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Appendix E

Appendix E

Plane Geometry

1. Pi (*)—The number that denotes the ratio of the


circumference of a circle to its diameter.
22
a. Approximate: 7
or 3.14
b. More exact: 3.1415926536

2. Radian—The central angle of a circular arch that is equal in


length to the radius of the arc.

180°
= 57.29577951 = One Radian
*

3. Circle
a. Linear
i. Circumference = c
c = 2* radius = 2*r
c = * diameter = *d
ii. Diameter = d
d=c÷*
iii. Radius = r
r = c ÷ 2*
iv. Arc (or curve length) = a
a = r (angle in radians)
*r (in decimal degrees)
=
180

Survey Manual - 2001 Appendix E-1


Plane Geometry

b. Area
i. Whole circle = A
A = *r2
A = ¼*d2
ii. Sector = ASec.
(
ASec. = CBA
ASec. = ½r2 (angle in radians)

= *r (in decimal degrees)


2
or Sector
360

iii. Segment = ASeg.


(

ASeg. = BAB
ASeg. = ASec. - CBA
ASeg. = ½r2 * - ½r2 sin
= ½r2 ( - sin )
(angle in radians)
*r2 r2sin (angle in decimal
= -
360 2 degrees) Segment

4. Polygon–A closed-plane figure bounded by straight lines (or


sides).
a. Interior angles, sum
sum = S = (180°)(number of sides - 2)
= S = (180°)(n - 2)
b. Area of regular polygon (all sides equal)
180
Area = A = ¼ ns2 cot
n
= ½ nsp (approximate)

s
n=3 n=4 n=6 n=5
p = .288675s p = .500000s p = .866025s p = .688191s

Appendix E-2 Survey Manual - 2001


Appendix E

5. Triangle–A 3-sided polygon.


a. Area = A b. 3-4-5 triangle (for laying off a
perpendicular)
i. A = ½bh

ii. A = 0.433013b2
by trigonometry
cos 60°b2
=
2

6. Quadrilateral–A four-sided polygon.


See formulas below.

7. Parallelogram–A quadrilateral with opposite sides equal and


parallel.
See formulas below.

8. Rectangle–A parallelogram with 90° angles.


Area = A = bh

9. Square–An equal-sided rectangle.


Area = A = b2 by trigonometry
A = ab sin

10. Rhomboid–A parallelogram having all angles different than 90°.


Area = A = bh by trigonometry
A = b2 sin

Survey Manual - 2001 Appendix E-3


Plane Geometry

11. Rhombus–An equal-sided rhomboid.


Area = bh

12. Trapezoid–A quadrilateral with only two parallel sides.


Area = A = ½h (b + bN)

13. Trapezium–A quadrilateral without any parallel sides.


Area = A = [½dh] + [¼b (hN + hO)]

14. Pentagon, Irregular


For Area, A, use the trapezium formula above.

Appendix E-4 Survey Manual - 2001