlIIeJI K HeMY, tIT06bI nOMO% eMY. 'I called on him in order to help him' the pronoun OH 'he' is in the dative after th.e Verb npamen 'came' and is preceded by the preposition K, t~erefore It takes an initial H (K HeMY); after the verb nOMO'lL 'to help' OH IS not preceded by a preposition, therefore it does not take an initial H (noMO% eM')

y.

Note.- After the prepositions RHe 'outside', 6JIarOAapii, 'tha!Iks ,to', RCJIeACTRHe 'owing to', 'in consequence of, RonpeIl:H,'in spite of, COrJIaCHO ac-

149

cording to', uascrpesy 'in the opposite direction', 'towards', the pronouns of the third person do not take R:

Oblml npexpacaas IIOrO.L(a. IiJIarO.L(apH en 3KCKYPCHSI npolllna XOpOIllO.

K .L(OMY IIO.L(OIllJ1l1: mO.L(H. Haacrpexy UM H3 BOPOT BbI6e»cana cofiaxa.

'The weather was fine. Thanks to this the excursion was a SUc. cess.'

'Some people approached the house. A dog ran out of the gates towards them.'

If the possessive pronoun of the 3rd person ero, ee or ux is preceded by a preposition, the possessive pronoun does not take u:

MbI rOBopHM 0 en) (ee, ux) pa66- 'We are speaking about his (her

Te. their) work.' '

In the sentence 51 6bIJI Y aeru, 'I have been to see him' the pronoun ere, which follows the preposition y, is a personal pronoun in the genitive and takes u. It answers the question y Koro? In the sentence 51 6bIJI y ere fipara, 'I have been at his brother's' ero is a possessive pronoun, therefore it does not take u. It answers the question y 'IberO 6pba?

Exercise 1. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with personal pronouns in the required case.

1. ObIJI oseas CHJlbHbIW MOp03. 1-13-3a ... Mbi He nOUlJIH na KaToK. 2. B nSnHlu.IY 6Y· J(eT YPOK pyccxoro H3bIKa. Tlopa roTOBIITbCH K .... 3. Y'It:HHK xopoiuo 3aHIIMaeTCH. Y'IHTeJlb )J;oB6J1eH .... 4. Tosapnm npOCHJI MeHJ!:, '1T66bI H KynHJI ,IlJlH ... KHHry. 5. Cecrpa npacnana nacssro. j{ o rsernn .... 6. Ilepen Ll6MOM pacryr nepensa. MelKLlY ... CTOHT cKaMei1Ka. 7. MbI nOLlbe3lKa"'lH K Mocxse. }J.o ... OCT3JJOCb J(BaLluaTb KIIJIOMer· pOB. 8. Ilocpeznr K6MHaTbi CTOHT CTOJ1. Boxpyr ... CIILlS.T mOLlII. 9. CTYLleHT MHoro saHHMa}IOI PYCCKIIM ~3bIKOM II cei1'1ac e.ianee r ... xoporuo. 10. OH He 6bl~' aa :JKCKYpcHII. Kpoxre ... 6bIJlH see crynenria Halllei1 rpynrna. II. 3aBTpa B KJly6e 6YLleT JleKlIHH. Ilocne ... 6YLleT KOHl\epT. 12. CKOPO Y 6para LleHb pOlK,IlI:~HIHI. MbI yace KynHJlII ... nonapox. 13. C sepunnn.r ropsr OTKPbIJlCSl npexpacnsn! BII,Il. TIYTemecTBeHHIIKII no.nro JII060Ba· JlIICb .... 14. 3m nopora xopoxe. Mia noener« no .... 15. Ha 6epel y pexa POCJlO 60JIbmoe nepeso. Msr OT.nOXHYJlII non .... 16. Bsepa B KJly6e 6blJl IIHTepecHbIi1 AOKJla.n, HO

Sl He 6bIJI na 17. 51 He Mor sxepa rrplIWTH K ,IlPY3bS.M. 51 rr03BOHHJI II CKa3aJl, 'ITO He

rrpII.ny K 18. 3Ta KHHra O'leHb HYlKHa MHe. Cnacafio 'refie aa .

THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN CEliS.

1. The reflexive pronoun ee6H 'oneself does not change for gender:

On BH,I{HT ee6H B sepxane. 'He sees himself in the mirror.'

Oua BH,UHT ee6H B sepxane. 'She sees herself in the mirror.'

2. The pronoun ee6H does not change for number:

Ou BH.L(HT ee6H B sepxarre. 'He sees himself in the mirror.'

Oun BH,USIT ee6i1 B sepxa.ne. 'They see themselves in the mir-

ror.'

3. The reflexive pronoun ee6s. has no nominative. It is declined ~s the pronoun Tbl 'you' (Te6H, 'refie, etc.): gen. ee6H, dat. ee6e, ace. eeof, instr. eo66it (e0601O), prep. 0 ee6e.

4. The pronoun ce6s. in any case may correspond to the l st, 2nd of

150

3rd person and invariably refers to the performer of the action (the subject):

~ BH)I(Y ee6s. B sepxane. MbI BH,UHM ee6s. B sepxane.

'I see myself in the mirror.' 'We see ourselves in the mirror.'

Tid BH,UIUlib ce6s. B sepxane. BbI BH.L(HTe ce6s. B sepxane.

'You see yourself in the mirror. ' 'You see yourselves in the mirror.'

011 BH.L(HT ee6s. B sepxane. Oun BH.L(H ee6s. B sepxane.

'He sees himself in the mirror.' 'They see themselves in the mir-

ror.'

Olla BH,UHT ee6H B sepxane.

'She sees herself in the mirror.' ~ KynHJl ee6e KHHry.

'I bought myself a book.' Tid KynHJI eefie KHHry.

'You bought yourself a book.' 011 KynHJI ee6e KHHry.

'He bought himself a book.' Olla KynHJIa ee6e KHHry. 'She bought herself a book.'

5. In a sentence, the pronoun ee6s. invariably fulfils the function of an object.

Mbl xyrmrm eefie KHHry.

'We bought ourselves a book.' BbI KynHJIIf ce6e KHHry.

'Y ou bought yourselves a book.' Oun KynHJIH ee6e KHHry.

'They bought themselves a book.'

Exercise 2. Read through the sentences. State the case of the pronoun ce6s. and the person it refers to.

1. Moll. rrorrYT'IIIK paccxasan MHe 0 ce6e MHoro anrepecaoro. 2. j{ nocr-iorpen aoxpyr ce6s. II YBHf\eJl, 'ITO B KOMHaTe, KpOMe MeHiI, HIIKoro HeT. 3. Hacrosuma PYKOBOmITeJlb Tpe60BareJleH He TOJlbKO K .nPyrHM, HO I! K cefie, 4. CbIH rrOrrpOCHJI o rua: «B03bMM MeHs. C cofioil». 5. B MI!HYTY orraCHOCTI! OH f\YMaJl He 0 cefie, a 0 'roaapnutax . 6. 51 KynHJI cefie KOHbKH. Msr 6YAeM BMecTe C T06oi1 XOAHTb aa KaToK. 7. 51 BIIHK> B ueyna-rax TOJ1bKO ce6s.. 8. TbI acer.na I!MCelllh npl! ce6e aarmcayio KHH)KKY? 9. Y'-IeHHK 1l0JlOlKHJI KHHry nepcn c06oi1 II CTaJl roTOBIITb YPOKII. 10. TIpHY'IHTe ce6s. K crpor oji IlOCJIellOBaTeJlbHOCTI! B HaKOrrJleHI!I'I 3HaHIli1. (fla6.)

Exercise 3. Read through the sentences. Write out the verbs (in the infinitive) together with the reflexive pronoun.

Model: snaner» c06oi1

, 1. KaK Bbi ce6iI '1YBCTByeTe? 2. KTo He BH,IleJl MOPH, He MOlKeT npencraaars cefie ero O'iapOBaHIIH. 3. OH scerna BJIaAeeT co6oi1, HIIKOf,lla He BbIXO).lllT 1!3 ce6s.. 4. YMei1 .QeplKaTb ce6s. B pyxax. 5. OOJlbHOii npmnen B ce6s. II rrOrrpOCHJI rnrn..

Exercise 4. Make up sentences, using these phrases.

,YBepell B ce6e, aosonen cofioii, BJla.LIeTb c06ow, nepxa n, ce6iI B PYK3x, »cepraoaa'n, co6oii, Ha.neHTbCli aa ce6iI, '1YBcTBoBaTb cefis, xyrnrn, cefie, paccsaaars 0 cefie

. Exercise 5. Make up sentences, using the pronoun cOOi1 with the prepositions III1tCcTO, OKOJlO, aoxpyr, _a.,l!1, KpoMe, npoTHB, y, K, npo, nan, nepen, C, MCiKJlY, npa, o,

M odel: j{ nonosorn noprtpem, OKOJlO cetih.

OHH nOCMOTpeJ111 60KPY2 cetis.

151

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

The possessive pronouns MOU 'my' 'mine" TBOU 'your' 'y (sing.); Ham 'our', 'ours'; Barn 'your', 'yours' (p\). ere 'his' 'ee" ?hur~'

'h' 'th . , 'thei , " er

ers ; ax eir, t errs answer the questions .. eu? .. bH? .. be? .... '

'whose?' ., ., ., II?

THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND PERSONS

. Like adjectives, the pronouns MOU, TBon, Ham, Barn change accordmg to gender, number and case. The gender, number and case of these pro~ouns depend on the gender, number and case of the nouns they qualify.

Declension of the Possessive Pronouns of the First and Second Persons

Sungular Singular
Plural Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Fermnine
and Neuter and Neuter
Nom. Moii Moe MOR MOR Ham Harne Hama HamH
Gen. Moen> Moeii MORX aamero Hameii HamHX
Dat. MoeMY Moeii MORM HameMY Hameii HamHM
Ace, as Nom. MOe MOJO as Nom. as Nom. Harne aamy as Nom.
or Gen. or Gen. or Gen. or Gen.
Instr. MORM Moeii MORMH HamHM Hameii HamHMH
Prep. o MoeM o Moeii o MORX o HameM o Hameii o HamHX Note .. The pron<?un THoi is declined in the same manner as Moi; the pro' noun Bam IS declined In the same manner as Ham.

Ex.ercise 6. Write out the following sentences taken from Pushkin and underline the possessive pronouns and the nouns they qualify.

152

)l )'3bS MOH, npexpacen Ham CORn!

!. Jae rpycTI'!o H JIe!'Ko; ~e'lanb MOR cBeTJIa; Jo ne'lan~ MO~ nOJIHa T060l0. ,

3. Mlle Barna l!CKpeHHOCTb ,MHJIa; Olla B BOJI!,eHbC npHBe~a

)laBHO YMO~HYBmHe 'lYBCT~a. _ 4 OICOH'IeH MOH TpYA MHorOJIeTHHH.

5: IllJlH, rOAb!., EYPb nOPbI~ MSlTC)J(HbIH PaCCCIiJI rrpescnae Me'lTbI.

H II 3a6bIJI TBOR rorroc HC)J(HblH, TBoH lIe6ecHble seprsr,

THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS OF THE THIRD PERSON Era, EE AND I1X

The possessive pronouns ero 'his', ee 'her', 'hers'and HX 'their', 'theirs' have the same form as the genitive of the personal pronouns of the 3rd person OH 'he', OHS 'she', OHO 'it', OHM 'they'.

TIpHllIeJI fipar Hero TOBapHIn. 'The brother and his friend have

come.'

TIpHllIJIa cecrpa H ee TOBapHIn. 'The sister and her friend have

come.'

TIPHllIJIH 6phMI H HX TOBapHIn. 'The brothers and their friend have come.'

The possessive pronouns ere, ee and HX do not change according to case or number:

TIpHllIeJI ero (ee, HX) TOBapHIn. 51 6bIJI Y ero (ee, HX) TOBapHIna. 51. noH)J.Y K er,o (ee, ax) TOBapHInY·

51. BH.IJ.eJI ero (ee, ax) rosapamea.

'His (her, their) friend has come.' 'I was at his (her, their) friend's.' 'I shall go to his (her, their) . friend's.'

'I have seen his (her, their) friends.'

. The possessive pronouns ero, ee and ax do not take H after prepositions.

Compare:

Possessive Pronouns

Personal Pronouns 51. 6bIJI Y Hero.

'I was at his place.' 51. npatnen K HeMj. 'I came to see him.'

51 nOJIYQHJI nHchMo OT Hee. 'I received a letter from her:

~ 6hIJI Y ero fipara.

'I was at his brother's.' ~ npmnen K ero 6paTY· 'I came to his brother's.'

~ nOJIYQHJI nHchMo OT ee 6pha. 'I received a letter from her

brother.'

~ rOBOpHJI c ee 6phoM. 'I spoke with her brother.'

51 rOBOpHJI CHen. 'I spoke with her.'

Exercise 7. Read through the sentences. What questions do the italicised pronouns answer? Which of the italicised pronouns are personal and which possessive?

(a) I. Ha BC'Iepe BblcTynHJI nHCaTeJIb. MbI He BHAeJIH eeo paHbme, HO 'IHTanH eeo

153

KHHrI1. 2. Y .IIONO 'roaaparua 60.1bWd51 6H6.1HoTeKa. 51 'laCTO 6bIBalO y II('cO H 6epYe2o KHHrH. 3. MHe HYlKHO n03BOHHTb eu, HO 51 He 3HalO ee TeJIe4>oHa. 4. I1x nO'VlOLUb 6blJla HYlKHa MHe. 51 nofinaro.rapan ux aa nOMOIl\b. 5. K cecrpe npHXO~HJI ee TOBapH.LU, Ro ei! He 6bLl0 ~oMa.

(b) I. MeHlI scerna aurepecoaana lKH3Hb aawexarensuux monea. 51 nbITancli HaHTH 06LUHC scprsr ux xapaxrepoa 'rc 'lepTbl, 'ITO BbILlBHHYJIH. UX B P5l1lbl .'1YqlIiJ!x JIIOLlCH scnoac-rccrsa. (JJaycm.) 2. Bnpoxcw, HHKTO e20 HC yzrepsoraan H. HH.KTO He 3aMe. TH.JI e20 OTCYTCTBH.5I. (Trp2.)

THE PRONOUN CBOM

The pronoun CBon 'one's (own)' shows that the object it qualifies belongs to the performer of the action (which is the subject of the clause or sentece).

1. R KOH'IHJI CBOW pa66TY.

2. TbI KOH'IHJI CBOIO pa66TY.

3. OH K6H'IHJI CBOW pa66TY.

'I have finished my work.' 'You have finished your work.' 'He has finished his work.'

1. R paCCKa3aJI 0 cBocn pafio re. 'I spoke about my work.'

2. TbI paCCKa3aJI 0 cBocn pafio re. 'You spoke about your work.'

3. OH paCCKa3aJI 0 CBOCU pafio re. 'He spoke about his work.'

The pronoun CBon changes according to gender, number and case in the same manner as the pronouns MOU and TBO".

The pronoun CBOU may show that the object it qualifies does not belong to one person but to a number of persons performing an action:

I. Mbl K6H'IHJIIi CBOW pa66TY. 'We have finished our work.'

2. Bbi K6H'IHJIH CBOW pa60TY. 'You have finished your work.'

3. Ouo K6H'IHJIH CBOW pa60TY. 'They have finished their work.'

I. Mbi paCCKa3aJIH 0 CBOCU patio- 'We spoke about our work.' 're,

2. Bbl paCCKa3aJIH 0 CBOCU pa- 'You spoke about your work.' 66Te.

3. Ouo paCCKa3aJIH 0 CBOCU pa- 'They spoke about their work.' fio re.

If the subject of a sentence is a personal pronoun of the first or second person (H, Tbl, Mbl, nsr), CBOU may sometimes be replaced with the corresponding possessive pronoun of the first or second person (MOD 'my', TBOU 'your', Ham 'our', Bam 'your'). Thus, we generally say: Mbi K6H'IWIH CBOW pa60TY. 'We have finished our work', but we can also say: Mbi K6H'IHJIH naury pa60TY. The meaning of the two sentences is the same.

Should the subject of a sentence be a noun or personal pronoun of the third person (on, oua, one, ouo), the replacement of CBOU by the possessive pronoun of the third person is impossible, since it would change the meaning of the sentence.

Epar oTnpaBHJI caoe nacsxro.

'The brother posted his (own) letter.'

'The brother posted his (i. e. somebody else's) letter.'

Epar ornpaaan ern nHCbMO.

154

As is seen from the translation, the preceding sentences have diff rent meanings. The first sentence states that the letter was the :rother's, while the second shows that the letter did not belong to the

brother, but to some~ody else. ..

The pronoun cBoii IS used only when the object qualified by the possessive pronoun belongs to the performer of the action.

1. Mbi ca~aeM I.J,BeTbl OKOJIO 'We plant flowers near our

CBoero )J.OMa. house.'

2. Tbi 3a6blJI CBOW KHHry B ay- 'Y ou have left your book in the

)J.HTOpHH. lecture-hall.'

3. CeCTpa npncnana MHe CBOW 'The sister has sent me her photo-

<poTorpa<pHIO. graph.'

4. BaM He06xo)J.HMO IlcnpaBHTb 'Y ou must correct your mistakes.' CBOH 01llH6KH.

5. Mue HY)I(HO cofipa rs CBOH 'I must collect my things.' BelI.J,H.

The word which denotes the performer of the action may be either the subject of a sentence (Examples 1,2,3) or the object in the dative in an impersonal sentence (Examples 4, 5).

If the object does not belong to the performer of the action or if there is no performer of the action in the sentence, the pronoun CBON cannot be used.

'There is a garden near our house.'

'My friend has a large library.'

'You have left your book in the lecture-hall. '

'I took my sister's exercise-book from her.'

As a rule, the pronoun CBON denoting possession is not in the nominative (CBON is occasionally used in the nominative but with a different meaning: 3TO CBON 'IeJIOBeK. 'He is a friend'; here CBoii means 'a friend').

Exercise 8. Read through the sentences. Account for the use of the italicised pronouns.

OKOJIO uawero )J.oMa ecrs cazt.

Y Moen> 'roeapauta fiorn.nraa 6H6JIliOTeKa

T8011 KHHra ocranacs B ay)J.HTOpna.

51 B3~JI Y cecrpsr ee .rerpans.

(a) I. Ilacarcns pa60TaJI nan CfJOUM pOMaHOM sersrpe rona. Ezo poMaH He.l{aBHO 8blWeJl H.3 nexara. 2. Y'IeHIII( 3a6blJl C60/0 rerpans .l{OMa. Ezo TeTpa.l{b ocranacs .l{OMa. 3. 51 nOJlOlKHn C60U KHurH aa CTOJI. Mou KHurH JlelKaT ua CTOJle. 4. Mbi '1aCTo nocell1aeM C60U KJly6. B HGwI'M KJly6e 6b1BaIOT HHTepecHbie J]C!KUHH H KOHlIepTbI. 5. Moil 6paT )IUIut:T B Bonrorpane. Bxepa II nocnan nHcbMo c60eMY 6paTY. 6. OH nOJlY'IuJl npeMHIQ aa ceoto pafio ry. E20 pa60TY OueHUJlH BbICOKO. 7. npOTHB M0e20 .l{oMa naps. 113 OKHa ceoeeo .l{OMa 51 BUlKY annea napxa. 8. OHa y6H.paeT C8010 KOMHaTY. Bee KOMHaTe Bcer.l{a '1HCTOTa H nopsnox. 9. Y meoeeo TOBapHLUa ecn, JTOT Y'le6HH.K. Tbl MOlKewb 83l1Tb Y'le6HH.K y ceoeeo TOBapH.LUa. v

(b) I. OHa [EJIC!Ha] MHoro .l{YMaJIa 0 Bcpcesese. 0 C60eM pasrosope C HHM; OH ~~ IIpaBH.JlC5I; OHa sepana .rennore eeo '1yBCTB, '1HCTOTe eeo HaMepeHHH. (Typz.) 2. Ceprea 118aHoBH'I cxanan, 'ITO eeo ICHura nOIlBJle!,HeM C60UM .l{OJllKHa 6Y.l{eT npoaasecr» cePbi:3Hoe BneqaTJI(!HH.e aa 06LUeCTBO. (fl. T.) 3. OH 3HaJI, 'ITO OHa He nerra co BpeMeHH

155

cB_oeu 60JI<:JHH,!, nOTOM~ 3B,YK ee rOJIOCa Y~HBRJI H 06p~1l0BaJI, ero., (JI.T.) 4. B I!aponc-e-ace uaxana, B eeo CRJIe-Bce B03MOlKHOCHI, eeo TpYAOM KOPMHTCli lKH31!L H eMY npHHaJUlelKRT npaao pacnpenens'n, TPYll C60U no CnpaBeJIJIRBOCTH (M.r.) ,

Exercise 9. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the pronoun CRoii in the required case or with the pronouns ero, ee, HX.

1. 3TY HCTOPHIO paccxasan fipary OJIHH ... npas rens. Bpar CJIhIlIIaJI :hy HCTOPHJo

OT ozmoro ... npasrena. 2. OH 06paJIOBaJI Hac nHCbMOM. Msr 06pallOBaJIHCL

nHcbMY. 3. BC'IepOM npHWJIa MOlt cecrpa C OllHoii noztpyroji. Besepow npHWJIa~:

rpa H onna ... nonpyra, 4. COJIHlIe BhlWJIO H3-3a TyqH, H ... JIY'IH OCBeTRJIH call. COJlHQe BhlWJlO H3-3a TY'lH H OCBeTRJJQ ... JIyqaMH call. 5. Oaa roaopar, 'ITO ... llOMaWHHe lteJ1li OTHHMalOT y Hei: MHoro BreMeHH. OHa cxasana, 'ITO npaener K HaM, KaK TOJlbKO 3aKOI!_ '1HT ... JIOMaWHHe nena. 6. OHif 3allBRJIH, 'ITO cnpaaarcs C :hoii pafioroa ... CRJIaMH. Omi CKa3aJIH, 'ITO ceii'l3c see ... cnJIbi cocpenoroseasr aa 3TOii pafiore,

Exercise 10. Read through this poem by Pushkin and pick out the possessive pronouns. Learn the poem by heart.

H5IHE

Flonpyra llHell MORX CYPOBbIX, rOJIy6Ka npsxnas Moil!

Ozma B rJIYWR JIeCOB COCHOBbIX .l1.aBHo, JIaBHO Tbi lKJIeWb MeHii. Tbi nOJI OKHOM csoea CBeTJIRlIbI Foproeius, 6YATO aa sacax,

M MellJIlIT nOMHHYTHO cniulbl B TBORX HaMOPIIIeHHblX pyxax, rJIlillHillb B 3a6hlTble BOpOTbl Ha '1epHblii OTAaJIeHHblii nyrs; TOCK1t, npeJI'IYBCTBHlI, 3a60Tbi TeCHHT TBOW BCe'laCHO rpyrn, ...

Exercise '11. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the required pronouns.

(a) I. Manb'lHK OTJIR'IHO Y'IHTCli 6JIarOAaplt ... (ero, CBORM) cnoc06HoCTlIM. 2. TOBapHIIIH nOMOrJIR MHe. Bnaronaps ... (HX, csoea) nOMoIIIH 1I ycneurao 3aKOH'IHJI pafiovy. 3. HaM '1HTaIOT JIeKIIHH 0 raopsecrse OYWKHHa. Ceronas nporpeccop paccsa- 3aJI HaM 0 ... (ero, csoea) n03Me «MeJIHblii BraJIHHK». 4. OJIRH H3 TOBapHIIIeii npenno-

lKRJI npexparars npeaas. 1)0JIbillHHCTBO 6hlJI0 aa (ero, csoe) npennoxeaae. 5. OH He

COrJIaCRJICli C BbICTynaBillHMH H ocrancs rrpa (ero, CBoeM) MHCHHH. 6. Mbi nOJ!-

HVlRCb Ha ropy. C ... (ee, caoea) sepuraasr XOPOillO 6blmi BHllHa sea MCCTHOCTb. 7. IlyTeillcCTBeHHHKH AOIIIJIR 110 peKR H nOWJIR BAOJIb ... (ee, csoero) 6epera.

(b) I. B '1ReTOM MepKHYllleM aefie peaKTHBHblH CaMOJICT nlHY"l ... 6CJIblii 6blCTpblii CJIeJI. (llaycm.) 2. MeHlI C nepsoro B3rJJillla nopasano B Heii YlUlBRTeJIbHOe cnoxoscrBHe scex ... llBHlKeHHii H pesea. (Typz.) 3. OHa [Bansj Bsuta Ha'iRTaHHOH neaymxon, xopOWO arpana aa nHaHRHO, no ... pa3BRTHIO OHa asmensnacs cpena nonpyr. (cPad.) 4. rOpOJIOK 310T MHe DOHpaBHJICJI ... MecTorroJlolKeHHeM Y nOJIOWBbl JIBYX BblcoKHX XOJIMOB. (Typz.) 5. OHR TOJIbKO 'ITO npHCXaJIII H1 MOCKBhl II pa}l.bl 6blJIII ... ye}l.HHeHluo. (JI. T.) 6. OH TRXO OTBOPRJI nseps H YBR.l\eJI Haraury B ... JIHJIOBOM nnarse, (}f.r.) 7 . .l1.opora nourna BHH3 no ospary. B KOHUC ... 6bIJI ysce CJILIIIIeH HaCTOH'IHBbIH IUyM BO.u,hJ. (Ilaycm.v

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

The demonstrative pronouns include:
:hOT 'this :ha 'this ynaua
TOT 'that .nOM Ta 'that
TaKou 'such a house' TaKaS 'such a street'
:ho'this 3.naHHe :hH 'these ,n:oMa
TO 'that build- houses'
TaKoe 'such a ing' Te 'those yrrausr
streets'
TaKHe 'such 3,n:aHlul
buildings'
156 .nOMOB houses' YJlHQ streets' 3,LuiHHU buildings'

C'fOJlhKO 'so many

Demonstrative pronouns agree with the nouns they qualify in gender, number and case:

OR )l(HBeT na :hou YJIHlJ,e, B lTOM ,nOMe.

"He lives in this street, in this house.'

DECLENSION OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 3TOT AND TOT

Singular Plural
Masculine and Neuter Feminine
Nom. 3TOT 3TO TOT TO 3Ta Ta 3TH Te
Gen. 3Toro Toro 'hoii Toii 3THX Tex
Dat. 3TOMY TOMY 3TOii Toii 3THM TeM
Ace. as as 3TY Ty as Nom. or Gen.
Nom. 3TO Nom.
TO
or or
Gen. Gen.
Instr. 3THM TeM 3TOii (3TOIO) Toii (TOIO) lTHMH TeMH
Prep. 063TOM o TOM 063TOii o Toii 06 3THX o Tex USE OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

The Pronoun lTOT

The pronoun lTOT, lT8, lTO 'this', lTH 'these' may fulfil various functions in the sentence.

1. When used attributively, the pronoun lTOT, 3Ta, 3TO, 3TH answers the question KaKou?, KaKaa?, KaKoe?, KaKHe? 'what?'

KaRoM .nOM? - 3TOT .nOM. Kaxoe 3.naHHe? - 3TO 3.[{aHHe.

'''What house?" "This house." '''What building?" "This build-

ing." ,

KaKHe .noMa?-3TH .nOMa.

, "What houses?" "These

houses." ,

I<aKaj{ y J1HlJ,a? - 3T8 Y JIHlJ,a . '''What street?" "This street."

This pronoun agrees with the noun it qualifies in gender, number and case.

jJ )f(HBY B 60JIbIllOM HOBOM .nOMe. 3TOT ,nOM aaxonarcs na rJ1aB-

'I live in a large new house. This house is in the city's main

157

HOH YJUUJ.e ropozia. 3Ta YJIHua umpoxas H xpacaaas. Ps.:.D.OM c MOMM .D.OMOM 60J1hlIIOe 3.D.alille c K0J10HHaMH. 3TO 3.D.SHHe TeaTp. Hanporun-> 'roxce 60J1hlIIMe HOBhIe .D.OMa. 3TH .D.OMS euie CTpORTCR. B 3THX .D.OMSX 6Y.D.YT )I(HTh pa- 60'lHe TKaUKoH <pa6PHKH.

2. The neuter form 3TO 'it' is the only form used as the subject. 3TO used as the subject denotes a person or object and does not change according to gender or number.

B rrecy CTOMT 6eJ1hIH .D.OM c KO- 'There is a white house with col-

J10HHaMH. 3TO .D.OM o rnsrxa. umns in the wood. It is a holiday centre.'

B KOMHaTY BOlIIJ1a rteaynrxa. 3TO 'A girl entered the room. It was

cecrpa Moero rosapmua. my friend's sister.'

Bnepena BH.D.HbI .D.OMHKH. 3TO 'Small houses can be seen ahead.

ceJIo. It is a village.'

Ha CTOJ1e rrescar KHMrH. 3TO 'There are books on the table.

Y'le6HHKH. They are textbooks.'

In each of the above examples 3TO stands for the object spoken of in the preceding sentence.

The link-verb 6hITh is used in the past and future tenses. It agrees in gender and number not with the pronoun 3TO but with the noun which is part of the predicate.

3TO 6h1JI .D.OM orznaxa. 'It was a holiday centre'.

3TO 6h1JIa cecrpa Moero TOBa- 'It was my friend's sister.'

pmna.

3TO 6bIJIO ceno. 'It was a village.'

3TO 6bIJIH Y'le6HHKH. 'These were textbooks.'

3TO 6Y.D.eT HOBaR rnKOJIa. 'It will be a new school.'

Compare the sentences on the left-hand and right-hand columns:

street. This street is wide and beautiful. Near my house is a large building with columns This building is a theatre. Opp~ site it are also large new houses These houses are still being built. Workers of the textile mill will live in these houses.'

3TOT .D.OM-.D.OM OT.D.hIxa.

'This house is a holiday centre.' 3Ta nesymxa - cecrpa Moero

.rosapama.

'This girl is my friend's sister.' 3TH KHM:rH - Y'le6HHKH.

'These books are textbooks.'

3TO .D.OM OT.D.bIxa.

'It is a holiday centre.'

3TO cecrpa Moero rosapauta.

'It is my friend's sister.'

3TO Y'le6HHKH.

'These are textbooks.'

In the sentences in the left-hand column the pronouns are attributes and agree with the nouns they qualify.

In the sentences in the right-hand column 3TO is the subject and does not agree with any noun. The sentences in the left-hand column are synonymous with those in the right-hand column.

158

The pronoun 3TO fulfilling the function of the subject may stand not only for a word but also for a whole statement. In this case the predicate verb or adjective agrees with 3TO, i. e. it takes the neuter sin-

gular:

CblB .D.OJ1ro He B03BpalllaJ1CR. 3TO 6ecnOKOHJIO MaTh.

OB 06elllaJ1 nOMO'lh HaM. 3TO XOporno.

'The son had not come back for a long time. It made his mother

. ,

anxious.

'He promised to help us. That is very good.'

3. When the pronoun 3TO fulfils the function of an object, it refers to the whole of the preceding statement and is used as a noun.

Ha'lHHaeTCSl aecna. MbI pa- 'Spring is beginning. We are glad

,nyeMcR 3TOMY. of that.'

ttorona 6hIJ1a nJ10XaR. 113-3a 'The weather was bad. Because of

:)TOro Mbl He nOeXaJ1H 3a ropozt. that we did not go to the country.'

'I must have your advice. That is why I came here.'

MHe HY)l(HO I10COBf:TOBaThCR c T06oH . .lI.JIH :horo R I1pHlIIeJ1 CIO.D.a.

Exercise 12. Read through the sentences in the left-hand and right-hand columns in pairs and analyse them.

3Ta KHilra aa repecnaa. 3TO nepeso BbICOKoe.

3TO BpeMIi caMoe Y.l106Hoe. 3TOT uixadi -- KHHlKHbIU.

3Ta nopora-s-cavaa xoporxas.

3TOT Mara3HH np0,llOBOJIbCTBeHHbIU.

3TH MeCTa - csofionasre.

3Ta ,IleBYWKa - MOll cecrpa.

3TH KOMHaTbl HaWH.

3TO aurepecnaa KHHra. flO astcoxoe nepeso.

3TO casaoc Y,Il06HOe BpeMIi. 3TO KHHlKHblU WKa<jJ.

3TO cavaa xopcrxaa nopora,

3TO nPO.llOBOJIbCTBeHHblH Mara311H. 3TO caofionasre MeCTa.

3TO MOll cecrpa.

3TO aaura KOMHaTbl.

Exercise 13. Write out the sentences, using the link-verb 6b1Tb in the past tense. Model: 3TO mrrepecxas JIeKllHII.

3TO 6blmi aarepecaas JIeKllHII.

I. 3TO TPYllHali aanasa. 2. 3TO Y.Ila'lHbIH oTBeT. 3. 3TO npaBHJIbHblH nyrs. 4. 3TO TOJIbKO nepssre TPY.IlHOCTH. 5. 3TO 60JIbWali Y,Ila'la.

Exercise 14. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the pronoun iTOT in the required form.

I. 51 npaaec HOBbIe KHHrH. nOJIOlKH ... KHHrH B urxad» 2. no pexe nnsina JIO.llKa .... nO,llKa .LIBHraJIaCb Me.LIJIeHHo. 3. Haxoaen naccaxapsr YBH.IleJIH orpowaoe BO.llHOe npoCTpaHcTBo .... 6blJI0 UHMJIlIHcKoe Mope. 4. rpY30BHK BbeXaJI B nee .... nee TIIHYJICIi aa HeCKOJIbKO KHJIOMerpoB. 5. B,IlaJIH CBepKaJIH OrHH .... 6blJI 60JIblllOH ropon. 6. B aY.lI.HropHIO BOWJIl1 nsa CTY.lI.eHTa .... 6bIJIH CTY,IleHTbl XHMH'IeCKOrO <jJaKYJIbTera. 7. CKOPO 6beT 60JIbWali cTaHllHII. Ha '" cranuaa noean 6Y,IleT cros rs ,IlBa,llllaTb MHHYT.

Exercise 15. Make up sentences, using the words:

. nporan 3Toro, aa :JTO, nocne 3Toro, nepen 3THM, 06 3TOM, finaroztaps aror-ry, H3-3a

:noro, )VIII 3Toro, BMeCTo 3Toro

Model: Bees neas WeJI .IlOlK.Ilb.

H3-1G Jm020 npHllIJIOCb OTJIOlKHTb nporynxy.

159

Exercise 16. Make up sentences, using the words:

Tpe60BaTb :horo, PMoBaTbCJI 3TOMY, MellniTb 3TOMY, nOMHHTb 06 3TOl.!, Ha.llCIITbCJI aa 3TO, 60POTbClI aa 3TO

Model: .sI.llepHoe 0pYlKHe .llOJIlKHO 6blTb aanpemeno.

Haponu mpeiiytom 3mo20.

The Pronoun TOT

In a simple sentence the pronoun TOT 'that' is generally an attribute and agrees with the word it qualifies in gender, number and case.

3TOT .n;OM BbICOKliH, a TOT .n;OM 'This house is tall, and that house

erne BhIlne. is still taller.'

3Ta xaara MHe He HY)l(Ha, a 'ra 'I do not need this book, but

xHHra HY)I(Ha. I need that one.'

.ll:aH MHe :hy xHHry, a Ty xHHry 'Give me this book and leave that

OCTaBb cefie. book to yourself.'

In the preceding sentences TOT is an attribute and agrees with the noun it qualifies in gender, number and case.

The pronoun TOT is used in complex sentences; it is invariably part of the principal clause.

1. The pronoun TOT may be the subject in the principal clause:

KTO He pafio raer, TOT He ecr.

'He who does not work, neither shall he eat.'

2. The pronoun TOT may be the predicate in the principal clause:

X03}JHH-TOT, XTO rpynarca. 'The master is he who works.' (M.T.)

3. The pronoun TOT may be an object in 'the principal clause:

JI nPHHeC TO, qTO TbI npOCHJI. 'I brought what you asked for.'

4. The pronoun TOT may be an attribute in the principal clause: .ll:aH MHe Ty xHHry, XOTOPYIO 'Give me the book which I asked

jf npockn, for.'

The Pronoun T8KOii

The pronoun T8KOH 'such (a)' is declined as an adjective of the 60JIbwoii type (see p. 125).

TaKoii denotes a quality or property of an object and is used in sentences as an attribute or part of the predicate. It agrees with the nounit qualifies in gender, number and case.

MHe HY)l(Ha nacsaa 6YMara. 'I need writing-paper. Such paper

3.n;ecb HeT TaXO" 6YMarH. Ta- is not available here. They have

K3H 6YMara ecrs B cocezmev such paper in the next shop.'

Mara3HHe.

(Here the pronoun TaKoii is an attribute.)

160

He MOM noprrpens. 3TOT "This is not .my brief-case. This

3'f~o 'f<peJIb qepHbIM H 60JIbIIIOM. bnef-c~se IS l~rge a!ld bl.ack.

M~M nOPT<peJIb I!e TaKou_; OH !'1y bnef-case IS not !Ike this, It

pUqHeBbIM H MaJIeHbKHH. IS small and brown.

(T~~ pronoun He TaKoii is the predicate.) .

The pronoun TaKoii is frequently used as an attnbute or part of the redicate in the principal clause.

;iilTe MHe T~KYIO 6YMary, sa- 'Give me the paper I asked for.'

Kyro SI IlPOCliJI. ,.,

(In this sentence the pronoun TaKyJO IS an attnbute.) .

T MaH 6bIJI TaKoii, qTO nasero 'There ~as such a (thick) fog that

YKPyroM He 6bIJIO BU.n;HO. noth,mg could be seen around you.

(In this sentence the pronoun TaKoii is part of the predicate.)

The Pronoun CTOJIbKO

The pronoun CTOJIbKO 'so many', 'so much' denotes the quantity of

objects. It may replace cardinal numerals. .' .

The pronoun CTOJIbKO I~ the nOI?matIve ~nd the accusative which IS identical with the nominative requires that Its head noun should take the genitive.

OH npanec rme miqKli 6YMam. 'He brought two reams of paper.

MHe He HY)I(HO CTOJIbKO 6y- I don't need so much paper.'

Maru.

ITPliIIIJIO narsnecsr qeJIOBeK. 'Fifty people have come. This

B :hOH KOMHaTe He nOMeC- room will not hold so many

TliTCSl CTOJIbKO JIlo.n;eii. people.'

The pronoun CTOJIbKO is dec1i~ed as an a~jective wit~ the stem ending in K in the plural. In the obhque cases It agrees WIth the noun It qualifies.

CTOJ1bKO KHHr

'so many books' CTOJ1bKHX KHllr CTO.'1bKHM KHHraM CTOilbKO KHllr CTOJ1bKHMH KHHraMII ° CTOJ1bKHX KHHrax

CTOJ1bKO J1!O.llCH

'so many people' CTOJ1bKHX Jl!OllCH CTO.'1bKHM J1IO.llIIM CTO.-'bKHX J1!OncH CTOJ1bKHMH J1!OllbMH o CTOJ1bKHX J1IO.LIIiX

Nom.

Gen. Dat. Ace. Instr. Prep.

Exercise 17. Write out the sentences. Underline the demonstrative pronouns. What parts of the sentence are they?

I 4eJIOBCK' 3TO 3BY'lHT ropno, (M. T.) 2. B Harne BpCMII TOT-no:h, ~OTnllch~JIb KTO ~OJIC3eH. i Manx.) 3. TOMY, KTO CTPOHT, rsopar, cosnaer, !,TO '1~CTH,O lPY.LIHTCII'1I lKliBer nJIO.LIaMII PYK CBOHX, HYlKeH MHp. (U. 3.) 4. YlKe ~PII COBe;cKolI B~a-

, ,~ , ~ , ' ~ , 6 ' JIH 3" nOlKeHbI HOBbie wax-

CTII, B rO.LIbI nepsoa II BTOPOII nIlTIIJIeTOK, B 3TOM p~HOHe b~~. 'Hac

lbI. (ct>aO ) 5 4aca B .LIBa MCJIKHH .LIOlK.LIb npeBpaTHJICIi B JIHBeHb. 3TO 3aC;~B6HJIO ,

: " ' , , : (A) 6 OHH 0 a HcnbI-

OClaHoBIiTbCIi paasure BpeMeHH II IiCKaTb cnaceaas B nana nce. pc. .

161

11-384

TblBaJIH O.llHli H TC lKC '[YBCTBa H 6C3 CJIOB nOHHMaJIH :lTO, H sa 3TH HeCKOJIbKO MHHh 01lIi Hco6blKHOBeHHO C6JIH3HJIHCb .llpyr C APYrOM. (f/Jao.) 7. Haxano CTPOHKH naAano II" 3HMY B :lTOM 3aKJIIO'[aJIaCb ocofienna s TpYJJ:HOCTh nOJlOlKeHHSI. (A:»e.) 8. H. a nouina nasepx H YBHACJIa TY lKC nocrerrs, TC lKC oxna C 6eJIblMH HaHBHblMH 3aHa::

KaMH, a B OKHax TOT lKC can, 3aJIHTblH COJIHlICM, BCCeJIbIH, WYMHbIH. (LJex.)

THE DEFINITIVE PRONOUNS

CAM, CAMbI:H, BECL, BCRKI1M, KAJK,lJ,b1:H, JIIOIiOti

THE PRONOUNS CAM AND CAMbIH

A. 1. The pronoun caM 'myself, 'yourself, 'himself, 'herself, 'it. self denotes a person who performs an action independently and unas, sisted.

On cnenarr :ho caM.

He 06MICHilii: MHe. $I caM xosy nOH5ITh.

Ona caM a :ho 3HaeT.

nYCTh on caM paccxazcer 060 BCeM.

'He did it himself (i. e. without any help).'

'Don't explain it to me. I want to understand it myself.'

'She herself knows it.'

'Let him tell everything himself.'

2. The pronoun caM is also used to emphasise that some particular person or object is meant and not any other.

CaM .l1.HpeKTOp npHKa3aJI. 'The director himself gave or-

ders.'

'The master himself has come.' 'He himself is to blame for this.' 'Don't say that to me, but to him

personally. '

Il PHIlleJI caM X03Smn.

On caM BHHoBaT B 3TOM.

CKa)!(H 06 :hOM He MHe, a eMY caMOMY·

3. The pronoun caM is used with the reflexive pronoun ce6i1.

TLI nnoxo snaenn, caMora ce6i1. 'You don't know yourself well

enough.'

'He blamed only himself for everything. '

'He laughed at himself.'

On 06BHHiIJI BO BCeM TOJIhKO caMora ce6i1.

On caM uan c066ii cMeilJIcj{.

4. The pronoun caM is used in the phrases:

caMo c060ii pa3YMeeTcK 'it goes without saying'

caMo c060ii nonsrno 'it stands to reason'

caM no ce6e 'by himself .

B. The pronoun CaMhiH (1) 'the same', 'the very', (2) 'the most' IS

used in the following cases: .

(1) followed by the pronoun :hOT or TOT with the meaning 'thiS very' or 'that very':

3TO 'ra CaMaK KHHra, 0 KOTOPOii: j{ Te6e rOBOpHJI.

162

'This is the very book I told you about.'

on CKa3aJI MHe TO )!(e caMoe, 'ITO 'He told me the same as you did.' ./1 ~;~peTHJIHCh na TOM )!(e ca- 'We met at the very same place.'

rub ,

MoM MeCTe. .,

3TO TOT caMblH qeJIOBeK. 'He IS that very man. ...

(2) with nouns denoting place or time to show the extreme limit (in

space or time): .. .

IlIe··JI c caM oro yrpa. 'It has been rairung since early

no)!()lb . ,

po. mornmg.

]1a)lKa oCTaHOBHJIaCb Y caMoro 'The boat stopped right at the

6epera.', .., ,bank.'

On nOBTOPHJI ace c cassoro nasa- 'He repeated everything from the

na, very beginning.'

tlop?ra IlIJIa no CaMOMY KpalO 06- 'The road ran along the very edge

pbIBa. of the precipice.'

(3) with adjectives to form the compound superlative degree:

Era )lOKJIa.n. caMblii mrrepec- 'His report is the most interesting

one.'

'He was given the most difficult work.'

RbIH.

EMY nopyxana caMYIO TpY.l1.nylO pafiory.

II"

]63

·"

~

s

o Z

.

... o.i :> E «! 0 ..cu

o.i E

o o

"0 0>' ~ ...

'" E «! 0 ..cu

.-;

' ...

:3

:s:

Pt::

-

164

.-; .:s:

Po co o

'"

165

·i
'"
:0:'
::t: en
(1):-:::
:ro..
>'::1
(1) 0..
:0:0..
a 0
:r~
.>, (1)
to:..c:
(1)~
::a (1)
:0 ;;
.= (1)
'" '"
o (1)
f-...c:
(l)r-
):
:a
::;
'ell
~ ~
c: 0
.;s:
= ~
Q
c: :r
Q >,
.. '" ..
~ ~:-:=
3 0..
::I
<U .~ 0..
.c:
- 00: 0..
.... '" 0
Q =-
;:;,; (1)
c: .=..c:
Q ",-
.~ o·~
c: f-._
<U (1):-0
"(;i
<U
Q
oj
;s: .
::: ..:.i
:<.0:1 '"
.;s: t:( .'S
::: 0:1
(1) M OIl
:r (1) .,5
>'0
,;s: ::: en
(1)
::s:,~ ....
~~ (1)
Po ~
.>, '"" '6::
0-; :::
:0: ::I '"
,: (1) 0..0
::a 0 o..E
:0 :0 0 (1)
,=,'= -..c:
'" '" (1)~
.._",......., ":5 .~
0 '" en
f-. ~~
(I)
E
0
Z
166 -

, <!J :r >,

...:

Vi .5

Nofe.- The pronoun c3MblH is declined as an adjective, retaining the stress on the stem in all the cases. The pronoun caM is stressed on the ending in all the cases except the nominative plural.

Exercise 18. Write out the sentences; mark the stress in the italicised pronouns and ellplain their meaning.

(a) J. ~'1eHI1KY y.uaJIOCb el_l!vlOM.~ peIIIHTb 3TY 'rPy.uHYI? 3a.ua'lX, 2. EM cauoa He

;iBIITCJI ee pafiora. 3. Ha cHeHY BblIIIeJl TOT cauuu ap rac'r, xoroporo MbI BII.ueJIII IiPnpOIIIJlOe BOCKpeCeHbe. 4. R nOJlY'IHJl paCnOPJllKeHl1e OT eaM020 nupexropa.

B (b) 1. OOKa ewe JI eaM TOqHO He 3Hino, 'ITO 6Y.ll.Y 11I1C:lTb. (flayem.) 2. C eaM020 JleTCTBa .ll.PYlKH.I!1I OI!H, BMC?Te yqHJIHCb, _nepeXO.ll.HJIIi l!3 xnacca B xnacc. «(/lao.). 3. C

accBeToM YIIIJla B B03.ll.YX rrepaaa JCKa.ll.pHJIbJl non KOMaH.ll.OBaHHeM caM020 rrOJlKOBHI1- ~a (E. floA.) 4. OCTaHoBKa 6bIJI3 Y ea.WblX BOPOT aasona. (AHm.) 5. B rrecy noxasanocs M~6ro CJlC.ll.OB OJIeHCH. Bcxope MbI ysanena H caMUX lKHBOTHbIX. (Ape.) 6. )l{HJI CTapHK co CBoelO CTapyxoH Y caM020 canero MOPJl· (fl.)

Exercise 19. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the pronoun caM or cilf>1b1H in the required case. Mark the stress.

I. MamRHa oCTaHOBHJlaCb Y ... MocTa. 2. OH rrOJlyqHJI pa3pemcHHe OT ... .ll.HpeKTOpa.3. 06P3THO MbI rrOllfleM TOll lKC ... .ll.OpOroll. 4. OHR CI1.ll.eJlH na .. , JIy'lIIIUX MCCT3X. 5. MHC HylKHO BH.ll.eTb ee .. ., a He ee cecrpy. 6. MOll .ll.pyr scerna He.ll.OBOJleH ... C060H.

7. OXOTHIiKH OCTaHOBHJlHCb B TOM lKe .ll.OMe, B KOTOPOM OHR HOqeBaml rrpOIIIJIbIll

pa3.8. My3blKa scerna 6bJJla ll,JIli Hero JIl06RMbIM 3aHliTHeM. 9. OH 06BHHlIJI B CJIY-

qilBWeMClI T(JJlbKO ... ce6l!. 10. YlKC y ... Teinpa OH BcrrOMHHJI, 'ITO 3a6bW5uJIeTbI .uoMa.

Exercise 20. Decline, first orally and then in writing: caM yqHTeJlb; TOT c:lMbIH Y'IHTeJlb

cawa yqRTe.~bHH'-Ia; Ta caMali yqRTeJlbHHUa CaMU acrrHpaHTbI; cllMble TPYflHb1e aonpocsr

Exercise 21. Make up four sentences with the pronoun caM and four more sentences with the pronoun C:lMLlH.

THE PRONOUN BECh

The pronoun eecs (1) 'all', 'whole'; (2) 'everybody', 'everything', 'all' is used either with a noun or by itself.

1. In the first case the pronoun aecs is used as an attribute and

agrees with the noun it qualifies in gender, number and case:

3Toro yqeHOrO 3HaeT BeR CTpaHa. 'This scientist is known to the whole country.'

'All progressive mankind stands

for peace.'

'All the inhabitants of the town were agitated by the incident.' 'The names of the first cosmonauts are known to the whole world.'

Bee nporpeccHBHoe 'IeJIOBe'leCTBO nsrcrynaer aa MMp.

Bee )KineJIH rOpo.l(a 6bUIM B3BOJIHOBaHbI :hMM C06bITMeM.

Bo BeeM Mupe 3HalOT MMeH<l nepBbIX KOCMOH<lBToB.

. 2. In the second case the pronoun sees is used only in the neuter or In the plural and is the subject or object of the sentence in which it

stands:

Ba c06paHMe rrpMUIJIH Bee.

OH Y)Ke rr03HaKOMMJIC5I eo BeeMH.

'Everybody came to the meeting.' 'He has already made everybody's acquaintance.'

167

OH CKa3<lJI 06 3TOM "PH acex,

'He said that in the presence of

everybody.'

'Everybody has seen that picture' 'I am pleased with everything.' . 'Thank you for everything.' 'The visitors asked questions

about everything.'

Bee BM.D:eJIH 3TY xaprmry.

51 .D:OBOJIeH BceM.

CnacM60 BaM sa BCe. iloCeTMTeJIH paccnpanrauana 060

BCeM.

3. The pronoun nect, is used in the phrases: "pe~.D:e accro 'first of all', BCe pasao 'all the same', BO neci, runoc 'at the top of one's voice'.

DECLENSION OF THE PRONOUN BECb

Nom. sees Hap6,U BCB crpaaa Bee napozna
'all the people' 'the whole country' 'all the peoples'
BCe qeJIOBe'leCTBO ace mO,U1I
'all mankind' 'all people'
Gen. Been> napona Been CTpaHbI acex aapoztos
Bcero qeJIOBe'leCTBa
Oat. BeeMY aapony Beeii crpaae BeeM Hap6,UaM
BeeMY qeJIOBeqeCTBY
Ace, necs Hap6,U aero CTpaHY Bee Hap6.I1bI
BCe qeJIOBeqeCTBO acex mo,UeH
Instr, BeeM HapO.l(OM Been CTpaHOH BCeMH aaponasra
BeeM 'leJIOBeqeCTBOM
Prep. 060 BCeM napone 060 acea crpane 060 Beex Hap6,Uax
060 BeeM 'leJIOBeqeCTBe Exercise 22. Read through the sentences. What part of the sentence is the pronoun aecs? State its gender, number and case.

I. Bee yace CTI{XJIO B repone. (<Pao.) 2. Bsrn nepBbIH 'lac HO'IIl. B ,UoMe ace y)!(e JIe· rJIl{. ([{ex.) 3. Crem, 6e3 KOHLla 116e3 Kpa$I TjJHYJIaCb aa see KOHLlbI CBeTa. (<Pao.) 4. Bee, BCe HanOMIIHaJIO 0 npIl6JIII)!(eHHH TOCKJIl1BOH, XMYPOH 6ceHH. ([{ex.) 5. ~O)!(,Ub cry-ran B osna BClD HO'lb. ([{ex.) 6. He3aMeTHo nJIbIBeT Ha,U B6JIroH COJIHLle; Ka)!(,UbIH 'lac Bee BOKPyr HOBO, BCe MeHlIeTc$I. (M. r.)

Exercise 23. Make up sentences, using the phrases aecs ropo,U, BCB 3eMilll, BCe He6o, ace ,UPY3b11 and the pronouns Bee and Bee without a noun.

THE PRONOUNS KA)K~bIfi, BCBKllfi, JII060fi

The definitive pronouns Ka~.D:bIU 'each', 'every(body)', BCHKHU 'any (-body)', JII060ii 'any(body)' denote one of a number of similar objects or persons.

BCHKHU (Ka~.D:bIU, JII06ou) 'IeJIOBeK na MoeM MecTe nocrymrn 6bI TaK )J(e.

JII060ii (BCHKHU, Ka~.D:blu) YKa)J(eT 'Anybody will show you the way

BaM ziopory aa CTaHu,HK>. to the station.'

A. In addition, the pronoun Ka~.LJ:bIU has a meaning similar to that of the pronoun see. In this meaning Ka~.D:blU 'each' cannot be replaced with JII060u or BCHKHU.

'Anyone in my place would have acted in the same way.'

168

Ba c~Bew:a~HH BbIcKa3,:JICH Ka~- 'Each of those present spoke at

,lI.bIH "PH~YTCTB~IO""HH. the conference.'

Ba COBew:amIM BbICKa3aJIHCb ace 'All those present spoke at the

oPHCYTcTBYlOmHe.' conference.'

The pronoun KaiK.D:blu is generally used in the singular: Ka~.D:bIU yqeHlIK 'each pupil', Ka~.D:aH yqeHMu,a 'each pupil', Ka~.D:Oe CJIOBO 'each

word'. I I' - , , . d i hell .

In the p ura , Ka~.D:hI" every IS use m tela owmg cases:

(1) with nouns which have no singular:

OR npHe3)J(<lJI Ka~.D:ble CYTKH. 'He used to come every day.'

(2) in phrases containing a noun preceded by a cardinal numeral:

MbI BCTpeqaJIHCb KaiK.D:ble .D:Ba 'We met every other day.' ,lI.HH.

Ka*,lI.ble '1eTblpe TYPHcTa paaxreCTMJIHCb B OT.D:eJIbHOH nanarxe.

'Every four hikers were accommodated in a separate tent.'

Note.- When used with nouns denoting time, Ka'lK)lblii does not require a preposition: KH'lK,Ublii ztem, 'every day', KH'lK)loe YTPO 'every morning', Ka)!(;lblii ron 'every year', Ka)!(,UylO 3HMY 'every winter', but: B nePBblii ncm, 'on the first day', B 3TO YTPO 'that morning', B :hOT ron 'that year', B npoulJIylO 3HMY 'Iast Wlllter'.

Ka)!(,Uoe YTPO $I BCTa.o B 7 'laCOB, HO B 3TO YTPO JI BCTaJI B 9 xacos.

'Every morning I get up at 7 o'clock. but that morning I got up at 9:

B. The pronoun JII060u 'any' is sometimes used to express speaker's permission to make one's choice of one out of a number of similar objects.

TbI MO)J(eIIIb B3HTb JII06yIO KHMry. 'You may take any book.'

3aXO)l,M KO MHe B JII060e BpeMSI. 'Come round any time.'

JII060u used in this meaning cannot be replaced with the pronoun Id)K)l,hlU or BCHKHU.

Compare:

3Ta KHMra ecrt, B JII060M (or KaiK,lJ,OM) KHM)J(HOM Mara3MHe.

But:

3all)l,M B JII060u KHM)J(HbIH Mara- 'Drop in at any bookshop and

31m H xyna 3TY KHMry. buy this book.'

C. The pronoun BCHKHU is also used with the meaning 'all sorts of, 'various':

B HarueH pexe BO.D:HTCH BCHKaH 'There are all sorts of fish in our

phI6a. river.'

OH '1HTaJI BCHKHe KHMrH. 'He read all sorts of books.'

OH paCCKa3bIBaJI BCHKHe mrrepec- 'He told (us) all sorts of interest-

asre HCTOpHH. ing stories.'

The pronoun BCHKH" used in this meaning cannot be replaced with the pronoun Ka~.D:bIU or JIlO6ou.

'This book is available in any (or every) bookshop.'

169

In sentences the pronouns BciIKUU, K:l)K)J:LlH and JIIo6ou are used as attributes and agree with the noun they qualify in gender, number and case. These pronouns are declined in the same manner as adjectives The pronouns BCHKUU, K:l)K)J:LlU and JIIo60u are occasionally used a~ nouns and fulfil the function of the subject or object of the sen. tence.

LITO BOJIKH :lldl)J:HhI, BcilKUU 3HaeT. (Kp.)

Y K:l)K)J:Oro 6hIJI 6HJIeT.

'Everyone knows that wolves are gready.'

'Everyone had a ticket.'

Exercise 24. Read through the sentences, noting the use of the pronouns K:llKAblii, JIJOfion, BCRKHn, and replace one pronoun with another wherever possible.

(a) I. BbI MO)!{eTe npHlfTH KO MHe B m060e BpeMSI. 2. Floeazi OCTaH:lBJ1HBaeTCli aa Ka)!{~OH cTaH~HH. 3. Y Hero euie OCTaJlOCb B repone MHoro BclIKHX ~eJ1. 4. Epar XO.luUr aa OXOTY B rnofiyto norozty. 5. Ka)!{~bII\ cTYl{eHT ~OJ1)!{eH C~eJ1aTb ~OKJ1a~ na CeMHH:lpe. 6. ]110601\ cryneirr MO)!{eT rtortro romrrr, ;WK_.a,u na :'ny TeMY. 7. OH npeono.neer JlI0- 6bIe TPY~HOCTH aa nYTH K neJ1H. 9. MOH cnYTHHK paCCK:l3bIBaJ1 MHe acsxne HHTepeCHLIe HCTOpHH.

(b) I. ,lJ,J1S1 ,ueTeH K:l)!{~bIH B3POCJ1bIH K:l)!{eTcSJ cymecrsosr HeMHoro TaHHcTBeHHbIM. (flayem.) 2. ,lJ,OpOrolO MHoro npHXO~HJ10 eMY BCHKHX MbICJ1eH xa yM. (1.) 3. He BCHKHH sac, KaK SI, nOHMeT. (fl.) 4. 51. C~eJ1aJI TOJlbKO TO, 'ITO BcHKHH ,upyroH cnerian Su na MoeM MecTe. (lfex.) 5. MHe Ka3:lJ10Cb, 'ITO nez; 3J10H; OH CO BCeMH rOBopHT HaCMeIIIJ1HBO, 06H}'lHO, nozrsanopnsaa H crapascs paccepznrrs acsxoro. (.-\1. r.) 6. B 3Hy.;meli pafio re CB1I3HCTOB aa Ka)!{}'lO\1 uiary B03HHKaJ']H aenpasraue HCO)!{H,uaHHocTH. (he.)

Exercise 25. Make up sentences, using the pronouns K:llK}'lbln, BCRKHn, JUofion in their different meanings.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

The interrogative pronouns include KTO? 'who?', 'ITO? 'what?', xaKOU? 'what (sort of)?' 'leu? 'whose?', KOTOpbIU? 'which?', CKOJ1bKO? 'how many?" 'how much?'

The pronouns KTO? 'who?' and 'ITO? 'what?' have no gender and number. Words which are adjuncts to the pronouns KTO? and 'ITO? take the singular.

KTO uoem?

lfTO euoueemcn nzrarni?

'Who goes there?'

'What can you see III the distance?'

Words which are adjuncts to the pronoun KTO? take the masculine:

KTO npuiuen? KTO eomoe?

KTO H3 crynenroa KOHIJUA pa- 60TY?

KTO H3 CTy.ueHTOK KOHIJUJ! pa- 60TY?

'Who has come?' 'Who is ready?'

'Which of the students have finished the work?'

'Which of the students have finished the work?'

Words which art: adjuncts to the pronoun 'ITO? take the neuter:

lfTO CAYIJUAOCb? 'What has happened?'

lfTO npou30LUJZO snecs? 'What has happened here?'

170

DECLENSION OF THE PRONOUNS KTO? AND LITO?

Nom. K1O? 'fTO?
Gen. Koro? 'fero?
Oat. KOM),? 'feMj"?
Ace. icoro? 'fT.O?
Instr. KeM? 'fe'\1?
Prep. o KOM? o 'feM? onouns KaKOU? 'what (sort of)'?' and KOTOphlU? 'which?' agree . The ~~ouns they qualify in gender, number ~nd ca~e a~d are de-

w~th th diectives (KaKOU as 60J1hmOU; KOTOPhlH as HO~bIU).. .

cltned as a J ~?' hose?' also agrees with the noun It quahfies III

The pronoun 'leu. w .

gender, number and case.

DECLENSION OF THE PRONOUN LIEU?

Singular
Masculine and Neuter Feminine
'fei! (Y'le6HHK)? 'fbe (m1Cb"16)~ , 'fbll (KH}lra)?
Nom. 'whose (textbook)?' 'whose (letter)? 'whose (book)'?'
Gen. 'fbCrU (V'IC61111Ka. nHch'l~i)? 'fbCn (xnur a)"
'fbCMY (y'Ic6HHKY. nHCh:vlY)?, 'fbcn (KHHre)?
Oat. 'fb1O (KHHry)'?
Ace. 'fci! (Y'le6HHK)? 'fbe (rmcsxto)?
'fbeI~O (Iipa ra l'
'whose (brother)?' '? 'fben (ntilfoti)?
Instr. 'fbHM (Y'lC6HIIKOM. nHCbM?~). o 'Ibcn (KHIII e)?
Prep. o 'fbeM (Y'lC6HHKe, rmcsxre)':
PlUT'l1
Nom. 'fbH (Y'lC6HHKH, nHCb:vla, KHHfHr r
'whose (textbooks, letters. books).
Gen. 'fbHX (Y'le6HHKoB. niH:C\1. KHHr)·'. 'J
Oat. 'fbHM (Y'le6HHKuM: nHCbMaM,. K~~rdM).
Ace. 'fbH (Y'le6HHKH, nHc~.\1~; KHHrIt).
'fbHX (6parbCB, cec rcp)':
'whose (brothers. sister'»?' '. ~
lnstr. 'fbH\IH (Y'leoHHKa \1H, ~HCb \1<1 \1H, KHHraMH).
Prep. o 'fbHX (Y'le6HHKax, nliCbMax, KHIII ax)? THE PRONOlJN CKOJ1bKO?

Th ' KO? 'how many?' 'how much'?' is declined as an

e pronoun CKOJ1b. cr r r v , , . • •

adjective in the plural. CKOJlbKO? in the nom illative requires a noun III

the genitive.

'How many people?'

171

CKOJ1bKO KHHr? CKOJ1bKO BpeMeHH? CKOJ1bKO BOJJ:bI?

'How many books?' 'How much time?' 'How much water?'

In the oblique cases the pronoun CKOJ1bKO? agrees with the noun it qualifies, the noun taking the plural.

Nom. CKOJlbKO JlIOJ(eH? CKOJlbKO KHlIr'!
'how many people?' 'how many books?'
Gen. CKOJlbKHX .'1IOllefi? CKOJlbKHX KHHr?
Dat. CKOJlbKHM JIIOmIM? CKOJIbKHM KHl1raM?
Ace. CKOJlbKHX "'1IOJleH? CKOJlbKO KHHr?
Instr. CKO.rIbKHMH JlIOJlbMH? CKOJlbKHMH KHHraMll?
Prep. o CKOJlbKHX nroziax? o CKOJIbKHX KHHrax? Exercise 26. Read through the texts. What questions do the italicised words answer?

I. «Tenept, carmrccs. B3L'l!HYB na '1<lChl. CKa3aJl omeu. CeH'1aC Ha'IHCTCl! ca-

Moe ?JI(UlHOe». OH nononrerr H BKJlIO'1I!Jl paouonpue unu«. Bee CeJlH H 3aMOJl'1aJlH.

Cnasana 6b[J]0 T1IXO. Ho BOT pasztanca uryxt, ryn, rYJlKH. DOT6M '1T6-TO CTYKHYJlO, auurarre.no, H OTKYJla-TO H3JlaJleKa JlOHeCCl! MeJlO,[lH'1HbIH 36011.

l.fYK c Texo.« ucpernsaynacs. OHH yranann, 'ITO :ho. 3TO B JlaJleKOH-JlaJleKOil Mocxne, non KpacHOH 3Be3Jl6H. na Crraccxoii 6aUIHe 3BOHHJlH sonomue KpeMJle6CKUe uacu.

11 :'nOT 'lBOH - nepen H6BbIM r6JlOM - CeH'1ac cnyurana moou H B ropoziax, H B ropax, B crcnsx, B rarire, na CHlleM M6pe.

11 ror na JlI0JlH BCntJlH, n03JlpaBHJlH zrpyr rrpyra C H06blM ?OOOM H noxcnana BceM cuacmsn.

2. Floesna T6JlbKO 'ITO npOIIIJlH B 66e CT6pOHbI, II na nnardiopvax IIUKOZO He 6bIJlO. 113 TCMllbIX roaaenea JlYJl npoxnanasni BeTep6K. )J,aJleK6 rtozt 3eMJleH 'ITO-TO rYJ1.eJlO H nocTYKHBaJl0.

Bnpyr nYCTbIHHble nnarrpopvsr OlKHml, 3amYMeJlH. Bncsarmo B03HMKJlH JlWOu.

OHI! IIIJlH, TOpOnHJlHCb. Hx 6bIJIO MH6ro, HO CTaHOBHJlOCb BCe 66JlbIIIe, uenue TOJlnbI, C6THH ... Orpaxcasci, B 6JleCTlrIl.\HX MpaMopHbIX crenax, 3aMeJlbKdJlH HX 6bICTpble Tellll, a non BbICOKHMH CBeTJlbIMli KynOJIaMH 3amYMeJIO, sarpexreno pasnoronocoe -}XO.

11 TyT l! 1l6Hl!JI, 'ITO .rro napoo ener BCCeJIHTbCl! B llapx KyJIbTYPbl, rrte ceronns OTxpsrsacrca 6JleCTlr!llHH xapuasan. tFauo.)

Exercise 27. Make up sentences, using the interrogative pronouns KTO?, 'ITO?, xaKoii?, 'Ieii?, Koropblii?, CKOJlbKO?

NEGATIVE PRONOUNS THEPRONOUNSHHKTO,HHqTO,HHKAKOn,HHqEH The pronouns HHKTO 'nobody', HH'ITO 'nothing', HHKaKou 'no' and "R'IeU 'nobody's' are formed by adding the negative particle HR to the interrogative pronouns KTO?, 'ITO?, KaKOU?, 'leu?

The negative pronouns are declined as the corresponding interroga-

tive pronouns. ,

The predicate of a sentence containing the negative pronoun HHK.TO' HH'ITO, HRKaKOu or HR'IeU is invariably preceded by the negative parttcle

He.

HHKTO He omeemun ua MOH 'Nobody answered my question.' sonpoc.

172

Ero HH'ITO He uumepecyem.

OlIa He cnyiuana HR'IbHX cOBeTOB.

'He is not interested in anything.' 'She would not listen to anybody's advice.'

B :3TOM JJ:eJIe He B03HHKJIO HHKa- 'No difficulties arose in this busi-

KHX TPYJJ:HocTeH. ness.'

The pronouns HHKTO and HHqTO are generally used either as the subject of a sentence:

"HKTO He OTBeTHJI aa MOH Bon- 'Nobody answered my question.' poe,

"HqTO He MewaeT eMY 3aHH- 'Nothing interferes with his

MaTbC~. studies.'

or as the object:

51 HHKoro He BCTpeTHJI no zropore 'I met nobody on my way here.'

ClOWl.

OH HRqel'O He 3a6bIJI. 'He forgot nothing.'

B KOMHaTe HHKOI'O HeT. 'There is nobody in the room.'

51 HHKOMY He cxascy 06 :hOM. 'I won't tell anyone about it.'

Prepositions and the pronouns HHKTO and HOqTO are spelt as separate words, the preposition being placed between the particle "H and the pronoun (KTO or 'ITO):

HH Y KOI'O HeT 3TOH KHHrH. 'Nobody has that book.'

~ aasrpa HR K KOMY He noHJJ:Y. 'I won't go to see anyone tomorrow.'

'He will never agree.'

'He did not say good-bye to anyone.'

~ era UR 0 qeM He crrpanmaan. 'I did not ask him about anything.'

. The pronouns HRKaKOU and HOqeU are used as attributes and agree with the noun they qualify in gender, number and case.

EMY He HY)KHO UHlfbeu nOMOLQR_ 'He does not need anyone's help.' OH He 60HTC5I HRKaKHx TPY;lUOC- 'He is not afraid of any difficul-

Teu. ties.'

OH HR sa 'ITO He COrJIacHTC~. OH uo C KeM He npOCTHJIC~.

Prep?sitio~s and these pronouns are spelt as separate words, the preposltlOn being placed between the particle HH and the pronoun.

OR He cor namarrca UH na KaKHe 'He would not agree to any con-

YCTYnKH. cessions.'

Exercise 28. Read through the sentences; state the case of the negative pronouns.

I!a I. ~ B :hy .110% HHKT.6 na .~op~6Jle He cnarr, (flay~m.) 2. Teneps HH'1T6 ~e HaIlOMHo Jio ~H [Haraure] npa-raay ee rpycrn. (JI. T.) 3. 51 '1YBCTBOBaJI ce6ir C'1aCTJlHBbIM ... Ho (;'1cro l! 6blJI C'I3CTJIHB? 51 HH'1erO lie lKeJl3.rr, l! IIH 0 '1eM He JlYMaJI ... 51 6bIJI C'I3cTJIHB. B YP~.)~. Bce THXO 6hIJIO B cany. 51 KJIMKIlYJI IIIenOTOM Bepy, KJIHKIlYJl B ztpyrori paa, (,/P;TIIH ... HH;eH r6JIOC ~~ 0':03BaJICl!. (Typ_z) 5. O~ He 'reps.nca IIH B KaKMX CJlY'1aSlX; CO' . : ) 6. BepHYTbCl! 1l0MOll He 6blJIO IIHKaKOH B03MOlKHOCTH. (TYP2.) 7. MHe HH'IberO

qYBCTBHl! He HYlKHO. (Type.) 8. 51 He XO'lY ne'1aJIHTb sac IIH'IeM. (fl.)

173

Exercise 29. Replace the demonstrative and possessive pronouns with negative ones.

Models: l. 3mo ero He HHTepecyeT.

Huumo ero He uarepecyer.

2. 3mll sonpocsi er6 He HHTepecyIQT.

HUKaKue aonpocsr er6 He HHTepecyIQT.

3. 51 He fipan meoux KHHr. 51 He fipan 1l1lIJbUX KHHr.

I. OH He 3a6blJl 'HOro. 2. Oaa He 3HaIQT 06 'HOM. 3. 3TH nexapcraa He nOMor<i.Ju! 4. OHa HCIlOB6J1bHa saurcti pa66ToH. 5. OH c -'nOH 3awi'leH He M6lKCT cnpaBHTbCl; 6. 3TH npcnsrcr BHSI Hac He oCTa1l6BSlT. 7. OH He cor.nacca C 3TIIMII 1l6BOllaMIl. 8. O~ He cnyuran HalUHX COBerOIl. 9. Tsr HC 06paTl1Jl BHHMaHHl! ua 3TO. 10. OHa He OTBe'lilna na MOli aonpocsr.

Exercise 30. Change the declarative sentences into negative ones, replacing the pronouns BCe, ace with HIIKTO, HII'ITO.

Bee 3a6blJlH 06 :'nOM. HUKm() Ill.' 3a6bL1 06 3TOM.

I. Bcex aaaurepecoaan 3TOT sonpoc. 2. Epa r BceM paCCKa3aJI 0 CBOeM nYTemeCTBHH. 3. nOCeTl1TeJlII 060 BCeM cnpaurasana. 4. BOlUellWHH '1eJlOBeK n031l0p6BarrCI co BCeMIl. 5. OH BIlHoBaT BO BCeM. 6. OH y acex cnpaiuaaan nopory. 7. Epar KynitJl6HJlCTbI B rearp llJll! scex.

(a) Model:

(b) Model: Bee cmyoenmu HalUeH rpyrmu YIJ(1cm606a.1u B JlbllKHblX copeaaosaHIISIX.

Huxmo U3 cmyoeumoe HaweH rpyrmsr Ill.' yuacmeoean B JlbllKHblX COpeBHOBaHIISIX.

l. )J,OKJlall'lIlK cor nacancs co BceMH asrcrynasunoaa. 2. Bee '1J1CHbl KOMIlTeTa nonncpxana 3TO npennoxenae. 3. Bee naccaxcapsr BblUIJlII 113 sarona. 4. OH coseroaancs co BCeMIl TOBaplIU(aMH. 5. OH 06paU(aJIcSi aa nosaoun.io KO BceM CBOitM .lIPY- 3bSIM.

THE PRONOUNS HEKOrO AND HE4ErO

The pronouns HeKoro 'nobody' and He'lerO 'nothing' have no nominative.

They are formed from interrogative pronouns by means of the negative particle He and are declined as the interrogative pronouns KTo? and 'ITO? They are stressed on the particle He in all the cases.

Nom. - -
Gen. ueicom He'lerO
Dat. HeKOMY He'leMY
Ace, HeKoro He'lerO
lnstr. HeKeM He'leM
Prep. He 0 KOM He 0 'IeM Hexoro nOCJI<lTb aa 6MJleTaMH. 'There is nobody to send for the

tickets.'

EMY He'lerO qHTaTb. 'He has nothing to read.'

Prepositions and the pronouns HeKoro and He'ferO are spelt as separate words, the preposition being placed between the particle He and the pronoun (Koro or sere),

174

BaM He 0 '1eM rosopars.

EM}' He C KeM nocoaeroaa n.ca.

'There is nothing for us to speak about.'

'He has nobody to turn to for advice.'

The pronouns neicorn and He'lerO are used in impersonal sentences which express the impossibility of an action owing to the absence of a performer or object.

HeKoro nocnarr, sa 6HJ16TaMH means 'There is nobody to send for the tickets' (there is no performer of the action).

EM)' He'ferO qHT<lTb means 'He has nothing to read' (there is no object of the action).

HeKoMY nothH aa 6HJleTaMH means 'There is nobody to go for the tickets' (there is no performer of the action).

The predicate of impersonal sentences with the pronouns aexoro and He'ferO is the infinitive of a verb:

Heueeo '1HnITL. 'There IS nothing to read.'

Hexouy paccxaaari, :lTO. 'There is nobody to tell this to.'

He C KeM noroaopars. 'There is no one to talk with.'

The noun or pronoun denoting the performer of the action takes the dative.

MaJIb'lHKY He11e20 ztenars.

MHe lie C KeM nocoeeronarr.ca.

'The boy has nothing to do.'

'I have nobody to turn to for advice.'

'There is nobody to go for the tickets.'

HeKoMY noihH aa 6HJ1eTaMH.

Exercise 31. Compare the pairs of sentences with the pronouns HIIKTO, HII'ITO and Hexoro, HC'Iero. Explain the difference in their meaning.

HIIKTO, HII'ITO OH HII'Ier6 He CKa3aJl.

j) HHKor6 HC cnpocan.

OH HHKOI\1Y He paCCKa3aJI 06 3TOM. OH HII 0 '1CM He paCCK33bIBa.l. HIIKT6 He nOWeJI B Mara3itH.

HHKT6 He 3a66THJICSI 0 pefieaxe.

HeKoro, He'lerO EMY He'lero 6blJI0 CKa3aTb. MHe nexoro 6blJI0 cnpocars,

EMY HeKOMY 6blJI0 paccsaaar s 06 3TOM. EMY He 0 '1eM 6blJIO paccsasa n.. HeKOMY 6blJI0 nOHTit B Mara3HH. HeKOMY 6bIJIO 3a66TIITbCSI 0 pefienxe.

Exercise 32. Replace the complex sentences with simple sentences containing the pronouns nexoeo and neueeo. Write down your sentences and mark the stress in the pronouns. (Note that the verbs in the subordinate clauses are in the conditional mood.)

Model: Y.Hellil lie 6bL10 111l1J1.'ZO, 'ITO SI Mor 6bl nonapirn, eMY aa naMSITb.

Mile ueueeo 6blllO nonapari, eMY na naMSITb.

I; He 6blJIO HII'IerO, BO 'ITO MOlKHO 6bIJ1O 6bI 3aBepHYTb KHitry. 2. He 6blJ10 HHKor6, ~ l(~r? M6lKHO 6blJlO 6bl Y3HaTb nopory. 3. HeT '1eJIOBCKa, C KOT6pbIM SI Mor 6bl cerollHSI q OH_TII B KIIH6. 4. He 6blJIO HII'Ier6, 'IeM MbI MOl JIll 6bl 3aHSITbCl! B TOT se-rep. 5. HeT HIIe ero, 3a 'ITO M6lKHO 6blJI0 6bI nOXBaJIitTb 3Toro MaJlb'lIlKa. 6. HeT 'lCJIOBeKa, KOT6pblH (jMor 6bl PYKOBOllitTb HalIlHM KPYlKK6M. 7. He 6bIJlO JIIQlleH, KOTOPblX HaM HY)[(HO 6blJI0 iI bl ~llaTb. 8. HeT '1C_IOBeKa. KOT6pOMY MOlKHO 6blJI0 6bl nopyxa rs 3TO nerro. 9. HeT '1e-

OBel(a, OT xoroporo SI Mor 6bl nOJIY'laTb nitcbMa.

EXercise 33. Give negative answers to the questions.

175

I. C KeM Bbl BCTpenlJIHCb no nopore? 2. {he COqHHeHHe BaM nOHpaBHJIOCb? 3. I<T 111 uac 311~ICT :nOT paccxas? 4. K KOMY MHe 06paTlfTbCSI C :'nHM sonpocoxr? 5. Kor6 noco ~:I r r. '!;J T-HlII a!\1!1') 6. C KC\1 MHC nocoaerouart.ca 06 :lTOM? 7. 0 qeM OH coofiuian Te\ie; g B k 1"011 Ic~lTP BbI l1J1.eTe? lJ. Ilpuuuur JIH Bbl K KaK6M)'-HH6y.[{b BbIBO.[{y no 3TOM)' Bon: pocv? 10 4,"1{) cTaTbIO Bbl Hcn6JIb1~B;JJIH B CBOCi! pafiore? 11. 4TO Bbl CJIblrnamr 06 JTO\ol' 12. Kovy Bbl paccxaxcre 06 'lTOM?

Fvercise 'W. Write out the sentences, filling in the blanks with the pronouns HU1\rn6

111111/10 or II<'kO?O. neueeo in the required form. Mark the stress in the pronouns. •

I. 'vIbl He rOBOpH."IH .... 2. HaM rosopart, 6bIJlO .... 3. OH He nocOBeTOBaJICSI

4 1 \01) .. ObL10 nOCOBeTOBaTbCSI. 5. Msr He 60llMCSI .... 6. HaM 601ITbcSI .... 7. OTKpil:;'; lIlLpL rb[ I( •.• 8. Pe6eHoK He CJIYluaeTCSI .... 9. MHe ... panosarsca. 10. OH He 3a66-

111 ('II . 11 Ha« 6ecnoKoHTbCSI .... 12 . .H He BCTperHJICSI .... 13. MeHI! 6JIaro'[{apHTb .

14 HM cnopa n, .... 15. )K'[{aTh Ha'\f 6b[J'1O .... 16. Hauiea patioroa PYKOBO,[{HTb .

17 <. '..1M HHlIOBaT. )Ka,"IOBaTbCSI ....

Fxcrcise 35. Find the negative pronouns in the sentences and state their case. What par t-, 01 the sentence are they? Point out the personal and the impersonal sentences.

1. H IO'\fC BCC ysce rrer JIll. HO HTlKT6 He crran. (lJex.) 2 . .H Hllqer6 He cnsnua,n, Kp6Me III) \1" JlI1L r r.cs. (Type .) 3. 51 '[{06pa,"IcSI, uaxoaen, ,[{O yr.na neca, HO TaM He 6MJIO HIIKaT<)H ("P \rI1. tType.) 4. ECTb 6bIJlO nesero, na II He XOTeJIOCb. (Ape.) 5. Hacars 6blJlO ret K(' I hiT< ro He Mor oropaari, MCHI! OT JIlo611MblX MblCJIeii. HII 0 qeM, cosepuremro HI! ,) '1(:\1 lit: uauo 6blJI0 ,lYMaTh. Kp6Me KaK 0 paccxaae, xoropsni 1I nuca,n. (Ilaycm.s 6. MlI \1 ')1.111 1111; H~KOMY H~ XOTeJIOCb naurarscs. )..I,epeB,HSI sa pexoti euie cnaJI~. iTlaycm; 7. }I CHOI{) t~OJIlO XYJl.OlKHIIKa Hil na qTO He npOMeHSlI{). (Tlaycm.) 8. OH ysce paCCKa3l1J1 Mile 0 ce5e BCe. a MHe 6blJI0 uexero paccxaasmart., (JI.) 9. HIlqT6 TaK He C6JIIllKaeT rno- 11"11. K,'" ncpcsorrue BMeCTe TPYAHOCTII. (C/JaO.) 10. YTpOM XOJIO,[{1I0, romrrs neqll He, KlJ\l) l'IOPOA< yurerr Ky,[{a-TO. (lJex.) II. OPCHIISI onsn, B0306HOBIIJIIICb, HO qaCTO Hac' 1VII,'llH nepcpsresr, Il qYBCTBOBaJIOCb, qTO rosopjrrs 66JIbrne He 0 qeM. (JI. T.) 12. CKY' 'Ielf )ICI[b Jl.0 sesepa, K6JIIl ziena n, ue-rero. (Proverb)

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Most indefinite pronouns are formed by adding the particle -TO, -.moo, -"Ufiy,nb or xoe- to the interrogative pronouns KTO?, 'ITO?, xaKOit?, '1Cu?, CKOJIbKO?:

K10-TO 'somebody', 'ITO-TO 'something', 'leU-TO 'somebody's', Ka"tlll-ro 'some';

K rO-JIufio 'somebody', '1TO-JIufio 'something', '1eu-JIufio 'somebody's', KaKou-.'1ufio 'some';

KTO-"ufiYL{L 'somebody', '1To-"ufiYL{b 'something', '1eu-"u6y~ 'somebody's', KaKou-HufiYL{b 'some', CKOJIbKO-HU6YL{b 'some' (quanuty);

Koe-KTO 'somebody', KOe-'1TO 'something', KOe-'1eU 'somebody's', Koc-KaKou 'some'.

The indefinite pronouns with the particles -TO, -JIu60, -Hu6YL{L, KOCare declined as pronouns without these particles (Koro-Hu6YL{b, KOMj'IIUUYL{b, C KeM-"u6y,nL). The particles are always joined to the pronoun by a hyphen. The particles -TO, -JIu60, -"U6YL{L follow and the particle KO(,- precedes the pronoun.

If a pronoun with the particle xoe- is used with a preposition, the latter follows the particle and no hyphen is spell.

011 paCCKa3aJ1 HaM xee 0 '1eM. Oil uofiecezionan Koe C KeM.

'He told us something.'

'He talked to some people.'

Ifpronouns with the particles -TO, -JIu60, -Hu6y,nL are used with prepositions, t~e latter precede the pronouns (OT Koro-"u6YL{L, C KeM-

J1800, Y Koro-To).. . . •

The pronouns WIth the particle -JIu60 (KTO-.'1u60, '1To-JIu60, '1euJ1800, KaKOH-JIu6o) have the same meaning as the pronouns with the particle -Hu6YL{L (KTO-Hu6y,nL, '1To-"u6YL{b, '1eu-"U6YL{b, KaKOH- 886YL{b)·

Pronouns with the particle -JIufio are generally used in the literary

language, e. g.:

3TO apxn J1H npH6aBHT '1TO-.1U60 cymecTBeHHoe K TOMY, qTO Y)l(e cKa3aHo.

'This is unlikely to add anything of importance to what has already been said.'

Pronouns with the particle -Hu6YL{b are used both Il1 colloquial speech and in the literary language.

51, MO)l(eT, '1TO-Hu6YL{b He TaK 'May be I've said something

cxaaana? (M. r.) wrong?'

Xyno)l(eCTBeHHOe npoasseneaae 'A work of art is important and

JIHIIIh TOrL{a 3HaqineJ1LHO useful only when its idea con-

H n0J1e3HO, Kor,na OHO B cnoea tains some social implication.'

Hnee conepsorr KaKYIO-HH-

6yL{b 06meCTBeHHYlO aazraxy.

(rJepH.)

USE OF THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS WITH THE PARTICLES

-TO AND -HI1EY21.b

I. Pronouns with the particle -TO are used when the sentence speaks of an indefinite person or object unknown to the speaker, but probably known to others:

'Somebody tapped on the door softly.'

This means that the person who tapped on the door is definite, but the speaker has no idea who it is.

lho-To C IIIYMOM ynano Ha nOJ1. 'Something fell on the floor noisily.'

This means that though the object which fell on the floor is quite defimte, the speaker has no idea what it is.

2. Pronouns with the particle -HH6YL{b (or -JIH60) are used when the sentence speaks of an indefinite person or object unknown both to the speaker and to everyone else.

n030BH KOrO-"H6YL{L. 'Call somebody (i. e. no matter

whom).'

nOQH- 'Give me something to read (i. e. no matter what).'

llaHTe MHe '1To-"u6y,nL Tan.

12 - 384

177

ECJIH KTO-HH6YLJ.b npHLJ.eT, n030- Bine MeHS!.

'Should anyone come, call rne (i. e. no matter who comes).'

PaCCKalKH MHe 'Imo-Hu6yob.

Exercise 36. Read through the sentences and account for the use of the pronouns in the right-hand and left-hand columns.

ITYCTb xmo-uutiyos npaner.

Te6e HYlKHO noroBopHTb 06 JTOM

C Ke.W-lluorOb 113 npenonasarcncti.

51 He 3HalO, npauec JlI1 OH umo-uuoyo«. 3BOHHJl 'VIHe xmo-uuovov!

ECJlI1 xmo-uuoyo), npnner, nonpocn re ero nonoxnars MeHiI.

51 B03b'VIY umo-nuiiyo» no-nrrars.

OH CKa3aJT MHe '1f1UJ-mo, HO SI He pacCJlbllllaJl.

TaM «mo-mo npaure.t.

51 BHileJl Te6i1 asepa B I1HCTI1TYTe, Korm\

Tbr paaroaapaaan C xest-mo.

51 BlrlK). 'ITO OH umo-mo npunec. Tefie «mo-mo 3BOHI1Jl.

Koraa SI npHWeJ1 .uO'VIOH, SI J 3HM, 'ITo «mo-mo npaxo.tan KO MHe (6hIJI y MeHSI).

OH B3S1Jl umo-mo nO'lI1TaTb.

Exercise 37. Read through the sentences. Explain the difference in their meaning.

OH CTaJl 3BaTb K020-mo na nOMOll\b. Epar ofieuian na'rs eMY xaxyto-mo KHHry.

OHa npOCI1T «oeo-mo npI1HTH.

Ee nOnpOCHJlI1 cners KaKYIO-mo necuto.

OH rOBOpHJl, 'ITO aano npl1MCHHTb teatcoii-mo HOBblH MeTO.u.

EMY 6yr~eT nojaora'n, «mo-mo 113 TOBaPI1- meH.

OH CTaJT 3BaTb KOi'b-HU6yOb aa rrOMOUIb. Epar ofieuian zra n, eMY KaKj'IO-Hu6yiJb KHHry.

OHa npOCI1T KOZO-IIU6yOb npI1HTH.

Ee nOnpOCHJlI1 cners KaK.VIO-IIu6YOb neeHIO.

OH ronopnn, 'ITO nano npl1MeHHTb xaKoii-HU6yOb HOBbrH MCTO.u.

EMY 6YrleT nowora n, «mo-suuiyo» H3 TOna pauieii.

Exercise 38. Read through the sentences and account for the use of the pronouns with the particles -mo and -IlU6yOb.

I. BOT KTO-TO BblWeJl 113 .uOMa 11 OCTaHOBHJlCSI aa xpsinsne. (Cfex.) 2. B KOMHaTe pasnanacs '!bH-TO uraru, (A.JIC.) 3. CKalKHTe lKe MHe KaKYIO-HH6Yrlb aosocrs! (JJ.) 4. Bnpyr 'ITO-TO. noxoscee na neCHIO, nopaaioro MOH CiTyX. (JJ.) 5. EMY '1pe3Bbl'laHHO He HpaBI1JlOCb, xorna KTO-HI16y.ub aasonan pe-n, 0 ero MOJlO.uOCTI1. (Cfex.) 6. 51 BCTaBan paao, C paccaerosr, 11 TOT'IaC lKe npl1HI1MaJlCSI aa KaKYIO-HI16y.ub pa60TY. ('lex.) 7. ITo'Ie My sac TaK no.nro He 6b1Jl0? CJlY'lHJlOCb 'ITO-HH6y.ub? (Cfex.) 8 Bnpyr noaana Hac B ospare paanancs urysc KTO-TO cnYCKaJlCSI K I1CTO'lHI1KY. (TYP2.) 9. Ho rrtaaaoe osaposaaae MOPSI 3aKJlIO'IMOCb B KaKoH-To TaHHe, KOTOPYIO OHO acerna XpdHHJTO B CBom rrpocrpancrsax. (Karn.) 10. OHa [Harama] He MOma 11 He yxsena nenars '1TO-HI16y.llb He OT BceH .uYWH, He 1130 scex CI1Jl. (JI. T.) II. «Bsrsaer y Te6i1 KTO-HI16Yilb? 411TaeIJIb rsr?» CnpOCHJl 6paT. (M. T.) 12. Pam.me OHa unxorna He '1YBCTBOBaJla ce6i1 HYlKHOii KOMY-HI16Yilb, a reneps i1CHO BillleJ1a, 'ITO HYlKHa MHOrHM. (M. r.)

Exercise 39_ Write out the sentences, filling in each blank with the particle -lIu6yOb or -mo.

I. OH CKa3aJl MHe '1TO- ... BalKHoe, HO SI He Mory CeH'IaC BCnOMHI1Tb, 'ITO OH CKa3¥· PaCCKalKH MHe '1TO- ... aurepecnoe. 2. 4TO Tbl Hwewb? 51 I1UIY KaKYIO- ... I1HTepeeHyTO KHHry.- Bpar npanec CerOrlHSI KaKYTO- ... HOBYIO KHHry, nonpoca y Hero. 3. ITyCTb

KTO- ... orxpoer OKHO. KTo- OTKPblJl OKHO, H B KOMHaTY sopnanca CBelKlfH BeTe~.

4. 51 Ha.ueSlJlCSI Y3HaTb y xoro- zropory. HeOlKH.llaHHO H CTOJlKHYJlCSI C KeM- ... B TeMHOTe.

5. Msr ycnsuuana, 'ITO KTO- nomen B COCellHlO1O KOMHaTY. 51 He 3HalO. npnner JIll

K HaM KTO- ... CerO.llHSI. 6. BepHYBllIl1Cb .llOMOH, SI CnpOCHJl, He 3BOHHJl JlI1 MHe no- .. ·· MHe OTBerI1JlH, 'ITO KTO- ... 3BOHHJl. 7. ECJlI-I Bbl 0 '1eM- ... saxorure cnpocars MeHJl, n03- BOHHTC MHe no TCJlC4>OHY. Te6ir HWCT Cepr eii. OH XO'leT CnpOCHTb Tc6ir 0 '1CM- .... 8. Ce; ronax OH 0 '1eM- ... paccxaasrsan, H ace cnyurana 6'1CHb BHI1MaTeJlbHo. Boofiiue, Korila

OH 0 '1eM- paccxaasmaer, see cnyuraior C mrrcpccose. 9. Korna noesn OCTaHaBJlI1BaJlcJl

aa KaKoH- 60JlbWOH cTaHUl1l1, naccaxapu BbIXO.L\HJlI1 H3 saroaa nom.nnars cBeJl{}IM

B631lYXOM. IToe3.L\ T6JlbKO 'ITO OCTaHOBHJlCH na KaK6H- ... 60JlbWOH CTaHHHI1. 10.011, 3aK6H'II1T pa60TY B CpOK, ecnn eMY '1TO- ... He noxseuraer. OH HC ycnen 3aKOH'II1Tb pa60TY,

178

1I0TOMY '11,0 eMY :TO- ... nOMeI?ilJlO. 1.1. Ilpascna B ~OpliilOK ~?MHaTY, Ka~/lYIO MI1I:'YTY

OJl{CT KTO- BOI1TH. BOT KTO- ... a.acr. 12. 51 He 3HalO, npaaec Jlll OH '1TO- .... 51 BHlKy,

~TO oH 'lTO- 1I_PI1Hec. ~ 3. B Haw~ KO\1H~iTY~ 3ameJT cocen If Cn_POCHJl, He xo:eT Jl~ KTO- ...

oiiTII na xonucpr. KTo- ... 113 MOllX cocenea B3S1Jl y Hero 6HJleT. 14. ECJlI1 ObI KTO- ... no~or MHe. SI .L\aBH6 6bl YlKe K6H'IHJl pa66TY. 15. Mu M6lKeM nepcaoxeaa rs B KaK6M- ... )lOMe. 16. OH '1TO- ... KpHKHyJI HaM. HO Mbl HC pacc.naurana. 17. Kor aa H npaurerr rlOMOH, JI YBHileJl aa caoe-a CTOJle '1be- ... nacswo. 18. nC)3ilHO aeseposr Mbl YBHrleJlI1 OrRH KaK6u.., ;r,epCBHI1. 19. ~YlKHO Crp,OCHTb. 06 -jTO'VI Y xoro- ... 113 ero ponaux. 20. OH He ynepen, cMOJl{eT ,111 OH '1eM- ... reoe nO!vlO'lb.

Exercise 40_ Fill in the blanks with the particles required by the sense.

S,lpyr sncpena !vIeHil nocnsuna.rca TpeCK c5 'lbCB, 11 BC1el aa TC'VIli yc nanran 'lbH- ... warM. KTO- ... 1111:.1 MCPHOH TSllKe.10H nOXO/IKoH. 51l1cnyraJlCli If XOTeJl 6blJIO YHTH aaaan, HO n06op6.1 B ccfic '1YBCTBO crpaxa 11 OCTaJlCli na MCCTe. Bcnen sa TeM H YBH.L\eJT B KYCTax KaKYTO- ... ThlHYIO MiICC). 3TO 6blJl 60J1blllOH Me.uBeilb. (Ape.)

USE OF THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS WITH THE PARTICLE KOE-

Pronouns with the particle icoe- (Kon-) are used when the sentence speaks of something known to the speaker, but unknown to the person spoken to:

.$I XO'lY paccxasart, Te6e xoe 'I want to tell you something.' O'leM.

The speaker knows what he is going to say, but the person spoken to has no idea of it.

Pronouns with the particle xoe- may be used with the meaning of 'some'.

OH BCTpeTHJI Koe-Koro H3 CBOHX TOBapHw:eM.

Exercise 41. Read through the sentences and account for the use of the pronouns with the particle «oe-,

'He met some of his friends.'

I. 51 U1e:1 K 'refie, nee KOe-'1T6 Te6e H noxasars. (fl.) 2. HO'Ib 6blJla XOTJlI1 TeMHall, H? 6,laroaapil BbmaBmeMY CHery MOlKHO 6bL'1O K6e-'1T6 paccvorpers. (Ape.) 3. y PoeTOBbIX, KaK 11 acer na no BOCKpeCeHbllM, ofiezian K6e-KTo H3 6,lH3KI1X 3HaK6Mblx.

(JI. T.)

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS HEKTO,HEYTO,HEKMH,HEKOTOPbIH,HECKOflbKO

The pronouns HeKTo 'certain', He'lTO 'something', HeKHn (-aH, -oe, -He) 'certain', HeKoTopbln (-aH, -oe, -sre) 'some' and HeCKOJIbKO 'several' are also indefinite pronouns.

1. The pronouns HeKTo and He'lTO are used only in the nominative and in the accusative which is identical with the nominative.

. The pronoun He'lTO is neuter. It is always accompanied by an attnbute.

CJIYlJHJlOCb He'lTO youeumessuoe. ~ BH)KY He'lTO neonpeoeneuuoe.

'Something astonishing has happened.'

'I see something vague.'

179

The meaning of the pronoun He'lTO is similar to that of the pronou 'ITO-TO. The pronoun 'ITO-TO is used either with or without an attrib~ ute.

qTO-TO CJ1Y'H1:J10Cb. 'Something has happened.'

The pronoun HeKTo is used only in the nominative before the names of men or women:

npHWeJ1 HeKTo I1BaHoB. 'A certain Ivanov has come.'

Il PHlIIJ1(l lIeKTo Haauoaa. 'A certain I vanova has come.'

2. The pronoun HeK"" changes for gender, number and case and is used as an attribute. It is rarely used in the oblique cases.

Ilpaexan HeK"" xynO)KH"K. Bsrcrynarra HeKaH I1BaHoBa.

'Some artist has come.'

'A certain Ivanova spoke.'

The pronouns HeKTo, lie 'ITO and HeK"" are generally used in the literary language.

3. The pronoun HeKOTOpbI" follows the declension pattern of adjectives and is used as an attribute.

Heieo'ropsre cTY.11.eHTbI rpynnsr YBJ1eKaJOTcS! MOM.

51 rOBop(1J1 c HeKOTOpbIM" CTy.11.eHTaMH.

Hejcuropoe BpeMS! see MOJ1QaJ1H.

HaWe" TYP(I3-

'Some of the students of our group go in for hiking.'

'I spoke to some of the students.'

'Everyone was silent for some time.'

HeK~)TOpylO QaCTb nYTl1: see WJ1H 'Part of the way they all walked

MOJ1'1a. on in silence.'

The '!leaning of ~he pronoun lIeKOTOpbl" is similar to that of pronouns with the particle xoe-: Koe-KaKO", KOe-'1TO, Koe-KTO.

51 B3S!J1 c c06o" Koe-KaKue KHl1TH.

51 B3S!J1 C c06o" lIeKoTopble 'I took some books with me.' KHHrH.

51 B3S!J1 c c06o" KOe-'1TO H3

seurea. 'I took some of the things with

me.'

51 B3S!J1 c cofioii nexoropsre BeWH.

Koe-jcro H3 cTY.11.eHTOB yBJ1exaerca TYPH3MOM.

Hexoropsre cTY.11.eHTbI KaJOTcS! TYPH3MOM.

4. The pronoun lIeCKOJIbKO denotes an indefinite number of objects. The pronoun HeCKOJIbKO in the nominative or in the accusative which is identical with the nominative requires the genitive plural of the noun.

yBJ1e-

'Some of the students go in for hiking.'

BOWJ10 lIeCKOJIbKO QeJ10BeK. OH npnnec HeCKOJIbKO KHHT.

180

'Several people came in.' 'He brought several books.'

The pronoun HeCKOJIbKO is declined as an adjective in the plural. In the oblique cases HecKo.1bKO agrees with the noun it qualifies.

'The brother came home with several friends.'

'The hikers were accommodated in several tents.'

DpaT npHUI~_fJ .11.0M0i1 c uecxoasK"\t" 10Bapl1waMH.

TypllCTbI pa3M~CTHJ1J1Cb B neeKOJIbKHX naJ1aTKax.

Exercise 42. Read through the sentences and point out the indefinite pronouns. I. I1 3f1CCb OH [Cepexcxa] ysnncn HeqTo. HaCTOJlbKO nopaannmee cro soofipaxccuae.

QTO BblHYlK)J,CH 6blJl ocranonar sca. (<Pao.) 2. Msrcrn, 0 TOM, qTO 3J(CCb )J,OJllKeH 6blTb napK B03HitKJla CPC)J,it crapsrx KOMCOMOJlblleB. Hexoropsre H3 HHX H ceasac euie pafioTaJlH'B KpacHo.noHe. (<Pao.) 3. nOTYX CBeT H B aexoropux oxaax nepaoro araxa, H 3TH Olma TOlKe pacnaxnynnct.. (<Puo.) 4. MHC npacnancs COH, KOTOPOro HHKor)J,a HC Mor R n03a6blTb H B KOTOPOM no CHX nop sitlKY HeqTO npoposecxoe. (fl.) 5. Bnpyr HCMlIor 0 BnepeUI! Hac. B TeMHOTe. aaxcrnocs HeCKOJlbKO orOHbKOB. iTvpe.) 6. Mecsua naa Ha3afl yMep Y Hac B repone HeKHH 6eJlHKOB, y-nrrern, rpexecxoro Sf3b1Ka. (lJex.)

Exercise 43.Fill in the blanks with negative pronouns and indefinite particles to suit the sense .

.H nOHSfJI. qTO aafinynancs. ,aanbllle H)J,Tit 6blJlO HCJlb3l!; anepezns 6blJlO xaxoe- ... 60J]OTO.

.H nourert HaJleBO H asnne.r aa y3KYlO aapocuryro UOPOlKKY. no KOTOPOH LlaBHO He bAHJIH . .H HC 3HaJl, xyzia OHa MCHl! npunener, HO fleJlaTb 6blJlO ...• H Sf nouien no HCH, iraAeSlCb SblHTH K KaKoi1:- ... )J,epeBHC . .H urerr no.nro, HO ... npuanaxoa lKHJlbl! He 6blJlO BI!UHO. Kpyroxr ryCT\JH nee, ,aaBHO YlKe ... nora He crynana 3,AeCb . .H npourerr HeCKOJlbKO KIIJ10MeTpOB, HO ... )J,epeBHH He 6bIJlO.

CTaJlO TCMHCTb. LIepe3 aexo ropoe BpeMSf noasanacs orna KaKOH- ... )J,cpeBHH. Teneps MHC ... 6blJlO 6ecnOKOHTbCSf . .H pennot nepcaoxesars B KaKOM- ... AOMe. nonoH.nl! K KUHnc xpaiiucr o .rovra. Sf nOCT) 'la.~, HO ... He o rspuea.i . .H rtocryua.t erne pan H npacryura.rcs. He ObL10 C.lbllIIHO ... uraron. TOL1a Sf TO.1KHY.l Ka.lI!TKY H. cnorxuyannrct, 060 qTO- ... , aourerr BO )J,BOp. KaK TOJlbKO Sf nocrysan B nseps, nocnsnnanacs qbit- ... urarn. nOTOM !(TO- ... sarpexsen 3aMKoM, H ziaeps orxpsmacs.

THE NUMERAL

CLASSIFICATION OF NUMERALS

According to their meaning, numerals are divided into cardinal, col. lective and ordinal.

Cardinal and collective numerals denote the quantity of objects and answer the question CKOJILKO? 'how many?'

CKOJlbKO OXOH H .l1.BepeH B aY.l1.HTOpHH? - B aY.ZJ.HTOpHH ,l1,Be nsepa H nsrn. OXOH.

"How many windows and doors are there in the lecture-hall?" "There are two doors and five windows in the lecture hall."

O,lJ;1m 'one'i naa 'two', TpH 'three', 'IeTbrpe 'four', nBTL 'five', etc. are cardinal numerals.

CKOJlbKO .l1.eTeH y 6pha?- y fipara ,l1,Boe neren.

"How many children has the brother?" "The brother has two children."

CK,OJlbKO • CYTOX <;>H eXaJI?-OH "How many days did he travel?"

eXaJI seraepo CyTOX. "He travelled four days."

~BOe 'two (of them)" TpOe 'three (of them)" .. hBepo 'four (of them)', niITepo 'five (of them)', mecrepo 'six (of them)', ceMepo 'seven (of them)' are collective numerals.

Ordinal numerals denote the serial order in which an object stands and answer the question KOTOpLrii? 'which?'

Komopua MeCJlIJ, BbI saaasraerecs "How long have you been study-

Jl3hIXOM? - mecrOH MeCJlIJ,. ing the language?" "More than five months."

Komopuu paa TbI qHTaellib 3TY "Which time do you read this

xHHry?-BTopOH pas. book?" "A second time."

nepBLIH 'first', BTOpOH 'second', TpeTHH 'third', 'IeTBepTLrii 'fourth', nHTLrii 'fifth', etc. are ordinal numerals.

Exercise 1. Write out the text and underline the cardinal numerals once and the ordinal numerals twice. What questions do they answer?

.sI Y'lyCb aa BTOpOM ICypee 3ICOHOMH'IecICoro q,aICYJIbTi:Ta. Ha HalIIeM ICyPce era .!lBllmlaTb nllTb crynearos. Y Hac BOceMb Y'Ie6HbIX rpyrrn . .sI B '1eT&CPTOH rpyrtne- q: r('>1\HlI Y Hac ABe nCKlIHH H 01\1111 ceMHllap. nCpBaJI neKlIHlI - no )KvHUMH4ecKoH -re

182

H BTOpilll neKlIHlI - no MareMilTHKe. J1eKlIHlI no 3KolloMH4ecKoli 'reopua 6Y1\eT P: ~Ba.nI_laTb,4eTBepTOH ~Y.llHTOpHH, JleK!lHlI no MaTeMaTHKe-B ce.llbMOH aY.llHTOpHH. Cc"UiHap 6Y.lleT B ziaeuazntaroa aY.llHTOpHH.

CARDINAL NUMERALS

Simple, Compound and Composite Numerals

According to their structure, numerals are divided into simple, compound and composite.

Simple numerals: O,lJ;HH 'one', ,lJ;Ba 'two', TpH 'three', 'IeTblpe 'four', nRTL 'five', meCTL 'six', ceML 'seven', BOCeML 'eight', ,lJ;CBHTL 'nine', .llfcHTL 'ten', COpOK 'forty', CTO 'hundred', TbrCH'Ia 'thousand', MHJIJIHOH 'million', MHJIJIHSP,lJ; 'milliard' (or 'billion').

Compound numerals:

1. O,lJ;HHHa,lJ;QaTL 'eleven', ,lJ;BeHS,lJ;QaTL 'twelve', TpHHa,lJ;QaTL 'thirteen', '1eTblpna,lJ;QaTL 'fourteen', nHTHS,lJ;QaTL 'fifteen', ... ,lJ;eBHTHS,lJ;QaTL 'nineteen' .

2. )l.BSLmaTL 'twenty', TpH,lJ;QaTL 'thirty', nHTL,lJ;ecilT 'fifty', ... BOceML,lJ;eCHT 'eighty', ,lJ;eBHHOCTO 'ninety'.

3. )1,BCCTH 'two hundred', TpHCTa 'three hundred', 'IeThIpeCTa 'four hundred', DHTLCOT 'five hundred', meCTLCOT 'six hundred', ... ,lJ;eBHTbCOT 'nine hundred' .

The component parts of a compound numeral are spelt as one word,

Composite numerals consist of two or more simple or compound numerals, e. g. ,lJ;Ba,lJ;QaTL O,lJ;HH 'twenty-one', CTO ,lJ;Ba,lJ;QaTL 'one hundred and twenty', TpHCTa nHTHSLmaTL 'three hundred and fifteen', 'feTblpecra BoceMb;-.ecHT tnecri, 'four hundred and eighty-six', TMCHlia neBHTbCOT COPOK meCTL 'one thousand nine hundred and forty-six'.

The component parts of a composite numeral are spelt as separate words: TpH,lJ;QaTL ceMb 'thirty-seven', CTO COPOK 'one hundred and forty'.

Spelling of Cardinal Numerals

1. The numerals 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 30 take the soft mark only at the end of the word: nHTHa~QaTb, mecrnazmar», CeMHa,lJ;uaTb, BoceMHS,lJ;QaTb, ,lJ;eBHTHS,lJ;QaTL, ,lJ;Ba,lJ;QaTL, TpH,lJ;QaTL.

2. The numerals 50, 60, 70, 80 and 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 take the soft mark in the middle of the word between its component parts:

OHTb,lJ;ecilT, uiecrsnecsr, d~ML,lJ;eCHT, BOCeMb,lJ;eCHT, nsrrscor, nrecrscor, ceMbCOT, BoceMLcoT, ,lJ;eBHTLcoT.

183

CARDINAL NUMERALS

--
From I to 10 From II to 20 Tens Hundreds
--
1- Om'!H II - O~HHHa;:maTb 10-~ecIlTb 100-CTO
2-~Ba 12 - ~BeHallllaTb 20 - .llBUllaTb 200 - .llBkTH
3--rPH 13 - TpHHa~lIaTb 30 - Tp"~lIaTb 3OO-TpHCTa
4-'1eTwpe 14 - 'IeTbIpHa~lIa'Tb 4O-COPOK 400 - '1eTwpecra
5- nllTb 15 - nllTHa;:maTb 50 - nllTb~ecillT 500 - nllTbCOT
6-WecTb 16 - WecTHa~lIaTb 60 - uieersnecsr 600 - WecTbCOT
7-ceMb 17 - ceMHa~lIaTb 70 - ceMb~ecllT 700 - ceMbCOT
8-BOceMb 18 - BOCeMHa~lIaTb 80 - BOceMb~ecllT 800 - BoceMbCOT
9 -~eallTb 19 - ~eBlITHa~lIaTb 90 - ~eBIlHOCTO 900 - ~eBlITbcOT
10-~ecIITb 20 - ~Ba~lIaTb Exercise 2. Read the numerals given in the above table, paying attention to the cor. rect pronunciation of the numerals from II to 20.

Exercise 3. Copy out the sentences, writing the numbers in words. Underline the simple numerals once, the compound numerals twice and the composite numerals with a wavy line.

I. B Mocxse 9 BOK3anoB. 2. B Mocxse H Mocxoscxoa 06J1aCTH 103 BhlCWHX Y'le6- HblX 311BeAeHHJI. 3. B MOCKOBCKOM YHHBepcHTi:Te 16 q,aKYJlbTeToB. 4. OT MOCKBbI 110 Ilerepfiypra 649 KHJlOMi:TPOB. 5 . .lI.JlHHa Bonro-Iloacxoro xaaana - 10 I KHJlOMi:Tp. Ha xaaane 13 WJ!I()30B H 3 aacocasrx CTaHUHH. 6. Kanan HMeHH MOCKBhl HMeeT AJlHHY 128 KHJlOMeTpoB.

Cardinal Numerals Used with a Noun

Cardinal numerals except O,Uim 'one' and ,UBa 'two' do not change for gender.

The numeral O,UHH has three gender forms: O,UHH for the masculine, o,UHa for the feminine, O,UHO for the neuter: O,UHH ,UOM 'one house', o)VIa KHHra 'one book', O,UHO nHcbMo 'one letter'.

The same is true of composite numerals whose last component is O.zulH; e. g. ,UBa,U u aTL o.uim ,UOM 'twenty-one houses', ,UBa,U .. aTL o)VIa KHHra 'twenty-one books', ,UBa.u..aTL 0,lUl0 nHcbMo 'twenty-one letters'.

The numeral ,UBa has only two forms: ,UBa for the masculine and neuter and ,UBe for the feminine: ,UBa ,UoMa 'two houses', ,UBa nHcbMa 'two letters', ,UBe KHHrH 'two books'.

The same is true of composite numerals whose last component is ,UBa; e. g. COPOK ,UBa ,UoMa 'forty-two houses', COPOK ,UBa nHcbMa 'forty-two letters', COPOK ,UBe KHHrH 'forty-two books'.

All the other cardinal numerals do not change for gender and are used in one ·and the same form with all' the nouns: TpH ,UoMa 'three houses', TpH KHHrH 'three books', TpH nHCbMa 'three letters'.

Nouns used with the numerals 1, 21, 31, 41, etc. (i. e. numerals whose last component is O,UHH, o,UHa or 0,UH0) take the nominative: o.uiot ,UOM 'one house', o,UHa KHHra 'one book', O,UHO nHCLMO 'one letter'; ,UBaMaTL O.zulH ,UOM 'twenty-one houses', TpH,U u aTL o,UHa KHHra 'thirty-one books'.

Nouns used with the numerals 2, 3, 4; 22, 23, 24; 32, 33, 34, etc. (i, e.

184

umerals whose last com~onent .is ~B~, ,UB~, TpH .or 'IeTblpe) .in ~he n minative or the accusative which IS Identical with the nommative ~:ke the genitive singular: ,UBa ,UoMa 'two houses', TpH KHltl'H 'three

books', 'IeTblpe nHcbMa 'four letters'. .

Nouns used with any of the other numerals (5, 6, 7, 8, etc.) III the ominative or the accusative which is identical with the nominative take ~he genitive plural: nBTL ,UOMOB 'five houses', lUeCTL KHHf' 'six books', ceMb nHceM 'seven letters', ,UBa~ u aTL nBTL py6JIeii 'twenty-five roubles'.

All numerals agree with their head noun in all the cases except the nominative, and the accusative which is identical with the nominative, the noun invariably taking the plural.

Nom. TpH KHurH Y'Ie6HHKa nSlTb KHRr Y'le6HHKoB
'three books' 'textbooks' 'five books' 'textbooks'
Gen. TpeX KHRr Y'le6HHKOB nSiTu KHRr Y'lC6HHKOB
Dat. TpeM KHHraM Y'le6HHKaM nSiTu KHHraM Y'le6HHKaM
Ace. TpH KHurH Y'le6HHKa nSlTb KHHr Y'le6HHKoB
'rpex cecrep 6p3TbeB nSlTb cecrep 6P3TbCB
'three sisters' 'brothers' 'five sisters' 'brothers'
Instr. TpeMH KHuraMH Y'le6HHKaMH nSlTb.o KHUI 3MH Y'lC6HHK3MH
Prep. o TpeX KHurax Y'le6HHKax o nSiTU KHur3X Y'le6HHK3x Exercise 4. Give written answers to the questions.

(a) I. CKOJlbKO AHeH B nenene?

2. CKOJlbKO sacca B cyrxax?

3. CKOJlbKO MHHYT COCTaBJlHeT xac?

4. CKOJlbKO MeCJlueB B rony?

5. CKOJlbKO AHeH B AeKa6pe?

6. CKOJlbKO aenens B MeeSlue?

7. CKOJlbKO AHeH B WAY?

(b) I. CKOJlbKO nsepcn B aYAHTopHH? (I)

2. CKOJlbKO OKOH B aYAHTopHH? (4)

3. CKOJlbKO CTOJlOB B aY~HTopHH? (12)

4. CKOJlbKO cTYAeHToB B BailleH rpyrme? (6)

5. CKOJlbKO KHHr JlelKUT na CTOJle? (3)

Cardinal Numerals Used with an Adjective and a Noun

If a numeral is used in the nominative or the accusative which IS identical with the nominative, then:

1. The adjective following O~HH, o~Hll, O~HO takes the nominative and agrees with its head noun in gender: O~HH 60JILIIloii ~OM 'one big house', o~Ha 60JILlUaB KOMHaTa 'one large room', O)1.HO 60JILlUOe n"CLMO 'one long letter'.

2. The adjective following ~Ba, TpH, 'IeTbIpe takes the plural.

(a) If the adjective qualities a masculine or neuter noun, It generally takes the genitive plural: ~Ba 60JILlUltX ~oMa 'two big houses', TP" 8a)kHLIX H3BecTHB 'three important items of news'.

(b) If the adjective qualifies a feminine noun it generally takes the nominative plural: nae TpY~HLIe 3a~a'lH 'two difficult proble~s', ~eThlpe 60JILlUHe aY~HTopHH 'four large lecture-halls' (but the g~Oltlve IS also possible: ~Be TPY~HblX 3a~a'lH, 'IeTblpe 60JILUlHX ay~HTopHH).

1~5

3 .. The adjective following any other numeral (nsrn., U1eCTh, cel\fJ. etc.) In the n~~InatIve or the accusative. identical with the nominativ' takes the gemtive plural, irrespectrve of the gender of the noun a e agrees with that noun: nHTh 60 .. IhIUlfX ,,)OMOB :-five large houses' ~~

TpY21:HhIX 3a21:aq 'SIX difficult problems'. ~ ,

.4. In oblique cases, except the accusative identical with the nOIll' native, the numeral and the adjective agree with their head noun: 1-

OH !le penmn 21:BYX TPYtlllhlX aa- 'He failed to solve two difficult

21:aq. problems.'

3aH5I,nUI H.D:Y; B qeThlpex 60JIh- 'Classes are in progress in two

U1HX aY.D:HTopHHX. large lecture-rooms.'

Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the required forms of the adjectives ziven at th

cnd of the exercise. - e

,1. C?H 3,;,aeT ~Ba ... Sl3bIK:l, 2. _Y'ICHHK ,PemilJl TpH ; .. 3a,'1:l'lH, 3. )lBa , .. Mee-ra B ,Tpa'1Bae ?bIJIlI,3aHliTbl. 4, ,B KOHLle, KOpH,LI0l?a ecrs '1CTI>lpe , .. aYJHITOpIiH. 5. OKOJlO LI?Ma POCJIli '1eT~Ipe ... COCllbl. 6, B napxc CT0l1J10 necna.tnars ... cxaxreex. 7. B HalIIell! repone LlBe ... ,~a6pHKII. ~. R xynurr LlBa.LILlaTb .LIBa ... xapaunanra.

, (He.?OJIb~OH,~ aaocrpannua, aJlre6paH'lccKIiH, nepeJ1HHH, BbICOKIiH. }lepeBIIHHbIil

TKaIIKIiH, xpacrrsnt) ,

Declension of Cardinal Numerals

DECLENSION OF HIE NUMERALS 0.L1;l11-1, O.llHA, O.llHO

Masculine and Neuter

Feminine

Plural

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace, lnstr. Prep.

OWtH

O)~Ha 0}lH6ii ot-lH6H O,~Hj 01H6ii

06 0.lH6ii

O,lIIil OllHliX O,lHH~1

as Nom. or Gen. o:lHil\1H

06 O.lHHX

0.lHor6

O.'lHOMV

as Nom. or Gen. 0,!H6 O,lHII\1

060.clH6M

SOME SPECIAL l'SES OF OJ.l.HII IN THE PU RAL

The words 021:HO, 021:IIOX, O,LUIOM, etc. are used in the plural in the following cases:

(I) with the meaning of 'only':

B cocrase rtenerauaa 6bIJUf 021:HO )KeHIr(HHhI.

B :'nOM urxaqiy O;:l.HO y<Ie6HHKH.

'The delegation consisted of only women.'

'There are only textbooks in this bookcase.'

(2) with nouns which have no singular: 021:110 qaCbl 'one watch (clock)'

O.D:IIO cYTIm 'one day'

021:HO HOJKHHQhI 'one pair of scissors'

(3) with the meaning of 'some' as opposed to '(the) others':

51 B35IJI caasana 021:110 KHl1rH, no- 'I first took some books, then the

TOM ztpyrne. others.'

186

187

0)1118 !,36Hpil1:eJlH npnxonana, 'Some voters came, others went

JlPyrHe rXO.D:HJIH. , , away.'

H rOBOPHJl c, O,QHHMH . TOBa- 'I first spoke to some comrades,

pHIllaMH, nOTOM C .D:pyrHMH. then to others.'

In the singular OJdtH, oJUla, 021:HO can .also be used with a meaning rendered in English by 'a' or 'one':

I)&IJl y MeHJI 0. 3HaKoMhIH, KO- 'I had a friend, who was a keen

nJphIH 6bIJI cTpaCTHhIM OXOT- hunter.'

HHKOM.

Exercise 6. State the case and gender of the numeral OdUH.

I. n np6l1CHJI B IIIseiiuapHH OLlHH MecIiU. 2. CTYLleHT aanacan noxnan aa OLloY He)leJIlO, 3. OH He nponycran HH onaoro YPoKa. 4. n He Mory lICLlaTb HH OLIHOH MHHYThI. 5, Mbi see exana B OLIHOM aarone, 6, Bee He MorYT nOMeCTHTbCli B O.LIHOH JlOLlKe. 7. TYPIICThI oTnpaBHJIHCb B noxon C O.ilHOH nanarxoa. 8. Bee ycenacs aa OLlHHM CTOJlOM.

Exercise 7. Make up sentences. using the numeral OdUH. oon« in all the cases singu-

lar.

Exercise 8. Make up sentences, using the word OiJHU in difTerent cases.

DECLENSION OF THE NllMERALS .lIBA, J.l.BE, TPH, 'IEThIPE

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. lnstr. Prep.

'1eTWpe '1eThlpex '1eThlpeM

as Nom, or Gen. '1eTl"pbMtI

o '1ClhlpeX

LlBa }.IBe

.llByx

llBVIlt

as Nom. or Gen. llByllttl

o L1ByX

TpH TpeX -rpeM

as Nom, or Gen.

TpeMR o TpeX

DECLENSION OF THE NUMERALS COPOK, .lIEBHHOcrO, CTO

The numerals COpOiC 'forty', ,neBIlHOcTo 'ninety', CTO 'one hundred' take the same ending -a in the genitive, dative, instrumental and prepoSItIonal (cop')lca, 21:eBtlHOcTa, era); in the nominative and the accusative they have the form: COPOIC, ,neBIlHOcTo, CTO.

Exercise 9. Read through the sentences and state the case of the numeral oBa.

, Cotipaaae aasanocs B L1Ba xaca. Bee npaurna K JlByM '1acaM. Korna II npauren, 6hUJ~ 6e3 LlByX MHHYT L1Ba saca. Ha cofipauaa BbICTynHlIH LIsa }lOI(Jla.LI'lHKa. OHH OCTaHOBHJIHCb xa nayx aarepecnsrx sonpocax. MellCLlY LlBYMlI L10I(JlaLlaMH 6blJl nepepsss.

Exercise 10, Make up sentences, using the numerals TpH and 'leNpe in difTerent cases.

Exercise 11. Copy out the sentences, writing the numbers in words,

L K 3 npli6aBHTb 7, 6YLleT 10. OT 4 OTHflTb 3, 6YJleT I. 100 pa3JleJIltTb na 4, 6YLleT 2~, 4 YMHollCHTb aa 2, 6YJler 8, 2. Bpax npHHIiMaeT C 3 'IaCOB OH 3aHJleT MClICLlY 3 H 4 xacaMH. 3. MhI npOIllJJH 3 KHJlOMCTpa. n6e3)1. oCTaHOBHJICIi B 4 I(HJIOMCTpax OT cTaHIIHH.

Exercise 12. Write out the following in words: 4 + 8 = 12; 40 - 7 = 33; 16: 4 = 4; 8 x 9 = 72.

DECLENSION OF THE NUMERALS nars, mlTb.LJ.IcCSI r, na rbUn

Nom. nllTh nIlTh.lCCIIT nllThcof
Gen. 1111111 nHTiuccll1H IIHIHCOI
Dat. nll'llI 1111 I"II']CCIIfH nllfHcI3M
Ace, nllTh nIlTh.LIcc!1T nllThcoT
!nstr. IlIIfhW nllfhW.lCCII fhlO nllThlOcT3\t1l
Prep. o III1TIr o nllTIr.lcCll111 o III1IHCT3"
- I. The numeral nsrrt, 'five' is declined as a third declension nOUn (naepi, 'door', 'rerpam, 'exercise-book'), but the stress invariably falIs on the ending. The numerals from nHTh 'five' to JJ.BaJJ.lIaTh 'twenty' and TpHJJ.lIaTh 'thirty' are declined in the same manner. The numeral 00- ceMh 'eight' drops e in the oblique cases: BOChMH (gen., dat., prep.) BOChMhW and BoceMhw (instr.). '

2. In the declension of the numeral nHTh}l,ecHT 'fifty' both its components change. Each component is declined as a noun of the third declension, except that in the nominative and the accusative the second component of nHThJJ.ecilT has a hard stem. The numerals rnecTLJJ.eCHT 'sixty', d~MhJJ.ecHT 'seventy' and BoceMhJJ.ecHT 'eighty' are declined in the same way as nHThJJ.ecSIT.

3. In the declension of the numeral narscor 'five hundred' both its components change. The first component changes in the same manner as the numeral nsrrs; the second component (COT) has the same endings as nouns in the plural in all the cases, except for the nominative and the accusative.

The numerals rneCThCOT 'six hundred', ceMhcoT 'seven hundred', 00- ceMhcoT 'eight hundred', JJ.eBHThcoT 'nine hundred' are declined in the same manner as narsccr.

Exercise 13. Write out the following, writing the numbers in words.

1. K 6 npH6aBHTh 5, 6yneT 11. OT 15 orns n, 7, 6yneT 8. 9 C1I0)[{HTh C 6, 6yneT 15.

H3 30 asrxec: I. 12, 6yneT 18.7 Y'tHOjJ{HTb aa 6, 6Y_'leT 42. 42 paa.te.nrrs aa 7. 6yneT 6. 2. Onpcne.urrs CYM'.1Y 16 H 7. CKO.1bKO pas 3 COnCp)[{lITClI B 9? 113B.1(:'Ib KBa IpaTHbIii KOPCHb H3 9.3. CCH'Iac 6e3 15 I\1HHYT 3. MI.l 3aHHMaeMClI C 9 rto 3. Bpa-r npHHH'.1aeT C 12 no 6. 51 npany K 10 'IacaM. MI.) BCTpeTHMClI Me)[{flY 7 H 9 'Iac:I'v1H. 4. Flocan npowe.q OK01l0 60 KH.10MerpoB . .ucpeBHlI naxorrarca B 12 KH1I0MeTpax OT r opona. 5. EMY He 601lbWe 20 JIC1. Cecrpa crapure ero aa 4 rona. Epnrana ncpcm.mo.rua.r.i n.raa sa 30 npouen ron. Pa60'lHH B 3 pasa ncpeasmo.nuan HOp My. 6. Flpcn.roxeuae 6hlJl0 npHHHO 75 ronocavu npo rae 4 1"01I0COB.

Exercise 14. Write out the following in words:

30 - 24 = 6; 67 + 13 = 80; 9 x 9 = 81; 125: 5 = 25.

DECLENSION OF THE NUMERALS .LJ.BECTH, TPJ/ICTA, 4ETbiPECTA

nDCC1H .IDYXCOT /IDY\tCT3\t .IDeCfH

.ID) MHC'I 3MH o .IB)XCnlX

TplrCTa rpexco r Tpe\tCT3\1 TplrCTa lPCMHCI3MH o 1 PC"CTllX

'1elblpCCTa

'1C 1 blpCXCO 1 '1CTblpC\lCTa\t '1ClblpCCTa

'Ie 1 bIPh\tHC 1 3\tH o '1eThlpCxCf3"

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace, lnstr. Prep.

188

-

-

189

In the declension of the numerals JJ.BecTH 'two hundred', TpHCTa 'three hundred' and 'IeTbipeCTa 'four hundred' both the components

change. 'fi) , h d' '( ). '11' ,

The numerals TLlCH'Ia (em. t ousan ,MHJlJlHOH rnasc. m.1 Ion,

rdIlJ1J1HapJJ. (masc.) 'milliard' ('billion') ar~ declined as noun~ Wlt~ the rresponding endings. The noun used With these numerals invariably

CO ..

takes the genitive:

oH6J1lfOTeKa KynHJ1a TblCH'IY 'The library bought a thousand

KIlHf. books.'

PacCTO$IHHe H3MepS!eTCjl TbI- 'The distance is measured in

CII'IaMH KHJ10MhpOB. thousands of kilometres.'

In the declension of a composite numeral all its components change, e. g. the declension of the numeral 952:

Nom. B H:Iwe" 6H6J1HOTeKe)le- There are nine hundred and fifty-

BHThC()Y nHTb)lecilT ztae two books in our library.'

KHHrH.

Gen. OT )leBHTHCoT nHTlt}J.eCHTH JJ.ByX OTHS!TI, C6pOK 6Y.lleT neaar sco r naenanuart..

Dat. K JJ.eBHTHcTaM nHTH)leCHTH }l,OyM npH6aBHTh aocesn, 6)-' JJ.eT neexrscor meersJJ.ecS!T.

Ace. oH6JIHOTeKa KynHJ1a )leBHTLCOT nHTh}l,ecHT JJ.Be KHHrH.

Instr. MbI oTnpaBHJ1HCb B axcne)lHQHlO C JJ.eBHTbIOCT3MH nHThwJJ.ecHThJO )lBYMH py6J1S!MH.

Prep. HaM HY)l(HO OPlHTaTbCjl B )leBHTHCTax nHTH)leCHTH JJ.BYx py6J1S!x.

Exercise 15. Copy out the sentences, writing the numbers in words.

I. Cassoe 6oJIbW6e osepo B M14pe-KacnHikKoe M6pe. OH6 3aHHMaeT nnourans 6~oJlo 400000 xsanparasrx KHJlOMthpOB. 2. Mocxsa-e-nopr 5 MOpU!. _3. Mocxse 66JIee 800 ner. 4. B Mocxse HaC'IHThlBaeTcH cssnue 120 KHHoTeaTpoB, cssnue 30 rearpoa, 6tl.1ee 80 HaY4Hbix HHCTHryTOB, 6KOJIO 1500 3aB6.uoB H q,a6pHK, 6611ee 70 cTa.uH6HoB~ 5. B MOCK6BCKOM YH~lBepCHTeTe 16 q,aKYJIbTeTOB H 66JIee 260 d¢e.up. 6. B cpe.uHeH nOlIoce Enponeacsoa 'Iacm POCC£UI 6epe3a )[{HBeT B Cpe)J,HeM 100-150 JIeT, .uy6-l\o 300, cocaa-vno 400 ner. Hexoropsre JI£mhl 1\0CTHrafOT TbICSI'IeJIeTHero sospacra, eJIH AOCTHrafOT 1200 .ner.

'Nine hundred and fifty-two minus forty is nine hundred and twelve.'

'Nine hundred and fifty-two plus eight is nine hundred and sixty.'

'The library bought nine hundred and fifty-two books.'

'We set off for the expedition with nine hundred and fifty-two roubles.'

'We must account for nine hundred and fifty-two roubles.'

COLLECTIVE NUMERALS

, Collective numerals include )lBOe 'two', Tp6e 'three', 'IhBepo 'four', ?~repo 'five', iuecrepo 'six', chtepo 'seven', B6chMepo 'eight', )leBHTepo

nine', )leCHTepo 'ten'. ,

'b The words o6a, o6e 'both' are also collective numerals: o6a 6paTa Oth brothers', o6e cecrpta 'both sisters'.

........

The meaning of collective numerals is similar to that of cardinal nu. merals; they also denote the quantity of objects and answer the qUes. tion CKOJILKO? 'how many?'

Bo nsope IIrpaJIII (nrpano) '1h-

nepo ,n:eTeH.

CKOJILKO zterea? - l.H~TBepo. Hac 6hIJIO mecrepo.

CKOJILKO Hac 6h1JI0? Illecrepo,

'Four children were playing in the

courtyard.'

"How many children?" "Four." There were six of us.'

"How many of us were there?"

"Six."

The noun following a collective numeral takes the genitive plural: ,n:Boe ,n:pY3en 'two friends', Tpoe ,n:eTen 'three children', sernepo TOBapR_ men 'four friends', nilTepo OXOTIIUKOB 'five hunters' (compare: ~Ba npyra 'two friends', TpH pe6eHKa 'three children', '1eTblpe TOBapHlQa 'four friends', nBTL OXOTHHKOB 'five hunters').

Collective numerals are declined as adjectives in the plural:

Nom. .IlBOe Tpoe '1CTBCPO (,'IPY3ei1)
'two 'three' 'four' (Triends')
Gen. .IlBoiix Tpoiix '1eTBCpbIX (npyseii)
Dat. .IlBOHM Tpoiill1 '1CTBepbIM (,1PY3b5JM)
Ace. .IlBOUX TPOHX '1CTBCPbIX (npysen)
.IlBOe TpOC '1erBCpO (C)ITOK)
r nstr. ABOUMH TpOHMH 'ICTBCPblMH (JlPY3b5JMI1)
Prep. o .IlBoiix o TPOHX o ueraeptax (.uPY3b5JX) The numerals nilTepo 'five', mecrepo 'six', etc. are declined as '1eTBepo.

Use of Collective Numerals

Collective numerals occur less frequently than the corresponding cardinal numerals. They are used only:

(1) with nouns denoting male persons: ,n:Boe MaJIL'IHKOB 'two boys', Tpoe Y'IeHHKOB 'three pupils', '1eTBepo cryaenro» 'four students', nsrepo pa60'lHX 'five workers', and with the nouns ,lJ;eTH 'children' and JIlO,lJ;H 'people': Tpoe JIIO)l.en 'three people', '1eTBepo )l.eTeD 'four children'.

In these cases, cardinal numerals can also be used: )l.Ba MaJIL'lJlKa 'two boys', nBTL pa60'lHX 'five workers', TpH '1eJIOBeKa 'three persons', 'IeTblpe pe6eHKa 'four children'.

Only cardinal numerals are used with nouns denoting female persons: )1,Be )1,eBO'lKH 'two girls', TpH Y'leHHllLI 'three pupils', '1eTblpe cry,lJ;eHTKH 'four students', nBTL pa6oTHH" 'five workers'.

(2) with pronouns standing for male persons:

I1x 6bIJIO nsrepo.

He 6bIJIO nac )1,BOHX. npHUIJIlf ace '1hBepo.

'There were five of them.' 'Y ou two were absent.' 'All four have come.'

190

(3) independently, i. e. without any nouns or pronouns:

fpoe cToilJI1I ua nrrarrpopxte. 'Three people were standing on

the platform.'

Of! pa60TaeT sa ~BOHX. 'He does as much work as two.'

CeMepo O,lJ;HOrO He )f():(YT. Cf. 'For one that is missing there

(Proverb) is no spoiling a wedding.'

In (2) and (3) collective numerals imply either male or female persons. Here are two more examples:

UlJIIf Tpoe: rrnoe MY)f(l{im II )f(eH- 'Three people were walking

IUHHa. along: two men and a woman.'

J1x 6bIJIO ns repo: ,n:Be ,n:eBOl{KII 'There were five of them: two girls

If TpH MaJIbl{IIKa. and three boys.'

(4) with nouns denoting the young of animals: )l.BOe KonIT 'two kittens', sersepo lIleHHT 'four puppies', cesrepo K03JISIT 'seven kids'.

Only cardinal numerals are used with other names of animals: nne KOIIIKH 'two she-cats', zma KOTa 'two tom-cats'.

(5) with nouns which have no singular: )l.BOe HomHH" 'two pairs of scissors', Tpoe CYTOK 'three days', 'IerBepO caHeD 'four sledges'.

As a rule, the numerals ,lJ;BOe, 'rpoe and 'IeTBepo are used with these nouns only in the nominative and the accusative.

OH npO)f(IIJI aziecs 'IeTBepo CYTOK. 'He stayed for four days here.'

OH KynJIJ1 rpoe HomHH", 'He bought three pairs of scis-

sors.'

In the other cases cardinal numerals are used.

OH npoxnn sneer, OKOJIO 'IeThipeX 'He stayed for about four days

CYTOK. here.'

OmI npaexarm ua 'rpex cansx. 'They arrived in three sledges.'

(6) with the names of "paired" objects: ,lJ;Boe PYK 'two hands', 'rpoe JILI'K 'three pairs of skis'.

Note. Collective numerals are not used with other nouns denoting inanimate objects.

Nouns following a collective numeral ()l.BOe, 'rpoe, 'IeTBepO, nfrrepo, etc.) in the nominative or the accusative which is identical with the nominative take the genitive plural: rpoe ,n:eTeD 'three children', narepo AeTeD 'five children'. Personal pronouns used with a collective numeral may take either the nominative:

TOJIbKO Mhi )1,BOe OCTaJIHCb snecs.

Ouu Tpoe 6bIJIII aa c06paHIIII.

'Only the two of us remained here.'

'The three of them attended the

meeting.'

Or the genitive:

~ac OCTaJIOCb TOJIbKO )l.Boe. x 6bIJIO 'rpoe.

'Only two of us were left.' 'There were three of them.'

191

Collective numerals also include the words O6a and O6e (06a OPllr

'both brothers', O6e ceCTpLI 'both sisters'). a

Nouns following these numerals in the nominative or the accUsativ which is identical with the nominative take the genitive singular. e

The numeral 06a is used with any masculine or neuter noun; the nu

meral 06e is used with any feminine noun: •

06a 110M a 'both houses'

66a 6plha 'both brothers'

06a OIcua 'both windows'

06e PYlni 'both hands'

06e ceCTpLI 'both sisters'

Declension of the Numerals 06a, 06e

Masculine Feminine
and Neuter
Nom. ooa Me
Gc:n. 060HX 06eHX
Dat. 060HM 06eHM
Ace. as Nom. or Gen. as Nom. or Gen.
Instr. 060HMH 06eHMH
Prep. 06060HX 0606eHx Exercise 16. Read through the sentences. Point out the collective numerals and their head nouns and pronouns; state the case of the numerals.

I. M OCT 6hlJl 10TOB, H apMHlI cnoKOHHO nepenpasanacs B rpoe C}'TOK. (II.) 2. Ha xyxue crpsuana B rpoe pyx, KaK 6Y)(TO aa necarepsrx. (FOH'I.) 3. Cexrepo O.l(HOrO He lKJlyr (Proverh) 4. Oill~ 06a pa60TaJlH na 3aBO)(e. 5. Bon-tara, nee rpoe, xpenxo cml.JIII. (lfex.) 6. Y MCHII 6blJllf 3aHliThl o6e PYKI1. 7. Florrsaca cnycrs OHR see .rpoe llIJlH no !iepery Mocxssr-pcxa. (Typz.) 8. C ofieax CTOPOH YJIHl{hl TlIHYJlHCh KaMeHHhle orpansr ca· 1\OB. (Typz.) 9. Bnepeaa no nopore nOKa3MHch JIlO)(H. OHR llIJIH HaBCTpe"lY JIeoHTbeBY. OH OCTaHOBiL1ClI, nparnanencs. Illrm naoe: MYlK"lRHa H lKeHll{HHa. (IIaycm.)

Exercise 17. Decline (orally) the following phrases consisting of a collective numeral and a noun and make up sentences, using each phrase in any case.

"leTBepO npyseri, rpoe 6paTheB, )(BOe CYTOK, see cesrepo, rpoe CaHeH, naoe JlhIlK, 66a roaapatna, o6e nonpyra

ORDINAL NUMERALS

ncpBhlii 'first' J.(ecHThiH 'tenth'
B1Op6ii 'second' /lBaJll1aThiH 'twentieth'
TPCTHH 'third' TpHJll1aThlH 'thirtieth'
'fCTBepn.lii 'fourth' COPOlWBOH 'fortieth'
Dlllhlii 'fifth' nHTHJ.(ecslThlH 'fiftieth'
IIIccToii 'sixth' rneCTH)(eCslTblH 'sixtieth'
CC.lh\.U)H 'seventh' ceMHJ.(ecslTblH 'seventieth'
BOCbMOH 'eighth' BocbMHllecslTblH 'eightieth'
dl'BslThiH 'ninth' JleBHHOCThiH 'ninetieth'
IccslThlii 'tenth'
19~ -384

193

'one hundredth' 'two hundredth' 'three hundredth' 'four hundredth' 'five hundredth' 'six hundredth' 'seven hundredth' 'eight hundredth' 'nine hundredth'

'eleventh' 'twelfth' 'thirteenth' 'fourteenth' 'fifteenth' 'sixteenth' 'seventeenth' 'eighteenth' 'nineteenth' 'twentieth'

COThiH nByxcoThlH TpexCOTblH "lCTblpeXCOTblH nHTHcoThiH rnecTHcoTblH ceMHcoTblH BOCbMHCOTblH JleBHTHCoThiH

O.lHIlIla;IuaTl~H .lBeIl3.luaTbI~ ypll1l31lUaThiH _ qeTbIPllaJlua~blH pliTHal!UaTblH _ lIIeCTHailuaTblH ceMlI3il~aThlH _ BOCeMHa.'luaThiH i1eBIIT~3J~aTbIH JlBa,luaThlH

I. Ordinal numerals are formed from the stem of the genitive of the corresponding cardinal numerals by dropping the genitive ending -a or -M and adding adjective endings.

nsr-f - nilT-bln, -aa, -oe, -ble

mlTH)1.eCSIT-H - mITH)1.edIT-bln, -aH, -oe, -ble )1.eBjlHOCT-a - )1.eBjlHOCT-bln, -aa, -oe, -sre

2. The following numerals are formed irregularly: nepBbln, -aa, -oe, -iae

nropon, -aH, -be, -hie

rperua, -sa, -se, -bH qeTBepTbln, -as, -oe, -ble Ce)1.bMOii, -as, -oe, -hie copoxosoa, -b, -oe, -hie

3. The ordinals of ThlcH'Ia, MHJlJlHOH, MHJlJlHaPLl: are formed by means of the suffix -H- and adjective endings: TbICjlqHblH 'thousandth', MHJlJ1HOHHLln 'millionth', MHJlJlHap)1.Hbln 'milliardth' ('billionth').

4. In the formation of ordinal numerals from composite numerals only the last word takes the form of an ordinal numeral:

.lIBa)1.QaTb nHTbln 'twenty-fifth'

.lIBeCnl COpOK BocbMon 'two hundred and forty-eighth'

5. Ordinals are generally used with nouns, They always agree with their head noun in gender, number and case.

Ordinal numerals change for gender, number and case in the same manner as adjectives: nepBbln 3K3aMeH 'the first examination', nepBaSi JIeKQHjI 'the first lecture', nepsoe 3aHiITHe 'the first lesson', nepmae 3aH~THjI, nepaoro 3K3aMeHa, nepBon JIeKQHH, ets.

6. When declined, the numeral TpeTHn 'third' takes b before the endings (just as the pronoun 'len does): rpersero, TpeTbeMY, TpeTbHM, o TperbeM.

7. In the declension of composite numerals only their last component changes:

51 qHTal{) )1.BeCTH COpOK BOCbMYro 'I am reading page two hundred

CTpaHHQY. and forty-eight.'

OIl )KHBeT B nsrn.necar BTOPOH 'He lives in flat fifty-two.' KBapnlpe.

8. Ordinal numerals are used to denote time in the following case (a) to give the hours and minutes: S

Cetisac ,necRTb MHH)-T 'IeTBepTO- 'It is ten minutes past three now.' roo

(b) to give the date of the month:

3aHHTHH HaqaflHCb nepBoro

ceur sfips.

(c) to give the year:

51 npnexan B MocKBY B TbrCH'I3 ,neBHTbcoT nHTb,necRT nRToM ro.ay.

Exercise 18. Copy out the sentences, writing the numbers (ordinal numerals) in words.

'Lessons began on the first ofSep. tember.'

'I came to Moscow in 1955.'

I ~ }''lYCb aa I ~ypce. 2. Mo~ Mml.ll.WHii ~paT }-'fHTCII B 3. xnacce. 3. Haunt MecTa B 10. psny. 4. ~ lKH~Y aa 6 sraxe B 34 xsaprape. 5. J]H<llT nO.ll.HIIJI Hac C 3 JTalKa Ha 8 JTalK. 6. Msr cnYCTHJIHCb HaJIlujlTec 12 JTalKa aa 4JTalK. 7. J]eKIIHII6YlleT B 5 aY.lI.HTOpHM. iL );13 32 aynnropau BhllllJlH CTYJleHThJ. 9. Mbl CHJleJlH B rearpe B 3 noxe.

Exercise 19_ Read the sentences aloud.

(a) I. Mocxsa anepssre ynosoruaercs B JIerOnHCH B 1147 rorty. 2. MOCKOBCKHii yHHsepcarer 6hlJl OCH6BaH B cepenaae XVIII BCKa, B 1755 ro):ly. 3. Fopon CaHKT-TIcTep6ypr 6blJl ocH6BaH B 1703 roJ:l5'. 4. Oresecrseaaas BOMHa PYCCKOro napozta np6THB Harroneona I 6blJla B 1812 rony.

(b) 1. OKTlJ6pbCKali CO~HaJIHCTH'IeCKali peBOJJlO~HlI cOBepUlI1J1aCb 25/X-1917 rolla. 2. 1/IX-1939 rona naxanacs sropas MHpoBali BoMHa. OHa K6HlIHJJaCb 2IIX-1945 rona, 3. TIePBblM KOCMOHaBT IOpHM Farapaa cOBepllIHJI CBOH noner B K6cMOC 12/IV-1961 rona.

Exercise 20. Replace the phrases denoting time with other phrases denoting the same lime. Write out the numbers in words.

Model: I. ~ BbllllCJI H3 .I10Ma II If uaco« 15 MUHvm.

~ ssnnen H3 naMa II nnmuaouam« uuuvm oeesmoeo.

2. ~ nPHWeJl B HHCTHTYT II 8 'lacoll 45 M;JHYm.

~ npatnen B HHCTHTYT ties nsmuaouamu MUHym oeesm«.

I. M hI BCTpt:THMCII Y rcarpa B 7 'IaCOB 20 MHHYT. 2. CeH'IaC II '1aCOB 5 MHHy-r. 3. n0e3.11 OmpaBJIIICTCII B 18 '1aeOB 6 MHHYT. 4. Kaaoceaac Ha'iHeTeA B 3 xaca 15 MHHy-r. 5. Mara~HH aaxpsraaerca B 9 'IaCOB 45 MHHYT. 6. B 20 '1aCOB 50 MHHyT no pa.nHo 6Y.llCT nepenasarsca xoauepr.

FRACTIONAL NUMERALS

Fractional numerals denote part of a whole number. They are formed by combining cardinal and ordinal numerals. The numerator of a fraction is denoted by a cardinal numeral in the nominative. The denominator is denoted by an ordinal numeral in the genitive plural:

5 n '7, hi

"8 - HTb BOCbMblX, "9 - ceMb ,neBHTblX ("parts of a woe

number" is implied).

Ifthe num.e~ator of a fractio,:! is 1, the word denoting the numerat~r takes the feminine, and the ordinal numeral standing for the denolTunator is in the nominative feminine: .1 -O,nH3 BTopati•

, ., 1 •• 2

j - o,nHa nRT3H; "8 - onaa BOCbM3H.

194

If the numerator ofa fraction is 2, the word denoting the numerator also takes the feminine: + - ,nBe nHTbIx, -t - ,nBe cezn.-

~bIX.

In the declension of a fractional numeral both the components

change:

TpH nHTblx 'three fifths' Tpex nHTblX TpeM nHTbIM TP" nHTblx TpeMH nHTblMH o 'rpex nHTblx

Nom.

Gen. Dat. Ace. Instr. Prep.

The noun used with a fractional numeral invariably takes the genitive singular:

mpu nftmblx Mhpa 'three-fifths of a metre'

Ulecmb oechmux Y'IaCTKa 'six-tenths of a plot of land'

When a fractional number is declined, its head noun invariably re-

mains in the genitive:

Nom. mpu nsmux Y'IaCTK3 Gen. mpex nhmux Y'IaCTK3

Dat. mpeu nhmuu Y'IaCTK3, etc.

In colloquial speech, the word nO.llOBHHa is used with the meaning of O,lJ;Ha BTOpb (+) 'half (nO.llOBHH3 Y'lacTK3 'half the plot of land').

The noun 'IeTBepTb is used with the meaning of o,nHa 'IeTBepTaH (t) 'quarter' ('IhBepTb MeTpa 'a quarter of a metre').

The word norrropa is used with the meaning of O,nHH C nO.llOBHHOH

(I +): o,nHa uenaa H o,nHa nropaa 'one and a half., .

The numeral norrropa (l,5) has the form norrropa for the mascuhne and neuter (nonropa 'lac a 'an hour and a half, norrropa Be,npa 'one and a half bucketfuls') and nonropea for the feminine (nonropsr MHHYTbI 'one minute and a half).

DECLENSION OF THE NUMERAL nonrosx

Masculine and Neuter

Feminine

-

no.nropa (xaca, senpa) nOJIYTopa (qaCOB, senep) no.ryropa (qaCaM, senpav) no.nropa (saca, senpa) nonyropa ('1aCaMll, BeupaMll) o nonyropa (xacax, senpax)

nOJlTOpbI (MllHYTbI) nonyropa (MllHYT) no.nyropa (MllHYTaM) nOJlTOpbl (MllHyTbI) nOJIYTopa (MllHYTaMH) o nnnyropa (MllHYTax)

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Instr. Prep.

If a fraction follows a whole number, the adjective Qe.llblH 'whole' is frequ{!ntly used after the cardinal numeral denoting the whole number:

195

1 5 " ,

6" - oztaa .u:eJIa51 M IT51Th urecrsrx;

24 , "

"5 - zrae .u:eJIhIX II serr.rpe ITHTbIX;

5 -} - IT51Th .u:~JIhIX M TpM '1eTBepTM (or: TpM qeTBepThlx); 0,6-HOJIh .u:eJIhIX (M) urecrr, .n;edJ:Tblx;

7,5 -ceMb .u:eJIbIX (M) IInh necarsrx.

Exercise 21. Read the following fractional numbers aloud. _!_. ~ • ...!_. 07' 203' 7 3 • 2 1

7' 8' 25' " , , 8" ' "'6

Exercise 22. Decline the following fractional numbers.

1. 2. 11. 92. 23. 5 •

5' 7' 12' 5' 4 xrerpa, 8 rtnotuarm,

THE VERB

The Russian verb has the following forms: the infinitive ('IHnlTb 'to read'), the indicative mood (the present tense - 'IHT:'1I0 'I read', the past tenSe-'1HTaJI 'I read', the future tense-v-fiyny '1HTitTb 'I shall read'), the imperative ('1HTaH! 'read!') and the conditional mood ('1HTaJI 6b1 'I should read', 'I should have read').

Some verbs have a compound future: 6y.n;y '1HTilTb 'I shall read', 6Y.ny nacars 'I shall write', while others have a simple future: npO'lHTalO 'I shall read (from beginning to end)" namuny 'I shall write (from beginning to end)'. (See Table on pp. 200-201.)

The verb also has special forms - the participle ('1HTaIOLQHH 'reading', 'IHTaeMbIH 'read', 'being read', 'IHnlBmHH 'who read', npo-nrraaUbIn 'which was read') and the verbal adverb ('IHTaH 'reading', npO'lHTaB 'having read'). (See pp. 344 and 367.)

Many verbs take the particle -CH (-Cb) (3aHHMitTbcH 'to study', Y'IHTbCH 'to study', 60POTbCH 'to fight', etc.). This particle is invariably placed at the end of verb forms (3aHHMaelllbcH, 3aHHMaJICH, 3aHHMalOIf(HncH, 3allHMaucb, etc.) (For the meaning of verbs ending in -CH, see

p. 245.)

All Russian verb forms are obtained from two stems: some from the stem of the infinitive, others from the stem of the present (or simple future) tense. To obtain all the forms of a verb, one must know both these stems.

GENERAL IDEA OF VERB ASPECTS

One of the peculiarities of Russian, which distinguishes it from many other languages, is the fact that the Russian verb has aspects. There are two aspects: the imperfective aspect: '1HTaTh 'to read (in general)', nacart, 'to write (in general)" CTPOHTb 'to build (in general)', Il3yqllTb 'to study (in general)" BCTaBaTb 'to stand up (more than once)', o.n;eBaTbcH 'to dress (in general)" TOJIKaTb 'to push (more than O?ce)" orpesa'n, 'to cut (in general)" and the perfective aspect: npoxal~TI) 'to read (from beginning to end)" nanaca'n, 'to write (from beginllIng to end)" nocrpours 'to build (completely)', H3Y'lUTb 'to study fthoroughly)', BCTaTb 'to stand up (once)', o.n;erb 'to dress (completey), TOJIKHYTb 'to push (once)', orpesa'n, 'to cut off'.

197

Perfective verbs differ from their imperfective counterparts either in the suffixes (cf. H3Y'lilTb - H3Y'lUTh, TOJIKaTh TO.'IKHYTh), or in the presence in the imperfective verb of the suffix -aa-, which is absent in the perfective verb (cf .. BCTaBaTh B~TaTh, O..leBilTb-?)l.eTh), or in the presence of a prefix In the perfective verb (cf. nacars - HanHCan. cTp{mTb-nOCTpOHTh), or in the position of the stress (cf. OTpe3aTL~ orpesa'rs) (for details of the formation of aspects, see p. 279 and ff.).

MEANING OF THE ASPECTS

Perfective verbs denote a completed action, the carrying of the action through to its completion (in the past or future).

The past tense: 51 HanHCaJI cTaThIO means: the article is ready; 51 H3y'1UJI PYCCKHH jJ3blK means: as a result of my studying Russian I know it thoroughly; B nepesne nocrpoa.m HOBYID llIKOJIY means: the school is ready.

The future tense: 51 nanaury nncsr-ro means: the letter will have been finished; 51 u3y'lY PYCCKHH Sl3hIK means: as a result of my studying Russian I shall have a thorough knowledge of it; B nepenae K Haq<'lJIY yqe6- aoro rozta nOCTpoHT llIKOJIY means: the building of the school will be completed, by the beginning of the school year the school will be ready (aanmuy, u3y'lY, nOCTpoHT are in the simple future).

Imperfective verbs show that the action is in progress, but do not specify whether it is completed, whether there is any result.

The past tense: 51 nUCaJI TIHCbMO means: the action was in progress, but it is not known whether the letter was finished: 51 H3Y'la:1 PYCCKRH jJ3hIK means: the action was in progress, but it is not known whether any result has been achieved; B ztepeaae CTPOHJIH HOBYID llIKOJIY means: the building was in progress, but it is not known whether the school is ready.

The future tense: jJ 6Y)l.y nUCaTh TIHChMO; jJ 6YJ1.Y H3Y'laTh PYCCKHH Sl3hIK; B nepesae 6YJ1.YT CTpOHTI. HOBYJO llIKOJIY means: the above actions will take place, but it is not known whether they will be carried through to their completion (6y)l.y nncars, 6YJJ.Y H3Y'laTh, 6y!lYf CTPOUTb are in the compound future).

Some perfective verbs do not only express the completion of the action, but also the fact that it is single in its occurrence, is semelfactive:

OH TOJIKHYJI CTOJI 'he pushed the table (once)', OH MaxHY.'1 PYKOH 'he waved his hand (once)'.

Imperfective verbs - OH TOJIKaJI CTOJI, OH MaXaJI PYKOH - shoW that the action was either prolonged or repeated several times.

Exercise 1. Compare the Italicised pairs of verbs in each sentence.

I. ~ scerna 6bmo_11Ik1 (imp.) Bee 3aJlaHI111 TIO PYCCKOMY 1I3b1KY, HO B'Iepa 1I '1YBCTI!O' BaJ1 ce6H O'leHb TIJIOXO 11 lie euno.inu.i (p.) 3a,LIaHI111. 2. 06bl'lHO 1I «ouua.: (irnp.) 3aHilO' MaTbcli B 12 '1aCOB, HO nxepa Y MeHH 60_leJla rcrroaa, Ii 1I K(JII'IU.l (p.) 3aHliMitTbCli B I '1aCOB. 3. J1eToM 1I '1aCTo nucan (imp.) TIHCbMa pOJlHTe_111M, ceiisac 1I oxem, 3a~ Ii penxo TIHWY JlOMOH: sa TIOCJ1eJlHI1H MeClilI 1I uanucan (p.) TOJlbKO OLIHO TIHCbIAO. 4. KalKJlblH Mecli1IlI no.iyua.t (irnp.) OT TOBapHlUa HeCKOJ1bKO TIHCeM, HO B :nOM MecllllC

198

01 'l/U_l (p.) TO;lbKO O,lJ.HO nMCbMO. ? ~ MeiL-;eHHO nI.}()/lu.lta .. tac« (imp.) no J1eCT~lI1ue. g :1' ~OO/lfl.l!lcb (p.) aa B~PlII,HHY ropsi, 6, ~ HOBOM TeKCTe ?bL10 MHO~O He3HaKo,MbIX M . 1I Jlo_,ro B HeM pa301lpa.1CR (imp.) C TIOMOlllblO cnoaaps 11, HaKOHeu, pa306p_aACJL C;IOB7. pYCCKHH TOBapl1lU scerna no,wo"'~A (imp.) MHe ~ H3Y'IeHHH PYCCK~ro 1I3b~Ka. Ceo tp.) 1I Oil no uo; (p.) ~lHe BbITIO.'IHHTb Tp)'JlHOe yTIpalKH~HHe. 8. ~ HI1K?r,LIa ,!e onasouean ro,J.!l) na 3aHHTHli. HO ssepa On030QA (p.) na rpa MI1HyTbL 9. MbI KalKJlb,1I1 neas ?cma(~~·(imp.) B 7 '1aCOB yrpa, saempaxanu (imp.) H W,01U (~mp.) B YHIIB~pcHTeT. Bxepa, KaK ~6blqHO, Mbl ecma.tu (p.), nosaempasa.tu (p.) Ii noiu nu (p.) na 3aHlIT1111.

GRAMVlA TICAL DISTINCTION OF THE ASPECTS

Imperfective verbs ('1HT3Tb, nHCa~b) have thre~ tenses:, the pre~ent ('IHT:lIO, naury), the past ('1HTaJI, nHCaJI) and the j~ture (6y)l.y '1HTaTb, 6YJ1.Y nUCaTh); perfective verbs (npo-urra'n., nannca'n.) have OI;ly two tenses: the past (nPO'lHTaJI, nanaca,n) and the.future (npO'lHTaIO, naDHmY). Perfective verbs have no present tense since they denote a com-

pleted action. . ., .,

The future tense of Imperfective verbs IS compound: It consists of

the future tense of the verb 6bITb and the infinitive of the conjugated verb (6yJJ.Y '1HTaTh, 6Y)l.y nacaru); the future tense of perfective verbs IS simple (nposararo, uanaury).

199

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